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Sample records for factors potentially related

  1. Factors relating to consent for organ donation: prospective data on potential organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marck, C H; Neate, S L; Skinner, M R; Dwyer, B M; Hickey, B B; D'Costa, R; Weiland, T J; Jelinek, G A

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining family consent to organ donation is a significant obstacle to improving further Australian deceased organ donation rates. Currently, neither the consent rates for donors eligible to donate after circulatory death, nor factors that influence decision to decline or consent to donation in general are known in Australia. This study at four university teaching hospitals in Melbourne, Victoria, examined consecutive patients where organ donation was discussed with the family A total of 123 cases were identified; the family consent rate was 52.8%, and 34.1% proceeded to donation. Consent to donation was related to potential donor factors such as country of birth, cultural background in Australia, a non-religious or Christian background and registration on the Australian Organ Donor Register. Family-related factors included being English speaking and having knowledge of the deceased's wishes about organ donation. Family of donation after circulatory death-eligible donors were less likely to consent to donation than the family of donation after brain death-eligible donors, although not reaching statistical significance. Among consented potential donors, those eligible for donation after brain death and with a shorter length of stay were more likely to proceed to donating organs for transplantation. Despite a small sample size, these findings describe current consent and donation rates and associated factors and may assist in improving conversations about organ donation. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Rearward Visibility Issues Related to Agricultural Tractors and Self-Propelled Machinery: Contributing Factors, Potential Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, S G; Field, W E

    2016-01-01

    As the size, complexity, and speed of agricultural tractors and self-propelled machinery have increased, so have the visibility-related issues, placing significant importance on the visual skills, alertness, and reactive abilities of the operator. Rearward movement of large agricultural equipment has been identified in the literature as causing both fatalities and injuries to bystanders who were not visible to the operator and damage to both the machine and stationary objects. The addition of monitoring assistance, while not a new concept, has advanced significantly, offering agricultural machinery operators greater options for increasing their awareness of the area surrounding the machine. In this research, we attempt to (1) identify and describe the key contributors to agricultural machinery visibility issues, i.e., operator-related and machine-related factors, and (2) enumerate and evaluate the potential solutions being offered that address these factors. Enhanced operator safety and efficiency should result from a better understanding of the efforts to solve the visibility problems inherent in large tractors and self-propelled agricultural machinery.

  3. Survival potential of Phytophthora infestans sporangia in relation to meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of meteorological factors coupled with sporangia survival curves may enhance effective management of potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans. We utilized a non-parametric density estimation approach to evaluate the cumulative probability of occurrence of temperature and relat...

  4. Optimization of Weighting Factors for Multiple Window Spectrogram of Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hansson-Sandsten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the mean square error optimal weighting factors for multiple window spectrogram of different stationary and nonstationary processes. It is well known that the choice of multiple windows is important, but here we show that the weighting of the different multiple window spectrograms in the final average is as important to consider and that the equally averaged spectrogram is not mean square error optimal for non-stationary processes. The cost function for optimization is the normalized mean square error where the normalization factor is the multiple window spectrogram. This means that the unknown weighting factors will be present in the numerator as well as in the denominator. A quasi-Newton algorithm is used for the optimization. The optimization is compared for a number of well-known sets of multiple windows and common weighting factors and the results show that the number and the shape of the windows are important for a small mean square error. Multiple window spectrograms using these optimal weighting factors, from ElectroEncephaloGram data including steady-state visual evoked potentials, are shown as examples.

  5. Potential risk factors for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis related to pancreatic secretions following pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Choon Song; Seong Ho Choi; Dong Wook Choi; Jin Seok Heo; Woo Seok Kim; Min Jung Kim

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To identify risk factors for nonalcoholic steato-hepatitis following pancreaticoduodenectomy, with a focus on factors related to pancreatic secretions. METHODS: The medical records of 228 patients who had a pancreaticoduodenectomy over a 16-mo period were reviewed retrospectively. The 193 patients who did not have fatty liver disease preoperatively were included in the final analysis. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed using the differences between splenic and hepatic attenuation and liver-to-spleen attenuation as measured by non-enhanced computed tomography. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (7.8%) who showed post-operative hepatic fatty changes were assigned to Group A, and the remaining patients were assigned to Group B. Patient demographics, preoperative labora-tory findings (including levels of C-peptide, glucagon, insulin and glucose tolerance test results), operation types, and final pathological findings did not differ sig-nificantly between the two groups; however, the fre-quency of pancreatic fistula (P = 0.020) and the meth-od of pancreatic duct stenting (P = 0.005) showed significant differences between the groups. A multivari-ate analysis identified pancreatic fistula (HR = 3.332, P = 0.037) and external pancreatic duct stenting (HR = 4.530, P = 0.017) as independent risk factors for the development of postoperative steatohepatitis. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic fistula and external pancre-atic duct stenting were identified as independent risk factors for the development of steatohepatitis follow-ing pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  6. Nocvel potential targets and related genes of transcription factor Caplp in Candida albicans 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YahWANG; Yong-bingCAO; Xin-mingJIA; De-junWANG; ZhengXU; HuiSHEN; KangYING; Wan-shengCHEN; Yuan-yingJIANG

    2005-01-01

    AIM Capl p, encoded by CAP1 in Candida albicans, is highly homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Yapl p. It has been associated with tolerance to oxidative stress and resistance to a variety of toxicants previously. We used homemade microarray to reveal Capl p related genes in a broad spectrum as well as to lucubrate the functions of Capl p. METHODS Microarray analysis was used to identify differentially expressed genes between CAP1 deletion strain CJD21 and its parental strain CAI4. CAP1 over-expression strain was constructed to confirm the relationship between CAP1 and some differentially expressedgenes. Bioinformatics was applied to reveal promoters with Capl p binding site as well as the clusters of differentially expressed genes. RT-PCR and drug efflux analysis were used to lucubrate the functions of Caplp in Candida albicans.

  7. Factors related to the return to work potential in persons with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerholm, Ulrika; Areberg, Cecilia

    2014-07-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating the relationship between the return to work potential, according to the Worker Role Interview (WRI) assessment, and clinical characteristics and level of empowerment and occupational engagement among persons with severe mental illness who express their own interest in working. 120 participants entered the study. The WRI, the Brief Psychiatric and Rating Scale, a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Empowerment Scale, and the Profiles of Occupational Engagement in Severe mental illness were used for data collection. Correlation and regression analyses were used for statistics. The return to work potential was significantly associated with having fewer symptoms, rehabilitation support or productive activities, and higher levels of engagement and empowerment. A younger age had an inverse relation to the lifestyle component in WRI. Depressive symptoms and occupational engagement explained 42% of the variance. The findings support the use of an empowerment approach, taking into account the clients' symptoms, age, and time use. In addition, involvement in vocational support and productive activities may be advantageous early on in the recovery process.

  8. Survival potential of Phytophthora infestans in relation to environmental factors and late blight occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato is an important crop globally and late blight (Phytophthora infestans) often results in severe crop loss. The cost for late blight control can be in excess of $210 million in the United States. We utilized a non-parametric density distribution analysis of local temperature (Temp) and relative...

  9. [Research on potential interaction between mitochondrial DNA copy number and related factors on risk of hypertension in coal miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J Y; Lei, L J; Qiao, N; Fan, G Q; Sun, C M; Huang, J J; Wang, T

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To investigate the effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in peripheral blood and related factors on the risk of hypertension in coal miners. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in 378 coal miners with hypertension and 325 healthy coal miners recruited from Datong Coal Mine Group. A standard questionnaire was used to collect their general information, such as demographic characteristics, habits and occupational history. Fluorescence quantitative PCR was performed to detect the copy number of mtDNA. Logistic regression model was applied for identifying the related risk factors of hypertension and analyzing the interaction between mtDNA copy number and risk factors. Results: The prevalence of hypertension of high mtDNA copy number was lower than mtDNA copy numberin 0-5.67 group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.414). Alcohol drinking (OR=1.80, 95% CI: 1.26-2.56), family history of hypertension (OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.20- 2.50), work shifts (OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.48-0.99), education level (P=0.012) and family monthly income level (P=0.001) were related to the prevalence of hypertension. There were potential interactions between mtDNA copy number and alcohol drinking, family monthly income level, family history of hypertension, respectively. Alcohol drinking was a risk factor for hypertension [1.77 (1.25-2.50)]. Potential interactions between mtDNA copy number and alcohol drinking reduced the risk of hypertension (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.07-1.35). Family history of hypertension was a risk factor for hypertension [1.81(1.26-2.59)]. Potential interactions between mtDNA copy number and family history of hypertension reduced the risk of hypertension (OR=1.24, 95%CI: 1.09-1.41). Family monthly income level was a protect factor for hypertension [0.55(0.46-0.66)]. Potential interactions between mtDNA copy number and family monthly income level increased the protection role of hypertension (OR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.86-0.94). Conclusion: mt

  10. Incidence of Potential Drug-Drug Interaction and Related Factors in Hospitalized Neurological Patients in two Iranian Teaching Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha Namazi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reciprocal drug interactions are among the most common causes of adverse drug reactions. We investigated the incidence and related risk factors associated with mutual drug interactions in relation to prescriptions written in the neurology wards of two major teaching hospitals in Shiraz, southern Iran. Methods: Data was collected from hand-written prescriptions on a daily basis. Mutual drug interactions were identified using Lexi-Comp 2012 version 1.9.1. Type D and X drug interactions were considered as potential drug-drug interactions. The potential risk factors associated with drug-drug interactions included the patient’s age and gender, number of medications and orders, length of hospitalization and the type of neurological disorder. To determine potential drug-drug interactions, relevant interventions were suggested to the physicians or nurses and the outcome of the interventions were documented. Results: The study comprised 589 patients, of which 53% were males and 47% females, with a mean age of 56.65±18.19 SD years. A total of 4942 drug orders and 3784 medications were prescribed among which 4539 drug-drug interactions were detected, including 4118 type C, 403 type D, and 18 type X. Using a logistic regression model, the number of medications, length of hospitalization and non-vascular type of the neurological disorder were found to be significantly associated with potential drug-drug interactions. From the total interventions, 74.24% were accepted by physicians and nurses. Conclusion: Potentially hazardous reciprocal drug interactions are common among patients in neurology wards. Clinical pharmacists can play a critical role in the prevention of drug-drug interactions in hospitalized patients.

  11. Potential host-related risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection in Saudi women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abul-Fotouh Abdel-Maguid; Solyman, Awatif Abdel-Karim; Kamal, Sanaa Moharram

    2016-08-01

    Risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) in women may differ between individuals, age, and the community. This study aimed to evaluate host related risk factors for rUTI in sexually active Saudi women during the childbearing period. A case-control study was conducted in five healthcare centers and included married, nonpregnant women aged 18-40 years. A total of 217 women had rUTI (cases) and 252 did not (controls). A validated questionnaire, with a face-to-face interview, was applied to assess various demographic, behavioral, medical, and sexual data. Additionally, a thorough physical examination, saliva and blood analyses, uroflowmetry, and genitourinary ultrasonography were performed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the significant host related risk factors associated with rUTI. In multivariate analysis, attributable risks for rUTI were a history of childhood UTI [odds ratio (OR) = 6.8)] back-to-front douching/wiping after bowel movement (OR = 2.6), younger age at first intercourse (OR = 6.3), increased frequency of sexual intercourse (OR = 4.8), obstructed urinary flow (OR = 1.9), and genital prolapse (OR = 3.4). A total of 9.68 % of cases and none of the controls had high postvoid residual urine (positive predictive value for rUTI = 100 %). This is the first reported study to evaluate host related risk factors for rUTI in childbearing-age women in Saudi Arabia. Study findings indicate the association between rUTI and various factors that have been already established, with addition of improper rectal hygiene as a potential risk for recurrence.

  12. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)-TrkB Signaling in Inflammation-related Depression and Potential Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Chun; Yao, Wei; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Depression is the most prevalent and among the most debilitating of psychiatric disorders. The precise neurobiology of this illness is unknown. Several lines of evidence suggest that peripheral and central inflammation plays a role in depressive symptoms, and that anti-inflammatory drugs can improve depressive symptoms in patients with inflammation-related depression. Signaling via brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tropomycin receptor kinase B (TrkB) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of depression and in the therapeutic mechanisms of antidepressants. A recent paper showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation gave rise to depression-like phenotype by altering BDNF-TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, areas thought to be involved in the antidepressant effects of TrkB agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) and TrkB antagonist, ANA-12. Here we provide an overview of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and BDNF-TrkB signaling in the pathophysiology of inflammation-induced depression, and propose mechanistic actions for potential therapeutic agents. Additionally, the authors discuss the putative role of TrkB agonists and antagonists as novel therapeutic drugs for inflammation-related depression.

  13. Factors Influencing Microbial Carbon Emission Potential from Wetland Sediments and its Relation to Surface- and Plot-Scale Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, M.; Bohrer, G.; Mouser, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands provide valuable ecosystem services by sequestering carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and serving as a sink for atmospheric nitrogen export. They are often constructed as buffers between agriculture lands and drainage channels to improve runoff water quality from elevated nutrient loading (e.g. nitrate-N). Unfortunately, carbon sequestration and denitrification in wetlands come with the tradeoff of increased production of methane, another more potent green house gas. Existing models correlate methane emission rates to increased temperature; however, surface- and plot-scale measurements show little or weak relationships between these factors at the field scale. This study examines the relationship of several environmental factors - temperature, zone location, and microbial community - to methane emissions under controlled laboratory conditions. Water and sediments collected from two depths (0-6" and 6-12") and four distinct biomes (open water and three distinct emergent macrophyte covers) were used to prepare anaerobic microcosms at two different temperatures (20°C and 30°C). Headspace gas (methane, carbon dioxide), water chemistry, and microbial community composition were analyzed over the course of several months. We observed: 1) an increase in methane emission potential with higher temperature; 2) higher levels of methane produced from shallower sediments; 3) differential production of methane versus carbon dioxide depending upon biome; and 4) variations in bacterial and archaeal diversity relating to methane production rates. This data helps provide upper limit estimates for methane emissions from wetlands by methanogenic Archaea and informs our ability to better parameterize biogeochemical and atmospheric models of these systems.

  14. Spatiotemporal variations of potential evapotranspiration and aridity index in relation to influencing factors over Southwest China during 1960-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Cao, Liguo; Yao, Yulong; Fu, Guanghe

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the spatial-temporal patterns and trends of potential evapotranspiration (ET0) and aridity index (AI) over Southwest China during 1960-2013 based on daily temperature, precipitation, wind speed, sunshine duration, total solar radiation, and relative humidity data from 108 meteorological stations. The Penman-Monteith model, Mann-Kendall (M-K) test, moving t test, and Morlet wavelet method were used. The results indicated that ET0 and AI across the region displayed decreasing trends, but the former was significant. After 2000, regionally average trends in ET0 and AI increased rapidly, indicating that droughts increased over Southwest China in recent years. Spatially, the changes of ET0 and AI were dissimilar and not clustered, either. Temporally, both ET0 and AI displayed obvious abrupt change points over different timescales and that of AI was during the winter monsoon period. Significant periodic variations with periods of 27, 13, and 5 years were found in ET0, but only of 13 and 5 years existed in AI. Correlation analysis revealed that the sunshine duration and wind speed were the dominant factors affecting ET0 and that AI showed strong negative correlation with precipitation. The findings of this study enhance the understanding of the relationship between climate change and drought in Southwest China, while the mechanism controlling the variation in drought requires further study.

  15. Deep sequencing of Lotus corniculatus L. reveals key enzymes and potential transcription factors related to the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Hua, Wenping; Wang, Jian; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Xu, Ziqin; Wang, Zhezhi

    2013-04-01

    Lotus corniculatus L. is used worldwide as a forage crop due to its abundance of secondary metabolites and its ability to grow in severe environments. Although the entire genome of L. corniculatus var. japonicus R. is being sequenced, the differences in morphology and production of secondary metabolites between these two related species have led us to investigate this variability at the genetic level, in particular the differences in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our goal is to use the resulting information to develop more valuable forage crops and medicinal materials. Here, we conducted Illumina/Solexa sequencing to profile the transcriptome of L. corniculatus. We produced 26,492,952 short reads that corresponded to 2.38 gigabytes of total nucleotides. These reads were then assembled into 45,698 unigenes, of which a large number associated with secondary metabolism were annotated. In addition, we identified 2,998 unigenes based on homology with L. japonicus transcription factors (TFs) and grouped them into 55 families. Meanwhile, a comparison of four tag-based digital gene expression libraries, built from the flowers, pods, leaves, and roots, revealed distinct patterns of spatial expression of candidate unigenes in flavonoid biosynthesis. Based on these results, we identified many key enzymes from L. corniculatus which were different from reference genes of L. japonicus, and five TFs that are potential enhancers in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results provide initial genetics resources that will be valuable in efforts to manipulate the flavonoid metabolic pathway in plants.

  16. Health-Related Factors Associated with Discrepancies between Children's Potential and Attained Secondary School Level : A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Iris; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This longitudinal study examines children's health-related characteristics in relation to discrepancies between their educational potential assessed by a cognitive test in primary school at age 11 and their attained secondary school level at age 14. Methods Data were used from 1510 partic

  17. Expression of tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand death receptors in sporadic and hereditary colorectal tumours : Potential targets for apoptosis induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, JJ; Jalving, M; Rijcken, FEM; Westra, Jantine; Zwart, N; Hollema, H; de Vries, EGE; Hofstra, RWM; Plukker, JTM; de Jong, S; Kleibeuker, JH

    2005-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and antibodies against TRAIL receptors death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5) are under investigation for cancer therapy. To study the potential application of these agents, the expression of DR4 and DR5 were studied immunoh

  18. Social Responsibility of Partners of Labour Relations as a Factor of Rational Use of Labour Potential: Theoretical and Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serikova Olga M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers social responsibility of the employer and employee as a component of the socially responsible business. It identifies that social responsibility should be directed at such components as introduction of social programmes and improvement of labour conditions; establishment of the social dialogue; business self-perfection that is realised in responsibility for results of labour; increase of responsibility when performing work; use of ethic principles of relations with colleagues in the company policy; facilitation to realisation of ecological programmes, open presentation of information about activity of the organisation, influencing the society, economy and environment. Increase of social responsibility would facilitate increase of the level of use of the labour potential. Special attention is paid to ecological responsibility of business as a component of social responsibility, which becomes topical today under conditions of growth of the number of ecological problems.

  19. Etiologic factors related to unsatisfactory ThinPrep® cervical cytology: Evaluation and potential solutions to improve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Kalinicheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In cervical cytology, the unsatisfactory rates for ThinPrep (TP are slightly higher compared to SurePath. We examined various causes and explored potential for resolution of this discrepancy. Materials and Methods: Totally, 19,422 cases were reviewed and 1000 unsatisfactory specimens were selected and analyzed. 531 specimens were available for wash protocol. Out of 114 unsatisfactory specimens associated with atrophic cellular changes (ACC, 48 were resubmitted by provider and reevaluated. Results: Lubricant and lubricant-like debris/contamination (LUBE was the most common cause of unsatisfactory specimens (68%; 681/1000 followed by blood (7.5%; ACC only (without other interfering factors (2.4%; inflammation (3.0%; and combinations thereof (1.9%. 11.5% showed scant cellularity without an identifiable cause. 3.3% were virtually acellular. Wash protocol improved cellularity in 48% (256/531 of cases. However, only 29% (73/256 of those were satisfactory (with more than 5000 cells. Quantitative reduction in LUBE after wash protocol varied with different morphological subtypes. Interpretation patterns on satisfactory specimens after wash protocol were comparable to the results on selected cohort of specimens during the same study period. Out of 114 ACC, wash protocol was performed on 68 ACC specimens leading to satisfactory TP in 24% (16/68. Totally, 48 cases reported as unsatisfactory with ACC, were resubmitted by the providers between 2 weeks and 2 years. 44 (92% showed increased cellularity, out of which 52% (23/44 did not show ACC. Conclusion: LUBE was the most common cause of unsatisfactory TP in addition to interference by blood and association with atrophic changes. Knowing the morphological spectrum of LUBE would help to identify it as the cause of "unsatisfactory" TP. Communicating the cause of unsatisfactory TP such as LUBE, ACC, and blood would hint the provider to take appropriate precaution during submission of the repeat

  20. Potential interaction between the GARS-AIRS-GART Gene and CP2/LBP-1c/LSF transcription factor in Down syndrome-related Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Disha; Nandagopal, Krishnadas

    2007-12-01

    (1) GARS-AIRS-GART is an important candidate gene in studies of Down syndrome (DS)-related Alzheimer's disease (AD), due to its chromosomal localization (21q22.1) in the Down syndrome critical region, involvement in de novo purine biosynthesis, and over-expression in DS brain. The aim of this study was to identify factor(s) likely to enhance transcription of GARS-AIRS-GART in DS-related AD. (2) Based on a bio-informatics approach, the PromoterInspector, Promoter Scan II, and EBI toolbox CpG plot software programs were used to identify GARS-AIRS-GART sequences important for gene transcription. Transcription factor binding motifs within these regions were mapped with the help of the MatInspector and TFSEARCH programs. Factors implicated in neurodevelopment or neurodegeneration were the focus of attention, and mining of human (T1Dbase) and murine (GNF) expression databases revealed information on the regional distribution of these factors and their relative abundance vis-a-vis GARS-AIRS-GART. (3) The Leader-binding protein 1-c (LBP-1c/CP2/LSF) emerged as a promising candidate from these studies, as MatInspector and TFSEARCH analyses revealed a total of four CP2 binding sites with potential for functional interaction(s) within the promoter and CpG islands of GARS-AIRS-GART. Furthermore, two of these sites harbor sequences for methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes, which suggest that methylation status may, in part, regulate CP2-mediated transcription of GARS-AIRS-GART. A search of T1Dbase and GNF expression databases reveals co-expression of CP2 and GARS-AIRS-GART in brain regions relevant to DS-related AD. (4) The virtual screen identified CP2/LBP-1c/LSF as a factor that likely mediates enhanced transcription of GARS-AIRS-GART in DS-related AD.

  1. Growth of self-perceived clinical competence in postgraduate training for general practice and its relation to potentially influencing factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, A.W.M.; Zuithoff, P.; Jansen, J.J.M.; Tan, L.H.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the increase in self-perceived clinical competence during a three-year postgraduate training in general practice and to explore the relation between the growth of self-perceived competence and several background variables. DESIGN: Cohort, 1995-1998. SETTING: Three-year Postgrad

  2. Growth of Self-Perceived Clinical Competence in Postgraduate Training for General Practice and Its Relation to Potentially Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A. W. M.; Zuithoff, P.; Jansen, J. J. M.; Tan, L. H. C.; Grol, R. P. T. M.; van der Vleuten, C. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the increase in self-perceived clinical competence during a three-year postgraduate training in general practice and to explore the relation between the growth of self-perceived competence and several background variables. Design: Cohort, 1995-1998. Setting: Three-year Postgraduate Training for General practice in the…

  3. Refined Factorizations of Solvable Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Negro, J; Rosas-Ortiz, O

    2000-01-01

    A generalization of the factorization technique is shown to be a powerful algebraic tool to discover further properties of a class of integrable systems in Quantum Mechanics. The method is applied in the study of radial oscillator, Morse and Coulomb potentials to obtain a wide set of raising and lowering operators, and to show clearly the connection that link these systems.

