WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors predict early

  1. Predictive factors for early menarche in Taiwan.

    Chie, W C; Liu, Y H; Chi, J; Wu, V; Chen, A

    1997-06-01

    The rapid increase of breast cancer in Taiwan has prompted the authors to evaluate the predictive factors of early menarche among contemporary Taiwanese girls. A total of 895 four-grade girls from eight elementary schools in Taipei City and County were identified as a closed cohort from the first semester of 1993. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires and school records. A total of 799 girls who had not menstruated in the first year remained in the group through 1994. The effects of potential predictive factors were assessed by logistic regression. Among the 799 girls followed, 69 (8.6%) had first menstruation between the fourth and fifth grades. Height, weight, body mass index and maternal early onset of menarche were positively related to the onset of menarche within the preceding year. Energy consumption during exercise showed only moderate association after being adjusted for age and weight. Calorie intake from junk food was not associated with early menarche within the preceding year. Poor interpersonal family relationships and stressful life events also showed a moderate association with early menarche. The data obtained supported the hypothesis that height, weight, body mass index and maternal early menarche are positive predictive factors of early menarche. The effects of exercise and childhood stress are less prominent.

  2. Early dropout predictive factors in obesity treatment.

    Michelini, Ilaria; Falchi, Anna Giulia; Muggia, Chiara; Grecchi, Ilaria; Montagna, Elisabetta; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Tinelli, Carmine

    2014-02-01

    Diet attrition and failure of long term treatment are very frequent in obese patients. This study aimed to identify pre-treatment variables determining dropout and to customise the characteristics of those most likely to abandon the program before treatment, thus making it possible to modify the therapy to increase compliance. A total of 146 outpatients were consecutively enrolled; 73 patients followed a prescriptive diet while 73 followed a novel brief group Cognitive Behavioural Treatment (CBT) in addition to prescriptive diet. The two interventions lasted for six months. Anthropometric, demographic, psychological parameters and feeding behaviour were assessed, the last two with the Italian instrument VCAO Ansisa; than, a semi-structured interview was performed on motivation to lose weight. To identify the baseline dropout risk factors among these parameters, univariate and multivariate logistic models were used. Comparison of the results in the two different treatments showed a higher attrition rate in CBT group, despite no statistically significant difference between the two treatment arms (P = 0.127). Dropout patients did not differ significantly from those who did not dropout with regards to sex, age, Body Mass Index (BMI), history of cycling, education, work and marriage. Regardless of weight loss, the most important factor that determines the dropout appears to be a high level of stress revealed by General Health Questionnaire-28 items (GHQ-28) score within VCAO test. The identification of hindering factors during the assessment is fundamental to reduce the dropout risk. For subjects at risk, it would be useful to dedicate a stress management program before beginning a dietary restriction.

  3. Factors predicting early return of continence after radical prostatectomy.

    Sandhu, Jaspreet S; Eastham, James A

    2010-05-01

    Success of radical prostatectomy is measured by control of cancer and return of urinary and sexual function. Urinary incontinence is generally considered the greatest impairment in immediate postoperative urinary function. Multiple factors are associated with earlier return of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy. These factors can be divided into those known prior to surgery, and therefore possibly not modifiable, and factors that can be controlled during surgery or surgical planning. In addition, various postoperative maneuvers can help hasten urinary continence. This article examines the effect of known factors related to early return of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy.

  4. Early fibrinogen degradation coagulopathy: a predictive factor of parenchymal hematomas in cerebral rt-PA thrombolysis.

    Sun, Xuhong; Berthiller, Julien; Trouillas, Paul; Derex, Laurent; Diallo, Laho; Hanss, Michel

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to systematically determine the correlations between the post-thrombolytic changes of hemostasis parameters and the occurrence of early intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In 72 consecutive patients with cerebral infarcts treated with rt-PA, plasma levels of fibrinogen, plasminogen, alpha2-antiplasmin, factor XIII, fibrin(ogen) degradation products (FDPs) and d-Dimers were measured at baseline, 2 and 24h after thrombolysis. Correlations were studied between the hemostasis events and early (less than 24h) hemorrhagic infarcts (HIs) or parenchymatous hematomas (PH). Of 72 patients, 6 patients (8.3%) had early PHs, 11 (15.3%) had early HIs, and 55 (76.4%) had no bleeding. Early HIs were not linked to any hemostasis parameter at any time. Univariate comparison of patients having early PHs with non-bleeding patients showed hemostasis abnormalities at 2h: high FDP (p=0.01), high Log FDP (p=0.01), low fibrinogen (p=0.01), and low Log fibrinogen (p=0.01). Logistic regression adjusted for age, NIHSS and diabetes confirmed these 2hour predictors: Log FDP (OR: 7.50; CI: 1.26 to 44.61, p=0.03), and Log fibrinogen (OR: 19.32; CI: 1.81 to 205.98, p=0.01). The decrease in fibrinogen less than 2g/L multiplies the odds of early PH by a factor 12.82. An early fibrinogen degradation coagulopathy involving an increase of FDP and a massive consumption of circulating fibrinogen is predictive of early parenchymal hematomas, indicating the occurrence of a particularly intense lysis of circulating fibrinogen. These results, if confirmed by future studies, suggest that early assays of fibrinogen and FDP may be useful in predicting the risk of post-thrombolytic intracerebral hematoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Patient factors predicting early dropout from psychiatric outpatient care for borderline personality disorder.

    De Panfilis, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo; Cabrino, Chiara; Monici, Alberto; Politi, Virginia; Rossi, Matteo; Maggini, Carlo

    2012-12-30

    Despite obvious clinical need, factors underlying early treatment discontinuation among 'real world' borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients are still unknown. This study investigates individual characteristics that can predict early (Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) Personality. Sociodemographic, clinical and personality variables potentially relevant for dropout were assessed for all participants at baseline. Early dropouts (n=54) were compared to continuers (n=108) on all measures. Logistic regression was then used to identify independent predictors of early dropout. A history of suicide attempts predicted early discontinuation, whereas the presence of an eating disorder and of avoidant personality features protected from early dropout. If confirmed, these findings may help clinicians operating in general psychiatric settings with estimating the risk of premature treatment discontinuation, and stress the need to specifically address suicidal behaviours in order to improve treatment retention among borderline outpatients. In this regard, implementing general psychiatric care with specialised, evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions may be deemed necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting Retrograde Autobiographical Memory Changes Following Electroconvulsive Therapy: Relationships between Individual, Treatment, and Early Clinical Factors.

    Martin, Donel M; Gálvez, Verònica; Loo, Colleen K

    2015-06-19

    Loss of personal memories experienced prior to receiving electroconvulsive therapy is common and distressing and in some patients can persist for many months following treatment. Improved understanding of the relationships between individual patient factors, electroconvulsive therapy treatment factors, and clinical indicators measured early in the electroconvulsive therapy course may help clinicians minimize these side effects through better management of the electroconvulsive therapy treatment approach. In this study we examined the associations between the above factors for predicting retrograde autobiographical memory changes following electroconvulsive therapy. Seventy-four depressed participants with major depressive disorder were administered electroconvulsive therapy 3 times per week using either a right unilateral or bitemporal electrode placement and brief or ultrabrief pulse width. Verbal fluency and retrograde autobiographical memory (assessed using the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form) were tested at baseline and after the last electroconvulsive therapy treatment. Time to reorientation was measured immediately following the third and sixth electroconvulsive therapy treatments. Results confirmed the utility of measuring time to reorientation early during the electroconvulsive therapy treatment course as a predictor of greater retrograde amnesia and the importance of assessing baseline cognitive status for identifying patients at greater risk for developing later side effects. With increased number of electroconvulsive therapy treatments, older age was associated with increased time to reorientation. Consistency of verbal fluency performance was moderately correlated with change in Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form scores following right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy treatment techniques associated with lesser cognitive side effects should be particularly considered for

  7. The Carbon_h-factor: predicting individuals' research impact at early stages of their career.

    Claus-Christian Carbon

    Full Text Available Assessing an individual's research impact on the basis of a transparent algorithm is an important task for evaluation and comparison purposes. Besides simple but also inaccurate indices such as counting the mere number of publications or the accumulation of overall citations, and highly complex but also overwhelming full-range publication lists in their raw format, Hirsch (2005 introduced a single figure cleverly combining different approaches. The so-called h-index has undoubtedly become the standard in scientometrics of individuals' research impact (note: in the present paper I will always use the term "research impact" to describe the research performance as the logic of the paper is based on the h-index, which quantifies the specific "impact" of, e.g., researchers, but also because the genuine meaning of impact refers to quality as well. As the h-index reflects the number h of papers a researcher has published with at least h citations, the index is inherently positively biased towards senior level researchers. This might sometimes be problematic when predictive tools are needed for assessing young scientists' potential, especially when recruiting early career positions or equipping young scientists' labs. To be compatible with the standard h-index, the proposed index integrates the scientist's research age (Carbon_h-factor into the h-index, thus reporting the average gain of h-index per year. Comprehensive calculations of the Carbon_h-factor were made for a broad variety of four research-disciplines (economics, neuroscience, physics and psychology and for researchers performing on three high levels of research impact (substantial, outstanding and epochal with ten researchers per category. For all research areas and output levels we obtained linear developments of the h-index demonstrating the validity of predicting one's later impact in terms of research impact already at an early stage of their career with the Carbon_h-factor being approx

  8. Clinical significance and predictive factors of early massive recurrence after radiofrequency ablation in patients with a single small hepatocellular carcinoma

    Ju-Yeon Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Radiofrequency ablation (RFA is one of the most frequently applied curative treatments in patients with a single small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, the clinical significance of and risk factors for early massive recurrence after RFA—a dreadful event limiting further curative treatment—have not been fully evaluated. Methods In total, 438 patients with a single HCC of size ≤3 cm who underwent percutaneous RFA as an initial treatment between 2006 and 2009 were included. Baseline patient characteristics, overall survival, predictive factors, and recurrence after RFA were evaluated. In addition, the incidence, impact on survival, and predictive factors of early massive recurrence, and initial recurrence beyond the Milan criteria within 2 years were also investigated. Results During the median follow-up of 68.4 months, recurrent HCC was confirmed in 302 (68.9% patients, with early massive recurrence in 27 patients (6.2%. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 95.4%, 84.7%, and 81.8%, respectively, in patients with no recurrence, 99.6%, 86.4%, and 70.1% in patients with recurrence within the Milan criteria or late recurrence, and 92.6%, 46.5%, and 0.05% in patients with early massive recurrence. Multivariable analysis identified older age, Child-Pugh score B or C, and early massive recurrence as predictive of poor overall survival. A tumor size of ≥2 cm and tumor location adjacent to the colon were independent risk factors predictive of early massive recurrence. Conclusions Early massive recurrence is independently predictive of poor overall survival after RFA in patients with a single small HCC. Tumors sized ≥2 cm and located adjacent to the colon appear to be independent risk factors for early massive recurrence.

  9. Predictive factors for early failure of transarterial embolization in blunt hepatic injury patients

    Lee, Y.-H.; Wu, C.-H.; Wang, L.-J.; Wong, Y.-C.; Chen, H.-W.; Wang, C.-J.; Lin, B.-C.; Hsu, Y.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the early success of transarterial embolization (TAE) in patients with traumatic liver haemorrhage and to determine independent factors for its failure. Materials and methods: From January 2009 to December 2012, TAE was performed in 48 patients for traumatic liver haemorrhage. Their medical charts were reviewed for demographic information, pre-TAE vital signs and laboratory data, injury grade, type of contrast medium extravasation (CME) at CT, angiography findings, and early failure. “Early failure” was defined as the need for repeated TAE or a laparotomy for hepatic haemorrhage within 4 days after TAE. Variables were compared between the early success and early failure groups. Variables with univariate significance were also analysed using multivariate logistic regression for predictors of early failure. Results: Among 48 liver TAE cases, nine (18.8%) were early failures due to liver haemorrhage. Early failure was associated with injury grade (p = 0.039), major liver injury (grades 4 and 5; p = 0.007), multiple CMEs at angiography (p = 0.031), incomplete TAE (p = 0.002), and elevated heart rate (p = 0.026). Incomplete embolization (OR = 8; p = 0.042), and heart rate >110 beats/min (bpm; OR = 8; p = 0.05) were independent factors for early failure of TAE in the group with major liver injuries. Conclusion: Major hepatic injury is an important factor in early failure. Patients with a heart rate >110 bpm and incomplete embolization in the major injury group have an increased rate of early failure. The success rate of proximal TAE was comparable to that of the more time-consuming, superselective, distal TAE. - Highlights: • Early failure of TAE is associated with a higher grade of liver injury. • Incomplete embolization is more likely to suffer early failure of TAE. • A heart rate greater than 110 bpm is more likely to suffer early failure of TAE. • We recommend proximal embolization to prevent early failure of TAE

  10. Exposure to Violence Predicting Cortisol Response During Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Understanding Moderating Factors

    Heinze, Justin E.; Miller, Alison L.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the association between violence and biological stress regulation has been largely cross-sectional, and has also focused on childhood. Using longitudinal data from a low-income, high-risk, predominantly African-American sample (n = 266; 57 % female), we tested hypotheses about the influence of cumulative exposure to violence during adolescence and early adulthood on cortisol responses in early adulthood. We found that cumulative exposure to violence predicted an attenuated cortisol response. Further, we tested whether sex, mothers’ support, or fathers’ support moderated the effect of exposure to violence on cortisol responses. We found that the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was modified by sex; specifically, males exposed to violence exhibited a more attenuated response pattern. In addition, the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was moderated by the presence of fathers’ support during adolescence. The findings contribute to a better understanding of how cumulative exposure to violence influences biological outcomes, emphasizing the need to understand sex and parental support as moderators of risk. PMID:24458765

  11. Factors predicting early postpartum glucose intolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus: decision-curve analysis.

    Kondo, M; Nagao, Y; Mahbub, M H; Tanabe, Tsuyoshi; Tanizawa, Y

    2018-04-29

    To identify factors predicting early postpartum glucose intolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus, using decision-curve analysis. A retrospective cohort study was performed. The participants were 123 Japanese women with gestational diabetes who underwent 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests at 8-12 weeks after delivery. They were divided into a glucose intolerance and a normal glucose tolerance group based on postpartum oral glucose tolerance test results. Analysis of the pregnancy oral glucose tolerance test results showed predictive factors for postpartum glucose intolerance. We also evaluated the clinical usefulness of the prediction model based on decision-curve analysis. Of 123 women, 78 (63.4%) had normoglycaemia and 45 (36.6%) had glucose intolerance. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed insulinogenic index/fasting immunoreactive insulin and summation of glucose levels, assessed during pregnancy oral glucose tolerance tests (total glucose), to be independent risk factors for postpartum glucose intolerance. Evaluating the regression models, the best discrimination (area under the curve 0.725) was obtained using the basic model (i.e. age, family history of diabetes, BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 and use of insulin during pregnancy) plus insulinogenic index/fasting immunoreactive insulin intolerance. Insulinogenic index/fasting immunoreactive insulin calculated using oral glucose tolerance test results during pregnancy is potentially useful for predicting early postpartum glucose intolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Postnatal BMI changes in children with different birthweights: A trial study for detecting early predictive factors for pediatric obesity

    Nakagawa, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Toshiki; Satake, Eiichiro; Matsushita, Rie; Saegusa, Hirokazu; Kubota, Akira; Natsume, Hiromune; Shibata, Yukinobu; Fujisawa, Yasuko

    2018-01-01

    Abstract. The purpose of this study was to clarify the degree of early postnatal growth by birthweight and detect early predictive factors for pediatric obesity. Body mass index (BMI) and degree of obesity were examined in children in the fourth year of elementary school and second year of junior high school. Their BMI at birth and three years of age were also examined. Based on birthweight, participants were divided into three groups: low ( 3500 g). Furthermore, according to the degree of obesity, they were divided into two groups: obese (20% ≤) and non-obese (20% >). The change of BMI from birth to three years of age (ΔBMI) showed a strong inverse relationship with birthweight and was significantly different among the three birthweight groups (low > middle > high). The ΔBMI and BMI at three years of age were higher in obese than in non-obese children and showed significant positive correlations with the degree of obesity. Early postnatal growth might be determined by birthweight and was higher in obese than in non-obese children. The ΔBMI from birth to three years of age and BMI at age of three years could be predictive factors for pediatric obesity. PMID:29403153

  13. Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow.

    Rodney, Rachael M; Hall, Jenianne K; Westwood, Charlotte T; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=82) of either high or low genetic merit (GM) (for milk fat + protein yield) were allocated to 1 of 2 diets in a 2×2 factorial design. Diets differed in the ratio of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to rumen-degradable protein (37% RUP vs. 15% RUP) and were fed from 21 d precalving to 150 days in milk. This study evaluated the effects of these diets and GM on concentrations of milk casein (CN) variants and aimed to identify precalving and early lactation variables that predict milk CN and protein yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. It explored the hypothesis that low milk protein content is associated with lower fertility and extended this hypothesis to also evaluate the association of CN contents with fertility. Yields (kg/d) for CN variants were 0.49 and 0.45 of α-CN, 0.38 and 0.34 of β-CN, 0.07 and 0.06 for κ-CN, and 0.10 and 0.09 of γ-CN for high- and low-RUP diets, respectively. Increased RUP increased milk, CN, and milk protein yields. Increased GM increased milk protein and γ-CN yields and tended to increase milk CN yield. The effects of indicator variables on CN variant yields and concentrations were largely consistent, with higher body weight and α-amino nitrogen resulting in higher yields, but lower concentrations. An increase in cholesterol was associated with decreased CN variant concentrations, and disease lowered CN variant yield. A diet high in RUP increased proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy from 41 to 58%. Increased precalving metabolizable protein (MP) balance decreased the proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy when evaluated in a model containing CN percentage, milk protein yield, diet, and GM. This finding suggests that the positive effects of increasing dietary RUP on fertility may be curvilinear because cows with a very positive MP balance before calving were less fertile than those with a lower, but positive, MP balance. Prepartum MP balance was important

  14. Claudin-2 is an independent negative prognostic factor in breast cancer and specifically predicts early liver recurrences.

    Kimbung, Siker; Kovács, Anikó; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Malmström, Per; Fernö, Mårten; Hatschek, Thomas; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2014-02-01

    Predicting any future metastatic site of early-stage breast cancer is important as it significantly influences the prognosis of advanced disease. This study aimed at investigating the potential of claudin-2, over-expressed in breast cancer liver metastases, as a biomarker for predicting liver metastatic propensity in primary breast cancer. Claudin-2 expression was analyzed in two independent cohorts. Cohort 1 included 304 women with metastatic breast cancer diagnosed between 2002 and 2007, while cohort 2 included 237 premenopausal women with early-stage node-negative breast cancer diagnosed between 1991 and 1994. Global transcriptional profiling of fine-needle aspirates from metastases was performed, followed by immunohistochemical analyses in archival primary tumor tissue. Associations between claudin-2 expression and relapse site were assessed by univariable and multivariable Cox regression models including conventional prognostic factors. Two-sided statistical tests were used. CLDN2 was significantly up-regulated (P diagnosis and liver-specific recurrence was observed among patients with high levels of claudin-2 expression in the primary tumor (cohort 1, HR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.3-3.9). These results suggest a novel role for claudin-2 as a prognostic biomarker with the ability to predict not only the likelihood of a breast cancer recurrence, but more interestingly, the liver metastatic potential of the primary tumor. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting Change in Parenting Stress across Early Childhood: Child and Maternal Factors

    Williford, Amanda P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine…

  16. Baseline placental growth factor levels for the prediction of benefit from early aspirin prophylaxis for preeclampsia prevention.

    Moore, Gaea S; Allshouse, Amanda A; Winn, Virginia D; Galan, Henry L; Heyborne, Kent D

    2015-10-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) levels early in pregnancy are lower in women who ultimately develop preeclampsia. Early initiation of low-dose aspirin reduces preeclampsia risk in some high risk women. We hypothesized that low PlGF levels may identify women at increased risk for preeclampsia who would benefit from aspirin. Secondary analysis of the MFMU High-Risk Aspirin study including singleton pregnancies randomized to aspirin 60mg/d (n=102) or placebo (n=72), with PlGF collected at 13w 0d-16w 6d. Within the placebo group, we estimated the probability of preeclampsia by PlGF level using logistic regression analysis, then determined a potential PlGF threshold for preeclampsia prediction using ROC analysis. We performed logistic regression modeling for potential confounders. ROC analysis indicated 87.71pg/ml as the threshold between high and low PlGF for preeclampsia-prediction. Within the placebo group high PlGF weakly predicted preeclampsia (AUC 0.653, sensitivity/specificity 63%/66%). We noted a 2.6-fold reduction in preeclampsia with aspirin in the high-PlGF group (12.15% aspirin vs 32.14% placebo, p=0.057), but no significant differences in preeclampsia in the low PlGF group (21.74% vs 15.91%, p=0.445). Unlike other studies, we found that high rather than low PlGF levels were associated with an increased preeclampsia risk. Low PlGF neither identified women at increased risk of preeclampsia nor women who benefitted from aspirin. Further research is needed to determine whether aspirin is beneficial in women with high PlGF, and whether the paradigm linking low PlGF and preeclampsia needs to be reevaluated. High-risk women with low baseline PlGF, a risk factor for preeclampsia, did not benefit from early initiation of low-dose aspirin. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Risk and Resiliency Factors Predict Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Caregivers of Patients Admitted to a Neuroscience ICU.

    Choi, Karmel W; Shaffer, Kelly M; Zale, Emily L; Funes, Christopher J; Koenen, Karestan C; Tehan, Tara; Rosand, Jonathan; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2018-05-01

    Informal caregivers-that is, close family and friends providing unpaid emotional or instrumental care-of patients admitted to ICUs are at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder. As a first step toward developing interventions to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder in ICU caregivers, we examined the predictive validity of psychosocial risk screening during admission for caregiver posttraumatic stress disorder at 3 and 6 months post hospitalization. An observational, prospective study. Ninety-nine caregivers were recruited as part of a longitudinal research program of patient-caregiver dyads in a neuroscience ICU. None. Caregiver posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were assessed during admission (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months post hospitalization. We 1) characterized prevalence of clinically significant symptoms at each time point 2); calculated sensitivity and specificity of baseline posttraumatic stress disorder screening in predicting posttraumatic stress disorder at 3 and 6 months; and 3) used recursive partitioning to select potential baseline factors and examine the extent to which they helped predict clinically significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms at each time point. Rates of caregiver posttraumatic stress disorder remained relatively stable over time (16-22%). Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder at baseline predicted posttraumatic stress disorder at 3 and 6 months with moderate sensitivity (75-80%) and high specificity (92-95%). Screening for posttraumatic stress disorder at baseline was associated with caregiver anxiety, mindfulness (i.e., ability to be aware of one's thoughts and feelings in the moment), and bond with patient. Furthermore, baseline posttraumatic stress disorder screening was the single most relevant predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder at 3 and 6 months, such that other baseline factors did not significantly improve predictive ability. Screening neuroscience ICU caregivers for clinically significant

  18. Predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in poorly differentiated early gastric cancer and their impact on the surgical strategy

    Li, Hua; Lu, Ping; Lu, Yang; Liu, Cai-Gang; Xu, Hui-Mian; Wang, Shu-Bao; Chen, Jun-Qing

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To identify the predictive clinicopathological factors for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in poorly differentiated early gastric cancer (EGC) and to further expand the possibility of using endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for the treatment of poorly differentiated EGC. METHODS: Data were collected from 85 poorly-differentiated EGC patients who were surgically treated. Association between the clinicopathological factors and the presence of LNM was retrospectively analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that tumor size (OR = 5.814, 95% CI = 1.050 - 32.172, P = 0.044), depth of invasion (OR = 10.763, 95% CI = 1.259 - 92.026, P = 0.030) and lymphatic vessel involvement (OR = 61.697, 95% CI = 2.144 - 175.485, P = 0.007) were the significant and independent risk factors for LNM. The LNM rate was 5.4%, 42.9% and 50%, respectively, in poorly differentiated EGC patients with one, two and three of the risk factors, respectively. No LNM was found in 25 patients without the three risk factors. Forty-four lymph nodes were found to have metastasis, 29 (65.9%) and 15 (34.1%) of the lymph nodes involved were within N1 and beyond N1, respectively, in 12 patients with LNM. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic mucosal resection alone may be sufficient to treat poorly differentiated intramucosal EGC (≤ 2.0 cm in diameter) with no histologically-confirmed lymphatic vessel involvement. When lymphatic vessels are involved, lymph node dissection beyond limited (D1) dissection or D1+ lymph node dissection should be performed depending on the tumor location. PMID:18636670

  19. A longitudinal analysis of early risk factors for adult-onset offending: What predicts a delayed criminal career?

    Zara, Georgia; Farrington, David P

    2010-10-01

    Late-onset offending, at the age of 21 or thereafter, is an underexplored dimension of the criminal career. Our aims were to explore which factors are precursors of late-onset offending, and the extent to which adult criminality can be predicted in childhood and adolescence. This is the first study that defines late-onset offending based on a combination of official records and self-reports. Longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD) were used. Four hundred and three South London men, followed from ages 8-10 to ages 48-50, were divided into late-starters (LS, n = 51), early-starters (ES, n = 140) and non-offenders (NO, n = 212). LS men were more likely than NO men to have been neurotic, truants or in poor housing at ages 8-10. At ages 12-14, they tended to be neurotic, and at ages 16-18, they had high unemployment and spent time hanging about on the streets. Compared with ES, LS were nervous at ages 8-10, and at age 18 they were more likely to be sexual virgins. Overall, LS men were more similar to NO men before age 21, but more similar to ES men by age 32. Our hypotheses that late-onset offenders would be particularly characterised by neuroticism or nervousness, but that this would buffer rather than fully protect over the life course, were sustained. Intervention to increase the resilience of children and adolescents who are rated as high on neurotic characteristics may lessen the burden that these factors impose in adult life and reduce the risk of a deteriorating quality of life and late onset criminal careers. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Risk Factors in Preschool Children for Predicting Asthma During the Preschool Age and the Early School Age: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Bao, Yixia; Chen, Zhimin; Liu, Enmei; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Deyu; Hong, Jianguo

    2017-11-18

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of asthma among children asthma during the preschool age and early school age (≤ 10 years of age). MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until June 30, 2017. Prospective or retrospective cohort and case-control studies were included. Studies had to have evaluated risk factors or a predictive model for developing asthma in children ≤ 6 years of age or persistent asthma in early school age. A total of 17 studies were included in the analysis. Factors associated with developing asthma in children ≤ 10 years of age (both pre-school and early school age) included male gender (pooled OR = 1.70, P asthma (pooled OR = 2.20, P asthma in early school age (pooled OR = 1.51, P = 0.030 and pooled OR = 2.59, P asthma predictive models (e.g., API, PIAMA, PAPS) had relatively low sensitivity (range, 21% to 71.4%) but high specificity (range, 69% to 98%). The study found that male gender, exposure to smoke, atopic dermatitis, family history of asthma, history of wheezing, and serum IgE level ≥ 60 kU/l or having specific IgE were significantly associated with developing asthma by either preschool or early school age. Asthma predictive models can be developed by those risk factors.

  1. Multi-parametric MRI in cervical cancer. Early prediction of response to concurrent chemoradiotherapy in combination with clinical prognostic factors

    Yang, Wei; Chen, Bing; Wang, Ai Jun; Zhao, Jian Guo [The General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Department of Radiology, Yinchuan (China); Qiang, Jin Wei [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Jinshan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Tian, Hai Ping [The General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Department of Pathology, Yinchuan (China)

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the prediction of response to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) through a combination of pretreatment multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with clinical prognostic factors (CPF) in cervical cancer patients. Sixty-five patients underwent conventional MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) before CCRT. The patients were divided into non- and residual tumour groups according to post-treatment MRI. Pretreatment MRI parameters and CPF between the two groups were compared and prognostic factors, optimal thresholds, and predictive performance for post-treatment residual tumour occurrence were estimated. The residual group showed a lower maximum slope of increase (MSI{sub L}) and signal enhancement ratio (SER{sub L}) in low-perfusion subregions, a higher apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, and a higher stage than the non-residual tumour group (p < 0.001, p = 0.003, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). MSI{sub L} and ADC were independent prognostic factors. The combination of both measures improved the diagnostic performance compared with individual MRI parameters. A further combination of these two factors with CPF exhibited the highest predictive performance. Pretreatment MSI{sub L} and ADC were independent prognostic factors for cervical cancer. The predictive capacity of multi-parametric MRI was superior to individual MRI parameters. The combination of multi-parametric MRI with CPF further improved the predictive performance. (orig.)

  2. [Predictive factors of anxiety disorders].

    Domschke, K

    2014-10-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most frequent mental disorders in Europe (12-month prevalence 14%) and impose a high socioeconomic burden. The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is complex with an interaction of biological, environmental and psychosocial factors contributing to the overall disease risk (diathesis-stress model). In this article, risk factors for anxiety disorders will be presented on several levels, e.g. genetic factors, environmental factors, gene-environment interactions, epigenetic mechanisms, neuronal networks ("brain fear circuit"), psychophysiological factors (e.g. startle response and CO2 sensitivity) and dimensional/subclinical phenotypes of anxiety (e.g. anxiety sensitivity and behavioral inhibition), and critically discussed regarding their potential predictive value. The identification of factors predictive of anxiety disorders will possibly allow for effective preventive measures or early treatment interventions, respectively, and reduce the individual patient's suffering as well as the overall socioeconomic burden of anxiety disorders.

  3. Early Detection of Poor Outcome after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Predictive Factors Using a Multidimensional Approach a Pilot Study

    Sophie Caplain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI is a common condition within the general population, usually with good clinical outcome. However, in 10–25% of cases, a post-concussive syndrome (PCS occurs. Identifying early prognostic factors for the development of PCS can ensure widespread clinical and economic benefits. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential value of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation to identify early prognostic factors following MTBI. We performed a multi-center open, prospective, longitudinal study that included 72 MTBI patients and 42 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. MTBI patients were evaluated 8–21 days after injury, and 6 months thereafter, with a full neurological and psychological examination and brain MRI. At 6 months follow-up, MTBI patients were categorized into two subgroups according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV as having either favorable or unfavorable evolution (UE, corresponding to the presence of major or mild neurocognitive disorder due to traumatic brain injury. Univariate and multivariate logistical regression analysis demonstrated the importance of patient complaints, quality of life, and cognition in the outcome of MTBI patients, but only 6/23 UE patients were detected early via the multivariate logistic regression model. Using several variables from each of these three categories of variables, we built a model that assigns a score to each patient presuming the possibility of UE. Statistical analyses showed this last model to be reliable and sensitive, allowing early identification of patients at risk of developing PCS with 95.7% sensitivity and 77.6% specificity.

  4. Sex, Temperament, and Family Context: How the Interaction of Early Factors Differentially Predict Adolescent Alcohol Use and Are Mediated by Proximal Adolescent Factors

    Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Klein, Marjorie H.; Strauman, Timothy J.; Costanzo, Phillip; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is common and has serious immediate and long-term ramifications. While concurrent individual and context factors are robustly associated with adolescent alcohol use, the influence of early childhood factors, particularly in interaction with child sex, are less clear. Using a prospective community sample of 362 (190 girls), this study investigated sex differences in the joint influence of distal childhood and proximal adolescent factors on Grade 10 alcohol use. All risk factors and 2-way early individual-by-context interactions, and interactions of each of these with child sex, were entered into the initial regression. Significant sex interactions prompted the use of separate models for girls and boys. In addition to the identification of early (family socioeconomic status, authoritative parenting style) and proximal adolescent (mental health symptoms, deviant friends) risk factors for both girls and boys, results highlighted important sex differences. In particular, girls with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished by the interaction of early temperamental disinhibition and exposure to parental stress; boys with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished primarily by early temperamental negative affect. Results have implications for the timing and type of interventions offered to adolescents. PMID:21443307

  5. Sex, temperament, and family context: how the interaction of early factors differentially predict adolescent alcohol use and are mediated by proximal adolescent factors.

    Burk, Linnea R; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Goldsmith, H Hill; Klein, Marjorie H; Strauman, Timothy J; Costanzo, Phillip; Essex, Marilyn J

    2011-03-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is common and has serious immediate and long-term ramifications. While concurrent individual and context factors are robustly associated with adolescent alcohol use, the influence of early childhood factors, particularly in interaction with child sex, are less clear. Using a prospective community sample of 362 (190 girls), this study investigated sex differences in the joint influence of distal childhood and proximal adolescent factors on Grade 10 alcohol use. All risk factors and two-way early individual-by-context interactions, and interactions of each of these with child sex, were entered into the initial regression. Significant sex interactions prompted the use of separate models for girls and boys. In addition to the identification of early (family socioeconomic status, authoritative parenting style) and proximal adolescent (mental health symptoms, deviant friends) risk factors for both girls and boys, results highlighted important sex differences. In particular, girls with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished by the interaction of early temperamental disinhibition and exposure to parental stress; boys with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished primarily by early temperamental negative affect. Results have implications for the timing and type of interventions offered to adolescents.

  6. Predictive factors of early moderate/severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in non-polycystic ovarian syndrome patients: a statistical model.

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Bahmanabadi, Akram; Akhond, Mohammad Reza; Arabipoor, Arezoo

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate demographic, medical history and clinical cycle characteristics of infertile non-polycystic ovary syndrome (NPCOS) women with the purpose of investigating their associations with the prevalence of moderate-to-severe OHSS. In this retrospective study, among 7073 in vitro fertilization and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles, 86 cases of NPCO patients who developed moderate-to-severe OHSS while being treated with IVF/ICSI cycles were analyzed during the period of January 2008 to December 2010 at Royan Institute. To review the OHSS risk factors, 172 NPCOS patients without developing OHSS, treated at the same period of time, were selected randomly by computer as control group. We used multiple logistic regression in a backward manner to build a prediction model. The regression analysis revealed that the variables, including age [odds ratio (OR) 0.9, confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.99], antral follicles count (OR 4.3, CI 2.7-6.9), infertility cause (tubal factor, OR 11.5, CI 1.1-51.3), hypothyroidism (OR 3.8, CI 1.5-9.4) and positive history of ovarian surgery (OR 0.2, CI 0.05-0.9) were the most important predictors of OHSS. The regression model had an area under curve of 0.94, presenting an allowable discriminative performance that was equal with two strong predictive variables, including the number of follicles and serum estradiol level on human chorionic gonadotropin day. The predictive regression model based on primary characteristics of NPCOS patients had equal specificity in comparison with two mentioned strong predictive variables. Therefore, it may be beneficial to apply this model before the beginning of ovarian stimulation protocol.

  7. Very Early PSA Response to Abiraterone in mCRPC Patients: A Novel Prognostic Factor Predicting Overall Survival.

    Facchini, Gaetano; Caffo, Orazio; Ortega, Cinzia; D'Aniello, Carmine; Di Napoli, Marilena; Cecere, Sabrina C; Della Pepa, Chiara; Crispo, Anna; Maines, Francesca; Ruatta, Fiorella; Iovane, Gelsomina; Pisconti, Salvatore; Montella, Maurizio; Berretta, Massimiliano; Pignata, Sandro; Cavaliere, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Abiraterone Acetate (AA) is approved for the treatment of mCRPC after failure of androgen deprivation therapy in whom chemotherapy is not yet clinically indicated and for treatment of mCRPC progressed during or after docetaxel-based chemotherapy regimen. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of early PSA decline for detection of therapy success or failure in mCRPC patients treated with AA in post chemotherapy setting. We retrospectively evaluated 87 patients with mCRPC treated with AA. Serum PSA levels were evaluated after 15, 90 days and then monthly. The PSA flare phenomenon was evaluated, according to a confirmation value at least 1 week apart. The primary endpoint was to demonstrate that an early PSA decline correlates with a longer progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The secondary endpoind was to demonstrate a correlation between better outcome and demographic and clinical patient characteristics. We have collected data of 87 patients between Sep 2011 and Sep 2014. Early PSA response (≥50% from baseline at 15 days) was found in 56% evaluated patients and confirmed in 29 patients after 90 days. The median PFS was 5.5 months (4.6-6.5) and the median OS was 17.1 months (8.8-25.2). In early responders patients (PSA RR ≥ 50% at 15 days), we found a significant statistical advantage in terms of PFS at 1 year, HR 0.28, 95%CI 0.12-0.65, p = 0.003, and OS, HR 0.21 95% CI 0.06-0.72, p = 0.01. The results in PFS at 1 years and OS reached statistical significance also in the evaluation at 90 days. A significant proportion (78.6%) of patients achieved a rapid response in terms of PSA decline. Early PSA RR (≥50% at 15 days after start of AA) can provide clinically meaningful information and can be considered a surrogate of longer PFS and OS.

  8. Clinico-biochemical factors to early predict biliary etiology of acute pancreatitis: age, female gender, and ALT.

    Zarnescu, N O; Costea, R; Zarnescu Vasiliu, E C; Neagu, S

    2015-01-01

    Background/ Aims: Despite the existence of an easy tool to diagnose biliary tract disease as an etiology for acute pancreatitis (AP), the sensitivity of abdominal ultrasound is around 80%, which can be even lower in certain conditions. We have retrospectively reviewed data of 146 patients admitted for acute pancreatitis between 1999 and 2013. Bivariate analysis for clinical and biochemical variables was performed with respect to etiology of AP (biliary versus non-biliary). Multivariate analysis was performed by using binary logistic regression. There were 87 males (59.6%) and 59 females (40.4%), with a median age of 51. The etiology of acute pancreatitis was biliary in 71 patients (48.6%). Bivariate analysis found the following as significant association (p=0.001) with biliary pancreatitis: older age, female gender, and elevated AST, ALT. A binary logistic regression analysis identified as predictor factors for biliary etiology of acute pancreatitis: age OR = 1.031 (95% CI 1.004 - 1.059, p = 0.024), sex (female) OR = 2.34 (95% CI 1.022 - 5.359, p = 0.044) and ALT OR = 1.004 (95% CI 1.001 - 1.007, p =0.004). The two clinical scores included the three variables (A.S.ALT scores) in categorical format were generated and then checked with the ROC curves (areas under curve are 0.768 and 0.778). Age, female gender, and elevated ALT can help identifying cases with biliary etiology of acute pancreatitis.

  9. Quadratic prediction of factor scores

    Wansbeek, T

    1999-01-01

    Factor scores are naturally predicted by means of their conditional expectation given the indicators y. Under normality this expectation is linear in y but in general it is an unknown function of y. II is discussed that under nonnormality factor scores can be more precisely predicted by a quadratic

  10. Staging of early lymph node metastases with the sentinel lymph node technique and predictive factors in T1/T2 oral cavity cancer

    Pedersen, Nicklas Juel; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Hedbäck, Nora

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of detecting lymph node metastases and to identify predictive and prognostic clinicopathological factors in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). METHODS: All...

  11. Early adolescent symptoms of social phobia prospectively predict alcohol use.

    Dahne, Jennifer; Banducci, Anne N; Kurdziel, Gretchen; MacPherson, Laura

    2014-11-01

    The current study examined whether social phobia (SP) symptoms in early adolescence prospectively predicted alcohol use through middle adolescence in a community sample of youth. Data from an ongoing longitudinal study (N = 277) of mechanisms of HIV-related risk behaviors in youth were used to assess the extent to which SP symptoms in early adolescence (mean [SD] age = 11.00 years [0.81]) would predict alcohol use across five annual assessment waves. Adolescents completed measures of SP symptoms, depressive symptoms, and alcohol use at each wave. Higher SP symptoms at baseline predicted higher average odds of alcohol consumption during subsequent waves but did not significantly predict an increase in the odds of alcohol use as a function of time. Within a lagged model, SP symptoms measured at a prior assessment point (1 year earlier) predicted greater odds of drinking alcohol at the following assessment point. Importantly, alcohol use did not significantly predict SP symptoms over time. These results suggest that early SP symptoms are an important risk factor for increased odds of subsequent alcohol use. The present findings highlight that elevated SP symptoms place adolescents at risk for early alcohol use. Early interventions targeting SP symptoms may be crucial for the prevention of problematic alcohol use in early to mid-adolescence. Implications for prevention and treatment approaches are discussed.

  12. Importance of time factor (γ/α) of linear quadratic (LQ) model for predicting laryngeal edema in irradiation treatment of early glottic cancer

    Deore, S.M.; Fontenla, D.P.; Beitler, J.J.; Vikram, B.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: The time factor (γ/α) in the LQ model has been considered irrelevant for the late normal tissue injury (1). The failure of the LQ model to predict spinal cord injury in the CHART protocol questions the validity of this hypothesis. In this investigation, the incidence of radiation induced laryngeal edema was evaluated retrospectively in patients treated with different dose fractionation regimes for carcinoma of glottic cancer (2). The BED values of the LQ model calculated for different values of time factor (γ/α) were correlated with the incidence of radiation induced laryngeal edema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was carried out for 208 patients T 1 and T 2 squamous cell cancer of the vocal cord treated with radical radiotherapy during 1975-80. There were 156 patients with T 1 lesions and the remaining 52 patients had T 2 lesions. All these patients were treated with three different fractionation regimens of 60.75 Gy/ 27 F/ 39 D, 60 Gy/24 F/34 D and 50 Gy/15 F/ 22 D, using fraction sizes 2.25 Gy, 2.5 Gy and 3.33 Gy, respectively. For the minimum follow up of 4 years, the incidence of laryngeal edema was related to fraction size (see table). To investigate the importance of the time factor (γ/α) of LQ model, BED values were calculated for different values of γ/α and ∞/β = 2.0 Gy. RESULTS: As shown in the table below, the incidence of radiation induced laryngeal edema was found in 17.2% of patients with 2.25 Gy/F compared to 44.4% using 3.33 Gy/F. The TDF model failed to correlate with the incidence of laryngeal edema. The BED values of LQ model also fails to show statistically significant correlation with the incidence of late complications. However, the BED values accounting for the time factor (particularly γ/α = 1.2 Gy/day) show significant improvement in correlation with incidence of laryngeal edema. CONCLUSION: For comparable TDF values the incidence of laryngeal edema varied from 17% to 44.4%. The analysis with

  13. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  14. Prediction of Small for Gestational Age Infants in Healthy Nulliparous Women Using Clinical and Ultrasound Risk Factors Combined with Early Pregnancy Biomarkers.

    Lesley M E McCowan

    Full Text Available Most small for gestational age pregnancies are unrecognised before birth, resulting in substantial avoidable perinatal mortality and morbidity. Our objective was to develop multivariable prediction models for small for gestational age combining clinical risk factors and biomarkers at 15±1 weeks' with ultrasound parameters at 20±1 weeks' gestation.Data from 5606 participants in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE cohort study were divided into Training (n = 3735 and Validation datasets (n = 1871. The primary outcomes were All-SGA (small for gestational age with birthweight <10th customised centile, Normotensive-SGA (small for gestational age with a normotensive mother and Hypertensive-SGA (small for gestational age with an hypertensive mother. The comparison group comprised women without the respective small for gestational age phenotype. Multivariable analysis was performed using stepwise logistic regression beginning with clinical variables, and subsequent additions of biomarker and then ultrasound (biometry and Doppler variables. Model performance was assessed in Training and Validation datasets by calculating area under the curve.633 (11.2% infants were All-SGA, 465(8.2% Normotensive-SGA and 168 (3% Hypertensive-SGA. Area under the curve (95% Confidence Intervals for All-SGA using 15±1 weeks' clinical variables, 15±1 weeks' clinical+ biomarker variables and clinical + biomarkers + biometry /Doppler at 20±1 weeks' were: 0.63 (0.59-0.67, 0.64 (0.60-0.68 and 0.69 (0.66-0.73 respectively in the Validation dataset; Normotensive-SGA results were similar: 0.61 (0.57-0.66, 0.61 (0.56-0.66 and 0.68 (0.64-0.73 with small increases in performance in the Training datasets. Area under the curve (95% Confidence Intervals for Hypertensive-SGA were: 0.76 (0.70-0.82, 0.80 (0.75-0.86 and 0.84 (0.78-0.89 with minimal change in the Training datasets.Models for prediction of small for gestational age, which combine biomarkers, clinical and

  15. Early executive function predicts reasoning development.

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills.

  16. Identifying Clinical Factors Which Predict for Early Failure Patterns Following Resection for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in Patients Who Received Adjuvant Chemotherapy Without Chemoradiation.

    Walston, Steve; Salloum, Joseph; Grieco, Carmine; Wuthrick, Evan; Diaz, Dayssy A; Barney, Christian; Manilchuk, Andrei; Schmidt, Carl; Dillhoff, Mary; Pawlik, Timothy M; Williams, Terence M

    2018-05-04

    The role of radiation therapy (RT) in resected pancreatic cancer (PC) remains incompletely defined. We sought to determine clinical variables which predict for local-regional recurrence (LRR) to help select patients for adjuvant RT. We identified 73 patients with PC who underwent resection and adjuvant gemcitabine-based chemotherapy alone. We performed detailed radiologic analysis of first patterns of failure. LRR was defined as recurrence of PC within standard postoperative radiation volumes. Univariate analyses (UVA) were conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate analyses (MVA) utilized the Cox proportional hazard ratio model. Factors significant on UVA were used for MVA. At median follow-up of 20 months, rates of local-regional recurrence only (LRRO) were 24.7%, LRR as a component of any failure 68.5%, metastatic recurrence (MR) as a component of any failure 65.8%, and overall disease recurrence (OR) 90.5%. On UVA, elevated postoperative CA 19-9 (>90 U/mL), pathologic lymph node positive (pLN+) disease, and higher tumor grade were associated with increased LRR, MR, and OR. On MVA, elevated postoperative CA 19-9 and pLN+ were associated with increased MR and OR. In addition, positive resection margin was associated with increased LRRO on both UVA and MVA. About 25% of patients with PC treated without adjuvant RT develop LRRO as initial failure. The only independent predictor of LRRO was positive margin, while elevated postoperative CA 19-9 and pLN+ were associated with predicting MR and overall survival. These data may help determine which patients benefit from intensification of local therapy with radiation.

  17. Early social networks predict survival in wild bottlenose dolphins.

    Margaret A Stanton

    Full Text Available A fundamental question concerning group-living species is what factors influence the evolution of sociality. Although several studies link adult social bonds to fitness, social patterns and relationships are often formed early in life and are also likely to have fitness consequences, particularly in species with lengthy developmental periods, extensive social learning, and early social bond-formation. In a longitudinal study of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp., calf social network structure, specifically the metric eigenvector centrality, predicted juvenile survival in males. Additionally, male calves that died post-weaning had stronger ties to juvenile males than surviving male calves, suggesting that juvenile males impose fitness costs on their younger counterparts. Our study indicates that selection is acting on social traits early in life and highlights the need to examine the costs and benefits of social bonds during formative life history stages.

  18. Early Glucose Derangement Detected by Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Progression of Liver Fibrosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: An Independent Predictive Factor?

    Schiaffini, Riccardo; Liccardo, Daniela; Alisi, Anna; Benevento, Danila; Cappa, Marco; Cianfarani, Stefano; Nobili, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Glucose derangement has been reported to increase oxidative stress, one of the most important factors underlying the progression of hepatic fibrosis in adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To date, careful evaluation of the glucose profile in pediatric NAFLD has not been performed. A total of 30 severely obese children (15 males; mean age 12.87 ± 2.19 years) with biopsy-proven NAFLD were enrolled in this study from September to December 2013. All patients underwent anthropometric and laboratory evaluation, including the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Our study reveals some differences between OGTT and CGM in detecting NAFLD children with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). OGTT showed 2 (6.67%) patients with IFG and 1 (3.34%) with IGT, while CGM showed 5 (16.67%) patients with IFG and 6 (20%) with IGT. The daily blood glucose profile positively correlated with the baseline blood glucose (r = 0.39, p = 0.04) and the homeostatic model assessment (r = 0.56, p = 0.05). A positive correlation between hyperglycemia and liver fibrosis was found (r = 0.65, p < 0.05). Mean glucose values (F3-F4 group: 163.2 ± 35.92 mg/dl vs. F1 group: 136.58 ± 46.83 mg/dl and F2 group: 154.12 ± 22.51 mg/dl) and the difference between the minimum and maximum blood glucose levels (F3-F4 group: 110.21 ± 25.26 mg/dl vs. F1 group: 91.67 ± 15.97 mg/dl and F2 group: 92 ± 15.48 mg/dl) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the F3-F4 group compared to the F1 and F2 groups. Glucose profile derangement as detected by CGM is associated with the severity of hepatic fibrosis in children with NAFLD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  20. Maternal Factors Associated With Early Spontaneous Singleton ...

    Background: Knowledge of the maternal factors predisposing to preterm deliveries should affect the anticipatory care of mothers at risk of delivering preterm babies and improve perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the maternal socio-biological characteristics associated with the delivery of early spontaneous ...

  1. [Analysis of factors predicting early unplanned readmissions].

    Di Domenico, Gabriella; Tersigni, Ivan; Federico, Bruno; Leuter, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    OBIETTIVI: determinare i fattori associati ai ricoveri ripetuti per identificare i pazienti a rischio di riospedalizzazione entro i 30 giorni dalla dimissione. DISEGNO: analisi retrospettiva delle dimissioni nell'anno 2013 attraverso le schede di dimissione ospedaliera (SDO). 3.900 pazienti ricoverati presso il presidio ospedaliero "Fabrizio Spaziani" di Frosinone. PRINCIPALI MISURE DI OUTCOME: analisi bivariata per l'analisi dell'associazione tra variabili. La regressione logistica è stata utilizzata per identificare i fattori di rischio associati al ricovero ripetuto. RISULTATI: tra i 3.900 pazienti considerati, il 12,8% ha avuto una riammissione non programmata entro un mese dalla dimissione precedente per le stesse categorie diagnostiche principali (MCD). Sono state rilevate differenze statisticamente significative tra i pazienti con e senza ricovero ripetuto per età, durata della degenza, titolo di studio, condizione occupazionale e diagnosi. I fattori che aumentano la probabilità di una riospedalizzazione sono il vivere da solo, la condizione di pensionato o casalinga, una degenza più lunga e alcune diagnosi, fra cui malattie dell'apparato respiratorio, del sistema nervoso e dell'apparato urinario. CONCLUSIONE: alcune caratteristiche sociodemografiche e la diagnosi dei pazienti ospedalizzati sono associate al rischio di riospedalizzazione entro 30 giorni dalla dimissione. I dati disponibili nell'archivio delle SDO possono essere utilizzati per un'identificazione dei pazienti a rischio sui quali definire specifici piani di dimissione.

  2. A general psychopathology factor in early adolescence.

    Patalay, Praveetha; Fonagy, Peter; Deighton, Jessica; Belsky, Jay; Vostanis, Panos; Wolpert, Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a general psychopathology dimension reflecting common aspects among disorders has been identified in adults. This has not yet been considered in children and adolescents, where the focus has been on externalising and internalising dimensions. To examine the existence, correlates and predictive value of a general psychopathology dimension in young people. Alternative factor models were estimated using self-reports of symptoms in a large community-based sample aged 11-13.5 years (N = 23 477), and resulting dimensions were assessed in terms of associations with external correlates and future functioning. Both a traditional two-factor model and a bi-factor model with a general psychopathology bi-factor fitted the data well. The general psychopathology bi-factor best predicted future psychopathology and academic attainment. Associations with correlates and factor loadings are discussed. A general psychopathology factor, which is equal across genders, can be identified in young people. Its associations with correlates and future functioning indicate that investigating this factor can increase our understanding of the aetiology, risk and correlates of psychopathology. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  3. Examining predictive relationships among consumer values: factors ...

    Examining predictive relationships among consumer values: factors influencing behavioural intentions in retail purchase in Ghana. ... Journal of Business Research ... effects of age and gender differentials on values among retail consumers.

  4. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18-month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The…

  5. Do psychological and behavioral factors classified by the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (Swedish version) predict the early clinical course of low back pain in patients receiving chiropractic care?

    Eklund, Erik A; Bergstrom, G.; Bodin, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To investigate if psychological and behavioral factors (as determined by the Swedish version of the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory, MPI-S) can predict the early clinical course of Low Back Pain (LBP). Methods: MPI-S data from patients (18-65 years of age) seeking...... improvement. The chance of "definite improvement", expressed as relative risk (95 % CI) with the AC group as reference, was 1.05 (.87-1.27) for the ID and 1.10 (.93-1.31) for the DYS groups, respectively. The DYS and ID groups reported higher values in pain intensity both at the 1st and the 4th visit....... The proportion of subjects who reported an improvement in pain intensity of 30 % or more (clinically relevant) were 63.5 % AC, 72.0 % ID and 63.2 % DYS. Expressed as relative risk (95 % CI) with the AC group as reference, this corresponded to 1.26 (.91-1.76) for the ID and 1.09 (.78-1.51) for the DYS groups...

  6. Prediction of crime and early interventions

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    This paper presents a prospective longitudinal study that attempts to predict juvenile delinquency measured by first contact with the police (arrest, pre-trial detention or charges of crimes) taking a complete cohort of all children born in Denmark in 1984 (N=54,458). The children are followed from...

  7. [Prognostic factors of early breast cancer].

    Almagro, Elena; González, Cynthia S; Espinosa, Enrique

    2016-02-19

    Decision about the administration of adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer depends on the evaluation of prognostic factors. Lymph node status, tumor size and grade of differentiation are classical variables in this regard, and can be complemented by hormonal receptor status and HER2 expression. These factors can be combined into prognostic indexes to better estimate the risk of relapse or death. Other factors are less important. Gene profiles have emerged in recent years to identify low-risk patients who can forgo adjuvant chemotherapy. A number of profiles are available and can be used in selected cases. In the future, gene profiling will be used to select patients for treatment with new targeted therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification...... in crude analyses [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.60, 95% CI 2.79-4.65]. Birth weight was inversely associated with testicular cancer and no clear association with birth order was observed. The positive association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer was only slightly attenuated controlling for birth......PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...

  9. The Val66Met Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Variant Interacts with Early Pain Exposure to Predict Cortisol Dysregulation in 7-year-old Children Born Very Preterm: Implications for Cognition

    Chau, Cecil MY; Cepeda, Ivan L; Devlin, Angela M.; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Early stress in the form of repetitive neonatal pain, in infants born very preterm, is associated with long-term dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and with poorer cognitive performance. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) which is important in synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions is reduced by stress. Therefore the BDNF Val66Met variant, which affects secretion of BDNF, may interact with early exposure to pain-related stress in children born very prete...

  10. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  11. The Val66Met brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene variant interacts with early pain exposure to predict cortisol dysregulation in 7-year-old children born very preterm: Implications for cognition.

    Chau, C M Y; Cepeda, I L; Devlin, A M; Weinberg, J; Grunau, R E

    2017-02-07

    Early stress in the form of repetitive neonatal pain, in infants born very preterm, is associated with long-term dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and with poorer cognitive performance. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) which is important in synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions is reduced by stress. Therefore the BDNF Val66Met variant, which affects secretion of BDNF, may interact with early exposure to pain-related stress in children born very preterm, to differentially affect HPA regulation that in turn may be associated with altered cognitive performance. The aims of this study were to investigate whether in children born very preterm, the BDNF Val66Met variant modulates the association between neonatal pain-related stress and cortisol levels at age 7years, and if cortisol levels were related to cognitive function. Furthermore, we examined whether these relationships were sex-specific. Using a longitudinal cohort design, N=90 children born very preterm (24-32weeks gestation) were followed from birth to age 7years. Cortisol was assayed from hair as an index of cumulative stress and from saliva to measure reactivity to a cognitive challenge. BDNF Val66Met variant was genotyped at 7years using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using generalized linear modeling, in boys with the Met allele, greater neonatal pain-related stress (adjusted for clinical risk factors) predicted lower hair cortisol (p=0.006) and higher reactivity salivary cortisol (p=0.002). In both boys and girls with the Met allele, higher salivary cortisol reactivity was correlated with lower IQ (r=-0.60; p=0.001) and poorer visual-motor integration (r=-0.48; p=0.008). Our findings show associations between lower BDNF availability (presence of the Met allele) and vulnerability to neonatal pain/stress in boys, but not girls. This exploratory study suggests new directions for research into possible mechanisms underlying how neonatal pain/stress is

  12. Early productive vocabulary predicts academic achievement 10 years later

    Bleses, Dorthe; Makransky, Guido; Dale, Philip

    2016-01-01

    comprehension, can be predicted from an early vocabulary measure as early as 16 months with effect sizes (in proportion of variance accounted for) comparable to one year’s mean growth in reading scores. The findings confirm in a relatively large population based study that late talkers are at risk for later...

  13. Complexity factors and prediction of performance

    Braarud, Per Oeyvind

    1998-03-01

    Understanding of what makes a control room situation difficult to handle is important when studying operator performance, both with respect to prediction as well as improvement of the human performance. A factor analytic approach identified eight factors from operators' answers to an 39 item questionnaire about complexity of the operator's task in the control room. A Complexity Profiling Questionnaire was developed, based on the factor analytic results from the operators' conception of complexity. The validity of the identified complexity factors was studied by prediction of crew performance and prediction of plant performance from ratings of the complexity of scenarios. The scenarios were rated by both process experts and the operators participating in the scenarios, using the Complexity Profiling Questionnaire. The process experts' complexity ratings predicted both crew performance and plant performance, while the operators' rating predicted plant performance only. The results reported are from initial studies of complexity, and imply a promising potential for further studies of the concept. The approach used in the study as well as the reported results are discussed. A chapter about the structure of the conception of complexity, and a chapter about further research conclude the report. (author)

  14. Guidelines for the early detection of osteoporosis and prediction of ...

    Objective. To assess methods available in clinical practice for the early detection of osteoporosis and prediction of fracture risk, and to set guidelines for their use. To make recommendations regarding cost-effective screening of asymptomatic subjects by physicians. Options. Three methods to predict fracture risk are ...

  15. Simple Mathematical Models Do Not Accurately Predict Early SIV Dynamics

    Cecilia Noecker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Upon infection of a new host, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV replicates in the mucosal tissues and is generally undetectable in circulation for 1–2 weeks post-infection. Several interventions against HIV including vaccines and antiretroviral prophylaxis target virus replication at this earliest stage of infection. Mathematical models have been used to understand how HIV spreads from mucosal tissues systemically and what impact vaccination and/or antiretroviral prophylaxis has on viral eradication. Because predictions of such models have been rarely compared to experimental data, it remains unclear which processes included in these models are critical for predicting early HIV dynamics. Here we modified the “standard” mathematical model of HIV infection to include two populations of infected cells: cells that are actively producing the virus and cells that are transitioning into virus production mode. We evaluated the effects of several poorly known parameters on infection outcomes in this model and compared model predictions to experimental data on infection of non-human primates with variable doses of simian immunodifficiency virus (SIV. First, we found that the mode of virus production by infected cells (budding vs. bursting has a minimal impact on the early virus dynamics for a wide range of model parameters, as long as the parameters are constrained to provide the observed rate of SIV load increase in the blood of infected animals. Interestingly and in contrast with previous results, we found that the bursting mode of virus production generally results in a higher probability of viral extinction than the budding mode of virus production. Second, this mathematical model was not able to accurately describe the change in experimentally determined probability of host infection with increasing viral doses. Third and finally, the model was also unable to accurately explain the decline in the time to virus detection with increasing viral

  16. Kindergarten risk factors, cognitive factors, and teacher judgments as predictors of early reading in Dutch.

    Gijsel, Martine A R; Bosman, Anna M T; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on the predictive value of risk factors, cognitive factors, and teachers' judgments in a sample of 462 kindergartners for their early reading skills and reading failure at the beginning of Grade 1. With respect to risk factors, enrollment in speech-language therapy, history of dyslexia or speech-language problems in the family, and the role of gender were considered. None of these risk factors were significantly related to reading performance. Cognitive factors in this study included letter knowledge, rapid naming ability, and nonword repetition skills. Of these skills, letter knowledge seemed to have the highest correlation with reading. Kindergarten teachers' judgments, including a task assignment scale and teachers' predictions, demonstrated a significant relationship with reading. Finally, to judge whether these predictors could identify reading disabilities, the discriminatory power of all predictors was assessed and appeared to be insufficient. Implications for screening purposes are discussed.

  17. Early prediction of outcome of activities of daily living after stroke: a systematic review

    Veerbeek, J.M.; Kwakkel, G.; Wegen, van, E.E.H.; Ket, J.C.F.; Heijmans, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE-Knowledge about robust and unbiased factors that predict outcome of activities of daily living (ADL) is paramount in stroke management. This review investigates the methodological quality of prognostic studies in the early poststroke phase for final ADL to identify variables that are predictive or not predictive for outcome of ADL after stroke. METHODS-PubMed, Ebsco/Cinahl and Embase were systematically searched for prognostic studies in which stroke patients were inclu...

  18. Predicting creep rupture from early strain data

    Holmstroem, Stefan; Auerkari, Pertti

    2009-01-01

    To extend creep life modelling from classical rupture modelling, a robust and effective parametric strain model has been developed. The model can reproduce with good accuracy all parts of the creep curve, economically utilising the available rupture models. The resulting combined model can also be used to predict rupture from the available strain data, and to further improve the rupture models. The methodology can utilise unfailed specimen data for life assessment at lower stress levels than what is possible from rupture data alone. Master curves for creep strain and rupture have been produced for oxygen-free phosphorus-doped (OFP) copper with a maximum testing time of 51,000 h. Values of time to specific strain at given stress (40-165 MPa) and temperature (125-350 deg. C) were fitted to the models in the strain range of 0.1-38%. With typical inhomogeneous multi-batch creep data, the combined strain and rupture modelling involves the steps of investigation of the data quality, extraction of elastic and creep strain response, rupture modelling, data set balancing and creep strain modelling. Finally, the master curves for strain and rupture are tested and validated for overall fitting efficiency. With the Wilshire equation as the basis for the rupture model, the strain model applies classical parametric principles with an Arrhenius type of thermal activation and a power law type of stress dependence for the strain rate. The strain model also assumes that the processes of primary and secondary creep can be reasonably correlated. The rupture model represents a clear improvement over previous models in the range of the test data. The creep strain information from interrupted and running tests were assessed together with the rupture data investigating the possibility of rupture model improvement towards lower stress levels by inverse utilisation of the combined rupture based strain model. The developed creep strain model together with the improved rupture model is

  19. Circulating serum interleukin-6, serum chitinase-3-like protein-1, and plasma vascular endothelial growth factor are not predictive for remission and radiographic progression in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    Brahe, C H; Dehlendorff, C; Østergaard, M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum chitinase-3-like protein-1 (YKL-40), and plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as measures of disease activity and predictors of clinical remission and radiographic progression in two early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) randomized...

  20. Examining Factors Predicting Students' Digital Competence

    Hatlevik, Ove Edvard; Guðmundsdóttir, Gréta Björk; Loi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students' digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what…

  1. Preventive child health care findings on early childhood predict peer-group social status in early adolescence.

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2012-12-01

    A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictive factors for intrauterine growth restriction.

    Albu, A R; Anca, A F; Horhoianu, V V; Horhoianu, I A

    2014-06-15

    Reduced fetal growth is seen in about 10% of the pregnancies but only a minority has a pathological background and is known as intrauterine growth restriction or fetal growth restriction (IUGR / FGR). Increased fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity as well as adult pathologic conditions are often associated to IUGR. Risk factors for IUGR are easy to assess but have poor predictive value. For the diagnostic purpose, biochemical serum markers, ultrasound and Doppler study of uterine and spiral arteries, placental volume and vascularization, first trimester growth pattern are object of assessment today. Modern evaluations propose combined algorithms using these strategies, all with the goal of a better prediction of risk pregnancies.

  3. [The early pregnancy factor (EPF) as an early marker of disorders in pregnancy].