  4. Effect of methotrexate/vitamin B12 on DNA methylation as a potential factor in leukemia treatment-related neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Victoria J; McDonnell, Alex; Theobald, Rachel; McKay, Jill A

    2017-09-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is administered to treat childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It acts by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase which reduces methyltetrahydrofolate, a key component in one carbon metabolism, thus reducing cell proliferation. Further perturbations to one carbon metabolism, such as reduced vitamin B12 levels via the use of nitrous oxide for sedation during childhood ALL treatment, may increase neurotoxicity risk. With B12 as an enzymatic cofactor, methyltetrahydrofolate is essential to produce methionine, which is critical for DNA methylation. We investigated global and gene specific DNA methylation in neuronal cell lines in response to MTX treatment and vitamin B12 concentration individually, and in combination. MTX treatment alone significantly increased LINE-1 methylation in SH-SY5Y (p = 0.040) and DAOY (p < 0.001), and increased FKBP5 methylation in MO3.13 cells (p = 0.009). We conclude that altered DNA methylation of brain/central nervous system cells could be one mechanism involved in MTX treatment-related neurotoxicities and neurocognitive late effects in ALL survivors.

  5. Kleptomania and Potential Exacerbating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Kleptomania is an impulse control disorder that can cause significant impairment and serious consequences. Often, the condition is kept secret by the patient, and usually help is sought only when confronted by the legal consequences of the impulsive behaviors. Historically, kleptomania has been viewed from a psychodynamic perspective, and the mainstay of treatment has been psychotherapy. Recently, attempts to explain kleptomania within a neuropsychiatric paradigm have highlighted the possible links between mood disorders, addictive behaviors, and brain injury with kleptomania. These associations with kleptomania can be extrapolated to pharmacological strategies that can potentially help in treating kleptomania. A case of kleptomania, which was potentially exacerbated by multiple factors, will be reviewed. Treatment modalities used in this case, including the use of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale as a surrogate marker to gauge response to treatment, will be discussed. PMID:22132369

  6. Identification of immunity-related genes in prostate cancer and potential role of the ETS family of transcription factors in their regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhibrahim, Zaki; Lindstrot, Andreas; Ellinger, Jörg; Rogenhofer, Sebastian; Buettner, Reinhard; Wernert, Nicolas

    2011-11-01

    The role of the immune response in tumor progression, and disease outcome is still debated, and a lack of knowledge of the immune defenses in prostate cancer still exists. In addition, the ETS family of transcription factors which is involved in translocations frequently found in prostate cancer is reported to be essential for the regulation of immunity-related genes. In order to identify immunity-related genes in prostate cancer, we performed two microarrays using RNA extracted from laser microdissected glands of the normal prostate proper (or the peripheral zone) and moderately and poorly differentiated prostate carcinomas from patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Many differentially expressed genes were found, however, only immunity-related genes (B cell, innate, and T cell immunity) with an expression of more than 10-fold increase or decrease and a Pimmunity-related genes in prostate cancer, and provided insights into their potential regulation, which may lead to a better early detection, immunotherapy, and therapeutic drug treatment of this disease. Unraveling the dynamics of the ETS-immunity-related genes will provide an invaluable insight into understanding prostate cancer immunology.

  7. Assessing the exposure of street sweeping and potential risk factors for developing musculoskeletal disorders and related disabilities: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, Pradeep S; Chokhandre, Praveen

    2016-12-16

    This study aims to assess the exposure of those involved in street sweeping to the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and related disabilities and tries to identify the individual risk factors thereof. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among street sweepers together with a comparison group. A modified Standardized Nordic Questionnaire was adopted to measure the prevalence of MSDs and related disabilities. The impact of the occupation of sweeping on the development of MSDs and related disabilities was assessed using the propensity score matching (PSM) method. A multivariate logistic regression model was employed to identify the individual risk factors. Street sweepers (n=180) and a comparison group (n=180), working for at least a year as formal employees of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM), were randomly selected from 6 municipal wards. The prevalence of the MSDs was significantly higher among the sweepers for shoulders (32%), wrists/hands (29%), elbows (27%) and neck (17%) compared with the comparison group, in which the prevalence was 11%, 19%, 9% and 11%, respectively. The disabilities too were significantly higher among the street sweepers for the lower back (27%), upper back (27%), wrists/hands (26%), shoulders (24%) and elbows (23%) compared with the comparison group, for which the figures were 18%, 19%, 13%, 9% and 6% respectively. The PSM method highlighted that the occupation of sweeping raised the risk of developing MSDs and disabilities particularly for the shoulders (17-16%), wrists/hands (14% each), elbows (13% each) and the upper back (12-13%). After adjusting the age, body mass index and the caste of the street sweepers, the number of years of engagement in street sweeping and the location of work emerged as potential risk factors in the development of MSDs and, thereby, related disabilities. The study concluded that the occupation of street sweeping raises the risk of MSDs and related disabilities. This study

  8. Relativity, potential energy, and mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2016-11-01

    This paper is an exploration of the concept of energy, illuminated by the transformative insights of the special theory of relativity. Focusing on potential energy (PE), it will be shown that PE as presently defined is in conflict with the tenets of special relativity. Even though PE remains an indispensable theoretical device its actual physicality is questionable. Moreover its ontological status is quite different from that of both kinetic energy and mass, a significant point that is not widely appreciated. We will establish that PE is a theoretical concept as opposed to an empirical one; it is a descriptor of mass-energy without a detectable physical presence of its own. PE is a measure of energy stored, it is not the energy stored.

  9. Roles of HTLV-1 basic Zip Factor (HBZ in Viral Chronicity and Leukemic Transformation. Potential New Therapeutic Approaches to Prevent and Treat HTLV-1-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Mesnard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available More than thirty years have passed since human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 was described as the first retrovirus to be the causative agent of a human cancer, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL, but the precise mechanism behind HTLV-1 pathogenesis still remains elusive. For more than two decades, the transforming ability of HTLV-1 has been exclusively associated to the viral transactivator Tax. Thirteen year ago, we first reported that the minus strand of HTLV-1 encoded for a basic Zip factor factor (HBZ, and since then several teams have underscored the importance of this antisense viral protein for the maintenance of a chronic infection and the proliferation of infected cells. More recently, we as well as others have demonstrated that HBZ has the potential to transform cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we focus on the latest progress in our understanding of HBZ functions in chronicity and cellular transformation. We will discuss the involvement of this paradigm shift of HTLV-1 research on new therapeutic approaches to treat HTLV-1-related human diseases.

  10. Traffic-related heavy metals uptake by wild plants grow along two main highways in Hunan Province, China: effects of soil factors, accumulation ability, and biological indication potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yunbo; Dai, Qingyun; Jiang, Kang; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Bibo; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate pollution of traffic-related heavy metals (HMs-Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in roadside soils and their uptake by wild plants growing along highways in Hunan Province, China. For this, we analyzed the concentration and chemical fractionation of HMs in soils and plants. Soil samples were collected with different depths in the profile and different distances from highway edge. And leaves and barks of six high-frequency plants were collected. Results of the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) showed that the mobile fraction of these HMs was in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr. A high percentage of the mobile fraction indicates Cd, Pb, and Zn were labile and available for uptake by wild plants. The total concentration and values of risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd was the main risk factor, which were in the range high to very high risk. The accumulation ability of HMs in plants was evaluated by the biological accumulation factor (BAF) and the metal accumulation index (MAI), and the results showed that all those plant species have good phyto-extraction ability, while accumulation capacity for most HMs plants tissues was bark > leaf. The highest MAI value (5.99) in Cinnamomum camphora (L) Presl indicates the potential for bio-monitoring and a good choice for planting along highways where there is contamination with HMs.

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-induced tropomyosin-related kinase B (Trk B) signaling is a potential therapeutic target for peritoneal carcinomatosis arising from colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Koji; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Toiyama, Yuji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Saigusa, Susumu; Kawamura, Mikio; Araki, Toshimitsu; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Tropomyosin-related receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling, stimulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ligand, promotes tumor progression, and is related to the poor prognosis of various malignancies. We sought to examine the clinical relevance of BDNF/TrkB expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues, its prognostic value for CRC patients, and its therapeutic potential in vitro and in vivo. Two hundred and twenty-three CRC patient specimens were used to determine both BDNF and TrkB mRNA levels. The expression of these proteins in their primary and metastatic tumors was investigated by immunohistochemistry. CRC cell lines and recombinant BDNF and K252a (a selective pharmacological pan-Trk inhibitor) were used for in vitro cell viability, migration, invasion, anoikis resistance and in vivo peritoneal metastasis assays. Tissue BDNF mRNA was associated with liver and peritoneal metastasis. Tissue TrkB mRNA was also associated with lymph node metastasis. The co-expression of BDNF and TrkB was associated with liver and peritoneal metastasis. Patients with higher BDNF, TrkB, and co-expression of BDNF and TrkB had a significantly poor prognosis. BDNF increased tumor cell viability, migration, invasion and inhibited anoikis in the TrkB-expressing CRC cell lines. These effects were suppressed by K252a. In mice injected with DLD1 co-expressing BDNF and TrkB, and subsequently treated with K252a, peritoneal metastatic nodules was found to be reduced, as compared with control mice. BDNF/TrkB signaling may thus be a potential target for treating peritoneal carcinomatosis arising from colorectal cancer.

  12. Tissue factor over-expression by human pancreatic cancer cells BXPC3 is related to higher prothrombotic potential as compared to breast cancer cells MCF7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerotziafas, Grigoris T; Galea, Vassiliki; Mbemba, Elisabeth; Khaterchi, Amir; Sassi, Mouna; Baccouche, Hela; Prengel, Claudie; van Dreden, Patrick; Hatmi, Mohamed; Bernaudin, Jean François; Elalamy, Ismail

    2012-06-01

    Cancer histology influences the risk of venous thromboembolism and tissue factor (TF) is the key molecule in cancer-induced hypercoagulability. We investigated the relation between TF expression by pancreatic and breast cancer cells (BXPC3 and MCF7 respectively) and their capacity to trigger in vitro thrombin generation in normal human plasma. Flow cytometry and Western blot analysis for TF expression were performed using murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody against human TF. Real-time PCR for TFmRNA was also performed. Activity of TF expressed by cancer cells was measured with a specific chromogenic assay. Thrombin generation in PPP was assessed using calibrated automated thrombogram. Cancer cells were added to platelet poor plasma from healthy volunteers. In separate experiments cells were incubated with the anti-TF antibody at concentration that completely neutralized the activity of recombinant human TF on thrombin generation. BXPC3 cells expressed significantly higher amounts of functional TF as compared to MCF7 cells. Incubation of BXPC3 and MCF7 cells with PPP resulted in acceleration of the initiation phase of thrombin generation. BXPC3 cells manifested higher procoagulant potential than MCF7 cells. The incubation of BXPC3 or MCF7 cells with the anti-TF monoclonal antibody which resulted in reversal of their effect on thrombin generation. The present study establishes a link between the amount of TF expressed by cancer cells with their procoagulant activity. Both studied types of cancer cells trigger thrombin generation but they have different procoagulant potential. The procoagulant activity of BXPC3 and MCF7 cells is related to the amount of TF expressed. Kinetic parameters of thrombogram are the most relevant for the detection of the TF-dependent procoagulant activity of cancer cells. TF expression is one of the mechanisms by which cancer cells manifest their procoagulant potential but it is not the unique one. The present experimental model will allow the

  13. Age-related changes in rat myocardium involve altered capacities of glycosaminoglycans to potentiate growth factor functions and heparan sulfate-altered sulfation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh Bao; Morin, Christophe; Carpentier, Gilles; Garcia-Filipe, Stephanie; Talhas-Perret, Sofia; Barbier-Chassefière, Véronique; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Martelly, Isabelle; Albanese, Patricia; Papy-Garcia, Dulce

    2012-03-30

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are essential components of the extracellular matrix, the natural environment from which cell behavior is regulated by a number or tissue homeostasis guarantors including growth factors. Because most heparin-binding growth factor activities are regulated by GAGs, structural and functional alterations of these polysaccharides may consequently affect the integrity of tissues during critical physiological and pathological processes. Here, we investigated whether the aging process can induce changes in the myocardial GAG composition in rats and whether these changes can affect the activities of particular heparin-binding growth factors known to sustain cardiac tissue integrity. Our results showed an age-dependent increase of GAG levels in the left ventricle. Biochemical and immunohistological studies pointed out heparan sulfates (HS) as the GAG species that increased with age. ELISA-based competition assays showed altered capacities of the aged myocardial GAGs to bind FGF-1, FGF-2, and VEGF but not HB EGF. Mitogenic assays in cultured cells showed an age-dependent decrease of the elderly GAG capacities to potentiate FGF-2 whereas the potentiating effect on VEGF(165) was increased, as confirmed by augmented angiogenic cell proliferation in Matrigel plugs. Moreover, HS disaccharide analysis showed considerably altered 6-O-sulfation with modest changes in N- and 2-O-sulfations. Together, these findings suggest a physiological significance of HS structural and functional alterations during aging. This can be associated with an age-dependent decline of the extracellular matrix capacity to efficiently modulate not only the activity of resident or therapeutic growth factors but also the homing of resident or therapeutic cells.

  14. Population dynamics of pest mosquitoes and potential malaria and West Nile virus vectors in relation to climatic factors and human activities in the Camargue, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponçon, N; Toty, C; L'ambert, G; le Goff, G; Brengues, C; Schaffner, F; Fontenille, D

    2007-12-01

    The Camargue is an extensive wetland in the southeast of France, which is highly influenced by human activities. Large ponds, marshes and irrigated fields provide abundant potential breeding sites for mosquitoes. mosquitoes, which are important in terms of the nuisance they cause to people and animals, the limitations they impose on tourism and their potential threat to human health. Several of the mosquito species present are potential vectors of malaria and West Nile virus. Therefore, the population dynamics of these species were monitored over an entire breeding season during March-October 2005. Mosquito populations were sampled in two study areas once every 2 weeks, using CDC light traps baited with CO(2). Sixteen species were collected. The majority (98.7%) of the catch were Aedes caspius (Pallas) (Diptera: Culicidae), Culex modestus (Ficalbi), Culex pipiens L. and Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas). The population dynamics of these species varied considerably in relation to the species' biology, climatic conditions (rainfall, temperature and season), water management, implementation of mosquito control campaigns and landscape use.

  15. Integration analysis of quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics data identifies potential targets of frizzled-8 protein-related antiproliferative factor in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Kim, Yongsoo; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Keay, Susan K; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Steen, Hanno; Freeman, Michael R; Hwang, Daehee; Kim, Jayoung

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a prevalent and debilitating pelvic disorder generally accompanied by chronic pain combined with chronic urinating problems. Over one million Americans are affected, especially middle-aged women. However, its aetiology or mechanism remains unclear. No efficient drug has been provided to patients. Several urinary biomarker candidates have been identified for IC; among the most promising is antiproliferative factor (APF), whose biological activity is detectable in urine specimens from >94% of patients with both ulcerative and non-ulcerative IC. The present study identified several important mediators of the effect of APF on bladder cell physiology, suggesting several candidate drug targets against IC. In an attempt to identify potential proteins and genes regulated by APF in vivo, and to possibly expand the APF-regulated network identified by stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), we performed an integration analysis of our own SILAC data and the microarray data of Gamper et al. (2009) BMC Genomics 10: 199. Notably, two of the proteins (i.e. MAPKSP1 and GSPT1) that are down-regulated by APF are involved in the activation of mTORC1, suggesting that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is potentially a critical pathway regulated by APF in vivo. Several components of the mTOR pathway are currently being studied as potential therapeutic targets in other diseases. Our analysis suggests that this pathway might also be relevant in the design of diagnostic tools and medications targeting IC. • To enhance our understanding of the interstitial cystitis urine biomarker antiproliferative factor (APF), as well as interstitial cystitis biology more generally at the systems level, we reanalyzed recently published large-scale quantitative proteomics and in vivo transcriptomics data sets using an integration analysis tool that we have developed. • To

  16. Potential success factors in brand development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2005-01-01

    not been overlooked by the literature a brainstorming session with practitioners and researchers was carried out. Based on the literature and the brainstorming session, we present a list of potential success factors in brand development in the FMCG sector. To test the validity of these factors, they were...

  17. Potential success factors in brand development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2005-01-01

    Branding is important to both retailers and manufacturers in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) industry, as both parties attempt to develop strong brands in order to improve their position vis-à-vis each other and direct competitors. But what is required to develop a strong brand...... to the marketing of the brand." The branding literature mentions many important aspects, factors, issues, brand requirements, steps, building blocks or guidelines for building strong brands. However, these are all quite general and abstract. Given the substantial body of literature on branding, surprisingly few...... of this paper is to identify potential success factors in developing strong brands and to test whether these factors can be used to discriminate between strong and weak brands. It does so through a review of the literature for potential success factors. Furthermore, to ensure that important factors have...

  18. Multifactor effects and evidence of potential interaction between complement factor H Y402H and LOC387715 A69S in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna P Seitsonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variants in the complement cascade genes and the LOC387715/HTRA1, have been widely reported to associate with age-related macular degeneration (AMD, the most common cause of visual impairment in industrialized countries. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between the LOC387715 A69S and complement component C3 R102G risk alleles in the Finnish case-control material and found a significant association with both variants (OR 2.98, p = 3.75 x 10(-9; non-AMD controls and OR 2.79, p = 2.78 x 10(-19, blood donor controls and OR 1.83, p = 0.008; non-AMD controls and OR 1.39, p = 0.039; blood donor controls, respectively. Previously, we have shown a strong association between complement factor H (CFH Y402H and AMD in the Finnish population. A carrier of at least one risk allele in each of the three susceptibility loci (LOC387715, C3, CFH had an 18-fold risk of AMD when compared to a non-carrier homozygote in all three loci. A tentative gene-gene interaction between the two major AMD-associated loci, LOC387715 and CFH, was found in this study using a multiplicative (logistic regression model, a synergy index (departure-from-additivity model and the mutual information method (MI, suggesting that a common causative pathway may exist for these genes. Smoking (ever vs. never exerted an extra risk for AMD, but somewhat surprisingly, only in connection with other factors such as sex and the C3 genotype. Population attributable risks (PAR for the CFH, LOC387715 and C3 variants were 58.2%, 51.4% and 5.8%, respectively, the summary PAR for the three variants being 65.4%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Evidence for gene-gene interaction between two major AMD associated loci CFH and LOC387715 was obtained using three methods, logistic regression, a synergy index and the mutual information (MI index.

  19. Potential health gains and health losses in eleven EU countries attainable through feasible prevalences of the life-style related risk factors alcohol, BMI, and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhachimi, Stefan K.; Nusselder, Wilma J.; Smit, Henriette A.; Baili, Paolo; Bennett, Kathleen; Fernández, Esteve; Kulik, Margarete C.; Lobstein, Tim; Pomerleau, Joceline; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; MacKenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influencing the life-style risk-factors alcohol, body mass index (BMI), and smoking is an European Union (EU) wide objective of public health policy. The population-level health effects of these risk-factors depend on population specific characteristics and are difficult to quantify

  20. Potential health gains and health losses in eleven EU countries attainable through feasible prevalences of the life-style related risk factors alcohol, BMI, and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhachimi, Stefan K.; Nusselder, Wilma J.; Smit, Henriette A.; Baili, Paolo; Bennett, Kathleen; Fernández, Esteve; Kulik, Margarete C.; Lobstein, Tim; Pomerleau, Joceline; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; MacKenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influencing the life-style risk-factors alcohol, body mass index (BMI), and smoking is an European Union (EU) wide objective of public health policy. The population-level health effects of these risk-factors depend on population specific characteristics and are difficult to quantify w

  1. Age-related changes in rat myocardium involve altered capacities of glycosaminoglycans to potentiate growth factor functions and heparan sulfate-altered sulfation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh, M.B.; Morin, C.; Carpentier, G.; Garcia-Filipe, S.; Talhas-Perret, S.; Barbier-Chassefiere, V.; Kuppevelt, T. van; Martelly, I.; Albanese, P.; Papy-Garcia, D.

    2012-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are essential components of the extracellular matrix, the natural environment from which cell behavior is regulated by a number or tissue homeostasis guarantors including growth factors. Because most heparin-binding growth factor activities are regulated by GAGs, structural

  2. Puerto Rico Relative Erosion Potential (REP) - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The relative erosion potential is an indicator of sediment and pollution runoff from land based on slope, soil type, land cover (circa 1990) and (maximum monthly)...

  3. Puerto Rico Relative Erosion Potential (REP) - 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The relative erosion potential is an indicator of sediment and pollution runoff from land based on slope, soil type, land cover (circa 2000) and (maximum monthly)...

  4. Related factors of dilated cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyong Huang; Hang Gao; Xiangang Meng; Zhonghua Yan; Xiangquan Kong; Lexin Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology and relative factors of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in Chinese patients. Methods A case-control study was conducted to compare 233 patients with DCM in high-incidence areas (case group) and 150 patients with stable angina pectoris (control group). Life styles and history of diseases information was collected by questionaire; human anti-myocardial antibody IgG (AMA- IgG), human Coxsackie B virus IgG (CBV- IgG) and human adenovirus antibody IgG (ADV- lgG) were measured with ELISA. General chemical and toxicological indicators in drink water from high and low prevalence areas and serum trace elements also were compared. Results 1 ) Compared with the control group, the case group had more farmers (P < 0.01), with low average incomes (P < 0.01), higher alcohol consumption (P < 0.01) and higher incidence of the history of myocarditis (P < 0.01 ). 2) AMA-IgG, CBV-IgG and ADV-IgG levels were low and the positive rates ofAMA-IgG, CBV-IgG and ADV-IgG of patients with DCM were respectively 7.78%, 6.67% and 6.67%, no statistical significance comparing with those in the control group. 3) The content of iron (1.36±2.18 vs 0.39±0.67 mg/L, P<0.05) and manganese (0.384±0.35 vs 0.15±0.14, P<0.01 ) in drinking water of high-incidence areas was significantly higher than that in low-incidence areas. 4) The content of serum iron (69.14±57.8 vs 20.04±17.5 μ mol/L, P<0.01 ) and copper (25.74±4.2 vs 19.7±4.5 μmol/L, P<0.01) in the case group evidently exceeded the normal range and obviously higher than that in the control group. Conclusions 1) The incidence of some DCM is related with low incomes, high alcohol consumption and myocarditis. 2) These data do not support that DCM is related with persistent virus infection and autoimmunization; 3) Iron and manganese contents exceeding standards in drinking water and the high content of serum iron and copper is comparatively related with the incidence of DCM.

  5. Event-related potentials to tones show differences between children with multiple risk factors for dyslexia and control children before the onset of formal reading instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Lohvansuu, Kaisa; Ervast, Leena; Leppänen, Paavo H T

    2015-02-01

    Multiple risk factors can affect the development of specific reading problems or dyslexia. In addition to the most prevalent and studied risk factor, phonological processing, auditory discrimination problems have also been found in children and adults with reading difficulties. The present study examined 37 children between the ages of 5 and 6, 11 of which had multiple risk factors for developing reading problems. The children participated in a passive oddball EEG experiment with sinusoidal sounds with changes in sound frequency, duration, or intensity. The responses to the standard stimuli showed a negative voltage shift in children at risk for reading problems compared to control children at 107-215 ms in frontocentral areas corresponding to P1 offset and N250 onset. Source analyses showed that the difference originated from the left and right auditory cortices. Additionally, the children at risk for reading problems had a larger late discriminative negativity (LDN) response in amplitude for sound frequency change than the control children. The amplitudes at the P1-N250 time window showed correlations to letter knowledge and phonological identification whereas the amplitudes at the LDN time window correlated with verbal short-term memory and rapid naming. These results support the view that problems in basic auditory processing abilities precede the onset of reading instruction and can act as one of the risk factors for dyslexia.

  6. Event related potentials using visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, J L; Rohrbaugh, J W

    1993-01-01

    Visual patterns are used to elicit event related potentials. Equipment is available for generating visual geometric patterns such as checkerboards. Slides may be used for patterns which are more complex but preparation is costly and time consuming. A variety of programs exist on PC's for making very elaborate color pictures and in most cases the programs are easy to use making them ideal for generating visual patterns for event related potential experiments. A necessary requirement in event related potential experiments is the ability to control and/or determine precisely when the stimulus is presented to the subject. We have observed that timing is a problem with stimuli generated by the PC as a result of the raster scan and use in many cases of high level system calls in the software. This paper describes a technique which allows for precise control of the time of stimulus presentation using the video control signals to the monitor.

  7. Nasal hyperreactivity in allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: a potential risk factor for non-specific building-related illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, D; Murphy, M A

    2007-08-01

    Self-reported non-allergic nasal symptom triggers in non-allergic ('vasomotor') rhinitis overlap with commonly identified environmental exposures in non-specific building-related illness. These include extremes of temperature and humidity, cleaning products, fragrances, and tobacco smoke. Some individuals with allergic rhinitis also report non-allergic triggers. We wished to explore the phenotypic overlap between allergic and non-allergic rhinitis by ascertaining self-reported non-allergic nasal symptom triggers among allergic rhinitics. Sixty subjects without work-related respiratory exposures or symptoms, aged 19-68 years, stratified by age, gender and (skin test-proven) allergic rhinitis status, were queried with regard to self-reported non-allergic nasal symptom triggers (aggregate score 0-8). In this sample, the number of self-reported non-allergic triggers was bimodal, with peaks at 1 and 5. Forty-two percent of seasonal allergic rhinitic subjects reported more than three non-allergic triggers, compared with only 3% of non-allergic non-rhinitics (P < 0.01). Subjects over 35 years were more likely to report one or more non-allergic triggers, particularly tobacco smoke (P < 0.05). Allergic rhinitics reported more non-allergic symptom triggers than did non-allergic, non-rhinitics. As indexed by self-reported reactivity to non-specific physical and chemical triggers, both non-allergic rhinitics and a subset of allergic rhinitics may constitute susceptible populations for non-specific building-related illness. Judging by self-report, a substantial subset of individuals with allergic rhinitis--along with all individuals with nonallergic rhinitis (by definition)--are hyperreactive to non-allergic triggers. There is overlap between these triggers (elicited in the process of obtaining a clinical diagnosis) and environmental characteristics associated with ''problem buildings.'' Since individuals with self-identified rhinitis report an excess of symptoms in most

  8. [Relative depletion in native vitamin D: a potential risk factor in Algerian hemodialysis patients with radiological evidence of hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia independent of calcitriolemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, A; Ghazali, A; Achard, J M; Rida, Z; Oprisiu, R; Brazier, M; Leflon, P; Gueris, J; Morinière, P; Sari, Z; Fournier, A

    1997-01-01

    Looser striae on the ischio-pubian branches and subperiosteal resorption of the phalanges were looked for in 113 chronic hemodialysis patients at the University Hospital of Annaba (Algeria) and were found in respectively 14 and 48 patients. Comparison of patients with and without radiological complications showed no significant difference in their age, sex ratio, nature of initial kidney disease and duration on dialysis. The patients with Looser striae had lower plasma levels of 25OHD3 than those without striae, whereas all other plasma parameters were similar. The plasma concentrations of intact PTH were higher in patients with resorption; these patients had lower plasma concentrations of calcium, bicarbonate, aluminum and 25OHD3 but similar plasma concentrations of phosphate and 1,25(OH)2D3. Multivariate analysis showed that PTH concentrations were independently linked only to plasma 25OHD3 (negatively) and duration on dialysis (positively). The results of this transversal study are in agreement with the well established pathophysiological roles of PTH hypersecretion, hypocalcemia and acidosis in the appearance of radiological hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients. Furthermore they suggest that a relative native vitamin D deficiency may have a calcitriol independent role in favoring the occurrence of both osteitis fibrosa and osteomalacia.

  9. CATTELL AND EYSENCK FACTOR SCORES RELATED TO COMREY PERSONALITY FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comrey, A L; Duffy, K E

    1968-10-01

    The Eysenck Personality Inventory, the Cattell 16 PF Inventory, and the Comrey Personality Inventory were administered to 272 volunteers. Eysenck and Cattell factor scores were correlated with scores over homogeneous item groups (FHIDs) which define the Comrey test factors. This matrix was factor analyzed to relate the Eysenck and Cattell factor scores to the factor structure underlying the Comrey test. The Eysenck Neuroticism, Comrey Neuroticism, and Cattell second-order Anxiety factors appeared to match. The Eysenck Introversion and the Comrey Shyness factors also matched. The 16 Cattell primary factors overlapped but did not match with the Comrey factors.

  10. Potential health gains and health losses in eleven EU countries attainable through feasible prevalences of the life-style related risk factors alcohol, BMI, and smoking: a quantitative health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhachimi, Stefan K; Nusselder, Wilma J; Smit, Henriette A; Baili, Paolo; Bennett, Kathleen; Fernández, Esteve; Kulik, Margarete C; Lobstein, Tim; Pomerleau, Joceline; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-08-05

    Influencing the life-style risk-factors alcohol, body mass index (BMI), and smoking is an European Union (EU) wide objective of public health policy. The population-level health effects of these risk-factors depend on population specific characteristics and are difficult to quantify without dynamic population health models. For eleven countries-approx. 80 % of the EU-27 population-we used evidence from the publicly available DYNAMO-HIA data-set. For each country the age- and sex-specific risk-factor prevalence and the incidence, prevalence, and excess mortality of nine chronic diseases are utilized; including the corresponding relative risks linking risk-factor exposure causally to disease incidence and all-cause mortality. Applying the DYNAMO-HIA tool, we dynamically project the country-wise potential health gains and losses using feasible, i.e. observed elsewhere, risk-factor prevalence rates as benchmarks. The effects of the "worst practice", "best practice", and the currently observed risk-factor prevalence on population health are quantified and expected changes in life expectancy, morbidity-free life years, disease cases, and cumulative mortality are reported. Applying the best practice smoking prevalence yields the largest gains in life expectancy with 0.4 years for males and 0.3 year for females (approx. 332,950 and 274,200 deaths postponed, respectively) while the worst practice smoking prevalence also leads to the largest losses with 0.7 years for males and 0.9 year for females (approx. 609,400 and 710,550 lives lost, respectively). Comparing morbidity-free life years, the best practice smoking prevalence shows the highest gains for males with 0.4 years (342,800 less disease cases), whereas for females the best practice BMI prevalence yields the largest gains with 0.7 years (1,075,200 less disease cases). Smoking is still the risk-factor with the largest potential health gains. BMI, however, has comparatively large effects on morbidity. Future

  11. Therapeutic potential of cannabis-related drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stephen P H

    2016-01-04

    In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit.

  12. Family migration and relative earnings potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette

    2016-01-01

    A unitarian model of family migration in which families may discount wives’ private gains is used to derive testable predictions regarding the type of couples that select into migrating. The empirical tests show that gender neutral family migration cannot be rejected against the alternative...... of husband centered migration. Couples are more likely to migrate if household earnings potential is disproportionally due to one partner, and families react equally strongly to a male and a female relative advantage in educational earnings potential. These results are driven by households with a strong...

  13. Vector Potential Generation for Numerical Relativity Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Zachary; Faber, Joshua; Adams, Thomas; Etienne, Zachariah; Ruchlin, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Many different numerical codes are employed in studies of highly relativistic magnetized accretion flows around black holes. Based on the formalisms each uses, some codes evolve the magnetic field vector B, while others evolve the magnetic vector potential A, the two being related by the curl: B=curl(A). Here, we discuss how to generate vector potentials corresponding to specified magnetic fields on staggered grids, a surprisingly difficult task on finite cubic domains. The code we have developed solves this problem in two ways: a brute-force method, whose scaling is nearly linear in the number of grid cells, and a direct linear algebra approach. We discuss the success both algorithms have in generating smooth vector potential configurations and how both may be extended to more complicated cases involving multiple mesh-refinement levels. NSF ACI-1550436

  14. Prognosis related clinical and molecular factors in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify potential prognosis related clinical and molecular factors in malignant pleural mesothelioma(MPM).Methods Seventy-nine patients with MPM treated in Beijing Cancer Hospital from June 1996

  15. How creative potential is related to metacognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to investigate the possible links between metacognition and narrative (or verbal and graphic creative potential as well as the contribution of the former variable to creativity. The second objective was to study the effect of gender on these variables. This study was conducted with 360 men and women students from the Public University of Navarra enrolled in applied sociology, social work, and specialising in infant and primary education. Participants were given the Adult Creative Imagination Test and the Creative Metacognition Scale during their regular school schedule and during a single session. The results showed that the relationships between the assessed variables were significant and positive. Furthermore, metacognition moderately predicted narrative creativity; thus, cognitive processes do not operate in isolation because they affect and are affected by other factors. The findings also revealed that students obtained different results with regard to verbal and graphic creativity, and men and women differed only in narrative creative potential. The most important conclusion to be drawn from this research is that creative and metacognitive skills should be explicitly involved in higher education to stimulate the creative potential of future professionals

  16. Relating membrane potential to impedance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Gheorghiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive, label-free assessment of membrane potential of living cells is still a challenging task. The theory linking membrane potential to the low frequency α dispersion exhibited by suspensions of spherical shelled particles (presenting a net charge distribution on the inner side of the shell has been pioneered in our previous studies with emphasis on the permittivity spectra. Whereas α dispersion is related to a rather large variation exhibited by the permittivity spectrum, we report that the related decrement presented by the impedance magnitude spectrum is either extremely small, or occurs (for large cells at very small frequencies (~mHz explaining the lack of experimental bioimpedance data on the matter. We stress that appropriate choice of the parameters (as revealed by the microscopic model may enable access to membrane potential as well as to other relevant parameters when investigating living cells and charged lipid vesicles. We analyse the effect on the low frequency of the permittivity and impedance spectra of: I. Parameters pertaining to cell membrane i.e. (i membrane potential (through the amount of the net charge on the inner side of the membrane, (ii size of the cells/vesicles, (iii conductivity of the membrane; II. Parameters of the extra cellular medium (viscosity and conductivity. The applicability of the study has far reaching implications for basic (life sciences (providing non-invasive access to the dynamics of relevant cell parameters as well as for biosensing applications, e.g. assessment of cytotoxicity of a wide range of stimuli. doi:10.5617/jeb.214 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 93-97, 2011

  17. Risk factors for potential drug interactions in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lars; Gonzalez Lopez-Valcarcel, Beatriz; Petersen, Gert

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacoepidemiologic Database, OPED) covering prescriptions to all inhabitants in the county of Funen, Denmark. All individuals exposed to concurrent use of two or more drugs (polypharmacy) were identified. Combinations of drugs with potential interactions were registered and classified as major, moderate, or minor......, depending on the severity of outcome and the quality of documentation. A two-level random coefficient logistic regression model was used to investigate factors related to potential drug interactions. Results: One-third of the population was exposed to polypharmacy, and 6% were exposed to potential drug...

  18. Free Embedding Potentials in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, M D; Brachet, M E; Bustamante, Miguel D.; Debbasch, Fabrice; Brachet, Marc-Etienne

    2005-01-01

    The embedding approach to General Relativity (GR), in which the 4-dimensional space-time is embedded in a N-dimensional ($N\\geq 10$) flat host space with hyperbolic signature, is reconsidered. All objections raised by previous authors against this approach are answered. The equations for the embedding potentials are shown to be completely equivalent to the standard GR Einstein equations for the metric, provided that two conditions are met. The first condition is that the embedding fulfills a property closely related to Nash's freeness and the second that physically consistent boundary conditions are considered in the Einstein-Hilbert action. Explicit examples of embeddings whose deformations DO describe gravitational waves around their respective backgrounds are given for both (4-D) cases of flat space-time and Schwarzschild black hole. Beside the Einstein-Hilbert action, a new action principle is considered that is also equivalent to standard GR at both levels of equations of motion and perturbations (waves)...

  19. Event-related Potential Signatures of Relational Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Federmeier, Kara D.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2009-01-01

    Various lines of evidence suggest that memory for the relations among arbitrarily paired items acquired prior to testing can influence early processing of a probe stimulus. The event-related potential experiment reported here was designed to explore how early in time memory for a previously established face-scene relationship begins to influence processing of faces, under sequential presentation conditions in which a preview of the scene can promote expectancies about the to-be-presented face. Prior to the current work, the earliest component documented to be sensitive to memory for the relations among arbitrarily paired items was the late positive complex (LPC), but here relational memory effects were evident as early as 270-350 msec after face onset. The latency of these relational memory effects suggests that they may be the precursor to similar effects observed in eye movement behavior. As expected, LPC amplitude was also affected by memory for face-scene relationships, and N400 amplitude reflected some combination of memory for items and memory for the relations among items. PMID:17069477

  20. Event-Related Potentials in Year-Old Infants: Relations with Emotionality and Cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnar, Megan R.; Nelson, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from infants shown sets of familiar faces presented frequently and infrequently, and a set of novel faces presented infrequently, and correlated with infant emotional behavior and cortisol levels. Found that infants scoring higher on the normative ERP factor were more distressed during parent…

  1. Business factors related to manufacturing firms' performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergios Vranakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main goal is to understand the way many factors affect the investment decision making process and business performance. Design/methodology/approach: This study proposes a new conceptual framework for examining the reasons that manufacturing firms decide to invest on the acquisition of new machinery and equipment in order to improve their infrastructure. It incorporates various factors related to the internal business environment (quality management, investment decisions etc. Findings and Originality/value: A new conceptual framework, establishing the relations between many factors, has been developed, allowing the determinants of adoption of many implications to be discussed and to relate them to the peculiarities of the Greek manufacturing industry. Originality/value: This study presents an overview of the impact of machinery and equipment investment on firm’s performance, giving grasp for further research of the inter-organizational relationships that exist between them. 

  2. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlan B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye

  3. Factors Related to Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…

  4. Neurophysiological Bases of Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-15

    the RP has been observed in monkeys (Johnson, 1980; Pieper et al., 1980; Gemba et al., 1979), these studies involved only recordings from the cortical...response effort--this report). During uncued, self-paced responding the monkey also exhibits an SP similar to the human readiness potential ( Gemba et al...conditions from the cortex of monkeys (e.g., Johnson, 1980; Pieper et al., 1980; Gemba et al., 1979), to our knowledge it has not been recorded in

  5. Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Jia; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H Eugene

    2007-01-01

    We report quantitative relations between corruption level and economic factors, such as country wealth and foreign investment per capita, which are characterized by a power law spanning multiple scales of wealth and investments per capita. These relations hold for diverse countries, and also remain stable over different time periods. We also observe a negative correlation between level of corruption and long-term economic growth. We find similar results for two independent indices of corruption, suggesting that the relation between corruption and wealth does not depend on the specific measure of corruption. The functional relations we report have implications when assessing the relative level of corruption for two countries with comparable wealth, and for quantifying the impact of corruption on economic growth and foreign investments.

  6. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  7. Factors potentially affecting the function of kidney grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jun; ZHENG Xin; XIE Ze-lin; SUN Wen; ZHANG Lei; TIAN Ye; GUO Yu-wen

    2013-01-01

    Background Donor and recipient risk factors on graft function have been well characterized.The contribution of demographic factors,such as age,gender,and other potential factors of donor and recipient at the time of transplantation on the function of a graft is much less well understood.In this study,we analyzed the effects of factors such as age,gender,etc.,on the short-term and long-term graft function in kidney transplant recipients from living donor.Methods A total of 335 living donors and their recipients,who had kidney transplantation in our center from May 2004 to December 2009,were included.Serum creatinine level was used as the assessment criterion (serum creatinine level lower than 115 mmol/L is normal).Factors related to graft function such as age,gender,blood relation by consanguinity,human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch,ABO type,etc.,were analyzed separately.Results Donor age is the key factor affecting both the short-term and long-term function of a grafted kidney from a living donor.The group with donors younger than 48 years showed the best kidney function post transplantation.Match of gender and age is another important factor that influences the function of grafted kidney from a living donor.The older donor to younger recipient group had the worst outcome after kidney transplantation.After 36 months post transplantation,female donor to male recipient group had worse kidney function compared to other groups.We also found that calcinerin inhibitor used in the maintenance period may influence the function of a grafted kidney.No significant statistical differences were found in consanguinity,blood type,and mismatch of HLA.Conclusions Donor age is an important factor affecting the function of a grafted kidney from a living donor.We also recommend taking nephron,immunology factor,infection,and demographic information all into consideration when assessing the outcome of kidney transplantation.

  8. Neurophysiological Bases of Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    1% l ; CosM -TR. 84i69 0 UIUOTIOLOGICAL MUS OF Annual Report ft. 23 is񓑜AD-A 148 482 sung 1804 -- by: Cberlee S. Robert ad itchael 3. Hennesey OPP...being recorded In the standard 23 mg/kg -50 ga CAL 33.3 gay 0.0 50OAV 0.2 JfKW. 56.7 INy 0.3 1. .5 . Tone Light LA-4373-6 FIGURE 8 DOSE-RELATED EFFECTS

  9. Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Jason R.

    This investigation explored scientific, religious, and otherwise nonscientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution and related concepts, how students perceived these factors to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution and changes therein, and what patterns arose among students' articulations of how their levels of acceptance of evolution may have changed. This exploration also measured the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following a treatment designed to address factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution. Acceptance of evolution was measured using the MATE instrument (Rutledge and Warden, 1999; Rutledge and Sadler, 2007) among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic program during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than pre-treatment levels both immediately following and slightly over one year after treatment. Qualitative data from informal questionnaires, from formal course evaluations, and from semi-structured interviews of students engaged in secondary level education and former students at various stages of post-secondary education confirmed that the suspected factors were perceived by participants to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution. Furthermore, participant reports provided insight regarding the relative effects they perceived these factors to have had on their evolution acceptance levels. Additionally, many participants reported that their science teachers in public schools had avoided, omitted, or denigrated evolution during instruction, and several of these students expressed frustration regarding what they perceived to have been a lack of education of an important scientific principle. Finally, no students expressed feelings of being offended by having been taught about

  10. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  11. DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF NONPROLIFERATION FACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Metcalf

    2009-07-01

    Methodologies to determine the proliferation resistance (PR) of nuclear facilities often rely on either expert elicitation, a resource-intensive approach without easily reproducible results, or numeric evaluations, which can fail to take into account the institutional knowledge and expert experience of the nonproliferation community. In an attempt to bridge the gap and bring the institutional knowledge into numeric evaluations of PR, a survey was conducted of 33 individuals to find the relative importance of a set of 62 nonproliferation factors, subsectioned into groups under the headings of Diversion, Transportation, Transformation, and Weaponization. One third of the respondents were self-described nonproliferation professionals, and the remaining two thirds were from secondary professions related to nonproliferation, such as industrial engineers or policy analysts. The factors were taken from previous work which used multi-attribute utility analysis with uniform weighting of attributes and did not include institutional knowledge. In both expert and non-expert groups, all four headings and the majority of factors had different relative importance at a confidence of 95% (p=0.05). This analysis and survey demonstrates that institutional knowledge can be brought into numeric evaluations of PR, if there is a sufficient investment of resources made prior to the evaluation.

  12. An effective pair potential for liquid semiconductor, Se: Structure and related dynamical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P P Nath; S Sarkar; R N Joarder

    2005-07-01

    The effective pair potential of liquid semiconductor Se is extracted from its experimental structure factor data using an accurate liquid state theory and this shows important basic features. A model potential incorporating the basic features of the structure factor extracted potential is suggested. This model potential is then used to describe through low-order perturbation theory, the structure and related dynamical properties like self-diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity of this complex liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

  13. Holography, chiral Lagrangian and form factor relations

    CERN Document Server

    Zuo, Fen

    2013-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of mesonic properties in a class of holographic models of QCD, which is described by the Yang-Mills plus Chern-Simons action. By decomposing the 5 dimensional gauge field into resonances and integrating out the massive ones, we reproduce the Chiral Perturbative Theory Lagrangian up to ${\\cal O}(p^6)$ and obtain all the relevant low energy constants (LECs). The numerical predictions of the LECs show minor model dependence, and agree reasonably with the determinations from other approaches. Interestingly, various model-independent relations appear among them. Some of these relations are found to be the large-distance limits of universal relations between form factors of the anomalous and even-parity sectors of QCD.

  14. Relation between depression and sociodemographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar-Danesh Noori

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in Western countries and is related to increased morbidity and mortality from medical conditions and decreased quality of life. The sociodemographic factors of age, gender, marital status, education, immigrant status, and income have consistently been identified as important factors in explaining the variability in depression prevalence rates. This study evaluates the relationship between depression and these sociodemographic factors in the province of Ontario in Canada using the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 (CCHS-1.2 dataset. Methods The CCHS-1.2 survey classified depression into lifetime depression and 12-month depression. The data were collected based on unequal sampling probabilities to ensure adequate representation of young persons (15 to 24 and seniors (65 and over. The sampling weights were used to estimate the prevalence of depression in each subgroup of the population. The multiple logistic regression technique was used to estimate the odds ratio of depression for each sociodemographic factor. Results The odds ratio of depression for men compared with women is about 0.60. The lowest and highest rates of depression are seen among people living with their married partners and divorced individuals, respectively. Prevalence of depression among people who live with common-law partners is similar to rates of depression among separated and divorced individuals. The lowest and highest rates of depression based on the level of education is seen among individuals with less than secondary school and those with "other post-secondary" education, respectively. Prevalence of 12-month and lifetime depression among individuals who were born in Canada is higher compared to Canadian residents who immigrated to Canada irrespective of gender. There is an inverse relation between income and the prevalence of depression (p Conclusion The patterns uncovered in this

  15. Factors Related to Suicide in LGBT Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2016-09-01

    There is evidence of heightened vulnerability to nonfatal suicidal behaviors among LGBT populations yet a paucity of studies into fatal behaviors. The specific aim of this article was to identify factors related to suicide in LGBT individuals in Australia. The psychological autopsy (PA) method with a matched case-control study design was used. PA interviews were conducted with 27 next-of-kin of an LGBT person that had died by suicide. Three living LGBT controls per suicide case, matched by age and gender, were also interviewed. The key factors relating to suicide in LGBT people were a lack of acceptance by family and self (reflected in higher internalized homophobia and shame), negative feelings about own sexuality/gender, and dissatisfaction with appearance. LGBT people who died by suicide also tended to go through coming out milestones 2 years earlier than controls. There was a higher prevalence of aggressive behaviors and a more predominant history of physical and sexual abuse. Additionally, there was greater incidence of depression and anxiety and alcohol and substance use disorders. Specific predictive factors for suicide in LGBT populations in Australia were identified, including significantly poorer mental health outcomes and more violence across an array of measures.

  16. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  17. Factoring Algebraic Error for Relative Pose Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, P; Duchaineau, M

    2009-03-09

    We address the problem of estimating the relative pose, i.e. translation and rotation, of two calibrated cameras from image point correspondences. Our approach is to factor the nonlinear algebraic pose error functional into translational and rotational components, and to optimize translation and rotation independently. This factorization admits subproblems that can be solved using direct methods with practical guarantees on global optimality. That is, for a given translation, the corresponding optimal rotation can directly be determined, and vice versa. We show that these subproblems are equivalent to computing the least eigenvector of second- and fourth-order symmetric tensors. When neither translation or rotation is known, alternating translation and rotation optimization leads to a simple, efficient, and robust algorithm for pose estimation that improves on the well-known 5- and 8-point methods.