    Straube, W; Römer, T; Zeenni, L; Loh, M

    1995-01-01

    The early pregnancy factor (EPF) seems to be very helpful in clinical applications such as early detection of pregnancy, differential diagnosis of failure of fertilization or implementation and prognosis of a fertilized ovum. Our purpose was to investigate the diagnostic value of single and serial measurement of EPF, especially in the differential diagnosis of abortion and extrauterine pregnancy. Women with a history of 6-16 weeks amenorrhoea with/without vaginal bleeding were included in the prospective study. The EPF-test system was carried out by means of the rosette inhibition method. EPF proved to be always positive in normal pregnant women and always negative in nonpregnant controls. In case of threatened abortion the prognosis was good, when the EPF values were positive, and poor when they became negative. Patients suffering from spontaneous and missed abortion mostly showed negative EPF-values. This was also true in ectopic pregnancies. The sensitivity and specificity of EPF-test system were 83%. The positive predictive value was observed to be 54% and the negative predictive value 95%. The EPF as an early embryonic signal may be a suitable parameter for the clinical use detecting pregnancy disturbances very early.

  4. De-Escalation Strategies in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-Positive Early Breast Cancer (BC): Final Analysis of the West German Study Group Adjuvant Dynamic Marker-Adjusted Personalized Therapy Trial Optimizing Risk Assessment and Therapy Response Prediction in Early BC HER2- and Hormone Receptor-Positive Phase II Randomized Trial-Efficacy, Safety, and Predictive Markers for 12 Weeks of Neoadjuvant Trastuzumab Emtansine With or Without Endocrine Therapy (ET) Versus Trastuzumab Plus ET.

    Harbeck, Nadia; Gluz, Oleg; Christgen, Matthias; Kates, Ronald Ernest; Braun, Michael; Küemmel, Sherko; Schumacher, Claudia; Potenberg, Jochem; Kraemer, Stefan; Kleine-Tebbe, Anke; Augustin, Doris; Aktas, Bahriye; Forstbauer, Helmut; Tio, Joke; von Schumann, Raquel; Liedtke, Cornelia; Grischke, Eva-Maria; Schumacher, Johannes; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Kreipe, Hans Heinrich; Nitz, Ulrike Anneliese

    2017-09-10

    Purpose Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive/hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer is a distinct subgroup associated with lower chemotherapy sensitivity and slightly better outcome than HER2-positive/HR-negative disease. Little is known about the efficacy of the combination of endocrine therapy (ET) with trastuzumab or with the potent antibody-cytotoxic, anti-HER2 compound trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) with or without ET for this subgroup. The West German Study Group trial, ADAPT (Adjuvant Dynamic Marker-Adjusted Personalized Therapy Trial Optimizing Risk Assessment and Therapy Response Prediction in Early Breast Cancer) compares pathologic complete response (pCR) rates of T-DM1 versus trastuzumab with ET in early HER2-positive/HR-positive breast cancer. Patients and Methods In this prospective, neoadjuvant, phase II trial, 375 patients with early breast cancer with HER2-positive and HR-positive status (n = 463 screened) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of T-DM1 with or without ET or to trastuzumab with ET. The primary end point was pCR (ypT0/is/ypN0). Early response was assessed in 3-week post-therapeutic core biopsies (proliferation decrease ≥ 30% Ki-67 or cellularity response). Secondary end points included safety and predictive impact of early response on pCR. Adjuvant therapy followed national standards. Results Baseline characteristics were well balanced among the arms. More than 90% of patients completed the therapy per protocol. pCR was observed in 41.0% of patients treated with T-DM1, 41.5% of patients treated with T-DM1 and ET, and 15.1% with trastuzumab and ET ( P < .001). Early responders (67% of patients with assessable response) achieved pCR in 35.7% compared with 19.8% in nonresponders (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.19). T-DM1 was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of grade 1 to 2 toxicities, especially thrombocytopenia, nausea, and elevation of liver enzymes. Overall toxicity was low; seventeen

  5. Predictive Factors for Death After Snake Envenomation in Myanmar.

    Aye, Kyi-Phyu; Thanachartwet, Vipa; Soe, Chit; Desakorn, Varunee; Chamnanchanunt, Supat; Sahassananda, Duangjai; Supaporn, Thanom; Sitprija, Visith

    2018-06-01

    Factors predictive for death from snake envenomation vary between studies, possibly due to variation in host genetic factors and venom composition. This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors for death from snake envenomation in Myanmar. A prospective study was performed among adult patients with snakebite admitted to tertiary hospitals in Yangon, Myanmar, from May 2015 to August 2016. Data including clinical variables and laboratory parameters, management, and outcomes were evaluated. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors predictive for death at the time of presentation to the hospital. Of the 246 patients with snake envenomation recruited into the study, 225 (92%) survived and 21 (8%) died during hospitalization. The snake species responsible for a bite was identified in 74 (30%) of the patients; the majority of bites were from Russell's vipers (63 patients, 85%). The independent factors predictive for death included 1) duration from bite to arrival at the hospital >1 h (odds ratio [OR]: 9.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-75.2; P=0.04); 2) white blood cell counts >20 ×10 3 cells·μL -1 (OR: 8.9, 95% CI: 2.3-33.7; P=0.001); and 3) the presence of capillary leakage (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.2-11.2; P=0.02). A delay in antivenom administration >4 h increases risk of death (11/21 deaths). Patients who present with these independent predictive factors should be recognized and provided with early appropriate intervention to reduce the mortality rate among adults with snake envenomation in Myanmar. Copyright © 2018 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Shoulder dystocia: risk factors, predictability, and preventability.

    Mehta, Shobha H; Sokol, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Shoulder dystocia remains an unpredictable obstetric emergency, striking fear in the hearts of obstetricians both novice and experienced. While outcomes that lead to permanent injury are rare, almost all obstetricians with enough years of practice have participated in a birth with a severe shoulder dystocia and are at least aware of cases that have resulted in significant neurologic injury or even neonatal death. This is despite many years of research trying to understand the risk factors associated with it, all in an attempt primarily to characterize when the risk is high enough to avoid vaginal delivery altogether and prevent a shoulder dystocia, whose attendant morbidities are estimated to be at a rate as high as 16-48%. The study of shoulder dystocia remains challenging due to its generally retrospective nature, as well as dependence on proper identification and documentation. As a result, the prediction of shoulder dystocia remains elusive, and the cost of trying to prevent one by performing a cesarean delivery remains high. While ultimately it is the injury that is the key concern, rather than the shoulder dystocia itself, it is in the presence of an identified shoulder dystocia that occurrence of injury is most common. The majority of shoulder dystocia cases occur without major risk factors. Moreover, even the best antenatal predictors have a low positive predictive value. Shoulder dystocia therefore cannot be reliably predicted, and the only preventative measure is cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stroke scale score and early prediction of outcome after stroke

    Ahmed, R.; Zuberi, F.Z.; Afsar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score as a predictor of functional outcome after ischemic stroke. Subjects and Methods: The study included 50 patients who presented to Civil Hospital, Karachi, during the study period with acute stroke and were evaluated with CT scan of brain. Only those patients were enrolled in the study that had acute ischemic stroke. The enrolled subjects were then evaluated for the neurological impairment using National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The subjects were followed-up and their functional outcome was assessed using Barthel index (BI) on the 7th day of their admission. Results: Of the fifty patients enrolled in the study, 31 (62%) were males and 19 (38%) were females, with age ranging from 45 years to 95 years and a mean age of 59.9 years. Neurological impairment at presentation was assessed by NIHSS. The score ranged between 2 and 28. The functional outcome was evaluated on the 7th day using Barthel index (BI), which ranged from 0 to 80. NIHSS score was found to be a good predictor of functional outcome in patients with ischemic stroke (p<0.001). Other factors like gender, hypertension and heart disease did not affect the functional recovery in such patients. Various factors were found to be significant for early prediction of stroke recovery. The NIHSS score was the strongest predictor of outcome after ischemic stroke. Age at the time of the event was also found to be an important predictor for stroke recovery. Conclusion: The NIHSS score is a good predictor of patient's recovery after stroke. Assessing the patient's neurological impairment at first presentation of ischemic stroke can guide the physician regarding the prognosis and management plan. (author)

  8. Identification and Prediction of Drinking Trajectories in Early and Mid-Adolescence

    Vorst, H. van der; Vermulst, A.A.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Dekovic, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of early and mid-adolescents with different drinking trajectories. In addition, we examined whether gender, parental, and peer factors predicted adolescents' membership of these drinking trajectories. We used longitudinal data of 428 families (fathers,

  9. Identification and Prediction of Drinking Trajectories in Early and Mid-Adolescence

    Van Der Vorst, Haske; Vermulst, Ad A.; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Dekovic, Maja; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of early and mid-adolescents with different drinking trajectories. In addition, we examined whether gender, parental, and peer factors predicted adolescents' membership of these drinking trajectories. We used longitudinal data of 428 families (fathers, mothers, mid-adolescents, and their younger…

  10. Early Findings of Preventive Child Healthcare Professionals Predict Psychosocial Problems in Preadolescence : The TRAILS Study

    Jaspers, M.; de Winter, A.F.; de Meer, G.; Stewart, R.E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    Objective To develop and validate a prediction model for psychosocial problems in preadolescence using data on early developmental factors from routine Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). Study design The data come from the 1692 participants who take part in the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives

  11. Early Findings of Preventive Child Healthcare Professionals Predict Psychosocial Problems in Preadolescence: The TRAILS Study

    Jaspers, M.; De Winter, A.F.; de Meer, G.; Stewart, R.E; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a prediction model for psychosocial problems in preadolescence using data on early developmental factors from routine Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). Study design The data come from the 1692 participants who take part in the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives

  12. Early prediction of favourable recovery 6 months after mild traumatic brain injury.

    Stulemeijer, M.; Werf, S.P. van der; Borm, G.F.; Vos, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Predicting outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is notoriously difficult. Although it is recognised that milder head injuries do not necessarily mean better outcomes, less is known about the factors that do enable early identification of patients who are likely to recover

  13. Can Childhood Factors Predict Workplace Deviance?

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-07-01

    Compared to the more common focus on street crime, empirical research on workplace deviance has been hampered by highly select samples, cross-sectional research designs, and limited inclusion of relevant predictor variables that bear on important theoretical debates. A key debate concerns the extent to which childhood conduct-problem trajectories influence crime over the life-course, including adults' workplace crime, whether childhood low self-control is a more important determinant than trajectories, and/or whether each or both of these childhood factors relate to later criminal activity. This paper provides evidence on this debate by examining two types of workplace deviance: production and property deviance separately for males and females. We use data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a birth cohort followed into adulthood, to examine how childhood factors (conduct-problem trajectories and low self-control) and then adult job characteristics predict workplace deviance at age 32. Analyses revealed that none of the childhood factors matter for predicting female deviance in the workplace but that conduct-problem trajectories did account for male workplace deviance.

  14. Analysis of factors for early hypothyroidism after 131I treatment of hyperthyroidism

    Zhou Youjun; Quan Xinsheng; Zhang Ling; He Meiqiong

    2008-01-01

    To explore the factors for the early hypothyroidism following 131 I treatment of hyperthyroidism, clinic data of 120 hyperthyroidism patients including 8 independent and 1 dependent variables after one year 131 I treatment were analyzed by logistic regression analysis method. The results showed that the average 131 I dosage given to one gram thyroid tissue was correlated positively with early hypothyroidism occurrence, and the weight of thyroid was negatively correlated to early hypothyroidism occurrence. The positive and negative prediction accuracy of the early hypothyroidism were 53.3% and 96.1% respectively, and the total prediction accuracy was 46.7%. The results suggest that the 131 I dosage and the weight of thyroid are key factors for early hypothyroidism; the appropriate adjustment of 131 I dosage based on the thyroid mass could prevent the early hypothyroidism occurrence in certain degree. (authors)

  15. Early reported rectal sensation predicts continence in anorectal anomalies.

    Skerritt, Clare; Tyraskis, Athanasios; Rees, Clare; Cockar, Iram; Kiely, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Straining at stool is an automatic reflex in babies and implies the presence of rectal sensation. We hypothesised that early reported rectal sensation would predict future continence in children with anorectal anomalies. The aim of this study is to determine if early straining at stool was a useful predictor of future continence in infants born with high anorectal malformations. A retrospective case note review of prospectively collected clinical information was performed with institutional review board approval. All patients with intermediate/high anorectal malformation operated on by a single surgeon from 1984 to 2010 were included. After stoma closure, parents were asked: The responses were noted within the first year of stoma closure and then all patients were followed up until they were at least 3 ½years old and continence could be assessed using the Krickenbeck outcome classification. Data were compared using Fisher's exact test and sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. Forty-eight patients were included in the study. Sixteen (33%) were female (12 cloacal malformation, 3 rectovaginal fistula, 1 rectal atresia) and 32 (66%) were male (6 rectovesical fistulae, 22 rectourethral fistulae, 4 no fistula). Median follow-up was 9.7years (range 3.5-17.9). Twenty-one children were noted by their parents to exhibit early straining at stool after stoma closure. Twenty of them achieved long term continence. The sensitivity of early straining as a predictor for long term continence was 77%, specificity 95% and positive predictive value 95%. The presence of early rectal sensation reported by parents is a good predictor of long term continence. This allows more informed discussion with families in the early years of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor genotype and parenting in early life in predicting externalizing and internalizing symptoms in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Jung, Yeon-Kyung; Lee, Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2014-11-25

    We aimed to determine whether early parenting is associated with externalizing and internalizing symptoms in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and whether such an association is affected by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism. The participants included 92 patients with ADHD aged 6-15 years. Measures of parenting in early life and externalizing and internalizing symptoms and the genotype of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism were obtained. The degree to which the baby's autonomy was allowed was significantly and negatively correlated with the CDI scores in ADHD children (r = -0.38, p = 0.005). After adjusting for the child's gender, the child's age, the family's gross annual income, and the maternal education level, there was a significant interaction for the BDNF genotype and mother's positive feelings about caring in relation to the development of childhood anxiety/depression in ADHD children (F = 2.51, p = 0.011). Our results provide evidence of an interaction between the BDNF met allele and early parenting on the development of depression/anxiety symptoms.

  17. Malnutrition predicting factors in hemodialysis patients.

    Jahromi, Soodeh Razeghi; Hosseini, Saeed; Razeghi, Effat; Meysamie, Ali pasha; Sadrzadeh, Haleh

    2010-09-01

    Malnutrition is a predictor of increased mortality in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Various factors may contribute to malnutrition in these patients including energy and protein intake, inflammation, and comorbidity. To determine the importance of these factors in malnutrition of chronic HD patients, we studied 112 chronic HD patients in two centers was evaluated with the Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS) and anthropometric and biochemical indices. Seventy six (67.8%) patients were classified as malnourished. According to DMS score, poor protein intake (r= -0.34, Penergy intake (r= - 0.18, Pmalnutrition in descending order of importance. Multiple regression analysis showed that only poor protein intake was the explanatory variable of anthropometric measurements decline including body mass index, triceps skin fold thick-ness, mid arm circumference, mid arm muscle circumference, fat free mass, fat mass, albumin, creatinine and transferrine. None of the mentioned factors predicted the decrease of biochemical markers. We conclude that the frequency of malnutrition is high in our population and poor protein intake is the primary contributing factor for this condition. Therefore, providing enough protein may be a simple and effective way in preventing malnutrition in these patients.

  18. Examining Factors Predicting Students’ Digital Competence

    Ove Edvard Hatlevik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine factors predicting lower secondary school students’ digital competence and to explore differences between students when it comes to digital competence. Results from a digital competence test and survey in lower secondary school will be presented. It is important to learn more about and investigate what characterizes students’ digital competence. A sample of 852 ninth-grade Norwegian students from 38 schools participated in the study. The students answered a 26 item multiple-choice digital competence test and a self-report questionnaire about family background, motivation, and previous grades. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model of the hypothesised relationship between family background, mastery orientation, previous achievements, and digital competence. The results indicate variation in digital competence among the ninth-graders. Further, analyses showed that students’ conditions at home, i.e., language integration and cultural capital, together with mastery orientation and academic achievements predict students digital competence. This study indicates that that there is evidence of digital diversity between lower secondary students. It does not seem like the development of digital competence among the students happens automatically. Students’ family background and school performance are the most important factors. Therefore, as this study shows, it is necessary to further investigate how schools can identify students’ level of competence and to develop plans and actions for how schools can help to try to equalize differences.

  19. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind?s Parenting Styles

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children?s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind?s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 20...

  20. Predicting early adoption of successive video player generations

    Rijnsoever, F.J. van; Oppewal, H.

    2012-01-01

    Early adopters play an important role in the innovation diffusion process. Over the past decades, many factors have been identified as predictors for earlyadoption of innovations. Less attention has been paid to the relationship between the earlyadoption of one generation of a specific product and

  1. Meta-analysis of the predictive factors of postpartum fatigue.

    Badr, Hanan A; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2017-08-01

    Nearly 64% of new mothers are affected by fatigue during the postpartum period, making it the most common problem that a woman faces as she adapts to motherhood. Postpartum fatigue can lead to serious negative effects on the mother's health and the newborn's development and interfere with mother-infant interaction. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify predictive factors of postpartum fatigue and to document the magnitude of their effects using effect sizes. We used two search engines, PubMed and Google Scholar, to identify studies that met three inclusion criteria: (a) the article was written in English, (b) the article studied the predictive factors of postpartum fatigue, and (c) the article included information about the validity and reliability of the instruments used in the research. Nine articles met these inclusion criteria. The direction and strength of correlation coefficients between predictive factors and postpartum fatigue were examined across the studies to determine their effect sizes. Measurement of predictor variables occurred from 3days to 6months postpartum. Correlations reported between predictive factors and postpartum fatigue were as follows: small effect size (r range =0.10 to 0.29) for education level, age, postpartum hemorrhage, infection, and child care difficulties; medium effect size (r range =0.30 to 0.49) for physiological illness, low ferritin level, low hemoglobin level, sleeping problems, stress and anxiety, and breastfeeding problems; and large effect size (r range =0.50+) for depression. Postpartum fatigue is a common condition that can lead to serious health problems for a new mother and her newborn. Therefore, increased knowledge concerning factors that influence the onset of postpartum fatigue is needed for early identification of new mothers who may be at risk. Appropriate treatments, interventions, information, and support can then be initiated to prevent or minimize the postpartum fatigue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  2. Methods for early prediction of lactation flow in Holstein heifers

    Vesna Gantner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define methods for early prediction (based on I. milk control record of lactation flow in Holstein heifers as well as to choose optimal one in terms of prediction fit and application simplicity. Total of 304,569 daily yield records automatically recorded on a 1,136 first lactation Holstein cows, from March 2003 till August 2008., were included in analysis. According to the test date, calving date, the age at first calving, lactation stage when I. milk control occurred and to the average milk yield in first 25th, T1 (and 25th-45th, T2 lactation days, measuring monthcalving month-age-production-time-period subgroups were formed. The parameters of analysed nonlinear and linear methods were estimated for each defined subgroup. As models evaluation measures,adjusted coefficient of determination, and average and standard deviation of error were used. Considering obtained results, in terms of total variance explanation (R2 adj, the nonlinear Wood’s method showed superiority above the linear ones (Wilmink’s, Ali-Schaeffer’s and Guo-Swalve’s method in both time-period subgroups (T1 - 97.5 % of explained variability; T2 - 98.1 % of explained variability. Regarding the evaluation measures based on prediction error amount (eavg±eSD, the lowest average error of daily milk yield prediction (less than 0.005 kg/day, as well as of lactation milk yield prediction (less than 50 kg/lactation (T1 time-period subgroup and less than 30 kg/lactation (T2 time-period subgroup; were determined when Wood’s nonlinear prediction method were applied. Obtained results indicate that estimated Wood’s regression parameters could be used in routine work for early prediction of Holstein heifer’s lactation flow.

  3. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2013-01-01

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...

  4. Autism: cause factors, early diagnosis and therapies.

    Bhat, Shreya; Acharya, U Rajendra; Adeli, Hojjat; Bairy, G Muralidhar; Adeli, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurobiological disorder characterized by neuropsychological and behavioral deficits. Cognitive impairment, lack of social skills, and stereotyped behavior are the major autistic symptoms, visible after a certain age. It is one of the fastest growing disabilities. Its current prevalence rate in the U.S. estimated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is 1 in 68 births. The genetic and physiological structure of the brain is studied to determine the pathology of autism, but diagnosis of autism at an early age is challenging due to the existing phenotypic and etiological heterogeneity among ASD individuals. Volumetric and neuroimaging techniques are explored to elucidate the neuroanatomy of the ASD brain. Nuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neuroimaging biomarkers can help in the early diagnosis and treatment of ASD. This paper presents a review of the types of autism, etiologies, early detection, and treatment of ASD.

  5. Prevalence and predictive factors of post-traumatic hypopituitarism

    Klose, M; Juul, A; Poulsgaard, L

    2007-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and predictive factors of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury (TBI).......To estimate the prevalence and predictive factors of hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury (TBI)....

  6. Early Psychosocial Stress Predicts Extra-Pair Copulations

    Nicole Koehler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheating on a mate, known as an extra-pair copulation (EPC, is considered unacceptable by most individuals. Nonetheless many individuals engage in such risky behaviors. Because individuals with high, as opposed to low, levels of early psychosocial stress are more risk prone and more likely to engage in opportunistic matings, we predicted that individuals reporting EPCs, one of many types of opportunistic mating (e.g., one-night stand, consecutive short-term relationships etc, have higher levels of early psychosocial stress than those who do not. Two types of EPCs were examined: EPC-self (EPC-S, having sex with someone other than one's mate, and EPC-other (EPC-O, having sex with someone else's mate. In a sample of 229 women and 161 men, significantly higher levels of early psychosocial stress were found amongst those reporting an EPC-S than those reporting none, irrespective of EPC-Os. Furthermore, the more EPC-Ss men, but not women, reported the higher their early psychosocial stress. Early psychosocial stress was not associated with EPC-Os irrespective of EPC-Ss. Participants were also classified into one of four groups (no EPCs, EPC-O only, EPC-S only, or EPC-S&O which significantly interacted with early psychosocial stress. Results are discussed from adaptationist and mechanist perspectives and why early psychosocial stress was higher in individuals reporting EPC-Ss irrespective of EPC-Os, but not EPC-Os irrespective of EPC-Ss, than those not reporting the EPC of interest.

  7. Predicting marital satisfaction on the basis of early maladaptive schema in married women, Tehran, Iran

    Saeed Seyed Esmaili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early maladaptive schemes are cognitive, emotional and self-injurious patterns repeated throughout the life. Family is a natural social system in which couples have major role in the all of stages of its development, and many factors play a role in their marital satisfaction. Marital satisfaction is adopting expectations of couples of marital life. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between early maladaptive scheme with marital satisfaction and identification of predicting factors on marital satisfaction. This was a correlational cross-sectional method study. The population includes all married female persons referring to Tehran municipal regions. We used early maladaptive schemas questionnaire and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire for evaluation in participants. Descriptive tests, Pearson correlation test, T-Test, One Way ANOVA Test and Multivariate Regression Test were used for description and analysis of data. The mean age of samples in this study was 31.60±5.12 years old. There was significant relationship between age with Dependence/Incompetence (P=0.033, Self-sacrifice (P=0.010, Entitlement/Grandiosity (P=0.042, Impaired autonomy and performance (P=0.019, Abandonment/Instability (P=0.007. Linear regression analysis showed emotional deprivation and unrelenting standards/hypocriticalness subscales can predict marital satisfaction adversely. They can predict significantly 26% of marital satisfaction changes (P<0.001. we concluded that early maladaptive schema can predict the marital satisfaction negatively and of important role in its improvement or regression.

  8. Factors determining early internationalization of entrepreneurial SMEs: Theoretical approach

    Agne Matiusinaite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This study extends the scientific discussion of early internationalization of SMEs. The main purpose of this paper – to develop a theoretical framework to investigate factors determining early internationalization of international new ventures. Design/methodology/approach – The conceptual framework is built on the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature. Findings – This paper presents different factors, which determine early internationalization of international new ventures. These factors are divided to entrepreneurial, organizational and contextual factors. We argue that early internationalization of international new ventures is defined by entrepreneurial characteristics and previous experience of the entrepreneur, opportunities recognition and exploitation, risk tolerance, specific of the organization, involvement into networks and contextual factors. Study proved that only interaction between factors and categories has an effect for business development and successful implementation of early internationalization. Research limitations/implications – The research was conducted on the theoretical basis of scientific literature. The future studies could include a practical confirmation or denial of such allocation of factors. Originality/value – The originality of this study lies in the finding that factor itself has limited effect to early internationalization. Only the interoperability of categories and factors gives a positive impact on early internationalization of entrepreneurial SMEs.

  9. Early Executive Function at Age Two Predicts Emergent Mathematics and Literacy at Age Five.

    Mulder, Hanna; Verhagen, Josje; Van der Ven, Sanne H G; Slot, Pauline L; Leseman, Paul P M

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has shown that individual differences in executive function (EF) are predictive of academic skills in preschoolers, kindergartners, and older children. Across studies, EF is a stronger predictor of emergent mathematics than literacy. However, research on EF in children below age three is scarce, and it is currently unknown whether EF, as assessed in toddlerhood, predicts emergent academic skills a few years later. This longitudinal study investigates whether early EF, assessed at two years, predicts (emergent) academic skills, at five years. It examines, furthermore, whether early EF is a significantly stronger predictor of emergent mathematics than of emergent literacy, as has been found in previous work on older children. A sample of 552 children was assessed on various EF and EF-precursor tasks at two years. At age five, these children performed several emergent mathematics and literacy tasks. Structural Equation Modeling was used to investigate the relationships between early EF and academic skills, modeled as latent factors. Results showed that early EF at age two was a significant and relatively strong predictor of both emergent mathematics and literacy at age five, after controlling for receptive vocabulary, parental education, and home language. Predictive relations were significantly stronger for mathematics than literacy, but only when a verbal short-term memory measure was left out as an indicator to the latent early EF construct. These findings show that individual differences in emergent academic skills just prior to entry into the formal education system can be traced back to individual differences in early EF in toddlerhood. In addition, these results highlight the importance of task selection when assessing early EF as a predictor of later outcomes, and call for further studies to elucidate the mechanisms through which individual differences in early EF and precursors to EF come about.

  10. Early Executive Function at Age Two Predicts Emergent Mathematics and Literacy at Age Five

    Hanna Mulder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that individual differences in executive function (EF are predictive of academic skills in preschoolers, kindergartners, and older children. Across studies, EF is a stronger predictor of emergent mathematics than literacy. However, research on EF in children below age three is scarce, and it is currently unknown whether EF, as assessed in toddlerhood, predicts emergent academic skills a few years later. This longitudinal study investigates whether early EF, assessed at two years, predicts (emergent academic skills, at five years. It examines, furthermore, whether early EF is a significantly stronger predictor of emergent mathematics than of emergent literacy, as has been found in previous work on older children. A sample of 552 children was assessed on various EF and EF-precursor tasks at two years. At age five, these children performed several emergent mathematics and literacy tasks. Structural Equation Modeling was used to investigate the relationships between early EF and academic skills, modeled as latent factors. Results showed that early EF at age two was a significant and relatively strong predictor of both emergent mathematics and literacy at age five, after controlling for receptive vocabulary, parental education, and home language. Predictive relations were significantly stronger for mathematics than literacy, but only when a verbal short-term memory measure was left out as an indicator to the latent early EF construct. These findings show that individual differences in emergent academic skills just prior to entry into the formal education system can be traced back to individual differences in early EF in toddlerhood. In addition, these results highlight the importance of task selection when assessing early EF as a predictor of later outcomes, and call for further studies to elucidate the mechanisms through which individual differences in early EF and precursors to EF come about.

  11. Which behavioral, emotional and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior?

    Parkes, Alison; Waylen, Andrea; Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Macleod, John

    2014-04-01

    Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16-18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-childhood problems and early sexual behavior, using a subsample (N = 4,739, 53 % female, 98 % white, mean age 15 years 6 months) from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Adolescents provided information at age 15 on early sexual behavior (oral sex and/or intercourse) and sexual risk-taking, and at age 13 on prior risk involvement (sexual behavior, antisocial behavior and substance use). Information on hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, peer relationship problems, school dislike and school performance was collected in middle-childhood at Time 1 (6-8 years) and Time 2 (10-11 years). In agreement with previous research, conduct problems predicted early sexual behavior, although this was found only for persistent early problems. In addition, Time 2 school dislike predicted early sexual behavior, while peer relationship problems were protective. Persistent early school dislike further characterized higher-risk groups (early sexual behavior preceded by age 13 risk, or accompanied by higher sexual risk-taking). The study establishes middle-childhood school dislike as a novel risk factor for early sexual behavior and higher-risk groups, and the importance of persistent conduct problems. Implications for the identification of children at risk and targeted intervention are discussed, as well as suggestions for further research.

  12. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind's Parenting Styles.

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-06-01

    Families play an essential role in maintaining children's mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind's parenting styles (root development). A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind's parenting styles inventories. The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind's parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children's developmental needs, which is not acceptable.

  13. The discriminatory analysis about factors correlative with the early hypothyroidism after 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism

    Xiong Lingjing; Liang Changhua; Deng Haoyu; Li Xinhui; Hu Shuo

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the factors correlative with the early hypothyroidism after 131 I therapy for Graves' hyperthyroidism so as to cure it and decrease the early hypothyroidism occurring and prevent it from becoming irreversible hypothyroidism. Methods: Logistic regression discriminatory analysis by introducing multiple factors from group data and forward stepwise selection of 11 independent variables of 240 hyperthyroidism patients from clinical data and 1 dependent variable from follow-up data after 131 I therapy was conducted. Univariate analysis of each observed factor was performed, too. Results: (1)The results of multivariate analysis showed that the age of patients, the weight of thyroid, the suffering situation, the curve of 131 I absorption rate and the giving 131 I dosage/g thyroid tissue were correlated to early hypothyroidism. The results of univariate analysis showed that the weight of thyroid, the highest absorption of 131 I, the total treatment dosage of 131 I were correlated to early hypothyroidism. (2) The logistic regression equation was statistically significant. (3) The positive and negative predicting accuracy of the early hypothyroidism occurring was 64.08 %, 78.83 %, respectively, the overall predicting accuracy was 72.50%. Conclusions: The dosage of 131 I for treatment of hyperthyroid is the key factor according to the five correlative factors which are relating to the early hypothyroidism and the discriminatory classification. Enhanced follow-up and in time supplement of thyroid hormone are important measures for preventing the early hypothyroidism from becoming irreversible hypothyroidism

  14. Factors predicting outcome in whiplash injury: a systematic meta-review of prognostic factors.

    Sarrami, Pooria; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Naylor, Justine M; Harris, Ian A

    2017-03-01

    Whiplash injuries are among the leading injuries related to car crashes and it is important to determine the prognostic factors that predict the outcome of patients with these injuries. This meta-review aims to identify factors that are associated with outcome after acute whiplash injury. A systematic search for all systematic reviews on outcome prediction of acute whiplash injury was conducted across several electronic databases. The search was limited to publications in English, and there were no geographical or time of publication restrictions. Quality appraisal was conducted with A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. The initial search yielded 207 abstracts; of these, 195 were subsequently excluded by topic or method. Twelve systematic reviews with moderate quality were subsequently included in the analysis. Post-injury pain and disability, whiplash grades, cold hyperalgesia, post-injury anxiety, catastrophizing, compensation and legal factors, and early healthcare use were associated with continuation of pain and disability in patients with whiplash injury. Post-injury magnetic resonance imaging or radiographic findings, motor dysfunctions, or factors related to the collision were not associated with continuation of pain and disability in patients with whiplash injury. Evidence on demographic and three psychological factors and prior pain was conflicting, and there is a shortage of evidence related to the significance of genetic factors. This meta-review suggests an association between initial pain and anxiety and the outcome of acute whiplash injury, and less evidence for an association with physical factors. Level 1.

  15. Analysis, prediction, and case studies of early-age cracking in bridge decks

    ElSafty, Adel; Graeff, Matthew K.; El-Gharib, Georges; Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Mike Jackson, N.

    2016-06-01

    Early-age cracking can adversely affect strength, serviceability, and durability of concrete bridge decks. Early age is defined as the period after final setting, during which concrete properties change rapidly. Many factors can cause early-age bridge deck cracking including temperature change, hydration, plastic shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. The cracking may also increase the effect of freeze and thaw cycles and may lead to corrosion of reinforcement. This research paper presents an analysis of causes and factors affecting early-age cracking. It also provides a tool developed to predict the likelihood and initiation of early-age cracking of concrete bridge decks. Understanding the concrete properties is essential so that the developed tool can accurately model the mechanisms contributing to the cracking of concrete bridge decks. The user interface of the implemented computer Excel program enables the user to input the properties of the concrete being monitored. The research study and the developed spreadsheet were used to comprehensively investigate the issue of concrete deck cracking. The spreadsheet is designed to be a user-friendly calculation tool for concrete mixture proportioning, temperature prediction, thermal analysis, and tensile cracking prediction. The study also provides review and makes recommendations on the deck cracking based mainly on the Florida Department of Transportation specifications and Structures Design Guidelines, and Bridge Design Manuals of other states. The results were also compared with that of other commercially available software programs that predict early-age cracking in concrete slabs, concrete pavement, and reinforced concrete bridge decks. The outcome of this study can identify a set of recommendations to limit the deck cracking problem and maintain a longer service life of bridges.

  16. Contingency Table Browser - prediction of early stage protein structure.

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table - this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them - analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity.

  17. [Encopresis--predictive factors and outcome].

    Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Scheuerpflug, Peter; Peschke, Nicole; Roth, Michael; Reitzle, Karl; Warnke, Andreas

    2005-10-01

    comparison of diagnostic, clinical and therapeutic features and their predictive value for the outcome of encopresis in children and adolescents. 85 children and adolescents (aged 9.6 +/- 3.2 years) with severe encopresis (ICD 10: F98.1) were investigated during inpatient treatment and 35 of them again 5.5 +/- 1.8 years later. Mentally retarded patients were excluded. Inpatient therapy consisted of treating constipation and/or stool regulation by means of laxatives, behavioural approaches, and the specific therapy of comorbid psychiatric disorders. During inpatient treatment 22% of the patients experienced total remission, 8% an unchanged persistence of symptoms. Of the 35 patients studied at follow-up 5.5 years later, 40% were symptom-free. As main result, prognostic outcome depended significantly on sufficient treatment of obstipation. Another important factor was the specific therapeutic approach to psychiatric comorbidity, especially to ADHD. The outcome for patients with comorbid ICD 10: F43 was significantly better than for the other patients. Those who were symptom-free at discharge had significantly better long-term outcomes. Decisive to the success of encopresis treatment were the stool regulation and the specific therapy of associated psychiatric illnesses, in particular of ADHD. Inpatient treatment revealed significantly better long-term outcomes where total remission had been achieved by the time of discharge from hospital.

  18. Vocal fold hemorrhage: factors predicting recurrence.

    Lennon, Christen J; Murry, Thomas; Sulica, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold hemorrhage is an acute phonotraumatic injury treated with voice rest; recurrence is a generally accepted indication for surgical intervention. This study aims to identify factors predictive of recurrence based on outcomes of a large clinical series. Retrospective cohort. Retrospective review of cases of vocal fold hemorrhage presenting to a university laryngology service. Demographic information was compiled. Videostroboscopic exams were evaluated for hemorrhage extent, presence of varix, mucosal lesion, and/or vocal fold paresis. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurrence was the main outcome measure. Follow-up telephone survey was used to complement clinical data. Forty-seven instances of vocal fold hemorrhage were evaluated (25M:22F; 32 professional voice users). Twelve of the 47 (26%) patients experienced recurrence. Only the presence of varix demonstrated significant association with recurrence (P = 0.0089) on multivariate logistic regression. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurred in approximately 26% of patients. Varix was a predictor of recurrence, with 48% of those with varix experiencing recurrence. Monitoring, behavioral management and/or surgical intervention may be indicated to treat patients with such characteristics. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Early life factors and childhood obesity development

    Fernández Barrés, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    La obesidad infantil es uno de los mayores problemas en Salud Pública y empieza en edad temprana. Por lo tanto, identificar factores de riesgo podría ayudar en la prevención del desarrollo de obesidad infantil. El objetivo principal de esta tesis fue investigar la asociación prospectiva entre factores de riesgo durante el embarazo y la primera infancia, y el desarrollo de obesidad infantil. Usamos datos de dos cohortes de nacimiento del Proyecto INMA (España) y del Proyecto Viva (Estados Unid...

  20. Specific Dysphoric Symptoms Are Predicted by Early Maladaptive Schemas

    Roberta Trincas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs are cognitive patterns resulting from unmet core emotional needs in childhood that have been linked to the development of psychopathology. As depression is a multifaceted phenomenon, we hypothesized that specific dysphoric symptoms would be predicted by different EMSs. Four hundred and fifty-six participants completed a measure of EMSs (Young Schema Questionnaire and reported on the severity of the symptoms of criterion A for major depression in DSM-IV during the occurrence of a dysphoric episode in the previous 12 months. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate the predictive power of the EMSs for the severity of each specific depressive symptom. When controlling for gender and current levels of depression, specific symptoms were predicted by different EMSs: sadness by Negativity/Pessimism; anhedonia by Failure; self-harm by Emotional Deprivation and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness; worthlessness by Failure and Negativity/Pessimism; psychomotor retardation/restlessness by Vulnerability to Harm or Illness and Entitlement/Grandiosity; and poor concentration by Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline. The more physical symptoms of fatigue, insomnia/hypersomnia, and appetite loss/appetite gain were not predicted by any of the EMSs. Although the cross-sectional design of the study does not allow for conclusions about the direction of effects, results suggest that depression is not a unitary phenomenon and provide a possible explanation for previous inconsistent findings.

  1. Predicting Readmission at Early Hospitalization Using Electronic Clinical Data: An Early Readmission Risk Score.

    Tabak, Ying P; Sun, Xiaowu; Nunez, Carlos M; Gupta, Vikas; Johannes, Richard S

    2017-03-01

    Identifying patients at high risk for readmission early during hospitalization may aid efforts in reducing readmissions. We sought to develop an early readmission risk predictive model using automated clinical data available at hospital admission. We developed an early readmission risk model using a derivation cohort and validated the model with a validation cohort. We used a published Acute Laboratory Risk of Mortality Score as an aggregated measure of clinical severity at admission and the number of hospital discharges in the previous 90 days as a measure of disease progression. We then evaluated the administrative data-enhanced model by adding principal and secondary diagnoses and other variables. We examined the c-statistic change when additional variables were added to the model. There were 1,195,640 adult discharges from 70 hospitals with 39.8% male and the median age of 63 years (first and third quartile: 43, 78). The 30-day readmission rate was 11.9% (n=142,211). The early readmission model yielded a graded relationship of readmission and the Acute Laboratory Risk of Mortality Score and the number of previous discharges within 90 days. The model c-statistic was 0.697 with good calibration. When administrative variables were added to the model, the c-statistic increased to 0.722. Automated clinical data can generate a readmission risk score early at hospitalization with fair discrimination. It may have applied value to aid early care transition. Adding administrative data increases predictive accuracy. The administrative data-enhanced model may be used for hospital comparison and outcome research.

  2. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood.

    Laura E Pryor

    Full Text Available Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence.To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories.Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010. Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child's caregiver (mother in 98% of cases. Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child's perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years associated with each trajectory.Three trajectories of overweight were identified: "early-onset overweight" (11.0 %, "late-onset overweight" (16.6% and "never overweight" (72.5%. Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25, short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57, and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84 were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28 was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group.The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions.

  3. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood

    Pryor, Laura E.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Liu, Xuecheng; Dubois, Lise; Touchette, Evelyne; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence. Objectives To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories. Methods Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010). Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child’s caregiver (mother in 98% of cases). Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child’s perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years) were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years) associated with each trajectory. Results Three trajectories of overweight were identified: “early-onset overweight” (11.0 %), “late-onset overweight” (16.6%) and “never overweight” (72.5%). Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25), short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57), and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84) were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28) was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group. Conclusions The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions. PMID

  4. Network-based prediction and analysis of HIV dependency factors.

    T M Murali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV Dependency Factors (HDFs are a class of human proteins that are essential for HIV replication, but are not lethal to the host cell when silenced. Three previous genome-wide RNAi experiments identified HDF sets with little overlap. We combine data from these three studies with a human protein interaction network to predict new HDFs, using an intuitive algorithm called SinkSource and four other algorithms published in the literature. Our algorithm achieves high precision and recall upon cross validation, as do the other methods. A number of HDFs that we predict are known to interact with HIV proteins. They belong to multiple protein complexes and biological processes that are known to be manipulated by HIV. We also demonstrate that many predicted HDF genes show significantly different programs of expression in early response to SIV infection in two non-human primate species that differ in AIDS progression. Our results suggest that many HDFs are yet to be discovered and that they have potential value as prognostic markers to determine pathological outcome and the likelihood of AIDS development. More generally, if multiple genome-wide gene-level studies have been performed at independent labs to study the same biological system or phenomenon, our methodology is applicable to interpret these studies simultaneously in the context of molecular interaction networks and to ask if they reinforce or contradict each other.

  5. Development of predictive weather scenarios for early prediction of rice yield in South Korea

    Shin, Y.; Cho, J.; Jung, I.

    2017-12-01

    International grain prices are becoming unstable due to frequent occurrence of abnormal weather phenomena caused by climate change. Early prediction of grain yield using weather forecast data is important for stabilization of international grain prices. The APEC Climate Center (APCC) is providing seasonal forecast data based on monthly climate prediction models for global seasonal forecasting services. The 3-month and 6-month seasonal forecast data using the multi-model ensemble (MME) technique are provided in their own website, ADSS (APCC Data Service System, http://adss.apcc21.org/). The spatial resolution of seasonal forecast data for each individual model is 2.5°×2.5°(about 250km) and the time scale is created as monthly. In this study, we developed customized weather forecast scenarios that are combined seasonal forecast data and observational data apply to early rice yield prediction model. Statistical downscale method was applied to produce meteorological input data of crop model because field scale crop model (ORYZA2000) requires daily weather data. In order to determine whether the forecasting data is suitable for the crop model, we produced spatio-temporal downscaled weather scenarios and evaluated the predictability by comparison with observed weather data at 57 ASOS stations in South Korea. The customized weather forecast scenarios can be applied to various application fields not only early rice yield prediction. Acknowledgement This work was carried out with the support of "Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No: PJ012855022017)" Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

  6. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... and identifying the environmental risk factors interacting with this genetic susceptibility and the age at which intervention should be initiated. We found a FLG-associated pattern of atopic disease in early childhood characterized by early onset of eczema, early onset of asthma with severe exacerbations...... a subtype of disease where skin barrier dysfunction leads to early eczema, early asthma symptoms and later sensitization. Future FLG-targeted research has the potential of improving understanding prevention and treatment of atopic diseases in childhood....

  7. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... with production of specific IgE-antibodies against allergens. Sensitization may cause allergic symptoms, and sensitization early in life is a strong risk factor for later disease. Fetal and early postnatal life seems to be a critical period for development of atopic disease and may be an important “window...... of opportunity” for prevention. The aim of this thesis was to increase the understanding of sensitization in early life. We studied indicators of sensitization in the newborn, and early development of sensitization and disease associated with a newly discovered genetic risk factor. Such insight may increase our...

  8. Prediction (early recognition) of emerging flu strain clusters

    Li, X.; Phillips, J. C.

    2017-08-01

    Early detection of incipient dominant influenza strains is one of the key steps in the design and manufacture of an effective annual influenza vaccine. Here we report the most current results for pandemic H3N2 flu vaccine design. A 2006 model of dimensional reduction (compaction) of viral mutational complexity derives two-dimensional Cartesian mutational maps (2DMM) that exhibit an emergent dominant strain as a small and distinct cluster of as few as 10 strains. We show that recent extensions of this model can detect incipient strains one year or more in advance of their dominance in the human population. Our structural interpretation of our unexpectedly rich 2DMM involves sialic acid, and is based on nearly 6000 strains in a series of recent 3-year time windows. Vaccine effectiveness is predicted best by analyzing dominant mutational epitopes.

  9. Early experiences building a software quality prediction model

    Agresti, W. W.; Evanco, W. M.; Smith, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    Early experiences building a software quality prediction model are discussed. The overall research objective is to establish a capability to project a software system's quality from an analysis of its design. The technical approach is to build multivariate models for estimating reliability and maintainability. Data from 21 Ada subsystems were analyzed to test hypotheses about various design structures leading to failure-prone or unmaintainable systems. Current design variables highlight the interconnectivity and visibility of compilation units. Other model variables provide for the effects of reusability and software changes. Reported results are preliminary because additional project data is being obtained and new hypotheses are being developed and tested. Current multivariate regression models are encouraging, explaining 60 to 80 percent of the variation in error density of the subsystems.

  10. Early signs that predict later haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus.

    Engür, Defne; Deveci, Murat; Türkmen, Münevver K

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to determine the optimal cut-off values, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic power of 12 echocardiographic parameters on the second day of life to predict subsequent ductal patency. We evaluated preterm infants, born at ⩽32 weeks of gestation, starting on their second day of life, and they were evaluated every other day until ductal closure or until there were clinical signs of re-opening. We measured transductal diameter; pulmonary arterial diastolic flow; retrograde aortic diastolic flow; pulsatility index of the left pulmonary artery and descending aorta; left atrium and ventricle/aortic root ratio; left ventricular output; left ventricular flow velocity time integral; mitral early/late diastolic flow; and superior caval vein diameter and flow as well as performed receiver operating curve analysis. Transductal diameter (>1.5 mm); pulmonary arterial diastolic flow (>25.6 cm/second); presence of retrograde aortic diastolic flow; ductal diameter by body weight (>1.07 mm/kg); left pulmonary arterial pulsatility index (⩽0.71); and left ventricle to aortic root ratio (>2.2) displayed high sensitivity and specificity (p0.9). Parameters with moderate sensitivity and specificity were as follows: left atrial to aortic root ratio; left ventricular output; left ventricular flow velocity time integral; and mitral early/late diastolic flow ratio (p0.05) had low diagnostic value. Left pulmonary arterial pulsatility index, left ventricle/aortic root ratio, and ductal diameter by body weight are useful adjuncts offering a broader outlook for predicting ductal patency.

  11. Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: predictive factors of intracranial hemorrhage.

    Delbos, Florent; Bertrand, Gérald; Croisille, Laure; Ansart-Pirenne, Hélène; Bierling, Philippe; Kaplan, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    In Caucasians, fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is most frequently caused by maternal alloimmunization against the human platelet antigen HPA-1a. The most serious complication of severe FNAIT is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). ICH mainly occurs in utero; therefore, there is a need to identify noninvasive predictive factors of ICH to facilitate early identification of this condition and to determine response to maternal therapy. We studied gynecologic and immunogenetic variables of severe cases of anti-HPA-1a FNAIT within three groups: Group I, FNAIT without ICH; Group II, FNAIT with ICH; and Group III, suspected FNAIT cases without detectable maternal anti-HPA-1a alloantibodies. ICH was associated with a poor outcome because it led to death in 59% of cases. Multigravida (two or more pregnancies) was overrepresented in Group II, consistent with the high concentrations of maternal HPA-1a alloantibody and the frequent detection of a strong newborn-specific HLA class I antibody response at delivery. The proportion of HLA-DRB4*01:01P (*01:01 or *01:03) women was similar in Groups I and II, but this allele was overrepresented in Group III, in which FNAIT was less severe than in the other two groups. Finally, antenatal intravenous immunoglobulin therapy tended to be more effective in HLA-DRB3*01:01(+)/HLA-DRB4*01:01P(+) women than for HLA-DRB3*01:01(+)/HLA-DRB4*01:01P(-) women. The number of gestations is a predictive factor of ICH in anti-HPA-1a-alloimmunized women. Maternal immunogenetic variables should be investigated in the context of maternal immunization and may predict response to maternal therapy in subsequent pregnancies. © 2015 AABB.

  12. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children’s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind’s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind’s parenting styles inventories. Results: The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind’s parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children’s developmental needs, which is not acceptable. PMID:26288648

  13. Oppositional behavior and longitudinal predictions of early adulthood mental health problems in chronic tic disorders.

    Thériault, Marie-Claude G; Bécue, Jean-Cyprien; Lespérance, Paul; Chouinard, Sylvain; Rouleau, Guy A; Richer, Francois

    2018-03-16

    Chronic tic disorders (TD) are associated with a number of psychological problems such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) as well as anxious and depressive symptoms. ODD is often considered a risk factor for many psychological symptoms and recent work suggests that different ODD dimensions show independent predictions of later psychological problems. This study examined the longitudinal predictions between ODD dimensions of Irritability and Defiance and the most frequent comorbidities in TD from childhood to early adulthood. From an initial sample of 135, parent reports were obtained on 58 participants with TD using standard clinical questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Defiance symptoms decreased from baseline to follow-up whereas Irritability symptoms were more stable over time. In multiple regressions, Irritability in childhood predicted anxiety and OCB in early adulthood while Defiance in childhood predicted ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms in early adulthood. No developmental link was found for depressive symptoms. Results indicate that ODD dimensions are developmentally linked to both internalizing and externalizing adult mental health symptoms in TD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Predictive Value of Early Skin Rash in Cetuximab-Based Therapy of Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer.

    Rubovszky, Gábor; Budai, Barna; Ganofszky, Erna; Horváth, Zsolt; Juhos, Éva; Madaras, Balázs; Nagy, Tünde; Szabó, Eszter; Pintér, Tamás; Tóth, Erika; Nagy, Péter; Láng, István; Hitre, Erika

    2018-04-01

    Randomized trials in advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) did not show benefit of cetuximab addition over chemotherapy. This is probably due to the lack of predictive biomarkers. The aim of this study was to explore possible predictive factors. Between 2009 and 2014, 57 patients were treated in 3-week cycles with cetuximab (250 mg/m 2 /week, loading dose: 400 mg/m 2 ), gemcitabine (1000 mg/m 2 on day 1 and 8), and capecitabine (1300 mg/m 2 /day on days 1-14). The objective response rate (ORR), progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) and the adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. An exploratory analysis was performed to find possible predictive factors on clinicopathological characteristics, routine laboratory parameters and early AEs, which occurred within 2 months from the beginning of treatment. The ORR was 21%. The median PFS and OS were 34 (95% CI: 24-40) and 54 (43-67) weeks, respectively. The most frequent AEs were skin toxicities. In univariate analysis performance status, previous stent implantation, thrombocyte count at the start of therapy, early neutropenia and skin rash statistically significantly influenced the ORR, PFS and/or OS. In multivariate Cox regression analysis only normal thrombocyte count at treatment start and early acneiform rash were independent markers of longer survival. In patients showing early skin rash compared to the others the median PFS was 39 vs. 13 weeks and the median OS was 67 vs. 26 weeks, respectively. It is suggested that early skin rash can be used as a biomarker to select patients who would benefit from the treatment with cetuximab plus chemotherapy.

  15. Predictive factors for oropharyngeal dysphagia after prolonged orotracheal intubation.

    Oliveira, Ana Carolina Martins de; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Salomão, Marina Silva; Bougo, Graziela Chamarelli; Vicente, Laélia Cristina Caseiro

    2017-09-13

    Lesions in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx due to endotracheal intubation can cause reduction in the local motility and sensitivity, impairing the swallowing process, resulting in oropharyngeal dysphagia. To verify the predictive factors for the development of oropharyngeal dysphagia and the risk of aspiration in patients with prolonged orotracheal intubation admitted to an intensive care unit. This is an observational, analytical, cross-sectional and retrospective data collection study of 181 electronic medical records of patients submitted to prolonged orotracheal intubation. Data on age; gender; underlying disease; associated comorbidities; time and reason for orotracheal intubation; Glasgow scale on the day of the Speech Therapist assessment; comprehension; vocal quality; presence and severity of dysphagia; risk of bronchoaspiration; and the suggested oral route were collected. The data were analyzed through logistic regression. The level of significance was set at 5%, with a 95% Confidence Interval. The prevalence of dysphagia in this study was 35.9% and the risk of aspiration was 24.9%. As the age increased, the altered vocal quality and the degree of voice impairment increased the risk of the presence of dysphagia by 5-; 45.4- and 6.7-fold, respectively, and of aspiration by 6-; 36.4- and 4.8-fold. The increase in the time of orotracheal intubation increased the risk of aspiration by 5.5-fold. Patients submitted to prolonged intubation who have risk factors associated with dysphagia and aspiration should be submitted to an early speech-language/audiology assessment and receive appropriate and timely treatment. The recognition of these predictive factors by the entire multidisciplinary team can minimize the possibility of clinical complications inherent to the risk of dysphagia and aspiration in extubated patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  16. Genetic vulnerability interacts with parenting and early care education to predict increasing externalizing behavior.

    Lipscomb, Shannon T; Laurent, Heidemarie; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined interactions among genetic influences and children's early environments on the development of externalizing behaviors from 18 months to 6 years of age. Participants included 233 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Genetic influences were assessed by birth parent temperamental regulation. Early environments included both family (overreactive parenting) and out-of-home factors (center-based Early Care and Education; ECE). Overreactive parenting predicted more child externalizing behaviors. Attending center-based ECE was associated with increasing externalizing behaviors only for children with genetic liability for dysregulation. Additionally, children who were at risk for externalizing behaviors due to both genetic variability and exposure to center-based ECE were more sensitive to the effects of overreactive parenting on externalizing behavior than other children.

  17. Adolescent expectations of early death predict adult risk behaviors.

    Quynh C Nguyen

    Full Text Available Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II, 2001-02 (Wave III and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32. Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50-50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth.

  18. Organizational and Personality Factors Predicting Knowledge ...

    Findings indicated that need for achievement and need for affiliation significantly independently predicted knowledge sharing intention among bankers, whereas need for power, organizational culture and organizational trust did not. This implies that emphasis should not be placed on need for power, organizational culture, ...

  19. Early post-stroke cognition in stroke rehabilitation patients predicts functional outcome at 13 months.

    Wagle, Jørgen; Farner, Lasse; Flekkøy, Kjell; Bruun Wyller, Torgeir; Sandvik, Leiv; Fure, Brynjar; Stensrød, Brynhild; Engedal, Knut

    2011-01-01

    To identify prognostic factors associated with functional outcome at 13 months in a sample of stroke rehabilitation patients. Specifically, we hypothesized that cognitive functioning early after stroke would predict long-term functional outcome independently of other factors. 163 stroke rehabilitation patients underwent a structured neuropsychological examination 2-3 weeks after hospital admittance, and their functional status was subsequently evaluated 13 months later with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) as outcome measure. Three predictive models were built using linear regression analyses: a biological model (sociodemographics, apolipoprotein E genotype, prestroke vascular factors, lesion characteristics and neurological stroke-related impairment); a functional model (pre- and early post-stroke cognitive functioning, personal and instrumental activities of daily living, ADL, and depressive symptoms), and a combined model (including significant variables, with p value Stroke Scale; β = 0.402, p stroke cognitive functioning (Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Status, RBANS; β = -0.248, p = 0.001) and prestroke personal ADL (Barthel Index; β = -0.217, p = 0.002). Further linear regression analyses of which RBANS indexes and subtests best predicted long-term functional outcome showed that Coding (β = -0.484, p stroke cognitive functioning as measured by the RBANS is a significant and independent predictor of long-term functional post-stroke outcome. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Do child's psychosocial functioning, and parent and family characteristics predict early alcohol use? The TRAILS Study.

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-02-01

    Given the negative consequences of early alcohol use for health and social functioning, it is essential to detect children at risk of early drinking. The aim of this study is to determine predictors of early alcohol use that can easily be detected in Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). We obtained data from the first two waves on 1261 Dutch adolescents who participated in TRAILS (TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey) at ages 10-14 years and from the PCH records regarding ages 4-10 years. Early adolescence alcohol use (age 10-14 years) was defined as alcohol use at least once at ages 10-12 years (wave 1) and at least once in the previous 4 weeks at ages 12-14 years (wave 2). Predictors of early alcohol use concerned parent and teacher reports at wave 1 and PCH registrations, regarding the child's psychosocial functioning, and parental and socio-demographic characteristics. A total of 17.2% of the adolescents reported early alcohol use. Predictors of early alcohol use were teacher-reported aggressive behaviour [odds ratios (OR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.86; 1.11-3.11], being a boy (OR 1.80, 95%-CI 1.31-2.56), being a non-immigrant (OR 2.31, 95%CI 1.05-5.09), and low and middle educational level of the father (OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.12-2.62 and OR 1.77, 95%CI 1.16-2.70, respectively), mutually adjusted. A limited set of factors was predictive for early alcohol use. Use of this set may improve the detection of early adolescence alcohol use in PCH. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Risk Factors for Alcohol Use Across High School and Its Covariation With Deviant Friends

    Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Ruttle, Paula L.; Burk, Linnea R.; Costanzo, Philip R.; Strauman, Timothy J.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Past research has associated childhood characteristics and experiences with alcohol use at single time points in adolescence. Other work has focused on drinking trajectories across adolescence but with risk factors typically no earlier than middle or high school. Similarly, although the connection between underage drinking and affiliation with deviant friends is well established, early risk factors for their covariation across adolescence are uncertain. The present study examines the influence of early individual and contextual factors on (a) trajectories across high school of per-occasion alcohol use and (b) the covariation of alcohol use and deviant friends over time. Method: In a longitudinal community sample (n = 374; 51% female), temperamental disinhibition, authoritarian and authoritative parenting, and parental alcohol use were assessed during childhood, and adolescents reported on alcohol use and affiliation with deviant friends in the spring of Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. Results: Early parental alcohol use predicted the intercept of adolescent drinking. Subsequent patterns of adolescent alcohol use were predicted by sex and interactions of sex and childhood disinhibition with early authoritarian parenting. Additionally, childhood disinhibition interacted with parental alcohol use to moderate the covariation of drinking and deviant friends. Conclusions: These findings highlight early individual and contextual risk factors for alcohol use across high school, extending previous work and underscoring the importance of developmental approaches and longitudinal techniques for understanding patterns of growth in underage drinking. PMID:23948534

  2. Early risk factors for alcohol use across high school and its covariation with deviant friends.

    Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Ruttle, Paula L; Burk, Linnea R; Costanzo, Philip R; Strauman, Timothy J; Essex, Marilyn J

    2013-09-01

    Past research has associated childhood characteristics and experiences with alcohol use at single time points in adolescence. Other work has focused on drinking trajectories across adolescence but with risk factors typically no earlier than middle or high school. Similarly, although the connection between underage drinking and affiliation with deviant friends is well established, early risk factors for their covariation across adolescence are uncertain. The present study examines the influence of early individual and contextual factors on (a) trajectories across high school of per-occasion alcohol use and (b) the covariation of alcohol use and deviant friends over time. In a longitudinal community sample (n = 374; 51% female), temperamental disinhibition, authoritarian and authoritative parenting, and parental alcohol use were assessed during childhood, and adolescents reported on alcohol use and affiliation with deviant friends in the spring of Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. Early parental alcohol use predicted the intercept of adolescent drinking. Subsequent patterns of adolescent alcohol use were predicted by sex and interactions of sex and childhood disinhibition with early authoritarian parenting. Additionally, childhood disinhibition interacted with parental alcohol use to moderate the covariation of drinking and deviant friends. These findings highlight early individual and contextual risk factors for alcohol use across high school, extending previous work and underscoring the importance of developmental approaches and longitudinal techniques for understanding patterns of growth in underage drinking.

  3. How learning analytics can early predict under-achieving students in a blended medical education course.

    Saqr, Mohammed; Fors, Uno; Tedre, Matti

    2017-07-01

    Learning analytics (LA) is an emerging discipline that aims at analyzing students' online data in order to improve the learning process and optimize learning environments. It has yet un-explored potential in the field of medical education, which can be particularly helpful in the early prediction and identification of under-achieving students. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative markers collected from students' online activities that may correlate with students' final performance and to investigate the possibility of predicting the potential risk of a student failing or dropping out of a course. This study included 133 students enrolled in a blended medical course where they were free to use the learning management system at their will. We extracted their online activity data using database queries and Moodle plugins. Data included logins, views, forums, time, formative assessment, and communications at different points of time. Five engagement indicators were also calculated which would reflect self-regulation and engagement. Students who scored below 5% over the passing mark were considered to be potentially at risk of under-achieving. At the end of the course, we were able to predict the final grade with 63.5% accuracy, and identify 53.9% of at-risk students. Using a binary logistic model improved prediction to 80.8%. Using data recorded until the mid-course, prediction accuracy was 42.3%. The most important predictors were factors reflecting engagement of the students and the consistency of using the online resources. The analysis of students' online activities in a blended medical education course by means of LA techniques can help early predict underachieving students, and can be used as an early warning sign for timely intervention.

  4. Robust early pregnancy prediction of later preeclampsia using metabolomic biomarkers.

    Kenny, Louise C

    2012-01-31

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome that causes substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The etiology is incompletely understood, and there is no clinically useful screening test. Current metabolomic technologies have allowed the establishment of metabolic signatures of preeclampsia in early pregnancy. Here, a 2-phase discovery\\/validation metabolic profiling study was performed. In the discovery phase, a nested case-control study was designed, using samples obtained at 15+\\/-1 weeks\\' gestation from 60 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 60 controls taking part in the prospective Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints cohort study. Controls were proportionally population matched for age, ethnicity, and body mass index at booking. Plasma samples were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A multivariate predictive model combining 14 metabolites gave an odds ratio for developing preeclampsia of 36 (95% CI: 12 to 108), with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.94. These findings were then validated using an independent case-control study on plasma obtained at 15+\\/-1 weeks from 39 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 40 similarly matched controls from a participating center in a different country. The same 14 metabolites produced an odds ratio of 23 (95% CI: 7 to 73) with an area under receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.92. The finding of a consistent discriminatory metabolite signature in early pregnancy plasma preceding the onset of preeclampsia offers insight into disease pathogenesis and offers the tantalizing promise of a robust presymptomatic screening test.

  5. Robust Early Pregnancy Prediction of Later Preeclampsia Using Metabolomic Biomarkers.

    Kenny, Louise C

    2010-09-13

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome that causes substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The etiology is incompletely understood, and there is no clinically useful screening test. Current metabolomic technologies have allowed the establishment of metabolic signatures of preeclampsia in early pregnancy. Here, a 2-phase discovery\\/validation metabolic profiling study was performed. In the discovery phase, a nested case-control study was designed, using samples obtained at 15±1 weeks\\' gestation from 60 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 60 controls taking part in the prospective Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints cohort study. Controls were proportionally population matched for age, ethnicity, and body mass index at booking. Plasma samples were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A multivariate predictive model combining 14 metabolites gave an odds ratio for developing preeclampsia of 36 (95% CI: 12 to 108), with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.94. These findings were then validated using an independent case-control study on plasma obtained at 15±1 weeks from 39 women who subsequently developed preeclampsia and 40 similarly matched controls from a participating center in a different country. The same 14 metabolites produced an odds ratio of 23 (95% CI: 7 to 73) with an area under receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.92. The finding of a consistent discriminatory metabolite signature in early pregnancy plasma preceding the onset of preeclampsia offers insight into disease pathogenesis and offers the tantalizing promise of a robust presymptomatic screening test.

  6. Does Violence in Adolescence Differentially Predict Offending Patterns in Early Adulthood?

    Cardwell, Stephanie M; Piquero, Alex R

    2018-05-01

    Previous research is mixed on whether the commission of a violent offense in adolescence is predictive of criminal career characteristics. In the current study, we addressed the following: (a) What factors predict the commission of serious violence in mid-adolescence? and (b) Does involvement in serious violence in mid-adolescence lead to more chronic and/or more heterogeneous patterns of offending in early adulthood? Data were obtained from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a longitudinal study of serious adolescent offenders in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Phoenix, Arizona. Prior arrests, violence exposure, and gang involvement distinguished adolescents who engaged in violence at baseline. A violent offense at baseline was not predictive of a higher frequency of rearrests but was associated with membership in the low offending trajectory. In conclusion, violent offending in adolescence might be a poor predictor of chronic and heterogeneous patterns of offending throughout the life course.