  18. Graves-Basedow disease and potential risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Dušica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Graves-Basedow disease is a common multifactorial genetic syndrome, which is determined by several genes and environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of risk factors for developing Graves-Basedow disease between the groups of individuals with and without Graves-Basedow disease, and to compare the presence of risk factors between the affected individuals with or without positive family history for Graves- Basedow disease. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ćuprija (central Serbia during a period from December 2001 to April 2002. The case group comprised 132 individuals diagnosed with Graves-Basedow disease. The control group comprised 130 subjects without any of endocrine diseases. All participants were interviewed at the Medical Center Ćuprija using structural questionnaire. Data were collected on basic demographic characteristics, exposure to various chemical and physical agents, stress, smoking and family history of Graves-Basedow disease. In statistical analysis chi-square test was used. Results. The individuals with Graves-Basedow disease were statistically significantly older (above 50 (p = 0.020, exposed to stress (p = 0.024 and to physical agents (p = 0.031, and had significantly (p = 0.000 more relatives with Graves-Basedow disease than those without the disease. Among the affected individuals with positive family history of Graves-Basedow disease the number of women was significantly higher (p = 0.000, than the affected individuals without positive family history of Graves- Basedow disease. Conclusion. In our study, as in many other, gender, age, positive family history of Graves-Basedow disease and exposure to physical agents were identified as potential risk factors for the increased incidence of Graves- Basedow disease. Different risk factors are probably responsible for developing Graves-Basedow disease among the affected individuals with or without

  19. Recurrent acute pancreatitis and its relative factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Hong-Chao Shan; Yan Gu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the causes and the relative factors of recurrent acute pancreatitis.METHODS: From 1997 to 2000, acute pancreatitis relapsed in 77 of 245 acute pancreatitis patients. By reviewing the clinical treatment results and the follow-up data, we analyzed the recurrent factors of acute pancreatitis using univariate analysis and multivariate analysis.RESULTS: Of the 245 acute pancreatitis patients, 77 were patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis. Of them, 56 patients relapsed two times, 19 relapsed three times, each patient relapsed three and four times. Forty-seven patients relapsed in hospital and the other 30 patients relapsed after discharge. Eighteen patients relapsed in 1 year, eight relapsed in 1-3 years, and four relapsed after 3 years. There were 48 cases of biliary pancreatitis, 3 of alcohol pancreatitis, 5 of hyperlipidemia pancreatitis, 21 of idiopathic pancreatitis. Univariate analysis showed that the patients with local complications of pancreas, obstructive jaundice and hepatic function injury were easy to recur during the treatment period of acute pancreatitis (P = 0.022<0.05, P = 0.012<0.05 and P = 0.002<0.05, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that there was no single factor related to recurrence. Of the 47 patients who had recurrence in hospital, 16 had recurrence in a fast period, 31 after refeeding. CONCLUSION: Acute pancreatitis is easy to recur even during treatment. The factors such as changes of pancreas structure and uncontrolled systemic inflammatory reaction are responsible for the recurrence of acute pancreatitis. Early refeeding increases the recurrence of acute pancreatitis. Defining the etiology is essential for reducing the recurrence of acute pancreatitis.

  20. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-01-27

    Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an "ageist" approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons.

  1. Modeling Relational Data via Latent Factor Blockmodel

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Sheng; Gallinari, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of modeling relational data, which appear in many applications such as social network analysis, recommender systems and bioinformatics. Previous studies either consider latent feature based models but disregarding local structure in the network, or focus exclusively on capturing local structure of objects based on latent blockmodels without coupling with latent characteristics of objects. To combine the benefits of the previous work, we propose a novel model that can simultaneously incorporate the effect of latent features and covariates if any, as well as the effect of latent structure that may exist in the data. To achieve this, we model the relation graph as a function of both latent feature factors and latent cluster memberships of objects to collectively discover globally predictive intrinsic properties of objects and capture latent block structure in the network to improve prediction performance. We also develop an optimization transfer algorithm based on the general...

  2. Angiogenic factors in relation to embryo implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Bagheri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances in uterine blood supply are associated with higher perinatal morbidity and mortality caused by preterm delivery, preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction. Adaptation of the uterine vasculature to the rising needs of the fetus occurs through both vasodilation and development of new vessels. Angiogenesis is the process of neovascularization from pre-existing blood vessels in response to hypoxic condition of tissues. The endometrium, decidua and placenta are rich sources of angiogenic growth factors. In general, the angiogenic process is initiated by growth factors such as VEGF, placental growth factor (PlGF or bFGF. Through a complex signal transduction machinery mediated by respective receptor-tyrosine kinases, an increase in the permeability of the maternal vessels is achieved to permit growth and invasion of endothelial cells. Their chemotactic migration, formation of a vessel lumen, and functional maturation of new capillaries complete the angiogenic process that involves the expression of specific adhesion receptors and extracellular matrix-degrading proteases. During vasculogenesis, endothelial progenitor cells--angioblasts--form a primitive vascular network. This process occurs mainly during fetal development, although recruitment of angioblasts from bone marrow and peripheral blood in response to ischemic insult have been described in adults. In this review article we have described a recent complication related to angiogenic involvement in embryo implantation. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 872-879

  3. Factors related to attempted suicide in Davanagere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Gouda M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the factors responsible for suicidal attempts? Objectives: To study the socio-demographic factors, methods and reasons for suicidal attempts. Type of Study: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bapuji and C.G. Hospitals attached to J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere. Participants: A total of 540 suicidal attempters admitted to emergency wards. Methodology: A pretested proforma was administered to the subjects relating the factors responsible for the attempt. The data thus obtained was compiled and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Z -test and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, 61.3% were males and 38.7% were females. Peak occurrence of suicidal attempts was found in the second and third decades (15-29 years. Hindus constituted about 94.6% of the total suicidal attempters. Almost half (52.2% of the subjects had education below or up to matriculation and 83% of them were from the lower (classes IV and V socio-economic groups. Agriculturists, housewives and unskilled workers represented 75% of the total subjects. Fifty-five percent of the subjects were from nuclear families and most (62.4% of them were married; frequent mode of attempting suicides was by organo-phosphorus compounds (66.3% followed by overdosage of tablets (17.8%. Common cause was family problem (27.2% followed by illness (27%.

  4. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-10-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia.

  5. Risk Factors for SARS-Related Deaths in 2003, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN LIU; WAN-NIAN LIANG; QI CHEN; XUE-QIN XIE; JIANG WU; XIONG HE; ZE-JUN LIU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the potential risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndromes (SARS)-related deaths in Beijing. Methods Epidemiological data were collected among the confirmed SARS patients officially reported by Beijing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (BCDC), and information was also supplemented by a follow-up case survey. Chi-square test and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Old age (over 60 years) was found to be significantly associated with SARS-related deaths in the univariate analysis. Also, history of contacting SARS patients within 2 weeks prior to the onset of illness, health occupation, and inferior hospital ranking as well as longer interval of clinic consulting (longer than 1 day) were the risk factors for SARS-related deaths. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis found four risk factors for SARS-related deaths. Conclusion Old age (over 60 years) is the major risk factor for SARS-related deaths.Moreover, hospital health workers, the designated hospitals for SARS clinical services and the interval of consulting doctors (less than 1 day) are protective factors for surviving from SARS.

  6. Complement factor H related proteins (CFHRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerka, Christine; Chen, Qian; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Roumenina, Lubka T

    2013-12-15

    Factor H related proteins comprise a group of five plasma proteins: CFHR1, CFHR2, CFHR3, CFHR4 and CFHR5, and each member of this group binds to the central complement component C3b. Mutations, genetic deletions, duplications or rearrangements in the individual CFHR genes are associated with a number of diseases including atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), C3 glomerulopathies (C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN), dense deposit disease (DDD) and CFHR5 nephropathy), IgA nephropathy, age related macular degeneration (AMD) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although complement regulatory functions were attributed to most of the members of the CFHR protein family, the precise role of each CFHR protein in complement activation and the exact contribution to disease pathology is still unclear. Recent publications show that CFHR proteins form homo- as well as heterodimers. Genetic abnormalities within the CFHR gene locus can result in hybrid proteins with affected dimerization or recognition domains which cause defective functions. Here we summarize the recent data about CFHR genes and proteins in order to better understand the role of CFHR proteins in complement activation and in complement associated diseases.

  7. Exactly Solvable Hydrogen-like Potentials and Factorization Method

    CERN Document Server

    Rosas-Ortiz, J O

    1998-01-01

    It is introduced a set of factorization energies giving place to a generalization of the Schrödinger and Infeld-Hull factorization for the radial Hydrogen-like Hamiltonian. An algebraic intertwinning technique involving such factorization energies leads us to derive $n$-parametric families of potentials in general almost-isospectral to the Hydrogen-like radial Hamiltonians. The construction of a SUSY partner Hamiltonian using a factorization energy $\\epsilon_l^{(k)}$ greater than the ground state energy of the departure Hamiltonian is explicitely performed.

  8. Potential risk factors for developing diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Dušica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common multifactorial genetic syndrome, which is determined by several genes and environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of risk factors for developing diabetes type 2 among diabetic individuals and to compare the presence of risk factors among diabetic individuals with and without positive family history for type 2 diabetes. Material and methods This study was conducted in Cuprija during the period from February to June 2002. The case group included 137 individuals having diagnosis type 2 diabetes. The control group included 129 subjects having the following diagnoses: hypertension, angina pectoris, chronic obstructive lung disease, gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer. All participants were interviewed at the Medical Center Cuprija using structural questionnaire. The data were collected regarding demographic characteristics, exposure to various chemical and physical agents, stress, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and family history of diabetes. In the statistical analysis chi square test was used. Results The diabetic individuals were statistically significantly older (40 and more years old (p=0,000, and they came from rural areas more frequently (p=0,006 than the individuals without diabetes. Significantly more diabetics had lower educational level (p=0,000 and they were agriculture workers and housewives significantly more frequently (p=0,000 than nondiabetic individuals. Furthermore, obesity (p=0,000 and physical inactivity (p=0,003 were significantly more frequent among the diabetic individuals than the nondiabetics. The diabetic individuals had significanly (p=0,000 more numbers of relatives with diabetes mellitus type 2 than the nondiabetics. The diabetic individuals with positive family history of diabetes were significantly older (p=0,021 and more frequently from urban areas (p=0,018 than the diabetic individuals without the positive family history

  9. NVP-BKM120 potentiates apoptosis in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-resistant glioma cell lines via upregulation of Noxa and death receptor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kimberly A; Jane, Esther P; Premkumar, Daniel R; Morales, Alejandro; Pollack, Ian F

    2015-08-01

    We previously observed that glioma cells are differentially sensitive to TRAIL-induced toxicity. Based on our observation that TRAIL-resistant glioma cell lines typically exhibited high levels of Akt activation, we hypothesized that inhibition of Akt signaling using the PI3 kinase inhibitor NVP-BKM120 could promote TRAIL-induced apoptosis in gliomas. We assessed this combination in established and primary cultured glioma cells. Combination treatment led to significant cellular death when compared to either drug alone, but had no effect in normal human astrocytes, and demonstrated activation of the caspase cascade. This enhanced apoptosis appears dependent upon the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of Smac/DIABLO, AIF and cytochrome c into the cytosol. The upregulation of Noxa and sequestration of Mcl-1 by Noxa were important factors for cell death. Knockdown of Noxa abrogated apoptosis and suggested dependency on Noxa in combination-induced apoptosis. BKM120 upregulated cell surface expression of death receptor 5 (DR5), but did not increase levels of the other major TRAIL receptor, death receptor 4 (DR4). This study demonstrates that antagonizing apoptosis-resistance pathways, such as the PI3/Akt pathway, in combination with death receptor activation, may induce cell death in TRAIL-resistant glioma.

  10. Magnetic fields, special relativity and potential theory elementary electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Kilmister, C W

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic Fields, Special Relativity and Potential Theory is an introduction to electromagnetism, special relativity, and potential theory, with emphasis on the magnetic field of steady currents (magnetostatics). Topics covered range from the origin of the magnetic field and the magnetostatic scalar potential to magnetization, electromagnetic induction and magnetic energy, and the displacement current and Maxwell's equations. This volume is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of magnetostatics, followed by a chapter on the methods of solving potential problems drawn from elec

  11. UNRECOGNIZED OR POTENTIAL RISK FACTORS FOR CHILDHOOD CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional epidemiological studies suggest that the contribution of environmental agents to childhood cancer may be minor. However, epidemiological methods can only seldom identify causal factors associated with a relative risk of less than a factor of one and a half to two. App...

  12. EFFECTS OF PROJECT-RELATED FACTORS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    performance of every organization, whether large or small, in today's ... improvement of labour productivity should be a major and ... factors based on the theory of motivation. Durdyev and ..... of required work is one of the factors affecting.

  13. Factors Related to Intimidation During Oxytocin Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Claudia A; Cannella, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Patient's safety and quality are foremost issues in healthcare today and are often adversely influenced by communication and issues of perceived intimidation. Labor and delivery nurses are responsible for managing oxytocin infusions, but disagreements between providers and nurses related to the administration have been shown to cause tension and affect patient's care. The purpose of this study was to survey registered nurses in labor and delivery about perceived intimidation and how intimidation influenced actions and decisions. A total of 913 registered nurses who were members of the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses and identified labor and delivery comprised the sample as their clinical focus. Nurses who met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the survey via e-mail invitation. An online survey assessing workplace intimidation by providers while managing oxytocin inductions, as well as demographic information was completed. Participants reported past issues with intimidation that influenced how they administered oxytocin. Nurses reported that past experiences with intimidation influenced their care and that they had been involved with medication errors where intimidation played a role. Organizational factors perceived supportive management, presence of an organizational code of conduct, and environment where collaboration was encouraged were associated with decreased reports of intimidation.

  14. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  15. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics.Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  16. U.S.V.I. Relative Erosion Potential - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The relative erosion potential is an indicator of sediment and pollution runoff from land based on slope, soil type, land cover (circa 1990) and (maximum monthly)...

  17. U.S.V.I. Relative Erosion Potential - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The relative erosion potential is an indicator of sediment and pollution runoff from land based on slope, soil type, land cover (circa 1990) and (maximum monthly)...

  18. U.S.V.I. Relative Erosion Potential - 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The relative erosion potential is an indicator of sediment and pollution runoff from land based on slope, soil type, land cover (circa 2000) and (maximum monthly)...

  19. Spontaneous ipsilateral subconjunctival hemorrhage and the related risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Ziakas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the report is to assess the risk factors among patients with spontaneous ipsilateral subconjunctival hemorrhage (SCH who presented to the outpatients’ department in General Hospital of Veria, Veria, Greece. Thirty-five patients with SCH participated in the study. A thorough case history was taken and a full ophthalmic examination was performed to identify the risk factors related to the clinical finding. The common hematological parameters associated with the coagulation profile of each patient were evaluated. With the exception of SCH, the ophthalmic examination was normal in all patients. Identified risk factors include history of systemic hypertension (21 patients [60%], mean systolic value: 170 mmHg±15 mmHg, strenuous exercise [19 patients (54%] and minor ocular trauma [5 patients (14%]. Other risk factors [each in 2 patients (6%] included: diabetes mellitus, smoking, severe cough, straining at stool, and weight lifting. Seven patients (20% were under medication related to bleeding diathesis. The values of the blood coagulation parameters were within the normal limits in all patients. Twenty-nine patients (83% had elevated blood pressure during the ophthalmological examination. Our study provides documentation regarding the potential risk factors associated with SCH. It is interesting to observe the high incidence of hypertension among the patients with SCH. Therefore, it is highly recommended that the blood pressure be checked in all patients with SCH and that the patients be referred to a general practitioner for further management if indicated.

  20. Proprioceptive event related potentials: gating and task effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M

    2005-01-01

    The integration of proprioception with vision, touch or audition is considered basic to the developmental formation of perceptions, conceptual objects and the creation of cognitive schemes. Thus, mapping of proprioceptive information processing is important in cognitive research. A stimulus...... of a brisk change of weight on a hand held load elicit a proprioceptive evoked potential (PEP). Here this is used to examine early and late information processing related to weight discrimination by event related potentials (ERP)....

  1. Exact solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation with Makarov potential and a recurrence relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Min-Cang; Wang Zhen-Bang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the Klein-Gordon equation with equal scalar and vector Makarov potentials is studied by the factorization method. The energy equation and the normalized bound state solutions are obtained, a recurrence relation between the different principal quantum number n corresponding to a certain angular quantum number e is established and some special cases of Makarov potential are discussed.

  2. Potential health gains and health losses in eleven EU countries attainable through feasible prevalences of the life-style related risk factors alcohol, BMI, and smoking : a quantitative health impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhachimi, Stefan K; Nusselder, Wilma J; Smit, Henriette A; Baili, Paolo; Bennett, Kathleen; Fernández, Esteve; Kulik, Margarete C; Lobstein, Tim; Pomerleau, Joceline; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Influencing the life-style risk-factors alcohol, body mass index (BMI), and smoking is an European Union (EU) wide objective of public health policy. The population-level health effects of these risk-factors depend on population specific characteristics and are difficult to quantify

  3. Potential health gains and health losses in eleven EU countries attainable through feasible prevalences of the life-style related risk factors alcohol, BMI, and smoking : a quantitative health impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhachimi, Stefan K; Nusselder, Wilma J; Smit, Henriette A; Baili, Paolo; Bennett, Kathleen; Fernández, Esteve; Kulik, Margarete C; Lobstein, Tim; Pomerleau, Joceline; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Influencing the life-style risk-factors alcohol, body mass index (BMI), and smoking is an European Union (EU) wide objective of public health policy. The population-level health effects of these risk-factors depend on population specific characteristics and are difficult to quantify with

  4. EFFECTS OF PROCUREMENT RELATED FACTORS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-03-04

    Mar 4, 2013 ... Several Literatures in construction management support the view that procurements have impacts on project performance. .... size, cost, flexibility, complexity, site risk factors ... of the procurement process to client charges are.

  5. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  6. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Related Clinical Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuan-chong FENG; Zhong-mei LI

    2004-01-01

    @@ As a widely-applied clinical therapy for infertility and sterility, ART has its own merits compared to other techniques and operations; however, the outcome of ART is influenced by various factors ranging from age, endometrial receptivity, reproductive system condition (e.g.uterus, fallopian tube and pelvic factors, etc.), immune system and so on. From our clinical experience and the literatures reviewd, it is strongly recommended that the situation of every infertile couple be evaluated thoroughly before applying therapy.

  7. What event-related potentials (ERPs) bring to social neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Agustin; Melloni, Margherita; Huepe, David; Helgiu, Elena; Rivera-Rei, Alvaro; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Baker, Phil; Moya, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Social cognitive neuroscience is a recent interdisciplinary field that studies the neural basis of the social mind. Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide precise information about the time dynamics of the brain. In this study, we assess the role of ERPs in cognitive neuroscience, particularly in the emerging area of social neuroscience. First, we briefly introduce the technique of ERPs. Subsequently, we describe several ERP components (P1, N1, N170, vertex positive potential, early posterior negativity, N2, P2, P3, N400, N400-like, late positive complex, late positive potential, P600, error-related negativity, feedback error-related negativity, contingent negative variation, readiness potential, lateralized readiness potential, motor potential, re-afferent potential) that assess perceptual, cognitive, and motor processing. Then, we introduce ERP studies in social neuroscience on contextual effects on speech, emotional processing, empathy, and decision making. We provide an outline of ERPs' relevance and applications in the field of social cognitive neuroscience. We also introduce important methodological issues that extend classical ERP research, such as intracranial recordings (iERP) and source location in dense arrays and simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings. Further, this review discusses possible caveats of the ERP question assessment on neuroanatomical areas, biophysical origin, and methodological problems, and their relevance to explanatory pluralism and multilevel, contextual, and situated approaches to social neuroscience.

  8. Osteoporosis in childhood: related factors and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio González-Jiménez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is defined as a reduction in bone mass. This loss is more important in states of malnutrition, physical inactivity, and with a poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Bone mineralization depends on both genetic and nutritional factors, as well as endocrine, metabolic, and mechanical factors. Several studies in children have shown that the development of osteoporosis in adulthood may be influenced by the nutritional status during childhood, especially with regard to the contributions of calcium and vitamin D. However, currently there are many questions regarding its pathogenesis and diagnosis and its treatment, some of which are reviewed in this paper. The aim of this work has been to provide an update on the main factors associated with the development of osteoporosis and its prevention in infancy.

  9. Unitarily invariant norms related to factors

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Junsheng

    2007-01-01

    Let $\\M$ be a semi-finite von Neumann algebra and $\\J(\\M)$ be the set of operators in $\\M$ with finite range projections. In this paper we obtain a representation theorem for unitarily invariant norms on $\\J(\\M)$ of semi-finite factors $\\M$ in terms of Ky Fan norms. As an application, we prove that the class of unitarily invariant norms on $\\J(\\M)$ of a type ${\\rm II}\\sb \\infty$ (or type ${\\rm I}\\sb \\infty$) factor $\\M$ coincides with the class of symmetric gauge norms on $\\J(L^\\infty[0,\\infty))$ (or $\\J(l^\\infty(\

  10. Venous anomalies as potentially lethal risk factors during ordinary catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savino Occhionorelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Venous malformations are rare but possible findings too, constituting a further risk factor for central venous catheter procedures. Herein we describe a case of death because of an innominate vein perforation by a catheter that incidentally was tucked into a sacciform malformation. Even if the technology advancement is constantly offering us new investigation tools, up to now diagnostic options are limited in the detection of those malformations that could potentially lead to dramatic complications as the described one. The present work raises the awareness about rare venous anomalies and their potential clinical implications. A proper literature review and diagnostic implementation proposal are reported.

  11. The Relation Between Adult Dark Spermatogonia and Other Parameters of Fertility Potential in Cryptorchid Testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Kvist, Kolja; Clasen-Linde, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The fertility potential of boys with cryptorchidism may be related to the number of adult dark spermatogonia per tubular transverse section in testicular biopsies taken at orchiopexy. Placental-like alkaline phosphatase positive gonocytes in testes within year 1 of life indicate preserved ability...... for germ cell transformation. We related these parameters to the total number of tubular germ cells and other factors associated with fertility potential....

  12. Potential Role of Activating Transcription Factor 5 during Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vicari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human adipose-derived stem cells are an abundant population of stem cells readily isolated from human adipose tissue that can differentiate into connective tissue lineages including bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle. Activating transcription factor 5 is a transcription factor of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB family. It is transcribed in two types of mRNAs (activating transcription factor 5 isoform 1 and activating transcription factor 5 isoform 2, encoding the same single 30-kDa protein. Although it is well demonstrated that it regulates the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, little is known about its potential role in osteogenic differentiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression levels of the two isoforms and protein during osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells. Our data indicate that activating transcription factor 5 is differentially expressed reaching a peak of expression at the stage of bone mineralization. These findings suggest that activating transcription factor 5 could play an interesting regulatory role during osteogenesis, which would provide a powerful tool to study bone physiology.

  13. Temporal and spatial organization of gait-related electrocortical potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaepen, Kristel; Mierau, Andreas; Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2015-07-10

    To advance gait rehabilitation research it is of great importance to understand the supraspinal control of walking. In this study, the temporal and spatial characteristics of averaged electrocortical activity during treadmill walking in healthy subjects was assessed. Electroencephalography data were recorded from 32 scalp locations, averaged across trials, and related to phases of the gait cycle based on the detection of left heel strike. A characteristic temporal pattern of positive and negative potentials, similar to movement-related cortical potentials, and related to the gait cycle was observed over the cortical leg representation area. Source localization analysis revealed that mainly the primary somatosensory, somatosensory association, primary motor and cingulate cortex were activated during walking. The negative peaks of the gait-related cortical potential were associated with activity predominantly in the cingulate and prefrontal cortex, while the primary motor, primary somatosensory and somatosensory association cortex were mainly active during the positive peaks. This study identified gait-related cortical potentials during walking. The results indicate a widely distributed cortical network involved in gait control.

  14. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Aschemann-Witzel; Ilona de Hooge; Pegah Amani; Tino Bech-Larsen; Marije Oostindjer

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer per...

  15. Factors Potentially Influencing the Tackiness of DWPF Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.C.

    2000-09-13

    This report summarizes a preliminary investigation into the sludge characteristics that could potentially influence properties such as rheology, reactivity toward nitric acid, and surface, or interfacial, tension (or energy) as it relates to adhesion to metallic surfaces. Suggested experiments that could help characterize the tackiness of future sludges are suggested.