  7. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...... risk factors for PPP were collected preoperatively (pain from the groin hernia, preoperative AAS score, pain from other body regions, and psychometric assessment). Pain scores were collected on days 7 and 30 postoperatively. Sensory functions including pain response to tonic heat stimulation were...

  8. Factors predicting dropout in student nursing assistants

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dropout rate among student nursing assistants (NAs) in Danish health and social care education is high at >20%. AIMS: To explore if recent low back pain (LBP) history is a predictor of dropout among NA students, taking into account conventional risk factors for LBP, general health...

  9. PREDICTION OF STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS IN

    ES OBE

    consider the effect of brace spacing on strengths of tubular K joints without consideration of same effect on square section K Joints. This lack of studies design strengths of gapped square section K joints makes availability of information on stress concentration factors in same joints scarce. However, information on 'Hot Spot' ...

  10. Factors predicting dropout in student nursing assistants.

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik; Mortensen, Ole Steen

    2008-12-01

    The dropout rate among student nursing assistants (NAs) in Danish health and social care education is high at >20%. To explore if recent low back pain (LBP) history is a predictor of dropout among NA students, taking into account conventional risk factors for LBP, general health and physical fitness. Prospective study with 14-month follow-up (the duration of the education) in two schools of health and social care in the Region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire, and their physical fitness (balance, back extension endurance, back flexion endurance and sagittal flexibility) was assessed at baseline. Dropout was defined as failure to complete NA education. A total of 790 subjects, 87% of those invited, completed the questionnaire; 612 subjects also completed the physical tests and were included in the present study and 500 (83%) were women. Recent LBP was not an independent predictor of school dropout. However, only among women who had LBP were other factors (a history of previous exposure to heavy physical workload, a low mental health score and failure to pass the back extension endurance test) associated with risk of dropout, OR (95% CI)=2.5 (1.2-5.3). Among men, only low height was significantly associated with dropout risk. A recent LBP history was not an independent single predictor of dropout from NA education but was a risk factor in combination with other factors.

  11. Prognostic and predictive factors in colorectal cancer.

    Bolocan, A; Ion, D; Ciocan, D N; Paduraru, D N

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important public health problem; it is a leading cause of cancer mortality in the industrialized world, second to lung cancer: each year there are nearly one million new cases of CRC diagnosed worldwide and half a million deaths (1). This review aims to summarise the most important currently available markers for CRC that provide prognostic or predictive information. Amongst others, it covers serum markers such as CEA and CA19-9, markers expressed by tumour tissues, such as thymidylate synthase, and also the expression/loss of expression of certain oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes such as K-ras and p53. The prognostic value of genomic instability, angiogenesis and proliferative indices, such as the apoptotic index, are discussed. The advent of new therapies created the pathway for a personalized approach of the patient. This will take into consideration the complex genetic mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis, besides the classical clinical and pathological stagings. The growing number of therapeutic agents and known molecular targets in oncology lead to a compulsory study of the clinical use of biomarkers with role in improving response and survival, as well as in reducing toxicity and establishing economic stability. The potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers which have arisen from the study of the genetic basis of colorectal cancer and their therapeutical significance are discussed. RevistaChirurgia.

  12. Factors predicting dysphagia after anterior cervical surgery

    Wang, Tao; Ma, Lei; Yang, Da-Long; Wang, Hui; Bai, Zhi-Long; Zhang, Li-Jun; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A multicenter retrospective study. The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors of dysphagia after anterior cervical surgery and factors affecting rehabilitation of dysphagia 2 years after surgery. Patients who underwent anterior cervical surgery at 3 centers from January 2010 to January 2013 were included. The possible factors included 3 aspects: demographic variables—age, sex, body mass index (BMI): hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, smoking, alcohol use, diagnose (cervical spondylotic myelopathy or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament), preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA), surgical-related variables—surgical option (ACDF, ACCF, ACCDF, or Zero profile), operation time, blood loss, operative level, superior fusion segment, incision length, angle of C2 to C7, height of C2 to C7, cervical circumference, cervical circumference/height of C2 to C7. The results of our study indicated that the rate of dysphagia at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery was 20%, 5.4%, 2.4%, 1.1%, and 0.4%, respectively. Our results showed that age (58.8 years old), BMI (27.3 kg/m2), course of disease (11.6 months), operation time (103.2 min), blood loss (151.6 mL), incision length (9.1 cm), cervical circumference (46.8 cm), angle of C2 to C7 (15.3°), cervical circumference/height of C2 to C7 (4.8), preoperative VAS (7.5), and ODI (0.6) in dysphagia group were significantly higher than those (52.0, 24.6, 8.6, 88.2, 121.6, 8.6, 42.3, 12.6, 3.7, 5.6, and 0.4, respectively) in nondysphagia group; however, height of C2 to C7 (9.9 vs 11.7 cm) and preoperative JOA (8.3 vs 10.7) had opposite trend between 2 groups. We could also infer that female, smoking, diabetes, ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, ACCDF, multilevel surgery, and superior fusion segment including C2 to C3 or C6 to C7 were the risk factors for dysphagia after surgery immediately. However

  13. Early childhood risk factors for rhinoconjunctivitis in adolescence

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben

    2017-01-01

    the risk factors for non-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in children finding family history of atopic diseases and gender to be of importance. The aim of this study was to investigate possible risk factors in early life for rhinoconjunctivitis, allergic as well as non-allergic, in adolescence. Methods......Background: Rhinoconjunctivitis is a global health problem and one of the most common chronic conditions in children. Development of rhinoconjunctivitis depends on both genetic and environmental factors. Many studies have investigated rhinoconjunctivitis, but only few studies have evaluated...... between early-life risk factors and the development of rhinoconjunctivitis, allergic as well as non-allergic, in adolescence. Results: Follow-up rate at 14-years was 66.2%. The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis was 32.8%. Family history of atopic diseases (aOR 2.25), atopic dermatitis (aOR 3.24), food...

  14. Early human pregnancy serum cytokine levels predict autoimmunity in offspring.

    Lindehammer, Sabina Resic; Björck, Sara; Lynch, Kristian; Brundin, Charlotte; Marsal, Karel; Agardh, Daniel; Fex, Malin

    2011-09-01

    It is generally believed that pregnancy is mediated by a Th2 response, which includes cytokines that promote placental growth and are involved in inducing tolerance to the foetus. If the balance between Th1/and Th2-mediated cytokines is disrupted, systemic and local changes could predispose the foetus to future disease. Therefore, a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance during pregnancy, possibly caused by underlying environmental factors, could be associated with post-partum autoimmune disease in the offspring. Based on this presumption, we used celiac disease as a model to investigate whether autoimmunity is triggered in the foetus during early pregnancy, observed as changes in the mother's cytokine profile. Ten cytokines were measured by electro-chemi-luminescent multiplex ELISA in serum samples obtained from mothers during early pregnancy. Cases included women with children who had developed verified celiac disease before the age of 5, who were compared with other women as matched controls. We observed that 7 out of 10 cytokine levels were significantly increased in our case mothers when compared to controls. Five of these belonged to what is generally known as a Th1-mediated response (TNFα, IFNγ, IL-2, IL-1β and IL-12) and two were Th2 cytokines (IL-13 and IL-10). However, the IL-10 cytokine is known to have features from both arms of the immune system. These results were confirmed in a logistic regression model where five out of the initial seven cytokines remained. This study suggests that increase in Th1 serum cytokines may be associated with celiac disease in offspring.

  15. Early cumulative risk predicts externalizing behavior at age 10: The mediating role of adverse parenting.

    Gach, Emily J; Ip, Ka I; Sameroff, Arnold J; Olson, Sheryl L

    2018-02-01

    Multiple environmental risk factors in early childhood predict a broad range of adverse developmental outcomes. However, most prior longitudinal research has not illuminated explanatory mechanisms. Our main goals were to examine predictive associations between cumulative ecological risk factors in early childhood and children's later externalizing problems and to determine whether these associations were explained by variations in parenting quality. Participants were 241 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems and their parents and teachers. Children were approximately 3 years old at Time 1 (T1) and 10 years old at Time 2 (T2). Reports of contextual risk at T1 were used to develop a cumulative risk index consisting of 6 singular risk variables from 3 ecological levels: social resources (low income; social isolation), family resources (marital aggression; poor total family functioning), and maternal resources (single parent status; poor maternal mental health). At T1, parenting variables were measured (corporal punishment, warm responsiveness, maternal efficacy, and negative perceptions of child behavior). At T2, mothers, fathers, and teachers reported child externalizing problems. Johnson's relative weight analysis revealed that the cumulative risk index was a more powerful predictor of age 10 years externalizing behavior than any of the singular contextual risk variables. Adverse parenting mediated the effects of cumulative risk on later child externalizing problems. Our findings have significant implications for understanding long-term effects of multiple contextual risk factors present in early childhood and for the implementation of positive parenting interventions early on. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Prediction of early summer rainfall over South China by a physical-empirical model

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2014-10-01

    In early summer (May-June, MJ) the strongest rainfall belt of the northern hemisphere occurs over the East Asian (EA) subtropical front. During this period the South China (SC) rainfall reaches its annual peak and represents the maximum rainfall variability over EA. Hence we establish an SC rainfall index, which is the MJ mean precipitation averaged over 72 stations over SC (south of 28°N and east of 110°E) and represents superbly the leading empirical orthogonal function mode of MJ precipitation variability over EA. In order to predict SC rainfall, we established a physical-empirical model. Analysis of 34-year observations (1979-2012) reveals three physically consequential predictors. A plentiful SC rainfall is preceded in the previous winter by (a) a dipole sea surface temperature (SST) tendency in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, (b) a tripolar SST tendency in North Atlantic Ocean, and (c) a warming tendency in northern Asia. These precursors foreshadow enhanced Philippine Sea subtropical High and Okhotsk High in early summer, which are controlling factors for enhanced subtropical frontal rainfall. The physical empirical model built on these predictors achieves a cross-validated forecast correlation skill of 0.75 for 1979-2012. Surprisingly, this skill is substantially higher than four-dynamical models' ensemble prediction for 1979-2010 period (0.15). The results here suggest that the low prediction skill of current dynamical models is largely due to models' deficiency and the dynamical prediction has large room to improve.

  17. Early Antenatal Prediction of Gestational Diabetes in Obese Women: Development of Prediction Tools for Targeted Intervention.

    Sara L White

    Full Text Available All obese women are categorised as being of equally high risk of gestational diabetes (GDM whereas the majority do not develop the disorder. Lifestyle and pharmacological interventions in unselected obese pregnant women have been unsuccessful in preventing GDM. Our aim was to develop a prediction tool for early identification of obese women at high risk of GDM to facilitate targeted interventions in those most likely to benefit. Clinical and anthropometric data and non-fasting blood samples were obtained at 15+0-18+6 weeks' gestation in 1303 obese pregnant women from UPBEAT, a randomised controlled trial of a behavioural intervention. Twenty one candidate biomarkers associated with insulin resistance, and a targeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR metabolome were measured. Prediction models were constructed using stepwise logistic regression. Twenty six percent of women (n = 337 developed GDM (International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. A model based on clinical and anthropometric variables (age, previous GDM, family history of type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure, sum of skinfold thicknesses, waist:height and neck:thigh ratios provided an area under the curve of 0.71 (95%CI 0.68-0.74. This increased to 0.77 (95%CI 0.73-0.80 with addition of candidate biomarkers (random glucose, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, fructosamine, adiponectin, sex hormone binding globulin, triglycerides, but was not improved by addition of NMR metabolites (0.77; 95%CI 0.74-0.81. Clinically translatable models for GDM prediction including readily measurable variables e.g. mid-arm circumference, age, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and adiponectin are described. Using a ≥35% risk threshold, all models identified a group of high risk obese women of whom approximately 50% (positive predictive value later developed GDM, with a negative predictive value of 80%. Tools for early pregnancy identification of obese women at risk of GDM are described

  18. Factors predicting recurrence in successfully treated cases of anisometropic amblyopia

    Rohit Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Recurrence after successful treatment of amblyopia is known and understanding the risk factors could help effective management. Aim: To measure incidence of recurrence in successfully treated cases of anisometropic amblyopia and evaluate factors predicting it. Settings and Design: Cohort Study at a tertiary level institution. Materials and Methods: Successfully treated anisometropic amblyopes aged 4−12 years were followed up for 1 year after stopping therapy. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, refractive error, stereoacuity and contrast sensitivity were evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Statistical Analysis: Intergroup analysis with appropriate tests: Chi-square test, Fisher′s exact test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and paired t-test. Results: One hundred and two patients with mean age at diagnosis 7.06 μ 1.81 years were followed-up for a mean duration of 1.0 μ 0.2 years. The mean pre-treatment BCVA (LogMAR score at diagnosis was 0.73 μ 0.36 units which improved to 0.20 μ 0.00 with treatment and after 1 year of stopping treatment was 0.22 μ 0.07. Thirteen (12.74% patients showed amblyopia recurrence during follow-up. Risk of recurrence was higher with older age of onset of treatment (6.64 μ 1.77 years without recurrence v/s 8.53 μ 1.39 years with recurrence, P = 0.0014. Greater extent of improvement of VA (P = 0.048 and final VA at stopping occlusion (P = 0.03 were associated with higher recurrence. Binocularity status or stereoacuity changes were not associated with risk of recurrence. Conclusions: Significant numbers of children suffer recurrence of amblyopia after stopping therapy. Older age, better BCVA after stopping therapy and greater magnitude of improvement in BCVA are important risk factors for recurrence. Careful follow-up is essential for early detection and management of recurrence.

  19. Factors predicting recurrence in successfully treated cases of anisometropic amblyopia

    Saxena, Rohit; Puranik, Shraddha; Singh, Digvijay; Menon, Vimla; Sharma, Pradeep; Phuljhele, Swati

    2013-01-01

    Context: Recurrence after successful treatment of amblyopia is known and understanding the risk factors could help effective management. Aim: To measure incidence of recurrence in successfully treated cases of anisometropic amblyopia and evaluate factors predicting it. Settings and Design: Cohort Study at a tertiary level institution. Materials and Methods: Successfully treated anisometropic amblyopes aged 4−12 years were followed up for 1 year after stopping therapy. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive error, stereoacuity and contrast sensitivity were evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Statistical Analysis: Intergroup analysis with appropriate tests: Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and paired t-test. Results: One hundred and two patients with mean age at diagnosis 7.06 ± 1.81 years were followed-up for a mean duration of 1.0 ± 0.2 years. The mean pre-treatment BCVA (LogMAR score) at diagnosis was 0.73 ± 0.36 units which improved to 0.20 ± 0.00 with treatment and after 1 year of stopping treatment was 0.22 ± 0.07. Thirteen (12.74%) patients showed amblyopia recurrence during follow-up. Risk of recurrence was higher with older age of onset of treatment (6.64 ± 1.77 years without recurrence v/s 8.53 ± 1.39 years with recurrence, P = 0.0014). Greater extent of improvement of VA (P = 0.048) and final VA at stopping occlusion (P = 0.03) were associated with higher recurrence. Binocularity status or stereoacuity changes were not associated with risk of recurrence. Conclusions: Significant numbers of children suffer recurrence of amblyopia after stopping therapy. Older age, better BCVA after stopping therapy and greater magnitude of improvement in BCVA are important risk factors for recurrence. Careful follow-up is essential for early detection and management of recurrence. PMID:24343594

  20. Factors predicting recurrence in successfully treated cases of anisometropic amblyopia.

    Saxena, Rohit; Puranik, Shraddha; Singh, Digvijay; Menon, Vimla; Sharma, Pradeep; Phuljhele, Swati

    2013-11-01

    Recurrence after successful treatment of amblyopia is known and understanding the risk factors could help effective management. To measure incidence of recurrence in successfully treated cases of anisometropic amblyopia and evaluate factors predicting it. Cohort Study at a tertiary level institution. Successfully treated anisometropic amblyopes aged 4-12 years were followed up for 1 year after stopping therapy. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive error, stereoacuity and contrast sensitivity were evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Intergroup analysis with appropriate tests: Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and paired t-test. One hundred and two patients with mean age at diagnosis 7.06 μ 1.81 years were followed-up for a mean duration of 1.0 μ 0.2 years. The mean pre-treatment BCVA (LogMAR score) at diagnosis was 0.73 μ 0.36 units which improved to 0.20 μ 0.00 with treatment and after 1 year of stopping treatment was 0.22 μ 0.07. Thirteen (12.74%) patients showed amblyopia recurrence during follow-up. Risk of recurrence was higher with older age of onset of treatment (6.64 μ 1.77 years without recurrence v/s 8.53 μ 1.39 years with recurrence, P = 0.0014). Greater extent of improvement of VA (P = 0.048) and final VA at stopping occlusion (P = 0.03) were associated with higher recurrence. Binocularity status or stereoacuity changes were not associated with risk of recurrence. Significant numbers of children suffer recurrence of amblyopia after stopping therapy. Older age, better BCVA after stopping therapy and greater magnitude of improvement in BCVA are important risk factors for recurrence. Careful follow-up is essential for early detection and management of recurrence.

  1. [Factors associated with early weaning in a Spanish region].

    Rius, J M; Ortuño, J; Rivas, C; Maravall, M; Calzado, M A; López, A; Aguar, M; Vento, M

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding has undoubtedly great benefits. Previous studies have foundan early dropout. Only a few studies have investigated related factors. Our aim was to find out on-going breastfeeding rates along the first 12 months after birth and analyse factors associated with early weaning. This is a prospective study including consecutive pairs (mother and newborn) till completion of the required sample. Variables were collected performing a structured program of surveys to the mothers. Bivariate and multivariate analysis of the data was performed. A total of 452 pairs were recruited. It was found that 81% of them started breastfeeding, with a prevalence of breastfeeding of 39% and 21% at 3 and 6 months after birth, respectively. Factors associated with early discontinuation of breastfeeding were: pregnancy induced by assisted reproduction methods (OR=5.58; 95% CI: 2.62-11.91), maternal smoking (OR=1.56; 95% CI: 1.10-2.22), poor maternal expectations about the duration of breastfeeding (OR=2.19; 95% CI: 1.49-3.23), use of nipple shields for breastfeeding (OR=2.57; 95% CI: 1.69-3.90), pacifier use on a regular basis during the first month after delivery (OR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.02-1.91), maternal university educational level (OR=0,59; 95% CI: 0,40-0,88), attending birth preparation programs during pregnancy (OR=0,68; 95% CI: 0,49-0,94), and believing having enough milk output at the time of discharge (OR=0,66; 95% CI: 0,47-0,92). International recommendations about duration of breastfeeding are not achieved in our country because of high rates of early weaning. We describe the known factors involved and other novel factors. The implementation of interventions to increase breastfeeding rates and to prevent early weaning are strongly recommended. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of PREDICT on chemotherapy/trastuzumab recommendations in HER2-positive patients with early-stage breast cancer

    DOWN, SUE K.; LUCAS, OLIVIA; BENSON, JOHN R.; WISHART, GORDON C.

    2014-01-01

    PREDICT is an online prognostication tool for early-stage breast cancer, which incorporates human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status and stratifies absolute treatment benefits for hormone therapy, chemotherapy and trastuzumab. The present study compared historical multidisciplinary team (MDT) decisions regarding adjuvant treatment with PREDICT estimates, to determine whether certain patients are being over- or undertreated, particularly when stratified by age and oestrogen-receptor (ER) ...

  3. Predictive algorithms for early detection of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Piermarocchi, Stefano; Bini, Silvia; Martini, Ferdinando; Berton, Marianna; Lavini, Anna; Gusson, Elena; Marchini, Giorgio; Padovani, Ezio Maria; Macor, Sara; Pignatto, Silvia; Lanzetta, Paolo; Cattarossi, Luigi; Baraldi, Eugenio; Lago, Paola

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate sensitivity, specificity and the safest cut-offs of three predictive algorithms (WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A retrospective study was conducted in three centres from 2012 to 2014; 445 preterms with gestational age (GA) ≤ 30 weeks and/or birthweight (BW) ≤ 1500 g, and additional unstable cases, were included. No-ROP, mild and type 1 ROP were categorized. The algorithms were analysed for infants with all parameters (GA, BW, weight gain, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion) needed for calculation (399 babies). Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was identified in both eyes in 116 patients (26.1%), and 44 (9.9%) had type 1 ROP. Gestational age and BW were significantly lower in ROP group compared with no-ROP subjects (GA: 26.7 ± 2.2 and 30.2 ± 1.9, respectively, p < 0.0001; BW: 839.8 ± 287.0 and 1288.1 ± 321.5 g, respectively, p = 0.0016). Customized alarms of ROPScore and CHOP ROP correctly identified all infants having any ROP or type 1 ROP. WINROP missed 19 cases of ROP, including three type 1 ROP. ROPScore and CHOP ROP provided the best performances with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detection of severe ROP of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.90-0.96, and 95% CI, 0.89-0.96, respectively), and WINROP obtained 0.83 (95% CI, 0.77-0.87). Median time from alarm to treatment was 11.1, 5.1 and 9.1 weeks, for WINROP, ROPScore and CHOP ROP, respectively. ROPScore and CHOP ROP showed 100% sensitivity to identify sight-threatening ROP. Predictive algorithms are a reliable tool for early identification of infants requiring referral to an ophthalmologist, for reorganizing resources and reducing stressful procedures to preterm babies. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Risk Psychosocial Factors to School Dropout and Early Teenage Pregnancy

    Fabián Antonio Dávila Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the frequency and weight that psychosocial risk factors predispose to outcomes of early pregnancy and scholar dropout, a descriptive review was conducted. Materials and Meth­ods: A search and review of the results reported by observational studies in the PubMed data­base indexed from July 27, 2010 until July 25, 2013 was performed, restricting the search to studies in humans, Spanish or English written, not made in countries in Africa or Asia. Search was widened to LILACS database for the years 2006 to 2013 for Latinamerican countries. For inclusion, all case-control studies comparing different types of interventions and psychosocial risk factors in adolescents were eligible. Results: The review suggests violence experienced dur­ing adolescence, sexual abuse, belonging to a low socioeconomic status, low self-esteem, eating behavior disorders, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction, mental disorders, early initiation of sex, poor family ties, lack of access to information, and resources for family planning as main psychosocial factors related to early pregnancy and scholar dropout in adolescents. Conclusions: Both risk factors associated with pregnancy and scholar dropout were described, and interven­tions targeting the described risk factors could potentially contribute to the reduction of these outcomes were described.

  5. Identifying the factors that affect the job satisfaction of early career Notre Dame graduate physiotherapists.

    Bacopanos, Eleni; Edgar, Susan

    2016-11-01

    Objective Previous studies have highlighted the short career intentions and high attrition rates of physiotherapists from the profession. The aim of the present study was to examine the job satisfaction and attrition rates of early career physiotherapists graduating from one Western Australian university. Methods A self-administered online survey was conducted of 157 Notre Dame physiotherapy graduates (2006-2012), incorporating a job satisfaction rating scale. Results Results showed that lowered job satisfaction was related to working in the cardiorespiratory area of physiotherapy and working in multiple jobs since graduation. The majority of graduates did not predict a long-term career in physiotherapy, highlighting a lack of career progression and limited scope of practice as influential factors. Conclusions Job satisfaction in early career physiotherapists varies across different clinical areas of practice related to several factors, including challenge and flexibility. New roles in the profession, including extended scope roles, may impact on the future job satisfaction of physiotherapists. Further studies are needed to explore the effect of these roles on workforce trends, including attrition rates. What is known about the topic? Physiotherapists predict careers of 10 years or less on entry into the profession. No previous studies have explored the individual factors influencing job satisfaction in early career physiotherapists across different clinical settings. What does this paper add? This study highlights specific factors influencing the job satisfaction of early career physiotherapists, including clinical area of practice. Physiotherapists working in the cardiorespiratory area were less satisfied, as were physiotherapists undertaking multiple positions since graduation. What are the implications for practitioners? This study informs employers and workforce planners on the factors affecting job satisfaction in early career physiotherapists. In addition

  6. Factors influencing early stage healthcare-academia partnerships.

    Uvhagen, Håkan; von Knorring, Mia; Hasson, Henna; Øvretveit, John; Hansson, Johan

    2018-02-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore factors influencing early implementation and intermediate outcomes of a healthcare-academia partnership in a primary healthcare setting. Design/methodology/approach The Academic Primary Healthcare Network (APHN) initiative was launched in 2011 in Stockholm County, Sweden and included 201 primary healthcare centres. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2013-2014 with all coordinating managers ( n=8) and coordinators ( n=4). A strategic change model framework was used to collect and analyse data. Findings Several factors were identified to aid early implementation: assignment and guidelines that allowed flexibility; supportive management; dedicated staff; facilities that enabled APHN actions to be integrated into healthcare practice; and positive experiences from research and educational activities. Implementation was hindered by: discrepancies between objectives and resources; underspecified guidelines that trigger passivity; limited research and educational activities; a conflicting non-supportive reimbursement system; limited planning; and organisational fragmentation. Intermediate outcomes revealed that various actions, informed by the APHN assignment, were launched in all APHNs. Practical implications The findings can be rendered applicable by preparing stakeholders in healthcare services to optimise early implementation of healthcare-academia partnerships. Originality/value This study increases understanding of interactions between factors that influence early stage partnerships between healthcare services and academia in primary healthcare settings.

  7. Factors predicting malnutrition in hemodialysis patients

    Moncef El M′Barki Kadiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Signs of protein-energy malnutrition are common in maintenance hemodialyis (HD patients and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To evaluate the nutritional status and relationship between various parameters used for assessing malnutrition, we performed a cross-sectional study in 37 HD patients treated with thrice weekly sessions for at least two weeks. Global nutritional status was evaluated by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA scan. Body weight and several laboratory values, including serum albumin (Salb, serum prealbumin, bicarbonate, cholesterol, serum C-reactive protein (SCRP, and hemoglobin, were recorded. Dose of dialysis was evaluated by urea kinetic modeling. The patients were subdivided into two groups based on body mass index: group I, normal nutritional status (71% and group II, malnutrition (29%. The clinical factors associated with malnutrition included advanced age and cardio-vascular diseases (CVD, decreased fat mass (FM measured by DEXA, low Salb and prealbumin, and severe anemia. The Salb level was not only a predictor of nutritional status, but also was independently influenced by age and SCRP, which was more common in malnourished patients than in patients with normal nutritional status. Both low Kt/V and less weekly dialysis time were associated with malnutrition. The FM and lean body mass (LBM calculated by DEXA correlated with CVD and other markers of malnutrition (Salb, total cholesterol.

  8. Factors predicting the outcome of acute renal failure in pregnancy

    Khana, N.; Akhtar, F.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the factors predicting renal outcome in patients developing acute renal failure in pregnancy. Study Design: Descriptive cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Nephrology Unit of Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, from October 2006 to March 2007. Methodology: Patients with acute renal failure due to complications of pregnancy, with normal size of both the kidneys on ultrasound were enrolled, and followed for a period of 60 days or until recovery of renal function. Patient's age and parity, presence of antenatal care, type of complication of pregnancy, foetal outcome and duration of oliguria were compared between patients who remained dialysis dependent and those who recovered renal function. Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and student's t-test, were used for determining the association of categorical and continuous variables with dialysis dependency. Results: The mean age was 29 +- 6 years. Most patients came from rural areas of interior Sindh. Sixty eight percent did not have antenatal checkups. Antepartum haemorrhage (p=0.002) and prolonged duration of oliguria (35 +- 15.7 days, p= < 0.001) were associated with dialysis dependency, which was observed in 50% of the study group. Conclusion: Ante-partum haemorrhage and prolonged oliguria were strong predictors of irreversible renal failure. This highlights the need for early recognition and referral, and the importance of trained birth attendants and antenatal care. (author)

  9. Can we Predict Disease Course with Clinical Factors?

    Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Kurti, Zsuzsanna; Golovics, Petra A; Lakatos, Peter L

    2018-01-01

    The disease phenotype at diagnosis and the disease course of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) show remarkable heterogeneity across patients. This review aims to summarize the currently available evidence on clinical and some environmental predictive factors, which clinicians should evaluate in the everyday practice together with other laboratory and imaging data to prevent disease progression, enable a more personalized therapy, and avoid negative disease outcomes. In recent population-based epidemiological and referral cohort studies, the evolution of disease phenotype of CD and UC varied significantly. Most CD and severe UC patients still require hospitalization or surgery/colectomy during follow-up. A change in the natural history of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) with improved outcomes in parallel with tailored positioning of aggressive immunomodulator and biological therapy has been suspected. According to the currently available literature, it is of major importance to refer IBD cases at risk for adverse disease outcomes as early during the disease course as possible. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Factors predictive of abnormal semen parameters in male partners ...

    analysis was used to determine the predictive factors associated with abnormal semen parameters. .... for frequency, mean and χ2 with the level of significance set at p<0.05. ... was obtained from each couple participating in the study, following.

  11. Prediction of Maternal Cytomegalovirus Serostatus in Early Pregnancy: A Retrospective Analysis in Western Europe.

    Lorenz Kuessel

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most prevalent congenital viral infection and thus places an enormous disease burden on newborn infants. Seroprevalence of maternal antibodies to CMV due to CMV exposure prior to pregnancy is currently the most important protective factor against congenital CMV disease. The aim of this study was to identify potential predictors, and to develop and evaluate a risk-predicting model for the maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy.Maternal and paternal background information, as well as maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy from 882 pregnant women were analyzed. Women were divided into two groups based on their CMV serostatus, and were compared using univariate analysis. To predict serostatus based on epidemiological baseline characteristics, a multiple logistic regression model was calculated using stepwise model selection. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed using ROC curves. A nomogram based on the model was developed.646 women were CMV seropositive (73.2%, and 236 were seronegative (26.8%. The groups differed significantly with respect to maternal age (p = 0.006, gravidity (p<0.001, parity (p<0.001, use of assisted reproduction techniques (p = 0.018, maternal and paternal migration background (p<0.001, and maternal and paternal education level (p<0.001. ROC evaluation of the selected prediction model revealed an area under the curve of 0.83 (95%CI: 0.8-0.86, yielding sensitivity and specificity values of 0.69 and 0.86, respectively.We identified predictors of maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy and developed a risk-predicting model based on baseline epidemiological characteristics. Our findings provide easy accessible information that can influence the counseling of pregnant woman in terms of their CMV-associated risk.

  12. What pre-deployment and early post-deployment factors predict health function after combat deployment?: a prospective longitudinal study of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) soldiers.

    McAndrew, Lisa M; D'Andrea, Elizabeth; Lu, Shou-En; Abbi, Bhavna; Yan, Grace W; Engel, Charles; Quigley, Karen S

    2013-04-30

    Physical and mental function are strong indicators of disability and mortality. OEF/OIF Veterans returning from deployment have been found to have poorer function than soldiers who have not deployed; however the reasons for this are unknown. A prospective cohort of 790 soldiers was assessed both pre- and immediately after deployment to determine predictors of physical and mental function after war. On average, OEF/OIF Veterans showed significant declines in both physical (t=6.65, pfunction (t=7.11, pdeployment function, poorer physical function after deployment was associated with older age, more physical symptoms, blunted systolic blood pressure reactivity and being injured. After controlling for pre-deployment function, poorer mental function after deployment was associated with younger age, lower social desirability, lower social support, greater physical symptoms and greater PTSD symptoms. Combat deployment was associated with an immediate decline in both mental and physical function. The relationship of combat deployment to function is complex and influenced by demographic, psychosocial, physiological and experiential factors. Social support and physical symptoms emerged as potentially modifiable factors.

  13. Perinatal and Early Childhood Environmental Factors Influencing Allergic Asthma Immunopathogenesis

    Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. Methods We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Results and Discussion Early life exposure to allergens (House dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold)air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) have been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. PMID:24952205

  14. Predicting risk for childhood asthma by pre-pregnancy, perinatal, and postnatal factors.

    Wen, Hui-Ju; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Guo, Yue Leon

    2015-05-01

    Symptoms of atopic disease start early in human life. Predicting risk for childhood asthma by early-life exposure would contribute to disease prevention. A birth cohort study was conducted to investigate early-life risk factors for childhood asthma and to develop a predictive model for the development of asthma. National representative samples of newborn babies were obtained by multistage stratified systematic sampling from the 2005 Taiwan Birth Registry. Information on potential risk factors and children's health was collected by home interview when babies were 6 months old and 5 yr old, respectively. Backward stepwise regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors of childhood asthma for predictive models that were used to calculate the probability of childhood asthma. A total of 19,192 children completed the study satisfactorily. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported in 6.6% of 5-yr-old children. Pre-pregnancy factors (parental atopy and socioeconomic status), perinatal factors (place of residence, exposure to indoor mold and painting/renovations during pregnancy), and postnatal factors (maternal postpartum depression and the presence of atopic dermatitis before 6 months of age) were chosen for the predictive models, and the highest predicted probability of asthma in 5-yr-old children was 68.1% in boys and 78.1% in girls; the lowest probability in boys and girls was 4.1% and 3.2%, respectively. This investigation provides a technique for predicting risk of childhood asthma that can be used to developing a preventive strategy against asthma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Predictive factors for complications in children with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula.

    Shah, R; Varjavandi, V; Krishnan, U

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of complications in children with esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) at a tertiary pediatric hospital and to identify predictive factors for their occurrence. A retrospective chart review of 110 patients born in or transferred to Sydney Children's Hospital with EA/TEF between January 1999 and December 2010 was done. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for the occurrence of complications in these children. From univariate analysis, early esophageal stricture formation was more likely in children with 'long-gap' EA (odds ratio [OR] = 16.32). Patients with early strictures were more likely to develop chest infections (OR = 3.33). Patients with severe tracheomalacia were more likely to experience 'cyanotic/dying' (OR = 180) and undergo aortopexy (OR = 549). Patients who had gastroesophageal reflux disease were significantly more likely to require fundoplication (OR = 10.83) and undergo aortopexy (OR = 6.417). From multivariate analysis, 'long-gap' EA was a significant predictive factor for late esophageal stricture formation (P = 0.007) and for gastrostomy insertion (P = 0.001). Reflux was a significant predictive factor for requiring fundoplication (P = 0.007) and gastrostomy (P = 0.002). Gastrostomy insertion (P = 0.000) was a significant predictive factor for undergoing fundoplication. Having a prior fundoplication (P = 0.001) was a significant predictive factor for undergoing a subsequent aortopexy. Predictive factors for the occurrence of complications post EA/TEF repair were identified in this large single centre pediatric study. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  16. Factors influencing early retirement intentions in Australian rural general practitioners.

    Pit, S W; Hansen, V

    2014-06-01

    The Australian general practice workforce is ageing. This and a trend towards higher exit intentions and earlier retirement make it increasingly important to identify those work and personal factors affecting intention to leave, which are amenable to change. To assess the various work, occupational and individual health factors associated with early retirement intentions among Australian rural general practitioners (GPs) that may be amenable to intervention. A cross-sectional study of GPs practising in rural Australia. Odds ratios of early retirement intentions across work, occupational and individual health factors were calculated. There were 92 participants (response rate 56%), and 47% of responders intended to retire before 65. GPs with medium to high burnout levels had higher odds of intending to retire. Increased job satisfaction and work ability scores were associated with decreased retirement intentions, whereas increased physical and mental work ability demands were associated with an increase in retirement intentions. Absenteeism was not related to retirement intentions but presenteeism was. GPs reporting any work-related sleep problems were found to have a 3-fold increase in the odds of early retirement intentions. The odds of early retirement intentions also increased with higher psychological distress, worsening general health and longer working hours. From a health policy reform perspective, the greatest impact on reducing early retirement intentions among ageing GPs could potentially be made by intervening in areas of working hours, burnout and work-related sleep issues, followed by job satisfaction, psychological distress, health, general workability and mental and physical work ability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor: A key early step in the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation

    Rao, L.V.M.; Rapaport, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    Whether the factor VII/tissue factor complex that forms in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation must be activated to factor VIIa/tissue factor before it can activate its substrates, factor X and IX, has been a difficult question to answer because the substrates, once activated, back-activate factor VII. The earlier studies suggested that human factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate factor IX. Studies have now been extended to the activation of factor X. Reaction mixtures were made with purified factor VII, X, and tissue factor; in some experiments antithrombin III and heparin were added to prevent back-activation of factor VII. Factor X was activated at similar rates in reaction mixtures containing either VII or factor VIIa after an initial 30-sec lag with factor VII. In reaction mixtures with factor VII a linear activation of factor X was established several minutes before cleavage of 125 I-labeled factor VII to the two-chain activated molecule was demonstrable on gel profiles. These data suggest that factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate measurable amounts of factor X over several minutes. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a rapid preferential activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor by trace amounts of factor Xa is a key early step in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation

  18. Prediction of early race starts in Norwegian-Swedish Coldblooded Trotters

    Ihler Carl F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less than a third of Norwegian-Swedish Coldblooded Trotters (NSCTs have started racing as three year olds since the year 2000 despite the fact that large sums are paid out as price-money in the three year season. Recruitment races are arranged by the Norwegian Trotting Association (NTA to stimulate early training. The management of young horses varies considerably and a large majority is reared by amateurs. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of early race starts in young NSCT horses under field conditions. Methods Of the 801 registered NSCT horses born in 2005, 144 were randomly selected by stratified sampling with gender and paternal progeny as stratification factors. All horses were examined clinically. Further data were collected from NTA and by interviews of breeders, owners and trainers. The set of dependent variables consisted of "passed recruitment race", "start in regular race by the end of the three year season" and "start in regular race by the end of October in the four year season". Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Genetic performance potential, as indicated by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP indices, was the major predictor of the three dependent variables despite large variation in management. Dam's index was a better predictor than sire's index. However, the probability of early race starts in a horse with a low genetic performance potential can be increased by a favourable management. Examples of advantageous management factors in the present study were a flat pasture the first summer and early training. Nearly all horses racing in the three or four year seasons had passed a recruitment race in the two year season. Conclusions The results confirm the value of the published BLUP index as an important tool for the NSCT breeding program. Recruitment races stimulate early training.

  19. Successful External Cephalic Version: Factors Predicting Vaginal Birth

    Lim, Pei Shan; Ng, Beng Kwang; Ali, Anizah; Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir; Kampan, Nirmala Chandralega; Mohamed Ismail, Nor Azlin; Omar, Mohd Hashim; Abdullah Mahdy, Zaleha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the maternal and fetal outcomes of successful external cephalic version (ECV) as well as factors predicting vaginal birth. Methods. The ECV data over a period of three years at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) between 1 September 2008 and 30 September 2010 was reviewed. Sixty-seven patients who had successful ECV were studied and reviewed for maternal, fetal, and labour outcomes. The control group comprised patients with cephalic singletons of matching parity who delivered following the index cases. Results. The mean gestational age at ECV was 263 ± 6.52 days (37.5 weeks ± 6.52 days). Spontaneous labour and transient cardiotocographic (CTG) changes were the commonest early adverse effects following ECV. The reversion rate was 7.46%. The mean gestational age at delivery of the two groups was significantly different (P = 0.000) with 277.9 ± 8.91 days and 269.9 ± 9.68 days in the study group and control groups, respectively. The study group needed significantly more inductions of labour. They required more operative deliveries, had more blood loss at delivery, a higher incidence of meconium-stained liquor, and more cord around the neck. Previous flexed breeches had a threefold increase in caesarean section rate compared to previous extended breeches (44.1% versus 15.2%, P = 0.010). On the contrary, an amniotic fluid index (AFI) of 13 or more is significantly associated with a higher rate of vaginal birth (86.8% versus 48.3%, P = 0.001). Conclusions. Patients with successful ECV were at higher risk of carrying the pregnancy beyond 40 weeks and needing induction of labour, with a higher rate of caesarean section and higher rates of obstetrics complications. Extended breech and AFI 13 or more were significantly more likely to deliver vaginally postsuccessful ECV. This additional information may be useful to caution a patient with breech that ECV does not bring them to behave exactly like a normal cephalic, so that they

  20. Successful External Cephalic Version: Factors Predicting Vaginal Birth

    Pei Shan Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the maternal and fetal outcomes of successful external cephalic version (ECV as well as factors predicting vaginal birth. Methods. The ECV data over a period of three years at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC between 1 September 2008 and 30 September 2010 was reviewed. Sixty-seven patients who had successful ECV were studied and reviewed for maternal, fetal, and labour outcomes. The control group comprised patients with cephalic singletons of matching parity who delivered following the index cases. Results. The mean gestational age at ECV was 263±6.52 days (37.5 weeks ± 6.52 days. Spontaneous labour and transient cardiotocographic (CTG changes were the commonest early adverse effects following ECV. The reversion rate was 7.46%. The mean gestational age at delivery of the two groups was significantly different (P=0.000 with 277.9±8.91 days and 269.9±9.68 days in the study group and control groups, respectively. The study group needed significantly more inductions of labour. They required more operative deliveries, had more blood loss at delivery, a higher incidence of meconium-stained liquor, and more cord around the neck. Previous flexed breeches had a threefold increase in caesarean section rate compared to previous extended breeches (44.1% versus 15.2%, P=0.010. On the contrary, an amniotic fluid index (AFI of 13 or more is significantly associated with a higher rate of vaginal birth (86.8% versus 48.3%, P=0.001. Conclusions. Patients with successful ECV were at higher risk of carrying the pregnancy beyond 40 weeks and needing induction of labour, with a higher rate of caesarean section and higher rates of obstetrics complications. Extended breech and AFI 13 or more were significantly more likely to deliver vaginally postsuccessful ECV. This additional information may be useful to caution a patient with breech that ECV does not bring them to behave exactly like a normal cephalic, so that they

  1. Predictive Factors associated with Death of Elderly in Nursing Homes

    Kiwol Sung, PhD, RN

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Dyspnea, problematic behaviors, and ADL data were identified as the key factors associated with death among nursing home residents. Future plans for the prediction of death among nursing home residents can be made by nursing staff, factoring in these identified variables, to ensure more comfortable conditions and more responsive care.

  2. Expression profiling of migrated and invaded breast cancer cells predicts early metastatic relapse and reveals Krüppel-like factor 9 as a potential suppressor of invasive growth in breast cancer

    Limame, Ridha; de Beeck, Ken Op; Van Laere, Steven; Croes, Lieselot; De Wilde, Annemieke; Dirix, Luc; Van Camp, Guy; Peeters, Marc; De Wever, Olivier; Lardon, Filip; Pauwels, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Cell motility and invasion initiate metastasis. However, only a subpopulation of cancer cells within a tumor will ultimately become invasive. Due to this stochastic and transient nature, in an experimental setting, migrating and invading cells need to be isolated from the general population in order to study the gene expression profiles linked to these processes. This report describes microarray analysis on RNA derived from migrated or invaded subpopulations of triple negative breast cancer cells in a Transwell set-up, at two different time points during motility and invasion, pre-determined as “early” and “late” in real-time kinetic assessments. Invasion- and migration-related gene expression signatures were generated through comparison with non-invasive cells, remaining at the upper side of the Transwell membranes. Late-phase signatures of both invasion and migration indicated poor prognosis in a series of breast cancer data sets. Furthermore, evaluation of the genes constituting the prognostic invasion-related gene signature revealed Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) as a putative suppressor of invasive growth in breast cancer. Next to loss in invasive vs non-invasive cell lines, KLF9 also showed significantly lower expression levels in the “early” invasive cell population, in several public expression data sets and in clinical breast cancer samples when compared to normal tissue. Overexpression of EGFP-KLF9 fusion protein significantly altered morphology and blocked invasion and growth of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. In addition, KLF9 expression correlated inversely with mitotic activity in clinical samples, indicating anti-proliferative effects. PMID:25593984

  3. Early prediction of language and literacy problems: is 18 months too early?

    Fiona J. Duff

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of stability in language difficulties across early childhood: most late talkers (LTs resolve their difficulties by pre-school; and a significant number of children who were not LTs subsequently manifest language difficulties. Greater reliability in predicting individual outcomes is needed, which might be achieved by waiting until later in development when language is more stable. At 18 months, productive vocabulary scores on the Oxford Communicative Developmental Inventory were used to classify children as LTs or average talkers (ATs. Thirty matched-pairs of LTs and ATs were followed up at school-age (average age 7 years, when language and literacy outcomes were assessed. For 18 children, intermediate testing at age 4 had classified them as showing typical development (TD or specific language impairment (SLI. After correcting for multiple comparisons, there were no significant differences between the LTs and ATs on any outcome measure, and the LTs were performing in the average range. However, there were large-sized effects on all outcomes when comparing the TD and SLI groups. LT status on its own is not determinative of language and literacy difficulties. It would therefore not be appropriate to use expressive vocabulary measures alone to screen for language difficulties at 18 months. However, children with language impairment at age 4 are at risk of enduring difficulties.

  4. Predicting change in early adolescent problem behavior in the middle school years: a mesosystemic perspective on parenting and peer experiences.

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interaction predicted increases in problem behavior. Having high-achieving friends predicted less problem behavior. Parental monitoring predicted less problem behavior in general, but also acted as a buffer for students who were most vulnerable to developing problem behavior on the basis of being well liked by some peers, and also disliked by several others. These findings highlight the importance of studying the family-peer mesosystem when considering risk and resilience in early adolescence, and when considering implications for intervention.

  5. Markers for prediction and early detection of Pneumoconiosis

    Murray, J

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available pathological mechanisms in the pathway from silica exposure to the development of silicosis have been elucidated. If scientifically acceptable existing biomarkers for silica dust exposure can be identified, industry could utilise these for the early...

  6. Predictive risk factors for moderate to severe hyperbilirubinemia

    Gláucia Macedo de Lima; Maria Amélia Sayeg Campos Porto; Arnaldo Prata Barbosa; Antonio José Ledo Alves da Cunha

    2007-01-01

    Objective: to describe predictive factors for severity of neonataljaundice in newborn infants treated at the University Neonatal Clinic,highlighting maternal, obstetric and neonatal factors. Methods: Acohort retrospective study by means of review of medical charts todefine risk factors associated with moderate and severe jaundice.The cohort consisted of newborns diagnosed with indirect neonatalhyperbilirubinemia and submitted to phototherapy. Risk was classifiedas maternal, prenatal, obstetri...

  7. Predictive model for early math skills based on structural equations.

    Aragón, Estíbaliz; Navarro, José I; Aguilar, Manuel; Cerda, Gamal; García-Sedeño, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    Early math skills are determined by higher cognitive processes that are particularly important for acquiring and developing skills during a child's early education. Such processes could be a critical target for identifying students at risk for math learning difficulties. Few studies have considered the use of a structural equation method to rationalize these relations. Participating in this study were 207 preschool students ages 59 to 72 months, 108 boys and 99 girls. Performance with respect to early math skills, early literacy, general intelligence, working memory, and short-term memory was assessed. A structural equation model explaining 64.3% of the variance in early math skills was applied. Early literacy exhibited the highest statistical significance (β = 0.443, p < 0.05), followed by intelligence (β = 0.286, p < 0.05), working memory (β = 0.220, p < 0.05), and short-term memory (β = 0.213, p < 0.05). Correlations between the independent variables were also significant (p < 0.05). According to the results, cognitive variables should be included in remedial intervention programs. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Radiotherapy on the neck nodes predicts severe weight loss in patients with early stage laryngeal cancer

    Langius, Jacqueline A.E.; Doornaert, Patricia; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. Rene; Schueren, Marian A.E. van Bokhorst-de van der

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although patients with early stage (T1/T2) laryngeal cancer (LC) are thought to have a low incidence of malnutrition, severe weight loss is observed in a subgroup of these patients during radiotherapy (RT). The objective of this study was to evaluate weight loss and nutrition-related symptoms in patients with T1/T2 LC during RT and to select predictive factors for early identification of malnourished patients. Methods: Of all patients with T1/T2 LC, who received primary RT between 1999 and 2007, the following characteristics were recorded: sex, age, TNM classification, tumour location, radiation schedule, performance status, quality of life, weight loss, and nutrition-related symptoms. The association between baseline characteristics and malnutrition (>5% weight loss during RT) was investigated by Cox regression analysis. Results: The study population consisted of 238 patients. During RT, 44% of patients developed malnutrition. Tumour location, TNM classification, RT on the neck nodes, RT dose, nausea/vomiting, pain, swallowing, senses problems, trouble with social eating, dry mouth and the use of painkillers were all significantly associated with malnutrition. In the multivariate analysis, RTs on both the neck nodes (HR 4.16, 95% CI 2.62-6.60) and dry mouth (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.14-2.60) remained predictive. Nevertheless, RT on the neck nodes alone resulted in the best predictive model for malnutrition scores. Conclusions: Patients with early stage laryngeal cancer are at risk of malnutrition during radiotherapy. Radiotherapy on the neck nodes is the best predictor of malnutrition during radiotherapy. Therefore, we suggest to offer nutritional counselling to all the patients who receive nodal irradiation.

  9. Screening Tool for Early Postnatal Prediction of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Preterm Newborns (STEP-ROP).

    Ricard, Caroline A; Dammann, Christiane E L; Dammann, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of the preterm newborn characterized by neurovascular disruption in the immature retina that may cause visual impairment and blindness. To develop a clinical screening tool for early postnatal prediction of ROP in preterm newborns based on risk information available within the first 48 h of postnatal life. Using data submitted to the Vermont Oxford Network (VON) between 1995 and 2015, we created logistic regression models based on infants born <28 completed weeks gestational age. We developed a model with 60% of the data and identified birth weight, gestational age, respiratory distress syndrome, non-Hispanic ethnicity, and multiple gestation as predictors of ROP. We tested the model in the remaining 40%, performed tenfold cross-validation, and tested the score in ELGAN study data. Of the 1,052 newborns in the VON database, 627 recorded an ROP status. Forty percent had no ROP, 40% had mild ROP (stages 1 and 2), and 20% had severe ROP (stages 3-5). We created a weighted score to predict any ROP based on the multivariable regression model. A cutoff score of 5 had the best sensitivity (95%, 95% CI 93-97), while maintaining a strong positive predictive value (63%, 95% CI 57-68). When applied to the ELGAN data, sensitivity was lower (72%, 95% CI 69-75), but PPV was higher (80%, 95% CI 77-83). STEP-ROP is a promising screening tool. It is easy to calculate, does not rely on extensive postnatal data collection, and can be calculated early after birth. Early ROP screening may help physicians limit patient exposure to additional risk factors, and may be useful for risk stratification in clinical trials aimed at reducing ROP. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Early emotional trauma in alcohol-dependent men: prevalence, associations and predictive value

    Mariana Fortunata Donadon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have indicated that early emotional traumas (EET are highly prevalent in alcohol-dependent individuals, and that these traumas work as risk factors for the development of this disorder. Objective The aim of the current study is to evaluate the EET associations and predictive value regarding active alcohol dependence among male individuals from a developing country. Methods The sample consisted of two groups. The first was composed by adult male individuals diagnosed as alcohol dependents (AG, N = 110, and the second with no alcohol abuse and/or dependence diagnosis (CG, N = 110. Both groups were evaluated using Structured Clinical Interview based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Early Emotional Trauma Inventory; and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Results All trauma subtypes (general, physical, emotional and sexual were more prevalent among AG than CG. However, only traumas categorized as general and emotional worked as risk factor for alcoholism development and they increased the chances to develop this disorder by 1.45 and 1.23 times, respectively. Discussion EETs are important factors that should be taken into account in interventions that aim to prevent, minimize and/or treat this clinical condition and its impact and/or severity, especially in countries such as Brazil.

  11. A systems biology approach to transcription factor binding site prediction.

    Xiang Zhou

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The elucidation of mammalian transcriptional regulatory networks holds great promise for both basic and translational research and remains one the greatest challenges to systems biology. Recent reverse engineering methods deduce regulatory interactions from large-scale mRNA expression profiles and cross-species conserved regulatory regions in DNA. Technical challenges faced by these methods include distinguishing between direct and indirect interactions, associating transcription regulators with predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs, identifying non-linearly conserved binding sites across species, and providing realistic accuracy estimates.We address these challenges by closely integrating proven methods for regulatory network reverse engineering from mRNA expression data, linearly and non-linearly conserved regulatory region discovery, and TFBS evaluation and discovery. Using an extensive test set of high-likelihood interactions, which we collected in order to provide realistic prediction-accuracy estimates, we show that a careful integration of these methods leads to significant improvements in prediction accuracy. To verify our methods, we biochemically validated TFBS predictions made for both transcription factors (TFs and co-factors; we validated binding site predictions made using a known E2F1 DNA-binding motif on E2F1 predicted promoter targets, known E2F1 and JUND motifs on JUND predicted promoter targets, and a de novo discovered motif for BCL6 on BCL6 predicted promoter targets. Finally, to demonstrate accuracy of prediction using an external dataset, we showed that sites matching predicted motifs for ZNF263 are significantly enriched in recent ZNF263 ChIP-seq data.Using an integrative framework, we were able to address technical challenges faced by state of the art network reverse engineering methods, leading to significant improvement in direct-interaction detection and TFBS-discovery accuracy. We estimated the accuracy

  12. Early Prediction of Transient Voltage Sags caused by Rotor Swings

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Van Cutsem, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates various methods to predict voltage sags at load buses caused by large generator rotor swings and following a transient disturbance. Three different prediction methods are proposed, which all use real-time measurements from PMUs. One of the methods uses a slightly extended v...... version of the E-SIME method. The other two methods use Measurements and process them by recursive least square estimation. It is shown that the prediction method employing E-SIME allows the earliest detection of a critical voltage sag with satisfactory accuracy....

  13. Analytical prediction of turbulent friction factor for a rod bundle

    Bae, Jun Ho; Park, Joo Hwan

    2011-01-01

    An analytical calculation has been performed to predict the turbulent friction factor in a rod bundle. For each subchannel constituting a rod bundle, the geometry parameters are analytically derived by integrating the law of the wall over each subchannel with the consideration of a local shear stress distribution. The correlation equations for a local shear stress distribution are supplied from a numerical simulation for each subchannel. The explicit effect of a subchannel shape on the geometry parameter and the friction factor is reported. The friction factor of a corner subchannel converges to a constant value, while the friction factor of a central subchannel steadily increases with a rod distance ratio. The analysis for a rod bundle shows that the friction factor of a rod bundle is largely affected by the characteristics of each subchannel constituting a rod bundle. The present analytic calculations well predict the experimental results from the literature with rod bundles in circular, hexagonal, and square channels.

  14. Preoperative predictive factors for hearing preservation in vestibular schwannoma surgery.

    Rohit; Piccirillo, Enrico; Jain, Yogesh; Augurio, Angela; Sanna, Mario

    2006-01-01

    We performed a retrospective chart review to evaluate the various predictive factors for postoperative hearing preservation in the surgical management of vestibular schwannoma. Of 792 patients operated on for vestibular schwannoma between April 1987 and July 2002, 107 were candidates for hearing preservation surgery. These patients were divided into group 1 (hearing preserved) and group 2 (hearing not preserved), and both of these groups were evaluated for age, sex, pure tone average, sound discrimination score, tumor size, and auditory brain stem response parameters. A corrected chi2 test and a corrected t-test were used for statistical analysis. Multiple regression analysis was further done to evaluate independent predictive factors, either alone or in combination. The results were evaluated by use of the modified Sanna classification and the guidelines of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS). Preoperative pure tone average and tumor size were the 2 predictive factors in our study. A Pearson correlation test showed that there was no multicollinearity between the factors. On multiple regression analysis by backward elimination of nonsignificant factors, we found that tumor size is an independent predictive factor for postoperative hearing. According to the modified Sanna classification, postoperative hearing was preserved in 11.2% of patients (equivalent to class A of AAO-HNS guidelines). In our series, preoperative pure tone average and tumor size were found to be predictors of postoperative hearing levels.

  15. Early pharmaceutical profiling to predict oral drug absorption

    Bergström, Christel A S; Holm, René; Jørgensen, Søren Astrup

    2014-01-01

    Preformulation measurements are used to estimate the fraction absorbed in vivo for orally administered compounds and thereby allow an early evaluation of the need for enabling formulations. As part of the Oral Biopharmaceutical Tools (OrBiTo) project, this review provides a summary of the pharmac......Preformulation measurements are used to estimate the fraction absorbed in vivo for orally administered compounds and thereby allow an early evaluation of the need for enabling formulations. As part of the Oral Biopharmaceutical Tools (OrBiTo) project, this review provides a summary...... and state-of-the art methodologies to study API properties impacting on oral absorption are reviewed. Assays performed during early development, i.e. physicochemical characterization, dissolution profiles under physiological conditions, permeability assays and the impact of excipients on these properties...

  16. PREDICTION OF SURGICAL TREATMENT WITH POUR PERITONITIS QUANTIFYING RISK FACTORS

    І. К. Churpiy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Explored the possibility of quantitative assessment of risk factors of complications in the treatment of diffuse peritonitis. Highlighted 53 groups of features that are important in predicting the course of diffuse peritonitis. The proposed scheme of defining the risk of clinical course of diffuse peritonitis can quantify the severity of the source of patients and in most cases correctly predict the results of treatment of disease.

  17. Urinary biomarkers TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 early predict acute kidney injury after major surgery.

    Ivan Gocze

    Full Text Available To assess the ability of the urinary biomarkers IGFBP7 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 and TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 to early predict acute kidney injury (AKI in high-risk surgical patients.Postoperative AKI is associated with an increase in short and long-term mortality. Using IGFBP7 and TIMP-2 for early detection of cellular kidney injury, thus allowing the early initiation of renal protection measures, may represent a new concept of evaluating renal function.In this prospective study, urinary [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] was measured in surgical patients at high risk for AKI. A predefined cut-off value of [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] >0.3 was used for assessing diagnostic accuracy. Perioperative characteristics were evaluated, and ROC analyses as well as logistic regression models of risk assessment were calculated with and without a [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] test.107 patients were included in the study, of whom 45 (42% developed AKI. The highest median values of biomarker were detected in septic, transplant and patients after hepatic surgery (1.24 vs 0.45 vs 0.47 ng/l²/1000. The area under receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC for the risk of any AKI was 0.85, for early use of RRT 0.83 and for 28-day mortality 0.77. In a multivariable model with established perioperative risk factors, the [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] test was the strongest predictor of AKI and significantly improved the risk assessment (p<0.001.Urinary [TIMP-2]×[IGFBP7] test sufficiently detect patients with risk of AKI after major non-cardiac surgery. Due to its rapid responsiveness it extends the time frame for intervention to prevent development of AKI.

  18. SHMF: Interest Prediction Model with Social Hub Matrix Factorization

    Chaoyuan Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social networks, microblog has become the major social communication tool. There is a lot of valuable information such as personal preference, public opinion, and marketing in microblog. Consequently, research on user interest prediction in microblog has a positive practical significance. In fact, how to extract information associated with user interest orientation from the constantly updated blog posts is not so easy. Existing prediction approaches based on probabilistic factor analysis use blog posts published by user to predict user interest. However, these methods are not very effective for the users who post less but browse more. In this paper, we propose a new prediction model, which is called SHMF, using social hub matrix factorization. SHMF constructs the interest prediction model by combining the information of blogs posts published by both user and direct neighbors in user’s social hub. Our proposed model predicts user interest by integrating user’s historical behavior and temporal factor as well as user’s friendships, thus achieving accurate forecasts of user’s future interests. The experimental results on Sina Weibo show the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed model.

  19. Predicting early onset of intoxication versus drinking—A population-based prospective study of Norwegian adolescents

    Frøydis Enstad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Recent research suggests that early onset of intoxication (EOI may be of greater importance for a wide range of subsequent adverse outcomes than early drinking experiences without intoxication. However, research on antecedents of EOI is scarce. The present study identifies predictors of EOI and whether they differ from those of early onset of drinking (EOD. Methods: Data was drawn from the prospective Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP study of Norwegian families (n=382, which followed up mothers and their children with six data collections from childhood (age 1.5 to adolescence (age 14.5. Self-reports from the adolescents (parenting practices, adolescent's conduct problems and friends' deviant behaviour and their mothers (adolescent temperament, socio-economic factors and household alcohol problems were used to identify predictors of EOI and EOD. Findings: A variety of temperamental, socio-economic, and family factors predicted EOI, whereas EOD was predicted of substantially fewer variables. Particularly, when controlling for relevant covariates, low levels of shyness, own conduct problems and having friends with deviant behaviour prospectively predicted EOI, but not EOD. Conclusions: Future research and prevention efforts should take into consideration that EOI and EOD without getting drunk appear to be predicted by different risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Keywords: Adolescents, Alcohol, Intoxication, Drinking, Onset, Predictors

  20. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy after vitrectomy early factors affect IOP

    Shi-Bo Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore possible causes of early postoperative elevated intraocular pressure caused by proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDRvitrectomy. METHODS:Totally 72 cases(100 eyeswhich have performed vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy were retrospectively analyzed to observe the incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension, and the relevant factors that caused postoperative high intraocular pressure were statistically analyzed. Early postoperative ocular hypertension diagnostic criteria: any time after 2 weeks of non-contact tonometer measured IOP> 25mmHg(1mmHg=0.133kPa. RESULTS:High intraocular pressure after vitrectomy occurred in 27 eyes(27%, the incidence of male and female were 27.27%, 26.79%, the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. Eyes filled with balanced liquid filling incidence rate of 30.95%, 6.25%, and the difference was statistically significant(P0.05. Incidences of intraoperative panretinal photocoagulation and additional retinal photocoagulation group were 41%, 20%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Preoperative retinopathy of four, five, six groups of incidence were 9.52%, 23.81%, 40.56%, and the groups were statistically significant(P<0.05. Unconsolidated preoperative retinal detachment and retinal detachment incidence rate of 19%, 41%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Surgery in the united lens resection with intraoperative unfederated lens the resection group's incidence rate of 34%, 15%, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that retinal detachment preoperative and intraoperative intraocular filling were independent risk factors that caused early postoperative ocular hypertension after vitrectomy. CONCLUSION:Post-operative ocular hypertension after PDR vitrectomy is related to preoperative retinal detachment, intraoperative lensectomy, intraoperative intraocular filling, and intraoperative

  1. PREDICTION OF THE EXTREMAL SHAPE FACTOR OF SPHEROIDAL PARTICLES

    Daniel Hlubinka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the stereological unfolding problem for spheroidal particles the extremal shape factor is predicted. The theory of extreme values has been used to show that extremes of the planar shape factor of particle sections tend to the same limit distribution as extremes of the original shape factor for both the conditional and marginal distribution. Attention is then paid to the extreme shape factor conditioned by the particle size. Normalizing constants are evaluated for a parametric model and the numerical procedure is tested on real data from metallography.

  2. Early visceral pain predicts chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten Rune; Ording, Helle; Andersen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is related to postoperative pain during the first postoperative week, but it is unknown which components of the early pain response is important. In this prospective study, 100 consecutive patients were examined preoperatively, 1week postoperatively...

  3. Frequent Daytime Naps Predict Vocabulary Growth in Early Childhood

    Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The facilitating role of sleep for language learning is well-attested in adults and to a lesser extent in infants and toddlers. However, the longitudinal relationship between sleep patterns and early vocabulary development is not well understood. Methods: This study investigates how measures of sleep are related to the development of…

  4. Heart health risk factors in Punjabi early teens

    Elizabeth Mary John

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India is experiencing an epidemiological health transition characterized by rapid decline in nutritional and parasitic diseases (pre-transitional diseases with an alarming rise in cardiovascular diseases, mainly coronary heart disease and stroke (post-transitional diseases. Many of these risk factors manifesting themselves as diseases in adults can be found during adolescence. Aims: To determine the prevalence of risk factors of heart disease among urban high-school students aged 13-15 yrs in Ludhiana city. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 330 high school-going early teens aged 13-15 years using a pretested questionnaire. Details regarding food habits, physical activity, and family history were collected along with anthropometric measures and blood pressure recordings. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analysed using frequencies and proportion. Chi-square was the test of significance. Results: The prevalence of at least one risk factor in the population was 48.5%. Family history with prevalence of at least one coronary artery disease risk factor was of 27.4%, diabetic parents 12.2%, hypertension 17.6%, and heart disease was 1.8%. Physical inactivity as a risk factor showed an overall prevalence of 73%. Nearly 50% of the students consumed some junk food every day. Only 18.2% consume 3-5 servings of fruits per day, 11.2% do not take any fruits at all. Prevalence of overweight was 11.2% and 4.6% of them were obese. Hypertension was seen in 20.1% of subjects. Conclusions: The present generation of early teens are at high risk of future cardiovascular disease and schools and society need to address these issues urgently.