  16. Digoxin and its related endogenous factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jortani, S A; Valdes, R

    1997-01-01

    The digitalis drugs are plant-derived cardenolide compounds used medicinally for several hundred years. These drugs elicit inotropic and chronotropic effects on the heart, but they also affect many other tissues. The mechanism of action involves inhibition of the ion-transport activity of a membrane-associated protein called Na, K-ATPase (sodium pump). Present theory holds that the sodium pump is the principal molecular receptor for the digitalis drugs. Recent evidence indicates the presence of naturally occurring digitalis-like compounds in mammals. It is believed these compounds, collectively known as either digitalis-like (DLF) or ouabain-like (OLF) factors, may be endogenous hormones regulating the biological activity of the sodium pump and its isoforms. The presence of deglycosylated and other congeners of one specific DLF, the digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF), has very recently been described in humans. Digoxin as a drug is the most widely prescribed digitalis in the U.S., and its measurement in serum has established a model for present-day therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Historically, the accurate measurement of digoxin in blood has been difficult. This article focuses on the present understanding of the clinical use of digoxin, factors that affect the accuracy of measuring digoxin, the principle of measuring metabolically active species of digoxin, and the effects of DLIF and other interfering substances in digoxin immunoassay.

  17. Relation between acute kidney injury and pregnancy-related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Monchai Siribamrungwong; Pawadee Chinudomwong

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious problem during pregnancy. Once occurred, it brings about devastating maternal and fetal outcomes. Among developed nations, the trend of pregnancy-related AKI (PRAKI) is on a decline due to the advances in obstetrics care and the legality of abortion. On the contrary, this situation remains one of the major health problems in the developing countries. Though some improvements have been observed, PRAKI still causes high maternal morbidity and mortality, le...

  18. Fixation-related potentials : Foveal versus parafoveal target identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Brinkhuis, M.A.B.; Reuderink, B.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2014-01-01

    The P300 event-related potential (ERP) can be used to infer whether an observer is looking at a target or not. Common practice in P300 BCIs and experiments is that observers are asked to fixate their eyes while stimuli are presented. First studies have shown that it is also possible to distinguish

  19. Event-related potentials to expectancy violation in musical context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tervaniemi, M; Huotilainen, M; Brattico, E;

    2003-01-01

    The present study addressed neuronal processing of musical tones that violate expectancies primed by auditorily and visually presented musical material. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while the musically trained subjects were presented with short melodies composed for the exp...

  20. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, Ilona de; Amani, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions...... are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert...

  1. Two Factors Related to Effective Voice Interpreting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, T. Alan

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-two interpreters for the deaf were measured on accuracy and quality of voice interpreting of the same story in two different sign language types: Pidgin Signed English and American Sign Language. Results indicated that previous experience interpreting was significantly related to the effectiveness of voice interpreting both languages.…

  2. [Enviromental factors related to depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Benítez, Catalina Teresa; García-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Leal-Ugarte, Evelia; Peralta-Leal, Valeria; Durán-González, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: debido a su alta prevalencia, la depresión mayor, episodio único (DMEU); la depresión mayor recurrente (DMR); y la distimia son consideradas un problema importante de salud pública. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar y relacionar los factores ambientales en pacientes con DMEU, DMR y distimia. Métodos: 121 pacientes procedentes del Hospital General de Subzona del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) de San Andrés Tuxtla, Veracruz, fueron cuestionados mediante una historia clínica con las variables de riesgo. Resultados: 16 pacientes presentaron DMEU, 72 DMR y 33 distimia. En todos prevaleció el sexo femenino. Los trastornos depresivos se observaron con más frecuencia en personas de más de 40 años, casadas, con un nivel de estudios medio o bajo, provenientes de una familia disfuncional, víctimas de violencia familiar, además de ser hijos intermedios. Las comorbilidades que se presentaron fueron trastornos gastrointestinales, obesidad e hipertensión arterial. Conclusión: los principales factores de riesgo que se identificaron para desarrollar trastornos depresivos fueron: ser mujer, tener más de 40 años de edad y estar casada. Las diferencias obtenidas en este estudio respecto a otros probablemente se deban al tamaño de la muestra, los criterios de selección y el origen de la etnia.

  3. Relation between acute kidney injury and pregnancy-related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monchai Siribamrungwong; Pawadee Chinudomwong

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious problem during pregnancy. Once occurred, it brings about devastating maternal and fetal outcomes. Among developed nations, the trend of pregnancy-related AKI (PRAKI) is on a decline due to the advances in obstetrics care and the legality of abortion. On the contrary, this situation remains one of the major health problems in the developing countries. Though some improvements have been observed, PRAKI still causes high maternal morbidity and mortality, leading to fetal losses. This article aims to review current studies with regards to obstetrics related AKI. Most of the studies in this review were carried out in observational, both prospective and retrospective, studies. Results demonstrated a variety of major PRAKI causes such as hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, obstetric hemorrhage, sepsis, thrombotic micro-angiopathy and acute fatty liver in pregnancy. Aside from awareness of the etiologies of PRAKI, understanding the physiological renal adaptation during pregnancy is crucial for early detection, diagnosis, and proper management to prevent the obstetric complications.

  4. Relation between acute kidney injury and pregnancy-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monchai Siribamrungwong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a serious problem during pregnancy. Once occurred, it brings about devastating maternal and fetal outcomes. Among developed nations, the trend of pregnancy-related AKI (PRAKI is on a decline due to the advances in obstetrics care and the legality of abortion. On the contrary, this situation remains one of the major health problems in the developing countries. Though some improvements have been observed, PRAKI still causes high maternal morbidity and mortality, leading to fetal losses. This article aims to review current studies with regards to obstetrics related AKI. Most of the studies in this review were carried out in observational, both prospective and retrospective, studies. Results demonstrated a variety of major PRAKI causes such as hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, obstetric hemorrhage, sepsis, thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver in pregnancy. Aside from awareness of the etiologies of PRAKI, understanding the physiological renal adaptation during pregnancy is crucial for early detection, diagnosis, and proper management to prevent the obstetric complications.

  5. Psychological Factors and Reference Potential of Market Mavens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jofi Puspa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The function of a market maven in the information transfer processes is apparently related to one’s psychological states such as inherent knowledge and involvement level. Understanding reference potential of mavens seems to be relevant to comprehend the implicit value of a maven in the communication process. This study shows that (1 apparently, maven groups can be clearly distinguished from a non-maven group on the basis on inherent personal knowledge level and involvement level; (2 market mavens have a high reference potential which confirmed their function in WOM-information.

  6. Relational Learning via Collective Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    random variables. J. Multi. Anal ., 11(4):581– 598, 1981. [3] D. J. Aldous. Exchangeability and related topics, chapter 1. Springer, 1985. 14 [4] K. S...administration of its programs or activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex or handicap in violation of Title VI of the Civil Rights...pursue," excludes openly gay , lesbian and bisexual students from receiving ROTC scholarships or serving in the military. Nevertheless, all ROTC classes at

  7. Buzz Factor or Innovation Potential: What Explains Cryptocurrencies’ Returns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha

    2017-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular since the introduction of bitcoin in 2009. In this paper, we identify factors associated with variations in cryptocurrencies’ market values. In the past, researchers argued that the “buzz” surrounding cryptocurrencies in online media explained their price variations. But this observation obfuscates the notion that cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, are technologies entailing a true innovation potential. By using, for the first time, a unique measure of innovation potential, we find that the latter is in fact the most important factor associated with increases in cryptocurrency returns. By contrast, we find that the buzz surrounding cryptocurrencies is negatively associated with returns after controlling for a variety of factors, such as supply growth and liquidity. Also interesting is our finding that a cryptocurrency’s association with fraudulent activity is not negatively associated with weekly returns—a result that further qualifies the media’s influence on cryptocurrencies. Finally, we find that an increase in supply is positively associated with weekly returns. Taken together, our findings show that cryptocurrencies do not behave like traditional currencies or commodities—unlike what most prior research has assumed—and depict an industry that is much more mature, and much less speculative, than has been implied by previous accounts. PMID:28085906

  8. Buzz Factor or Innovation Potential: What Explains Cryptocurrencies' Returns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha; Vergne, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular since the introduction of bitcoin in 2009. In this paper, we identify factors associated with variations in cryptocurrencies' market values. In the past, researchers argued that the "buzz" surrounding cryptocurrencies in online media explained their price variations. But this observation obfuscates the notion that cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, are technologies entailing a true innovation potential. By using, for the first time, a unique measure of innovation potential, we find that the latter is in fact the most important factor associated with increases in cryptocurrency returns. By contrast, we find that the buzz surrounding cryptocurrencies is negatively associated with returns after controlling for a variety of factors, such as supply growth and liquidity. Also interesting is our finding that a cryptocurrency's association with fraudulent activity is not negatively associated with weekly returns-a result that further qualifies the media's influence on cryptocurrencies. Finally, we find that an increase in supply is positively associated with weekly returns. Taken together, our findings show that cryptocurrencies do not behave like traditional currencies or commodities-unlike what most prior research has assumed-and depict an industry that is much more mature, and much less speculative, than has been implied by previous accounts.

  9. Factors Related to Successful Engineering Team Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczyk, Ronald H.; Zang, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    The perceptions of a sample of 49 engineers and scientists from NASA Langley Research Center toward engineering design teams were evaluated. The respondents rated 60 team behaviors in terms of their relative importance for team success. They also completed a profile of their own perceptions of their strengths and weaknesses as team members. Behaviors related to team success are discussed in terms of those involving the organizational culture and commitment to the team and those dealing with internal team dynamics. The latter behaviors included the level and extent of debate and discussion regarding methods for completing the team task and the efficient use of team time to explore and discuss methodologies critical to the problem. Successful engineering teams may find their greatest challenges occurring during the early stages of their existence. In contrast to the prototypical business team, members on an engineering design share expertise and knowledge which allows them to deal with task issues sooner. However, discipline differences among team members can lead to conflicts regarding the best method or approach to solving the engineering problem.

  10. The effect of jogging on P300 event related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y; Nishimoto, K; Akamatu, M; Takahashi, M; Maruyama, A

    1999-03-01

    Physical exercise has beneficial effects not only on cardiovascular system and fat metabolism, may also directly effect the cognitive process. We studied the effect of physical exercise on cognitive processes by measuring the P300 event related-potential (ERP) after jogging. Seven well-trained joggers were enrolled in this study and the P300 potentials using auditory oddball paradigm. ERPs were measured before and after 30 minutes of jogging. The amplitude of the P300 significantly increased after jogging compared to values recorded before jogging. These findings suggest that jogging has the effect of facilitating cognitive processes involved in generation of the P300.

  11. THE INVESTMENTS, ECONOMIC GROWTH FACTORS OR CONSUMPTION OF DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huru Dragos

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, in the last year the economic growth is a real phenomenon that is not our subject for demonstration or for analyze in this paper. Our concern is related with the way of manifestation for economic growth in the economic system. We study if not the economic growth on the contrary of development for current or further performance (regardless of economic aspect or level of analyze can unstuck in consumption of the availed resources for consolidate potential for development.

  12. Measurement of event-related potentials and placebo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Platon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ERP is common abbreviation for event-related brain potentials, which are measured and used in clinical practice as well as in research practice. Contemporary studies of placebo effect are often based on functional neuromagnetic resonance (fMRI, positron emission tomography (PET, and event related potentials (ERP. This paper considers an ERP instrumentation system used in experimental researches of placebo effect. This instrumentation system can be divided into four modules: electrodes and cables, conditioning module, digital measurement module, and PC module for stimulations, presentations, acquisition and data processing. The experimental oddball paradigm is supported by the software of the instrumentation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32019 and Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia under research grant No. 114-451-2723

  13. Human Auditory Processing: Insights from Cortical Event-related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra P. Key

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human communication and language skills rely heavily on the ability to detect and process auditory inputs. This paper reviews possible applications of the event-related potential (ERP technique to the study of cortical mechanisms supporting human auditory processing, including speech stimuli. Following a brief introduction to the ERP methodology, the remaining sections focus on demonstrating how ERPs can be used in humans to address research questions related to cortical organization, maturation and plasticity, as well as the effects of sensory deprivation, and multisensory interactions. The review is intended to serve as a primer for researchers interested in using ERPs for the study of the human auditory system.

  14. Established and potential risk factors for clostridum difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishnavi C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is the aetiological agent for almost all cases of pseudo membranous colitis and 15-25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. In recent years, C. difficile associated disease (CDAD has been increasing in frequency and severity due to the emergence of virulent strains. Severe cases of toxic mega colon may be associated with mortality rates of 24-38%. The prevalence of CDAD is global and the incidence varies considerably from place to place. In the initial stages of its discovery, C. difficile infection was regarded mainly as an outcome of antibiotic intake and not as a life threatening disease. Intervention by man has produced conditions making C. difficile a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The recent outbreak of CDAD in Quebec has sent the alarm bells ringing. Apart from a threefold increase in the incidence of CDAD, clinicians have also reported a higher number of cases involving toxic mega colon, colectomy or death. Among all the risk factors, inclusive of the host and the environmental factors, antibiotics are the most important ones. Surgical patients comprise 55-75% of all patients with CDAD due to the fact that perioperative prophylaxis requires the use of antibiotics. However, other drugs such as immunosuppressants and proton pump inhibitors are also important risk factors. Thus CDAD is a growing nosocomial and public health challenge. Additionally, the recognition of community acquired CDAD signals the presence of several risk factors. In this review, the established and potential risk factors of CDAD, along with the epidemiology, diagnostic modalities, management and preventive measures of the disease have been elaborated.

  15. Established and potential risk factors for Clostridum difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishnavi, C

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the aetiological agent for almost all cases of pseudo membranous colitis and 15-25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. In recent years, C. difficile associated disease (CDAD) has been increasing in frequency and severity due to the emergence of virulent strains. Severe cases of toxic mega colon may be associated with mortality rates of 24-38%. The prevalence of CDAD is global and the incidence varies considerably from place to place. In the initial stages of its discovery, C. difficile infection was regarded mainly as an outcome of antibiotic intake and not as a life threatening disease. Intervention by man has produced conditions making C. difficile a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The recent outbreak of CDAD in Quebec has sent the alarm bells ringing. Apart from a threefold increase in the incidence of CDAD, clinicians have also reported a higher number of cases involving toxic mega colon, colectomy or death. Among all the risk factors, inclusive of the host and the environmental factors, antibiotics are the most important ones. Surgical patients comprise 55-75% of all patients with CDAD due to the fact that perioperative prophylaxis requires the use of antibiotics. However, other drugs such as immunosuppressants and proton pump inhibitors are also important risk factors. Thus CDAD is a growing nosocomial and public health challenge. Additionally, the recognition of community acquired CDAD signals the presence of several risk factors. In this review, the established and potential risk factors of CDAD, along with the epidemiology, diagnostic modalities, management and preventive measures of the disease have been elaborated.

  16. Transcription factor NF-kappaB as a potential biomarker for oxidative stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, R.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; van den Berg, H.; Bast, A.

    2001-01-01

    Br J Nutr 2001 Aug;86 Suppl 1:S121-7 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut Transcription factor NF-kappaB as a potential biomarker for oxidative stress. van den Berg R, Haenen GR, van den Berg H, Bast A. TNO Nutrition and Food Research, P.O. Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, Netherlands. R.vandenberg@voeding.tno.n

  17. Potential for use of environmental factors in urban planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Ricardo; van der Ploeg, Martine; van Delden, Hedwig; Fleskens, Luuk

    2016-04-01

    Projections for population growth estimate, on top of the current 7.4 billion world population, an increase of 2 billion people for the next 40 years. It is also projected that 66 per cent of the world population in 2050 will live in urban areas. To accommodate the urban population growth cities are changing continuously land cover to urban areas. Such changes are a threat for natural resources and food production systems stability and capability to provide food and other functions. However, little has been done concerning a rational soil management for food production in urban and peri-urban areas. This study focuses on the assessment of soil lost due to urban expansion and discusses the potential loss regarding the quality of the soil for food production and environmental functions. It is relevant to increase the knowledge on the role of soils in peri-urban areas and in the interaction of physical, environmental and social factors. The methodology consists of assessing the soil quality in and around urban and peri-urban areas. It focuses particularly on the physical properties and the environmental factors, for two periods of time and account the potential losses due to urban expansion. This project is on-going, therefore current advances will be presented and will look for a discussion on the contribution of soil quality for decision-making and land management in urban and peri-urban areas.

  18. Implication of Heat Shock Factors in Tumorigenesis: Therapeutical Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thonel, Aurelie de [INSERM U866, Dijon (France); Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Burgundy, 21033 Dijon (France); Mezger, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.mezger@univ-paris-diderot.fr [CNRS, UMR7216 Epigenetics and Cell Fate, Paris (France); University Paris Diderot, 75013 Paris (France); Garrido, Carmen, E-mail: valerie.mezger@univ-paris-diderot.fr [INSERM U866, Dijon (France); Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Burgundy, 21033 Dijon (France); CHU, Dijon BP1542, Dijon (France)

    2011-03-07

    Heat Shock Factors (HSF) form a family of transcription factors (four in mammals) which were named according to the discovery of their activation by a heat shock. HSFs trigger the expression of genes encoding Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) that function as molecular chaperones, contributing to establish a cytoprotective state to various proteotoxic stresses and in pathological conditions. Increasing evidence indicates that this ancient transcriptional protective program acts genome-widely and performs unexpected functions in the absence of experimentally defined stress. Indeed, HSFs are able to re-shape cellular pathways controlling longevity, growth, metabolism and development. The most well studied HSF, HSF1, has been found at elevated levels in tumors with high metastatic potential and is associated with poor prognosis. This is partly explained by the above-mentioned cytoprotective (HSP-dependent) function that may enable cancer cells to adapt to the initial oncogenic stress and to support malignant transformation. Nevertheless, HSF1 operates as major multifaceted enhancers of tumorigenesis through, not only the induction of classical heat shock genes, but also of “non-classical” targets. Indeed, in cancer cells, HSF1 regulates genes involved in core cellular functions including proliferation, survival, migration, protein synthesis, signal transduction, and glucose metabolism, making HSF1 a very attractive target in cancer therapy. In this review, we describe the different physiological roles of HSFs as well as the recent discoveries in term of non-cogenic potential of these HSFs, more specifically associated to the activation of “non-classical” HSF target genes. We also present an update on the compounds with potent HSF1-modulating activity of potential interest as anti-cancer therapeutic agents.

  19. Consumer-Related Food Waste: Causes and Potential for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Aschemann-Witzel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, food waste has received increased attention on both academic and societal levels. As a cause of negative economic, environmental and social effects, food waste is considered to be one of the sustainability issues that needs to be addressed. In developed countries, consumers are one of the biggest sources of food waste. To successfully reduce consumer-related food waste, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the factors influencing food waste-related consumer perceptions and behaviors. The present paper presents the results of a literature review and expert interviews on factors causing consumer-related food waste in households and supply chains. Results show that consumers’ motivation to avoid food waste, their management skills of food provisioning and food handling and their trade-offs between priorities have an extensive influence on their food waste behaviors. We identify actions that governments, societal stakeholders and retailers can undertake to reduce consumer-related food waste, highlighting that synergistic actions between all parties are most promising. Further research should focus on exploring specific food waste contexts and interactions more in-depth. Experiments and interventions in particular can contribute to a shift from analysis to solutions.

  20. Early referential context effects in sentence processing: Evidence from event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, J.J.A. van; Brown, C.M.; Hagoort, P.

    1999-01-01

    An event-related brain potentials experiment was carried out to examine the interplay of referential and structural factors during sentence processing in discourse. Subjects read (Dutch) sentences beginning like “David told the girl that … ” in short story contexts that had introduced either one or

  1. Factors Related to Sustained Implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Mercer, Sterett H.; Hume, Amanda E.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Turri, Mary G.; Mathews, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with sustainability of school-based interventions and the relative contributions of those factors to predicting sustained implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS). Participants were respondents from 217 schools across 14 U.S. states. Sustainability factors were…

  2. PERIODONTAL INFECTION AS A POTENTIAL RISK FACTOR FOR SYSTEMIC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumintarti Sumintarti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral infection can have an adverse effect on other organs of the body. Oral infections, especially periodontitis, may affect the course and pathogenesis of a number of systemic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, pre-term low birth weight infant and respiratory disease. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the current status of oral infection especially periodontitis as a potential risk factor of systemic diseases. Three main pathways linking oral infection to secondary systemic effects have been proposed: metastatic infection, metastatic injury and metastatic inflammation. Periodontitis can cause bacteria to enter the blood stream and activate immune cells. These activated cells produce inflammatory cytokines that have a destructive effect throughout the entire body. Therefore, periodontitis as a major oral infection may affect the host’s susceptibility to systemic disease.

  3. Stem cells: Potential therapy for age-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha

    2006-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive failing of tissues and organs of the human body leading to a large number of age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is an emerging clinical discipline that aims to employ cellular medicines (normal cells, ex vivo expanded cells, or tissue......-engineered organs) to restore the functions of damaged or defective tissues and organs and thus to "rejuvenate" the failing aging body. One of the most important sources for cellular medicine is embryonic and adult (somatic) stem cells (SSCs). One example of SCCs with enormous clinical potential is the mesenchymal...... stem cells (MSCs) that are present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into cell types such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial cells, and probably also neuron-like cells. Because of the ease of their isolation and their extensive differentiation potential, MSCs are among the first...

  4. Facing a real person: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pönkänen, Laura M; Hietanen, Jari K; Peltola, Mikko J; Kauppinen, Pasi K; Haapalainen, Antti; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2008-03-05

    Although faces are typically perceived in the context of human interaction, face processing is commonly studied by displaying faces on a computer screen. This study on event-related potential examined whether the processing of faces differs depending on whether participants are viewing faces live or on a computer screen. In both the conditions, the participants were shown a real face, a dummy face, and a control object. N170 and early posterior negativity discriminated between faces and control object in both the conditions. Interestingly, early posterior negativity differentiated between the real face and the dummy face only in the live condition. The results indicate that a live face, as a potentially interacting stimulus, is processed differently than an inanimate face already at the early processing stages.

  5. Human Resource – Potential Factor of Organiztional Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Cristian Negrulescu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At the level of any economic system, the change brings about the modification of the internal operating method of the relations between the actors and of the work habits. In other words, the substance (main, important modifications can be shaped on each of the organizational dominant of the system at a structural, functional or cultural level, in which the main actor, the human resource, intends to be part of this equation of changes. In this context, significant is the role played by the main organization actors, a role which can be materialized either as a factor of innovation, prevention and even progress, or as a conflict promoting factor, which, in time, generates a state of abnormality, of crisis. That is why major importance must be allotted to the human resources at the level of each organisation, considering the progress focused on knowledge, experience, experiments, attitude, behaviour and competences, these implying factors of correction and efficient reaction for the administration of the organizational crises.

  6. An Efficient Method for Mining Event-Related Potential Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Aliakbar Mousavi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we propose a Neuroelectromagnetic Ontology Framework (NOF for mining Event-related Potentials (ERP patterns as well as the process. The aim for this research is to develop an infrastructure for mining, analysis and sharing the ERP domain ontologies. The outcome of this research is a Neuroelectromagnetic knowledge-based system. The framework has 5 stages: 1 Data pre-processing and preparation; 2 Data mining application; 3 Rule Comparison and Evaluation; 4 Association rules Post-processing 5 Domain Ontologies. In 5th stage a new set of hidden rules can be discovered base on comparing association rules by domain ontologies and expert rules.