  5. Systematic review of prognostic factors predicting outcome in non-surgically treated patients with sciatica.

    Verwoerd, A J H; Luijsterburg, P A J; Lin, C W C; Jacobs, W C H; Koes, B W; Verhagen, A P

    2013-09-01

    Identification of prognostic factors for surgery in patients with sciatica is important to be able to predict surgery in an early stage. Identification of prognostic factors predicting persistent pain, disability and recovery are important for better understanding of the clinical course, to inform patient and physician and support decision making. Consequently, we aimed to systematically review prognostic factors predicting outcome in non-surgically treated patients with sciatica. A search of Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Cinahl, up to March 2012 was performed for prospective cohort studies on prognostic factors for non-surgically treated sciatica. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias. Outcomes were pain, disability, recovery and surgery. A best evidence synthesis was carried out in order to assess and summarize the data. The initial search yielded 4392 articles of which 23 articles reporting on 14 original cohorts met the inclusion criteria. High clinical, methodological and statistical heterogeneity among studies was found. Reported evidence regarding prognostic factors predicting the outcome in sciatica is limited. The majority of factors that have been evaluated, e.g., age, body mass index, smoking and sensory disturbance, showed no association with outcome. The only positive association with strong evidence was found for leg pain intensity at baseline as prognostic factor for subsequent surgery. © 2013 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  6. Transcription factor binding sites prediction based on modified nucleosomes.

    Mohammad Talebzadeh

    Full Text Available In computational methods, position weight matrices (PWMs are commonly applied for transcription factor binding site (TFBS prediction. Although these matrices are more accurate than simple consensus sequences to predict actual binding sites, they usually produce a large number of false positive (FP predictions and so are impoverished sources of information. Several studies have employed additional sources of information such as sequence conservation or the vicinity to transcription start sites to distinguish true binding regions from random ones. Recently, the spatial distribution of modified nucleosomes has been shown to be associated with different promoter architectures. These aligned patterns can facilitate DNA accessibility for transcription factors. We hypothesize that using data from these aligned and periodic patterns can improve the performance of binding region prediction. In this study, we propose two effective features, "modified nucleosomes neighboring" and "modified nucleosomes occupancy", to decrease FP in binding site discovery. Based on these features, we designed a logistic regression classifier which estimates the probability of a region as a TFBS. Our model learned each feature based on Sp1 binding sites on Chromosome 1 and was tested on the other chromosomes in human CD4+T cells. In this work, we investigated 21 histone modifications and found that only 8 out of 21 marks are strongly correlated with transcription factor binding regions. To prove that these features are not specific to Sp1, we combined the logistic regression classifier with the PWM, and created a new model to search TFBSs on the genome. We tested the model using transcription factors MAZ, PU.1 and ELF1 and compared the results to those using only the PWM. The results show that our model can predict Transcription factor binding regions more successfully. The relative simplicity of the model and capability of integrating other features make it a superior method

  7. Early warning score predicts acute mortality in stroke patients

    Liljehult, J; Christensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Clinical deterioration and death among patients with acute stroke are often preceded by detrimental changes in physiological parameters. Systematic and effective tools to identify patients at risk of deterioration early enough to intervene are therefore needed. The aim of the study wa...... tool for identifying patients at risk of dying after acute stroke. Readily available physiological parameters are converted to a single score, which can guide both nurses and physicians in clinical decision making and resource allocation.......OBJECTIVES: Clinical deterioration and death among patients with acute stroke are often preceded by detrimental changes in physiological parameters. Systematic and effective tools to identify patients at risk of deterioration early enough to intervene are therefore needed. The aim of the study...

  8. Predictive risk factors for moderate to severe hyperbilirubinemia

    Gláucia Macedo de Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe predictive factors for severity of neonataljaundice in newborn infants treated at the University Neonatal Clinic,highlighting maternal, obstetric and neonatal factors. Methods: Acohort retrospective study by means of review of medical charts todefine risk factors associated with moderate and severe jaundice.The cohort consisted of newborns diagnosed with indirect neonatalhyperbilirubinemia and submitted to phototherapy. Risk was classifiedas maternal, prenatal, obstetric and neonatal factors; risk estimationwas based on the odds ratio (95% confidence interval; a bi-variantmultivariate regression logistic analysis was applied to variables forp < 0.1. Results: Of 818 babies born during the studied period, 94(11% had jaundice prior to hospital discharge. Phototherapy was usedon 69 (73% patients. Predictive factors for severity were multiparity;prolonged rupture of membranes, dystocia, cephalohematoma, a lowApgar score, prematurity and small-for-date babies. Following birth,breastfeeding, sepsis, Rh incompatibility, and jaundice presentingbefore the third day of life were associated with an increased risk ofhyperbilirubinemia and the need for therapy. Conclusion: Other thanthose characteristics that are singly associated with phototherapy,we concluded that multiparity, presumed neonatal asphyxia, low birthweight and infection are the main predictive factors leading to moderateand severe jaundice in newborn infants in our neonatal unit.

  9. Machine Learning Techniques for Prediction of Early Childhood Obesity.

    Dugan, T M; Mukhopadhyay, S; Carroll, A; Downs, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to predict childhood obesity after age two, using only data collected prior to the second birthday by a clinical decision support system called CHICA. Analyses of six different machine learning methods: RandomTree, RandomForest, J48, ID3, Naïve Bayes, and Bayes trained on CHICA data show that an accurate, sensitive model can be created. Of the methods analyzed, the ID3 model trained on the CHICA dataset proved the best overall performance with accuracy of 85% and sensitivity of 89%. Additionally, the ID3 model had a positive predictive value of 84% and a negative predictive value of 88%. The structure of the tree also gives insight into the strongest predictors of future obesity in children. Many of the strongest predictors seen in the ID3 modeling of the CHICA dataset have been independently validated in the literature as correlated with obesity, thereby supporting the validity of the model. This study demonstrated that data from a production clinical decision support system can be used to build an accurate machine learning model to predict obesity in children after age two.

  10. Do Psychosocial Factors Predict Readmission among Diabetic Elderly Patients?

    Alavi, Mousa; Baharlooei, Omeleila; AdelMehraban, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances in diabetes treatment, the rate of readmission is still relatively high among these patients, especially in older population. Various factors may predict readmission in these patients; hence, the aim of this study was to assess the role of psychosocial factors in predicting readmission among diabetic elderly hospitalized in selected hospitals of Isfahan. In this cross-sectional study conducted from January to September 2016, 150 diabetic elderly hospitalized in selected hospitals affiliated with Isfahan University of medical sciences were chosen using a convenient sampling method. The initial information was collected by a three-part questionnaire consisting of (a) demographic characteristics, (b) 21-item depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21), and (c) multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS). Further information about readmission was gathered 3 months after completing the questionnaires through a phone call follow-up. Descriptive and inferential statistics (discriminant function analysis test) were used to analyze the data. During 3 months after discharge, 44% of hospitalized diabetic elderly were readmitted. Analytical model predicted the readmission status of 109 individuals (of total 150 persons) in the studied units (success rate of 72.2%). Among predicting factors, depression and social support had the most and the least important roles in predicting readmission rate, respectively. Interventions to improve mental status (i.e., decreasing levels of depression, anxiety, and stress) and develop social support are suggested to reduce the risk of readmission among diabetic elderly patients. Nevertheless, future studies are needed to verify the value of such interventions.

  11. Predicting Early Spelling: The Contribution of Children's Early Literacy, Private Speech during Spelling, Behavioral Regulation, and Parental Spelling Support

    Aram, Dorit; Abiri, Shimrit; Elad, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to extend understanding of preschoolers' early spelling using the Vygotskian ("Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes," Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1978) paradigm of child development. We assessed the contribution of maternal spelling support in predicting children's word…

  12. Psychosocial factors predicting risky sexual behaviour among long ...

    Social factors that included age, number of years of education, number of wives, number of intercourses in the last three months, number of partners apart from primary partners, and number of weeks spent outside home significantly jointly predicted sexual risk behaviour (R2 = .15, F(6, 147) = 4.39; p < .05) by accounting for ...

  13. Psychosocial Factors Predicting First-Year College Student Success

    Krumrei-Mancuso, Elizabeth J.; Newton, Fred B.; Kim, Eunhee; Wilcox, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This study made use of a model of college success that involves students achieving academic goals and life satisfaction. Hierarchical regressions examined the role of six psychosocial factors for college success among 579 first-year college students. Academic self-efficacy and organization and attention to study were predictive of first semester…

  14. Factors predictive of successful learning in postgraduate medical education

    Smits, P. B. A.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; Nauta, M. C. E.; ten Cate, Th J.; Metz, J. C. M.; van Dijk, F. J. H.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE To establish which personal and contextual factors are predictive of successful outcomes in postgraduate medical education. METHOD We performed a follow-up study of 118 doctors on a postgraduate occupational health training programme on the management of mental health problems. The following

  15. Prediction of postpartum blood transfusion – risk factors and recurrence

    Wikkelsø, Anne J; Hjortøe, Sofie; Gerds, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to find clinically useful risk factors for postpartum transfusion and to assess the joint predictive value in a population of women with a first and second delivery. METHODS: All Danish women with a first and second delivery from January 2001 to September 2009 who gave birt...

  16. Potential predictive factors of positive prostate biopsy in the Chinese ...

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... Therefore, it might be inappropriate that we apply these western models to the. Chinese population that has a lower incidence of PCa. Therefore, this retrospective study aimed to determine predictive factors for a positive prostate biopsy in Chinese men. Our ultimate goal is to develop a simple model for ...

  17. Mathematical models for prediction of safety factors for a simply ...

    From the results obtained, mathematical prediction models were developed using a least square regression analysis for bending, shear and deflection modes of failure considered in the study. The results showed that the safety factors for material, dead and live load are not unique, but they are influenced by safety index ...

  18. Factors predicting mortality in elderly patients admitted to a ...

    The median age was 70 years (interquartile range 67 - 75 years). The overall ICU mortality was 44.7%, and 64% of deaths occurred within 5 days of admission. On univariate analysis, the factors predicting mortality were alcohol misuse (p=0.09), pneumonia (p.0.001), shock (p=0.001), dehydration (p=0.007), urine output ...

  19. Beyond the first episode: candidate factors for a risk prediction model of schizophrenia.

    Murphy, Brendan P

    2010-01-01

    Many early psychosis services are financially compromised and cannot offer a full tenure of care to all patients. To maintain viability of services it is important that those with schizophrenia are identified early to maximize long-term outcomes, as are those with better prognoses who can be discharged early. The duration of untreated psychosis remains the mainstay in determining those who will benefit from extended care, yet its ability to inform on prognosis is modest in both the short and medium term. There are a number of known or putative genetic and environmental risk factors that have the potential to improve prognostication, though a multivariate risk prediction model combining them with clinical characteristics has yet to be developed. Candidate risk factors for such a model are presented, with an emphasis on environmental risk factors. More work is needed to corroborate many putative factors and to determine which of the established factors are salient and which are merely proxy measures. Future research should help clarify how gene-environment and environment-environment interactions occur and whether risk factors are dose-dependent, or if they act additively or synergistically, or are redundant in the presence (or absence) of other factors.

  20. Prediction of software operational reliability using testing environment factors

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1995-01-01

    A number of software reliability models have been developed to estimate and to predict software reliability. However, there are no established standard models to quantify software reliability. Most models estimate the quality of software in reliability figures such as remaining faults, failure rate, or mean time to next failure at the testing phase, and they consider them ultimate indicators of software reliability. Experience shows that there is a large gap between predicted reliability during development and reliability measured during operation, which means that predicted reliability, or so-called test reliability, is not operational reliability. Customers prefer operational reliability to test reliability. In this study, we propose a method that predicts operational reliability rather than test reliability by introducing the testing environment factor that quantifies the changes in environments

  1. Guidelines for the early detection of osteoporosis and prediction of ...

    Endorsed by the Medical Association of. South Africa. ... Osteoporosis,2 a recent report of a World Health. Organisation ... factors for different types of osteoporosis (e.g. hip v. spine) ... technology, does not appear to be of clinical advantage,.

  2. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Xinli Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity, behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet, hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors.

  3. Validation of the ureteral diameter ratio for predicting early spontaneous resolution of primary vesicoureteral reflux.

    Arlen, Angela M; Kirsch, Andrew J; Leong, Traci; Cooper, Christopher S

    2017-08-01

    Management of primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) remains controversial, and reflux grade currently constitutes an important prognostic factor. Previous reports have demonstrated that distal ureteral diameter ratio (UDR) may be more predictive of outcome than vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) grade. We performed an external validation study in young children, evaluating early spontaneous resolution rates relative to reflux grade and UDR. Voiding cystourethrograms (VCUGs) were reviewed. UDR was computed by measuring largest ureteral diameter within the pelvis and dividing by the distance between the L1 and L3 vertebral bodies (Figure). VUR grade and UDR were tested in univariate and multivariable analyses. Primary outcome was status of VUR at last clinical follow-up (i.e. resolution, persistence, or surgical intervention). Demographics, VUR timing, laterality, and imaging indication were also assessed. One-hundred and forty-seven children (98 girls, 49 boys) were diagnosed with primary VUR at a mean age of 5.5 ± 4.7 months. Sixty-seven (45.6%) resolved spontaneously, 55 (37.4%) had persistent disease, and 25 (17%) were surgically corrected. Patients who spontaneously resolved had significantly lower VUR grade, refluxed later during bladder filling, and had significantly lower UDR. In a multivariable model, grade of VUR (p = 0.001), age early spontaneous resolution than grade alone. Furthermore, unlike traditional VUR grading where children with grade 1-5 may outgrow reflux depending on other factors, there appears to be a consistent UDR cutoff whereby patients are unlikely to resolve. In the present study, no child with a UDR greater than 0.43 experienced early spontaneous resolution, and only three (4.5%) of those with spontaneous resolution had a UDR above 0.35. UDR correlates with reflux grade, and is predictive of early resolution in children with primary VUR. UDR is an objective measurement of VUR, and provides valuable prognostic information about spontaneous

  4. Predicting Change in Early Adolescent Problem Behavior in the Middle School Years: A Mesosystemic Perspective on Parenting and Peer Experiences

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interact...

  5. Early adolescent substance use as a risk factor for developing conduct disorder and depression symptoms.

    Wymbs, Brian T; McCarty, Carolyn A; Mason, W Alex; King, Kevin M; Baer, John S; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Conduct disorder and depression symptoms are well-established risk factors for substance use during adolescence. However, few investigations have examined whether early substance use increases adolescents' risk of developing conduct disorder/depression symptoms. Using the Developmental Pathways Project sample of 521 middle school students (51.6% male), we tested whether substance use (indicated by alcohol and marijuana use, and use-related impairment) in 8th and 9th grade increased risk of conduct disorder and depression symptoms in 9th and 12th grade over and above prior symptoms. We examined whether associations between substance use and conduct disorder/depression symptoms were consistent across self- or parent-reported symptoms and whether associations were moderated by gender. Analyses indicated that, over and above prior symptoms, elevated substance use in 8th grade predicted elevated conduct disorder symptoms in 9th grade, and substance use in 9th grade predicted conduct disorder symptoms in 12th grade. In contrast, substance use failed to predict later depression symptoms independent of prior symptoms. These findings were consistent across self- and parent-reported conduct disorder/depression symptoms. With one exception (association between substance use in 8th grade and self-reported conduct disorder symptoms in 9th grade), relations between early substance use and later conduct disorder symptoms did not differ between boys and girls. Study findings underscore the unique contribution of substance use during early adolescence to the development of conduct disorder symptoms by late adolescence.

  6. Early Childhood Risk Factors for Mealtime TV Exposure and Engagement in Low-Income Families.

    Domoff, Sarah E; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Miller, Alison L

    To identify whether child and mother characteristics in early childhood predict TV exposure and engagement during mealtime in middle childhood. A total of 220 low-income mother-child dyads participated. Children were 4.26 years old (SD = 0.51) at baseline and 5.94 years (SD = 0.68) at 2-year follow-up. Mothers completed baseline measures of child negative emotionality and parenting practices. Family mealtimes were video recorded and coded for background TV exposure and child TV engagement. Multinomial logistic regression tested whether child emotionality and parenting practices during early childhood predicted risk of child TV exposure or engagement during mealtime, relative to no TV use, 2 years later. Children with greater negative emotionality in early childhood were more likely to engage with TV during mealtime than to have no TV. Similarly, early parenting disciplinary practices characterized by over-reactivity and laxness increased the risk for child TV engagement versus no TV during mealtime approximately 2 years later. We identified 2 factors that associated with an increased risk for TV viewing during meals. Helping parents manage child negative emotionality using positive parenting strategies might reduce later child TV engagement and improve the quality of family mealtimes. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Health Visitor's Role in Prediction of Early Childhood Injuries and Failure to Thrive.

    Dean, Janet G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the role of the health visitor in the prediction of early childhood injuries, abuse, and failure to thrive--based on a three-year study of the relationship between early maternal attitudes and subsequent child health. Journal availability: Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford, OX3 OBW England. (DLS)

  8. Predictive Validity of Early Literacy Measures for Korean English Language Learners in the United States

    Han, Jeanie Nam; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Lee, Catherine Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of early literacy measures with first-grade Korean English language learners (ELLs) in the United States at varying levels of English proficiency. Participants were screened using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF), DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency…

  9. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  10. [Predictive factors associated with severity of asthma exacerbations].

    Atiş, Sibel; Kaplan, Eylem Sercan; Ozge, Cengiz; Bayindir, Suzan

    2008-01-01

    Several factors have been accused for asthma exacerbations, however, very few studies have evaluated whether different factors predict severity of asthma exacerbation. We aimed to determine the predictive factors for severity of asthma exacerbation. Retrospective analysis of data on 93 patients visited our emergency-department because of asthma exacerbation was reviewed. Hospitalization in intensive care unit and/or intubation because of asthma was accepted as the criteria for severe exacerbation. Logistic regression analysis estimated the strength of association of each variable, potentially related to severe asthmatic exacerbation, with severe/very severe as compared to mild/moderate asthmatic exacerbation. Independent variables included in the analysis were age, sex, smoking history, inhaler steroid using, compliance with medication, chronic asthma severity, presence of additional atopic diseases, prick test positivity, provocative factors, number of short-acting beta(2)-agonist using, number of visits to emergency department for asthma over one year period, previous severe exacerbation, pulmonary functions, and blood eosinophil count. 20 were severe/very severe and 73 mild/moderate asthmatic exacerbation. Frequent using of short-acting beta(2)-agonist (OR= 1.5, 95% CI= 1.08-5.3, p= 0.003), noncompliance with medication (OR= 3.6, 95% CI= 1.3-9.9, p= 0.013), previous severe asthmatic exacerbation (OR= 3.8, 95% CI= 1.48-10.01, p= 0.005) and recent admission to hospital (OR= 2.9, 95% CI= 1.07-8.09, p= 0.037) were found to be predictive factors for severe asthmatic exacerbation. Different predictive factors, in particular frequent using of short-acting beta(2)-agonist and noncompliance with medication may be associated with severe asthma exacerbations compared to milder exacerbations. This suggests different mechanisms are responsible for severity of asthma exacerbation.

  11. [Predictive factors of complications during CT-guided transthoracic biopsy].

    Fontaine-Delaruelle, C; Souquet, P-J; Gamondes, D; Pradat, E; de Leusse, A; Ferretti, G R; Couraud, S

    2017-04-01

    CT-guided transthoracic core-needle biopsy (TTNB) is frequently used for the diagnosis of lung nodules. The aim of this study is to describe TTNBs' complications and to investigate predictive factors of complications. All consecutive TTNBs performed in three centers between 2006 and 2012 were included. Binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Overall, 970 TTNBs were performed in 929 patients. The complication rate was 34% (life-threatening complication in 6%). The most frequent complications were pneumothorax (29% included 4% which required chest-tube) and hemoptysis (5%). The mortality rate was 0.1% (n=1). In multivariate analysis, predictive factor for a complication was small target size (AOR=0.984; 95% CI [0.976-0.992]; P<0.001). This predictive factor was also found for occurrence of life-threatening complication (AOR=0.982; [0.965-0.999]; P=0.037), of pneumothorax (AOR=0.987; [0.978-0.995]; P=0.002) and of hemoptysis (AOR=0.973; [0.951-0.997]; P=0.024). One complication occurred in one-third of TTNBs. The proportion of life-threatening complication was 6%. A small lesion size was predictive of complication occurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. A Retrospective Analysis of Factors Affecting Early Stoma Complications.

    Koc, Umit; Karaman, Kerem; Gomceli, Ismail; Dalgic, Tahsin; Ozer, Ilter; Ulas, Murat; Ercan, Metin; Bostanci, Erdal; Akoglu, Musa

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques and products for stoma care, stoma-related complications are still common. A retrospective analysis was performed of the medical records of 462 consecutive patients (295 [63.9%] female, 167 [36.1 %] male, mean age 55.5 ± 15.1 years, mean body mass index [BMI] 25.1 ± 5.2) who had undergone stoma creation at the Gastroenterological Surgery Clinic of Turkiye Yuksek İhtisas Teaching and Research Hospital between January 2008 and December 2012 to examine the incidence of early (ie, within 30 days after surgery) stoma complications and identify potential risk factors. Variables abstracted included gender, age, and BMI; existence of malignant disease; comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, chronic respiratory disease); use of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy; permanent or temporary stoma; type of stoma (loop/end stoma); stoma localization; and the use of preoperative marking of the stoma site. Data were entered and analyzed using statistical software. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to describe and analyze all variables, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent risk factors for stoma complications. Ostomy-related complications developed in 131 patients (28.4%) Of these, superficial mucocutaneous separation was the most frequent complication (90 patients, 19.5%), followed by stoma retraction (15 patients, 3.2%). In univariate analysis, malignant disease (P = .025), creation of a colostomy (P = .002), and left lower quadrant stoma location (P toma complication. Only stoma location was an independent risk factor for the development of a stoma complication (P = .044). The rate of stoma complications was not significantly different between patients who underwent nonemergent surgery (30% in patients preoperatively sited versus 28.4% not sited) and patients who underwent emergency surgery (27.1%). Early stoma complication rates were higher

  13. Predictive patterns of early medication adherence in renal transplantation.

    Nevins, Thomas E; Robiner, William N; Thomas, William

    2014-10-27

    Patients' adherence with posttransplant immunosuppression is known to affect renal transplant outcomes. Prospectively, individual medication adherence patterns in 195 kidney transplant recipients were quantified with electronic medication monitors. Monitored drugs were mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, or azathioprine. Monitoring began at hospital discharge and continued an average of 15±8 months. Patient follow-up for clinical outcomes averaged 8±3 years. Each month's adherence percentage was calculated as the sum of daily adherence percents, divided by the number of evaluable days. During the first 3 months after transplantation, patients (n=44) with declining medication adherence, defined as dropping by 7% or higher (equal to missing 2 days) between months 1 and 2, later experienced lower mean medication adherence for months 6 to 12, 73% versus 92% respectively (Padherence, they also had more frequent (P=0.034) and earlier (P=0.065) acute rejection episodes. This was additionally associated with more frequent (P=0.017) and earlier (P=0.046) death-censored graft loss.In addition, daily medication adherence, expressed as the percentage of doses taken, decreased as the number of prescribed daily doses increased. During the first 3 months after transplantation, adherence with four doses per day averaged 84%, compared to 91% for patients on twice-daily dosing (P=0.024) and 93.5% for patients on once-daily dosing (P=0.008). Early declining medication nonadherence is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. This pattern is detectable during the first 2 months after transplantation. Early detection of nonadherence provides opportunities to target interventions toward patients at the highest risk for adverse behaviors and events.

  14. Population-Level Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes From Claims Data and Analysis of Risk Factors.

    Razavian, Narges; Blecker, Saul; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Nigam, Somesh; Sontag, David

    2015-12-01

    We present a new approach to population health, in which data-driven predictive models are learned for outcomes such as type 2 diabetes. Our approach enables risk assessment from readily available electronic claims data on large populations, without additional screening cost. Proposed model uncovers early and late-stage risk factors. Using administrative claims, pharmacy records, healthcare utilization, and laboratory results of 4.1 million individuals between 2005 and 2009, an initial set of 42,000 variables were derived that together describe the full health status and history of every individual. Machine learning was then used to methodically enhance predictive variable set and fit models predicting onset of type 2 diabetes in 2009-2011, 2010-2012, and 2011-2013. We compared the enhanced model with a parsimonious model consisting of known diabetes risk factors in a real-world environment, where missing values are common and prevalent. Furthermore, we analyzed novel and known risk factors emerging from the model at different age groups at different stages before the onset. Parsimonious model using 21 classic diabetes risk factors resulted in area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.75 for diabetes prediction within a 2-year window following the baseline. The enhanced model increased the AUC to 0.80, with about 900 variables selected as predictive (p differences between AUCs). Similar improvements were observed for models predicting diabetes onset 1-3 years and 2-4 years after baseline. The enhanced model improved positive predictive value by at least 50% and identified novel surrogate risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as chronic liver disease (odds ratio [OR] 3.71), high alanine aminotransferase (OR 2.26), esophageal reflux (OR 1.85), and history of acute bronchitis (OR 1.45). Liver risk factors emerge later in the process of diabetes development compared with obesity-related factors such as hypertension and high hemoglobin A1c. In conclusion, population-level risk

  15. Multiple-Factor Based Sparse Urban Travel Time Prediction

    Xinyan Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of travel time is challenging given the sparseness of real-time traffic data and the uncertainty of travel, because it is influenced by multiple factors on the congested urban road networks. In our paper, we propose a three-layer neural network from big probe vehicles data incorporating multi-factors to estimate travel time. The procedure includes the following three steps. First, we aggregate data according to the travel time of a single taxi traveling a target link on working days as traffic flows display similar traffic patterns over a weekly cycle. We then extract feature relationships between target and adjacent links at 30 min interval. About 224,830,178 records are extracted from probe vehicles. Second, we design a three-layer artificial neural network model. The number of neurons in input layer is eight, and the number of neurons in output layer is one. Finally, the trained neural network model is used for link travel time prediction. Different factors are included to examine their influence on the link travel time. Our model is verified using historical data from probe vehicles collected from May to July 2014 in Wuhan, China. The results show that we could obtain the link travel time prediction results using the designed artificial neural network model and detect the influence of different factors on link travel time.

  16. Factors predicting survival following noninvasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Peysson, S; Vandenberghe, N; Philit, F; Vial, C; Petitjean, T; Bouhour, F; Bayle, J Y; Broussolle, E

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of respiratory muscles is a major predicting factor for survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recent studies show that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) can relieve symptoms of alveolar hypoventilation. However, factors predicting survival in ALS patients when treated with NIV need to be clarified. We conducted a retrospective study of 33 consecutive ALS patients receiving NIV. Ten patients had bulbar onset. We determined the median survivals from onset, diagnosis and initiation of NIV and factors predicting survival. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier test and Cox proportional hazard models. The median initial and maximal total uses of NIV were 10 and 14 h/24h. The overall median survival from ALS onset was 34.2 months and worsened with increasing age and bulbar onset of the disease. The median survival from initiation of NIV was 8.4 months and was significantly poorer in patients with advanced age or with airway mucus accumulation. Survival from initiation of NIV was not influenced by respiratory parameters or bulbar symptoms. Advanced age at diagnosis and airway mucus accumulation represent poorer prognostic factors of ALS patients treated with NIV. NIV is a helpful treatment of sleep-disordered breathing, including patients with bulbar involvement. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Early Prediction of Student Dropout and Performance in MOOCSs Using Higher Granularity Temporal Information

    Ye, Cheng; Biswas, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Our project is motivated by the early dropout and low completion rate problem in MOOCs. We have extended traditional features for MOOC analysis with richer and higher granularity information to make more accurate predictions of dropout and performance. The results show that finer-grained temporal information increases the predictive power in the…

  18. Predictive Coding Accelerates Word Recognition and Learning in the Early Stages of Language Development

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard…

  19. Does a dynamic test of phonological awareness predict early reading difficulties?

    Gellert, Anna Steenberg; Elbro, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    A few studies have indicated that dynamic measures of phonological awareness may contribute uniquely to the prediction of early reading development. However, standard control measures have been few and limited by floor effects, thus limiting their predictive value. The purpose of the present stud...

  20. [Evaluation of risk factors of falls in early postmenopausal women].

    Nahas, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Omodei, Michelle Sako; Cangussu, Luciana Mendes; Nahas-Neto, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    It was to evaluate the frequency and the risk factors of falls in early postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 358 women (age: 45-65 years and amenorrhea >12 months) with time since menopause fall was identified as an unexpected unintentional change in position which causes an individual to remain in a lower level in relation to the initial position. The history of self-reported falls during the previous 24 months, and clinical and anthropometric data (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) and bone densitometric measures were analyzed. For statistical analysis, c² trend test and the logistic regression method (odds ratio (OR)) were used for the comparison between groups of women with and without falls. Of the 358 women, 48.0% (172/358) had a history of falls and 17.4% (30/172) had fractures. The fall occurred indoors (at home) in 58.7% (101/172). The mean age was 53.7 ± 6.5 years, time since menopause 5.8 ± 3.5 years, BMI 28.3 ± 4.6 kg/m² and WC 89.0 ± 11.4 cm. There were differences as the occurrence of smoking and diabetes, with greater frequency among fallers vs. non-fallers, 25.6 versus 16.1% and 12.8 versus 5.9%, respectively (prisk of falls in the presence of influential variables, it was observed that risk increased with current smoking status (OR 1.93; 95%CI 1.01-3.71), whereas other clinical and anthropometric variables did not influence this risk. In early postmenopausal women there was higher frequency of falls. Current smoking was clinical indicators of risk for falls. With the recognition of factors for falling, preventive measures become important, as the orientation of abolishing smoking.

  1. FLAIR vascular hyperintensities predict early ischemic recurrence in TIA.

    Nam, Ki-Woong; Kim, Chi Kyung; Kim, Tae Jung; Oh, Kyungmi; Han, Moon-Ku; Ko, Sang-Bae; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2018-02-27

    To evaluate the relationship between fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) vascular hyperintensity (FVH) and early ischemic lesion recurrence (follow-up diffusion-weighted imaging [FU-DWI] [+]) in patients with lesion-negative TIA. We recruited consecutive patients with lesion-negative TIA within 24 hours of symptom onset, who underwent follow-up MRI during the acute period. FVH was defined as a focal or serpentine high signal intensity on FLAIR images. Other potential confounders were adjusted to evaluate the relationship between FVH and FU-DWI (+). Furthermore, to compare clinical outcomes between the FU-DWI (+) and FU-DWI (-) groups, we assessed 1-year recurrent ischemic stroke or TIA. Among 392 patients with lesion-negative TIA, 82 patients had FU-DWI (+) on the follow-up MRI. In the multivariate analysis, FVH remained an independent predictor of FU-DWI (+) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.45-9.29, p TIA. As FU-DWI (+) frequently occurs during the acute period and has a subsequent worse outcome after discharge, additional radiologic or clinical markers for it are necessary. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Working Memory Ability Predicts Trajectories of Early Alcohol Use in Adolescents: The Mediational Role of Impulsivity

    Khurana, Atika; Romer, Dan; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Hurt, Hallam

    2012-01-01

    Aims 1) To evaluate the role of pre-existing weakness in working memory ability (WM) as a risk factor for early alcohol use as mediated by different forms of impulsivity. 2) To assess the adverse effects of progressive alcohol use on variations in WM over time. Design, Setting and Participants A community sample of 358 adolescents [48% males, Meanage(baseline) = 11.4± 0.87 years] from a longitudinal cohort design, assessed annually over four consecutive years with less than 6% attrition. Measurements Repeated assessments were conducted for the following key variables: WM (based on performance on four separate tasks), frequency of alcohol use (AU), and three forms of impulsivity, namely sensation seeking (SS), acting-without-thinking (AWT) and delay discounting (DD). Latent growth curve modeling procedures were used to identify individual trajectories of change for all key variables. Findings Weakness in WM (at baseline) significantly predicted both concurrent alcohol use and increased frequency of use over the four waves (p memory (WM) rather than a cause of it. Efforts to reduce early alcohol use should consider the distinct roles of different impulsivity dimensions, in addition to WM, as potential targets of intervention. PMID:23033972

  3. Early prediction and outcome of septic encephalopathy in acute stroke patients with nosocomial coma.

    Tong, Dao-Ming; Zhou, Ye-Ting; Wang, Guang-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Tong-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Septic encephalopathy (SE) is the most common acute encephalopathy in ICU; however, little attention has been focused on risk of SE in the course of acute stroke. Our aim is to investigate the early prediction and outcome of SE in stroke patients with nosocomial coma (NC). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in an ICU of the tertiary teaching hospital in China from January 2006 to December 2009. Ninety-four acute stroke patients with NC were grouped according to with or without SE. Risk factors for patients with SE were compared with those without SE by univariate and multivariate analysis. Of 94 stroke patients with NC, 46 (49%) had NC with SE and 48 (51%) had NC without SE. The onset-to-NC time was significant later in stroke patients with SE than those without SE (P stroke patients with SE was higher than those without SE (76.1% vs. 45.8%, P = 0.003). High fever and severe SIRS are two early predictors of stroke patients with SE, and survival rates were worse in stroke patients with SE than those without SE.

  4. Early perception of medication benefit predicts subsequent antipsychotic response in schizophrenia: "the consumer has a point" revisited.

    Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Weiden, Peter; Nyhuis, Allen W; Faries, Douglas E; Stauffer, Virginia; Kollack-Walker, Sara; Kinon, Bruce J

    2014-07-01

    An easy-to-administer tool for predicting response to antipsychotic treatment could improve the acute management of patients with schizophrenia. We assessed whether a patient's perception of medication benefit early in treatment could predict subsequent response or nonresponse to continued use of the same treatment. This post hoc analysis used data from a randomized, open-label trial of antipsychotics for treatment of schizophrenia in which attitudes about medication adherence were assessed after two weeks of antipsychotic treatment using the Rating of Medication Influences (ROMI) scale. The analysis included 439 patients who had Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and ROMI scale data at Weeks 2 and 8. Scores on the ROMI subscale Perceived Medication Benefit factor were used to predict subsequent antipsychotic response at Week 8, defined as a .20% reduction from baseline on the PANSS. Logistic regression was used to identify a cut-off score for the Perceived Medication Benefit factor that could accurately identify antipsychotic responders vs. nonresponders at Week 8. A score of .2.75 (equal to a mean subscale score of .11.00) on the ROMI scale Perceived Medication Benefit factor at Week 2 predicted response at Week 8 with high specificity (72%) and negative predictive value (70%), moderate sensitivity (44%) and positive predictive value (47%), and with a 38% misclassification rate. A brief assessment of the patient's perception of medication benefit at two weeks into treatment appears to be a good predictor of subsequent response and nonresponse after eight weeks of treatment with the same antipsychotic.

  5. Alzheimer's disease prevention: from risk factors to early intervention.

    Crous-Bou, Marta; Minguillón, Carolina; Gramunt, Nina; Molinuevo, José Luis

    2017-09-12

    Due to the progressive aging of the population, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is becoming a healthcare burden of epidemic proportions for which there is currently no cure. Disappointing results from clinical trials performed in mild-moderate AD dementia combined with clear epidemiological evidence on AD risk factors are contributing to the development of primary prevention initiatives. In addition, the characterization of the long asymptomatic stage of AD is allowing the development of intervention studies and secondary prevention programmes on asymptomatic at-risk individuals, before substantial irreversible neuronal dysfunction and loss have occurred, an approach that emerges as highly relevant.In this manuscript, we review current strategies for AD prevention, from primary prevention strategies based on identifying risk factors and risk reduction, to secondary prevention initiatives based on the early detection of the pathophysiological hallmarks and intervention at the preclinical stage of the disease. Firstly, we summarize the evidence on several AD risk factors, which are the rationale for the establishment of primary prevention programmes as well as revising current primary prevention strategies. Secondly, we review the development of public-private partnerships for disease prevention that aim to characterize the AD continuum as well as serving as platforms for secondary prevention trials. Finally, we summarize currently ongoing clinical trials recruiting participants with preclinical AD or a higher risk for the onset of AD-related cognitive impairment.The growing body of research on the risk factors for AD and its preclinical stage is favouring the development of AD prevention programmes that, by delaying the onset of Alzheimer's dementia for only a few years, would have a huge impact on public health.

  6. Prediction of software operational reliability using testing environment factors

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1995-01-01

    For many years, many researches have focused on the quantification of software reliability and there are many models developed to quantify software reliability. Most software reliability models estimate the reliability with the failure data collected during the test assuming that the test environments well represent the operation profile. The experiences show that the operational reliability is higher than the test reliability User's interest is on the operational reliability rather than on the test reliability, however. With the assumption that the difference in reliability results from the change of environment, testing environment factors comprising the aging factor and the coverage factor are defined in this study to predict the ultimate operational reliability with the failure data. It is by incorporating test environments applied beyond the operational profile into testing environment factors. The application results are close to the actual data

  7. Predictive factors for cosmetic surgery: a hospital-based investigation.

    Li, Jun; Li, Qian; Zhou, Bei; Gao, Yanli; Ma, Jiehua; Li, Jingyun

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is becoming increasingly popular in China. However, reports on the predictive factors for cosmetic surgery in Chinese individuals are scarce in the literature. We retrospectively analyzed 4550 cosmetic surgeries performed from January 2010 to December 2014 at a single center in China. Data collection included patient demographics and type of cosmetic surgery. Predictive factors were age, sex, marital status, occupational status, educational degree, and having had children. Predictive factors for the three major cosmetic surgeries were determined using a logistic regression analysis. Patients aged 19-34 years accounted for the most popular surgical procedures (76.9 %). The most commonly requested procedures were eye surgery, Botox injection, and nevus removal. Logistic regression analysis showed that higher education level (college, P = 0.01, OR 1.21) was predictive for eye surgery. Age (19-34 years, P = 0.00, OR 33.39; 35-50, P = 0.00, OR 31.34; ≥51, P = 0.00, OR 16.42), female sex (P = 0.00, OR 9.19), employment (service occupations, P = 0.00, OR 2.31; non-service occupations, P = 0.00, OR 1.76), and higher education level (college, P = 0.00, OR 1.39) were independent predictive factors for Botox injection. Married status (P = 0.00, OR 1.57), employment (non-service occupations, P = 0.00, OR 1.50), higher education level (masters, P = 0.00, OR 6.61), and having children (P = 0.00, OR 1.45) were independent predictive factors for nevus removal. The principal three cosmetic surgeries (eye surgery, Botox injection, and nevus removal) were associated with multiple variables. Patients employed in non-service occupations were more inclined to undergo Botox injection and nevus removal. Cohort study, Level III.

  8. Factors predicting successful discontinuation of continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Katayama, S; Uchino, S; Uji, M; Ohnuma, T; Namba, Y; Kawarazaki, H; Toki, N; Takeda, K; Yasuda, H; Izawa, J; Tokuhira, N; Nagata, I

    2016-07-01

    This multicentre, retrospective observational study was conducted from January 2010 to December 2010 to determine the optimal time for discontinuing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) by evaluating factors predictive of successful discontinuation in patients with acute kidney injury. Analysis was performed for patients after CRRT was discontinued because of renal function recovery. Patients were divided into two groups according to the success or failure of CRRT discontinuation. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, urine output at discontinuation, creatinine level and CRRT duration were found to be significant variables (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for urine output, 0.814). In conclusion, we found that higher urine output, lower creatinine and shorter CRRT duration were significant factors to predict successful discontinuation of CRRT.

  9. Predictive factors for somatization in a trauma sample

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Unexplained somatic symptoms are common among trauma survivors. The relationship between trauma and somatization appears to be mediated by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, only few studies have focused on what other psychological risk factors may predispose...... a trauma victim towards developing somatoform symptoms. METHODS: The present paper examines the predictive value of PTSD severity, dissociation, negative affectivity, depression, anxiety, and feeling incompetent on somatization in a Danish sample of 169 adult men and women who were affected by a series...... of incompetence significantly predicted somatization in the trauma sample whereas dissociation, depression, and anxiety were not associated with degree of somatization. PTSD as a risk factor was mediated by negative affectivity....

  10. Semen parameters can be predicted from environmental factors and lifestyle using artificial intelligence methods.

    Girela, Jose L; Gil, David; Johnsson, Magnus; Gomez-Torres, María José; De Juan, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    Fertility rates have dramatically decreased in the last two decades, especially in men. It has been described that environmental factors as well as life habits may affect semen quality. In this paper we use artificial intelligence techniques in order to predict semen characteristics resulting from environmental factors, life habits, and health status, with these techniques constituting a possible decision support system that can help in the study of male fertility potential. A total of 123 young, healthy volunteers provided a semen sample that was analyzed according to the World Health Organization 2010 criteria. They also were asked to complete a validated questionnaire about life habits and health status. Sperm concentration and percentage of motile sperm were related to sociodemographic data, environmental factors, health status, and life habits in order to determine the predictive accuracy of a multilayer perceptron network, a type of artificial neural network. In conclusion, we have developed an artificial neural network that can predict the results of the semen analysis based on the data collected by the questionnaire. The semen parameter that is best predicted using this methodology is the sperm concentration. Although the accuracy for motility is slightly lower than that for concentration, it is possible to predict it with a significant degree of accuracy. This methodology can be a useful tool in early diagnosis of patients with seminal disorders or in the selection of candidates to become semen donors.

  11. Incidence and predicting factors of falls of older inpatients

    Hellen Cristina de Almeida Abreu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and predicting factors associated with falls among older inpatients. METHODS Prospective cohort study conducted in clinical units of three hospitals in Cuiaba, MT, Midwestern Brazil, from March to August 2013. In this study, 221 inpatients aged 60 or over were followed until hospital discharge, death, or fall. The method of incidence density was used to calculate incidence rates. Bivariate analysis was performed by Chi-square test, and multiple analysis was performed by Cox regression. RESULTS The incidence of falls was 12.6 per 1,000 patients/day. Predicting factors for falls during hospitalization were: low educational level (RR = 2.48; 95%CI 1.17;5.25, polypharmacy (RR = 4.42; 95%CI 1.77;11.05, visual impairment (RR = 2.06; 95%CI 1.01;4.23, gait and balance impairment (RR = 2.95; 95%CI 1.22;7.14, urinary incontinence (RR = 5.67; 95%CI 2.58;12.44 and use of laxatives (RR = 4.21; 95%CI 1.15;15.39 and antipsychotics (RR = 4.10; 95%CI 1.38;12.13. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of falls of older inpatients is high. Predicting factors found for falls were low education level, polypharmacy, visual impairment, gait and balance impairment, urinary incontinence and use of laxatives and antipsychotics. Measures to prevent falls in hospitals are needed to reduce the incidence of this event.

  12. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants.

    Roberts, G; Bellinger, D; McCormick, M C

    2007-03-01

    Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature (mathematics. Potential predictor variables were categorized into 4 domains: sociodemographic, neonatal, maternal mental health and early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Regression analysis was used to create a model to predict reading and mathematics scores. Variables from all domains were significant in the model, predicting low achievement scores in reading (R (2) of 0.49, model p-value mathematics (R (2) of 0.44, model p-value intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Lower mathematics scores were predicted by lower maternal education, income and age and Black or Hispanic race (sociodemographic); lower birth weight and higher head circumference (neonatal); lower maternal responsivity (maternal mental health); lower intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Sequential early childhood risk factors in premature and LBW children lead to a cumulative risk for academic difficulties and can be used for early identification.

  13. A 3-Year Study of Predictive Factors for Positive and Negative Appendicectomies.

    Chang, Dwayne T S; Maluda, Melissa; Lee, Lisa; Premaratne, Chandrasiri; Khamhing, Srisongham

    2018-03-06

    Early and accurate identification or exclusion of acute appendicitis is the key to avoid the morbidity of delayed treatment for true appendicitis or unnecessary appendicectomy, respectively. We aim (i) to identify potential predictive factors for positive and negative appendicectomies; and (ii) to analyse the use of ultrasound scans (US) and computed tomography (CT) scans for acute appendicitis. All appendicectomies that took place at our hospital from the 1st of January 2013 to the 31st of December 2015 were retrospectively recorded. Test results of potential predictive factors of acute appendicitis were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher exact test, logistic regression analysis, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values calculation. 208 patients were included in this study. 184 patients had histologically proven acute appendicitis. The other 24 patients had either nonappendicitis pathology or normal appendix. Logistic regression analysis showed statistically significant associations between appendicitis and white cell count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, and bilirubin. Neutrophil count was the test with the highest sensitivity and negative predictive values, whereas bilirubin was the test with the highest specificity and positive predictive values (PPV). US and CT scans had high sensitivity and PPV for diagnosing appendicitis. No single test was sufficient to diagnose or exclude acute appendicitis by itself. Combining tests with high sensitivity (abnormal neutrophil count, and US and CT scans) and high specificity (raised bilirubin) may predict acute appendicitis more accurately.

  14. Perspectives on using remotely-sensed imagery in predictive veterinary epidemiology and global early warning systems.

    Martin, Vincent; De Simone, Lorenzo; Lubroth, Juan; Ceccato, Pietro; Chevalier, Véronique

    2007-11-01

    Recent disease epidemics and their spread around the world have illustrated the weaknesses of disease surveillance and early warning systems (EWS), both at national and international levels. These diseases continuously threaten the livestock sector on a worldwide basis, some with major public health impact. EWS and accurate forecasting of new outbreaks of epidemic livestock diseases that may also affect wildlife, and the capacity for spread of such diseases to new areas is an essential pre-requisite to their effective containment and control. Because both the geographical and seasonal distribution of many infectious diseases are linked to climate, the possibility of using climaterelated environmental factors as predictive indicators, in association with regular disease surveillance activities, has proven to be relevant when establishing EWS for climate-related diseases. This article reviews the growing importance of using geographical information systems in predictive veterinary epidemiology and its integration into EWS, with a special focus on Rift Valley fever. It shows that, once fully validated in a country or region, this technology appears highly valuable and could play an increasing role in forecasting major epidemics, providing lead time to national veterinary services to take action to mitigate the impact of the disease in a cost-effective manner.

  15. ERPs recorded during early second language exposure predict syntactic learning.

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J

    2014-09-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In this study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners' proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High-proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared with closed-class function words, whereas low-proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners' L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition.

  16. Predictive factors associated with death of elderly in nursing homes.

    Sung, Kiwol

    2014-06-01

    An increasing elderly population reflects a great need for readily accessible, clinically useful methods to identify mortality-related factors in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the deaths of nursing home residents. Data was collected from a Minimal Data Set of 195 elderly nursing home residents, followed by analysis of demographic factors, disease and nursing condition factors, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), cognitive function, behavioral patterns, and dysfunctional status. Major factors associated with death among nursing home residents were identified as dyspnea (odds ratio [OR] = 4.88), problematic behaviors (OR = 3.95), and ADL (OR = 3.61). These variables accounted for 31.1% of the variance in death. Dyspnea, problematic behaviors, and ADL data were identified as the key factors associated with death among nursing home residents. Future plans for the prediction of death among nursing home residents can be made by nursing staff, factoring in these identified variables, to ensure more comfortable conditions and more responsive care. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Predictive factors of dropout from inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa.

    Roux, H; Ali, A; Lambert, S; Radon, L; Huas, C; Curt, F; Berthoz, S; Godart, Nathalie

    2016-09-30

    Patients with severe Anorexia Nervosa (AN) whose condition is life-threatening or who are not receiving adequate ambulatory care are hospitalized. However, 40 % of these patients leave the hospital prematurely, without reaching the target weight set in the treatment plan, and this can compromise outcome. This study set out to explore factors predictive of dropout from hospital treatment among patients with AN, in the hope of identifying relevant therapeutic targets. From 2009 to 2011, 180 women hospitalized for AN (DSM-IV diagnosis) in 10 centres across France were divided into two groups: those under 18 years (when the decision to discharge belongs to the parents) and those aged 18 years and over (when the patient can legally decide to leave the hospital). Both groups underwent clinical assessment using the Morgan & Russell Global Outcome State questionnaire and the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) for assessment of eating disorder symptoms and outcome. Psychological aspects were assessed via the evaluation of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Socio-demographic data were also collected. A number of factors identified in previous research as predictive of dropout from hospital treatment were tested using stepwise descending Cox regressions. We found that factors predictive of dropout varied according to age groups (being under 18 as opposed to 18 and over). For participants under 18, predictive factors were living in a single-parent family, severe intake restriction as measured on the "dietary restriction" subscale of the Morgan & Russell scale, and a low patient-reported score on the EDE-Q "restraint concerns" subscale. For those over 18, dropout was predicted from a low depression score on the HADS, low level of concern about weight on the EDE-Q subscale, and lower educational status. To prevent dropout from hospitalization for AN, the appropriate therapeutic measures vary according to whether

  18. Aneuploidy in Early Miscarriage and its Related Factors

    Chan-Wei Jia; Li Wang; Yong-Lian Lan; Rui Song; Li-Yin Zhou; Lan Yu; Yang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Genetic factors are the main cause of early miscarriage.This study aimed to investigate aneuploidy in spontaneous abortion by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probes for 13,16,18,21,22,X and Y chromosomes.Methods:A total of 840 chorionic samples from spontaneous abortion were collected and examined by FISH.We analyzed the incidence and type of abnormal cases and sex ratio in the samples.We also analyzed the relationship between the rate of aneuploidy and parental age,the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent abortion and sporadic abortion,the difference in incidence of aneuploidy between samples from previous artificial abortion and those from no previous induced abortion.Results:A total of 832 samples were finally analyzed.368 (44.23%) were abnormal,in which 84.24% (310/368) were aneuploidies and 15.76% (58/368) were polyploidies.The first was trisomy16 (121/310),followed by trisomy 22,and X monosomy.There was no significant difference in the rate ofaneuploidy in the advanced maternal age group (≥35 years old) and young maternal age group (<35 years old).However,the rate oftrisomy 22 and the total rate oftrisomies 21,13,and 18 (the number oftrisomy 21 plus trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 together) showed significantly different in two groups.We found no skewed sex ratio.There was no significant difference in the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent miscarriage and sporadic abortion or between the samples from previous artificial abortion and those from no previous artificial abortion.Conclusions:Aneuploidy is a principal factor of miscarriage and total parental age is a risk factor.There is no skewed sex ratio in spontaneous abortion.There is also no difference in the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent abortion and sporadic abortion or between previous artificial abortion and no previous induced abortion.

  19. Predictive factors for anterior chamber fibrin formation after vitreoretinal surgery

    Leonardo Provetti Cunha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate possible predictive factors related to anterior chamber fibrin formation after vitreoretinal surgery in a large series of patients. Methods: The data of 185 eyes of 185 patients submitted to vitreoretinal surgery was reviewed. The following variables were evaluated: the postoperatively presence of fibrin, age, diabetes mellitus, the vitrectomy system gauge (20, 23 or 25 gauge, the type of vitreous substitute, the influence of prior surgical procedures and the combination with cataract extraction. To evaluate predictive factors for anterior chamber fibrin formation, univariate analysis was performed. A multivariate stepwise logistic regression model was adjusted to investigate factors associated with fibrin formation (p<0.05. Results: Fibrinoid anterior chamber reaction was found in 12 (6.4% patients. For multivariate logistic regression analysis, balanced salt solution (BSS, the chance of fibrin occurrence was 5 times greater (odds ratio 4.83, CI 95% 1.302 - 17.892; p=0.019, while combination with phacoemulsification increased the chance of fibrin formation by 20 times (odds ratio 20, CI 95% 2.480 - 161.347; p=0.005. No significant difference was found regarding other variables. Conclusion: Anterior chamber fibrin formation is an unwanted complication after vitreoretinal surgery. Factors such as combined performance of phacoemulsification and the use of balanced salt solution as a vitreous substitute may predispose the occurrence of this complication.

  20. Factors predicting labor induction success: a critical analysis.

    Crane, Joan M G

    2006-09-01

    Because of the risk of failed induction of labor, a variety of maternal and fetal factors as well as screening tests have been suggested to predict labor induction success. Certain characteristics of the woman (including parity, age, weight, height and body mass index), and of the fetus (including birth weight and gestational age) are associated with the success of labor induction; with parous, young women who are taller and lower weight having a higher rate of induction success. Fetuses with a lower birth weight or increased gestational age are also associated with increased induction success. The condition of the cervix at the start of induction is an important predictor, with the modified Bishop score being a widely used scoring system. The most important element of the Bishop score is dilatation. Other predictors, including transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and biochemical markers [including fetal fibronectin (fFN)] have been suggested. Meta-analyses of studies identified from MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE and published from 1990 to October 2005 were performed evaluating the use of TVUS and fFN in predicting labor induction success in women at term with singleton gestations. Both TVUS and Bishop score predicted successful induction [likelihood ratio (LR)=1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.51-2.20 and LR=2.10, 95%CI=1.67-2.64, respectively]. As well, fFN and Bishop score predicted successful induction (LR=1.49, 95%CI=1.20-1.85, and LR=2.62, 95%CI=1.88-3.64, respectively). Although TVUS and fFN predicted successful labor induction, neither has been shown to be superior to Bishop score. Further research is needed to evaluate these potential predictors and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), another potential biochemical marker.

  1. Study of early pregnancy factor (EPF) in equine (Equus caballus).

    Ohnuma, K; Yokoo, M; Ito, K; Nambo, Y; Miyake, Y I; Komatsu, M; Takahashi, J

    2000-03-01

    Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is an immunosuppressive protein detected in the early pregnancy serum. We have already reported that we developed the rosette inhibition test for mare EPF and detected EPF in thoroughbreds. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not our method could be used clinically. The rosette inhibition test for equine EPF was carried out on serum from six nonpregnant and six pregnant Shetland ponies, a female and a male Chinese pony, and four nonpregnant and 13 pregnant thoroughbred mares. In the thoroughbreds sera were collected during the pregnancy period. Furthermore, we measured progesterone and detected pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) in order to confirm pregnancy of the Chinese pony 3 and 6 months after mating. In the nonpregnant Shetland ponies, the rosette inhibition titre (RIT) was 6.0+/-1.0 and EPF was negative. In contrast, in the pregnant ponies, the RIT was 9.2+/-0.4 and EPF was positive. Based on these results, we diagnosed pregnancy of the Chinese pony. The RIT of the female Chinese pony (3 months after mating) was above 10 and EPF was positive. Furthermore, we detected PMSG and progesterone in the serum of this pony. EPF appeared in the maternal blood circulation at 24-72 hr after mating, it was detected until the second trimester, and after that it disappeared from the maternal serum. The pony's EPF was detected by using the same rosette inhibition test as in the thoroughbred and was present from 24 to 72 hr after mating until the second trimester. The results indicated that our method was useful for pregnancy diagnosis of Equine.

  2. Resting Heart Rate Predicts Depression and Cognition Early after Ischemic Stroke: A Pilot Study.

    Tessier, Arnaud; Sibon, Igor; Poli, Mathilde; Audiffren, Michel; Allard, Michèle; Pfeuty, Micha

    2017-10-01

    Early detection of poststroke depression (PSD) and cognitive impairment (PSCI) remains challenging. It is well documented that the function of autonomic nervous system is associated with depression and cognition. However, their relationship has never been investigated in the early poststroke phase. This pilot study aimed at determining whether resting heart rate (HR) parameters measured in early poststroke phase (1) are associated with early-phase measures of depression and cognition and (2) could be used as new tools for early objective prediction of PSD or PSCI, which could be applicable to patients unable to answer usual questionnaires. Fifty-four patients with first-ever ischemic stroke, without cardiac arrhythmia, were assessed for resting HR and heart rate variability (HRV) within the first week after stroke and for depression and cognition during the first week and at 3 months after stroke. Multiple regression analyses controlled for age, gender, and stroke severity revealed that higher HR, lower HRV, and higher sympathovagal balance (low-frequency/high-frequency ratio of HRV) were associated with higher severity of depressive symptoms within the first week after stroke. Furthermore, higher sympathovagal balance in early phase predicted higher severity of depressive symptoms at the 3-month follow-up, whereas higher HR and lower HRV in early phase predicted lower global cognitive functioning at the 3-month follow-up. Resting HR measurements obtained in early poststroke phase could serve as an objective tool, applicable to patients unable to complete questionnaires, to help in the early prediction of PSD and PSCI. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Can preoperative and postoperative CA19-9 levels predict survival and early recurrence in patients with resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma?

    Wang, Jun-Ke; Hu, Hai-Jie; Shrestha, Anuj; Ma, Wen-Jie; Yang, Qin; Liu, Fei; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Li, Fu-Yu

    2017-07-11

    To investigate the predictive values of preoperative and postoperative serum CA19-9 levels on survival and other prognostic factors including early recurrence in patients with resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. In univariate analysis, increased preoperative and postoperative CA19-9 levels in the light of different cut-off points (37, 100, 150, 200, 400, 1000 U/ml) were significantly associated with poor survival outcomes, of which the cut-off point of 150 U/ml showed the strongest predictive value (both P 150 U/ml was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (OR = 3.471, 95% CI 1.216-9.905; P = 0.020) and early recurrence (OR = 8.280, 95% CI 2.391-28.674; P = 0.001). Meanwhile, postoperative CA19-9 level > 150 U/ml was also correlated with early recurrence (OR = 4.006, 95% CI 1.107-14.459; P = 0.034). Ninety-eight patients who had undergone curative surgery for hilar cholangiocarcinoma between 1995 and 2014 in our institution were selected for the study. The correlations of preoperative and postoperative serum CA19-9 levels on the basis of different cut-off points with survival and various tumor factors were retrospectively analyzed with univariate and multivariate methods. In patients with resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma, serum CA19-9 predict survival and early recurrence. Patients with increased preoperative and postoperative CA19-9 levels have poor survival outcomes and higher tendency of early recurrence.

  4. Early hospital readmission for gastrointestinal-related complications predicts long-term mortality after pancreatectomy.

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Craig-Schapiro, Rebecca; Valero, Vicente; Cameron, John L; Eckhauser, Frederic E; Hirose, Kenzo; Makary, Martin A; Pawlik, Timothy M; Ahuja, Nita; Weiss, Matthew J; Wolfgang, Christopher L

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of early (30-day) hospital readmission (EHR) on mortality after pancreatectomy. Using a prospectively collected institutional database linked with a statewide dataset, we evaluated the association between EHR and overall mortality in all patients undergoing pancreatectomy at our tertiary institution (2005 to 2010). Of 595 pancreatectomy patients, EHR occurred in 21.5%. Overall mortality was 29.4% (median follow-up 22.7 months). Patients with EHR had decreased survival compared with those who were not readmitted (P = .011). On multivariate analysis adjusting for baseline group differences, EHR for gastrointestinal-related complications was a significant independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio 2.30, P = .001). In addition to known risk factors, 30-day readmission for gastrointestinal-related complications following pancreatectomy independently predicts increased mortality. Additional studies are necessary to identify surgical, medical, and social factors contributing to EHR, as well as interventions aimed at decreasing postpancreatectomy morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342

  6. Fine motor skills predict maths ability better than they predict reading ability in the early primary school years

    Nicola J. Pitchford

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills have long been recognised as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the U.K. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first two years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the U.K. that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  7. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years.

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  8. High serum lactate as an adjunct in the early prediction of anastomotic leak following oesophagectomy.

    Ip, B; Ng, K T; Packer, S; Paterson-Brown, S; Couper, G W

    2017-10-01

    Anastomotic leak (AL) following oesophagectomy carries a high mortality and morbidity. Early detection and intervention is required for a successful outcome. We have examined the role of a high postoperative serum lactate in predicting which patients are at risk of developing an anastomotic leak(AL). All patients who underwent transthoracic oesophagectomy over a 3-year period were identified from a prospectively collected database. Medical records were reviewed to identify the highest serum lactate recorded from blood gas analysis over each 24hr post-operative period. Patients who underwent transhiatal and left thoraco-abdominal oesophagectomies were excluded. Patients who developed a chyle leak were excluded. Of a total of 136 oesophagectomies included for analysis, 18 developed an AL (13.2%). Of these patients, 10 underwent thoracoscopic oesophageal mobilization with cervical anastomosis and the rest an Ivor Lewis procedure. Predictive factors for AL included neoadjuvant chemotherapy (15/18 83.3% vs 55/118 46.6% p = 0.0046) and number of positive lymph nodes (mean 4.2 vs control mean 2.3 p = 0.045). Overall net fluid balance was comparable between the 2 groups, although AL patients received slightly more fluid on Day 3. High lactate levels on days 1-3 were associated with an AL. Using a Day 2 lactate of 1.7 mmol/L, the sensitivity of predicting AL was 72% and specificity 88%. The mean lag time using existing diagnostic modalities was 7.9 days. A serum lactate of >1.7 mmol/l on day 2 should raise the possibility of a potential AL. Such patients should be selected for more intensive monitoring, optimization and selective gastroscopy. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early prediction of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia by early parathyroid hormone measurement.

    Yetkin, Gurkan; Citgez, Bulent; Yazici, Pinar; Mihmanli, Mehmet; Sit, Erhan; Uludag, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is the most common complication of total thyroidectomy (TT). Postthyroidectomy hypocalcemia occurs 24 to 48 hours after the operation. It prolongs the length of hospital stay, even though transient in most cases. The aim of this study was to predetermine the patients who may develop postthyroidectomy hypocalcemia by using early postoperative serum intact parathormone (iPTH) and calcium (Ca2+) measurements, and to investigate the effects of early initiated oral calcium and vitamin D treatments on the development of transient hypocalcemia. Patients who underwent TT after initiation of the early iPTH measurement protocol in January 2013 were included into the study group (Group 1, n=202). The control group (Group 2) was composed of 72 patients who underwent TT before the protocol. Prior to the initiation of the protocol, Ca2+ was measured instead of iPTH. In the study group, the serum Ca2+ and iPTH levels were measured before surgery, and 1 and 24-hours after. A calcium level below 8 mg/dL was accepted as biochemical hypocalcaemia, and a iPTH level under 15pg/mL was accepted as hypoparathyroidism. In the study group, patients with below normal iPTH levels were treated with prophylactic oral calcium and vitamin D. In Group 1, 15.8% (n=32) of the patients had hypoparathyroidism on the 1h and 24 h iPTH measurements. There was no statistically difference with regard to PTH levels measured in the postoperative 1st hour and at the 24th hour (p= 0.078). Biochemical hypocalcaemia developed in 16 (7.9%) and 13 (18%) patients in Groups 1 and 2, respectively, 24 hours after thyroidectomy (peffective management of plausible postthyroidectomic hypocalcemia. It yields significantly shorter hospital stay periods. Calcium, Hypoparathyroidism, Postoperative complication, Total thyroidectomy.