  7. Event-related potential correlates of emotional orthographic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faïta-Aïnseba, Frédérique; Gobin, Pamela; Bouaffre, Sarah; Mathey, Stéphanie

    2012-09-12

    Event-related potentials were used to explore the underlying mechanisms of masked orthographic priming and to determine whether the emotional valence of a word neighbor prime affects target processing in a lexical decision task. The results showed that the N200 and N400 amplitudes were modified by orthographic priming, which also varied with the emotional valence of the neighbors. These findings provide new evidence that the N400 component is sensitive to orthographic priming and further suggest that the affective content of the neighbor influences target word processing.

  8. Sample Selected Averaging Method for Analyzing the Event Related Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Akira; Ono, Youhei; Kimura, Tomoaki

    The event related potential (ERP) is often measured through the oddball task. On the oddball task, subjects are given “rare stimulus” and “frequent stimulus”. Measured ERPs were analyzed by the averaging technique. In the results, amplitude of the ERP P300 becomes large when the “rare stimulus” is given. However, measured ERPs are included samples without an original feature of ERP. Thus, it is necessary to reject unsuitable measured ERPs when using the averaging technique. In this paper, we propose the rejection method for unsuitable measured ERPs for the averaging technique. Moreover, we combine the proposed method and Woody's adaptive filter method.

  9. An Efficient Method for Mining Event-Related Potential Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Mousavi, Seyed Aliakbar; Mohamed, Hasimah Hj; Alomari, Saleh Ali

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose a Neuroelectromagnetic Ontology Framework (NOF) for mining Event-related Potentials (ERP) patterns as well as the process. The aim for this research is to develop an infrastructure for mining, analysis and sharing the ERP domain ontologies. The outcome of this research is a Neuroelectromagnetic knowledge-based system. The framework has 5 stages: 1) Data pre-processing and preparation; 2) Data mining application; 3) Rule Comparison and Evaluation; 4) Association rules Post-processing 5) Domain Ontologies. In 5th stage a new set of hidden rules can be discovered base on comparing association rules by domain ontologies and expert rules.

  10. A UNIVERSAL ANALYTIC POTENTIAL-ENERGY FUNCTION BASED ON A PHASE FACTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.F. Yu; K. Yan; D.Z. Liu

    2006-01-01

    Using a field equation with a phase factor, a universal analytic potential-energy function applied to the interactions between diatoms or molecules is derived, and five kinds of potential curves of common shapes are obtained adjusting the phase factors. The linear thermal expansion coefficients and Young's moduli of eleven kinds of fuce-centered cubic (fcc) metals - Al, Cu, Ag, etc. Are calculated using the potential-energy function; the computational results are quite consistent with experimental values. Moreover, an analytic relation between the linear thermal expansion coefficients and Young's moduli of fcc metals is given using the potential-energy function. Finally, the force constants of fifty-five kinds of diatomic moleculars with low excitation state are computed using this theory, and they are quite consistent with RKR (Rydberg-Klein-Rees) experimental values.

  11. Syntactic processing with aging: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmer, Laura; Coulson, Seana; De Ochoa, Esmeralda; Kutas, Marta

    2004-05-01

    To assess age-related changes in simple syntactic processing with normal aging, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by grammatical number violations as individuals read sentences for comprehension were analyzed. Violations were found to elicit a P600 of equal amplitude and latency regardless of an individual's age. Instead, advancing age was associated with a change in the scalp distribution of the P600 effect, being less asymmetric and more frontal (though still with a parietal maximum) in older than younger adults. Our results thus show that the brain's response to simple syntactic violations, unlike those reported for simple binary categorizations and simple semantic violations, is neither slowed nor diminished in amplitude by age. At the same time, the brain's processing of these grammatical number violations did engage at least somewhat different brain regions as a function of age, suggesting a qualitative change rather than any simple quantitative change in speed of processing.

  12. Analysis of event-related potentials (ERP) by damped sinusoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiralp, T; Ademoglu, A; Istefanopulos, Y; Gülçür, H O

    1998-06-01

    Several researchers propose that event-related potentials (ERPs) can be explained by a superposition of transient oscillations at certain frequency bands in response to external or internal events. The transient nature of the ERP is more suitable to be modelled as a sum of damped sinusoids. These damped sinusoids can be completely characterized by four sets of parameters, namely the amplitude, the damping coefficient, the phase and the frequency. The Prony method is used to estimate these parameters. In this study, the long-latency auditory-evoked potentials (AEP) and the auditory oddball responses (P300) of 10 healthy subjects are analysed by this method. It is shown that the original waveforms can be reconstructed by summing a small number of damped sinusoids. This allows for a parsimonious representation of the ERPs. Furthermore, the method shows that the oddball target responses contain higher amplitude, slower delta and slower damped theta components than those of the AEPs. With this technique, we show that the differentiation of sensory and cognitive potentials are not inherent in their overall frequency content but in their frequency components at certain bands.

  13. Potential mechanisms underlying CDK5 related Osteosarcoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hang-Xing; Bi, Qing; Han, Yong; Zhao, Chen; Zou, Hai

    2017-05-01

    Identification of new prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets is of crucial importance for patients with osteosarcoma. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is overexpressed in several tumor types. However, the exact role CDK5 plays in osteosarcoma is still unknown. In this study, we explored the association between CDK5 expression and the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients using publicly available gene expression datasets. Potential molecular mechanisms underlying its pro-malignant role in cancer progression were also discussed. We demonstrated that tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is activated while antigen presentation is repressed in patients with CDK5 overexpression and poor survival. This results indicated that sufficient energy production and tumor immune escape are important characteristics and potential therapeutic targets for this subgroup of osteosarcoma patients. Furthermore, several critical hub genes that are associated with CDK5 related osteosarcoma progression such as MELK were identified. This study discussed the pro-malignant role of CDK5 and potential mechanisms involved. Further preclinical and clinical studies to develop CDK5 based treatments are warranted.

  14. Negative plasma potential relative to electron-emitting surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanell, M D

    2013-09-01

    Most works on plasma-wall interaction predict that with strong electron emission, a nonmonotonic "space-charge-limited" (SCL) sheath forms where the plasma potential is positive relative to the wall. We show that a fundamentally different sheath structure is possible where the potential monotonically increases toward a positively charged wall that is shielded by a single layer of negative charge. No ion-accelerating presheath exists in the plasma and the ion wall flux is zero. An analytical solution of the "inverse sheath" regime is demonstrated for a general plasma-wall system where the plasma electrons and emitted electrons are Maxwellian with different temperatures. Implications of the inverse sheath effect are that (a) the plasma potential is negative, (b) ion sputtering vanishes, (c) no charge is lost at the wall, and (d) the electron energy flux is thermal. To test empirically what type of sheath structure forms under strong emission, a full plasma bounded by strongly emitting walls is simulated. It is found that inverse sheaths form at the walls and ions are confined in the plasma. This result differs from past particle-in-cell simulation studies of emission which contain an artificial "source sheath" that accelerates ions to the wall, leading to a SCL sheath at high emission intensity.

  15. [Mechanoelectric potentials in synthetic hydrogels: possible relation to cytoskeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkliar, T F; Safronov, A P; Toropova, O A; Pollack, G N; Bliakhman, F A

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical and electrical properties of a synthetic polyelectrolyte hydrogel considered as a model of the cytoskeletal gel were studied. Hydrogels were synthesized from polymethacrylic acid by radical polymerization in aqueous solution. The electrical charge was introduced into the gel network by partial neutralization of monomer acids with magnesium (hydro)oxides. Through the use of a motor, triangular longitudinal (axial) deformations were applied to gel samples. Simultaneously, the electrochemical (Donnan) potential of the gel was measured using conventional microelectrodes. We found that: (1) the Young modulus of the gel was 0.53 kPa; (2) at a given deformation velocity, the extent of gel deformation closely correlates with the gel potential; and (3) at the same level of gel deformation, the lower the deformation velocity, the higher the relative change of gel potential. These findings show a striking similarity to the data obtained in living cells, particularly in cardiac myocytes. A hypothesis involving the deformation-induced solvent migration from the gel to the surrounding solution is considered. It is concluded that the physicochemical features of the cytoskeletal gel may play a role in determining the mechanoelectric properties of excited cells.

  16. Stability of auditory event-related potentials in coma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Barbara; Schlee, Winfried; Arndt, Marion; Lulé, Dorothée; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Lopez-Rolon, Alex; Lopez-Rolon, Alexander; Bender, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) or in minimally conscious state (MCS) after brain injury show significant fluctuations in their behavioural abilities over time. As the importance of event-related potentials (ERPs) in the detection of traces of consciousness increases, we investigated the retest reliability of ERPs with repeated tests at four different time points. Twelve healthy controls and 12 inpatients (8 UWS, 4 MCS; 6 traumatic, 6 non-traumatic) were tested twice a day (morning, afternoon) for 2 days with an auditory oddball task. ERPs were recorded with a 256-channel-EEG system, and correlated with behavioural test scores in the Coma Recovery Scale-revised (CRS-R). The number of identifiable P300 responses varied between zero and four in both groups. Reliabilities varied between Krippendorff's α = 0.43 for within-day comparison, and α = 0.25 for between-day comparison in the patient group. Retest reliability was strong for the CRS-R scores for all comparisons (α = 0.83-0.95). The stability of auditory information processing in patients with disorders of consciousness is the basis for other, even more demanding tasks and cognitive potentials. The relatively low ERP-retest reliability suggests that it is necessary to perform repeated tests, especially when probing for consciousness with ERPs. A single negative ERP test result may be mistaken for proof that a UWS patient truly is unresponsive.

  17. Functional significance of the emotion-related late positive potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B.R.E. Brown

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The late positive potential (LPP is an event-related potential component over visual cortical areas that is modulated by the emotional intensity of a stimulus. However, the functional significance of this neural modulation remains elusive. We conducted two experiments in which we studied the relation between LPP amplitude, subsequent perceptual sensitivity to a non-emotional stimulus (Experiment 1 and visual cortical excitability, as reflected by P1/N1 components evoked by this stimulus (Experiment 2. During the LPP modulation elicited by unpleasant stimuli, perceptual sensitivity and the P1 component were not affected. In contrast, we found some evidence for a decreased N1 amplitude during the LPP modulation, and consistent negative (but nonsignificant across-subject correlations between the magnitudes of the LPP modulation and corresponding changes in d-prime or P1/N1 amplitude. The results provide preliminary evidence that the LPP reflects a global inhibition of ongoing activity in visual cortex, resulting in the selective survival of activity associated with the processing of the emotional stimulus.

  18. Regenerative Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Age-Related Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Flavia; Contador, David; Conget, Paulette; Erranz, Benjamín; Sossa, Claudia L.; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L.

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that a therapeutic effect results from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) transplant. No systematic information is currently available regarding whether donor age modifies MSC regenerative potential on cutaneous wound healing. Here, we evaluate whether donor age influences this potential. Two different doses of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) from young, adult, or old mouse donors or two doses of their acellular derivatives mesenchymal stromal cells (acd-MSCs) were intradermally injected around wounds in the midline of C57BL/6 mice. Every two days, wound healing was macroscopically assessed (wound closure) and microscopically assessed (reepithelialization, dermal-epidermal junction, skin appendage regeneration, granulation tissue, leukocyte infiltration, and density dermal collagen fibers) after 12 days from MSC transplant. Significant differences in the wound closure kinetic, quality, and healing of skin regenerated were observed in lesions which received BM-MSCs from different ages or their acd-MSCs compared to lesions which received vehicle. Nevertheless, our data shows that adult's BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs were the most efficient for recovery of most parameters analyzed. Our data suggest that MSC efficacy was negatively affected by donor age, where the treatment with adult's BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs in cutaneous wound promotes a better tissue repair/regeneration. This is due to their paracrine factors secretion. PMID:27247575

  19. Variation in Event-Related Potentials by State Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Hiroshi; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    The probability of an event's occurrence affects event-related potentials (ERPs) on electroencephalograms. The relation between probability and potentials has been discussed by using a quantity called surprise that represents the self-information that humans receive from the event. Previous studies have estimated surprise based on the probability distribution in a stationary state. Our hypothesis is that state transitions also play an important role in the estimation of surprise. In this study, we compare the effects of surprise on the ERPs based on two models that generate an event sequence: a model of a stationary state and a model with state transitions. To compare these effects, we generate the event sequences with Markov chains to avoid a situation that the state transition probability converges with the stationary probability by the accumulation of the event observations. Our trial-by-trial model-based analysis showed that the stationary probability better explains the P3b component and the state transition probability better explains the P3a component. The effect on P3a suggests that the internal model, which is constantly and automatically generated by the human brain to estimate the probability distribution of the events, approximates the model with state transitions because Bayesian surprise, which represents the degree of updating of the internal model, is highly reflected in P3a. The global effect reflected in P3b, however, may not be related to the internal model because P3b depends on the stationary probability distribution. The results suggest that an internal model can represent state transitions and the global effect is generated by a different mechanism than the one for forming the internal model.

  20. Attention-dependent sound offset-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, János

    2016-05-01

    When performing sensory tasks, knowing the potentially occurring goal-relevant and irrelevant stimulus events allows the establishment of selective attention sets, which result in enhanced sensory processing of goal-relevant events. In the auditory modality, such enhancements are reflected in the increased amplitude of the N1 ERP elicited by the onsets of task-relevant sounds. It has been recently suggested that ERPs to task-relevant sound offsets are similarly enhanced in a tone-focused state in comparison to a distracted one. The goal of the present study was to explore the influence of attention on ERPs elicited by sound offsets. ERPs elicited by tones in a duration-discrimination task were compared to ERPs elicited by the same tones in not-tone-focused attentional setting. Tone offsets elicited a consistent, attention-dependent biphasic (positive-negative--P1-N1) ERP waveform for tone durations ranging from 150 to 450 ms. The evidence, however, did not support the notion that the offset-related ERPs reflected an offset-specific attention set: The offset-related ERPs elicited in a duration-discrimination condition (in which offsets were task relevant) did not significantly differ from those elicited in a pitch-discrimination condition (in which the offsets were task irrelevant). Although an N2 reflecting the processing of offsets in task-related terms contributed to the observed waveform, this contribution was separable from the offset-related P1 and N1. The results demonstrate that when tones are attended, offset-related ERPs may substantially overlap endogenous ERP activity in the postoffset interval irrespective of tone duration, and attention differences may cause ERP differences in such postoffset intervals.

  1. Work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Podlogar

    2016-01-01

    Work is an important part of adult life. As such it is closely connected to health and mental health. Aspects of occupation, work and employment can represent risk factors for suicidal behaviour or protective factors against it. Aim of this article is to present the known work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for preventive activities in this context. An important risk factor for suicidal behaviour is unemployment. Connection between unemployme...

  2. Incidence and potential risk factors of obesity among Tehranian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Mirbolouk, Mohammadhassan; Mossadeghkhah, Ali; Barzin, Maryam; Serahati, Sara; Delshad, Hossein; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the incidence of obesity and its risk factors among Tehranian adults. In this population-based cohort, non-obese participants, aged ≥20years, were followed for development of obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥30). Incidence density and cumulative incidence rates of obesity were calculated for each sex. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the association of potential obesity risk factors including: age, BMI, metabolic syndrome, waist circumference (WC), smoking, marital status, education, and physical activity. A total of 7257 participants (3536 men) were followed for a median of 8years. At baseline, mean age, BMI and WC were 41.3±14.6years, 25.1±2.9kg/m(2) (24.9±3kg/m(2) men and 25.2±3kg/m(2) women), and 84.8±9.8cm (87.06±9.2cm men and 82.6±9.9cm women) respectively. During the follow-up, 1345 participants (876 women) developed obesity contributing to cumulative incidences of 31.3% (CI: 29.9%-32.7%), 38.1% (CI: 36.2%-40.1%), and 23.4% (CI: 21.6%-25.3%) for the whole population, women, and men, respectively. Corresponding incidence density rates per 1000 person-year were 25.9 (CI: 24.5-27.3), 33.67 (CI: 31.5-36.0), and 18.0 (CI: 16.5-19.7), respectively. Highest incidence rates were observed during their 40s and 20s for women and men, respectively. Participants with metabolic syndrome, lower educational level, higher BMI and WC, were at higher risk of obesity development in both sexes. High incidence of obesity was observed among Tehranian adults with higher incidence of obesity in women. Different modifiable variables may act as risk factors for obesity development which should be targeted to control the epidemic of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Scientific articles recommendation with topic regression and relational matrix factorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming YANG; Ying-ming LI; Zhongfei(Mark)ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of recommending scientifi c articles to users in an online community with a new perspective of considering topic regression modeling and articles relational structure analysis simultane-ously. First, we present a novel topic regression model, the topic regression matrix factorization (tr-MF), to solve the problem. The main idea of tr-MF lies in extending the matrix factorization with a probabilistic topic modeling. In particular, tr-MF introduces a regression model to regularize user factors through probabilistic topic modeling under the basic hypothesis that users share similar preferences if they rate similar sets of items. Consequently, tr-MF provides interpretable latent factors for users and items, and makes accurate predictions for community users. To incorporate the relational structure into the framework of tr-MF, we introduce relational matrix factorization. Through combining tr-MF with the relational matrix factorization, we propose the topic regression collective matrix factorization (tr-CMF) model. In addition, we also present the collaborative topic regression model with relational matrix factorization (CTR-RMF) model, which combines the existing collaborative topic regression (CTR) model and relational matrix factorization (RMF). From this point of view, CTR-RMF can be considered as an appropriate baseline for tr-CMF. Further, we demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed models on a large subset of the data from CiteULike, a bibliography sharing service dataset. The proposed models outperform the state-of-the-art matrix factorization models with a signifi cant margin. Specifi cally, the proposed models are effective in making predictions for users with only few ratings or even no ratings, and support tasks that are specifi c to a certain fi eld, neither of which has been addressed in the existing literature.

  4. Community-related factors militating against effective management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-related factors militating against effective management of ... high rates of out-of-hospital delivery,many affected babies often reach the health facility ... such as female education, mass media campaigns, development of national ...

  5. Perceived health and environment related factors associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived health and environment related factors associated with urban ... as an important resource for meeting the challenges of rapidly growing cities, such ... to livelihood, it also has health and environmental problems associated with it.

  6. School Related Factors as Predictors of Internal Efficiency of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Key Words: School related factors, Internal Efficiency, Public University student,. South-West ... cycle as it will show the promotion rate, repetition rate and drop-out rate. Many ..... School-based variables and internal efficiency of colleges of.

  7. A study of insight and its relative factors in schizophrenia.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical value of the insight and its relative factors in schizophrenic patients. Methods: The insight, the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS), the scale for the assessment of negative symptoms (SANS), the scale for the assessment of

  8. Relation of Trigger Factors to Migraine with Aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers from the University of Copenhagen, Denmark studied the relation between natural trigger factors and migraine with aura (MA in 27 patients who reported that bright or flickering light or strenuous exercise would trigger their attacks.

  9. Unscrambling cyanobacteria community dynamics related to environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia eBertos-Fortis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a two-year monthly time-series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An epidemic population structure (dominance of a single cluster was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this cluster simultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs e.g. Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formed a consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocyanobacteria and

  10. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia eChronaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalising behaviour (i.e. ADHD, CD, ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalising behaviour, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention.

  11. Potential-Dependent Generalized Einstein Relation in Disordered Organic Semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-Hong; SUN Jiu-Xun; GUO Yang; ZHANG Da

    2009-01-01

    The generalized Einstein relation (GER) is extended to consider the potential energy of carriers in an electric field (PDGER).It can be equivalently seen as the GER having position-dependent Fermi energy,and implies the organic semiconductor is in non-equilibrium under an electric field.The distribution of the carrier density with position is solved for two polymer layers.The numerical results are used to evaluate the PDGER.It is shown that the ratio of diffusion coefficient to mobility,μ/D,increases with Fermi energy and decreases with carrier density.The PDGER gives non-traditional values for the two polymer layers;the value of μ/D is small near the surface,and slightly increases as the position departs from the surface.

  12. Retinotopic mapping of visual event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilla, Almudena; Melcón, María; Kessel, Dominique; Calderón, Rosbén; Pazo-Álvarez, Paula; Carretié, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Visual stimulation is frequently employed in electroencephalographic (EEG) research. However, despite its widespread use, no studies have thoroughly evaluated how the morphology of the visual event-related potentials (ERPs) varies according to the spatial location of stimuli. Hence, the purpose of this study was to perform a detailed retinotopic mapping of visual ERPs. We recorded EEG activity while participants were visually stimulated with 60 pattern-reversing checkerboards placed at different polar angles and eccentricities. Our results show five pattern-reversal ERP components. C1 and C2 components inverted polarity between the upper and lower hemifields. P1 and N1 showed higher amplitudes and shorter latencies to stimuli located in the contralateral lower quadrant. In contrast, P2 amplitude was enhanced and its latency was reduced by stimuli presented in the periphery of the upper hemifield. The retinotopic maps presented here could serve as a guide for selecting optimal visuo-spatial locations in future ERP studies.

  13. The potential of social learning in relation to leadership training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby-Jensen, Cecilie K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential of social learning in relation to leadership training courses, by presenting an empirical case study of the intended and unintended consequences of learning that occurred as a result of a specific leadership training course for public middle managers...... in the healthcare sector in Denmark. The findings presented in the paper are based on participant observations, interviews, surveys and documentary material collected from 12 managers and the 160 staff members they supervise. Analyses of the data lead to recommendations for further integration of social learning...... elements in leadership training courses in order to create opportunities for additional learning and changes in actual practice. Thus, this paper predominately contributes empirical knowledge concerning the type of learning stimulated at such courses, and the consequences of this for practice....

  14. The identification of factors linked to the potential acceptance of transgenic biopharmaceuticals: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Francois; Katsanis, Lea Prevel; Thakor, Mrugank V

    2003-01-01

    In this exploratory study, Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory was used to identify which factors are likely to contribute to the potential acceptance of transgenic biopharmaceuticals (TG-Bs). These products are not yet available to the general public. A scale was designed to assess three of five core attributes related to the potential adoption rate of innovations (Rogers 1995), as well as to measure potential acceptance characteristics for biotechnology products. These attributes were relative advantage, compatibility with existing values, and complexity. In addition, two other characteristics were included: knowledge (Gartrell and Gartrell 1979) and perceived risks (Bauer 1960). The survey was completed by 74 consumers (78% response rate) using convenience sampling. The research findings show that Rogers' three core attributes are supported, but that knowledge andperceived risks were excluded from the model. The model for transgenic biopharmaceuticals consists of: 1. Consumer-related benefits (positively correlated to potential adoption). 2. New types of animals (negatively correlated to potential 3. Perceived complexity (negatively correlated to potential adoption). All the scaled items developed for this study were highly significant, which indicates that they can be used successfully by other researchers working in this field. As TG-Bs are a discontinuous innovation, biotechnology companies may need to present the benefits of these products, as well as the ease of their use prior to their launch, in order to increase their potential acceptance by consumers.

  15. Nicotine and attention: event-related potential investigations in nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Verner; Shah, Dhrasti; Fisher, Derek; Millar, Anne; Prise, Stephanie; Scott, Terri Lynn; Thompson, Mackenzie

    2009-01-01

    Research into the effects of nicotine and smoking on cognition has largely confirmed the subjective reports of smoking in smokers on mental functions, showing smoking abstinence to disrupt and smoking/nicotine to restore cognitive functioning. Evidence of performance improvements in nonsmokers has provided partial support for the absolute effects of nicotine on cognitive processes, which are independent of withdrawal relief, but the mechanisms underlying its pro-cognitive properties still remain elusive. The attentional facilitation frequently reported with smoking/nicotine may be indirectly related to its diffuse arousal-enhancing actions, as evidenced by electroencephalographic (EEG) fast frequency power increments, or it may reflect nicotine's direct modulating effects on specific neural processes governing stimulus encoding, selection and rejection. Event-related potential (ERP) components extracted during the performance of cognitive tasks have proven to be sensitive to early pre-attentive and later attention-dependent processes that are not otherwise reflected in behavioral probes. To date, the majority of ERP studies have been conducted with smokers using passive non-task paradigms or relatively non-demanding "oddball" tasks. This paper will emphasize our recent ERP investigations with acute nicotine polacrilex (6 mg) administered to nonsmokers, and with a battery of ERP and behavioral performance paradigms focusing on intra- and inter-modal selective attention and distraction processes. These ERP findings of nicotine-augmented early attentional processing add support to the contention that nicotine may be be used by smokers as a "pharmacological tool" for tuning cognitive functions relating to the automatic and controlled aspects of sensory input detection and selection.