  10. Early hematologic changes during prostate cancer radiotherapy predictive for late urinary and bowel toxicity

    Pinkawa, Michael; Djukic, Victoria; Klotz, Jens; Holy, Richard; Eble, Michael J. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aachen (Germany); Ribbing, Carolina [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The primary objective of the study was to identify early hematologic changes predictive for radiotherapy (RT)-associated genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity. In a group of 91 prostate cancer patients presenting for primary (n = 51) or postoperative (n = 40) curative RT, blood samples (blood count, acute phase proteins, and cytokines) were analyzed before (T1), three times during (T2-T4), and 6-8 weeks after (T5) radiotherapy. Before RT (baseline), on the last day (acute toxicity), a median of 2 months and 16 months (late toxicity) after RT, patients responded to a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Acute score changes > 20 points and late changes > 10 points were considered clinically relevant. Radiotherapy resulted in significant changes of hematologic parameters, with the largest effect on lymphocytes (mean decrease of 31-45 %) and significant dependence on target volume. C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation > 5 mg/l and hemoglobin level decrease ≥ 5 G/1 at T2 were found to be independently predictive for acute urinary toxicity (p < 0.01, respectively). CRP elevation was predominantly detected in primary prostate RT (p = 0.02). Early lymphocyte level elevation ≥ 0.3G/l at T2 was protective against late urinary and bowel toxicity (p = 0.02, respectively). Other significant predictive factors for late bowel toxicity were decreasing hemoglobin levels (cut-off ≥ 5 G/l) at T2 (p = 0.04); changes of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor; p = 0.03) and ferritin levels (p = 0.02) at T5. All patients with late bowel toxicity had interleukin (IL)-6 levels < 1.5 ng/l at T2 (63 % without; p = 0.01). Early hematologic changes during prostate cancer radiotherapy are predictive for late urinary and bowel toxicity. (orig.) [German] Das primaere Ziel der Studie war die Identifikation von fruehen haematologischen Veraenderungen mit praediktiver Bedeutung fuer radiotherapieassoziierte genitourinale und gastrointestinale Toxizitaet. In einer

  11. Early liver allograft dysfunction: risk factors, clinical course and outcomes

    Ya. G. Moysyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early liver allograft dysfunction (EAD is associated with a high incidence of graft loss and patient mortality in the first 6 weeks after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT.The aim of this retrospective single-center study is to identify the risk factors of EAD and to compare the short- and long-term results in EAD and non-EAD groups.Materials and methods. The results of 213 consecutive deceased donor liver transplantations performed between December 2004 and February 2015 were included in the analysis. Indications for OLT were non-viral liver cirrhosis in 52% of cases, viral hepatitis C or B in 34 %, hepatocellular carcinoma in 8 %; retransplantations were performed in 6% of cases due to previous liver graft dysfunction. EAD was defined by Olthoff criteria (Olthoff et al., 2010.Results. Overall incidence of EAD was 41.3%, including 5.6% of primary non-function grafts (PNF, i.e. irreversible EAD. No significant differences between EAD and non-EAD groups were seen either among donors in their age, gender, cause of death, bilirubin, plasma sodium level, aminotransferases aktivity, or among the recipients in their age, gender, body mass index, MELD. Retransplantation, donor time on mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit for more than 2 days, highrisk donor category, transplant surgery duration more than 9.5 hours, and cold ischemia time (CIT > 8 hours were independent significant risk factors of EAD in a multivariate model. A 42-day mortality rates were 18.2% in EAD group (mostly due to PNF without urgent retransplantanion in 9.1%, and 0% in non-EAD group. Long-term results in EAD group were also significantly poorer: 1-, 5-, and 10-year graft survival rates were 74%, 68%, and 64%, respectively, versus 96%, 90%, and 83% in non-EAD group, Log-rank p = 0.0001.Conclusion. EAD significantly (≈ 20% decreases the short-term graft and patient survival rates. Meanwhile, a reversible EAD has no impact on long-term results

  12. Drug-Target Interaction Prediction with Graph Regularized Matrix Factorization.

    Ezzat, Ali; Zhao, Peilin; Wu, Min; Li, Xiao-Li; Kwoh, Chee-Keong

    2017-01-01

    Experimental determination of drug-target interactions is expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, there is a continuous demand for more accurate predictions of interactions using computational techniques. Algorithms have been devised to infer novel interactions on a global scale where the input to these algorithms is a drug-target network (i.e., a bipartite graph where edges connect pairs of drugs and targets that are known to interact). However, these algorithms had difficulty predicting interactions involving new drugs or targets for which there are no known interactions (i.e., "orphan" nodes in the network). Since data usually lie on or near to low-dimensional non-linear manifolds, we propose two matrix factorization methods that use graph regularization in order to learn such manifolds. In addition, considering that many of the non-occurring edges in the network are actually unknown or missing cases, we developed a preprocessing step to enhance predictions in the "new drug" and "new target" cases by adding edges with intermediate interaction likelihood scores. In our cross validation experiments, our methods achieved better results than three other state-of-the-art methods in most cases. Finally, we simulated some "new drug" and "new target" cases and found that GRMF predicted the left-out interactions reasonably well.

  13. Link Prediction via Convex Nonnegative Matrix Factorization on Multiscale Blocks

    Enming Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low rank matrices approximations have been used in link prediction for networks, which are usually global optimal methods and lack of using the local information. The block structure is a significant local feature of matrices: entities in the same block have similar values, which implies that links are more likely to be found within dense blocks. We use this insight to give a probabilistic latent variable model for finding missing links by convex nonnegative matrix factorization with block detection. The experiments show that this method gives better prediction accuracy than original method alone. Different from the original low rank matrices approximations methods for link prediction, the sparseness of solutions is in accord with the sparse property for most real complex networks. Scaling to massive size network, we use the block information mapping matrices onto distributed architectures and give a divide-and-conquer prediction method. The experiments show that it gives better results than common neighbors method when the networks have a large number of missing links.

  14. Psychosocial risk factors for hospital readmission in COPD patients on early discharge services: a cohort study

    Todd Christopher J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital readmission for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD occurs in up to 30% of patients, leading to excess morbidity and poor survival. Physiological risk factors predict readmission, but the impact of modifiable psychosocial risk factors remains uncertain. We aimed to evaluate whether psychosocial risk factors independently predict readmission for AECOPD in patients referred to early discharge services (EDS. Methods This prospective cohort study included 79 patients with AECOPD cared for by nurse led EDS in the UK, and followed up for 12 months. Data on lung function, medical comorbidities, previous hospital admissions, medications, and sociodemographics were collected at baseline; St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and social support were measured at baseline, 3 and 12-months. Exploratory multivariate models were fitted to identify psychosocial factors associated with readmission adjusted for known confounders. Results 26 patients were readmitted within 90 days and 60 patients were readmitted at least once during follow-up. Depression at baseline predicted readmission adjusted for sociodemographics and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (odds ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.60, p = 0.013. Perceived social support was not significantly associated with risk of readmission. Home ownership was associated with the total number of readmissions (B = 0.46, 95% CI -0.86 to -0.06, p = 0.024. Compared with those not readmitted, readmitted patients had worse SGRQ and HADS scores at 12 months. Conclusion Depressive symptoms and socioeconomic status, but not perceived social support, predict risk of readmission and readmission frequency for AECOPD in patients cared for by nurse-led EDS. Future work on reducing demand for unscheduled hospital admissions could include the design and evaluation of interventions aimed at optimising the psychosocial care of AECOPD patients managed at

  15. Evaluation of possible associated factors for early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries: a multicenter cross-sectional survey

    Özen, B.; van Strijp, A.J.P.; Özer, L.; Olmus, H.; Genc, A.; Cehreli, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluated associated factors for developing early childhood caries (ECC) and Severe-ECC (S-ECC) in a group of children aged 24–71 months. Potential positive effects of early dental visit on formation of ECC is investigated as well. Study Design: This was a multicenter,

  16. Predictive factors of thyroid cancer in patients with Graves' disease.

    Ren, Meng; Wu, Mu Chao; Shang, Chang Zhen; Wang, Xiao Yi; Zhang, Jing Lu; Cheng, Hua; Xu, Ming Tong; Yan, Li

    2014-01-01

    The best preoperative examination in Graves' disease with thyroid cancer still remains uncertain. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of thyroid cancer in Graves' disease patients, and to identify the predictive factors and ultrasonographic features of thyroid cancer that may aid the preoperative diagnosis in Graves' disease. This retrospective study included 423 patients with Graves' disease who underwent surgical treatment from 2002 to 2012 at our institution. The clinical features and ultrasonographic findings of thyroid nodules were recorded. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was determined according to the pathological results. Thyroid cancer was discovered in 58 of the 423 (13.7 %) surgically treated Graves' disease patients; 46 of those 58 patients had thyroid nodules, and the other 12 patients were diagnosed with incidentally discovered thyroid carcinomas without thyroid nodules. Among the 58 patients with thyroid cancer, papillary microcarcinomas were discovered in 50 patients, and multifocality and lymph node involvement were detected in the other 8 patients. Multivariate regression analysis showed younger age was the only significant factor predictive of metastatic thyroid cancer. Ultrasonographic findings of calcification and intranodular blood flow in thyroid nodules indicate that they are more likely to harbor thyroid cancers. Because the influencing factor of metastatic thyroid cancers in Graves' disease is young age, every suspicious nodule in Graves' disease patients should be evaluated and treated carefully, especially in younger patients because of the potential for metastasis.

  17. Intraoperative Factors that Predict the Successful Placement of Essure Microinserts.

    Arthuis, Chloé J; Simon, Emmanuel G; Hébert, Thomas; Marret, Henri

    To determine whether the number of coils visualized in the uterotubal junction at the end of hysteroscopic microinsert placement predicts successful tubal occlusion. Cohort retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Department of obstetrics and gynecology in a teaching hospital. One hundred fifty-three women underwent tubal microinsert placement for permanent birth control from 2010 through 2014. The local institutional review board approved this study. Three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (3D TVU) was routinely performed 3 months after hysteroscopic microinsert placement to check position in the fallopian tube. The correlation between the number of coils visible at the uterotubal junction at the end of the hysteroscopic microinsert placement procedure and the device position on the 3-month follow-up 3D TVU in 141 patients was evaluated. The analysis included 276 microinserts placed during hysteroscopy. The median number of coils visible after the hysteroscopic procedure was 4 (interquartile range, 3-5). Devices for 30 patients (21.3%) were incorrectly positioned according to the 3-month follow-up 3D TVU, and hysterosalpingography was recommended. In those patients the median number of coils was in both the right (interquartile range, 2-4) and left (interquartile range, 1-3) uterotubal junctions. The number of coils visible at the uterotubal junction at the end of the placement procedure was the only factor that predicted whether the microinsert was well positioned at the 3-month 3D TVU confirmation (odds ratio, .44; 95% confidence interval, .28-.63). When 5 or more coils were visible, no incorrectly placed microinsert could be seen on the follow-up 3D TVU; the negative predictive value was 100%. No pregnancies were reported. The number of coils observed at the uterotubal junction at the time of microinsert placement should be considered a significant predictive factor of accurate and successful microinsert placement. Copyright © 2017

  18. Profiling persistent tubercule bacilli from patient sputa during therapy predicts early drug efficacy.

    Honeyborne, Isobella; McHugh, Timothy D; Kuittinen, Iitu; Cichonska, Anna; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios; Ronacher, Katharina; van Helden, Paul D; Gillespie, Stephen H; Fernandez-Reyes, Delmiro; Walzl, Gerhard; Rousu, Juho; Butcher, Philip D; Waddell, Simon J

    2016-04-07

    New treatment options are needed to maintain and improve therapy for tuberculosis, which caused the death of 1.5 million people in 2013 despite potential for an 86 % treatment success rate. A greater understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) bacilli that persist through drug therapy will aid drug development programs. Predictive biomarkers for treatment efficacy are also a research priority. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling was used to map the mRNA signatures of M.tb from the sputa of 15 patients before and 3, 7 and 14 days after the start of standard regimen drug treatment. The mRNA profiles of bacilli through the first 2 weeks of therapy reflected drug activity at 3 days with transcriptional signatures at days 7 and 14 consistent with reduced M.tb metabolic activity similar to the profile of pre-chemotherapy bacilli. These results suggest that a pre-existing drug-tolerant M.tb population dominates sputum before and after early drug treatment, and that the mRNA signature at day 3 marks the killing of a drug-sensitive sub-population of bacilli. Modelling patient indices of disease severity with bacterial gene expression patterns demonstrated that both microbiological and clinical parameters were reflected in the divergent M.tb responses and provided evidence that factors such as bacterial load and disease pathology influence the host-pathogen interplay and the phenotypic state of bacilli. Transcriptional signatures were also defined that predicted measures of early treatment success (rate of decline in bacterial load over 3 days, TB test positivity at 2 months, and bacterial load at 2 months). This study defines the transcriptional signature of M.tb bacilli that have been expectorated in sputum after two weeks of drug therapy, characterizing the phenotypic state of bacilli that persist through treatment. We demonstrate that variability in clinical manifestations of disease are detectable in bacterial sputa signatures, and that the changing M.tb m

  19. Self-esteem in Early Adolescence as Predictor of Depressive Symptoms in Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The Mediating Role of Motivational and Social Factors.

    Masselink, M; Van Roekel, E; Oldehinkel, A J

    2018-05-01

    Ample research has shown that low self-esteem increases the risk to develop depressive symptoms during adolescence. However, the mechanism underlying this association remains largely unknown, as well as how long adolescents with low self-esteem remain vulnerable to developing depressive symptoms. Insight into this mechanism may not only result in a better theoretical understanding but also provide directions for possible interventions. To address these gaps in knowledge, we investigated whether self-esteem in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood. Moreover, we investigated a cascading mediational model, in which we focused on factors that are inherently related to self-esteem and the adolescent developmental period: approach and avoidance motivation and the social factors social contact, social problems, and social support. We used data from four waves of the TRAILS study (N = 2228, 51% girls): early adolescence (mean age 11 years), middle adolescence (mean age 14 years), late adolescence (mean age 16 years), and early adulthood (mean age 22 years). Path-analyses showed that low self-esteem is an enduring vulnerability for developing depressive symptoms. Self-esteem in early adolescence predicted depressive symptoms in late adolescence as well as early adulthood. This association was independently mediated by avoidance motivation and social problems, but not by approach motivation. The effect sizes were relatively small, indicating that having low self-esteem is a vulnerability factor, but does not necessarily predispose adolescents to developing depressive symptoms on their way to adulthood. Our study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association between self-esteem and depressive symptoms, and has identified avoidance motivation and social problems as possible targets for intervention.

  20. Predictive information processing is a fundamental learning mechanism present in early development: evidence from infants.

    Trainor, Laurel J

    2012-02-01

    Evidence is presented that predictive coding is fundamental to brain function and present in early infancy. Indeed, mismatch responses to unexpected auditory stimuli are among the earliest robust cortical event-related potential responses, and have been measured in young infants in response to many types of deviation, including in pitch, timing, and melodic pattern. Furthermore, mismatch responses change quickly with specific experience, suggesting that predictive coding reflects a powerful, early-developing learning mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Predictive factors of the outcomes of prenatal hydronephrosis.

    Bragagnini, Paolo; Estors, Blanca; Delgado, Reyes; Rihuete, Miguel Ángel; Gracia, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    To determine prenatal and postnatal independent predictors of poor outcome, spontaneous resolution, or the need for surgery in patients with prenatal hydronephrosis. We performed a retrospective study of patients with prenatal hydronephrosis. The renal pelvis APD was measured in the third prenatal trimester ultrasound, as well as in the first and second postnatal ultrasound. Other variables were taken into account, both prenatal and postnatal. For statistical analysis we used Student t-test, chi-square test, survival analysis, logrank test, and ROC curves. We included 218 patients with 293 renal units (RU). Of these, 147/293 (50.2%) RU were operated. 76/293 (25.9%) RU had spontaneous resolution and other 76/293 (25.9%) RU had poor outcome. As risk factors for surgery we found low birth weight (OR 3.84; 95% CI 1.24-11.84), prematurity (OR 4.17; 95% CI 1.35-12.88), duplication (OR 4.99; 95% CI 2.21-11.23) and the presence of nephrourological underlying pathology (OR 53.54; 95% CI 26.23-109.27). For the non-spontaneous resolution, we found as risk factors the alterations of amniotic fluid volume (RR 1.46; 95% CI 1.33-1.60) as well as the underlying nephrourological pathology and duplication. In the poor outcome, we found as risk factors the alterations of amniotic fluid volume (OR 4.54; 95% CI 1.31-15.62), the presence of nephrourological pathology (OR 4.81 95% CI 2.60-8.89) and RU that was operated (OR 4.23, 95% CI 2.35-7.60). The APD of the renal pelvis in all three ultrasounds were reliable for surgery prediction (area under the curve 0.65; 0.82; 0.71) or spontaneous resolution (area under the curve 0.80; 0.91; 0.80), only the first postnatal ultrasound has predictive value in the poor outcome (area under the curve 0.73). The higher sensitivity and specificity of the APD as predictor value was on the first postnatal ultrasound, 14.60 mm for surgery; 11.35 mm for spontaneous resolution and 15.50 mm for poor outcome. The higher APD in the renal pelvis in any of the

  2. Understanding factors associated with early therapeutic alliance in PTSD treatment: adherence, childhood sexual abuse history, and social support.

    Keller, Stephanie M; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C

    2010-12-01

    Therapeutic alliance has been associated with better treatment engagement, better adherence, and less dropout across various treatments and disorders. In treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it may be particularly important to establish a strong early alliance to facilitate treatment adherence. However, factors such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history and poor social support may impede the development of early alliance in those receiving PTSD treatment. We sought to examine treatment adherence, CSA history, and social support as factors associated with early alliance in individuals with chronic PTSD who were receiving either prolonged exposure therapy (PE) or sertraline. At pretreatment, participants (76.6% female; 64.9% Caucasian; mean age = 37.1 years, SD = 11.3) completed measures of trauma history, general support (Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors), and trauma-related social support (Social Reactions Questionnaire). Over the course of 10 weeks of PE or sertraline, they completed early therapeutic alliance (Working Alliance Inventory) and treatment adherence measures. Early alliance was associated with PE adherence (r = .32, p history was not predictive of a lower early alliance. Given the associations with adherence, clinicians may find it useful to routinely assess alliance early in treatment. Positive trauma support, not CSA history, may be particularly important in the development of a strong early therapeutic alliance. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Endovascular Treatment of Malignant Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: Results and Predictive Factors of Clinical Efficacy

    Fagedet, Dorothee, E-mail: DFagedet@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de medecine interne, Pole Pluridisciplinaire de Medecine (France); Thony, Frederic, E-mail: FThony@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d' Imagerie (France); Timsit, Jean-Francois, E-mail: JFTimsit@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de reanimation, Pole Medecine Aiguee Communautaire (France); Rodiere, Mathieu, E-mail: MRodiere@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d' Imagerie (France); Monnin-Bares, Valerie, E-mail: v-monnin@chu-montpellier.fr [CHRU Arnaud de Villeneuve, Imagerie Medicale Thoracique Cardiovasculaire (France); Ferretti, Gilbert R., E-mail: GFerretti@chu-grenoble.fr [CHU de Grenoble, Clinique universitaire de radiologie et imagerie medicale, Pole d' Imagerie (France); Vesin, Aurelien; Moro-Sibilot, Denis, E-mail: DMoro.pneumo@chu-grenoble.fr [University Grenoble 1 e Albert Bonniot Institute, Inserm U823 (France)

    2013-02-15

    To demonstrate the effectiveness of endovascular treatment (EVT) with self-expandable bare stents for malignant superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) and to analyze predictive factors of EVT efficacy. Retrospective review of the 164 patients with malignant SVCS treated with EVT in our hospital from August 1992 to December 2007 and followed until February 2009. Endovascular treatment includes angioplasty before and after stent placement. We used self-expandable bare stents. We studied results of this treatment and looked for predictive factors of clinical efficacy, recurrence, and complications by statistical analysis. Endovascular treatment was clinically successful in 95% of cases, with an acceptable rate of early mortality (2.4%). Thrombosis of the superior vena cava was the only independent factor for EVT failure. The use of stents over 16 mm in diameter was a predictive factor for complications (P = 0.008). Twenty-one complications (12.8%) occurred during the follow-up period. Relapse occurred in 36 patients (21.9%), with effective restenting in 75% of cases. Recurrence of SVCS was significantly increased in cases of occlusion (P = 0.01), initial associated thrombosis (P = 0.006), or use of steel stents (P = 0.004). Long-term anticoagulant therapy did not influence the risk of recurrence or complications. In malignancy, EVT with self-expandable bare stents is an effective SVCS therapy. These results prompt us to propose treatment with stents earlier in the clinical course of patients with SVCS and to avoid dilatation greater than 16 mm.

  4. Endovascular Treatment of Malignant Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: Results and Predictive Factors of Clinical Efficacy

    Fagedet, Dorothée; Thony, Frederic; Timsit, Jean-François; Rodiere, Mathieu; Monnin-Bares, Valérie; Ferretti, Gilbert R.; Vesin, Aurélien; Moro-Sibilot, Denis

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the effectiveness of endovascular treatment (EVT) with self-expandable bare stents for malignant superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) and to analyze predictive factors of EVT efficacy. Retrospective review of the 164 patients with malignant SVCS treated with EVT in our hospital from August 1992 to December 2007 and followed until February 2009. Endovascular treatment includes angioplasty before and after stent placement. We used self-expandable bare stents. We studied results of this treatment and looked for predictive factors of clinical efficacy, recurrence, and complications by statistical analysis. Endovascular treatment was clinically successful in 95% of cases, with an acceptable rate of early mortality (2.4%). Thrombosis of the superior vena cava was the only independent factor for EVT failure. The use of stents over 16 mm in diameter was a predictive factor for complications (P = 0.008). Twenty-one complications (12.8%) occurred during the follow-up period. Relapse occurred in 36 patients (21.9%), with effective restenting in 75% of cases. Recurrence of SVCS was significantly increased in cases of occlusion (P = 0.01), initial associated thrombosis (P = 0.006), or use of steel stents (P = 0.004). Long-term anticoagulant therapy did not influence the risk of recurrence or complications. In malignancy, EVT with self-expandable bare stents is an effective SVCS therapy. These results prompt us to propose treatment with stents earlier in the clinical course of patients with SVCS and to avoid dilatation greater than 16 mm.

  5. Flow Test to Predict Early Hypotony and Hypertensive Phase After Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) Surgical Implantation.

    Cheng, Jason; Beltran-Agullo, Laura; Buys, Yvonne M; Moss, Edward B; Gonzalez, Johanna; Trope, Graham E

    2016-06-01

    To assess the validity of a preimplantation flow test to predict early hypotony [intraocular pressure (IOP)≤5 mm Hg on 2 consecutive visits and hypertensive phase (HP) (IOP>21 mm Hg) after Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) implantation. Prospective interventional study on patients receiving an AGV. A preimplantation flow test using a gravity-driven reservoir and an open manometer was performed on all AGVs. Opening pressure (OP) and closing pressure (CP) were defined as the pressure at which fluid was seen to flow or stop flowing through the AGV, respectively. OP and CP were measured twice per AGV. Patients were followed for 12 weeks. In total, 20 eyes from 19 patients were enrolled. At 12 weeks the mean IOP decreased from 29.2±9.1 to 16.8±5.2 mm Hg (P<0.01). The mean AGV OP was 17.5±5.4 mm Hg and the mean CP was 6.7±2.3 mm Hg. Early (within 2 wk postoperative) HP occurred in 37% and hypotony in 16% of cases. An 18 mm Hg cutoff for the OP gave a sensitivity of 0.71, specificity of 0.83, positive predictive value of 0.71, and negative predictive value of 0.83 for predicting an early HP. A 7 mm Hg cutoff for the CP yielded a sensitivity of 1.0, specificity of 0.38, positive predictive value of 0.23, and negative predictive value of 1.0 for predicting hypotony. Preoperative OP and CP may predict early hypotony or HP and may be used as a guide as to which AGV valves to discard before implantation surgery.

  6. Identification of a Genomic Signature Predicting for Recurrence in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    2015-12-01

    do it. Thus, instead of simply sequencing all the FFPE samples, we used 10 tumor samples (5 recurrent and 5 non recurrent ) to test sequencing and...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0521 TITLE: Identification of a Genomic Signature Predicting for Recurrence in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0521 Identification of a Genomic Signature Predicting for Recurrence in

  7. Value of multiple risk factors in predicting coronary artery disease

    Zhu Zhengbin; Zhang Ruiyan; Zhang Qi; Yang Zhenkun; Hu Jian; Zhang Jiansheng; Shen Weifeng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to assess the relationship between correlative comprehension risk factors and coronary arterial disease and to build up a simple mathematical model to evaluate the extension of coronary artery lesion in patients with stable angina. Methods: A total of 1024 patients with chest pain who underwent coronary angiography were divided into CAD group(n=625)and control group(n=399) based on at least one significant coronary artery narrowing more than 50% in diameter. Independent risk factors for CAD were evaluated and multivariate logistic regression model and receiver-operating characteristic(ROC) curves were used to estimate the independent influence factor for CAD and built up a simple formula for clinical use. Results: Multivariate regression analysis revealed that UACR > 7.25 μg/mg(OR=3.6; 95% CI 2.6-4.9; P 20 mmol/L(OR=3.2; 95% CI 2.3-4.4; P 2 (OR=2.3; 95% CI 1.4-3.8; P 2.6 mmol/L (OR 2.141; 95% CI 1.586-2.890; P 7.25 μg/mg + 1.158 x hsCRP > 20 mmol/L + 0.891 GFR 2 + 0.831 x LVEF 2.6 mmol/L + 0.676 x smoking history + 0.594 x male + 0.459 x diabetes + 0.425 x hypertension). Area under the curve was 0.811 (P < 0.01), and the optimal probability value for predicting severe stage of CAD was 0.977 (sensitivity 49.0%, specificity 92.7% ). Conclusions: Risk factors including renal insufficiency were the main predictors for CAD. The logistic regression model is the non-invasive method of choice for predicting the extension of coronary artery lesion in patients with stable agiana. (authors)

  8. Real-time numerical shake prediction and updating for earthquake early warning

    Wang, Tianyun; Jin, Xing; Wei, Yongxiang; Huang, Yandan

    2017-12-01

    Ground motion prediction is important for earthquake early warning systems, because the region's peak ground motion indicates the potential disaster. In order to predict the peak ground motion quickly and precisely with limited station wave records, we propose a real-time numerical shake prediction and updating method. Our method first predicts the ground motion based on the ground motion prediction equation after P waves detection of several stations, denoted as the initial prediction. In order to correct the prediction error of the initial prediction, an updating scheme based on real-time simulation of wave propagation is designed. Data assimilation technique is incorporated to predict the distribution of seismic wave energy precisely. Radiative transfer theory and Monte Carlo simulation are used for modeling wave propagation in 2-D space, and the peak ground motion is calculated as quickly as possible. Our method has potential to predict shakemap, making the potential disaster be predicted before the real disaster happens. 2008 M S8.0 Wenchuan earthquake is studied as an example to show the validity of the proposed method.

  9. Decoding the future from past experience: learning shapes predictions in early visual cortex.

    Luft, Caroline D B; Meeson, Alan; Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2015-05-01

    Learning the structure of the environment is critical for interpreting the current scene and predicting upcoming events. However, the brain mechanisms that support our ability to translate knowledge about scene statistics to sensory predictions remain largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that learning of temporal regularities shapes representations in early visual cortex that relate to our ability to predict sensory events. We tested the participants' ability to predict the orientation of a test stimulus after exposure to sequences of leftward- or rightward-oriented gratings. Using fMRI decoding, we identified brain patterns related to the observers' visual predictions rather than stimulus-driven activity. Decoding of predicted orientations following structured sequences was enhanced after training, while decoding of cued orientations following exposure to random sequences did not change. These predictive representations appear to be driven by the same large-scale neural populations that encode actual stimulus orientation and to be specific to the learned sequence structure. Thus our findings provide evidence that learning temporal structures supports our ability to predict future events by reactivating selective sensory representations as early as in primary visual cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Predictive coding accelerates word recognition and learning in the early stages of language development.

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-11-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months. These results suggest that predictive coding may accelerate word recognition and support early learning of novel words, including not only the learning of heard word forms but also their mapping to meanings. Prediction error may mediate learning via attention, since infants' attention allocation to the entire learning situation in natural environments could account for the link between prediction error and the understanding of word meanings. On the whole, the present results on predictive coding support the view that principles of brain function reported across domains in humans and non-human animals apply to language and its development in the infant brain. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://hy.fi/unitube/video/e1cbb495-41d8-462e-8660-0864a1abd02c. [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Early functional MRI activation predicts motor outcome after ischemic stroke: a longitudinal, multimodal study.

    Du, Juan; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Jingze; Xu, Qiang; Hu, Jianping; Zeng, Fanyong; Lu, Guangming; Liu, Xinfeng

    2018-05-15

    An accurate prediction of long term outcome after stroke is urgently required to provide early individualized neurorehabilitation. This study aimed to examine the added value of early neuroimaging measures and identify the best approaches for predicting motor outcome after stroke. This prospective study involved 34 first-ever ischemic stroke patients (time since stroke: 1-14 days) with upper limb impairment. All patients underwent baseline multimodal assessments that included clinical (age, motor impairment), neurophysiological (motor-evoked potentials, MEP) and neuroimaging (diffusion tensor imaging and motor task-based fMRI) measures, and also underwent reassessment 3 months after stroke. Bivariate analysis and multivariate linear regression models were used to predict the motor scores (Fugl-Meyer assessment, FMA) at 3 months post-stroke. With bivariate analysis, better motor outcome significantly correlated with (1) less initial motor impairment and disability, (2) less corticospinal tract injury, (3) the initial presence of MEPs, (4) stronger baseline motor fMRI activations. In multivariate analysis, incorporating neuroimaging data improved the predictive accuracy relative to only clinical and neurophysiological assessments. Baseline fMRI activation in SMA was an independent predictor of motor outcome after stroke. A multimodal model incorporating fMRI and clinical measures best predicted the motor outcome following stroke. fMRI measures obtained early after stroke provided independent prediction of long-term motor outcome.

  12. Early life factors and risk of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    Anshu eShrestha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although little is known about etiology of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma, early life factors are suspected in the etiology. We explored this hypothesis using linked data from the California Cancer Registry and the California birth rolls. Incident cases were 359 children < 6 year old (218 embryonal, 81 alveolar, 60 others diagnosed in 1988-2008. Controls (205,173, frequency matched on birth year (1986-2007, were randomly selected from the birth rolls. We examined association of birth characteristics such as birth weight, size for gestational age, and timing of prenatal care with all-type rhabdomyosarcoma, embryonal and alveolar subtypes. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were estimated using logistic regression. In contrast to a previous study, we observed statistically non-significant association for embryonal subtype among high birth weight (4000-5250 grams children for term births [OR (95%CI: 1.28 (0.85, 1.92] and all births adjusted for gestational age [OR (95%CI: 1.21 (0.81, 1.81]. On the other hand, statistically significant 1.7-fold increased risk of alveolar subtype (95%CI: 1.02, 2.87 was observed among children with late or no prenatal care and a 1.3-fold increased risk of all rhabdomyosarcoma subtypes among children of fathers ≥ 35 years old at child birth (95%CI: 1.00, 1.75, independent of all covariates. Our finding positive association on male sex for all rhabdomyosarcoma types is consistent with previous studies. While we did not find a convincingly positive association between high birth weight and RMS, our findings on paternal age at childbirth and prenatal care supports the hypothesis that prenatal environment modifies risk for childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

  13. Identifying the necessary and sufficient number of risk factors for predicting academic failure.

    Lucio, Robert; Hunt, Elizabeth; Bornovalova, Marina

    2012-03-01

    Identifying the point at which individuals become at risk for academic failure (grade point average [GPA] academic success or failure. This study focused on 12 school-related factors. Using a thorough 5-step process, we identified which unique risk factors place one at risk for academic failure. Academic engagement, academic expectations, academic self-efficacy, homework completion, school relevance, school safety, teacher relationships (positive relationship), grade retention, school mobility, and school misbehaviors (negative relationship) were uniquely related to GPA even after controlling for all relevant covariates. Next, a receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine a cutoff point for determining how many risk factors predict academic failure (GPA academic failure, which provides a way for early identification of individuals who are at risk. Further implications of these findings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Determining and predictive factors for the tumor radiosensitivity

    Hennequin, Ch.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, Ch.; Quero, L.; Favaudon, V.

    2008-01-01

    Many predictive factors of tumor radiosensitivity have been described. Number of clonogenic cells, proliferation rate, hypoxia and intrinsic radiosensitivity are usually considered as the main parameters of tumor control. Intrinsic radiosensitivity is correlated in a first approach to the ability of the cell to detect and repair DNA damages, and so integrity of the different pathways involved in this function: P.A.R.P.-1, X.R.C.C.1, A.T.M., p 53, M.R.N. complex or B.R.C.A.1. Genetic polymorphisms of some of these genes, found in normal lymphocytes, have been correlated to late toxicity of normal tissues. But, in tumors, because of the difficulty to obtain samplings and heterogeneity, accurate molecular analysis is not possible in many cases, and no valuable test of radiosensitivity exist at this moment. For example, T.P. 53 gene has been evaluated in many studies and results regarding its potential as a predictive factor of tumor sensitivity are conflicting. Surviving fraction at 2 Gy (S.F.2) allowed a global evaluation of sensitivity, but the obtention of this parameter often takes a long time and failed in 20 to 40%. Evaluation of double-strand break repair capacity by immuno chemistry quantification of phosphorylated forms of A.T.M., H.2 A.X. or M.R.E.11 is an interesting topic. However, discovery of tumor stem cells in a number of epithelial tumors could revolutionize the understanding of radiosensitivity. Combination of genomic and functional techniques are probably essential to better predict this parameter. (authors)

  15. Factors predicting recovery from suicide in attempted suicide patients.

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Lu, Chu-Yun; Tseng, Yun Shan; Chiang, Chun-Ying

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the factors predicting suicide recovery and to provide guidance for healthcare professionals when caring for individuals who have attempted suicide. The high rate of suicide is a global health problem. Suicide prevention has become an important issue in contemporary mental health. Most suicide research has focused on suicidal prevention and care. There is a lack of research on the factors predicting suicidal recovery. A cross-sectional design was adopted. A correlational study with a purposive sample of 160 individuals from a suicide prevention centre in southern Taiwan was conducted. The questionnaires included the Brief Symptom Rating Scale-5, Suicidal Recovery Assessment Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions were used for the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 40.2 years. Many participants were striving to make changes to create a more stable and fulfilling life, had an improved recovery from suicide and had a good ability to adapt or solve problems. The linear regression showed that the Beck Hopelessness Scale scores (ß = -.551, p suicidal behaviour (ß = -.145, p = .008) were significant predictors of individuals' recovery from suicide. They accounted for 57.1% of the variance. Suicidal individuals who have a lower level of hopelessness, a better ability to cope with their mental condition and fewer past suicidal behaviours may better recover from suicide attempts. The nurses could use the results of this study to predict recovery from suicide in patients with attempted suicide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. AUTOANTIBODIES TO CIRTULLINATED ANTIGENS FOR DIAGNOSIS AND PREDICTION OF CLINICAL COURSE IN EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    I. B. Belyaeva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. To study the value of antibodies to cirtullinated antigens in diagnosis and their significance in prediction of erosion formation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, we examined serological status in 129 patients with early RA (ERA and 55 cases of undifferentiated arthritis, lasting less than 12 months. Another group consisted of 39 patients with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis, in whom the disease persisted for > 2 years. Control group included 39 patients with osteoarthrosis and 29 patients with reactive arthritis. The titers of rheumatoid factor (RF, antikeratin antibodies (AKA, antiperinuclear factor (APF and antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP were studied during initial examination and 12 months later. Serial cryosections of rat esophagus and normal human buccal epithelial cells served as substrates for AKA and APF detection. AntiCCPs were revealed by means of DIASTAT technique (Axis Shield, UK.Upon initial observation of the patients with ERA, sensitivity and specificity of anti-CCP was, resp., 63.5% and 97,8%, thus exceeding both parameters for RF (48,8% и 86,7%. Sensitivity of AKA and APF for the same group was 17% and 24 %, with specificity of 97.7%. In RF-seronegative cases of early RA, anti-CCP were detected in 37% with ERA and 42% long-standing RA. In patients with non-differentiated arthritis who developed RA within one year, RF and anti-CCP were found in 12,2% and 45,5%. Following a one-year observation, a statistically significant increase was found in incidence of RF and anti-CCP in ERA patients.Positivity for anti-citrulline antibodies (AKA, APF and anti-CCP in ERA patients were associated with higher levels of CRP, increased HAQ, DAS4, Sharp scores, as compared to the patients who were seronegative. In ERA patients positive for anti-citrulline antibodies, higher frequencies of synovitis and erosive arthritis were detected by means of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. In the patients with ERA

  17. The Impact of Smoking in Adolescence on Early Adult Anxiety Symptoms and the Relationship between Infant Vulnerability Factors for Anxiety and Early Adult Anxiety Symptoms: The TOPP Study

    Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N.; Pasco, Julie A.; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18months to age 18–19years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments) and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, panxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85,panxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette smoking and significant health burden imposed by anxiety disorders, this study supports the importance of smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting children and adolescence. PMID:23696803

  18. Induction of labour: clinical predictive factors for success and failure.

    Batinelli, Laura; Serafini, Andrea; Nante, Nicola; Petraglia, Felice; Severi, Filiberto Maria; Messina, Gabriele

    2018-04-01

    Induction of labour (IOL) is a widely-used practice in obstetrics. Our aim was to evaluate predictors of vaginal delivery in postdate pregnancies induced with prostaglandins. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study with analytic component. A total of 145 women, admitted for IOL after the 41st week of gestation, were induced with a vaginal pessary releasing prostaglandins. Type of delivery, whether vaginal or caesarean, was the outcome. Several maternal and foetal variables were investigated. The Kaplan-Maier curves, monovariate and a multivariate logistic regression were carried out. In our population, 80.7% of women had vaginal delivery after the induction. Multiparity and a high Bishop score at the beginning of the IOL were protective factors for a vaginal delivery (respectively OR 0.16, p = .028 and OR 0.62, p = .034) while age >35 years, and the foetal birth weight >3500 g at the birth, resulted in being risk factors for caesarean section (respectively OR 4.20, p = .006 and OR 3.63, p = .013). IMPACT STATEMENT What is already known on this subject: Induction of labour (IOL) is a widely used practice in obstetrics. Scientific literature shows several predictors of successful induction, although there is no unanimity except for 'multiparity' and 'favourable Bishop score' which are associated with positive outcome of the induction. The main difficulty in finding other predictive factors is the heterogeneity of this field (different local protocols in each hospital, type of induction, populations and outcomes chosen in each study). In addition to that, populations are not always comparable due to the different gestation. For this reason, we decided to select a specific population of women, such as low risk postterm pregnancies induced with prostaglandins, in order to detect possible predictive factors for the success of the IOL for women with uncomplicated pregnancies. What the results of this study add: Our study agrees with existing

  19. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  20. Burn! How implicit and explicit evaluation predict early adolescents' "hot sauce" aggression towards classroom peers

    Lansu, T.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined to what extent early adolescents' implicit and explicit evaluations of a classmate predict (a) their own aggressive behavior toward that classmate and (b) their classmate's aggressive behavior toward them. Implicit and explicit peer evaluations were assessed among 148

  1. Predictive value of early near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring of patients with traumatic brain injury

    Alina Vilkė

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: NIRS plays an important role in the clinical care of TBI patients. Regional brain saturation monitoring provides accurate predictive data, which can improve the allocation of scarce medical resources, set the treatment goals and alleviate the early communication with patients’ relatives.

  2. How to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis early: a prediction model for persistent (erosive) arthritis

    Visser, Henk; le Cessie, Saskia; Vos, Koen; Breedveld, Ferdinand C.; Hazes, Johanna M. W.

    2002-01-01

    To develop a clinical model for the prediction, at the first visit, of 3 forms of arthritis outcome: self-limiting, persistent nonerosive, and persistent erosive arthritis. A standardized diagnostic evaluation was performed on 524 consecutive, newly referred patients with early arthritis.

  3. Parenting and Child Characteristics in the Prediction of Shame in Early and Middle Childhood

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Lall, Debra I. K.; De Jaeger, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined individual differences in shame responding in early childhood and predictive relations with shame proneness in middle childhood. Child shame responding, parental shaming, and child temperamental inhibition were assessed at Time 1 (n = 225, aged 3-4 years), shame responding was reassessed at Time 2 (n = 199, aged 5-7 years), and shame…

  4. M-ficolin levels reflect disease activity and predict remission in early rheumatoid arthritis

    Ammitzbøll, Christian Gytz; Thiel, Steffen; Jensenius, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    To assess plasma M-ficolin concentrations in disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), to investigate the correlation of M-ficolin concentrations with disease activity markers, and to determine the predictive value of M-ficolin with respect...... to the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28)....

  5. Predicting Early School Achievement with the EDI: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Seguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    School readiness tests are significant predictors of early school achievement. Measuring school readiness on a large scale would be necessary for the implementation of intervention programs at the community level. However, assessment of school readiness is costly and time consuming. This study assesses the predictive value of a school readiness…

  6. Predicting Early Mortality After Hip Fracture Surgery: The Hip Fracture Estimator of Mortality Amsterdam.

    Karres, Julian; Kieviet, Noera; Eerenberg, Jan-Peter; Vrouenraets, Bart C

    2018-01-01

    Early mortality after hip fracture surgery is high and preoperative risk assessment for the individual patient is challenging. A risk model could identify patients in need of more intensive perioperative care, provide insight in the prognosis, and allow for risk adjustment in audits. This study aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model for 30-day mortality after hip fracture surgery: the Hip fracture Estimator of Mortality Amsterdam (HEMA). Data on 1050 consecutive patients undergoing hip fracture surgery between 2004 and 2010 were retrospectively collected and randomly split into a development cohort (746 patients) and validation cohort (304 patients). Logistic regression analysis was performed in the development cohort to determine risk factors for the HEMA. Discrimination and calibration were assessed in both cohorts using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, and by stratification into low-, medium- and high-risk groups. Nine predictors for 30-day mortality were identified and used in the final model: age ≥85 years, in-hospital fracture, signs of malnutrition, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, current pneumonia, renal failure, malignancy, and serum urea >9 mmol/L. The HEMA showed good discrimination in the development cohort (AUC = 0.81) and the validation cohort (AUC = 0.79). The Hosmer-Lemeshow test indicated no lack of fit in either cohort (P > 0.05). The HEMA is based on preoperative variables and can be used to predict the risk of 30-day mortality after hip fracture surgery for the individual patient. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  7. Lower levels of maternal capital in early life predict offspring obesity in adulthood.

    Gillette, Meghan T; Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K

    2017-05-01

    As of 2013, 65% of the world's population lived in countries where overweight/obesity kills more people than being underweight. Evolutionary perspectives provide a holistic understanding of both how and why obesity develops and its long-term implications. To test whether the maternal capital hypothesis, an evolutionary perspective, is viable for explaining the development of obesity in adulthood. Restricted-use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; n = 11 403) was analysed using logistic regressions. The sample included adolescents and their biological mothers. The odds of obesity in adulthood increased by 22% for every standard deviation increase in lack of maternal capital (Exp (B) = 1.22, p obese in adulthood, even after controlling for other factors in infancy, adolescence and adulthood. The results showed that those whose mothers had lower capital were more prone to later life disease (specifically, obesity). The maternal capital perspective is useful for explaining how and why early life characteristics (including maternal resources) predict obesity in adulthood. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  8. A predictive model for early mortality after surgical treatment of heart valve or prosthesis infective endocarditis. The EndoSCORE.

    Di Mauro, Michele; Dato, Guglielmo Mario Actis; Barili, Fabio; Gelsomino, Sandro; Santè, Pasquale; Corte, Alessandro Della; Carrozza, Antonio; Ratta, Ester Della; Cugola, Diego; Galletti, Lorenzo; Devotini, Roger; Casabona, Riccardo; Santini, Francesco; Salsano, Antonio; Scrofani, Roberto; Antona, Carlo; Botta, Luca; Russo, Claudio; Mancuso, Samuel; Rinaldi, Mauro; De Vincentiis, Carlo; Biondi, Andrea; Beghi, Cesare; Cappabianca, Giangiuseppe; Tarzia, Vincenzo; Gerosa, Gino; De Bonis, Michele; Pozzoli, Alberto; Nicolini, Francesco; Benassi, Filippo; Rosato, Francesco; Grasso, Elena; Livi, Ugolino; Sponga, Sandro; Pacini, Davide; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; De Martino, Andrea; Bortolotti, Uberto; Onorati, Francesco; Faggian, Giuseppe; Lorusso, Roberto; Vizzardi, Enrico; Di Giammarco, Gabriele; Marinelli, Daniele; Villa, Emmanuel; Troise, Giovanni; Picichè, Marco; Musumeci, Francesco; Paparella, Domenico; Margari, Vito; Tritto, Francesco; Damiani, Girolamo; Scrascia, Giuseppe; Zaccaria, Salvatore; Renzulli, Attilio; Serraino, Giuseppe; Mariscalco, Giovanni; Maselli, Daniele; Foschi, Massimiliano; Parolari, Alessandro; Nappi, Giannantonio

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this large retrospective study was to provide a logistic risk model along an additive score to predict early mortality after surgical treatment of patients with heart valve or prosthesis infective endocarditis (IE). From 2000 to 2015, 2715 patients with native valve endocarditis (NVE) or prosthesis valve endocarditis (PVE) were operated on in 26 Italian Cardiac Surgery Centers. The relationship between early mortality and covariates was evaluated with logistic mixed effect models. Fixed effects are parameters associated with the entire population or with certain repeatable levels of experimental factors, while random effects are associated with individual experimental units (centers). Early mortality was 11.0% (298/2715); At mixed effect logistic regression the following variables were found associated with early mortality: age class, female gender, LVEF, preoperative shock, COPD, creatinine value above 2mg/dl, presence of abscess, number of treated valve/prosthesis (with respect to one treated valve/prosthesis) and the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus, Fungus spp., Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and other micro-organisms, while Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and other Staphylococci did not affect early mortality, as well as no micro-organisms isolation. LVEF was found linearly associated with outcomes while non-linear association between mortality and age was tested and the best model was found with a categorization into four classes (AUC=0.851). The following study provides a logistic risk model to predict early mortality in patients with heart valve or prosthesis infective endocarditis undergoing surgical treatment, called "The EndoSCORE". Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The predictive value of plasma cytokines on gastroesophageal anastomotic leakage at an early stage in patients undergoing esophagectomy.

    Song, Jie-Qiong; He, Yi-Zhou; Fang, Yuan; Wu, Wei; Zhong, Ming

    2017-08-01

    It's difficult to diagnose gastroesophageal anastomotic leakage (GAL) at early postoperative stage. This study was conducted to evaluate the early predictive value of plasma cytokines levels on GAL in patients undergoing esophagectomy. Consecutive esophageal cancer patients who underwent esophagectomy and admitted to Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) just after surgery were retrospectively analyzed. The baseline and postoperative 1 day plasma cytokine levels were collected and analyzed to evaluate the predictive value for clinically important anastomotic leakage. Area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analysis was also performed. A total of 183 patients were included. Sixteen patients (8.74%) experienced GAL (GAL group) and the others did not (non-GAL group). The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in plasma on the first postoperative day significantly increased in the GAL group than in the non-GAL group (Pfair predictors of GAL (AUROC >0.7) and the other two cytokines were poorly predictive (AUROC <0.7). The mean length of ICU and hospital stay were significantly longer in the GAL group than in the non-GAL group (P<0.05). Plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 on the first postoperative day can predict clinically important GAL in patients undergoing esophagectomy.

  10. Accuracy rate of pregnancy detection in dairy cow by measuring the early pregnancy factor

    S Mosaferi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early pregnancy factor (EPF a protein with immunosuppressive properties can be detected in the serum of most domestic animals at early pregnancy. In this study, pregnancy detection in 41 dairy cows following artificial insemination was evaluated by detecting EPF in blood serum using the rosette inhibition test (RIT. The amount of EPF activity 1-3 and 4-7 days after artificial insemination of cows was measured by RIT. Pregnancies were confirmed 45-60 days after insemination by rectal palpation. The results indicated that sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of this technique in detecting pregnancy 1-3 days following insemination was 88.88,  66.66,  72.72,  85.71  and  77.77 percent  respectively and RIT titers of above 8 and below 4 were seen in pregnant and non-pregnant animals at this period. The value of the above parameters were 91,  83.83,  83.33,  91  and  87 percent  respectively  4-7  days  after insemination and also RIT titers of above 8 and below 4 were achieved in pregnant and non pregnant cows during this period. The results of this study indicated that there are significant differences in RIT titers between pregnant and non-pregnant cows 1-3 and 4-7 days following artificial insemination (P

  11. Prediction of Early Response to Chemotherapy in Lung Cancer by Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging

    Jing Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether change of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC value could predict early response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer underwent chest MR imaging including DWI before and at the end of the first cycle of chemotherapy. The tumor’s mean ADC value and diameters on MR images were calculated and compared. The grouping reference was based on serial CT scans according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Logistic regression was applied to assess treatment response prediction ability of ADC value and diameters. Results. The change of ADC value in partial response group was higher than that in stable disease group (P=0.004. ROC curve showed that ADC value could predict treatment response with 100% sensitivity, 64.71% specificity, 57.14% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 82.7% accuracy. The area under the curve for combination of ADC value and longest diameter change was higher than any parameter alone (P≤0.01. Conclusions. The change of ADC value may be a sensitive indicator to predict early response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Prediction ability could be improved by combining the change of ADC value and longest diameter.

  12. Early Seizure Frequency and Aetiology Predict Long-Term Medical Outcome in Childhood-Onset Epilepsy

    Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice, it is important to predict as soon as possible after diagnosis and starting treatment, which children are destined to develop medically intractable seizures and be at risk of increased mortality. In this study, we determined factors predictive of long-term seizure and mortality outcome in a population-based cohort of 102…

  13. Factors predicting for postimplantation urinary retention after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    Lee, Nancy; Wuu, C.-S.; Brody, Rachel; Laguna, Joe L.; Katz, Aaron E.; Bagiella, Emilia; Ennis, Ronald D.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Urinary retention requiring catheterization is a known complication among prostate cancer patients treated with permanent interstitial radioactive seed implantation. However, the factors associated with this complication are not well known. This study was conducted to determine these factors. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive prostate cancer patients treated with permanent interstitial implantation at our institution from 1996 to 1999 were evaluated. All patients underwent pre-implant ultrasound and postimplant CT volume studies. Isotopes used were 125 I (54 patients) or 103 Pd (37 patients). Twenty-three patients were treated with a combination of 45 Gy of external beam radiation therapy as well as seed implantation, of which only 3 patients were treated with 125 I. Mean pretreatment prostate ultrasound volume was 35.4 cc (range, 10.0-70.2 cc). The mean planning ultrasound target volume (PUTV) was 39.6 cc (range, 16.1-74.5 cc), whereas the mean posttreatment CT target volume was 55.0 cc (range, 20.2-116 cc). Patient records were reviewed to determine which patients required urinary catheterization for relief of urinary obstruction. The following factors were analyzed as predictors for urinary retention: clinical stage; Gleason score; prostate-specific antigen; external beam radiation therapy; hormone therapy; pre-implant urinary symptoms (asymptomatic/nocturia x 1 vs. more significant urinary symptoms); pretreatment ultrasound prostate volume; PUTV; PUTV within the 125%, 150%, 200%, 250%, 300% isodose lines; postimplant CT volume within the 125%, 150%, 200%, 250%, 300% isodose lines; D90; D80; D50; ratio of post-CT volume to the PUTV; the absolute change in volume between the CT volume and PUTV; number of needles used; activity per seed; and the total activity of the implant. Statistical analyses using logistic regression and χ2 were performed. Results: Eleven of 91 (12%) became obstructed. Significant factors predicting for urinary retention

  14. Feasibility of mesorectal vascular invasion in predicting early distant metastasis in patients with stage T3 rectal cancer based on rectal MRI

    Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Jai Keun; Lee, Jei Hee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myeong-Jin [Yonsei University Health system, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute of Gastroenterology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Bae [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of mesorectal vascular invasion (MVI) in predicting early distant metastasis developed within 1 year of diagnosis of T3 rectal cancer using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Sixty-five patients with T3 rectal cancer (early metastasis, n = 28; non-metastasis, n = 37) were enrolled in this study. Early distant metastases developed in 28 patients (liver, n = 15; lung, n = 9; both, n = 4). Logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors for early distant metastasis. In univariate analysis, tumour location, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), MRI-detected MVI, and mesorectal fat infiltration (MFI) (odds ratio [OR], 4.533, 9.583, 5.539, 27.046, and 5.539, respectively) were associated with early distant metastasis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that MVI (OR, 29.949; P < 0.002) and LVI (OR, 6.684; P = 0.033) were independent factors for early distant metastasis. Specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of MVI (94.59 %, and 89.47 %, respectively) were significantly higher than those of LVI (64.86 %, and 61.76 %), but sensitivity and negative predictive value were not significantly different between MVI (60.71 %, and 76.09 %) and LVI (75.00 %, and 77.42 %). While sensitivity of MRI-detected MVI was equal to that of CEA in predicting early distant metastasis from T3 rectal cancer, specificity and PPV may be improved by assessing MVI. (orig.)

  15. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal...... control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through...... parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual...

  16. The Implications of Endoscopic Ulcer in Early Gastric Cancer: Can We Predict Clinical Behaviors from Endoscopy?

    Yoo Jin Lee

    Full Text Available The presence of ulcer in early gastric cancer (EGC is important for the feasibility of endoscopic resection, only a few studies have examined the clinicopathological implications of endoscopic ulcer in EGC.To determine the role of endoscopic ulcer as a predictor of clinical behaviors in EGC.Data of 3,270 patients with EGC who underwent surgery between January 2005 and December 2012 were reviewed. Clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed in relation to the presence and stage of ulcer in EGC. Based on endoscopic findings, the stage of ulcer was categorized as active, healing, or scar. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze factors associated with lymph node metastasis (LNM.2,343 (71.7% patients had endoscopic findings of ulceration in EGC. Submucosal (SM invasion, LNM, lymphovascular invasion (LVI, perineural invasion, and undifferentiated-type histology were significantly higher in ulcerative than non-ulcerative EGC. Comparison across different stages of ulcer revealed that SM invasion, LNM, and LVI were significantly associated with the active stage, and that these features exhibited significant stage-based differences, being most common at the active stage, and least common at the scar stage. The presence of endoscopic ulcer and active status of the ulcer were identified as independent risk factors for LNM.Ulcerative EGC detected by endoscopy exhibited more aggressive behaviors than non-ulcerative EGC. Additionally, the endoscopic stage of ulcer may predict the clinicopathological behaviors of EGC. Therefore, the appearance of ulcers should be carefully evaluated to determine an adequate treatment strategy for EGC.

  17. Bone mineral density before and after OLT: long-term follow-up and predictive factors.

    Guichelaar, Maureen M J; Kendall, Rebecca; Malinchoc, Michael; Hay, J Eileen

    2006-09-01

    Fracturing after liver transplantation (OLT) occurs due to the combination of preexisting low bone mineral density (BMD) and early posttransplant bone loss, the risk factors for which are poorly defined. The prevalence and predictive factors for hepatic osteopenia and osteoporosis, posttransplant bone loss, and subsequent bone gain were studied by the long-term posttransplant follow-up of 360 consecutive adult patients with end-stage primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Only 20% of patients with advanced PBC or PSC have normal bone mass. Risk factors for low spinal BMD are low body mass index, older age, postmenopausal status, muscle wasting, high alkaline phosphatase and low serum albumin. A high rate of spinal bone loss occurred in the first 4 posttransplant months (annual rate of 16%) especially in those with younger age, PSC, higher pretransplant bone density, no inflammatory bowel disease, shorter duration of liver disease, current smoking, and ongoing cholestasis at 4 months. Factors favoring spinal bone gain from 4 to 24 months after transplantation were lower baseline and/or 4-month bone density, premenopausal status, lower cumulative glucocorticoids, no ongoing cholestasis, and higher levels of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone. Bone mass therefore improves most in patients with lowest pretransplant BMD who undergo successful transplantation with normal hepatic function and improved gonadal and nutritional status. Patients transplanted most recently have improved bone mass before OLT, and although bone loss still occurs early after OLT, these patients also have a greater recovery in BMD over the years following OLT.

  18. Early prostate cancer antigen expression in predicting presence of prostate cancer in men with histologically negative biopsies.

    Hansel, D E; DeMarzo, A M; Platz, E A; Jadallah, S; Hicks, J; Epstein, J I; Partin, A W; Netto, G J

    2007-05-01

    Early prostate cancer antigen is a nuclear matrix protein that was recently shown to be expressed in prostate adenocarcinoma and adjacent benign tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated early prostate cancer antigen expression in benign prostate tissue up to 5 years before a diagnosis of prostate carcinoma, suggesting that early prostate cancer antigen could be used as a potential predictive marker. We evaluated early prostate cancer antigen expression by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody (Onconome Inc., Seattle, Washington) on benign biopsies from 98 patients. Biopsies were obtained from 4 groups that included 39 patients with first time negative biopsy (group 1), 24 patients with persistently negative biopsies (group 2), 8 patients with initially negative biopsies who were subsequently diagnosed with prostate carcinoma (group 3) and negative biopsies obtained from 27 cases where other concurrent biopsies contained prostate carcinoma (group 4). Early prostate cancer antigen staining was assessed by 2 of the authors who were blind to the group of the examined sections. Staining intensity (range 0 to 3) and extent (range 1 to 3) scores were assigned. The presence of intensity 3 staining in any of the blocks of a biopsy specimen was considered as positive for early prostate cancer antigen for the primary outcome in the statistical analysis. In addition, as secondary outcomes we evaluated the data using the proportion of blocks with intensity 3 early prostate cancer antigen staining, the mean of the product of staining intensity and staining extent of all blocks within a biopsy, and the mean of the product of intensity 3 staining and extent. Primary outcome analysis revealed the proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity to be highest in group 3 (6 of 8, 75%) and lowest in group 2 (7 of 24, 29%, p=0.04 for differences among groups). A relatively higher than expected proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was present in

  19. Comprehensive analysis of the related factors of early hypothyroidism occurring in patients with Graves' disease after 131I treatment

    Tan Jian; Wang Peng; Zhang Lijuan; He Yajing; Wang Renfei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To make a comprehensive analysis of the related factors of early hypothyroidism occurring in patients with Graves' disease after 131 I treatment. Methods: The information of 131 I treated Graves' disease was collected including general data, clinical observation, laboratory data, thyroid function test, etc. Then a retrospective statistical analysis was carried out, using cluster analysis, factor analysis, discriminant analysis, multivariate regression analysis, etc. Results: 1) Cluster analysis and factor analysis showed that among clinical observation such as clinical course, treatment course, patients' state and disease occurrance, the first three factors correlated highly; among laboratory data such as thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb), thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSI), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) and thyroid microsomal antibody (TMAb), both the first two and the last two correlated highly, each two factors had the similar effect. 2) Fsher discriminant analysis showed that among the thyroid weight, the effective half life, the maximum 131 I uptake percentage, total dose of 131 I and the average dose of 131 I per gram of thyroid, the last one had the most predicting value for incidence of early hypothyroidism. 3) Logistic regression analysis showed that among all the related factors of early hypothyroidism occurred after 131 I treated Graves' disease, thyroid weight, average dose of 131 I per gram of thyroid, the maximum 131 I uptake percentage and the level of TSI were effective factors. Conclusions: The occurrence of early hypothyroidism for 131 I-treated Graves' disease is probably affected by many factors. If more factors are taken into consideration before therapy and the theraputic dose is well adjusted accordingly, it can reduce the incidence of early hypothroidism to a certain extent. (authors)

  20. Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 may be an early predictive marker of intestinal type gastric cancer

    Williams, L. [Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Ynysmaerdy, Llantrisant CF72 8XR (United Kingdom); Somasekar, A. [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom); Neath Port Talbot Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Baglan Way, Port Talbot SA12 7BX (United Kingdom); Davies, D.J.; Cronin, J.; Doak, S.H. [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom); Alcolado, R. [Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Ynysmaerdy, Llantrisant CF72 8XR (United Kingdom); Williams, J.G. [Neath Port Talbot Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Baglan Way, Port Talbot SA12 7BX (United Kingdom); Griffiths, A.P. [Department of Histopathology, Morriston Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Morriston, SA66NL (United Kingdom); Baxter, J.N. [Department of Surgery, Morriston Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Morriston, SA66NL (United Kingdom); Jenkins, G.J.S., E-mail: g.j.jenkins@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-02

    Intestinal type gastric cancer is a significant cause of mortality, therefore a better understanding of its molecular basis is required. We assessed if either aneuploidy or activity of the oncogenic transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), increased incrementally during pre-malignant gastric histological progression and also if they correlated with each other in patient samples, as they are both induced by oxygen free radicals. In a prospective study of 54 (aneuploidy) and 59 (NF-{kappa}B) consecutive patients, aneuploidy was assessed by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) for chromosome 1. NF-{kappa}B was assessed by expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and in a subset, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for active p65. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally across the histological series. 2.76% of cells with normal histology (95% CI, 2.14-3.38%) showed background levels of aneuploidy, this increased to averages of 3.78% (95% CI, 3.21-4.35%), 5.89% (95% CI, 3.72-8.06%) and 7.29% (95% CI, 4.73-9.85%) of cells from patients with gastritis, Helicobacter pylori positive gastritis and atrophy/intestinal metaplasia (IM) respectively. IL-8 expression was only increased in patients with current H. pylori infection. NF-{kappa}B analysis showed some increased p65 activity in inflamed tissues. IL-8 expression and aneuploidy level were not linked in individual patients. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally during histological progression; were significantly elevated at very early stages of neoplastic progression and could well be linked to cancer development and used to assess cancer risk. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced in early gastric cancer are presumably responsible for the stepwise accumulation of this particular mutation, i.e. aneuploidy. Hence, aneuploidy measured by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) coupled to brush cytology, would be worthy of consideration as a predictive marker in gastric cancer and could be

  1. Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 may be an early predictive marker of intestinal type gastric cancer

    Williams, L.; Somasekar, A.; Davies, D.J.; Cronin, J.; Doak, S.H.; Alcolado, R.; Williams, J.G.; Griffiths, A.P.; Baxter, J.N.; Jenkins, G.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal type gastric cancer is a significant cause of mortality, therefore a better understanding of its molecular basis is required. We assessed if either aneuploidy or activity of the oncogenic transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), increased incrementally during pre-malignant gastric histological progression and also if they correlated with each other in patient samples, as they are both induced by oxygen free radicals. In a prospective study of 54 (aneuploidy) and 59 (NF-κB) consecutive patients, aneuploidy was assessed by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) for chromosome 1. NF-κB was assessed by expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and in a subset, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for active p65. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally across the histological series. 2.76% of cells with normal histology (95% CI, 2.14-3.38%) showed background levels of aneuploidy, this increased to averages of 3.78% (95% CI, 3.21-4.35%), 5.89% (95% CI, 3.72-8.06%) and 7.29% (95% CI, 4.73-9.85%) of cells from patients with gastritis, Helicobacter pylori positive gastritis and atrophy/intestinal metaplasia (IM) respectively. IL-8 expression was only increased in patients with current H. pylori infection. NF-κB analysis showed some increased p65 activity in inflamed tissues. IL-8 expression and aneuploidy level were not linked in individual patients. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally during histological progression; were significantly elevated at very early stages of neoplastic progression and could well be linked to cancer development and used to assess cancer risk. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced in early gastric cancer are presumably responsible for the stepwise accumulation of this particular mutation, i.e. aneuploidy. Hence, aneuploidy measured by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) coupled to brush cytology, would be worthy of consideration as a predictive marker in gastric cancer and could be clinically useful in pre

  2. Prediction of software operational reliability using testing environment factor

    Jung, Hoan Sung

    1995-02-01

    Software reliability is especially important to customers these days. The need to quantify software reliability of safety-critical systems has been received very special attention and the reliability is rated as one of software's most important attributes. Since the software is an intellectual product of human activity and since it is logically complex, the failures are inevitable. No standard models have been established to prove the correctness and to estimate the reliability of software systems by analysis and/or testing. For many years, many researches have focused on the quantification of software reliability and there are many models developed to quantify software reliability. Most software reliability models estimate the reliability with the failure data collected during the test assuming that the test environments well represent the operation profile. User's interest is on the operational reliability rather than on the test reliability, however. The experiences show that the operational reliability is higher than the test reliability. With the assumption that the difference in reliability results from the change of environment, testing environment factor comprising the aging factor and the coverage factor are defined in this work to predict the ultimate operational reliability with the failure data. It is by incorporating test environments applied beyond the operational profile into testing environment factor Test reliability can also be estimated with this approach without any model change. The application results are close to the actual data. The approach used in this thesis is expected to be applicable to ultra high reliable software systems that are used in nuclear power plants, airplanes, and other safety-critical applications

  3. Laparascopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: Can preoperative factors predict conversion?

    Khan, Iftikhar A.; El-Tinay, Omer E.

    2004-01-01

    To determine if preoperative clinical, laboratory and radiology data can predict conversion of laparascopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis to open procedure. Retrospective analysis of 44 laparascopic cholecystectomies were performed for acute cholecystitisbetween August 2000 and July 2002 at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data related to age and sex of patients, maximum body temprature,white blood cell count, gallbladder wall thickness or ultrasonography and timing of surgery from onset of symptoms were collected.The procedure was converted from laparascopic to open cholecystectomy in 10 patients (23%). Conversion rate was significantly high (33% versus zero; p=0.01) if the gallbladder wall was thickened. Conversion rate was significantly low ( Zero versus 32%: p=0.01) if the procedure was performed within 48 hours from the onset of the symptoms. The data relawted to age, sex, white blood cell count and body temprature did not reliably predict conversion of laparascopic cholecystectomy (LD) for acute cholecystitis to open procedure. There was no mortality or major morbidity. Laparascopic cholecystectomy is a safe modality of treatment for acute cholecystitis. Factors associated with increased conversion rate are thickened gallbladder wall on ultrasonographyand delay in surgery for more than 48 hours from the onset of symptoms. (author)

  4. Variability, Predictability, and Race Factors Affecting Performance in Elite Biathlon.

    Skattebo, Øyvind; Losnegard, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    To investigate variability, predictability, and smallest worthwhile performance enhancement in elite biathlon sprint events. In addition, the effects of race factors on performance were assessed. Data from 2005 to 2015 including >10,000 and >1000 observations for each sex for all athletes and annual top-10 athletes, respectively, were included. Generalized linear mixed models were constructed based on total race time, skiing time, shooting time, and proportions of targets hit. Within-athlete race-to-race variability was expressed as coefficient of variation of performance times and standard deviation (SD) in proportion units (%) of targets hit. The models were adjusted for random and fixed effects of subject identity, season, event identity, and race factors. The within-athlete variability was independent of sex and performance standard of athletes: 2.5-3.2% for total race time, 1.5-1.8% for skiing time, and 11-15% for shooting times. The SD of the proportion of hits was ∼10% in both shootings combined (meaning ±1 hit in 10 shots). The predictability in total race time was very high to extremely high for all athletes (ICC .78-.84) but trivial for top-10 athletes (ICC .05). Race times during World Championships and Olympics were ∼2-3% faster than in World Cups. Moreover, race time increased by ∼2% per 1000 m of altitude, by ∼5% per 1% of gradient, by 1-2% per 1 m/s of wind speed, and by ∼2-4% on soft vs hard tracks. Researchers and practitioners should focus on strategies that improve biathletes' performance by at least 0.8-0.9%, corresponding to the smallest worthwhile enhancement (0.3 × within-athlete variability).

  5. Encopresis in children. Outcome and predictive factors of successful management.

    Mohammed, Adnan A; Mekael, Farag M

    2012-06-01

    To elucidate our experience and outcome in the management of childhood encopresis, and to emphasize the factors that may predict successful management. This prospective study was carried out between September 2003 and September 2011 in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Al-Thoura Teaching Hospital, Al-Beida and Al-Butnan Medical Teaching Center, Tobruk, Libya. One hundred and thirty-two patients (117 male, 15 female) took part of the study. The male and female ratio was 7.8:1. The participants were patients aged 4-9 years. There were 30 (22.7%) patients between 4-5 years, 61 (46.2%) between 6-7 years, and 41 (31%) between 8-9 years. Nonretentive encopresis patients were 36 (27.2%) (Group I) and 96 (72.8%) patients had retentive encopresis (Group II). Patients with low fluid intake were 87 (65.9%) and low fiber diet were 91 (68.9%). Patients with delayed toilet training were 99 (75%). The total rate of successful conservative treatment was 70.5%. The rate of successful treatment in Group I was 94.4% and in Group II was 61.5%. We observed 18.2% of the patients had recurrence of encopresis. The factors found to predict good resolution rate after medical treatment included: cooperation of the parent and patient, female gender, ages above 5 years, and non-retentive encopresis. Encopresis remains a problem for the parents and the patients. Clinical evaluation is indispensable. Good outcome can be achieved effectively. Cooperative parents and patient, female gender, age above 5 years, and nonretentive encopresis are predictors for good response to medical treatment.

  6. Early hospital mortality prediction of intensive care unit patients using an ensemble learning approach.

    Awad, Aya; Bader-El-Den, Mohamed; McNicholas, James; Briggs, Jim

    2017-12-01

    Mortality prediction of hospitalized patients is an important problem. Over the past few decades, several severity scoring systems and machine learning mortality prediction models have been developed for predicting hospital mortality. By contrast, early mortality prediction for intensive care unit patients remains an open challenge. Most research has focused on severity of illness scoring systems or data mining (DM) models designed for risk estimation at least 24 or 48h after ICU admission. This study highlights the main data challenges in early mortality prediction in ICU patients and introduces a new machine learning based framework for Early Mortality Prediction for Intensive Care Unit patients (EMPICU). The proposed method is evaluated on the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database. Mortality prediction models are developed for patients at the age of 16 or above in Medical ICU (MICU), Surgical ICU (SICU) or Cardiac Surgery Recovery Unit (CSRU). We employ the ensemble learning Random Forest (RF), the predictive Decision Trees (DT), the probabilistic Naive Bayes (NB) and the rule-based Projective Adaptive Resonance Theory (PART) models. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. The explanatory variables included demographic, physiological, vital signs and laboratory test variables. Performance measures were calculated using cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) to minimize bias. 11,722 patients with single ICU stays are considered. Only patients at the age of 16 years old and above in Medical ICU (MICU), Surgical ICU (SICU) or Cardiac Surgery Recovery Unit (CSRU) are considered in this study. The proposed EMPICU framework outperformed standard scoring systems (SOFA, SAPS-I, APACHE-II, NEWS and qSOFA) in terms of AUROC and time (i.e. at 6h compared to 48h or more after admission). The results show that although there are many values missing in the first few hour of ICU admission

  7. Factor analysis of symptom profile in early onset and late onset OCD.

    Grover, Sandeep; Sarkar, Siddharth; Gupta, Gourav; Kate, Natasha; Ghosh, Abhishek; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the factor structure of early and late onset OCD. Additionally, cluster analysis was conducted in the same sample to assess the applicability of the factors. 345 participants were assessed with Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. Patients were classified as early onset (onset of symptoms at age ≤ 18 years) and late onset (onset at age > 18 years) OCD depending upon the age of onset of the symptoms. Factor analysis and cluster analysis of early-onset and late-onset OCD was conducted. The study sample comprised of 91 early onset and 245 late onset OCD subjects. Males were more common in the early onset group. Differences in the frequency of phenomenology related to contamination related, checking, repeating, counting and ordering/arranging compulsions were present across the early and late onset groups. Factor analysis of YBOCS revealed a 3 factor solution for both the groups, which largely concurred with each other. These factors were named as hoarding and symmetry (factor-1), contamination (factor-2) and aggressive, sexual and religious factor (factor-3). To conclude this study shows that factor structure of symptoms of OCD seems to be similar between early-onset and late-onset OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in adult sepsis and septic shock patients

    Sinto, R.; Widodo, D.; Pohan, H. T.

    2018-03-01

    Previous lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in sepsis and septic shock patient was determined by consensus from small sample size-study. We investigated the best lactate clearance cut off and its ability to predict early mortality in sepsis and septic shock patients. This cohort study was conducted in Intensive Care Unit of CiptoMangunkusumo Hospital in 2013. Patients’ lactate clearance and eight other resuscitationendpoints were recorded, and theoutcome was observed during the first 120 hours. The clearance cut off was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and its ability was investigated with Cox’s proportional hazard regression analysis using other resuscitation endpoints as confounders. Total of 268 subjects was included, of whom 70 (26.11%) subjects died within the first 120 hours. The area under ROC of lactate clearance to predict early mortality was 0.78 (95% % confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.84) with best cut off was <7.5% (sensitivity and specificity 88.99% and 81.4% respectively). Compared with group achieving lactate clearance target, group not achieving lactate clearance target had to increase early mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio 13.42; 95%CI 7.19-25.07). In conclusion, the best lactate clearance cut off as anearly mortality predictor in sepsis and septic shock patients is 7.5%.

  9. Genomic Prediction of Single Crosses in the Early Stages of a Maize Hybrid Breeding Pipeline

    Dnyaneshwar C. Kadam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of single-cross performance has been a major goal of plant breeders since the beginning of hybrid breeding. Recently, genomic prediction has shown to be a promising approach, but only limited studies have examined the accuracy of predicting single-cross performance. Moreover, no studies have examined the potential of predicting single crosses among random inbreds derived from a series of biparental families, which resembles the structure of germplasm comprising the initial stages of a hybrid maize breeding pipeline. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of genomic prediction for identifying superior single crosses early in the hybrid breeding pipeline and optimize its application. To accomplish these objectives, we designed and analyzed a novel population of single crosses representing the Iowa Stiff Stalk synthetic/non-Stiff Stalk heterotic pattern commonly used in the development of North American commercial maize hybrids. The performance of single crosses was predicted using parental combining ability and covariance among single crosses. Prediction accuracies were estimated using cross-validation and ranged from 0.28 to 0.77 for grain yield, 0.53 to 0.91 for plant height, and 0.49 to 0.94 for staygreen, depending on the number of tested parents of the single cross and genomic prediction method used. The genomic estimated general and specific combining abilities showed an advantage over genomic covariances among single crosses when one or both parents of the single cross were untested. Overall, our results suggest that genomic prediction of single crosses in the early stages of a hybrid breeding pipeline holds great potential to redesign hybrid breeding and increase its efficiency.

  10. Factors Predicting Survival after Transarterial Chemoembolization of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Farina M. Hanif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transarterial chemoembolization is the preferred treatment for unresectable, intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. Survival after transarterial chemoembolization can be highly variable. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that predict overall survival of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma who undergo transarterial chemoembolization as the initial therapy. Methods:We included patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization from 2007 to 2012 in this study. Patient’s age, gender, cause of cirrhosis, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, model of end-stage liver disease score, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score, Okuda stage, alpha- fetoprotein level, site, size and number of tumors were recorded. Radiological response to transarterial chemoembolization was assessed by computerized tomography scan at 1 and 3 months after the procedure. Repeat sessions of transarterial chemoembolization were performed according to the response. We performed survival assessment and all patients were assessed for survival at the last follow-up. Results: Included in this study were 71 patients of whom there were 57 (80.3 % males, with a mean age of 51.9±12.1 years (range: 18-76 years. The mean follow-up period was 12.5±10.7 months. A total of 31 (43.7% patients had only one session of transarterial chemoembolization, 17 (23.9% underwent 2 and 11 (15.5% had 3 or more sessions. On univariate analysis, significant factors that predicted survival included serum bilirubin (P=0.02, esophageal varices (P=0.002, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score (P=0.003, tumor size (P=0.005, >3 sessions of transarterial chemoembolization (P=0.006 and patient's age (P=0.001. Cox regression analysis showed that tumor size of 1 transarterial chemoembolization session (P=0.004 were associated with better survival. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that survival after transarterial chemoem- bolization is predicted by tumor size

  11. Using the Maturity Method in Predicting the Compressive Strength of Vinyl Ester Polymer Concrete at an Early Age

    Nan Ji Jin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strength of vinyl ester polymer concrete is predicted using the maturity method. The compressive strength rapidly increased until the curing age of 24 hrs and thereafter slowly increased until the curing age of 72 hrs. As the MMA content increased, the compressive strength decreased. Furthermore, as the curing temperature decreased, compressive strength decreased. For vinyl ester polymer concrete, datum temperature, ranging from −22.5 to −24.6°C, decreased as the MMA content increased. The maturity index equation for cement concrete cannot be applied to polymer concrete and the maturity of vinyl ester polymer concrete can only be estimated through control of the time interval Δt. Thus, this study introduced a suitable scaled-down factor (n for the determination of polymer concrete’s maturity, and a factor of 0.3 was the most suitable. Also, the DR-HILL compressive strength prediction model was determined as applicable to vinyl ester polymer concrete among the dose-response models. For the parameters of the prediction model, applying the parameters by combining all data obtained from the three different amounts of MMA content was deemed acceptable. The study results could be useful for the quality control of vinyl ester polymer concrete and nondestructive prediction of early age strength.

  12. Functional imaging of the cerebellum and basal ganglia during predictive motor timing in early Parkinson's disease.

    Husárová, Ivica; Lungu, Ovidiu V; Mareček, Radek; Mikl, Michal; Gescheidt, Tomáš; Krupa, Petr; Bareš, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia and the cerebellum have both emerged as important structures involved in the processing of temporal information. We examined the roles of the cerebellum and striatum in predictive motor timing during a target interception task in healthy individuals (HC group; n = 21) and in patients with early Parkinson's disease (early stage PD group; n = 20) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Despite having similar hit ratios, the PD failed more often than the HC to postpone their actions until the right moment and to adapt their behavior from one trial to the next. We found more activation in the right cerebellar lobule VI in HC than in early stage PD during successful trials. Successful trial-by-trial adjustments were associated with higher activity in the right putamen and lobule VI of the cerebellum in HC. We conclude that both the cerebellum and striatum are involved in predictive motor timing tasks. The cerebellar activity is associated exclusively with the postponement of action until the right moment, whereas both the cerebellum and striatum are needed for successful adaptation of motor actions from one trial to the next. We found a general ''hypoactivation'' of basal ganglia and cerebellum in early stage PD relative to HC, indicating that even in early stages of the PD there could be functional perturbations in the motor system beyond striatum. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  13. Predictive factors for intraoperative excessive bleeding in Graves' disease.

    Yamanouchi, Kosho; Minami, Shigeki; Hayashida, Naomi; Sakimura, Chika; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    In Graves' disease, because a thyroid tends to have extreme vascularity, the amount of intraoperative blood loss (AIOBL) becomes significant in some cases. We sought to elucidate the predictive factors of the AIOBL. A total of 197 patients underwent thyroidectomy for Graves' disease between 2002 and 2012. We evaluated clinical factors that would be potentially related to AIOBL retrospectively. The median period between disease onset and surgery was 16 months (range: 1-480 months). Conventional surgery was performed in 125 patients, whereas video-assisted surgery was performed in 72 patients. Subtotal and near-total/total thyroidectomies were performed in 137 patients and 60 patients, respectively. The median weight of the thyroid was 45 g (range: 7.3-480.0 g). Univariate analysis revealed that the strongest correlation of AIOBL was noted with the weight of thyroid (p Graves' disease, and preparation for blood transfusion should be considered in cases where thyroids weigh more than 200 g. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  14. Factors predicting barriers to exercise in midlife Australian women.

    McGuire, Amanda; Seib, Charrlotte; Anderson, Debra

    2016-05-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. They are, though, largely attributable to modifiable lifestyle risk factors, including lack of exercise. This study aims to investigate what factors predict perceptions of barriers to exercise in midlife women. This cross-sectional descriptive study collected data from midlife Australian women by online questionnaire. Volunteers aged between 40 and 65 years were recruited following media publicity about the study. The primary outcome measure was perceived exercise barriers (EBBS Barriers sub-scale). Other self-report data included: exercise, smoking, alcohol, fruit and vegetable consumption, body mass index, physical and mental health and well-being (MOS SF-12v2) and exercise self-efficacy. On average, the 225 participants were aged 50.9 years (SD=5.9). The significant predictors of perceived barriers to exercise were perceived benefits of exercise, exercise self-efficacy, physical well-being and mental well-being. These variables explained 41% of the variance in the final model (F (8219)=20.1, pexercise correlate with beliefs about the health benefits of exercise, exercise self-efficacy, physical and mental well-being. These findings have application to health promotion interventions targeting exercise behaviour change in midlife women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Osteoporosis-Related Mortality: Time-Trends and Predictive Factors

    Nelly Ziadé

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is one of the leading causes of handicap worldwide and a major contributor to the global burden of diseases. In particular, osteoporosis is associated with excess mortality. We reviewed the impact of osteoporosis on mortality in a population by defining three categories: mortality following hip fractures, mortality following other sites of fractures, and mortality associated with low bone mineral density (BMD. Hip fractures, as well as other fractures at major sites are all associated with excess mortality, except at the forearm site. This excess mortality is higher during the first 3-6 months after the fracture and then declines over time, but remains higher than the mortality of the normal population up to 22 years after the fracture. Low BMD is also associated with high mortality, with hazard ratios of around 1.3 for every decrease in 1 standard deviation of bone density at 5 years, independently of fractures, reflecting a more fragile population. Finally predictors of mortality were identified and categorised in demographic known factors (age and male gender and in factors reflecting a poor general health status such as the number of comorbidities, low mental status, or level of social dependence. Our results indicate that the management of a patient with osteoporosis should include a multivariate approach that could be based on predictive models in the future.

  16. Brief Report: Predicting Functional Disability: One-Year Results From the Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Inception Cohort.

    Kronisch, Caroline; McLernon, David J; Dale, James; Paterson, Caron; Ralston, Stuart H; Reid, David M; Tierney, Ann; Harvie, John; McKay, Neil; Wilson, Hilary E; Munro, Robin; Saunders, Sarah; Richmond, Ruth; Baxter, Derek; McMahon, Mike; Kumar, Vinod; McLaren, John; Siebert, Stefan; McInnes, Iain B; Porter, Duncan; Macfarlane, Gary J; Basu, Neil

    2016-07-01

    To identify baseline prognostic indicators of disability at 1 year within a contemporary early inflammatory arthritis inception cohort and then develop a clinically useful tool to support early patient education and decision-making. The Scottish Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (SERA) inception cohort is a multicenter, prospective study of patients with newly presenting RA or undifferentiated arthritis. SERA data were analyzed to determine baseline predictors of disability (defined as a Health Assessment Questionnaire [HAQ] score of ≥1) at 1 year. Clinical and psychosocial baseline exposures were entered into a forward stepwise logistic regression model. The model was externally validated using newly accrued SERA data and subsequently converted into a prediction tool. Of the 578 participants (64.5% female), 36.7% (n = 212) reported functional disability at 1 year. Functional disability was independently predicted by baseline disability (odds ratio [OR] 2.67 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.98, 3.59]), depression (OR 2.52 [95% CI 1.18, 5.37]), anxiety (OR 2.37 [95% CI 1.33, 4.21]), being in paid employment with absenteeism during the last week (OR 1.19 [95% CI 0.63, 2.23]), not being in paid employment (OR 2.36 [95% CI 1.38, 4.03]), and being overweight (OR 1.61 [95% CI 1.04, 2.50]). External validation (using 113 newly acquired patients) evidenced good discriminative performance with a C statistic of 0.74, and the calibration slope showed no evidence of model overfit (P = 0.31). In the context of modern early inflammatory arthritis treatment paradigms, predictors of disability at 1 year appear to be dominated by psychosocial rather than more traditional clinical measures. This indicates the potential benefit of early access to nonpharmacologic interventions targeting key psychosocial factors, such as mental health and work disability. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testes: factors predicting success.

    Stec, Andrew A; Tanaka, Stacy T; Adams, Mark C; Pope, John C; Thomas, John C; Brock, John W

    2009-10-01

    Intra-abdominal testes can be treated with several surgical procedures. We evaluated factors influencing the outcome of orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testis. We retrospectively reviewed 156 consecutive orchiopexies performed for intra-abdominal testis, defined as a nonpalpable testis on examination and located in the abdomen at surgery. All surgical approaches were included in the study. Primary outcome was the overall success rate and secondary outcomes were success based on surgical approach, age and a patent processus vaginalis. Success was considered a testis with normal texture and size compared to the contralateral testis at followup. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine factors predictive of success. The overall success rate of all orchiopexies was 79.5%. Median patient age at orchiopexy was 12 months and mean followup was 16 months. Of the patients 117 had a patent processus vaginalis at surgery. One-stage abdominal orchiopexy was performed in 92 testes with 89.1% success. Of these cases 32 were performed laparoscopically with 96.9% success. One-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy was performed in 27 testes and 2-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy was performed in 37 with success in 63.0% and 67.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that 1-stage orchiopexy without vessel division had more successful outcomes than 1 and 2-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy (OR 0.24, p = 0.007 and 0.29, p = 0.19, respectively). Neither age at surgery nor an open internal ring was significant (p = 0.49 and 0.12, respectively). The overall success of orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testis is 79.5%. While patient selection remains a critical factor, 1-stage orchiopexy without vessel division was significantly more successful and a laparoscopic approach was associated with the fewest failures for intra-abdominal testes.

  18. Prediction of nucleosome positioning based on transcription factor binding sites.

    Xianfu Yi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The DNA of all eukaryotic organisms is packaged into nucleosomes, the basic repeating units of chromatin. The nucleosome consists of a histone octamer around which a DNA core is wrapped and the linker histone H1, which is associated with linker DNA. By altering the accessibility of DNA sequences, the nucleosome has profound effects on all DNA-dependent processes. Understanding the factors that influence nucleosome positioning is of great importance for the study of genomic control mechanisms. Transcription factors (TFs have been suggested to play a role in nucleosome positioning in vivo. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR feature selection algorithm, the nearest neighbor algorithm (NNA, and the incremental feature selection (IFS method were used to identify the most important TFs that either favor or inhibit nucleosome positioning by analyzing the numbers of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in 53,021 nucleosomal DNA sequences and 50,299 linker DNA sequences. A total of nine important families of TFs were extracted from 35 families, and the overall prediction accuracy was 87.4% as evaluated by the jackknife cross-validation test. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with the notion that TFs are more likely to bind linker DNA sequences than the sequences in the nucleosomes. In addition, our results imply that there may be some TFs that are important for nucleosome positioning but that play an insignificant role in discriminating nucleosome-forming DNA sequences from nucleosome-inhibiting DNA sequences. The hypothesis that TFs play a role in nucleosome positioning is, thus, confirmed by the results of this study.

  19. Early spatiotemporal-specific changes in intermediate signals are predictive of cytotoxic sensitivity to TNFα and co-treatments

    Loo, Lit-Hsin; Bougen-Zhukov, Nicola Michelle; Tan, Wei-Ling Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    Signaling pathways can generate different cellular responses to the same cytotoxic agents. Current quantitative models for predicting these differential responses are usually based on large numbers of intracellular gene products or signals at different levels of signaling cascades. Here, we report a study to predict cellular sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) using high-throughput cellular imaging and machine-learning methods. We measured and compared 1170 protein phosphorylation events in a panel of human lung cancer cell lines based on different signals, subcellular regions, and time points within one hour of TNFα treatment. We found that two spatiotemporal-specific changes in an intermediate signaling protein, p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), are sufficient to predict the TNFα sensitivity of these cell lines. Our models could also predict the combined effects of TNFα and other kinase inhibitors, many of which are not known to target RSK directly. Therefore, early spatiotemporal-specific changes in intermediate signals are sufficient to represent the complex cellular responses to these perturbations. Our study provides a general framework for the development of rapid, signaling-based cytotoxicity screens that may be used to predict cellular sensitivity to a cytotoxic agent, or identify co-treatments that may sensitize or desensitize cells to the agent.

  20. Early smoking initiation and associated factors among in-school ...

    Objective: This report examines the prevalence and common correlates of early smoking initiation among male and female school children across seven African countries. Method: The total sample included 17,725 school children aged 13 to 15 years from nationally representative samples in seven African countries.

  1. Risk Factors of Early Childhood Caries among Dar es Salaam ...

    Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) describes caries experience on at least one primary tooth in children under six years of age. It is among the most common chronic diseases in young children and may develop as soon as the teeth erupt. Thus it presents a serious problem in pediatric dentistry not only because of ...

  2. Prediction of Radial Distance of Extraprostatic Extension From Pretherapy Factors

    Schwartz, David J.; Sengupta, Shomik; Hillman, David W.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Cheville, John C.; Wilson, Torrence M.; Mynderse, Lance A.; Choo, Richard; Davis, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Extraprostatic extension (EPE) of tumor conveys an adverse prognosis in early-stage prostate cancer. Previous studies reported on the linear and radial distance of EPE (EPEr) as measured from the prostate edge. In this study, the correlation of the EPEr from a large whole mount prostatectomy series was determined with respect to the needle biopsy and prostatectomy specimen findings. Methods and Materials: In a 24-month period, 404 patients underwent radical prostatectomy and the specimens were whole mounted. The preoperative records, biopsy findings, and EPEr from these specimens were evaluated. Results: The range of the EPEr distance was 0.0-5.7 mm. A three-category model was used that included 283 patients (70%) with no EPE, 59 (15%) with 'near EPE' (range, 0.01-0.59 mm), and 62 (15%) with 'far EPE' (≥0.6 mm). Univariate analysis revealed that patient age and prostate volume did not correlate with EPEr, in contrast to all other factors evaluated. Multivariate analysis identified the preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen, the percentage of cancer in the biopsy cores, and clinical tumor stage as significant. However, the Gleason score was not associated with the EPEr. Greater discrimination was possible in estimating the probability of extension in the 'near' category than in the 'far' category. Conclusion: EPEr is associated with the preoperative prostate-specific antigen level, percentage of cancer in the biopsy cores, and clinical tumor stage. These data might be useful in planning local therapies for prostate cancer, but additional studies identifying factors associated with EPEr beyond 3-5 mm could have relevance regarding the appropriate radiotherapeutic management strategies

  3. New Predictive Model at 11+0 to 13+6 Gestational Weeks for Early-Onset Preeclampsia With Fetal Growth Restriction.

    Chang, Ying; Chen, Xu; Cui, Hong-Yan; Li, Xing; Xu, Ya-Ling

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a predictive model for early-onset preeclampsia with fetal growth restriction (FGR) to be used at 11 +0 to 13 +6 gestational weeks, by combining the maternal serum level of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), placental growth factor (PLGF), placental protein 13 (PP13), soluble endoglin (sEng), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and uterine artery Doppler. This was a retrospective cohort study of 4453 pregnant women. Uterine artery Doppler examination was conducted in the first trimester. Maternal serum PAPP-A, PLGF, PP13, and sEng were measured. Mean arterial pressure was obtained. Women were classified as with/without early-onset preeclampsia, and women with preeclampsia were classified as with/without FGR. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the value of the model. There were 30 and 32 pregnant women with early-onset preeclampsia with and without FGR. The diagnosis rate of early-onset preeclampsia with FGR was 67.4% using the predictive model when the false positive rate was set at 5% and 73.2% when the false positive rate was 10%. The predictive model (MAP, uterine artery Doppler measurements, and serum biomarkers) had some predictive value for the early diagnosis (11 +0 to 13 +6 gestational weeks) of early-onset preeclampsia with FGR.

  4. Predicting early cognitive decline in newly-diagnosed Parkinson's patients: A practical model.

    Hogue, Olivia; Fernandez, Hubert H; Floden, Darlene P

    2018-06-19

    To create a multivariable model to predict early cognitive decline among de novo patients with Parkinson's disease, using brief, inexpensive assessments that are easily incorporated into clinical flow. Data for 351 drug-naïve patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were obtained from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. Baseline demographic, disease history, motor, and non-motor features were considered as candidate predictors. Best subsets selection was used to determine the multivariable baseline symptom profile that most accurately predicted individual cognitive decline within three years. Eleven per cent of the sample experienced cognitive decline. The final logistic regression model predicting decline included five baseline variables: verbal memory retention, right-sided bradykinesia, years of education, subjective report of cognitive impairment, and REM behavior disorder. Model discrimination was good (optimism-adjusted concordance index = .749). The associated nomogram provides a tool to determine individual patient risk of meaningful cognitive change in the early stages of the disease. Through the consideration of easily-implemented or routinely-gathered assessments, we have identified a multidimensional baseline profile and created a convenient, inexpensive tool to predict cognitive decline in the earliest stages of Parkinson's disease. The use of this tool would generate prediction at the individual level, allowing clinicians to tailor medical management for each patient and identify at-risk patients for clinical trials aimed at disease modifying therapies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Early prediction of hypothyroidism following 131I treatment for Graves' disease

    Wilson, R.; McKillop, J.H.; Jenkins, C.; Thomson, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly to assess the post treatment predictive value of various biochemical and immunological tests for early hypothyroidism after 131 I therapy of Graves' disease, and secondly to determine whether or not pretreatment with Carbimazole protects against post treatment hypothyroidism. The early changes observed in serum T 3 , T 4 , TSH, thyroid microsomal and thyroglobulin antibody levels were found to be of no predictive value. A sharp rise, around 2 months, in TRAb levels following 131 I therapy indicated that hypothyroidism was likely to occur. This rise was thought to reflect a greater degree of thyroid damage. Lower levels of thyroglobulin in patients who had become hypothyroid by 12 months after treatment would support this view. Five weeks Carbimazole pretreatment in this relatively small group of patients did not appear to protect against hypothyroidism. (orig.)

  6. Early Yield Prediction Using Image Analysis of Apple Fruit and Tree Canopy Features with Neural Networks

    Hong Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Since early yield prediction is relevant for resource requirements of harvesting and marketing in the whole fruit industry, this paper presents a new approach of using image analysis and tree canopy features to predict early yield with artificial neural networks (ANN; (2 Methods: Two back propagation neural network (BPNN models were developed for the early period after natural fruit drop in June and the ripening period, respectively. Within the same periods, images of apple cv. “Gala” trees were captured from an orchard near Bonn, Germany. Two sample sets were developed to train and test models; each set included 150 samples from the 2009 and 2010 growing season. For each sample (each canopy image, pixels were segmented into fruit, foliage, and background using image segmentation. The four features extracted from the data set for the canopy were: total cross-sectional area of fruits, fruit number, total cross-section area of small fruits, and cross-sectional area of foliage, and were used as inputs. With the actual weighted yield per tree as a target, BPNN was employed to learn their mutual relationship as a prerequisite to develop the prediction; (3 Results: For the developed BPNN model of the early period after June drop, correlation coefficients (R2 between the estimated and the actual weighted yield, mean forecast error (MFE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, and root mean square error (RMSE were 0.81, −0.05, 10.7%, 2.34 kg/tree, respectively. For the model of the ripening period, these measures were 0.83, −0.03, 8.9%, 2.3 kg/tree, respectively. In 2011, the two previously developed models were used to predict apple yield. The RMSE and R2 values between the estimated and harvested apple yield were 2.6 kg/tree and 0.62 for the early period (small, green fruit and improved near harvest (red, large fruit to 2.5 kg/tree and 0.75 for a tree with ca. 18 kg yield per tree. For further method verification, the cv.

  7. Has growth mixture modeling improved our understanding of how early change predicts psychotherapy outcome?

    Koffmann, Andrew

    2017-03-02

    Early change in psychotherapy predicts outcome. Seven studies have used growth mixture modeling [GMM; Muthén, B. (2001). Second-generation structural equation modeling with a combination of categorical and continuous latent variables: New opportunities for latent class-latent growth modeling. In L. M. Collins & A. G. Sawyers (Eds.), New methods for the analysis of change (pp. 291-322). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association] to identify patient classes based on early change but have yielded conflicting results. Here, we review the earlier studies and apply GMM to a new data set. In a university-based training clinic, 251 patients were administered the Outcome Questionnaire-45 [Lambert, M. J., Hansen, N. B., Umphress, V., Lunnen, K., Okiishi, J., Burlingame, G., … Reisinger, C. W. (1996). Administration and scoring manual for the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ 45.2). Wilmington, DE: American Professional Credentialing Services] at each psychotherapy session. We used GMM to identify class structure based on change in the first six sessions and examined trajectories as predictors of outcome. The sample was best described as a single class. There was no evidence of autoregressive trends in the data. We achieved better fit to the data by permitting latent variables some degree of kurtosis, rather than to assume multivariate normality. Treatment outcome was predicted by the amount of early improvement, regardless of initial level of distress. The presence of sudden early gains or losses did not further improve outcome prediction. Early improvement is an easily computed, powerful predictor of psychotherapy outcome. The use of GMM to investigate the relationship between change and outcome is technically complex and computationally intensive. To date, it has not been particularly informative.

  8. Early Prediction and Outcome of Septic Encephalopathy in Acute Stroke Patients With Nosocomial Coma

    Tong, Dao-Ming; Zhou, Ye-Ting; Wang, Guang-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Tong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background Septic encephalopathy (SE) is the most common acute encephalopathy in ICU; however, little attention has been focused on risk of SE in the course of acute stroke. Our aim is to investigate the early prediction and outcome of SE in stroke patients with nosocomial coma (NC). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in an ICU of the tertiary teaching hospital in China from January 2006 to December 2009. Ninety-four acute stroke patients with NC were grouped according to with...

  9. Does Trait Emotional Intelligence Predict Unique Variance in Early Career Success Beyond IQ and Personality?

    Haro García, José Manuel de; Castejón Costa, Juan Luis

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the contribution of emotional intelligence (EI) to career success, in this study, we analyzed the relationship between trait EI (TEI), general mental ability (GMA), the big five personality traits, and career success indicators, in a sample of 130 graduates who were in the early stages of their careers. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that TEI, and especially its dimension “repair,” has incremental validity in predicting one of the career success ...

  10. HIV-specific Fc effector function early in infection predicts the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Simone I Richardson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs is a major goal of HIV vaccination strategies, there is mounting evidence to suggest that antibodies with Fc effector function also contribute to protection against HIV infection. Here we investigated Fc effector functionality of HIV-specific IgG plasma antibodies over 3 years of infection in 23 individuals, 13 of whom developed bNAbs. Antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP, complement deposition (ADCD, cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and cellular trogocytosis (ADCT were detected in almost all individuals with levels of activity increasing over time. At 6 months post-infection, individuals with bNAbs had significantly higher levels of ADCD and ADCT that correlated with antibody binding to C1q and FcγRIIa respectively. In addition, antibodies from individuals with bNAbs showed more IgG subclass diversity to multiple HIV antigens which also correlated with Fc polyfunctionality. Germinal center activity represented by CXCL13 levels and expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID was found to be associated with neutralization breadth, Fc polyfunctionality and IgG subclass diversity. Overall, multivariate analysis by random forest classification was able to group bNAb individuals with 85% sensitivity and 80% specificity based on the properties of their antibody Fc early in HIV infection. Thus, the Fc effector function profile predicted the development of neutralization breadth in this cohort, suggesting that intrinsic immune factors within the germinal center provide a mechanistic link between the Fc and Fab of HIV-specific antibodies.

  11. HIV-specific Fc effector function early in infection predicts the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Richardson, Simone I; Chung, Amy W; Natarajan, Harini; Mabvakure, Batsirai; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Garrett, Nigel; Abdool Karim, Salim; Moore, Penny L; Ackerman, Margaret E; Alter, Galit; Morris, Lynn

    2018-04-01

    While the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is a major goal of HIV vaccination strategies, there is mounting evidence to suggest that antibodies with Fc effector function also contribute to protection against HIV infection. Here we investigated Fc effector functionality of HIV-specific IgG plasma antibodies over 3 years of infection in 23 individuals, 13 of whom developed bNAbs. Antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), complement deposition (ADCD), cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and cellular trogocytosis (ADCT) were detected in almost all individuals with levels of activity increasing over time. At 6 months post-infection, individuals with bNAbs had significantly higher levels of ADCD and ADCT that correlated with antibody binding to C1q and FcγRIIa respectively. In addition, antibodies from individuals with bNAbs showed more IgG subclass diversity to multiple HIV antigens which also correlated with Fc polyfunctionality. Germinal center activity represented by CXCL13 levels and expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) was found to be associated with neutralization breadth, Fc polyfunctionality and IgG subclass diversity. Overall, multivariate analysis by random forest classification was able to group bNAb individuals with 85% sensitivity and 80% specificity based on the properties of their antibody Fc early in HIV infection. Thus, the Fc effector function profile predicted the development of neutralization breadth in this cohort, suggesting that intrinsic immune factors within the germinal center provide a mechanistic link between the Fc and Fab of HIV-specific antibodies.

  12. On the incremental validity of irrational beliefs to predict subjective well-being while controlling for personality factors.

    Spörrle, Matthias; Strobel, Maria; Tumasjan, Andranik

    2010-11-01

    This research examines the incremental validity of irrational thinking as conceptualized by Albert Ellis to predict diverse aspects of subjective well-being while controlling for the influence of personality factors. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) argues that irrational beliefs result in maladaptive emotions leading to reduced well-being. Although there is some early scientific evidence for this relation, it has never been investigated whether this connection would still persist when statistically controlling for the Big Five personality factors, which were consistently found to be important determinants of well-being. Regression analyses revealed significant incremental validity of irrationality over personality factors when predicting life satisfaction, but not when predicting subjective happiness. Results are discussed with respect to conceptual differences between these two aspects of subjective well-being.

  13. Early Treatment Outcome in Failure to Thrive: Predictions from a Transactional Model.

    Drotar, Dennis

    Children diagnosed with environmentally based failure to thrive early during their first year of life were seen at 12 and 18 months for assessment of psychological development (cognition, language, symbolic play, and behavior during testing). Based on a transactional model of outcome, factors reflecting biological vulnerability (wasting and…

  14. Predicting delirium duration in elderly hip-surgery patients: does early symptom profile matter?

    Slor, C.J.; Witlox, J.; Adamis, D.; Meagher, D.J.; van der Ploeg, T.; Jansen, R.W.M.M.; van Stijn, M.F.M.; Houdijk, A.P.J.; van Gool, W.A.; Eikelenboom, P.; de Jonghe, J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Features that may allow early identification of patients at risk of prolonged delirium, and therefore of poorer outcomes, are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine if preoperative delirium risk factors and delirium symptoms (at onset and clinical symptomatology

  15. Prevalence, Predictive Factors, and Characteristics of Osteoporosis in Hyperthyroid Patients

    Ayotunde O. Ale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The osteoporosis in thyroid disorder has the lowest report especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to determine the prevalence, predictive factors, and characteristics of osteoporosis in hyperthyroid patients. Method. Forty (40 hyperthyroid patients and healthy controls ages 21–50 years were recruited in this study. Questionnaires were administered to capture bio- and clinical data. Biochemical tests included blood, thyroid functions, intact parathyroid hormone, corrected calcium, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D tests. Bone mineral density (BMD was also evaluated. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 21. A p value < 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results. Osteoporosis was observed in 18 (45% of study subjects, 13 (72.2% females and 5 (27.8% males, respectively. The BMD of the hyperthyroid patients had a negative correlation with free triiodothyronine, FT3 (r=−0.49, p=0.005, FT4 (r=−0.33, p=0.009, corrected calcium (r=−0.31, p=0.039, alkaline phosphatase (r=−0.53, p<0.001, and osteocalcin (r=−0.61, p<0.001. Conversely, a positive association with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH (r=0.54, p<0.001 was observed. Multiple regression showed osteocalcin (p<0.001 and TSH (p=0.015 as independent predictors of osteoporosis. Conclusion. Thyrotoxicosis is a risk factor for osteoporosis occurrence, and we recommend routine screening for this bone disease in persons over 20 years old with this disorder.

  16. Prediction of leakage current of non-ceramic insulators in early aging period

    El-Hag, Ayman H. [Electrical Engineering Department, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Jahromi, Ali Naderian [Kinectrics Inc., Transmission and Distribution Technologies, Toronto (Canada); Sanaye-Pasand, Majid [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Tehran (Iran)

    2008-10-15

    The paper presents a neural network based prediction technique for the leakage current (LC) of non-ceramic insulators during salt-fog test. Nearly 50 distribution class silicone rubber (SIR) insulators with three different voltage classes have been tested in a salt-fog chamber, where the LC has been continuously recorded for at least 100 h. A boundary for early aging period is defined by the rate of change of the LC instead of a fixed threshold value. Consequently, the Gaussian radial basis network has been adopted to predict the level of LC at the early stage of aging of the SIR insulators and is compared with a classical network. The initial values of LC and its rate of change at 10 min intervals for the first 5 h are selected as the input to the network, and the final value of LC of the early aging period is considered as the output of the network. It is found that Gaussian radial basis function network with a random optimizing training method is an appropriate network to predict the LC with a 3.5-5.3% accuracy, if the training data and the testing data are selected from the same type of SIR insulators. (author)

  17. Early Family Relationships Predict Children’s Emotion Regulation and Defense Mechanisms

    Jallu Lindblom

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Early family relationships have been suggested to influence the development of children’s affect regulation, involving both emotion regulation and defense mechanisms. However, we lack research on the specific family predictors for these two forms of affect regulation, which have been conceptualized to differ in their functions and accessibility to consciousness. Accordingly, we examine how the (a quality and (b timing of family relationships during infancy predict child’s later emotion regulation and defense mechanisms. Parents (N = 703 reported autonomy and intimacy in marital and parenting relationships at the child’s ages of 2 and 12 months, and the child’s use of emotion regulation and immature and neurotic defenses at 7 to 8 years. As hypothesized, the results showed that functional early family relationships predicted children’s efficient emotion regulation, whereas dysfunctional relationships predicted reliance on defense mechanisms in middle childhood. Further, results showed a timing effect for neurotic defenses, partially confirming our hypothesis of early infancy being an especially important period for the development of defense mechanisms. The findings are discussed from the viewpoints of attachment and family dynamics, emotional self-awareness, and sense of security.

  18. Examination of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factor structure and longitudinal relationships with functioning in early psychosis.

    Best, Michael W; Grossman, Michael; Oyewumi, L Kola; Bowie, Christopher R

    2016-04-01

    We examined the factor structure of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in early-episode psychosis and its relationships with functioning at baseline and follow-up. A total of 240 consecutive admissions to an early intervention in psychosis clinic were assessed at intake to the program with the PANSS, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS). Seventy individuals were reassessed at follow-up. A maximum likelihood factor analysis was conducted on baseline PANSS scores and the ability of each factor to predict baseline and follow-up GAF and SOFAS was examined. A five-factor model with varimax rotation was the best fit to our data and was largely congruent with factors found previously. The negative symptom factor was the best predictor of GAF and SOFAS at baseline and follow-up. Negative symptoms are the best symptomatic predictor of functioning in individuals with early psychosis and are an important treatment target to improve recovery. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Cognitive and social processes predicting partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer.

    Manne, Sharon; Ostroff, Jamie; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Winkel, Gary

    2009-02-01

    The diagnosis and subsequent treatment for early stage breast cancer is stressful for partners. Little is known about the role of cognitive and social processes predicting the longitudinal course of partners' psychosocial adaptation. This study evaluated the role of cognitive and social processing in partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer, evaluating both main and moderator effect models. Moderating effects for meaning making, acceptance, and positive reappraisal on the predictive association of searching for meaning, emotional processing, and emotional expression on partner psychological distress were examined. Partners of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were evaluated shortly after the ill partner's diagnosis (N=253), 9 (N=167), and 18 months (N=149) later. Partners completed measures of emotional expression, emotional processing, acceptance, meaning making, and general and cancer-specific distress at all time points. Lower satisfaction with partner support predicted greater global distress, and greater use of positive reappraisal was associated with greater distress. The predicted moderator effects for found meaning on the associations between the search for meaning and cancer-specific distress were found and similar moderating effects for positive reappraisal on the associations between emotional expression and global distress and for acceptance on the association between emotional processing and cancer-specific distress were found. Results indicate several cognitive-social processes directly predict partner distress. However, moderator effect models in which the effects of partners' processing depends upon whether these efforts result in changes in perceptions of the cancer experience may add to the understanding of partners' adaptation to cancer.

  20. Early α-fetoprotein response predicts survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with sorafenib

    Lee SH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sangheun Lee,1,* Beom Kyung Kim,2–5,* Seung Up Kim,2–5 Jun Yong Park,2–5 Do Young Kim,2–5 Sang Hoon Ahn,2–6 Kwang-Hyub Han2–6 1Department of Internal Medicine, International St Mary’s Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University, Incheon Metropolitan City, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Institute of Gastroenterology, 4Liver Cancer Special Clinic, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 5Liver Cirrhosis Clinical Research Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 6Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Seoul, Republic of Korea.   *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: It is not clear whether tumor marker responses can predict survival during sorafenib treatment in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. We investigated whether the α-fetoprotein (AFP response is associated with survival in patients with advanced HCC treated with sorafenib. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 126 patients with advanced HCC treated with sorafenib between 2007 and 2012. An AFP response was defined as >20% decrease from baseline. At 6–8 weeks after commencing sorafenib, AFP and radiological responses were assessed by modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Results: The median overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS were 6.2 and 3.5 months, respectively. Of the study population, a partial response (PR was identified in 5 patients (4.0%, stable disease (SD in 65 patients (51.6%, and progressive disease (PD in 57 patients (44.4%, respectively. AFP non-response was an independent prognostic factor for poor OS (median 10.9 months for AFP response vs 5.2 months for AFP non-response, together with Child-Pugh B, tumor diameter ≥10 cm, and portal vein invasion (all P<0.05, and PFS (median 5.3 months for AFP response vs 2.9 months for AFP non-response, together with tumor diameter ≥10 cm and portal vein invasion (all P<0.05. SD or PR was more frequently found

  1. Prevalence of early childhood caries and associated risk factors

    Fernando Javier Aguilar-Ayala

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: due to the high prevalence of white spots, is necessary to create prevention programs that educate mothers or caregivers about the caries risk factors and its control, promoting self-care as a preven- tion strategy.

  2. Early-onset Conduct Problems: Predictions from daring temperament and risk taking behavior.

    Bai, Sunhye; Lee, Steve S

    2017-12-01

    Given its considerable public health significance, identifying predictors of early expressions of conduct problems is a priority. We examined the predictive validity of daring, a key dimension of temperament, and the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), a laboratory-based measure of risk taking behavior, with respect to two-year change in parent, teacher-, and youth self-reported oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and antisocial behavior. At baseline, 150 ethnically diverse 6- to 10-year old (M=7.8, SD=1.1; 69.3% male) youth with ( n =82) and without ( n =68) DSM-IV ADHD completed the BART whereas parents rated youth temperament (i.e., daring); parents and teachers also independently rated youth ODD and CD symptoms. Approximately 2 years later, multi-informant ratings of youth ODD, CD, and antisocial behavior were gathered from rating scales and interviews. Whereas risk taking on the BART was unrelated to conduct problems, individual differences in daring prospectively predicted multi-informant rated conduct problems, independent of baseline risk taking, conduct problems, and ADHD diagnostic status. Early differences in the propensity to show positive socio-emotional responses to risky or novel experiences uniquely predicted escalating conduct problems in childhood, even with control of other potent clinical correlates. We consider the role of temperament in the origins and development of significant conduct problems from childhood to adolescence, including possible explanatory mechanisms underlying these predictions.

  3. The utility of serum CA-125 in predicting extra-uterine disease in apparent early-stage endometrial cancer.

    Nicklin, James; Janda, Monika; Gebski, Val; Jobling, Thomas; Land, Russell; Manolitsas, Tom; McCartney, Anthony; Nascimento, Marcelo; Perrin, Lewis; Baker, Jannah F; Obermair, Andreas

    2012-08-15

    Surgical staging in early-stage uterine cancer is controversial. Preoperative serum CA-125 may be of clinical value in predicting the presence of extra-uterine disease in patients with apparent early-stage endometrial cancer. Between October 6, 2005, and June 17, 2010, 760 patients were enrolled in an international, multicentre, prospective randomized trial (LACE) comparing laparotomy with laparoscopy in the management of endometrial cancer apparently confined to the uterus. Of these, 657 patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma had a preoperative serum CA-125 value recorded. Multiple cross-validation analysis was undertaken to correlate preoperative serum CA-125 with stage of disease (Stage I vs. Stage II+) after surgery. Patients' median preoperative serum CA-125 was 14 U/ml. A cutoff point of 30 U/ml was associated with the smallest misclassification error, and using this cutoff, 98 patients (14.9%) had elevated CA-125 levels. Of those, 36 (36.7%) had evidence of extra-uterine disease. Of the 116 patients (17.7%) with evidence of extra-uterine disease, 31.0% had an elevated CA-125 level. On univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis, only preoperative CA-125 level, but no other preoperative clinical characteristics were found to be associated with extra-uterine spread of disease. Utilizing a cutoff point of 30 U/ml achieved a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 31.0, 88.5, 36.7 and 85.7%, respectively. Elevated CA-125 above 30 U/ml in patients with apparent early-stage disease is a risk factor for the presence of extra-uterine disease and may assist clinicians in the management of patients with clinical Stage I endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  4. Difficult to predict early failure after major lower-extremity amputations

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Holm, Gitte; Gebuhr, Peter

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The successful outcome of a major amputation depends on several factors, including stump wound healing. The purpose of this study was to examine the criteria upon which the index amputation was based and to identify factors associated with early amputation failure after major non......-traumatic lower-extremity amputation. METHODS: We studied a consecutive one-year series of 36 men and 34 women with a median (25-75% quartiles) age of 72 (63-83) years who were treated in an acute orthopaedic ward; 44 below-knee and 26 above-knee amputees of whom 47 had an American Society of Anesthesiologists...... rating above two. Patient characteristics and other factors potentially influencing early amputation failure within 30 days were evaluated. RESULTS: Eleven patients died (16%) and 11 (16%) had a re-amputation at a higher level, whereas four (6%) had a major revision at the same level within 30 days...

  5. Clinical symptoms predict concurrent social and global functioning in an early psychosis sample.

    Cacciotti-Saija, Cristina; Langdon, Robyn; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Guastella, Adam J

    2018-04-01

    Although well established in chronic schizophrenia, the key determinants of functioning remain unknown during the early phase of a psychotic disorder. The aim of this study was to comprehensively examine the social cognitive, basic neurocognitive and clinical predictors of concurrent social functioning and global functioning in an early psychosis sample. This study examined the relationship between social cognition, basic neurocognition and clinical symptoms with concurrent functioning in 51 early psychosis individuals. Assessments included a range of self-report, observational and clinician-rated measures of cognitive, symptom severity and functioning domains. Results revealed a significant association between self-reported social function and lower levels of both social interaction anxiety and negative psychotic symptoms. A significant association was also observed between lower levels of negative psychotic symptoms and observed social functioning. Lastly, results demonstrated a significant association between reduced negative psychotic symptoms and clinician-rated global functioning. Clinical domains such as negative symptoms and social interaction anxiety significantly contribute to an optimal model predicting outcome during the early phase of a psychotic disorder. These clinical features may also provide useful markers of an individual's capacity for social participation. Clinical implications include the need for early targeted intervention to address social anxiety and negative psychotic symptoms to facilitate optimum patient outcome. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Maternal and Child Internalizing Symptoms Predicting Early Adolescent Emotional Eating.

    Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2017-05-01

    To examine maternal and child internalizing symptoms as predictors of early adolescent emotional eating in a longitudinal framework spanning three critical developmental periods (preschool, elementary school, and early adolescence). Participants were 170 children recruited at preschool age for a longitudinal study. When children were 5.25 years, their mothers completed ratings of their own internalizing symptoms. During the spring of 4th grade, children completed measures of internalizing symptoms. In early adolescence, youth completed a measure of emotional eating. Maternal and child internalizing symptoms predicted adolescent emotional eating. The results indicated that child psychopathology moderated the association between maternal psychopathology (except for maternal anxiety) and early adolescent emotional eating. There was no evidence of mediation. Pediatric psychologists are encouraged to provide early screening of, and interventions for, maternal and child internalizing symptoms to prevent children's emotional eating. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Early EEG for outcome prediction of postanoxic coma: prospective cohort study with cost-minimization analysis.

    Sondag, Lotte; Ruijter, Barry J; Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Marleen C; Beishuizen, Albertus; Bosch, Frank H; van Til, Janine A; van Putten, Michel J A M; Hofmeijer, Jeannette

    2017-05-15

    We recently showed that electroencephalography (EEG) patterns within the first 24 hours robustly contribute to multimodal prediction of poor or good neurological outcome of comatose patients after cardiac arrest. Here, we confirm these results and present a cost-minimization analysis. Early prognosis contributes to communication between doctors and family, and may prevent inappropriate treatment. A prospective cohort study including 430 subsequent comatose patients after cardiac arrest was conducted at intensive care units of two teaching hospitals. Continuous EEG was started within 12 hours after cardiac arrest and continued up to 3 days. EEG patterns were visually classified as unfavorable (isoelectric, low-voltage, or burst suppression with identical bursts) or favorable (continuous patterns) at 12 and 24 hours after cardiac arrest. Outcome at 6 months was classified as good (cerebral performance category (CPC) 1 or 2) or poor (CPC 3, 4, or 5). Predictive values of EEG measures and cost-consequences from a hospital perspective were investigated, assuming EEG-based decision- making about withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment in the case of a poor predicted outcome. Poor outcome occurred in 197 patients (51% of those included in the analyses). Unfavorable EEG patterns at 24 hours predicted a poor outcome with specificity of 100% (95% CI 98-100%) and sensitivity of 29% (95% CI 22-36%). Favorable patterns at 12 hours predicted good outcome with specificity of 88% (95% CI 81-93%) and sensitivity of 51% (95% CI 42-60%). Treatment withdrawal based on an unfavorable EEG pattern at 24 hours resulted in a reduced mean ICU length of stay without increased mortality in the long term. This gave small cost reductions, depending on the timing of withdrawal. Early EEG contributes to reliable prediction of good or poor outcome of postanoxic coma and may lead to reduced length of ICU stay. In turn, this may bring small cost reductions.

  8. SORL1 rare variants: a major risk factor for familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Nicolas, G; Charbonnier, C; Wallon, D; Quenez, O; Bellenguez, C; Grenier-Boley, B; Rousseau, S; Richard, A-C; Rovelet-Lecrux, A; Le Guennec, K; Bacq, D; Garnier, J-G; Olaso, R; Boland, A; Meyer, V; Deleuze, J-F; Amouyel, P; Munter, H M; Bourque, G; Lathrop, M; Frebourg, T; Redon, R; Letenneur, L; Dartigues, J-F; Génin, E; Lambert, J-C; Hannequin, D; Campion, D

    2016-06-01

    The SORL1 protein plays a protective role against the secretion of the amyloid β peptide, a key event in the pathogeny of Alzheimer's disease. We assessed the impact of SORL1 rare variants in early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) in a case-control setting. We conducted a whole exome analysis among 484 French EOAD patients and 498 ethnically matched controls. After collapsing rare variants (minor allele frequency ≤1%), we detected an enrichment of disruptive and predicted damaging missense SORL1 variants in cases (odds radio (OR)=5.03, 95% confidence interval (CI)=(2.02-14.99), P=7.49.10(-5)). This enrichment was even stronger when restricting the analysis to the 205 cases with a positive family history (OR=8.86, 95% CI=(3.35-27.31), P=3.82.10(-7)). We conclude that predicted damaging rare SORL1 variants are a strong risk factor for EOAD and that the association signal is mainly driven by cases with positive family history.

  9. Early Prediction and Evaluation of Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using Quantitative DCE-MRI

    Alina Tudorica

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to compare quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI metrics with imaging tumor size for early prediction of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT and evaluation of residual cancer burden (RCB. Twenty-eight patients with 29 primary breast tumors underwent DCE-MRI exams before, after one cycle of, at midpoint of, and after NACT. MRI tumor size in the longest diameter (LD was measured according to the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors guidelines. Pharmacokinetic analyses of DCE-MRI data were performed with the standard Tofts and Shutter-Speed models (TM and SSM. After one NACT cycle the percent changes of DCE-MRI parameters Ktrans (contrast agent plasma/interstitium transfer rate constant, ve (extravascular and extracellular volume fraction, kep (intravasation rate constant, and SSM-unique τi (mean intracellular water lifetime are good to excellent early predictors of pathologic complete response (pCR vs. non-pCR, with univariate logistic regression C statistics value in the range of 0.804 to 0.967. ve values after one cycle and at NACT midpoint are also good predictors of response, with C ranging 0.845 to 0.897. However, RECIST LD changes are poor predictors with C = 0.609 and 0.673, respectively. Post-NACT Ktrans, τi, and RECIST LD show statistically significant (P < .05 correlations with RCB. The performances of TM and SSM analyses for early prediction of response and RCB evaluation are comparable. In conclusion, quantitative DCE-MRI parameters are superior to imaging tumor size for early prediction of therapy response. Both TM and SSM analyses are effective for therapy response evaluation. However, the τi parameter derived only with SSM analysis allows the unique opportunity to potentially quantify therapy-induced changes in tumor energetic metabolism.

  10. [Circulating miR-152 helps early prediction of postoperative biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer].

    Chen, Jun-Feng; Liao, Yu-Feng; Ma, Jian-Bo; Mao, Qi-Feng; Jia, Guang-Cheng; Dong, Xue-Jun

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the value of circulating miR-152 in the early prediction of postoperative biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. Sixty-six cases of prostate cancer were included in this study, 35 with and 31 without biochemical recurrence within two years postoperatively, and another 31 healthy individuals were enrolled as normal controls. The relative expression levels of circulating miR-152 in the serum of the subjects were detected by qRT-PCR, its value in the early diagnosis of postoperative biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer was assessed by ROC curve analysis, and the correlation of its expression level with the clinicopathological parameters of the patients were analyzed. The expression of circulating miR-152 was significantly lower in the serum of the prostate cancer patients than in the normal controls (t = -5.212, P = 0.001), and so was it in the patients with than in those without postoperative biochemical recurrence (t = -5.727, P = 0.001). The ROC curve for the value of miR-152 in the early prediction of postoperative biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer showed the area under the curve (AUC) to be 0.906 (95% CI: 0.809-0.964), with a sensitivity of 91.4% and a specificity of 80.6%. The expression level of miR-152 was correlated with the Gleason score, clinical stage of prostate cancer, biochemical recurrence, and bone metastasis (P 0.05). The expression level of circulating miR-152 is significantly reduced in prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy and could be a biomarker in the early prediction of postoperative biochemical recurrence of the malignancy.

  11. mathematical models for prediction of safety factors for a simply

    HOD

    Keywords: reliability, code calibration, load factor, safety factor, design, steel beam. 1. INTRODUCTION ... safety factors for the design of a simply supported steel beam using regression .... 5 design criteria for a solid timber portal frame.

  12. Factores predictivos de las infecciones posoperatorias Prediction factors of the postoperative infections

    Manuel Pascual Bestard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la génesis de las infecciones posquirúrgicas es multifactorial. Existen estudios internacionales que evidencian los diversos factores predictivos relacionados con la aparición de estas complicaciones, las que todavía afectan a un número considerable de pacientes intervenidos, todo lo cual justifica el interés en la realización de este trabajo. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento de algunos de los factores predictivos relacionados con la aparición de las infecciones posoperatorias en nuestro medio. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal de los pacientes ingresados y operados que presentaron infecciones posquirúrgicas en el servicio de cirugía general del Hospital Provincial Docente "Saturnino Lora" de Santiago de Cuba, durante el año 2008, según posibles factores predictivos seleccionados. Resultados: con relación al grado de contaminación, la tasa global de infección posoperatoria y la de heridas limpias estuvo en límites universalmente aceptados, aunque fueron más elevadas en las intervenciones urgentes, sucias y contaminadas para las localizadas en el sitio quirúrgico, así como en enfermos con estado físico preoperatorio según la American Society of Anaesthesiology (ASA ASA II Y ASA III, con independencia de su estado nutricional y el tiempo quirúrgico en que se efectuaron las intervenciones. Conclusiones: las tasas de infecciones posquirúrgicas aumentaron en la medida en que fueron desfavorables las condiciones bajo las que se efectuaron las operaciones, y los factores predictivos seleccionados se relacionaron principalmente para las localizadas en el sitio quirúrgico, con el grado de contaminación, el tipo de intervención y el estado físico preoperatorio del paciente.Introduction: the genesis of the postsurgical infections is multifactor. The are many international studies evidencing the different prediction factors related to the appearance of these complications

  13. Predictive factors for perioperative blood transfusion in neck dissection.

    Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Warshavsky, Anton; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Abergel, Avraham; Fliss, Dan M; Yehuda, Moshe

    2016-04-01

    There is growing interest in reducing the exposure of patients to allogeneic blood transfusions by lowering preoperative cross-matched blood ordering and adopting alternative practices, such as autologous blood donations. Our aim was to investigate the predictors for perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) in head and neck cancer patients undergoing neck dissection (ND). Retrospective cohort study. Retrospective observational study. All patients who underwent ND between January 2011 and August 2014. The primary outcome measure was PBT. Predictors tested included: gender, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists comorbidity score, Charlson comorbidity index, preoperative hemoglobin level, head and neck primary tumor location, tumor and nodal staging, side and laterality of ND, central versus lateral ND, elective ND, preoperative chemotherapy/radiotherapy/I(131) therapy, history of previous ND, other surgical procedures in addition to the ND, bone resection, use and type of reconstruction, and the use of bony free flap reconstruction. Twenty-one preoperative and operative variables were tested for an association with PBT using univariate and multivariate analyses. Multivariate analysis found only the following three predictors to be significantly associated with PBT in patients undergoing ND: low preoperative hemoglobin level, advanced N stage, and concurrent reconstructive surgery. Evaluation of specific risk factors for predicting the need for PBT prior to neck dissection may be helpful in identifying the head and neck cancer patients in whom preoperative ordering of cross-matched blood is required or who could benefit from alternative means, such as preoperative autologous blood donation. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Patterns, incidence and predictive factors for pain after interventional radiology

    England, A.; Tam, C.L.; Thacker, D.E.; Walker, A.L.; Parkinson, A.S.; DeMello, W.; Bradley, A.J.; Tuck, J.S.; Laasch, H.-U.; Butterfield, J.S.; Ashleigh, R.J.; England, R.E.; Martin, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate prospectively the pattern, severity and predictive factors of pain after interventional radiological procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients undergoing non-arterial radiological interventional procedures were assessed using a visual-analogue scale (VAS) for pain before and at regular intervals for 24 h after their procedure. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty patients (87 men, mean age 62 years, range 18-92 years) were entered into the study. Significant increases in VAS score occurred 8 h after percutaneous biliary procedures (+47.7 mm, SD 14.9 mm; p=0.001), 6 h after central venous access and gastrostomy insertion (+23.7 mm, SD 19.5 mm; p=0.001 and +28.4 mm, SD 9.7 mm; p=0.007, respectively) and 4 h after oesophageal stenting (+27.8 mm, SD 20.2 mm, p=0.001). Non-significant increases in VAS pain score were observed after duodenal and colonic stenting (duodenal: +5.13 mm, SD 7.47 mm; p=0.055, colonic: +23.3 mm, SD 13.10 mm, p=0.250) at a mean of 5 h (range 4-6 h). Patients reported a significant reduction in pain score for nephrostomy insertion (-28.4 mm, SD 7.11 mm, p=0.001). Post-procedural analgesia was required in 99 patients (69.2%), 40 (28.0%) requiring opiates. Maximum post-procedural VAS pain score was significantly higher in patients who had no pre-procedural analgesia (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: Post-procedural pain is common and the pattern and severity of pain between procedures is variable. Pain control after interventional procedures is often inadequate, and improvements in pain management are required

  15. Spatial Models for Prediction and Early Warning of Aedes aegypti Proliferation from Data on Climate Change and Variability in Cuba.