  16. Visual motion event related potentials distinguish aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Roberto; Monacelli, Anthony; Duffy, Charles J

    2013-01-01

    Aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) disrupt visuospatial processing and visual motion evoked potentials in a manner linked to navigational deficits. Our goal is to determine if aging and AD have distinct effects on visual cortical motion processing for navigation. We recorded visual motion event related potentials (ERPs) in young (YNC) and older normal controls (ONC), and early AD patients (EADs) who viewed rapidly changing optic flow stimuli that simulate naturalistic changes in heading direction, like those that occur when following a path of self-movement through the environment. After a random series of optic flow stimuli, a vertical motion stimulus was presented to verify sustained visual attention by demanding a rapid push-button response. Optic flow evokes robust ERPs that are delayed in aging and diminished in AD. The interspersed vertical motion stimuli yielded shorter N200 latencies in EADs, matching those in ONCs, but the EADs' N200 amplitudes remained small. Aging and AD have distinct effects on visual sensory processing: aging delays evoked response, whereas AD diminishes responsiveness.

  17. Probabilistic delay differential equation modeling of event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostwald, Dirk; Starke, Ludger

    2016-08-01

    "Dynamic causal models" (DCMs) are a promising approach in the analysis of functional neuroimaging data due to their biophysical interpretability and their consolidation of functional-segregative and functional-integrative propositions. In this theoretical note we are concerned with the DCM framework for electroencephalographically recorded event-related potentials (ERP-DCM). Intuitively, ERP-DCM combines deterministic dynamical neural mass models with dipole-based EEG forward models to describe the event-related scalp potential time-series over the entire electrode space. Since its inception, ERP-DCM has been successfully employed to capture the neural underpinnings of a wide range of neurocognitive phenomena. However, in spite of its empirical popularity, the technical literature on ERP-DCM remains somewhat patchy. A number of previous communications have detailed certain aspects of the approach, but no unified and coherent documentation exists. With this technical note, we aim to close this gap and to increase the technical accessibility of ERP-DCM. Specifically, this note makes the following novel contributions: firstly, we provide a unified and coherent review of the mathematical machinery of the latent and forward models constituting ERP-DCM by formulating the approach as a probabilistic latent delay differential equation model. Secondly, we emphasize the probabilistic nature of the model and its variational Bayesian inversion scheme by explicitly deriving the variational free energy function in terms of both the likelihood expectation and variance parameters. Thirdly, we detail and validate the estimation of the model with a special focus on the explicit form of the variational free energy function and introduce a conventional nonlinear optimization scheme for its maximization. Finally, we identify and discuss a number of computational issues which may be addressed in the future development of the approach.

  18. The relative importance of performance factors in Korean archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Byul; Kim, Sae-Hyung; So, Wi-Young

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the factors affecting archery performance by calculating their relative importance in Korean archery. This study used the Delphi technique and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). After reviewing the literature and collecting data on performance factors in archery, the importance of factors affecting archery performance was calculated by holding meetings with experts (20 archery experts) and conducting confirmatory factor analysis (463 archers) and the AHP (36 archery experts). Performance factors were divided into mental, skill, and fitness categories. Fitness factors affecting performance included "drawing a bow without an arrow," "lower-body weight training," and "upper-body weight training." Skill factors affecting performance included "extending by maintaining left and right shoulder balance during aiming," "shooting skill over a regular clicker time," "maintaining pace and direction at release," and "drawing skill by maintaining left and right shoulder balance." Mental factors affecting performance were "confidence," "concentration," "emotion control," and "positive thinking." "Confidence" was identified as the most important factor among the 11 subfactors. The performance factors identified in this study and their relative importance in determining successful performance can be used in training for optimal archery performance worldwide.

  19. Diagnostic study on the relation between ozone and vorticity potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Basset, H. [Department of Astronomy and Meteorology, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Gahein, A. [Egyptian Meteorological Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2003-04-01

    A diagnostic analysis of a Mediterranean system and the associated tropopause folding for the period 27 February to 10 March, 1987 is presented. Geopotential height, potential vorticity (PV) and relative humidity distributions were diagnosed. The analysis indicates clear correlation between the development of the cut-off low and the tropopause folding. A series of vertical cross-sections at the ends of the jet streaks demonstrated that a fold could be captured using potential vorticity and relative humidity. Q-vectors were employed to investigate vertical motion in the vicinity of the fold and showed the exact positions of descent corresponding to the fold along the entire length of the jet streak. The analysis also shows that the strong correlation between total ozone and column integrated vorticity potential holds well for all levels. As both quantities are integrals through the atmosphere, this result is consistent with, but does not prove, a high independent linear dependence between ozone and PV. More case studies are needed to assure the high linear dependence between ozone and PV. The maximum transport of ozone from the stratosphere to the troposphere is coinciding with the maximum developing system, and also with the maximum values of PV. [Spanish] Se presenta un analisis diagnostico de un Sistema mediterraneo y del pliegue de la tropopausa asociado durante el periodo del 27 de febrero al 10 de marzo de 1987. Se diagnosticaron la altitud neopotencial, el potencial de vorticidad y la distribucion de la humedad relativa. El analisis indica una correlacion clara entre el desarrollo de la baja segregada y el pliegue de la tropopausa. Una serie de cortes verticales en los extremos de las trazas del chorro demostraron que el pliegue puede ser capturado utilizando el potencial de vorticidad y la humedad relativa. Para investigar la movilidad vertical en la vecindad del pliegue se utilizaron vectores Q, y se demostraron las posiciones exactas de descenso

  20. Review on risk factors related to lower back disorders at workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    A' Tifah Jaffar, Nur; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    This review examines the evidence of the occurrence of risk exposure on work-related lower back disorders in the workplace. This review also investigates potential interactions between the risk factors in the workplace which include heavy physical work risk factor, static work postures risk factor, frequent bending and twisting risk factor, lifting risk factor, pushing and pulling risk factor, repetitive work risk factor, vibration risk factor, psychological and psychosocial risk factor that may be associated with symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders of lower back. These risk factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or social factors. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching using databases and the searching strategy was used combined keyword for risk factors, work-related lower back disorders, heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting, pushing and pulling, repetitive work, vibration, psychological and psychosocial risk factor. A total of 67 articles were identified and reviewed. The risk factors identified that related for low back disorder are seven which are heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting, pushing and pulling, repetitive work, vibration, psychological and psychosocial risk factor and the level of evidence supporting the relationship with lower back disorders also described such as strong, moderate, insufficient, limited and no evidence. This result confirms that, existing of higher physical and psychosocial demand related to reported risk factors of low back disorders. The result also showed that previous reviews had evaluated relationship between risk factors of low back disorders and specific types of musculoskeletal disorders. This review also highlights the scarves evidence regarding some of the frequently reported risk factors for work related lower back disorders.

  1. Surgeon-related factors and outcome in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, G A; Soskolne, C L; Yakimets, W W; Newman, S C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether surgical subspecialty training in colorectal surgery or frequency of rectal cancer resection by the surgeon are independent prognostic factors for local recurrence (LR) and survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Variation in patient outcome in rectal cancer has been shown among centers and among individual surgeons. However, the prognostic importance of surgeon-related factors is largely unknown. METHODS: All patients undergoing potentially curative low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection for primary adenocarcinoma of the rectum between 1983 and 1990 at the five Edmonton general hospitals were reviewed in a historic-prospective study design. Preoperative, intraoperative, pathologic, adjuvant therapy, and outcome variables were obtained. Outcomes of interest included LR and disease-specific survival (DSS). To determine survival rates and to control both confounding and interaction, multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: The study included 683 patients involving 52 surgeons, with > 5-year follow-up obtained on 663 (97%) patients. There were five colorectal-trained surgeons who performed 109 (16%) of the operations. Independent of surgeon training, 323 operations (47%) were done by surgeons performing < 21 rectal cancer resections over the study period. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of LR was increased in patients of both noncolorectal trained surgeons (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.5, p = 0.001) and those of surgeons performing < 21 resections (HR = 1.8, p < 0.001). Stage (p < 0.001), use of adjuvant therapy (p = 0.002), rectal perforation or tumor spill (p < 0.001), and vascular/neural invasion (p = 0.002) also were significant prognostic factors for LR. Similarly, decreased disease-specific survival was found to be independently associated with noncolorectal-trained surgeons (HR = 1.5, p = 0.03) and surgeons performing < 21 resections (HR = 1.4, p = 0.005). Stage (p < 0

  2. Hypoxic glucose metabolism in glioblastoma as a potential prognostic factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyonaga, Takuya; Hirata, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Manabe, Osamu; Watanabe, Shiro; Hattori, Naoya; Shiga, Tohru; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Yamaguchi, Shigeru [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Sapporo (Japan); Terasaka, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Sapporo (Japan); Kuge, Yuji [Hokkaido University, Central Institute of Isotope Science, Sapporo (Japan); Tanaka, Shinya [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cancer Pathology, Sapporo (Japan); Ito, Yoichi M. [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Sapporo (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Metabolic activity and hypoxia are both important factors characterizing tumor aggressiveness. Here, we used F-18 fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to define metabolically active hypoxic volume, and investigate its clinical significance in relation to progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in glioblastoma patients. Glioblastoma patients (n = 32) underwent FMISO PET, FDG PET, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before surgical intervention. FDG and FMISO PET images were coregistered with gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images. Volume of interest (VOI) of gross tumor volume (GTV) was manually created to enclose the entire gadolinium-positive areas. The FMISO tumor-to-normal region ratio (TNR) and FDG TNR were calculated in a voxel-by-voxel manner. For calculating TNR, standardized uptake value (SUV) was divided by averaged SUV of normal references. Contralateral frontal and parietal cortices were used as the reference region for FDG, whereas the cerebellar cortex was used as the reference region for FMISO. FDG-positive was defined as the FDG TNR ≥1.0, and FMISO-positive was defined as FMISO TNR ≥1.3. Hypoxia volume (HV) was defined as the volume of FMISO-positive and metabolic tumor volume in hypoxia (hMTV) was the volume of FMISO/FDG double-positive. The total lesion glycolysis in hypoxia (hTLG) was hMTV x FDG SUVmean. The extent of resection (EOR) involving cytoreduction surgery was volumetric change based on planimetry methods using MRI. These factors were tested for correlation with patient prognosis. All tumor lesions were FMISO-positive and FDG-positive. Univariate analysis indicated that hMTV, hTLG, and EOR were significantly correlated with PFS (p = 0.007, p = 0.04, and p = 0.01, respectively) and that hMTV, hTLG, and EOR were also significantly correlated with OS (p = 0.0028, p = 0.037, and p = 0.014, respectively). In contrast, none of FDG TNR, FMISO TNR, GTV, HV

  3. Inhibition of calcitonin gene-related peptide and insulin-like growth factor: a potential new therapeutic strategy to reduce bone pain in bone metastases of breast cancer%抑制降钙基因相关肽和胰岛素样生长因子:一种减轻乳腺癌骨转移患者骨痛的新策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁燕

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2009年圣·安东尼奥会议上,Teruhisa Sakurai等作了题名为"Inhibition of calcitonin gene-related peptide and insulin-like growth factor:a potential new therapeutic strategy to reduce bone pain in bone metastases of breastcancer"的报告.

  4. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency.

  5. Dispersion Relation for the Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Furuichi, Susumu; Watanbe, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    Elastic electromagnetic form factors of nucleons are investigated both for the time-like and the space-like momentums by using the unsubtracted dispersion relation with QCD constraints. It is shown that the calculated form factors reproduce the experimental data reasonably well; they agree with recent experimental data for the neutron magnetic form factors for the space-like data obtained by the CLAS collaboration and are compatible with the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors for the time-like momentum obtained by the BABAR collaboration.

  6. Event-related evoked potentials in chronic respiratory encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Al Tahan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A R Al Tahan1, R Zaidan1, S Jones2, A Husain3, A Mobeireek1, A Bahammam11Department of Medicine, 3Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Neurophysiology, Institute of Neurology, London, UKBackground: Cognitive event-related potential (P300 is an index of cognitive processing time. It was found to be prolonged in dementia, renal, and hepatic encephalopathies, but was not extensively assessed in respiratory failure.Objective: To evaluate P300 changes in patients with respiratory failure, and especially those with mild or subclinical hypoxic–hypercapnic encephalopathy.Methods: Auditory event-related evoked potential P300 latency was measured using an oddball paradigm in patients with respiratory failure due to any cause (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PO2 should be 75 mm/Hg or less. Apart from blood gases measurement, patients underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Patient performances were compared with that of matched normal control. Patients were admitted into the study from outpatient clinics and wards at King Khalid University Hospital and Sahara Hospital.Results: Thirty-four patients (12 women, 22 men were admitted to the study. Ages ranged from 19–67 years with a mean of 46.1 years. Respiratory failure was severe or very severe in 11 patients (33%, and mild or moderate in the rest (66%. Mean value for PO2 and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PCO2 were 63.7 and 45.2 mm/Hg, respectively. pH mean was 7.4 and O2 saturation was 90.7%. P300 latency ranged from 218 to 393 milliseconds, with a mean of 338.4 milliseconds. In comparison with control (309.9 milliseconds, there was a significant difference (P = 0.007. P300 amplitude differences were not significant. No significant difference in MMSE was noted between mild and severe respiratory failure. Results of detailed neuropsychological assessment were clearly abnormal but were

  7. The Potential Importance of Detection of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration When Visual Acuity Is Relatively Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Allen C; Albini, Thomas A; Brown, David M; Boyer, David S; Regillo, Carl D; Heier, Jeffrey S

    2017-03-01

    The advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment has changed the prognosis for patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). The ability to stabilize or improve vision with these treatments is a major step in enabling patients to continue to function at the highest possible level. Many studies have demonstrated that the better the visual acuity (VA) is at the time of treatment initiation, the higher the likelihood that VA will be better during at least the following 2 years; as such, detection of nvAMD when VA is relatively good is important. Data on the VA of patients with intermediate AMD and VA at the time of nvAMD diagnosis suggest that patients are typically losing an average of 3 to 5 lines of vision and possibly more between the time that intermediate AMD progresses to nvAMD and the diagnosis of nvAMD is made. The average patient may have nvAMD for 6 to 12 months before diagnosis and treatment initiation. Current efforts in management of nvAMD are primarily aimed at optimizing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatments that have the potential to improve VA outcomes by a magnitude of letters. Additional tools or other efforts to identify patients with nvAMD before substantial vision loss has occurred may reduce the amount of visual loss sustained with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, and have the potential to improve VA outcomes substantially.

  8. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Alejandro Neira-Mosquera; Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez; Sungey Sánchez-Llaguno; Rafael Moreno Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible r...

  9. Analysis of related risk factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Song Yu; He-Chao Huang; Feng Ding; Xin-Bo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the related risk factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy to provide a theoretical evidence for effectively preventing the occurrence of pancreatic fistula.Methods:A total of 100 patients who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2012 to January, 2015 and had performed pancreaticoduodenectomy were included in the study. The related risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula were collected for single factor and Logistic multi-factor analysis.Results:Among the included patients, 16 had pancreatic fistula, and the total occurrence rate was 16% (16/100). The single-factor analysis showed that the upper abdominal operation history, preoperative bilirubin, pancreatic texture, pancreatic duct diameter, intraoperative amount of bleeding, postoperative hemoglobin, and application of somatostatin after operation were the risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula (P<0.05). The multi-factor analysis showed that the upper abdominal operation history, the soft pancreatic texture, small pancreatic duct diameter, and low postoperative hemoglobin were the dependent risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula (OR=4.162, 6.104, 5.613, 4.034,P<0.05).Conclusions:The occurrence of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy is closely associated with the upper abdominal operation history, the soft pancreatic texture, small pancreatic duct diameter, and low postoperative hemoglobin; therefore, effective measures should be taken to reduce the occurrence of pancreatic fistula according to the patients’own conditions.

  10. Modeling of movement-related potentials using a fractal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uşakli, Ali Bülent

    2010-06-01

    In bio-signal applications, classification performance depends greatly on feature extraction, which is also the case for electroencephalogram (EEG) based applications. Feature extraction, and consequently classification of EEG signals is not an easy task due to their inherent low signal-to-noise ratios and artifacts. EEG signals can be treated as the output of a non-linear dynamical (chaotic) system in the human brain and therefore they can be modeled by their dimension values. In this study, the variance fractal dimension technique is suggested for the modeling of movement-related potentials (MRPs). Experimental data sets consist of EEG signals recorded during the movements of right foot up, lip pursing and a simultaneous execution of these two tasks. The experimental results and performance tests show that the proposed modeling method can efficiently be applied to MRPs especially in the binary approached brain computer interface applications aiming to assist severely disabled people such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients in communication and/or controlling devices.

  11. Emoticons in mind: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churches, Owen; Nicholls, Mike; Thiessen, Myra; Kohler, Mark; Keage, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    It is now common practice, in digital communication, to use the character combination ":-)", known as an emoticon, to indicate a smiling face. Although emoticons are readily interpreted as smiling faces, it is unclear whether emoticons trigger face-specific mechanisms or whether separate systems are utilized. A hallmark of face perception is the utilization of regions in the occipitotemporal cortex, which are sensitive to configural processing. We recorded the N170 event-related potential to investigate the way in which emoticons are perceived. Inverting faces produces a larger and later N170 while inverting objects which are perceived featurally rather than configurally reduces the amplitude of the N170. We presented 20 participants with images of upright and inverted faces, emoticons and meaningless strings of characters. Emoticons showed a large amplitude N170 when upright and a decrease in amplitude when inverted, the opposite pattern to that shown by faces. This indicates that when upright, emoticons are processed in occipitotemporal sites similarly to faces due to their familiar configuration. However, the characters which indicate the physiognomic features of emoticons are not recognized by the more laterally placed facial feature detection systems used in processing inverted faces.

  12. Event-related potential alterations in fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Sophia eKnoth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X Syndrome (FXS is the most common form of X-linked intellectual disability, associated with a wide range of cognitive and behavioural impairments. FXS is caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene located on the X-chromosome. FMR1 is expected to prevent the expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, which results in altered structural and functional development of the synapse, including a loss of synaptic plasticity. This review aims to unveil the contribution of electrophysiological signal studies for the understanding of the information processing impairments in FXS patients. We discuss relevant event-related potential (ERP studies conducted with full mutation FXS patients and clinical populations sharing symptoms with FXS in a developmental perspective. Specific deviances found in FXS ERP profiles are described. Alterations are reported in N1, P2, Mismatch Negativity (MMN, N2 and P3 components in FXS compared to healthy controls. Particularly, deviances in N1 and P2 amplitude seem to be specific to FXS. The presented results suggest a cascade of impaired information processes that are in line with symptoms and anatomical findings in FXS.

  13. Event-related potential alterations in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoth, Inga S; Lippé, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of X-linked intellectual disability (ID), associated with a wide range of cognitive and behavioral impairments. FXS is caused by a trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene located on the X-chromosome. FMR1 is expected to prevent the expression of the "fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)", which results in altered structural and functional development of the synapse, including a loss of synaptic plasticity. This review aims to unveil the contribution of electrophysiological signal studies for the understanding of the information processing impairments in FXS patients. We discuss relevant event-related potential (ERP) studies conducted with full mutation FXS patients and clinical populations sharing symptoms with FXS in a developmental perspective. Specific deviances found in FXS ERP profiles are described. Alterations are reported in N1, P2, Mismatch Negativity (MMN), N2, and P3 components in FXS compared to healthy controls. Particularly, deviances in N1 and P2 amplitude seem to be specific to FXS. The presented results suggest a cascade of impaired information processes that are in line with symptoms and anatomical findings in FXS.

  14. Event-related potentials associated with Attention Network Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Andres H; Urbanek, Carsten; Opgen-Rhein, Carolin; Hahn, Eric; Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Koehler, Simone; Gross, Melanie; Dettling, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Selective visual attention is thought to be comprised of distinct neuronal networks that serve different attentional functions. The Attention Network Test (ANT) has been introduced to allow for assessment of alerting, orienting, and response inhibition. Information on associated measures of neural processing during ANT is still scarce. We topographically analyzed top-down ANT effects on visual event-related potential morphology in 44 healthy participants. Significant reaction time effects were obtained for all attention networks. Posterior cue-locked target N1 amplitude was significantly increased during both alerting and orienting. P3 amplitude was significantly modulated at frontal and parietal leads as a function of inhibition. Our data suggests that attentional mechanisms of alerting and orienting are employed simultaneously at early stages of the visual processing stream to amplify perceptual discrimination and load onto the same ERP component. Fronto-parietal modulations of P3 amplitude seem to mirror both response inhibition and visual target detection and may be interesting markers for further studies.

  15. Factors potentially influencing academic performance among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Shawwa L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lana Al Shawwa,1 Ahmad A Abulaban,2 Abdulrhman A Abulaban,3 Anas Merdad,3 Sara Baghlaf,3 Ahmed Algethami,3 Joullanar Abu-shanab,3 Abdulrahman Balkhoyor3 1Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 2Department of Medicine-Neurology, King Fahad National Guard Hospital, King Abdulziz Medical City, Riyadh, 3Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Studies are needed to examine predictors of success in medical school. The aim of this work is to explore factors that potentially influence excellence of medical students. Methods: The study was conducted in the Medical Faculty of King Abdulaziz University during October 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Medical students with a grade point average (GPA ≥4.5 (out of 5 were included and compared to randomly selected medical students with a GPA <4.5, who were available at the time of the study. Results: A total of 359 undergraduate students participated in the study. 50.4% of the sample was students with a GPA ≥4.5. No statistically significant difference regarding the time spent on outings and social events was found. However, 60.7% of high GPA students spend less than 2 hours on social networking per day as compared to 42.6% of the lower GPA students (P<0.01. In addition, 79% of high GPA students prefer to study alone (P=0.02, 68.0% required silence and no interruptions during studying time (P=0.013, and 47% revise their material at least once before an exam (P=0.02. Conclusion: Excellent medical students have many different characteristics. For example, they do not use social networking for prolonged periods of time, and they have strong motivation and study enjoyment. Further studies are needed to examine whether these differences have a real impact on GPA or not. Keyword: King Abdulaziz University KAU, medical school, study habits, exam habits 

  16. Physical fitness of 9 year olds in England: related factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, S; Rona, R J; Chinn, S

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the influence of social factors, passive smoking, and other parental health related factors, as well as anthropometric and other measurements on children's cardiorespiratory fitness. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional study. SETTING--The analysis was based on 22 health areas in England. PARTICIPANTS--The subjects were 299 boys and 282 girls aged 8 to 9 years. Parents did not give positive consent for 15% of the eligible sample. A further 25% of the eligible sample ...

  17. Potential predictive factors of positive prostate biopsy in the Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... probability of a positive biopsy than any factor alone. ... predictive factors for a positive prostate biopsy in Chinese men. ... and sagittal projections. Prostate ..... Liu ZY, Sun YH, Xu CL, Gao X, Zhang LM, Ren SC (2009). Age- ...