    Ortiz, Paulo L; Rivero, Alina; Linares, Yzenia; Pérez, Alina; Vázquez, Juan R

    2015-04-01

    Climate variability, the primary expression of climate change, is one of the most important environmental problems affecting human health, particularly vector-borne diseases. Despite research efforts worldwide, there are few studies addressing the use of information on climate variability for prevention and early warning of vector-borne infectious diseases. Show the utility of climate information for vector surveillance by developing spatial models using an entomological indicator and information on predicted climate variability in Cuba to provide early warning of danger of increased risk of dengue transmission. An ecological study was carried out using retrospective and prospective analyses of time series combined with spatial statistics. Several entomological and climatic indicators were considered using complex Bultó indices -1 and -2. Moran's I spatial autocorrelation coefficient specified for a matrix of neighbors with a radius of 20 km, was used to identify the spatial structure. Spatial structure simulation was based on simultaneous autoregressive and conditional autoregressive models; agreement between predicted and observed values for number of Aedes aegypti foci was determined by the concordance index Di and skill factor Bi. Spatial and temporal distributions of populations of Aedes aegypti were obtained. Models for describing, simulating and predicting spatial patterns of Aedes aegypti populations associated with climate variability patterns were put forward. The ranges of climate variability affecting Aedes aegypti populations were identified. Forecast maps were generated for the municipal level. Using the Bultó indices of climate variability, it is possible to construct spatial models for predicting increased Aedes aegypti populations in Cuba. At 20 x 20 km resolution, the models are able to provide warning of potential changes in vector populations in rainy and dry seasons and by month, thus demonstrating the usefulness of climate information for

  16. [EARLY MOTHER-CHILD BONDING FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDREN OBESITY].

    Vargas Martínez, Gabriela; Cruzat Mandich, Claudia; Díaz Castrillón, Fernanda; Moore Infante, Catalina; Ulloa Jiménez, Valentina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experience of a group of mothers with obese children, regarding how early bond affects the relationship that both have with food and this, in turn, impacts on childhood obesity. The present study has a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design. The sample consists of five chilean women between 22 and 39 years old, with obese children between 2 and 4 years old. In-depth interviews were carried out and open coding strategy was used as method of analysis. Results show a tendency of mothers to establish insecure attachment relations, difficulties of tuning and expression of affection, and a predominance of a permissive parenting style around food. This has important implications for prevention and treatment of obesity, focusing on the attachment bond between mother and child. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and early-life stress

    2016-10-24

    Oct 24, 2016 ... The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neural development and ... forms are produced by splicing individual non-coding ..... VII and. IX m. RNA. ↑. mBDNF. ↓. (MS). 5. BDNF expression was unch;.

  18. Molecular architecture of transcription factor hotspots in early adipogenesis

    Siersbæk, Rasmus; Baek, Songjoon; Rabiee, Atefeh

    2014-01-01

    motif on chromatin, and we suggest that this may be a general mechanism for integrating external signals on chromatin. Furthermore, we find evidence of extensive recruitment of transcription factors to hotspots through alternative mechanisms not involving their known motifs and demonstrate...

  19. Predisposing factors for early retirement in patients with schizophrenia in Germany.

    Schnabel, Reinhard; Friedel, Heiko; Erfurth, Andreas; Angermayer, Matthias; Clouth, Johannes; Eichmann, Florian

    2008-08-01

    Although early retirement causes major changes in the life of schizophrenic patients and is among the major cost factors to be covered by payers, the causes leading to early retirement of schizophrenic patients have not been investigated in detail. Therefore, the objective of this retrospective non-interventional case-control study was to generate hypotheses on predisposing factors for early retirement in schizophrenia. Logistic regression was used to explore potential predisposing parameters with regard to their effect on the outcome early retirement. As the study results indicate, schizophrenia severity, assistance or care in the patient's everyday life, age and antipsychotic treatment with typical antipsychotics are linked to the occurrence of early retirement. Further research should be planned to confirm or refute the hypotheses determined in this retrospective analysis and to determine whether atypical antipsychotics could help to avoid early retirement and to improve the situation of schizophrenic patients.

  20. The relationship between early changes in the HAMD-17 anxiety/somatization factor items and treatment outcome among depressed outpatients.

    Farabaugh, Amy; Mischoulon, David; Fava, Maurizio; Wu, Shirley L; Mascarini, Alessandra; Tossani, Eliana; Alpert, Jonathan E

    2005-03-01

    The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) Anxiety/Somatization factor includes six items: Anxiety (psychic), Anxiety (somatic), Somatic Symptoms (gastrointestinal), Somatic Symptoms (general), Hypochondriasis and Insight. This study examines the relationship between early changes (defined as those observed between baseline and week 1) in these HAMD-17 Anxiety/Somatization Factor items and treatment outcome among major depressive disorder (MDD) patients who participated in a study comparing the antidepressant efficacy of a standardized extract of hypericum with both placebo and fluoxetine. Following a 1-week, single-blind washout, patients with MDD diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) were randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with hypericum extract (900 mg/day), fluoxetine (20 mg/day) or placebo. The relationship between early changes in HAMD-17 anxiety/somatization factor items and treatment outcome was assessed separately for patients who received study treatment (hypericum or fluoxetine) versus placebo with a logistic regression method. One hundred and thirty-five patients (female 57%, mean age=37.3+/-11.0 years; mean baseline HAMD-17=19.7+/-3.2 years) were randomized to double-blind treatment and were included in the intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses. After adjusting for baseline HAMD-17 scores and for multiple comparisons with the Bonferroni correction, patients who remitted (HAMD-17 score Somatic Symptoms (General) scores than non-remitters. No other significant differences in early changes were noted for the remaining items between remitters versus non-remitters who received active treatment. For patients treated with placebo, early change was not predictive of remission for any of the items after Bonferroni correction. In conclusion, the presence of early improvement on the HAMD-17 item concerning fatigue and general somatic symptoms is significantly predictive of achieving remission at endpoint with

  1. Early Diagnosis of Breas Cancer Dissemination by Tumor Markers Follow-Up and Method of Prediction

    Nekulová, M.; Šimíčková, M.; Pecen, Ladislav; Eben, Kryštof; Vermousek, I.; Stratil, P.; Černoch, M.; Lang, B.

    1994-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (1994), s. 113-118 ISSN 0028-2685 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA230106 Keywords : breast cancer * progression * CEA * CA 15-3 * MCA * TPA * mathematical method of prediction Impact factor: 0.354, year: 1994

  2. Yield loss prediction models based on early estimation of weed pressure

    Asif, Ali; Streibig, Jens Carl; Andreasen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    thresholds are more relevant for site-specific weed management, because weeds are unevenly distributed in fields. Precision of prediction of yield loss is influenced by various factors such as locations, yield potential at the site, variation in competitive ability of mix stands of weed species and emergence...

  3. Why do early mathematics skills predict later reading? The role of mathematical language.

    Purpura, David J; Logan, Jessica A R; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Napoli, Amy R

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the development of mathematics and literacy skills is highly related. The importance of literacy skills-specifically language-for mathematics development has been well rationalized. However, despite several prominent studies indicating that mathematics skills are highly predictive of literacy development, the reason for this relation is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify how and why early mathematics is predictive of early literacy development. Participants included 125 preschool children 3-5 years old (M = 4 years 3 months). Participants were assessed on mathematics, literacy, and cognitive measures in both the fall and spring of their preschool year. Mediation analyses indicated that the relation between early mathematics and literacy skills is mediated by children's mathematical language skills. These findings suggest that, in prior research identifying mathematical performance as a significant predictor of later literacy skills, mathematical performance may have acted only as a proxy measure for more complex language skills such as those assessed on a mathematical language measure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Thermo-mechanical simulations of early-age concrete cracking with durability predictions

    Havlásek, Petr; Šmilauer, Vít; Hájková, Karolina; Baquerizo, Luis

    2017-09-01

    Concrete performance is strongly affected by mix design, thermal boundary conditions, its evolving mechanical properties, and internal/external restraints with consequences to possible cracking with impaired durability. Thermo-mechanical simulations are able to capture those relevant phenomena and boundary conditions for predicting temperature, strains, stresses or cracking in reinforced concrete structures. In this paper, we propose a weakly coupled thermo-mechanical model for early age concrete with an affinity-based hydration model for thermal part, taking into account concrete mix design, cement type and thermal boundary conditions. The mechanical part uses B3/B4 model for concrete creep and shrinkage with isotropic damage model for cracking, able to predict a crack width. All models have been implemented in an open-source OOFEM software package. Validations of thermo-mechanical simulations will be presented on several massive concrete structures, showing excellent temperature predictions. Likewise, strain validation demonstrates good predictions on a restrained reinforced concrete wall and concrete beam. Durability predictions stem from induction time of reinforcement corrosion, caused by carbonation and/or chloride ingress influenced by crack width. Reinforcement corrosion in concrete struts of a bridge will serve for validation.

  5. Predicting the intrauterine fetal death of fetuses with cystic hygroma in early pregnancy.

    Shimura, Mai; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiromi; Mochizuki, Akihiko; Sekiguchi, Futoshi; Koshimizu, Naho; Itai, Toshiyuki; Odagami, Mizuha

    2018-01-11

    We investigated whether it was possible to predict the prognosis of fetuses with cystic hygroma in early pregnancy based on the degree of neck thickening. We retrospectively analyzed 57 singleton pregnancies with fetuses with cystic hygroma who were examined before the 22nd week of pregnancy. The fetuses were categorized according to the outcome, structural abnormalities at birth, and chromosomal abnormalities. Here, we proposed a new sonographic predictor with which we assessed neck thickening by dividing the width of the neck thickening by the biparietal diameter, which is expressed as the cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio. The median cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio in the intrauterine fetal death group (0.51) was significantly higher than that in the live birth group (0.27). No significant difference in the median cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio was found between the structural abnormalities group at birth and the no structural abnormalities group, and no significant difference in the median cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio was found between the chromosomal abnormality group and the no chromosomal abnormality group. We used receiver operating characteristic analysis to evaluate the cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio to predict intrauterine fetal death. When the cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio cut-off value was 0.5, intrauterine fetal death could be predicted with a sensitivity of 52.9% and a specificity of 100%. It is possible to predict intrauterine fetal death in fetuses with cystic hygroma in early pregnancy if cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio is measured. However, even if cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio is measured, predicting the presence or absence of a structural abnormality at birth or a chromosomal abnormality is difficult. © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  6. Text mining approach to predict hospital admissions using early medical records from the emergency department.

    Lucini, Filipe R; S Fogliatto, Flavio; C da Silveira, Giovani J; L Neyeloff, Jeruza; Anzanello, Michel J; de S Kuchenbecker, Ricardo; D Schaan, Beatriz

    2017-04-01

    Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is a serious issue for hospitals. Early information on short-term inward bed demand from patients receiving care at the ED may reduce the overcrowding problem, and optimize the use of hospital resources. In this study, we use text mining methods to process data from early ED patient records using the SOAP framework, and predict future hospitalizations and discharges. We try different approaches for pre-processing of text records and to predict hospitalization. Sets-of-words are obtained via binary representation, term frequency, and term frequency-inverse document frequency. Unigrams, bigrams and trigrams are tested for feature formation. Feature selection is based on χ 2 and F-score metrics. In the prediction module, eight text mining methods are tested: Decision Tree, Random Forest, Extremely Randomized Tree, AdaBoost, Logistic Regression, Multinomial Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (Kernel linear) and Nu-Support Vector Machine (Kernel linear). Prediction performance is evaluated by F1-scores. Precision and Recall values are also informed for all text mining methods tested. Nu-Support Vector Machine was the text mining method with the best overall performance. Its average F1-score in predicting hospitalization was 77.70%, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.66%. The method could be used to manage daily routines in EDs such as capacity planning and resource allocation. Text mining could provide valuable information and facilitate decision-making by inward bed management teams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gait Rather Than Cognition Predicts Decline in Specific Cognitive Domains in Early Parkinson's Disease.

    Morris, Rosie; Lord, Sue; Lawson, Rachael A; Coleman, Shirley; Galna, Brook; Duncan, Gordon W; Khoo, Tien K; Yarnall, Alison J; Burn, David J; Rochester, Lynn

    2017-11-09

    Dementia is significant in Parkinson's disease (PD) with personal and socioeconomic impact. Early identification of risk is of upmost importance to optimize management. Gait precedes and predicts cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. We aimed to evaluate gait characteristics as predictors of cognitive decline in newly diagnosed PD. One hundred and nineteen participants recruited at diagnosis were assessed at baseline, 18 and 36 months. Baseline gait was characterized by variables that mapped to five domains: pace, rhythm, variability, asymmetry, and postural control. Cognitive assessment included attention, fluctuating attention, executive function, visual memory, and visuospatial function. Mixed-effects models tested independent gait predictors of cognitive decline. Gait characteristics of pace, variability, and postural control predicted decline in fluctuating attention and visual memory, whereas baseline neuropsychological assessment performance did not predict decline. This provides novel evidence for gait as a clinical biomarker for PD cognitive decline in early disease. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  8. Sensory hypersensitivity predicts enhanced attention capture by faces in the early development of ASD

    E.J.H Jones

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory sensitivity is prevalent among young children with ASD, but its relation to social communication impairment is unclear. Recently, increased sensory hypersensitivity has been linked to greater activity of the neural salience network (Green et al., 2016. Increased neural sensitivity to stimuli, especially social stimuli, could provide greater opportunity for social learning and improved outcomes. Consistent with this framework, in Experiment 1 we found that parent report of greater sensory hypersensitivity at 2 years in toddlers with ASD (N = 27 was predictive of increased neural responsiveness to social stimuli (larger amplitude event-related potential/ERP responses to faces at P1, P400 and Nc at 4 years, and this in turn was related to parent report of increased social approach at 4 years. In Experiment 2, parent report of increased perceptual sensitivity at 6 months in infants at low and high familial risk for ASD (N = 35 predicted larger ERP P1 amplitude to faces at 18 months. Increased sensory hypersensitivity in early development thus predicted greater attention capture by faces in later development, and this related to more optimal social behavioral development. Sensory hypersensitivity may index a child's ability to benefit from supportive environments during development. Early sensory symptoms may not always be developmentally problematic for individuals with ASD. Keywords: Autism, Sensory hypersensitivity, Social attention, Salience network, Infant, EEG

  9. A Proteomic Approach Identifies Candidate Early Biomarkers to Predict Severe Dengue in Children.

    Dang My Nhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe dengue with severe plasma leakage (SD-SPL is the most frequent of dengue severe form. Plasma biomarkers for early predictive diagnosis of SD-SPL are required in the primary clinics for the prevention of dengue death.Among 63 confirmed dengue pediatric patients recruited, hospital based longitudinal study detected six SD-SPL and ten dengue with warning sign (DWS. To identify the specific proteins increased or decreased in the SD-SPL plasma obtained 6-48 hours before the shock compared with the DWS, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ technology was performed using four patients each group. Validation was undertaken in 6 SD-SPL and 10 DWS patients.Nineteen plasma proteins exhibited significantly different relative concentrations (p<0.05, with five over-expressed and fourteen under-expressed in SD-SPL compared with DWS. The individual protein was classified to either blood coagulation, vascular regulation, cellular transport-related processes or immune response. The immunoblot quantification showed angiotensinogen and antithrombin III significantly increased in SD-SPL whole plasma of early stage compared with DWS subjects. Even using this small number of samples, antithrombin III predicted SD-SPL before shock occurrence with accuracy.Proteins identified here may serve as candidate predictive markers to diagnose SD-SPL for timely clinical management. Since the number of subjects are small, so further studies are needed to confirm all these biomarkers.

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Appraisal of the Decision to Take Early Retirement.

    Gowan, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines why individuals elect to take the early retirement package offered by their employer, as well as factors affecting their appraisal of that decision. Results suggest that all early retirement decisions are not voluntary. Individuals who do not wish to retire and who had lower self-esteem, fewer financial resources, and plans to continue…

  11. FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY IN EARLY RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS - DESCRIPTION AND RISK-FACTORS

    GUILLEMIN, F; SUURMEIJER, T; KROL, B; BOMBARDIER, C; BRIANCON, S; DOEGLAS, D; SANDERMAN, R; VANDENHEUVEL, W

    Objective. To provide a description and identify risk factors for functional disability in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. A cohort of 337 patients with early RA with disease duration under 5 years was constituted in 2 areas in Fiance and The Netherlands. Examination included the Ritchie

  12. Relationships between Early Child Factors and School Readiness Skills in Young Children with Hearing Loss

    Harrington, Marjorie; DesJardin, Jean L.; Shea, Lynn C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationships between early child factors (i.e., age at identification, enrollment in early intervention, oral language skills) and school readiness skills (i.e., conceptual knowledge) in a group of young children with hearing loss (HL). Standardized language, cognition, and conceptual…

  13. Early menopause predicts future coronary heart disease and stroke: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Wellons, Melissa; Ouyang, Pamela; Schreiner, Pamela J; Herrington, David M; Vaidya, Dhananjay

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of women. Identifying women at risk of cardiovascular disease has tremendous public health importance. Early menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular disease events in some predominantly white populations, but not consistently. Our objective was to determine if self-reported early menopause (menopause at an age menopause (either natural menopause or surgical removal of ovaries at an age menopause. In survival curves, women with early menopause had worse coronary heart disease and stroke-free survival (log rank P = 0.008 and P = 0.0158). In models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, Multi-ethnic Study Atherosclerosis site, and traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, this risk for coronary heart disease and stroke remained (hazard ratio, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.17-3.70; and hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.11-4.32, respectively). Early menopause is positively associated with coronary heart disease and stroke in a multiethnic cohort, independent of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  14. Functionality of empirical model-based predictive analytics for the early detection of hemodynamic instabilty.

    Summers, Richard L; Pipke, Matt; Wegerich, Stephan; Conkright, Gary; Isom, Kristen C

    2014-01-01

    Background. Monitoring cardiovascular hemodynamics in the modern clinical setting is a major challenge. Increasing amounts of physiologic data must be analyzed and interpreted in the context of the individual patient’s pathology and inherent biologic variability. Certain data-driven analytical methods are currently being explored for smart monitoring of data streams from patients as a first tier automated detection system for clinical deterioration. As a prelude to human clinical trials, an empirical multivariate machine learning method called Similarity-Based Modeling (“SBM”), was tested in an In Silico experiment using data generated with the aid of a detailed computer simulator of human physiology (Quantitative Circulatory Physiology or “QCP”) which contains complex control systems with realistic integrated feedback loops. Methods. SBM is a kernel-based, multivariate machine learning method that that uses monitored clinical information to generate an empirical model of a patient’s physiologic state. This platform allows for the use of predictive analytic techniques to identify early changes in a patient’s condition that are indicative of a state of deterioration or instability. The integrity of the technique was tested through an In Silico experiment using QCP in which the output of computer simulations of a slowly evolving cardiac tamponade resulted in progressive state of cardiovascular decompensation. Simulator outputs for the variables under consideration were generated at a 2-min data rate (0.083Hz) with the tamponade introduced at a point 420 minutes into the simulation sequence. The functionality of the SBM predictive analytics methodology to identify clinical deterioration was compared to the thresholds used by conventional monitoring methods. Results. The SBM modeling method was found to closely track the normal physiologic variation as simulated by QCP. With the slow development of the tamponade, the SBM model are seen to disagree while the

  15. A Prediction Method of Tensile Young's Modulus of Concrete at Early Age

    Isamu Yoshitake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the tensile Young's modulus of concrete at early ages is important for estimating the risk of cracking due to restrained shrinkage and thermal contraction. However, most often, the tensile modulus is considered equal to the compressive modulus and is estimated empirically based on the measurements of compressive strength. To evaluate the validity of this approach, the tensile Young's moduli of 6 concrete and mortar mixtures are measured using a direct tension test. The results show that the tensile moduli are approximately 1.0–1.3-times larger than the compressive moduli within the material's first week of age. To enable a direct estimation of the tensile modulus of concrete, a simple three-phase composite model is developed based on random distributions of coarse aggregate, mortar, and air void phases. The model predictions show good agreement with experimental measurements of tensile modulus at early age.

  16. Clinical study predicting delirium duration in elderly hip-surgery patients: does early symptom profile matter?

    Slor, Chantal J; Witlox, Joost; Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Jansen, Rene W. M. M; van Stijn, Mireille F. M; Houdijk, Alexander P. J; van Gool, Willem A; Eikelenboom, Piet; de Jonghe, Jos F. M

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed Background. Features thatmay allow early identification of patients at risk of prolonged delirium, and therefore of poorer outcomes, are not well understood.The aim of this study was to determine if preoperative delirium risk factors and delirium symptoms (at onset and clinical symptomatology during the course of delirium) are associated with delirium duration. Methods. This study was conducted in prospectively identified cases of incident delirium.We compared patien...

  17. Predicting Delirium Duration in Elderly Hip-Surgery Patients: Does Early Symptom Profile Matter?

    Slor, Chantal J.; Witlox, Joost; Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David J.; Ploeg, Tjeerd van der; Jansen, Rene W. M. M.; van Stijn, Mireille F. M.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.; van Gool, Willem A.; Eikelenboom, Piet; de Jonghe, Jos F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Features that may allow early identification of patients at risk of prolonged delirium, and therefore of poorer outcomes, are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine if preoperative delirium risk factors and delirium symptoms (at onset and clinical symptomatology during the course of delirium) are associated with delirium duration. Methods. This study was conducted in prospectively identified cases of incident delirium. We compared patients experiencing deliriu...

  18. The association between growth factors and blood factors with early childhood caries

    Hoda Shamsaddin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Early childhood caries (ECC is a specific form of rampant dental caries affecting infants and young children. ECC is still a problem that threatens the health of the community and its management is important. It is believed that the majorities of children with ECC also suffer from malnutrition, anemia, low weight and altered physical growth patterns. This study was undertaken to compare blood indices [mean corpuscular volume (MCV, hemoglobin and serum ferritin] in a population of children in Kerman, Iran, and the association between growth factors, blood parameters, and ECC. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 240 children were selected from Afzalipour Hospital of Kerman. The subjects consisted of 2 to 6-year children, who needed blood sampling for different diagnostic reasons. Data were collected through clinical oral examinations, anthropometric measures, blood indices measurement (MCV, hemoglobin and serum ferritin and structured questionnaire in order to assess demographic characteristics, nutritional habits and the presence or absence of systemic conditions. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 50.79 months. Of 240 children included in this study, 124 (52.1% were girls and the rest (47.9% were boys. Statistical test revealed that there were statically significant differences in weight as well as the height of children in experimental and control groups (P 0.050. CONCLUSION: No significant association was observed between ECC and blood indices (MCV, hemoglobin and serum ferritin, but the mean height and weight in the caries-free group were significantly higher.

  19. Predictive Risk Factors in the Treatment of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Lebriz Hale Aktun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to investigate predictive risk factors in the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Patients and Methods A total of 256 pregnant women who underwent 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during 24–28 weeks of pregnancy were included according to the World Health Organization criteria. Demographic characteristics of the patients, including age, parity, family history of diabetes, body weight before pregnancy, and body weight at the diagnosis of GDM, were recorded. Fasting insulin and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c values at the time of diagnosis were evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups: those requiring insulin treatment (insulin group, n = 89 and those receiving diet therapy (diet group, n = 167 during pregnancy according to the American Diabetes Association recommendations. Results A total of 34.76% of the pregnant women with GDM required insulin treatment. The mean age of these patients was significantly higher compared to the diet group (34.9 ± 0.6 years vs. 31.9 ± 0.6 years; P = 0.004. Body mass index before pregnancy was also significantly higher in the insulin group than that in the diet group (32 ± 0.9 kg/m 2 vs. 29 ± 0.7 kg/m 2 ; P = 0.004. Fasting blood glucose (FBG during OGTT was 105.6 ± 2.1 mg/dL and 96.7 ± 1.1 mg/dL in the insulin group and diet group, respectively ( P < 0.001. There was no significant difference in fasting plasma glucose during OGTT between the groups ( P = 0.069, while plasma glucose at two hours was 161.1 ± 6.8 mg/dL in the insulin group and 145.1 ± 3.7 mg/dL in the diet group ( P = 0.027. At the time of diagnosis, HbA1c values were significantly higher in the insulin group compared to the diet group (5.3 ± 0.1 vs. 4.9 ± 0.1; P = 0.001. There was no significant difference in FBG and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values between the groups ( P = 0.908, P = 0.073. Conclusion Our study results suggest that age, family history of diabetes, body

  20. Predictive value of early near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring of patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Vilkė, Alina; Bilskienė, Diana; Šaferis, Viktoras; Gedminas, Martynas; Bieliauskaitė, Dalia; Tamašauskas, Arimantas; Macas, Andrius

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in young adults. Study aimed to define the predictive value of early near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitoring of TBI patients in a Lithuanian clinical setting. Data of 61 patients was analyzed. Predictive value of early NIRS monitoring, computed tomography data and regular intensive care unit (ICU) parameters was investigated. Twenty-six patients expressed clinically severe TBI; 14 patients deceased. Patients who survived expressed higher NIRS values at the periods of admission to operative room (75.4%±9.8% vs. 71.0%±20.5%; P=0.013) and 1h after admission to ICU (74.7%±1.5% vs. 61.9%±19.4%; P=0.029). The NIRS values discriminated hospital mortality groups more accurately than admission GCS score, blood sugar or hemoglobin levels. Admission INR value and NIRS value at 1h after admission to ICU were selected by discriminant analysis into the optimal set of features when classifying hospital mortality groups. Average efficiency of classification using this method was 88.9%. When rsO2 values at 1h after admission to ICU did not exceed 68.0% in the left hemisphere and 68.3% in the right hemisphere, the hazard ratio for death increased by 17.7 times (Pbrain saturation monitoring provides accurate predictive data, which can improve the allocation of scarce medical resources, set the treatment goals and alleviate the early communication with patients' relatives. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of the basal metabolic ratio in predicting early deaths after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    Nishiwaki, Satoshi; Miyamura, Koichi; Seto, Aika; Watanabe, Keisuke; Yanagisawa, Mayumi; Imahashi, Nobuhiko; Shimba, Makoto; Yasuda, Takahiko; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Oba, Taku; Terakura, Seitaro; Kodera, Yoshihisa

    2009-09-01

    Early deaths after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) are of major concern. On the assumption that both decreased and increased basal metabolism might relate to early deaths, we analyzed the risk factors for overall survival to days 30 (OS30) and 60 (OS60). The Harris-Benedict equation was used to calculate basal metabolism. Comparing a patient's basal metabolism (PBM) calculated from pretransplant body weight with the standard basal metabolism (SBM) calculated from standard body weight (body mass index (BMI) = 22), we defined the basal metabolic ratio (BMR) as a parameter (BMR = PBM/SBM). We retrospectively analyzed 360 adult patients transplanted between 1997 and 2006 at a single center in Japan. A multivariate analysis of OS30 showed risk factors to be: BMR BMR; LBR) (P = 0.01), BMR > 1.05 (high BMR; HBR) (P = 0.005) and non-complete remission (non-CR) (P 5 0.001), whereas a multivariate analysis of OS60 showed those risk factors to be: LBR (P = 0.02), HBR (P = 0.04), non-CR (P = 0.002), and performance status BMR BMR; ABR) (96.8 and 90.3% for ABR, 87.1 and 76.2% for LBR, and 87.8 and 81.1% for HBR). In conclusion, BMR could prove to be a predictor of early death after allo-SCT.

  2. A study of risk factors and predictive factors in intraoperative floppy iris syndrome during phacoemulsification

    Jie-Xin Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the incidence of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome(IFISin patients undergoing phacoemulsification in a Chinese hospital, and to assess new risk factors and predictive factors for IFIS. METHODS: A prospective, observational case series. In the consecutive cataract surgeries performed in one year, the medicine administration, pupil size(PSbefore and after mydriasis, and signs of IFIS were recorded. RESULTS: Totally 807 patients(1 068 eyesunderwent cataract surgeries. Among the 1 068 eyes, signs of IFIS were noted in 34 eyes. Strong positive correlations were showed between finasteride(6.4%, OR=5.885, tamsulosin(25%, OR=21.578, reserpine(16.7%, OR=12.947, clozapine(66.7%, OR=139.467, post-panretinal photocoagulation(14.3%, OR=10.789and IFIS. Pupil size was inversely related to IFIS incidence(PPCONCLUSION: The incidence rate of IFIS was 3.18%. Reserpine, clozapine and post-panretinal photocoagulation emerged as new risk factors for IFIS. A small dilated pupil may imply IFIS occurrence.

  3. Personality predicts perceived availability of social support and satisfaction with social support in women with early stage breast cancer.

    Den Oudsten, Brenda L; Van Heck, Guus L; Van der Steeg, Alida F W; Roukema, Jan A; De Vries, Jolanda

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the relationships between personality, on the one hand, and perceived availability of social support (PASS) and satisfaction with received social support (SRSS), on the other hand, in women with early stage breast cancer (BC). In addition, this study examined whether a stressful event (i.e., diagnosis) is associated with quality of life (QOL), when controlling for PASS and SRSS. Women were assessed on PASS and SRSS (World Health Organization QOL assessment instrument-100) before diagnosis (time 1) and 1 (time 2), 3 (time 3), 6 (time 4), 12 (time 5), and 24 months (time 6) after surgical treatment. Personality (neuroticism extraversion openness five-factor inventory and state trait anxiety inventory-trait scale) and fatigue (fatigue assessment scale) were assessed at time 1. Agreeableness and fatigue predicted PASS and SRSS at time 5 and time 6. Trait anxiety had a negative effect on SRSS (ss = -0.22, p personality factors substantially influence the way women with early stage BC perceive social support. Knowledge about these underlying mechanisms of social support is useful for the development of tailor-made interventions. Professionals should be aware of the importance of social support. They should check whether patients have sufficient significant others in their social environment and be sensitive to potential discrepancies patients might experience between availability and adequacy of social support.

  4. Biological and socio-cultural factors during the school years predicting women’s lifetime educational attainment

    Hendrick, C. Emily; Cohen, Alison K.; Deardorff, Julianna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lifetime educational attainment is an important predictor of health and well-being for women in the United States. In the current study, we examine the roles of socio-cultural factors in youth and an understudied biological life event, pubertal timing, in predicting women’s lifetime educational attainment. METHODS Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (N = 3889), we conducted sequential multivariate linear regression analyses to investigate the influences of macro-level and family-level socio-cultural contextual factors in youth (region of country, urbanicity, race/ethnicity, year of birth, household composition, mother’s education, mother’s age at first birth) and early menarche, a marker of early pubertal development, on women’s educational attainment after age 24. RESULTS Pubertal timing and all socio-cultural factors in youth, other than year of birth, predicted women’s lifetime educational attainment in bivariate models. Family factors had the strongest associations. When family factors were added to multivariate models, geographic region in youth and pubertal timing were no longer significant. CONCLUSION Our findings provide additional evidence that family factors should be considered when developing comprehensive and inclusive interventions in childhood and adolescence to promote lifetime educational attainment among girls. PMID:26830508

  5. Predictive Factors associated with Death of Elderly in Nursing Homes

    Kiwol Sung, PhD, RN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: An increasing elderly population reflects a great need for readily accessible, clinically useful methods to identify mortality-related factors in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the deaths of nursing home residents. Methods: Data was collected from a Minimal Data Set of 195 elderly nursing home residents, followed by analysis of demographic factors, disease and nursing condition factors, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), co...

  6. Predictive factors for masticatory performance in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Bruggen, H.W. van; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Steenks, M.H.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.; Groot, I.J.M. de; Kalaykova, S.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) report masticatory and swallowing problems. Such problems may cause complications such as choking, and feeling of food sticking in the throat. We investigated whether masticatory performance in DMD is objectively impaired, and explored predictive

  7. The Role of Present Time Perspective in Predicting Early Adolescent Violence.

    Kruger, Daniel J; Carrothers, Jessica; Franzen, Susan P; Miller, Alison L; Reischl, Thomas M; Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the role of present and future time perspectives, and their relationships with subjective norms and beliefs regarding violence, in predicting violent behaviors among urban middle school students in the Midwestern United States. Although present time perspective covaried with subjective norms and beliefs, each made a unique prediction of self-reported violent behaviors. Future time perspective was not a significant predictor when accounting for these relationships. In addition, present orientation moderated the relationship between subjective norms and beliefs and rates of violent behaviors; those with higher present orientations exhibited stronger associations. We replicated this pattern of results in data from new participants in a subsequent wave of the study. Interventions that explicitly address issues related to time perspective may be effective in reducing early adolescent violence.

  8. Sibling conflict in middle childhood predicts children's adjustment in early adolescence.

    Stocker, Clare M; Burwell, Rebecca A; Briggs, Megan L

    2002-03-01

    Associations between sibling conflict in middle childhood and psychological adjustment in early adolescence were studied in a sample of 80 boys and 56 girls. Parents and children provided self-report data about family relationships and children's adjustment. Parents' hostility to children was assessed from videotaped interactions. Results showed that sibling conflict at Time 1 predicted increases in children's anxiety, depressed mood, and delinquent behavior 2 years later. Moreover, earlier sibling conflict at Time 1 accounted for unique variance in young adolescents' Time 2 anxiety, depressed mood, and delinquent behavior above and beyond the variance explained by earlier maternal hostility and marital conflict. Children's adjustment at Time 1 did not predict sibling conflict at Time 2. Results highlight the unique significance of the earlier sibling relationship for young adolescents' psychological adjustment.

  9. Prediction of remission in Graves' disease after thionamide therapy by technetium-99m early uptake

    Misaki, Takashi; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Koh, Toshikiyo; Shimbo, Shin-ichiro; Hidaka, Akinari; Iida, Yasuhiro; Kasagi, Kanji; Konishi, Junji.

    1991-01-01

    In the clinical management of Graves' thyrotoxicosis, one of the most important subject is when to stop antithyroid drugs after achieving an euthyroid state. T 3 suppression test and other methods have been used to forecast the outcome after drug cessation, but the results were not always satisfactory. We have attempted to predict remission of Graves' disease by single measurement of early technetium uptake without administration of triiodothyronine. Drugs were discontinued in the seventy-five patients with Graves' disease on maintenance doses of either methimazole or propylthiouracil who showed normalized uptake (4.0% or less). Of 64 patients evaluable after twelve months, 55 (86%) remained euthyroid, 8 relapsed, and 1 became hypothyoid. With its accuracy in prediction of short-term remission comparable or superior to T 3 suppression test, this rapid and simple method seemed suitable for routine use in clinical practice. (author)

  10. Volumetric parameters on FDG PET can predict early intrahepatic recurrence-free survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after curative surgical resection

    Lee, Jeong Won [Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sang Hyun; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Dongwoo; Cho, Arthur; Yun, Mijin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    This study assessed the prognostic values of volumetric parameters on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in predicting early intrahepatic recurrence-free survival (RFS) after curative resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A retrospective analysis was performed on 242 patients with HCC who underwent staging FDG PET and subsequent curative surgical resection. The tumor-to-non-tumorous liver uptake ratio, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of the HCC lesions on PET were measured. The prognostic values of clinical factors and PET parameters for predicting overall RFS, overall survival (OS), extrahepatic RFS, and early and late intrahepatic RFS were assessed. The median follow-up period was 54.7 months, during which 110 patients (45.5%) experienced HCC recurrence and 62 (25.6%) died. Patients with extrahepatic and early intrahepatic recurrence showed worse OS than did those with no recurrence or late intrahepatic recurrence (p < 0.001). Serum bilirubin level, MTV, and TLG were independent prognostic factors for overall RFS and OS (p < 0.05). Only MTV and TLG were prognostic for extrahepatic RFS (p < 0.05). Serum alpha-fetoprotein and bilirubin levels, MTV, and TLG were prognostic for early intrahepatic RFS (p < 0.05) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) positivity and serum albumin level were independently prognostic for late intrahepatic RFS (p < 0.05). Intrahepatic recurrence showed different prognoses according to the time interval of recurrence in which early recurrence had as poor survival as extrahepatic recurrence. MTV and TLG on initial staging PET were significant independent factors for predicting early intrahepatic and extrahepatic RFS in patients with HCC after curative resection. Only HCV positivity and serum albumin level were significant for late intrahepatic RFS, which is mainly attributable to the de novo formation of new primary HCC. (orig.)

  11. Prediction of Adulthood Obesity Using Genetic and Childhood Clinical Risk Factors in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Seyednasrollah, Fatemeh; Mäkelä, Johanna; Pitkänen, Niina; Juonala, Markus; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma; Kelly, Tanika; Li, Changwei; Bazzano, Lydia; Elo, Laura L; Raitakari, Olli T

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Early prediction of obesity is essential for prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the use of childhood clinical factors and the genetic risk factors in predicting adulthood obesity using machine learning methods. A total of 2262 participants from the Cardiovascular Risk in YFS (Young Finns Study) were followed up from childhood (age 3-18 years) to adulthood for 31 years. The data were divided into training (n=1625) and validation (n=637) set. The effect of known genetic risk factors (97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) was investigated as a weighted genetic risk score of all 97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (WGRS97) or a subset of 19 most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (WGRS19) using boosting machine learning technique. WGRS97 and WGRS19 were validated using external data (n=369) from BHS (Bogalusa Heart Study). WGRS19 improved the accuracy of predicting adulthood obesity in training (area under the curve [AUC=0.787 versus AUC=0.744, P obesity. Predictive accuracy is highest among young children (3-6 years), whereas among older children (9-18 years) the risk can be identified using childhood clinical factors. The model is helpful in screening children with high risk of developing obesity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Real-time 3-D space numerical shake prediction for earthquake early warning

    Wang, Tianyun; Jin, Xing; Huang, Yandan; Wei, Yongxiang

    2017-12-01

    In earthquake early warning systems, real-time shake prediction through wave propagation simulation is a promising approach. Compared with traditional methods, it does not suffer from the inaccurate estimation of source parameters. For computation efficiency, wave direction is assumed to propagate on the 2-D surface of the earth in these methods. In fact, since the seismic wave propagates in the 3-D sphere of the earth, the 2-D space modeling of wave direction results in inaccurate wave estimation. In this paper, we propose a 3-D space numerical shake prediction method, which simulates the wave propagation in 3-D space using radiative transfer theory, and incorporate data assimilation technique to estimate the distribution of wave energy. 2011 Tohoku earthquake is studied as an example to show the validity of the proposed model. 2-D space model and 3-D space model are compared in this article, and the prediction results show that numerical shake prediction based on 3-D space model can estimate the real-time ground motion precisely, and overprediction is alleviated when using 3-D space model.

  13. Development of ANN Model for Wind Speed Prediction as a Support for Early Warning System

    Ivan Marović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of natural disasters increases every year with more casualties and damage to property and the environment. Therefore, it is important to prevent consequences by implementation of the early warning system (EWS in order to announce the possibility of the harmful phenomena occurrence. In this paper, focus is placed on the implementation of the EWS on the micro location in order to announce possible harmful phenomena occurrence caused by wind. In order to predict such phenomena (wind speed, an artificial neural network (ANN prediction model is developed. The model is developed on the basis of the input data obtained by local meteorological station on the University of Rijeka campus area in the Republic of Croatia. The prediction model is validated and evaluated by visual and common calculation approaches, after which it was found that it is possible to perform very good wind speed prediction for time steps Δt=1 h, Δt=3 h, and Δt=8 h. The developed model is implemented in the EWS as a decision support for improvement of the existing “procedure plan in a case of the emergency caused by stormy wind or hurricane, snow and occurrence of the ice on the University of Rijeka campus.”

  14. Predicting changes in cardiac myocyte contractility during early drug discovery with in vitro assays

    Morton, M.J., E-mail: michael.morton@astrazeneca.com [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Armstrong, D.; Abi Gerges, N. [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Bridgland-Taylor, M. [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Pollard, C.E.; Bowes, J.; Valentin, J.-P. [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TG (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular-related adverse drug effects are a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry. Activity of an investigational drug at the L-type calcium channel could manifest in a number of ways, including changes in cardiac contractility. The aim of this study was to define which of the two assay technologies – radioligand-binding or automated electrophysiology – was most predictive of contractility effects in an in vitro myocyte contractility assay. The activity of reference and proprietary compounds at the L-type calcium channel was measured by radioligand-binding assays, conventional patch-clamp, automated electrophysiology, and by measurement of contractility in canine isolated cardiac myocytes. Activity in the radioligand-binding assay at the L-type Ca channel phenylalkylamine binding site was most predictive of an inotropic effect in the canine cardiac myocyte assay. The sensitivity was 73%, specificity 83% and predictivity 78%. The radioligand-binding assay may be run at a single test concentration and potency estimated. The least predictive assay was automated electrophysiology which showed a significant bias when compared with other assay formats. Given the importance of the L-type calcium channel, not just in cardiac function, but also in other organ systems, a screening strategy emerges whereby single concentration ligand-binding can be performed early in the discovery process with sufficient predictivity, throughput and turnaround time to influence chemical design and address a significant safety-related liability, at relatively low cost. - Highlights: • The L-type calcium channel is a significant safety liability during drug discovery. • Radioligand-binding to the L-type calcium channel can be measured in vitro. • The assay can be run at a single test concentration as part of a screening cascade. • This measurement is highly predictive of changes in cardiac myocyte contractility.

  15. Predicting changes in cardiac myocyte contractility during early drug discovery with in vitro assays

    Morton, M.J.; Armstrong, D.; Abi Gerges, N.; Bridgland-Taylor, M.; Pollard, C.E.; Bowes, J.; Valentin, J.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular-related adverse drug effects are a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry. Activity of an investigational drug at the L-type calcium channel could manifest in a number of ways, including changes in cardiac contractility. The aim of this study was to define which of the two assay technologies – radioligand-binding or automated electrophysiology – was most predictive of contractility effects in an in vitro myocyte contractility assay. The activity of reference and proprietary compounds at the L-type calcium channel was measured by radioligand-binding assays, conventional patch-clamp, automated electrophysiology, and by measurement of contractility in canine isolated cardiac myocytes. Activity in the radioligand-binding assay at the L-type Ca channel phenylalkylamine binding site was most predictive of an inotropic effect in the canine cardiac myocyte assay. The sensitivity was 73%, specificity 83% and predictivity 78%. The radioligand-binding assay may be run at a single test concentration and potency estimated. The least predictive assay was automated electrophysiology which showed a significant bias when compared with other assay formats. Given the importance of the L-type calcium channel, not just in cardiac function, but also in other organ systems, a screening strategy emerges whereby single concentration ligand-binding can be performed early in the discovery process with sufficient predictivity, throughput and turnaround time to influence chemical design and address a significant safety-related liability, at relatively low cost. - Highlights: • The L-type calcium channel is a significant safety liability during drug discovery. • Radioligand-binding to the L-type calcium channel can be measured in vitro. • The assay can be run at a single test concentration as part of a screening cascade. • This measurement is highly predictive of changes in cardiac myocyte contractility

  16. Processing speed and executive functions predict real-world everyday living skills in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia.

    Puig, O; Penadés, R; Baeza, I; Sánchez-Gistau, V; De la Serna, E; Fonrodona, L; Andrés-Perpiñá, S; Bernardo, M; Castro-Fornieles, J

    2012-06-01

    Cognition and clinical variables are known to be among the most predictive factors of real-world social functioning and daily living skills in adult-onset schizophrenia. Fewer studies have focused on their impact in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). The aim of this study is to examine the relationships and the predictive value of cognition and clinical variables on real-world daily living skills in a sample of adolescents with EOS. Cognitive, clinical and real-world everyday living skills measures were administered to 45 clinically and pharmacologically stabilized adolescent outpatients with EOS and 45 healthy control subjects matched by age and sex. Multi-variant analyses to compare cognitive and real-world functioning profiles between patients and controls and regression analysis to identify predictors of real-world functioning scores in patients were used. Adolescents with EOS showed a generalized cognitive and real-world daily living skills dysfunction. Several cognitive and clinical variables significantly correlated with real-world daily living skills functioning but only the processing speed and executive functions emerged as independent predictors of everyday living skills scores, explaining 25.1% of the variance. Slowness in processing information and executive dysfunction showed a significant impact on real-world daily living skills in EOS, independently from clinical symptoms and other cognitive variables. Nevertheless, much of the variance in the daily living skills measure remained unaccounted for, suggesting that other factors were involved as well in this young population.

  17. RISK FACTORS AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN BORN WITH AN ASSISTED FERTILIZATION

    Milena MILICHEVIKJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the researches conducted in the area of risk factors and difficulties in the early development of children born after assisted conception, to systematize current knowledge in this field and allocate the factors of importance for the early intervention.In order to evaluate the published data on risk factors and early development of children born after assisted conception, an extensive literature search was conducted to identify the published papers related to the obstetric and neonatal outcome of pregnancies after assisted repro­duction technology, the incidence of multiple pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery, the neonatal status, the mean gestational age, the average birth weight, the neuro-developmental outcomes and early cognitive and motor development. The research identified the following factors as the most important for the early intervention: increased rates of multiple gestations, prematurity, delivery by cesarean section, lower average gestational development and average birth weight, small fetal development for gestational age and low Apgar score, related to the an increased risk of developing neurological problems, such as the cerebral palsy.Accepting this research results, it can be concluded that all of these information should be available for couples seeking an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART treatment.The success of the early intervention is directly related to the early detection and assessment that precedes this treatment, creating individual programs and evaluation of the effects of the treatment.

  18. MicroRNA-212 post-transcriptionally regulates oocyte-specific basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor, factor in the germline alpha (FIGLA, during bovine early embryogenesis.

    Swamy K Tripurani

    Full Text Available Factor in the germline alpha (FIGLA is an oocyte-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor essential for primordial follicle formation and expression of many genes required for folliculogenesis, fertilization and early embryonic survival. Here we report the characterization of bovine FIGLA gene and its regulation during early embryogenesis. Bovine FIGLA mRNA expression is restricted to gonads and is detected in fetal ovaries harvested as early as 90 days of gestation. FIGLA mRNA and protein are abundant in germinal vesicle and metaphase II stage oocytes, as well as in embryos from pronuclear to eight-cell stage but barely detectable at morula and blastocyst stages, suggesting that FIGLA might be a maternal effect gene. Recent studies in zebrafish and mice have highlighted the importance of non-coding small RNAs (microRNAs as key regulatory molecules targeting maternal mRNAs for degradation during embryonic development. We hypothesized that FIGLA, as a maternal transcript, is regulated by microRNAs during early embryogenesis. Computational predictions identified a potential microRNA recognition element (MRE for miR-212 in the 3' UTR of the bovine FIGLA mRNA. Bovine miR-212 is expressed in oocytes and tends to increase in four-cell and eight-cell stage embryos followed by a decline at morula and blastocyst stages. Transient transfection and reporter assays revealed that miR-212 represses the expression of FIGLA in a MRE dependent manner. In addition, ectopic expression of miR-212 mimic in bovine early embryos dramatically reduced the expression of FIGLA protein. Collectively, our results demonstrate that FIGLA is temporally regulated during bovine early embryogenesis and miR-212 is an important negative regulator of FIGLA during the maternal to zygotic transition in bovine embryos.

  19. Vasoactive agents for the prediction of early- and late-onset preeclampsia in a high-risk cohort

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio for the prediction of early- and late-onset preeclampsia in a high-risk cohort. Methods We studied serial serum samples collected prospectively at 12 + 0 - 14 + 0, 18 + 0 - 20 + 0, and 26 + 0 - 28 + 0 weeks + days of gestation in 6 women who developed early-onset preeclampsia (before 34 weeks of gestation) and in 21 women who developed late-onset preeclampsia (after 34 weeks of gestation) with automated ElecSys 2010 immunoanalyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Germany). Twenty-six high-risk women and 53 women without risk factors with normal pregnancies served as controls. Results Serum PlGF concentrations were lower at 18 + 0 to 20 + 0, and 26 + 0 to 28 + 0 weeks of gestation in women who developed early-onset preeclampsia compared to women who developed late-onset preeclampsia and to controls (p preeclampsia (AUC 100.0%, p = 0.0007, 95% CI 100–100). Amongst women with late-onset preeclampsia, those who developed severe form of the disease (N = 8) had significantly higher serum sFlt-1 concentrations at all three timepoints (p = 0.004, p = 0.006, and p = 0.003, respectively) compared to women with non-severe form (N = 13). Conclusions Low serum PlGF concentration predicts early-onset preeclampsia from the second trimester and elevated serum sFlt-1/PlGF ratio from 26 to 28 weeks of gestation. Elevated serum sFlt-1 concentration in the first trimester in women who later develop late-onset, severe preeclampsia may suggest different etiology compared to the late-onset non-severe form of the disease. PMID:23663420

  20. Scrambled eggs: mechanical forces as ecological factors in early development.

    Moore, Steven W

    2003-01-01

    Many ecological interactions involve, at some level, mechanical forces and the movements or structural deformations they produce. Although the most familiar examples involve the functional morphology of adult structures, all life history stages (not just the adults) are subject to the laws of physics. Moreover, the success of every lineage depends on the success of every life history stage (again, not just the adults). Therefore, insights gained by using mechanical engineering principles and techniques to study ecological interactions between gametes, embryos, larvae, and their environment are essential to a well-rounded understanding of development, ecology, and evolution. Here I draw on examples from the literature and my own research to illustrate ways in which mechanical forces in the environment shape development. These include mechanical forces acting as selective factors (e.g., when coral gamete size and shape interact with turbulent water flow to determine fertilization success) and as developmental cues (e.g., when plant growth responds to gravity or bone growth responds to mechanical loading). I also examine the opposite cause-and-effect relationship by considering examples in which the development of organisms impacts ecologically relevant mechanical forces. Finally, I discuss the potential for ecological pattern formation as a result of feedback loops created by such bidirectional interactions between developmental processes and mechanical forces in the environment.

  1. Pretreatment anti-Müllerian hormone predicts for loss of ovarian function after chemotherapy for early breast cancer

    Anderson, Richard A; Rosendahl, Mikkel; Kelsey, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Improving survival for women with early breast cancer (eBC) requires greater attention to the consequences of treatment, including risk to ovarian function. We have assessed whether biochemical markers of the ovarian reserve might improve prediction of chemotherapy related amenorrhoea.......Improving survival for women with early breast cancer (eBC) requires greater attention to the consequences of treatment, including risk to ovarian function. We have assessed whether biochemical markers of the ovarian reserve might improve prediction of chemotherapy related amenorrhoea....

  2. Bone marrow transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia: factors associated with early mortality

    Bortin, M.M.; Gale, R.P.; Kay, H.E.; Rimm, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive data were reported to the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry, Milwaukee, regarding 156 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia who were treated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation between 1978 and 1980. The minimum observation period was 15 months after transplant and most deaths occurred within the first six months. Prognostic factors were evaluated for associations with early mortality or life-threatening complications. Most early deaths were due to infections, interstitial pneumonitis, and graft-v-host disease (GVHD). Multivariate analyses disclosed five factors with significant associations with early death or a major cause of early death: (1) disease status; (2) dose-rate of irradiation; (3) drug used to prevent GVHD; (4) severity of GVHD; and (5) dose of marrow cells.It is emphasized that several of the important prognostic factors are within the control of the referring physician or the transplant team

  3. Activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor: a key early step in the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation.

    Rao, L V; Rapaport, S I

    1988-01-01

    Whether the factor VII/tissue factor complex that forms in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation must be activated to factor VIIa/tissue factor before it can activate its substrates, factor X and factor IX, has been a difficult question to answer because the substrates, once activated, back-activate factor VII. Our earlier studies suggested that human factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate factor IX. Studies have now been extended to the activation of factor X. Reaction mixtures were ma...

  4. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    Alicia Alvarez-Aguirre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents.METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used.RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year.CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.

  5. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents.

    Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2014-01-01

    to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.

  6. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users. PMID:25591103

  7. Early behavioral inhibition and increased error monitoring predict later social phobia symptoms in childhood.

    Lahat, Ayelet; Lamm, Connie; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S; Henderson, Heather A; Fox, Nathan A

    2014-04-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early childhood temperament characterized by fearful responses to novelty and avoidance of social interactions. During adolescence, a subset of children with stable childhood BI develop social anxiety disorder and concurrently exhibit increased error monitoring. The current study examines whether increased error monitoring in 7-year-old, behaviorally inhibited children prospectively predicts risk for symptoms of social phobia at age 9 years. A total of 291 children were characterized on BI at 24 and 36 months of age. Children were seen again at 7 years of age, when they performed a Flanker task, and event-related potential (ERP) indices of response monitoring were generated. At age 9, self- and maternal-report of social phobia symptoms were obtained. Children high in BI, compared to those low in BI, displayed increased error monitoring at age 7, as indexed by larger (i.e., more negative) error-related negativity (ERN) amplitudes. In addition, early BI was related to later childhood social phobia symptoms at age 9 among children with a large difference in amplitude between ERN and correct-response negativity (CRN) at age 7. Heightened error monitoring predicts risk for later social phobia symptoms in children with high BI. Research assessing response monitoring in children with BI may refine our understanding of the mechanisms underlying risk for later anxiety disorders and inform prevention efforts. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  8. Early biometric lag in the prediction of small for gestational age neonates and preeclampsia.

    Schwartz, Nadav; Pessel, Cara; Coletta, Jaclyn; Krieger, Abba M; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E

    2011-01-01

    An early fetal growth lag may be a marker of future complications. We sought to determine the utility of early biometric variables in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this retrospective cohort study, the crown-rump length at 11 to 14 weeks and the head circumference, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, femur length, humerus length, transverse cerebellar diameter, and estimated fetal weight at 18 to 24 weeks were converted to an estimated gestational age using published regression formulas. Sonographic fetal growth (difference between each biometric gestational age and the crown-rump length gestational age) minus expected fetal growth (number of days elapsed between the two scans) yielded the biometric growth lag. These lags were tested as predictors of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates (≤10th percentile) and preeclampsia. A total of 245 patients were included. Thirty-two (13.1%) delivered an SGA neonate, and 43 (17.6%) had the composite outcome. The head circumference, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and estimated fetal weight lags were identified as significant predictors of SGA neonates after adjusted analyses (P biometric lag variables and the development of preeclampsia. Routinely available biometric data can be used to improve the prediction of adverse outcomes such as SGA. These biometric lags should be considered in efforts to develop screening algorithms for adverse outcomes.

  9. Factors associated with early response to olanzapine and clinical and functional outcomes of early responders treated for schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China

    Ye W

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wenyu Ye,1 William Montgomery,2 Zbigniew Kadziola,3 Li Liu,4 Haibo Xue,4 Michael D Stensland,5 Tamas Treuer61Real World Analytics, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, Australia; 3Real World Analytics Capabilities, Eli Lilly GmbH, Vienna, Austria; 4Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Shanghai Branch, People’s Republic of China; 5Agile Outcomes Research, Inc., Rochester, MN, USA; 6Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly and Company, Budapest, HungaryBackground: The aims of this analysis were to identify factors associated with early response (at 4 weeks to olanzapine treatment and to assess whether early response is associated with better longer-term outcomes for patients with schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China.Methods: A post hoc analysis of a multi-country, 6-month, prospective, observational study of outpatients with schizophrenia or bipolar mania who initiated or switched to treatment with oral olanzapine was conducted using data from the Chinese schizophrenia subgroup (n=330. Factors associated with early response were identified using a stepwise logistic regression with baseline clinical characteristics, baseline participation in a weight control program, and adherence with antipsychotics during the first 4 weeks of treatment. Mixed models for repeated measures with baseline covariates were used to compare outcomes over time between early responders and early nonresponders to olanzapine.Results: One hundred and thirty patients (40% achieved an early response. Early response was independently predicted by higher baseline Clinical Global Impressions-Severity score (odds ratio [OR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–1.97, fewer years since first diagnosis (OR 0.94, CI 0.90–0.98, a greater number of social activities (OR 1.22, CI 1.05–1.40, participation in a weight control program (OR 1.81, CI 1.04–3.15, and high adherence

  10. Development of a Simple Clinical Risk Score for Early Prediction of Severe Dengue in Adult Patients.

    Ing-Kit Lee

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop and validate a risk score to aid in the early identification of laboratory-confirmed dengue patients at high risk of severe dengue (SD (i.e. severe plasma leakage with shock or respiratory distress, or severe bleeding or organ impairment. We retrospectively analyzed data of 1184 non-SD patients at hospital presentation and 69 SD patients before SD onset. We fit a logistic regression model using 85% of the population and converted the model coefficients to a numeric risk score. Subsequently, we validated the score using the remaining 15% of patients. Using the derivation cohort, two scoring algorithms for predicting SD were developed: models 1 (dengue illness ≤4 days and 2 (dengue illness >4 days. In model 1, we identified four variables: age ≥65 years, minor gastrointestinal bleeding, leukocytosis, and platelet count ≥100×109 cells/L. Model 1 (ranging from -2 to +6 points showed good discrimination between SD and non-SD, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.848 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.771-0.924. The optimal cutoff value for model 1 was 1 point, with a sensitivity and specificity for predicting SD of 70.3% and 90.6%, respectively. In model 2 (ranging from 0 to +3 points, significant predictors were age ≥65 years and leukocytosis. Model 2 showed an AUC of 0.859 (95% CI, 0.756-0.963, with an optimal cutoff value of 1 point (sensitivity, 80.3%; specificity, 85.8%. The median interval from hospital presentation to SD was 1 day. This finding underscores the importance of close monitoring, timely resuscitation of shock including intravenous fluid adjustment and early correction of dengue-related complications to prevent the progressive dengue severity. In the validation data, AUCs of 0.904 (95% CI, 0.825-0.983 and 0.917 (95% CI, 0.833-1.0 in models 1 and 2, respectively, were achieved. The observed SD rates (in both cohorts were 50% for those with a score of ≥2 points

  11. Factors Predictive of Sentinel Lymph Node Involvement in Primary Breast Cancer.

    Malter, Wolfram; Hellmich, Martin; Badian, Mayhar; Kirn, Verena; Mallmann, Peter; Krämer, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for axillary staging in patients with early-stage breast cancer. The need for therapeutic ALND is the subject of ongoing debate especially after the publication of the ACOSOG Z0011 trial. In a retrospective trial with univariate and multivariate analyses, factors predictive of sentinel lymph node involvement should be analyzed in order to define tumor characteristics of breast cancer patients, where SLNB should not be spared to receive important indicators for adjuvant treatment decisions (e.g. thoracic wall irradiation after mastectomy with or without reconstruction). Between 2006 and 2010, 1,360 patients with primary breast cancer underwent SLNB with/without ALND with evaluation of tumor localization, multicentricity and multifocality, histological subtype, tumor size, grading, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. These characteristics were retrospectively analyzed in univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to define significant predictive factors for sentinel lymph node involvement. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor size and LVI (pbreast cancer. Because of the increased risk for metastatic involvement of axillary sentinel nodes in cases with larger breast cancer or diagnosis of LVI, patients with these breast cancer characteristics should not be spared from SLNB in a clinically node-negative situation in order to avoid false-negative results with a high potential for wrong indication of primary breast reconstruction or wrong non-indication of necessary post-mastectomy radiation therapy. The prognostic impact of avoidance of axillary staging with SLNB is analyzed in the ongoing prospective INSEMA trial. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. [Application of decision curve on evaluation of MRI predictive model for early assessing pathological complete response to neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer].

    He, Y J; Li, X T; Fan, Z Q; Li, Y L; Cao, K; Sun, Y S; Ouyang, T

    2018-01-23

    Objective: To construct a dynamic enhanced MR based predictive model for early assessing pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer, and to evaluate the clinical benefit of the model by using decision curve. Methods: From December 2005 to December 2007, 170 patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy were identified and their MR images before neoadjuvant therapy and at the end of the first cycle of neoadjuvant therapy were collected. Logistic regression model was used to detect independent factors for predicting pCR and construct the predictive model accordingly, then receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and decision curve were used to evaluate the predictive model. Results: ΔArea(max) and Δslope(max) were independent predictive factors for pCR, OR =0.942 (95% CI : 0.918-0.967) and 0.961 (95% CI : 0.940-0.987), respectively. The area under ROC curve (AUC) for the constructed model was 0.886 (95% CI : 0.820-0.951). Decision curve showed that in the range of the threshold probability above 0.4, the predictive model presented increased net benefit as the threshold probability increased. Conclusions: The constructed predictive model for pCR is of potential clinical value, with an AUC>0.85. Meanwhile, decision curve analysis indicates the constructed predictive model has net benefit from 3 to 8 percent in the likely range of probability threshold from 80% to 90%.

  13. MicroRNAs as biomarkers for early breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapy prediction.

    Nassar, Farah J; Nasr, Rihab; Talhouk, Rabih

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer is a major health problem that affects one in eight women worldwide. As such, detecting breast cancer at an early stage anticipates better disease outcome and prolonged patient survival. Extensive research has shown that microRNA (miRNA) are dysregulated at all stages of breast cancer. miRNA are a class of small noncoding RNA molecules that can modulate gene expression and are easily accessible and quantifiable. This review highlights miRNA as diagnostic, prognostic and therapy predictive biomarkers for early breast cancer with an emphasis on the latter. It also examines the challenges that lie ahead in their use as biomarkers. Noteworthy, this review addresses miRNAs reported in patients with early breast cancer prior to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgical procedures or distant metastasis (unless indicated otherwise). In this context, miRNA that are mentioned in this review were significantly modulated using more than one statistical test and/or validated by at least two studies. A standardized protocol for miRNA assessment is proposed starting from sample collection to data analysis that ensures comparative analysis of data and reproducibility of results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Does vitamin D deficiency predict early conversion of clinically isolated syndrome? A preliminary Egyptian study.

    Shaheen, Hala A; Sayed, Sayed S; Daker, Lamiaa I; AbdelAziz, Hossam Eldin; Taha, Mohamed A

    2018-03-15

    It has been suggested that vitamin D influences the immunoregulation and subsequently affects the risk for conversion of clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS). There is little information regarding the relationship between levels of vitamin D and CIS conversion to MS in Egyptian patients. It is to study contribution of vitamin D deficiency to conversion of CIS to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) and correlation of vitamin D level to cognitive and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results. A longitudinal prospective case control study was conducted on 43 Egyptian patients diagnosed as CIS according to McDonald criteria (2010). Clinical presentation, brain MRI and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were evaluated at baseline and after one-year follow-up. The CIS patients that converted to MS showed significant lower vitamin D level (p < 0.001) than the non-convertors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the CIS patients with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (p < 0.001) are at higher risk for early conversion to MS. There was a significant positive correlation between the vitamin D level and PASAT (r = 0.36, p = 0.02). It was found that there was a significant negative correlation between vitamin D level and MRI T 2 load (r = -0.38, p = 0.01). The low level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D may predict early conversion to clinically definite MS. Early vitamin D supplementation is recommended in patients with CIS.

  15. The Functional Diffusion Map: An Imaging Biomarker for the Early Prediction of Cancer Treatment Outcome

    Bradford A. Moffat

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional diffusion map (fDM has been recently reported as an early and quantitative biomarker of clinical brain tumor treatment outcome. This MRI approach spatially maps and quantifies treatment-induced changes in tumor water diffusion values resulting from alterations in cell density/cell membrane function and microenvironment. This current study was designed to evaluate the capability of fDM for preclinical evaluation of dose escalation studies and to determine if these changes were correlated with outcome measures (cell kill and overall survival. Serial T2-weighted and diffusion MRI were carried out on rodents with orthotopically implanted 9L brain tumors receiving three doses of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (6.65, 13.3, and 26.6 mg/kg, i.p.. All images were coregistered to baseline T2-weighted images for fDM analysis. Analysis of tumor fDM data on day 4 posttreatment detected dosedependent changes in tumor diffusion values, which were also found to be spatially dependent. Histologic analysis of treated tumors confirmed spatial changes in cellularity as observed by fDM. Early changes in tumor diffusion values were found to be highly correlative with drug dose and independent biologic outcome measures (cell kill and survival. Therefore, the fDM imaging biomarker for early prediction of treatment efficacy can be used in the drug development process.

  16. Some Results on Mean Square Error for Factor Score Prediction

    Krijnen, Wim P.

    2006-01-01

    For the confirmatory factor model a series of inequalities is given with respect to the mean square error (MSE) of three main factor score predictors. The eigenvalues of these MSE matrices are a monotonic function of the eigenvalues of the matrix gamma[subscript rho] = theta[superscript 1/2] lambda[subscript rho] 'psi[subscript rho] [superscript…

  17. Transcription factor cooperativity in early adipogenic hotspots and super-enhancers

    Siersbæk, Rasmus; Rabiee, Atefeh; Nielsen, Ronni

    2014-01-01

    . Using a combination of advanced proteomics and genomics approaches, we identify ∼12,000 transcription factor hotspots (∼400 bp) in the early phase of adipogenesis, and we find evidence of both simultaneous and sequential binding of transcription factors at these regions. We demonstrate that hotspots...

  18. Are financial factors more important than health in early retirement? A longitudinal study

    Wind, A. de; Geuskens, G.A.; Ybema, J.F.; Blatter, B.M.; Burdorf, A.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the relative contribution of health, job characteristics, skills and knowledge, social factors, and financial factors to the transition from work to early retirement. Methods Employees aged 59–63 years (N=2317) were selected from the Study on

  19. Analysis of Factors that Predict Clinical Performance in Medical School

    White, Casey B.; Dey, Eric L.; Fantone, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    Academic achievement indices including GPAs and MCAT scores are used to predict the spectrum of medical student academic performance types. However, use of these measures ignores two changes influencing medical school admissions: student diversity and affirmative action, and an increased focus on communication skills. To determine if GPA and MCAT…

  20. Predicting factors influencing crop raiding by elephants in the ...

    Nyirenda et al.

    By developing predictive models of binary logistic regression and employing questionnaire surveys, we .... Lupande Game Management Area (GMA), covering an area of 4 840 km2 constitutes the ...... Temporal trends in elephant ... the modern conservation paradigm: Can agricultural communities co- exist with elephant?

  1. Early prediction of lung cancer recurrence after stereotactic radiotherapy using second order texture statistics

    Mattonen, Sarah A.; Palma, David A.; Haasbeek, Cornelis J. A.; Senan, Suresh; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-01

    Benign radiation-induced lung injury is a common finding following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for lung cancer, and is often difficult to differentiate from a recurring tumour due to the ablative doses and highly conformal treatment with SABR. Current approaches to treatment response assessment have shown limited ability to predict recurrence within 6 months of treatment. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of second order texture statistics for prediction of eventual recurrence based on computed tomography (CT) images acquired within 6 months of treatment, and compare with the performance of first order appearance and lesion size measures. Consolidative and ground-glass opacity (GGO) regions were manually delineated on post-SABR CT images. Automatic consolidation expansion was also investigated to act as a surrogate for GGO position. The top features for prediction of recurrence were all texture features within the GGO and included energy, entropy, correlation, inertia, and first order texture (standard deviation of density). These predicted recurrence with 2-fold cross validation (CV) accuracies of 70-77% at 2- 5 months post-SABR, with energy, entropy, and first order texture having leave-one-out CV accuracies greater than 80%. Our results also suggest that automatic expansion of the consolidation region could eliminate the need for manual delineation, and produced reproducible results when compared to manually delineated GGO. If validated on a larger data set, this could lead to a clinically useful computer-aided diagnosis system for prediction of recurrence within 6 months of SABR and allow for early salvage therapy for patients with recurrence.

  2. Discrimination of amygdala response predicts future separation anxiety in youth with early deprivation.

    Green, Shulamite A; Goff, Bonnie; Gee, Dylan G; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva H; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Louie, Jennifer; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-10-01

    mechanism to explain the associations between early caregiving adversity and individual differences in internalizing symptomology during development, thereby contributing to individualized predictions of future clinical outcomes. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Predicting Factors of Drop Out Counseling Process in University Psychological Counseling and Guidance Center

    Omer OZER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predicting factors the drop out the counseling process. Methods: The study group consists of 555 college students admitted to a Counseling and Guidance Center (CGC and participated in at least one session of counseling after the first view in the 2013-2014 academic year. As a data collection tool, an “Application Form” on the demographic information and the “Brief Symptom Inventory” was applied to the students; and independent samples t-test and binary logistic regression techniques were used in the analysis of the collected data. Results: According to the analysis results, the age of the students attending the counseling process was found to be higher than those who drop out, but no significant difference was found in their psychometric properties in terms of continuation of the counseling process. Only the age of clients and their previous psychiatric help history was found to predict the dropping out counseling process early. Conclusion: Drop outs are less frequently observed in clients having a previous psychiatric help experience. In addition, it was determined that older clients less frequently drop out the counseling process

  4. Early Subchondral Bone Loss at Arthritis Onset Predicted Late Arthritis Severity in a Rat Arthritis Model.

    Courbon, Guillaume; Cleret, Damien; Linossier, Marie-Thérèse; Vico, Laurence; Marotte, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    Synovitis is usually observed before loss of articular function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition to the synovium and according to the "Inside-Outside" theory, bone compartment is also involved in RA pathogenesis. Then, we investigated time dependent articular bone loss and prediction of early bone loss to late arthritis severity on the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. Lewis female rats were longitudinally monitored from arthritis induction (day 0), with early (day 10) and late (day 17) steps. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture parameters of four ankle bones were assessed by microcomputed tomography. Gene expression was determined at sacrifice. Arthritis occurred at day 10 in AIA rats. At this time, bone erosions were detected on four ankle bones, with cortical porosity increase (+67%) and trabecular alterations including bone volume fraction (BV/TV: -13%), and trabecular thickness decrease. Navicular bone assessment was the most reproducible and sensitive. Furthermore, strong correlations were observed between bone alterations at day 10 and arthritis severity or bone loss at day 17, including predictability of day 10 BV/TV to day 17 articular index (R 2  = 0.76). Finally, gene expression at day 17 confirmed massive osteoclast activation and interestingly provided insights on strong activation of bone formation inhibitor markers at the joint level. In rat AIA, bone loss was already observed at synovitis onset and was predicted late arthritis severity. Our results reinforced the key role of subchondral bone in arthritis pathogenesis, in favour to the "Inside-Outside" theory. Mechanisms of bone loss in rat AIA involved resorption activation and formation inhibition changes. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1318-1325, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Urinary aminopeptidase activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats.

    Andrés Quesada

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the fluorimetric determination of alanyl- (Ala, glutamyl- (Glu, leucyl-cystinyl- (Cys and aspartyl-aminopeptidase (AspAp urinary enzymatic activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 8 each group received a single subcutaneous injection of either saline or cisplatin 3.5 or 7 mg/kg, and urine samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 14 days after treatment. In urine samples we determined Ala, Glu, Cys and AspAp activities, proteinuria, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, albumin, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL. Plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and renal morphological variables were measured at the end of the experiment. CysAp, NAG and albumin were increased 48 hours after treatment in the cisplatin 3.5 mg/kg treated group. At 24 hours, all urinary aminopeptidase activities and albuminuria were significantly increased in the cisplatin 7 mg/kg treated group. Aminopeptidase urinary activities correlated (p0.259 with plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and/or kidney weight/body weight ratio at the end of the experiment and they could be considered as predictive biomarkers of renal injury severity. ROC-AUC analysis was made to study their sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between treated and untreated rats at day 1. All aminopeptidase activities showed an AUC>0.633. We conclude that Ala, Cys, Glu and AspAp enzymatic activities are early and predictive urinary biomarkers of the renal dysfunction induced by cisplatin. These determinations can be very useful in the prognostic and diagnostic of renal dysfunction in preclinical research and clinical practice.

  6. Common genetic variants are significant risk factors for early menopause: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study.

    Murray, Anna; Bennett, Claire E; Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Jacobs, Patricia A; Morris, Danielle H; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Jones, Michael; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Women become infertile approximately 10 years before menopause, and as more women delay childbirth into their 30s, the number of women who experience infertility is likely to increase. Tests that predict the timing of menopause would allow women to make informed reproductive decisions. Current predictors are only effective just prior to menopause, and there are no long-range indicators. Age at menopause and early menopause (EM) are highly heritable, suggesting a genetic aetiology. Recent genome-wide scans have identified four loci associated with variation in the age of normal menopause (40-60 years). We aimed to determine whether theses loci are also risk factors for EM. We tested the four menopause-associated genetic variants in a cohort of approximately 2000 women with menopause≤45 years from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS). All four variants significantly increased the odds of having EM. Comparing the 4.5% of individuals with the lowest number of risk alleles (two or three) with the 3.0% with the highest number (eight risk alleles), the odds ratio was 4.1 (95% CI 2.4-7.1, P=4.0×10(-7)). In combination, the four variants discriminated EM cases with a receiver operator characteristic area under the curve of 0.6. Four common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies, had a significant impact on the odds of having EM in an independent cohort from the BGS. The discriminative power is still limited, but as more variants are discovered they may be useful for predicting reproductive lifespan.

  7. Psychopathological factors that can influence academic achievement in early adolescence: a three-year prospective study.

    Voltas, Núria; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Aparicio, Estefania; Arija, Victoria; Canals, Josefa

    2014-12-30

    This three-phase prospective study investigated psychosocial factors predicting or associated with academic achievement. An initial sample of 1,514 school-age children was assessed with screening tools for emotional problems (Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders; Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version; Children's Depression Inventory). The following year, 562 subjects (risk group/without risk group) were re-assessed and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. Two years later, 242 subjects were followed, and their parents informed about their academic achievement. Results showed that early depression (phase 1 B = -.130, p = .001; phase 1 + phase 2 B = -.187, p anxiety symptoms (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -1.721, p = .018), and ADHD were predictors of lower academic achievement (phase 1 + phase 2 B = -3.415, p = .005). However, some anxiety symptoms can improve academic achievement (Social phobia B = .216, p = .018; Generalized anxiety B = .313, p academic achievement. We can conclude that in the transition period to adolescence, school-health professionals and teachers need to consider the emotional issues of students to avoid unwanted academic outcomes.

  8. Early Conventional MRI for Prediction of Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Slaughter, Laurel A; Bonfante-Mejia, Eliana; Hintz, Susan R; Dvorchik, Igor; Parikh, Nehal A

    2016-01-01

    Extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW; ≤1,000 g) infants are at high risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. Conventional brain MRI at term-equivalent age is increasingly used for prediction of outcomes. However, optimal prediction models remain to be determined, especially for cognitive outcomes. The aim was to evaluate the accuracy of a data-driven MRI scoring system to predict neurodevelopmental impairments. 122 ELBW infants had a brain MRI performed at term-equivalent age. Conventional MRI findings were scored with a standardized algorithm and tested using a multivariable regression model to predict neurodevelopmental impairment, defined as one or more of the following at 18-24 months' corrected age: cerebral palsy, bilateral blindness, bilateral deafness requiring amplification, and/or cognitive/language delay. Results were compared with a commonly cited scoring system. In multivariable analyses, only moderate-to-severe gyral maturational delay was a significant predictor of overall neurodevelopmental impairment (OR: 12.6, 95% CI: 2.6, 62.0; p neurodevelopmental impairment/death. Diffuse cystic abnormality was a significant predictor of cerebral palsy (OR: 33.6, 95% CI: 4.9, 229.7; p neurodevelopmental impairment. In our cohort, conventional MRI at term-equivalent age exhibited high specificity in predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, sensitivity was suboptimal, suggesting additional clinical factors and biomarkers are needed to enable accurate prognostication. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Early and Late Recurrent Epistaxis Admissions: Patterns of Incidence and Risk Factors.

    Cohen, Oded; Shoffel-Havakuk, Hagit; Warman, Meir; Tzelnick, Sharon; Haimovich, Yaara; Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Halperin, Doron; Lahav, Yonatan

    2017-09-01

    Objective Epistaxis is a common complaint, yet few studies have focused on the incidence and risk factors of recurrent epistaxis. Our objective was to determine the patterns of incidence and risk factors for recurrent epistaxis admission (REA). Study Design Case series with chart review. Settings Single academic center. Subjects and Methods The medical records of patients admitted for epistaxis between 1999 and 2015 were reviewed. The follow-up period was defined as 3 years following initial admission. REAs were categorized as early (30 days) and late (31 days to 3 years) following initial admission. Logistic regression was used to identify potential predictors of REAs. Results A total of 653 patients were included. Eighty-six patients (14%) had REAs: 48 (7.5%) early and 38 (6.5%) late. Nonlinear incidence curve was demonstrated for both early and late REAs. Based on logistic regression, prior nasal surgery and anemia were independent risk factors for early REAs. According to multivariate analysis, thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with late REAs. Conclusion Early and late REAs demonstrate different risk predictors. Knowledge of such risk factors may help in risk stratification for this selected group of patients. All patients at risk should be advised on possible preventive measures. Patients at risk for early REA may benefit from a more proactive approach.

  10. Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis.

    J Casey Olson

    Full Text Available Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated <8 years of age is associated with increased morbidity at adulthood relative to adolescent onset deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old. Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old. Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8. Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55° had decreased body weight (89%, right (59% and left (86% lung mass, right (74% and left (69% radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%, and forced vital capacity (75%. Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may

  11. Clinical prediction and diagnosis of neurosyphilis in HIV-infected patients with early Syphilis.

    Dumaresq, Jeannot; Langevin, Stéphanie; Gagnon, Simon; Serhir, Bouchra; Deligne, Benoît; Tremblay, Cécile; Tsang, Raymond S W; Fortin, Claude; Coutlée, François; Roger, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The diagnosis of neurosyphilis (NS) is a challenge, especially in HIV-infected patients, and the criteria for deciding when to perform a lumbar puncture (LP) in HIV-infected patients with syphilis are controversial. We retrospectively reviewed demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 122 cases of HIV-infected patients with documented early syphilis who underwent an LP to rule out NS, and we evaluated 3 laboratory-developed validated real-time PCR assays, the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay, the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) assay, and the line immunoassay INNO-LIA Syphilis, for the diagnosis of NS from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of these patients. NS was defined by a reactive CSF-VDRL test result and/or a CSF white blood cell (WBC) count of >20 cells/μl. Thirty of the 122 patients (24.6%) had early NS. Headache, visual symptoms, a CD4 cell count of FTA-ABS, TPPA, and INNO-LIA assays had sensitivities of 58%, 100%, 68%, and 100%, specificities of 67%, 12%, 49%, and 13%, and negative predictive values of 85%, 100%, 84%, and 100%, respectively. Visual disturbances, headache, uncontrolled HIV-1 viremia, and a CD4 cell count of <500 cells/μl were predictors of NS in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis, while blood serum RPR titers were not; therefore, RPR titers should not be used as the sole criterion for deciding whether to perform an LP in early syphilis. When applied to CSF samples, the INNO-LIA Syphilis assay easily helped rule out NS.

  12. Does Early Childhood Callous-Unemotional Behavior Uniquely Predict Behavior Problems or Callous-Unemotional Behavior in Late Childhood?

    Waller, Rebecca; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) behavior has been linked to behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether CU behavior in "early childhood" predicts behavior problems or CU behavior in "late childhood". This study examined whether indicators of CU behavior at ages 2-4 predicted aggression,…

  13. Mammographic findings predicting an extensive intraductal component in early stage invasive breast cancer : analysis on microcalcification

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Mi Hye; Lee, Mi Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2000-01-01

    To analyze the mammographic findings of extensive intraductal component (EIC)-positive early invasive breast carcinoma and to determine the mammographic features which predict an EIC positivity in an invasive carcinoma. The mammographic and pathologic findings in 71 patients aged 34-79 (mean 50) years in whom stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma had been diagnosed were retrospectively analysed. The mammographic findings were assigned to one of three groups: mass, mass with microcalcification, or microcalcification only. The shape and distribution of a calcification were classified according to the BI-RADS lexicon, and its extent was classified as either more or less than 3 cm. To detect the presence or absence of EIC and the type of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the findings were re-examined by means of slide mappings. Twenty-eight of 71 patients (39%) showed ECI positivity. The mammographic findings of EIC-positive invasive cancer (n=3D28) were mass with microcalcification (n=3D14), microcalcification only (n=3D7) and mass only (n=3D7). The mammographic finding which predicted EIC positivity was mass with microcalcification (PPV:0.67, NPV:0.33, p=3D0.02). A mammographic of mass only (n=3D39) showed a significantly high negative predictive value for EIC positivity. (PPV 0.18, NPV 0.82, P less than 0.01). A comparison of cases with or without calcification showed that those with microcalcifications (n=3D32) showed a significantly high PPV of 0.66 (NPV:0.34, p less than 0.01) while those without calcification (n=3D39) showed a significantly high NPV of 0.82 (PPV:0.18, p less than 0.01). There were no significant differences in positive predictive values for EIC between the shape, distribution and extent of calcifications. Whenever microcalcification with or without mass is seen on mammographs obtained during early breast cancer, we can predict EIC-positivity, regardless of shape or distribution according to the BI-RADS lexicon. (author)

  14. Early anthropometric indices predict short stature and overweight status in a cohort of Peruvians in early adolescence

    Sterling, Robie; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    While childhood malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, less well understood is how early childhood growth influences height and body composition later in life. We revisited 152 Peruvian children who participated in a birth cohort study between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements 11 to 14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of childhood anthropometric indices on height and body composition in early adolescence. Each standard deviation decrease in length-for-age at birth was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.7 SD in both boys and girls (all poverweight in early adolescence. Linear growth retardation in early childhood is a strong determinant of adolescent stature, indicating that, in developing countries, growth failure in height during early childhood persists through early adolescence. Interventions addressing linear growth retardation in childhood are likely to improve adolescent stature and related-health outcomes in adulthood. PMID:22552904

  15. The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of ...

    Kathryn van Boom

    factors associated with injuries or return-to-play (RTP) time. Objectives: To .... metacarpal fractures contributing mostly to the prolonged recovery ... to recover from TBIs/hypoxia. This follows .... gear and the legality of knee and elbow strikes to.

  16. Predictive factors associated with prolonged chest drain production after esophagectomy

    Lagarde, S. M.; Omloo, J. M. T.; Ubbink, D. T.; Busch, O. R. C.; Obertop, H.; van Lanschot, J. J. B.

    2007-01-01

    After esophagectomy, pleural drainage is performed to ensure complete drainage of the pleural cavities. The aim of this study was to detect predisposing factors for prolonged drainage. Patients who underwent transhiatal or extended transthoracic esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma of the distal

  17. Predicting impending death: inconsistency in speed is a selective and early marker.

    Macdonald, Stuart W S; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2008-09-01

    Among older adults, deficits in both level and variability of speeded performance are linked to neurological impairment. This study examined whether and when speed (rate), speed (inconsistency), and traditional accuracy-based markers of cognitive performance foreshadow terminal decline and impending death. Victoria Longitudinal Study data spanning 12 years (5 waves) of measurement were assembled for 707 adults aged 59 to 95 years. Whereas 442 survivors completed all waves and relevant measures, 265 decedents participated on at least 1 occasion and subsequently died. Four main results were observed. First, Cox regressions evaluating the 3 cognitive predictors of mortality replicated previous results for cognitive accuracy predictors. Second, level (rate) of speeded performance predicted survival independent of demographic indicators, cardiovascular health, and cognitive performance level. Third, inconsistency in speed predicted survival independent of all influences combined. Fourth, follow-up random-effects models revealed increases in inconsistency in speed per year closer to death, with advancing age further moderating the accelerated growth. Hierarchical prediction patterns support the view that inconsistency in speed is an early behavioral marker of neurological dysfunction associated with impending death. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  18. The Solar Eclipse Predictions of Chiljeongsam-Oepyeon in Early Choseon

    Ahn, Young Sook; Lee, Yong Sam

    2004-12-01

    The history books of East Asia about astronomical phenomena have the more records of the solar eclipse frequently than any other ones. It is because traditionally, the solar eclipse meaned the fate of dynasty and the king's rule. The Sun, the biggest thing in the heaven symbolized the king, and the solar eclipse foresaw that the king had the problem in private including the body, and the country might suffer from difficulties in a great scale. So the king and all of the ministers used to gather to hold a ceremony named Gusikrye which solar eclipse may pass safely. Consequently, kings always had concernments on collecting informations of solar eclipse. Inspite of importance of solar eclipse predictions, but at the beginning of the Choseon, the predictions of the solar eclipse didn't fit. King Sejong compiled the Chiljeongsan-naepion and the Chiljeongsan-oepyeon to calculate the celestial phenomena including the solar eclipse. By the publications of these two books, the calendar making system of Choseon was firmly established. The Chiljeongsan-oepyeon adopted Huihui calendar of Arabia. The Solar eclipse predictions of Chiljeongsan-oepyeon were relative correct compared to modern method in early Choseon dynasty.

  19. The Solar Eclipse Predictions of Chiljeongsam-Oepyeon in Early Choseon

    Young Sook Ahn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The history books of East Asia about astronomical phenomena have the more records of the solar eclipse frequently than any other ones. It is because traditionally, the solar eclipse meaned the fate of dynasty and the king's rule. The Sun, the biggest thing in the heaven symbolized the king, and the solar eclipse foresaw that the king had the problem in private including the body, and the country might suffer from difficulties in a great scale. So the king and all of the ministers used to gather to hold a ceremony named Gusikrye which solar eclipse may pass safely. Consequently, kings always had concernments on collecting informations of solar eclipse. Inspite of importance of solar eclipse predictions, but at the beginning of the Choseon, the predictions of the solar eclipse didn't fit. King Sejong compiled the Chiljeongsan-naepion and the Chiljeongsan-oepyeon to calculate the celestial phenomena including the solar eclipse. By the publications of these two books, the calendar making system of Choseon was firmly established. The Chiljeongsan-oepyeon adopted Huihui calendar of Arabia. The Solar eclipse predictions of Chiljeongsan-oepyeon were relative correct compared to modern method in early Choseon dynasty.

  20. Early Shear Failure Prediction in Incremental Sheet Forming Process Using FEM and ANN

    Moayedfar, Majid; Hanaei, Hengameh; Majdi Rani, Ahmad; Musa, Mohd Azam Bin; Sadegh Momeni, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    The application of incremental sheet forming process as a rapid forming technique is rising in variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive and biomechanical purposes. However, the sheet failure is a big challenge in this process which leads wasting lots of materials. Hence, this study tried to propose a method to predict the early sheet failure in this process using mathematical solution. For the feasibility of the study, design of experiment with the respond surface method is employed to extract a set of experiments data for the simulation. The significant forming parameters were recognized and their integration was used for prediction system. Then, the results were inserted to the artificial neural network as input parameters to predict a vast range of applicable parameters avoiding sheet failure in ISF. The value of accuracy R2 ∼0.93 was obtained and the maximum sheet stretch in the depth of 25mm were recorded. The figures generate from the trend of interaction between effective parameters were provided for future studies.

  1. Conversion Factors for Predicting Unshielded Dose Rates in Shielded Waste

    Clapham, M.; Seamans Jr, J.V.; Arbon, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the methodology developed and used by the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project for determining the activity content and the unshielded surface dose rate for lead lined containers contaminated with transuranic waste. Several methods were investigated: - Direct measurement of the dose rate after removing the shielding. - Use of a MicroShield R derived dose conversion factor, (mRem/hr unshielded )/(mRem/hr shielded ), applied to the measured surface dose rate to estimate the unshielded surface dose rate. - Use of a MicroShield R derived activity conversion factor, mRem/hr unshielded /Ci, applied to the measured activity to estimate the unshielded dose rate. - Use of an empirically derived activity conversion factor, mRem/hr unshielded /Ci, applied to the measured activity to estimate the unshielded dose rate. The last approach proved to be the most efficacious by using a combination of nondestructive assay and empirically defined dose rate conversion factors. Empirically derived conversion factors were found to be highly dependent upon the matrix of the waste. Use of conversion factors relied on activity values corrected to address the presence of a lead liner. (authors)

  2. LABOR PRODUCTIVITY AS A FACTOR FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates the potential of the labor productivity in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The population subjected to the analysis included all companies form Timis County with yearly sales of over 2200 Euros. The interest for the labor productivity was based on the recommendations of the scientific literature, as well as on the availability of information concerning its values to all stakeholders. The event on which the research was focused was represented by the manifestation of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. All tests were performed over a paired sample of 1424 companies. The methodology employed in evaluating the potential of the labor productivity was based on the general accuracy ensured by the ratio (63.2% and the Area Under the ROC Curve (0.665. The results confirm the practical utility of the labor productivity in the prediction of bankruptcy.

  3. Impact Factors and Prediction of Popular Topics in a Journal

    Nielsen, M B; Seitz, K.

    2016-01-01

    been on peripheral nerves 23. Surprisingly many good scientific papers on obstetrics/fetal US and musculoskeletal US have low citation rates 24 25 26. Our predictions for 2016 based on the topics of submitted articles in the last 12 months are that CEUS and elastography will continue to be popular...... topics.It is also worth mentioning that there can be a discrepancy between which titles are cited and which are accessed online. In addition to international guidelines, our CME articles are usually popular according to online access. CME articles are well established educational papers...... and recommendations is important to UIM/EJU. Although we see popular topics like CEUS and elastography, it is not possible to predict which articles will be read or even cited based on the topic, with multicenter studies being the exception....

  4. Cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors: Identification of predictive factors

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Ehrenfels, Susanne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2003-01-01

    To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors.......To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors....

  5. The Role of Socioeconomic Factors in the Prediction of Persistence in Puerto Rico

    Dika, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    While research literature suggests that socioeconomic factors play a role in predicting educational attainment, very little research has been done to examine these relationships using data from Puerto Rico. A logistic regression approach was adopted to investigate the extent to which family and school socioeconomic factors predict retention from…

  6. LABOR PRODUCTIVITY AS A FACTOR FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluates the potential of the labor productivity in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The population subjected to the analysis included all companies form Timis County with yearly sales of over 2200 Euros. The interest for the labor productivity was based on the recommendations of the scientific literature, as well as on the availability of information concerning its values to all stakeholders. The event on which the research was focused was represented by the manif...

  7. The imbalance in expression of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors as candidate predictive biomarker in preeclampsia

    Pooneh Nikuei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is an important pregnancy disorder with serious maternal and fetal complications which its etiology has not been completely understood yet. Early diagnosis and management of disease could reduce its potential side effects. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family including VEGF-A is the most potent endothelial growth factor which induces angiogenesis and endothelial cell proliferation and has basic role in vasculogenesis. VEGF and its tyrosine kinase receptors (Flt1 and KDR are major factors for fetal and placental angiogenic development. Finding mechanisms involved in expression of angiogenic factors may lead to new prognostic and therapeutic points in management of preeclampsia. Recent researches, has shown capability of some anti-angiogenic factors as potential candidate to be used as early predictors for preeclampsia. Soluble fms-like tyrosin kinase-1 (sFlt1 is a truncated splice variant of the membrane-bound VEGF receptor Flt1, that is produced by the placenta and it can bind to angiogenic growth factors and neutraliz, their effects. It is also observed that the ratio of sFlt1 to placental growth factor is valuable as prognostic marker. In this review, VEGF family member’s role in angiogenesis is evaluated as biomarkers to be used for prediction of preeclampsia.

  8. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.

  9. Reduced mandibular range of motion in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: predictive factors.

    van Bruggen, H W; Van Den Engel-Hoek, L; Steenks, M H; Bronkhorst, E M; Creugers, N H J; de Groot, I J M; Kalaykova, S I

    2015-06-01

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) experience negative effects upon feeding and oral health. We aimed to determine whether the mandibular range of motion in DMD is impaired and to explore predictive factors for the active maximum mouth opening (aMMO). 23 patients with DMD (mean age 16.7 ± 7.7 years) and 23 controls were assessed using a questionnaire about mandibular function and impairments. All participants underwent a clinical examination of the masticatory system, including measurement of mandibular range of motion and variables related to mandibular movements. In all patients, quantitative ultrasound of the digastric muscle and the geniohyoid muscle and the motor function measure (MFM) scale were performed. The patients were divided into early and late ambulatory stage (AS), early non-ambulatory stage (ENAS) and late non-ambulatory stage (LNAS). All mandibular movements were reduced in the patient group (P < 0.001) compared to the controls. Reduction in the aMMO (<40 mm) was found in 26% of the total patient group. LNAS patients had significantly smaller mandibular movements compared to AS and ENAS (P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis for aMMO revealed a positive correlation with the body height and disease progression, with MFM total score as the strongest independent risk factor (R(2) = 0.71). Mandibular movements in DMD are significantly reduced and become more hampered with loss of motor function, including the sitting position, arm function, and neck and head control. We suggest that measurement of the aMMO becomes a part of routine care of patients with DMD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Slope Failure Prediction and Early Warning Awareness Education for Reducing Landslides Casualty in Malaysia

    Koay, S. P.; Tay, L. T.; Fukuoka, H.; Koyama, T.; Sakai, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Lateh, H.

    2015-12-01

    Northeast monsoon causes heavy rain in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia from November to March, every year. During this monsoon period, besides the happening of flood along east coast, landslides also causes millions of Malaysian Ringgit economical losses. Hence, it is essential to study the prediction of slope failure to prevent the casualty of landslides happening. In our study, we introduce prediction method of the accumulated rainfall affecting the stability of the slope. If the curve, in the graph, which is presented by rainfall intensity versus accumulated rainfall, crosses over the critical line, the condition of the slope is considered in high risk where the data are calculated and sent from rain gauge in the site via internet. If the possibility of slope failure is going high, the alert message will be sent out to the authorities for decision making on road block or setting the warning light at the road side. Besides road block and warning light, we propose to disseminate short message, to pre-registered mobile phone user, to notify the public for easing the traffic jam and avoiding unnecessary public panic. Prediction is not enough to prevent the casualty. Early warning awareness of the public is very important to reduce the casualty of landslides happening. IT technology does not only play a main role in disseminating information, early warning awareness education, by using IT technology, should be conducted, in schools, to give early warning awareness on natural hazard since childhood. Knowing the pass history on landslides occurrence will gain experience on the landslides happening. Landslides historical events with coordinate information are stored in database. The public can browse these historical events via internet. By referring to such historical landslides events, the public may know where did landslides happen before and the possibility of slope failure occurrence again is considered high. Simulation of rainfall induced slope failure mechanism

  11. Predictive and associated factors of psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury: a prospective study.

    Gould, Kate Rachel; Ponsford, Jennie Louise; Johnston, Lisa; Schönberger, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common and often debilitating following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is little consensus within the literature regarding the risk factors for post-injury psychiatric disorders. A 1-year prospective study was conducted to examine which pre-injury, injury-related, and concurrent factors were associated with experiencing a psychiatric disorder, diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, at 1 year post-injury. Participants were 122 adults with TBI and 88 proxy informants. Psychiatric disorders were common both pre-injury (54.1%) and at 12 months post-injury (45.9%). Results of regression analyses indicated individuals without a pre-injury psychiatric disorder or psychiatric symptomatology in the acute post-injury period were less likely to have a psychiatric disorder at 12 months post-injury. These findings confirm the importance of pre-injury history for the prediction of post-injury psychiatric disorders. Limb injury also emerged as a useful early indicator of later psychiatric disorder. Post-injury psychiatric disorders were associated with concurrent unemployment, pain, poor quality of life, and use of unproductive coping skills. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Work-related factors and early retirement intention: a study of the Danish eldercare sector

    Sejbæk, Camilla Sandal; Nexo, Mette A.; Borg, Vilhelm

    2012-01-01

    at the normal retirement age (65 years or older). High physical strain [hypothesis (iii)] and low and normal affective organizational commitment [hypothesis (ii)] were associated with very early retirement intention. None of the other work-related factors associated with early retirement intention. CONCLUSIONS......: Future interventions should focus on reducing physical strain and increase or maintain affective organizational commitment among employees in the eldercare sector to postpone retirement....

  13. Predictive factors for relapse in patients on buprenorphine maintenance.

    Ferri, Michael; Finlayson, Alistair J Reid; Wang, Li; Martin, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in the use of buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid dependence, clinical outcomes of this treatment approach continue to need evaluation. This study examines factors associated with relapse and retention during buprenorphine treatment in a sample of opioid dependent outpatients. In a retrospective chart review of 62 patients with opioid dependence, relapse was determined by self-report, urine toxicology screens, and by checking the state controlled substance monitoring database. Data was analyzed using two-way tests of association and logistic regression. Patients with comorbid anxiety disorders, active benzodiazepine use (contrary to clinic policy), or active alcohol abuse, were significantly more likely to relapse. Patients who relapsed were also more likely to be on a higher buprenorphine maintenance dose. This study identifies relapse risk factors during buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence. Future research is needed to determine whether modifying these factors may lead to improved treatment outcomes. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  14. Comparison of Swirl Sign and Black Hole Sign in Predicting Early Hematoma Growth in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Xiong, Xin; Li, Qi; Yang, Wen-Song; Wei, Xiao; Hu, Xi; Wang, Xing-Chen; Zhu, Dan; Li, Rui; Cao, Du; Xie, Peng

    2018-01-29

    BACKGROUND Early hematoma growth is associated with poor outcome in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The swirl sign (SS) and the black hole sign (BHS) are imaging markers in ICH patients. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive value of these 2 signs for early hematoma growth. MATERIAL AND METHODS ICH patients were screened for the appearance of the 2 signs within 6 h after onset of symptoms. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the 2 signs in predicting early hematoma growth were assessed. The accuracy of the 2 signs in predicting early hematoma growth was analyzed by receiver-operator analysis. RESULTS A total of 200 patients were enrolled in this study. BHS was found in 30 (15%) patients, and SS was found in 70 (35%) patients. Of the 71 patients with early hematoma growth, BHS was found on initial computed tomography scans in 24 (33.8%) and SS in 33 (46.5%). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of BHS for predicting early hematoma growth were 33.8%, 95.3%, 80.0%, and 72.0%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of SS were 46.5%, 71.3%, 47.0%, and 71.0%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.646 for BHS and 0.589 for SS (P=0.08). Multivariate logistic regression showed that presence of BHS is an independent predictor of early hematoma growth. CONCLUSIONS The Black hole sign seems to be good predictor for hematoma growth. The presence of swirl sign on admission CT does not independently predict hematoma growth in patients with ICH.

  15. Nucleated red blood cells and early EEG: predicting Sarnat stage and two year outcome.

    Walsh, B H

    2012-01-31

    AIMS: Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy (HIE) causes characteristic changes of the electroencephalogram (EEG), and a raised Nucleated Red Blood Cell (NRBC) count compared to controls. We wished to examine whether combining these markers could improve their ability to predict HIE severity in the first 24h. METHODS: Term infants with HIE were recruited. NRBC count and continuous multi-channel EEG were recorded within the first 24h. Neurological assessment was carried out at 24 months. A control population with NRBC counts in the first 24h was recruited. RESULTS: 44 infants with HIE and 43 control infants were recruited. Of the HIE population 39 completed a 2 year follow-up. The median NRBC count differed significantly between the controls and those with HIE (3\\/100 WBC [range of 0-11] vs 12.3\\/100 WBC [0-240]) (p<0.001). Within the HIE population the median NRBC count was significantly greater in infants with moderate\\/severe HIE than mild (16\\/100 WBC [range of 0-240] vs 8\\/100 WBC [1-23]) (p=0.016), and among infants with abnormal outcome compared to normal (21.3\\/100 WBC [1-239.8] vs 8.3\\/100 WBC [0-50])(p=0.03). The predictive ability of EEG changed with time post-delivery, therefore results are given at both 12 and 24h of age. At both time points the combined marker had a stronger correlation than EEG alone; with HIE severity (12h: r=0.661 vs r=0.622), (24h: r=0.645 vs r=0.598), and with outcome at 2 years (12h: r=0.756 vs r=0.652), (24h: r=0.802 vs r=0.746). CONCLUSION: Combining early EEG and NRBC count to predict HIE severity and neurological outcome, improved the predictive ability of either in isolation.

  16. A Bayesian framework for early risk prediction in traumatic brain injury

    Chaganti, Shikha; Plassard, Andrew J.; Wilson, Laura; Smith, Miya A.; Patel, Mayur B.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    Early detection of risk is critical in determining the course of treatment in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Computed tomography (CT) acquired at admission has shown latent prognostic value in prior studies; however, no robust clinical risk predictions have been achieved based on the imaging data in large-scale TBI analysis. The major challenge lies in the lack of consistent and complete medical records for patients, and an inherent bias associated with the limited number of patients samples with high-risk outcomes in available TBI datasets. Herein, we propose a Bayesian framework with mutual information-based forward feature selection to handle this type of data. Using multi-atlas segmentation, 154 image-based features (capturing intensity, volume and texture) were computed over 22 ROIs in 1791 CT scans. These features were combined with 14 clinical parameters and converted into risk likelihood scores using Bayes modeling. We explore the prediction power of the image features versus the clinical measures for various risk outcomes. The imaging data alone were more predictive of outcomes than the clinical data (including Marshall CT classification) for discharge disposition with an area under the curve of 0.81 vs. 0.67, but less predictive than clinical data for discharge Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score with an area under the curve of 0.65 vs. 0.85. However, in both cases, combining imaging and clinical data increased the combined area under the curve with 0.86 for discharge disposition and 0.88 for discharge GCS score. In conclusion, CT data have meaningful prognostic value for TBI patients beyond what is captured in clinical measures and the Marshall CT classification.

  17. Predictive Factors of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Altino, Denise Meira; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite; Lopes, Juliana de Lima

    2017-12-01

    To identify the predictive factors of anxiety and depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Cross-sectional and retrospective study conducted with 120 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome. Factors interfering with anxiety and depression were assessed. Anxiety was related to sex, stress, years of education, and depression, while depression was related to sex, diabetes mellitus, obesity, years of education, and trait-anxiety. Obesity and anxiety were considered predictive factors for depression, while depression and fewer years of education were considered predictive factors for anxiety. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Local connectome phenotypes predict social, health, and cognitive factors

    Michael A. Powell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The unique architecture of the human connectome is defined initially by genetics and subsequently sculpted over time with experience. Thus, similarities in predisposition and experience that lead to similarities in social, biological, and cognitive attributes should also be reflected in the local architecture of white matter fascicles. Here we employ a method known as local connectome fingerprinting that uses diffusion MRI to measure the fiber-wise characteristics of macroscopic white matter pathways throughout the brain. This fingerprinting approach was applied to a large sample (N = 841 of subjects from the Human Connectome Project, revealing a reliable degree of between-subject correlation in the local connectome fingerprints, with a relatively complex, low-dimensional substructure. Using a cross-validated, high-dimensional regression analysis approach, we derived local connectome phenotype (LCP maps that could reliably predict a subset of subject attributes measured, including demographic, health, and cognitive measures. These LCP maps were highly specific to the attribute being predicted but also sensitive to correlations between attributes. Collectively, these results indicate that the local architecture of white matter fascicles reflects a meaningful portion of the variability shared between subjects along several dimensions. The local connectome is the pattern of fiber systems (i.e., number of fibers, orientation, and size within a voxel, and it reflects the proximal characteristics of white matter fascicles distributed throughout the brain. Here we show how variability in the local connectome is correlated in a principled way across individuals. This intersubject correlation is reliable enough that unique phenotype maps can be learned to predict between-subject variability in a range of social, health, and cognitive attributes. This work shows, for the first time, how the local connectome has both the sensitivity and the specificity to

  19. Hemodynamic and metabolic factors in the prediction of diastolic dysfunction

    Nielsen, M.; Pareek, M.; Olesen, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    , and later detection of grade 2 or 3 diastolic dysfunction (DD) in 243 men and 22 women aged 28 to 57 years at the time of inclusion, using binary logistic regression analysis. Study subjects came from a random population based sample and were included 1974-1992, whilst the echocardiography was performed...... between HOMA-2B and other variables in the prediction of diastolic dysfunction. Conclusions: In a binary logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, and time, HOMA-2B was significantly associated with the development of grade 2 or 3 diastolic dysfunction. It is suggested that subjects with increased...

  20. Predictive and Prognostic Factors in Colorectal Cancer: A Personalized Approach

    Timothy A. Rockall

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is an exciting time for all those engaged in the treatment of colorectal cancer. The advent of new therapies presents the opportunity for a personalized approach to the patient. This approach considers the complex genetic mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis in addition to classical clinicopathological staging. The potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers which have stemmed from the study of the genetic basis of colorectal cancer and therapeutics are discussed with a focus on mismatch repair status, KRAS, BRAF, 18qLOH, CIMP and TGF-β.

  1. Early life stress predicts negative urgency through brooding, depending on 5-HTTLPR genotype: A pilot study with 6-month follow-up examining suicide ideation.

    Valderrama, Jorge; Miranda, Regina

    2017-12-01

    The present study examined the interaction between early life stress and 5-HTT genotypes in predicting two risk factors for suicidal behavior - the brooding subtype of rumination and impulsivity, in the form of negative urgency - over time. Furthermore, we examined early life stress, brooding, and impulsivity as predictors of suicidal ideation over time. Participants with and without a history of early life stress were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and completed assessments assessing brooding and negative urgency at baseline and 6-month follow up. Early life emotional abuse was associated with negative urgency at follow-up. We found an indirect effect of early life emotional abuse on negative urgency through brooding among individuals with 5-HTT low expressing genotypes but not among individuals with 5-HTT high expressing genotypes. Further, a logistic regression analysis revealed that negative urgency was associated with higher odds (O.R. = 16.2) of reporting suicide ideation (versus no ideation) at follow-up. Our findings suggest that brooding and negative urgency may result from the interaction between early life emotional abuse and 5-HTT low expressing genotypes. Further research is necessary to understand how early life stress interacts with 5-HTT genotypes to confer risk for suicidal behavior through psychological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Relevant factors of early puberty timing in urban primary schools in Chongqing].

    Luo, Yan; Liu, Qin; Wen, Yi; Liu, Shudan; Lei, Xun; Wang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the status of puberty timing and relevant factors of early puberty timing in children from grade one to four in urban primary schools of Chongqing. According to the purposive sample method, four urban primary schools in Chongqing were selected and of which 1471 children from grade one to four who have obtained informed consent were recruited. Questionnaire survey on social-demographic characteristics and family environment (e.g., age, parents' relationship, diet and lifestyle, etc), and Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) survey and physical examination (measurements of height, weight, pubertal development status, etc) were conducted. P25, P50, P75 ages of each important pubertal event were calculated by probit regression. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to analyze relevant factors. The detection rate of early puberty timing was 17.7%, and the median ages of the onset of breast and testicular development were 10.77 and 11.48 years old, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that early puberty timing occurred more likely in girls than in boys (OR = 0.561, 95% CI 0.406-0.774), and bad relationship between parents (OR = 1.320, 95% CI 1.007-1.729) and hair-products-use (OR = 1.685, 95%, CI 1.028-2.762) were risk factors of early puberty timing. Early onset of puberty in urban Chongqing is still exist. Gender, parents' relationship, and hair-products-use have an essential impact on early puberty timing.

  3. Marital Intimacy and Predictive Factors Among Infertile Women in Northern Iran

    Pasha, Hajar; Esmailzadeh, Sedigheh; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Adibrad, Hajar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Infertility is a stressful state that may decrease attachment between spouses. Marital intimacy is a real need in infertile women. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate marital intimacy and predictive factors among infertile women in Northern Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Center of Babol Medical Sciences University in 2014. A total of 221 infertile women participated in this study. The instrument used in this research was Marital Intimacy Need Questionnaire (MINQ). Statistical analyses was performed using linear and logistic regression with pintimacy. The mean and standard deviation of the marital intimacy was 349.11±49.26 and in marital intimacy domains including: emotional (42.28±7.23), psychological (41.84±7.59), intellectual (42.56±7.46), sexual (42.90±7.41), physical (43.59±6.96), spiritual (51.61±8.06), aesthetic (42.66±6.75), and social intimacy (42.59±6.89). The highest mean of marital intimacy domains is related to spirituality in infertile women. Physical and sexual domains had the high mean in infertile women. The lowest mean in marital intimacy domains was psychological intimacy. There was a significant correlation between the domains of marital intimacy. The strongest correlation was between the physical and sexual intimacy (r=0.85). There was a significant inverse association in marital intimacy with the age difference of spouses (pintimacy with husband’s occupation, and cause of infertility (p<0.02). Conclusion Early screening and psychosocial intervention strategies suggest in the setting of female infertility to identify and prevent the predictive factors that may cause marital conflict. PMID:28658854

  4. Marital Intimacy and Predictive Factors Among Infertile Women in Northern Iran.

    Pasha, Hajar; Basirat, Zahra; Esmailzadeh, Sedigheh; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Adibrad, Hajar

    2017-05-01

    Infertility is a stressful state that may decrease attachment between spouses. Marital intimacy is a real need in infertile women. The aim of this study was to evaluate marital intimacy and predictive factors among infertile women in Northern Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Center of Babol Medical Sciences University in 2014. A total of 221 infertile women participated in this study. The instrument used in this research was Marital Intimacy Need Questionnaire (MINQ). Statistical analyses was performed using linear and logistic regression with pintimacy. The mean and standard deviation of the marital intimacy was 349.11±49.26 and in marital intimacy domains including: emotional (42.28±7.23), psychological (41.84±7.59), intellectual (42.56±7.46), sexual (42.90±7.41), physical (43.59±6.96), spiritual (51.61±8.06), aesthetic (42.66±6.75), and social intimacy (42.59±6.89). The highest mean of marital intimacy domains is related to spirituality in infertile women. Physical and sexual domains had the high mean in infertile women. The lowest mean in marital intimacy domains was psychological intimacy. There was a significant correlation between the domains of marital intimacy. The strongest correlation was between the physical and sexual intimacy (r=0.85). There was a significant inverse association in marital intimacy with the age difference of spouses (pintimacy with husband's occupation, and cause of infertility (p<0.02). Early screening and psychosocial intervention strategies suggest in the setting of female infertility to identify and prevent the predictive factors that may cause marital conflict.

  5. Learning in manufacturing organizations : what factors predict effectiveness?

    Shipton, H.; Dawson, J.; West, M.A.; Patterson, M.G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues that it is possible to identify factors which pre-dispose organizations to adopt effective learning strategies and processes. It is hypothesized that effective OL is associated with: profitability, environmental uncertainty, structure, approach to HRM and quality orientation. The

  6. Factors predicting the outcome of non-operative management of ...

    A.M. Maarouf

    Predictors of non-operative management failure of high-grade blunt renal trauma. 45 and computed .... perform univariate and multivariate analyses of the risk factors. The .... possible. At our institutions, renal trauma management decisions were based on the ... gency nephrectomy and thus limits the possibility of preserving.

  7. Predictive factors of bladder outlet obstruction following the tension ...

    H. Elghamrawi

    On the other hand, multivariate analysis indicated that Qmax was the only factor independently related to postoperative bladder outlet obstruction after TVTO (p = 0.002, odds ratio = 0.658, 95% CI for odds ratio 0.507–0.855). Discussion. Stress urinary incontinence defined as the involuntary loss of urine during increases in ...

  8. Medical and sociodemographic factors predict persistent smoking after coronary events.

    Sverre, Elise; Otterstad, Jan Erik; Gjertsen, Erik; Gullestad, Lars; Husebye, Einar; Dammen, Toril; Moum, Torbjørn; Munkhaugen, John

    2017-09-06

    Understanding the determinants of persistent smoking after a coronary event constitutes the basis of modelling interventions of smoking cessation in secondary prevention programs. We aim to identify the potentially modifiable medical, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, comprising the study factors, associated with unfavourable risk factor control after CHD events. A cross-sectional explorative study used logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between study factors and smoking status in 1083 patients hospitalized with myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization. Hospital record data, a self-report questionnaire, clinical examination and blood samples were applied. At the index hospitalization, 390 patients were smoking and at follow-up after 2-36 months 167 (43%) of these had quit, while 230 reported persistent smoking. In adjusted analyses, unemployed or disability benefits (Odds ratio (OR) 4.1), low education (OR 3.5), longer smoking duration (OR 2.3) and not having ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as index event (OR 2.3) were significantly associated with persistent smoking. Psychosocial factors at follow-up were not associated with persistent smoking. Smokers reported high motivation for cessation, with 68% wanting help to quit. Only 42% had been offered nicotine replacement therapy or other cessation aids. Smokers rated use of tobacco as the most important cause of their coronary disease (6.8 on a 1-10 Likert scale). Low socioeconomic status, prior duration of smoking, and not having STEMI as index event were associated with persisting smoking. Persistent smokers in this study seem to have an acceptable risk perception and were motivated to cease smoking, but needed assistance through cessation programs including prescription of pharmacological aids. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02309255 , registered retrospectively.

  9. Familial risk factors in social anxiety disorder: calling for a family-oriented approach for targeted prevention and early intervention.

    Knappe, Susanne; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    Within the last decade, social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been identified as a highly prevalent and burdensome disorder. Both the characterization of its symptomatology and effective treatment options are widely documented. Studies particularly indicate that SAD aggregates in families and has its onset in early adolescence. Given the family as an important context for children's cognitive, emotional and behavioural development, familial risk factors could be expected to significantly contribute to the reliable detection of populations at risk for SAD. Reviewing studies on familial risk factors for SAD argues for the importance of parental psychopathology and unfavourable family environment, but also denotes to several shortcomings such as cross-sectional designs, short follow-up periods, diverging methodologies and the focus on isolated factors. Using a prospective longitudinal study that covers the high-risk period for SAD, including a broader spectrum of putative risk factors may help to overcome many of the methodological limitations. This review sets out to develop a more family-oriented approach for predicting the onset and maintenance of SAD that may be fruitful to derive targeted prevention and early intervention in SAD.

  10. Clinical outcomes of adjuvant radiation therapy and prognostic factors in early stage uterine cervical cancer

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Rhee, Woo Joong; Choi, Seo Hee; Kim, Gwi Eon; Kim, Yong Bae [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, EunJi; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Sung Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate the outcomes of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and to analyze prognostic factors of survival in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IB-IIA uterine cervical cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 148 patients with FIGO IB-IIA uterine cervical cancer who underwent surgery followed by adjuvant RT at the Yonsei Cancer Center between June 1997 and December 2011. Adjuvant radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis or an extended field with or without brachytherapy. Among all patients, 57 (38.5%) received adjuvant chemotherapy either concurrently or sequentially. To analyze prognostic factors, we assessed clinicopathologic variables and metabolic parameters measured on preoperative {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). To evaluate the predictive performance of metabolic parameters, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The median follow-up period was 63.2 months (range, 2.7 to 206.8 months). Locoregional recurrence alone occurred in 6 patients, while distant metastasis was present in 16 patients, including 2 patients with simultaneous regional failure. The 5-year and 10-year OSs were 87.0% and 85.4%, respectively. The 5-year and 10-year DFSs were 83.8% and 82.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, pathologic type and tumor size were shown to be significant prognostic factors associated with both DFS and OS. In subset analysis of 40 patients who underwent preoperative PET/CT, total lesion glycolysis was shown to be the most significant prognostic factor among the clinicopathologic variables and metabolic parameters for DFS. Our results demonstrated that adjuvant RT following hysterectomy effectively improves local control. From the subset analysis of preoperative PET/CT, we can consider that metabolic parameters may hold prognostic

  11. Early prediction of adverse events in enhanced recovery based upon the host systemic inflammatory response.

    Lane, J C; Wright, S; Burch, J; Kennedy, R H; Jenkins, J T

    2013-02-01

    Early identification of patients experiencing postoperative complications is imperative for successful management. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a nonspecific marker of inflammation used in many specialties to monitor patient condition. The role of CRP measurement early in the elective postoperative colorectal patient is unclear, particularly in the context of enhanced recovery (ERAS). Five hundred and thirty-three consecutive patients who underwent elective colorectal surgery between October 2008 and October 2010 within an established ERAS programme were studied. Patients were separated into a development group of 265 patients and a validation group of 268 patients by chronological order. CRP and white cell count were added to a prospectively maintained ERAS database. The primary outcome of the study was all adverse events (including infective complications, postoperative organ dysfunction and prolonged length of stay) during the initial hospital admission. Significant predictors for adverse events on univariate analysis were submitted to multivariate regression analysis and the resulting model applied to the validation group. The validity and predictive accuracy of the regression model was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curve/area under the curve (AUC) analysis. CRP levels >150 mg/l on postoperative day 2 and a rising CRP on day 3 were independently associated with all adverse events during the hospital admission. A weighted model was applied to the validation group yielding an AUC of 0.65 (95% CI 0.58-0.73) indicating, at best, modest discrimination and predictive accuracy for adverse events. Measurement of CRP in patients after elective colorectal surgery in the first few days after surgery within ERAS can assist in identifying those at risk of adverse events and a prolonged hospital stay. A CRP value of >150 mg/l on day 2 and a rising CRP on day 3 should alert the surgeon to an increased likelihood of such events. © 2012 The Authors

  12. Early indicators and risk factors for ethical issues in clinical practice.

    Pavlish, Carol; Brown-Saltzman, Katherine; Hersh, Mary; Shirk, Marilyn; Nudelman, Olga

    2011-03-01

    Nurses in all clinical settings encounter ethical issues that frequently lead to moral distress. This critical incident study explored nurses' descriptions of ethically difficult situations to identify risk factors and early indicators of ethical conflicts. Employing the critical incident technique, researchers developed a questionnaire that collected information on ethically difficult situations, their risk factors and early indicators, nurse actions, and situational outcomes. Two nurse researchers independently analyzed and categorized data using a constant comparison technique. Most of the ethically difficult situations pertained to end-of-life care for children and adults. Conflicts in interpersonal relationships were prevalent. Nurses were especially moved by patient and family suffering and concerned about patient vulnerability, harm-benefit ratio, and patient autonomy. Researchers discovered risk factor categories for patients, families, healthcare providers, and health systems. Additionally, researchers found subcategories in six major categories of early indicators: signs of conflict, patient suffering, nurse distress, ethics violation, unrealistic expectations, and poor communication. Nurses are keenly aware of pertinent risk factors and early indicators of unfolding ethical conflicts. Many nurses reported feeling powerless in the face of ethical conflict. Research that develops interventions to strengthen nurses' voices in ethically difficult situation is warranted. Nurses are in a key position to identify patient situations with a high risk for ethical conflict. Initiating early ethics consultation and interventions can alter the course of pending conflicts and diminish the potential for patient and family suffering and nurses' moral distress. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. Developmental delay and emotion dysregulation: Predicting parent-child conflict across early to middle childhood

    Marquis, Willa A.; Noroña, Amanda N.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Cumulative risk research has increased understanding of how multiple risk factors impact various socioemotional and interpersonal outcomes across the life span. However, little is known about risk factors for parent-child conflict early in development, where identifying predictors of change could be highly salient for intervention. Given their established association with parent-child conflict, child developmental delay (DD) and emotion dysregulation were examined as predictors of change in conflict across early to middle childhood (ages 3 to 7 years). Participants (n=211) were part of a longitudinal study examining the development of psychopathology in children with or without DD. Level of parent-child conflict was derived from naturalistic home observations, while child dysregulation was measured using an adapted CBCL-Emotion Dysregulation Index. PROCESS was used to examine the conditional interactive effects of delay status (typically developing, DD) and dysregulation on change in conflict from child ages 3 to 5 and 5 to 7 years. Across both of these timeframes, parent-child conflict increased only for families of children with both DD and high dysregulation, providing support for an interactive risk model of parent-child conflict. Findings are considered in the context of developmental transitions, and implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:28054804

  14. Developmental delay and emotion dysregulation: Predicting parent-child conflict across early to middle childhood.

    Marquis, Willa A; Noroña, Amanda N; Baker, Bruce L

    2017-04-01

    Cumulative risk research has increased understanding of how multiple risk factors impact various socioemotional and interpersonal outcomes across the life span. However, little is known about risk factors for parent-child conflict early in development, where identifying predictors of change could be highly salient for intervention. Given their established association with parent-child conflict, child developmental delay (DD) and emotion dysregulation were examined as predictors of change in conflict across early to middle childhood (ages 3 to 7 years). Participants (n = 211) were part of a longitudinal study examining the development of psychopathology in children with or without DD. Level of parent-child conflict was derived from naturalistic home observations, whereas child dysregulation was measured using an adapted CBCL-Emotion Dysregulation Index. PROCESS was used to examine the conditional interactive effects of delay status (typically developing, DD) and dysregulation on change in conflict from child ages 3 to 5 and 5 to 7 years. Across both of these timeframes, parent-child conflict increased only for families of children with both DD and high dysregulation, providing support for an interactive risk model of parent-child conflict. Findings are considered in the context of developmental transitions, and implications for intervention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Early Weight Loss with Liraglutide 3.0 mg Predicts 1-Year Weight Loss and is Associated with Improvements in Clinical Markers.

    Fujioka, Ken; O'Neil, Patrick M; Davies, Melanie; Greenway, Frank; C W Lau, David; Claudius, Birgitte; Skjøth, Trine Vang; Bjørn Jensen, Christine; P H Wilding, John

    2016-11-01

    To identify an early response criterion for predicting ≥5% weight loss with liraglutide 3.0 mg at week 56 and to compare efficacy outcomes in early responders (ERs) and early nonresponders (ENRs). Using pooled data from the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes and SCALE Diabetes trials, weight loss of ≥4% at 16 weeks best predicted ≥5% weight loss after 56 weeks. Weight loss and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and health-related quality of life were evaluated in ERs (≥4% weight loss at week 16) and ENRs (3.0 mg were 77.3%/22.7% (individuals without type 2 diabetes, T2D) and 62.7%/37.3% (those with T2D). Greater mean weight loss was observed in ERs versus ENRs: 10.8% versus 3.0% (without T2D) and 8.5% versus 3.1% (T2D). In both trials, greater proportions of ERs versus ENRs achieved ≥5%, >10%, and >15% weight loss at week 56 with liraglutide 3.0 mg. Greater improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors and health-related quality of life scores were observed in ERs versus ENRs. The early response criterion was clinically useful to identify individuals who would achieve clinically meaningful weight loss at 56 weeks. © 2016 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  16. Early Weight Loss with Liraglutide 3.0 mg Predicts 1‐Year Weight Loss and is Associated with Improvements in Clinical Markers

    O'Neil, Patrick M.; Davies, Melanie; Greenway, Frank; C.W. Lau, David; Claudius, Birgitte; Skjøth, Trine Vang; Bjørn Jensen, Christine; P.H. Wilding, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify an early response criterion for predicting ≥5% weight loss with liraglutide 3.0 mg at week 56 and to compare efficacy outcomes in early responders (ERs) and early nonresponders (ENRs). Methods Using pooled data from the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes and SCALE Diabetes trials, weight loss of ≥4% at 16 weeks best predicted ≥5% weight loss after 56 weeks. Weight loss and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and health‐related quality of life were evaluated in ERs (≥4% weight loss at week 16) and ENRs (3.0 mg were 77.3%/22.7% (individuals without type 2 diabetes, T2D) and 62.7%/37.3% (those with T2D). Greater mean weight loss was observed in ERs versus ENRs: 10.8% versus 3.0% (without T2D) and 8.5% versus 3.1% (T2D). In both trials, greater proportions of ERs versus ENRs achieved ≥5%, >10%, and >15% weight loss at week 56 with liraglutide 3.0 mg. Greater improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors and health‐related quality of life scores were observed in ERs versus ENRs. Conclusions The early response criterion was clinically useful to identify individuals who would achieve clinically meaningful weight loss at 56 weeks. PMID:27804269

  17. Poor sleep quality predicts deficient emotion information processing over time in early adolescence.

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Sadeh, Avi; Dahl, Ronald E; Rosenblat-Stein, Shiran

    2011-11-01

    There is deepening understanding of the effects of sleep on emotional information processing. Emotion information processing is a key aspect of social competence, which undergoes important maturational and developmental changes in adolescence; however, most research in this area has focused on adults. Our aim was to test the links between sleep and emotion information processing during early adolescence. Sleep and facial information processing were assessed objectively during 3 assessment waves, separated by 1-year lags. Data were obtained in natural environments-sleep was assessed in home settings, and facial information processing was assessed at school. 94 healthy children (53 girls, 41 boys), aged 10 years at Time 1. N/A. Facial information processing was tested under neutral (gender identification) and emotional (emotional expression identification) conditions. Sleep was assessed in home settings using actigraphy for 7 nights at each assessment wave. Waking > 5 min was considered a night awakening. Using multilevel modeling, elevated night awakenings and decreased sleep efficiency significantly predicted poor performance only in the emotional information processing condition (e.g., b = -1.79, SD = 0.52, confidence interval: lower boundary = -2.82, upper boundary = -0.076, t(416.94) = -3.42, P = 0.001). Poor sleep quality is associated with compromised emotional information processing during early adolescence, a sensitive period in socio-emotional development.

  18. Early warning score independently predicts adverse outcome and mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis.

    Jones, Michael J; Neal, Christopher P; Ngu, Wee Sing; Dennison, Ashley R; Garcea, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic value of established scoring systems with early warning scores in a large cohort of patients with acute pancreatitis. In patients presenting with acute pancreatitis, age, sex, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) grade, Modified Glasgow Score, Ranson criteria, APACHE II scores and early warning score (EWS) were recorded for the first 72 h following admission. These variables were compared between survivors and non-survivors, between patients with mild/moderate and severe pancreatitis (based on the 2012 Atlanta Classification) and between patients with a favourable or adverse outcome. A total of 629 patients were identified. EWS was the best predictor of adverse outcome amongst all of the assessed variables (area under curve (AUC) values 0.81, 0.84 and 0.83 for days 1, 2 and 3, respectively) and was the most accurate predictor of mortality on both days 2 and 3 (AUC values of 0.88 and 0.89, respectively). Multivariable analysis revealed that an EWS ≥2 was independently associated with severity of pancreatitis, adverse outcome and mortality. This study confirms the usefulness of EWS in predicting the outcome of acute pancreatitis. It should become the mainstay of risk stratification in patients with acute pancreatitis.

  19. Value of Indium-111m labeled platelet scans for predicting early renal allograft loss

    Shaffer, P.; Hinkle, G.; Olsen, J.; Sommer, B.; Henry, M.; Ferguson, R.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine if In-111m labeled platelet scanning could be of use in predicting renal allograft prognosis, 41 patients (pts) thought to be at risk for graft loss were studied. In vitro labeling of platelets was performed followed by reinjection into the pt and scanning at 24 hours. The graft activity on platelet scan was compared to hepatic activity and classified as being either less than or equal to hepatic activity (NEG) or much greater than hepatic activity (POS). Results are compared to graft prognosis and are presented in this paper. The observed increase in early loss rate in the pts with POS scan over those with NEG scan was highly significant. (p .001). All pts with a POS scan were on cyclosporin A (CYA); no pt on conventional therapy (excluding CYA) had a POS scan. The authors conclude that the presence of a POS scan is a grave prognostic sign and that there appears to be a relationship between CYA, POS scan, and early graft loss

  20. Absence of early epileptiform abnormalities predicts lack of seizures on continuous EEG.

    Shafi, Mouhsin M; Westover, M Brandon; Cole, Andrew J; Kilbride, Ronan D; Hoch, Daniel B; Cash, Sydney S

    2012-10-23

    To determine whether the absence of early epileptiform abnormalities predicts absence of later seizures on continuous EEG monitoring of hospitalized patients. We retrospectively reviewed 242 consecutive patients without a prior generalized convulsive seizure or active epilepsy who underwent continuous EEG monitoring lasting at least 18 hours for detection of nonconvulsive seizures or evaluation of unexplained altered mental status. The findings on the initial 30-minute screening EEG, subsequent continuous EEG recordings, and baseline clinical data were analyzed. We identified early EEG findings associated with absence of seizures on subsequent continuous EEG. Seizures were detected in 70 (29%) patients. A total of 52 patients had their first seizure in the initial 30 minutes of continuous EEG monitoring. Of the remaining 190 patients, 63 had epileptiform discharges on their initial EEG, 24 had triphasic waves, while 103 had no epileptiform abnormalities. Seizures were later detected in 22% (n = 14) of studies with epileptiform discharges on their initial EEG, vs 3% (n = 3) of the studies without epileptiform abnormalities on initial EEG (p monitoring is necessary.

  1. Factors Predicting Inter-Ethnic Friendships at the Workplace

    Intan H. M. Hashim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored factors that may contribute to inter-ethnic friendships, both in terms of quantity and satisfaction with those friendships. Participants were 200 working adults who were studying part-time in a long-distance program in a university in Malaysia. In general, demographic factors (gender, ethnicity, education, and income had no significant relationships with number of inter-ethnic friends and satisfaction people had with inter-ethnic friendships. Ethnic identity and stress at work also did not have significant relationships with number of inter-ethnic friends. However, they were significantly related to satisfaction with inter-ethnic friendships. People with higher ethnic identification were more satisfied with inter-ethnic friendships whereas people with more stress at work reported lower satisfaction with inter-ethn