  18. Job-related motivational factors among Malaysian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshor, Amat Taap; Abdullah, Adilah

    2002-12-01

    This study identified job-related motivational factors among Malaysian employees in several telecommunication companies. Responses were obtained from 1,179 employees at all levels up to senior managers and six different functional divisions, sales and marketing, human resources, finance, technical, information, technology, and support division. All employees were asked to rate the importance of Kovach's 10 job-motivational factors. These factors were good wages, job security, opportunity for career growth in the organization, good working conditions, interesting work, company loyalty to employees, tactful discipline, full appreciation of work done, sympathetic help with personal problems, and feeling of being involved in the organization. The top five factors employees identified as motivating them in their jobs were good wages, job security, company loyalty to employees, good working conditions, and full appreciation for work done. Findings were in accordance with Kovach for U.S. employees, in which the top motivational factors were good wages and job security.

  19. New approaches and potential treatments for dry age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damico, Francisco Max; Gasparin, Fabio; Scolari, Mariana Ramos; Pedral, Lycia Sampaio; Takahashi, Beatriz Sayuri

    2012-01-01

    Emerging treatments for dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and geographic atrophy focus on two strategies that target components involved in physiopathological pathways: prevention of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium loss (neuroprotection induction, oxidative damage prevention, and visual cycle modification) and suppression of inflammation. Neuroprotective drugs, such as ciliary neurotrophic factor, brimonidine tartrate, tandospirone, and anti-amyloid β antibodies, aim to prevent apoptosis of retinal cells. Oxidative stress and depletion of essential micronutrients are targeted by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formulation. Visual cycle modulators reduce the activity of the photoreceptors and retinal accumulation of toxic fluorophores and lipofuscin. Eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration present chronic inflammation and potential treatments include corticosteroid and complement inhibition. We review the current concepts and rationale of dry age-related macular degeneration treatment that will most likely include a combination of drugs targeting different pathways involved in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration.

  20. Tracking the implicit self using event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenolf, Yvonne; Stein, Maria; Koenig, Thomas; Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Dierks, Thomas; Caspar, Franz

    2013-12-01

    Negative biases in implicit self-evaluation are thought to be detrimental to subjective well-being and have been linked to various psychological disorders, including depression. An understanding of the neural processes underlying implicit self-evaluation in healthy subjects could provide a basis for the investigation of negative biases in depressed patients, the development of differential psychotherapeutic interventions, and the estimation of relapse risk in remitted patients. We thus studied the brain processes linked to implicit self-evaluation in 25 healthy subjects using event-related potential (ERP) recording during a self-relevant Implicit Association Test (sIAT). Consistent with a positive implicit self-evaluation in healthy subjects, they responded significantly faster to the congruent (self-positive mapping) than to the incongruent sIAT condition (self-negative mapping). Our main finding was a topographical ERP difference in a time window between 600 and 700 ms, whereas no significant differences between congruent and incongruent conditions were observed in earlier time windows. This suggests that biases in implicit self-evaluation are reflected only indirectly, in the additional recruitment of control processes needed to override the positive implicit self-evaluation of healthy subjects in the incongruent sIAT condition. Brain activations linked to these control processes can thus serve as an indirect measure for estimating biases in implicit self-evaluation. The sIAT paradigm, combined with ERP, could therefore permit the tracking of the neural processes underlying implicit self-evaluation in depressed patients during psychotherapy.

  1. Iconic Meaning in Music: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liman; Huang, Ping; Luo, Qiuling; Huang, Hong; Mo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners' experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N400 effect of congruency in time window 260-510 ms following the onset of the target word only in the group of music majors. Time-course analysis using 50 ms windows indicated significant N400 effects both within the time window 410-460 ms and 460-510 ms for music majors, whereas only a partial N400 effect during time window 410-460 ms was observed for non-music majors. There was also a trend for the N400 effects in the music major group to be stronger than those in the non-major group in the sub-windows of 310-360 ms and 410-460 ms. Especially in the sub-window of 410-460 ms, the topographical map of the difference waveforms between congruent and incongruent conditions revealed different N400 distribution between groups; the effect was concentrated in bilateral frontal areas for music majors, but in central-parietal areas for non-music majors. These results imply probable neural mechanism differences underlying automatic iconic meaning priming of music. Our findings suggest that processing of the iconic meaning of music can be accomplished automatically and that musical training may facilitate the understanding of the iconic meaning of music.

  2. Iconic Meaning in Music: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liman Cai

    Full Text Available Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners' experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N400 effect of congruency in time window 260-510 ms following the onset of the target word only in the group of music majors. Time-course analysis using 50 ms windows indicated significant N400 effects both within the time window 410-460 ms and 460-510 ms for music majors, whereas only a partial N400 effect during time window 410-460 ms was observed for non-music majors. There was also a trend for the N400 effects in the music major group to be stronger than those in the non-major group in the sub-windows of 310-360 ms and 410-460 ms. Especially in the sub-window of 410-460 ms, the topographical map of the difference waveforms between congruent and incongruent conditions revealed different N400 distribution between groups; the effect was concentrated in bilateral frontal areas for music majors, but in central-parietal areas for non-music majors. These results imply probable neural mechanism differences underlying automatic iconic meaning priming of music. Our findings suggest that processing of the iconic meaning of music can be accomplished automatically and that musical training may facilitate the understanding of the iconic meaning of music.

  3. Event-related potentials dissociate perceptual from response-related age effects in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Müller, Hermann J; Töllner, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Attentional decline plays a major role in cognitive changes with aging. However, which specific aspects of attention contribute to this decline is as yet little understood. To identify the contributions of various potential sources of age decrements in visual search, we combined response time measures with lateralized event-related potentials of younger and older adults performing a compound-search task, in which the target-defining dimension of a pop-out target (color/shape) and the response-critical target feature (vertical/horizontal stripes) varied independently across trials. Slower responses in older participants were associated with age differences in all analyzed event-related potentials from perception to response, indicating that behavioral slowing originates from multiple stages within the information-processing stream. Furthermore, analyses of carry-over effects from one trial to the next revealed repetition facilitation of the target-defining dimension and of the motor response-originating from preattentive perceptual and motor execution stages, respectively-to be independent of age. Critically, we demonstrated specific age deficits on intermediate processing stages when intertrial changes required more executively controlled processes, such as flexible stimulus-response (re-)mapping across trials.

  4. CONTROLLING FACTORS OF POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION ABOVE GRASSLAND IN HUMID AND ARID AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Yanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Potential evapotranspiration (PET is an importance process in water balance studies controlled by a number of meteorological factors such as temperature, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, vapor pressure gradient, relative humidity and biological factors such as vegetation type, canopy height and plant density that varied in time-scale and in spatial scale. Of all those variables, determining the most controlling factors of evapotranspiration in humid and arid area is of interest of this paper. Two sites representing humid and arid area i.e. Fermi Prairie site in Illinois and Audubon Research Ranch in Arizona respectively were investigated in this study.  The flux data employed in this study was acquired from Ameriflux Netwotk. Penmann-Monteith formula is employed in to estimate evapotranspiration rate in both sites. The result shows that the PET is in dependence on the considered meteorological factor such as shortwave radiation, vapor pressure, air temperature, wind speed, net radiation and vapor pressure deficit. It is also can be inferred from the analysis that PET is also strongly controlled by vegetation factors represented as stomatal resistance. Keywords: Potential evapotranspiration, Penmann-Monteith, humid, arid.

  5. The neuromechanism underlying verbal analogical reasoning of metaphorical relations: an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Meng, Huishan; Xu, Zhiyuan; Du, Fenglei; Liu, Tao; Li, Yongxin; Chen, Feiyan

    2011-11-24

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs), this study investigated the neuromechanism underlying verbal analogical reasoning of two different metaphorical relations: attributive metaphor and relational metaphor. The analogical reasoning of attributive metaphor (AM-AR) involves a superficial similarity between analogues, while the analogical reasoning of relational metaphor (RM-AR) requires a structural similarity. Subjects were asked to judge whether one word pair was semantically analogous to another word pair. Results showed that the schema induction stage elicited a greater N400 component at the right anterior scalp for the AM-AR and RM-AR tasks, possibly attributable to semantic processing of metaphorical word pairs. The N400 was then followed by a widely distributed P300 and a late negative component (LNC1) at the left anterior scalp. The P300 was possibly related to the formation of a relational category, while the LNC1 was possibly related to the maintenance of a reasoning cue in working memory. The analogy mapping stage elicited broadly distributed N400 and LNC2, which might indicate the presence of semantic retrieval and analogical transfer. In the answer production stage, all conditions elicited the P2 component due to early stimulus encoding. The largest P2 amplitude was in the RM-AR task. The RM-AR elicited a larger LPC than did the AM-AR, even though the baseline correction was taken as a control for the differential P2 effect. The LPC effect might suggest that relational metaphors involved more integration processing than attributive metaphors.

  6. Study of Relation of Psychological Factors of Empowerment and Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad G. Chegini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Today, organizations are able to survive that have dynamic requirements and potentials and can make a proper response to changes and equip their human sources to the knowledge and skill of generative entrepreneurship through establishing necessary aspects. The increasing rate of changes in scientific, economic and social areas is one of the most common features of the century. The purpose of this research is to study the relationship between the psychological factors of empowerment and entrepreneurship of trainers of Northern provinces, technico-vocational skill organizations (Mazandaran, Golestan, Guilan of Iran. Approach: The research with respect to the methodology and nature is descriptive, it is of kind of adhesion in regret to the relation of psychological factors of empowerment with entrepreneurship and it is applicable with respect to the aim because it can be implemented. The 566-people statistic community included the total of trainers employed in three Iranian Northern provinces that based on the Cochran formula, 270 people selected as samples. The may of collecting field information and data collection tool has been questionnaire. The admissibility of the questionnaire was studied in regard to the content and professional consultants gave some ideas about it and it’s durability calculated by using Cronbach Alfa test, that competed 92 and 87% for entrepreneurship and empowerment respectively. Statistical techniques used include: Descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Pearson adhesion coefficient and analyzing data done by using software SPSS. Results: That there is a meaningful and positive relationship between all psychological dimensions of empowerment (self-efficiency, self-determination, personal consequence, meaning, trust in others and entrepreneurship as feeling to be meaningful is first, feeling of self-efficiency is second, feeling to be efficient is third, feeling of self-determination is fourth and

  7. Event-related potentials dissociate perceptual from response-related age effects in visual search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Müller, Hermann J.; Finke, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    Attentional decline plays a major role in cognitive changes with aging. However, which specific aspects of attention contribute to this decline is as yet little understood. To identify the contributions of various potential sources of age decrements in visual search, we combined response time...... responses in older participants were associated with age differences in all analyzed event-related potentials from perception to response, indicating that behavioral slowing originates from multiple stages within the information-processing stream. Furthermore, analyses of carry-over effects from one trial...... to the next revealed repetition facilitation of the target-defining dimension and of the motor response—originating from preattentive perceptual and motor execution stages, respectively—to be independent of age. Critically, we demonstrated specific age deficits on intermediate processing stages when...

  8. THE MAIN COST-RELATED FACTORS IN AIRLINES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Suntsova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main factors that affect the strategies to reduce airlines costs. These costs factors were presented to experts from the airline industry through two rounds of questionnaires in sense tobe weighed. It was applied a method based on the structure of the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and the results show that the main important factors for a cost-related airlines strategy are, in importance: routestructure and mesh; type and characteristics of the aircraft; cost of labor and management quality. This hierarchycan help the decision maker when facing the need of defining priorities in reduction costs. past decades despitethe increase in air transportation and significant decrease in average operation costs, it is observed that airlineshave low profitability. The liberalization of the markets and increase opportunities for competition diminishesprices, even when airlines face increasing costs. Considering that advantage in costs is an important strategy forcarriers to remain in the market, this paper analyzes the main factors that affect the strategies to reduce airlinescosts. These costs factors were presented to experts from the airline industry through two rounds ofquestionnaires in sense to be weighed. It was applied a method based on the structure of the AHP (AnalyticHierarchy Process and the results show that the main important factors for a cost-related airlines strategy are, inorder of importance: route structure and mesh; type and characteristics ofthe aircraft; cost of labor andmanagement quality. This hierarchy can help the decision maker when facing the need of defining priorities inreduction costs.

  9. Innovative potential, innovative strategy, environment factors, estimation of innovative potential, innovative development

    OpenAIRE

    Chernoivanova, G.

    2011-01-01

    The paper summarizes the elements of the innovation potential and the criteria for its evaluation. It is proposed methodical approach to the formation of innovation strategies with innovative potential.

  10. Four factors Constituting Friendly Tang-Tubo Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuFengzhen; ChenQuan

    2003-01-01

    During the 200 or more years of Tang-Tubo bilateral relations, and despite the wars that often occurred owing to conflict between the ruling classes of each side, harmony and friendliness nevertheless prevailed. So what were the reasons behind this friendly Tang-Tubo relationship? This article attempts to generalize four factors and briefly discuss each one.

  11. Factors Related to Union Formation among Single Mothers in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourdais, Ciline; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Using data on 1,257 women from a 1984 survey, attempts to identify factors associated with union formation among single mothers in Canada. Found that the age of mothers at the beginning of their first episode of single parenthood appears closely related to their chances of forming a union. Other results are discussed. (RJM)

  12. Behavioural factors related to metabolic control in patients with phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, MR; van Spronsen, FJ; Oudshoorn, K; Bekhof, J; van Rijn, G; Verkerk, PH

    2005-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of parental factors possibly related to dietary control in early and continuously treated patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). Methods. A questionnaire was disseminated among parents of 238 patients with PKU born after the natio

  13. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  14. The Relative Importance of Job Factors: A New Measurement Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Stanley M.

    This paper reports on a new two-phase measurement technique that permits a direct comparison of the perceived relative importance of economic vs. non-economic factors in a job situation in accounting for personnel retention, the willingness to produce, and job satisfaction. The paired comparison method was used to measure the preferences of 91…

  15. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  16. Complement factor d in age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanton, C.M.; Yates, J.R.W.; Hollander, A.I. den; Seddon, J.M.; Swaroop, A.; Stambolian, D.; Fauser, S.; Hoyng, C.B.; Yu, Y.; Atsuhiro, K.; Branham, K.; Othman, M.; Chen, W.; Kortvely, E.; Chalmers, K.; Hayward, C.; Moore, A.T.; Dhillon, B.; Ueffing, M.; Wright, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the role of complement factor D (CFD) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by analysis of genetic association, copy number variation, and plasma CFD concentrations. Methods. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CFD gene were genotyped and the results analyzed by

  17. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sicknes......: Certain physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors were important determinants of incidence of sickness, independently of each other. Some of the associations were sex specific.......OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company. RESULTS: Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high...

  18. A history of sport-related concussion on event-related brain potential correlates of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglio, Steven P; Moore, Robert D; Hillman, Charles H

    2011-10-01

    Over the past decade, a growing body of research has detailed persistent changes to neuroelectric indices of cognition in amateur and professional athletes with a concussion history. Here, we review the relevant neuroelectric findings on this relationship while considering the duration from the last concussive event. Collectively, the findings support a negative relation of concussive injury to neuroelectric indices of brain health and cognition in the presence of normal clinical findings. The results suggest that event-related brain potentials are especially well-suited for identifying aspects of cognition that remain dysfunctional for an extended period of time, which are otherwise unidentified using standard neuropsychological tests. Such findings also suggest the need for additional research to fully elucidate the extent to which concussive injuries negatively impact brain health and cognition.

  19. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...

  20. Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

  1. Risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Nano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To assess the risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina using a case-control study. METHODS: Surveys were used for subjects' antioxidant intake, age/gender, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (and type of treatment, smoking, sunlight exposure, red meat consumption, fish consumption, presence of age-related macular degeneration and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Main effects models for logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: There were 175 cases and 175 controls with a mean age of 75.4 years and 75.5 years, respectively, of whom 236 (67.4% were female. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration, 159 (45.4% had age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 154 (44.0% in their right eyes, and 138 (39.4% in both eyes. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 47.8% had the dry type, 40.3% had the wet type, and the type was unknown for 11.9%. The comparable figures for right eyes were: 51.9%, 34.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. The main effects model was dominated by higher sunlight exposure (OR [odds ratio]: 3.3 and a family history of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 4.3. Other factors included hypertension (OR: 2.1, smoking (OR: 2.2, and being of the Mestizo race, which lowered the risk of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 0.40. Red meat/fish consumption, body mass index, and iris color did not have an effect. Higher age was associated with progression to more severe age-related macular degeneration. CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure, family history of age-related macular degeneration, and an older age were the significant risk factors. There may be other variables, as the risk was not explained very well by the existing factors. A larger sample may produce different and better results.

  2. The event-related potential P300, intellectual impairment and correlated factors in mental disorders due to use of alcohol%酒精所致精神障碍患者的P300、智能损害及相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫社因; 葛金钊; 牛艳; 陈家民; 贺敬义; 江永华; 王锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the event-related potential P300, intellectual impairment and correlated factors in mental disorder due to use of alcohol. Method: Thirty patients with mental disorders due to use of alcohol and thirty healthy controls were involved, the event-related potential P300 and Wechsler intelligence test were used to assess the brain cognitive function. Logistic regression was used to analyse the correlative factors. Results:P300 latency of study group(374. 90 ±63. 08) ms was longer than the control group(305;40 ± 10. 84) ms,There were significant differences in both study group and control group (P =0. 000). Study group amplitude (5. 62 ±2. 42) μV was lower than the control group(7. 50 ±0. 76) μV, difference was significant (P = 0.000). Study group showed lower verbal,performance and total intellegence quotient [ (85. 60 ±10. 82) ,, (86.60 ±12.59), (82. 27 ±11.52), respectively] than the control group [( 103. 30 ± 3. 40) , (99. 90 ± 2.74) ,(101. 16 ±2.57) .respectively] ,the difference was significant (P=0.000). Partial correlation analysis result showed that the longer P300 latency was related with the duration of alcohol dependence controling for av erage daily alcohol consumption factors (r = 0. 577, P =0.001). The full intellegence quotient was related with duration of alcohol dependence controling for average daily alcohol consumption factors (r = - 0. 582 ,P = 0.001). Conclusion: The event-related potential P300 latency is longer and the amplitude is lower in mental disorders due to use of alcohol compared with healthy controls. The cognitive impairment is evident in patients with mental disorders due to use of alcohol. The mainly related factor to cognitive impairment is duration of alco hol dependence.%目的:探讨酒精所致精神障碍患者的P300、智能损害及相关因素.方法:对顺序住院30例酒精所致精神障碍患者和30名健康者分别进行P300和韦氏智力测试,比较测试结果并

  3. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  4. Heavy quark potential from QCD-related effective coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, César; González, Pedro; Vento, Vicente

    2016-12-01

    We implement our past investigations of quark-antiquark interaction through a non-perturbative running coupling defined in terms of a gluon mass function, similar to that used in some Schwinger-Dyson approaches. This coupling leads to a quark-antiquark potential, which satisfies not only asymptotic freedom but also describes linear confinement correctly. From this potential, we calculate the bottomonium and charmonium spectra below the first open flavor meson-meson thresholds and show that for a small range of values of the free parameter determining the gluon mass function an excellent agreement with data is attained.

  5. Relative deprivation and risk factors for obesity in Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; Xie, Annie; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; White, James; Pickett, Kate E

    2016-03-01

    Research on socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity and on the ecological association between income inequality and obesity prevalence suggests that relative deprivation may contribute to lifestyle risk factors for obesity independently of absolute affluence. We tested this hypothesis using data on 25,980 adolescents (11-15 years) in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation was applied to the HBSC Family Affluence Scale, an index of common material assets, with more affluent schoolmates representing the comparative reference group. Regression analysis tested the associations between relative deprivation and four obesity risk factors (skipping breakfasts, physical activity, and healthful and unhealthful food choices) plus dietary restraint. Relative deprivation uniquely related to skipping breakfasts, less physical activity, fewer healthful food choices (e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads), and a lower likelihood of dieting to lose weight. Consistent with Runciman's (1966) theory of relative deprivation and with psychosocial interpretations of the health consequences of income inequality, the results indicate that having mostly better off schoolmates can contribute to poorer health behaviours independently of school-level affluence and subjective social status. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the social origins of obesity and targeting health interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk Factors Associated with Peritoneal-Dialysis-Related Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kerschbaum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Peritonitis represents a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD. The aim of this paper was to systematically collect data on patient-related risk factors for PD-associated peritonitis, to analyze the methodological quality of these studies, and to summarize published evidence on the particular risk factors. Methods. Studies were identified by searches of Pubmed (1990–2012 and assessed for methodological quality by using a modified form of the STROBE criteria. Results. Thirty-five methodologically acceptable studies were identified. The following nonmodifiable risk factors were considered valid and were associated with an increased risk of peritonitis: ethnicity, female gender, chronic lung disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, antihepatitis C virus antibody positivity, diabetes mellitus, lupus nephritis or glomerulonephritis as underlying renal disease, and no residual renal function. We also identified the following modifiable, valid risk factors for peritonitis: malnutrition, overweight, smoking, immunosuppression, no use of oral active vitamin D, psychosocial factors, low socioeconomic status, PD against patient’s choice, and haemodialysis as former modality. Discussion. Modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors analyzed in this paper might serve as a basis to improve patient care in peritoneal dialysis.

  7. RISK FACTORS FOR PANCREATIC CANCER: UNDERLYING MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL TARGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eKolodecik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the review:Pancreatic cancer is extremely aggressive, forming highly chemo-resistant tumors, and has one of the worst prognoses. The evolution of this cancer is multi-factorial. Repeated acute pancreatic injury and inflammation are important contributing factors in the development of pancreatic cancer. This article attempts to understand the common pathways linking pancreatitis to pancreatic cancer.Recent Findings:Intracellular activation of both pancreatic enzymes and the transcription factor NF-kB are important mechanisms that induce acute pancreatitis. Recurrent pancreatic injury due to genetic susceptibility, environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol intake, and conditions such as obesity lead to increases in oxidative stress, impaired autophagy and constitutive activation of inflammatory pathways. These processes can stimulate pancreatic stellate cells, thereby increasing fibrosis and encouraging chronic disease development. Activation of oncogneic Kras mutations through inflammation, coupled with altered levels of tumor suppressor proteins (p53 and p16 can ultimately lead to development of pancreatic cancer. Summary:Although our understanding of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer has tremendously increased over many years, much remains to be elucidated in terms of common pathways linking these conditions.

  8. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer: underlying mechanisms and potential targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodecik, Thomas; Shugrue, Christine; Ashat, Munish; Thrower, Edwin C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review: Pancreatic cancer is extremely aggressive, forming highly chemo-resistant tumors, and has one of the worst prognoses. The evolution of this cancer is multi-factorial. Repeated acute pancreatic injury and inflammation are important contributing factors in the development of pancreatic cancer. This article attempts to understand the common pathways linking pancreatitis to pancreatic cancer. Recent findings: Intracellular activation of both pancreatic enzymes and the transcription factor NF-κB are important mechanisms that induce acute pancreatitis (AP). Recurrent pancreatic injury due to genetic susceptibility, environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol intake, and conditions such as obesity lead to increases in oxidative stress, impaired autophagy and constitutive activation of inflammatory pathways. These processes can stimulate pancreatic stellate cells, thereby increasing fibrosis and encouraging chronic disease development. Activation of oncogenic Kras mutations through inflammation, coupled with altered levels of tumor suppressor proteins (p53 and p16) can ultimately lead to development of pancreatic cancer. Summary: Although our understanding of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer has tremendously increased over many years, much remains to be elucidated in terms of common pathways linking these conditions. PMID:24474939

  9. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  10. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alejandro Neira-Mosquera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008 associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain. The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovas-cular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies.

  11. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Sánchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Moreno Rojas, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008) associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases) were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain). The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovascular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies.

  12. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.

  13. Molecular mechanisms underlying the potential antiobesity-related diseases effect of cocoa polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Faisal; Ismail, Amin; Kersten, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and related metabolic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension) are the most prevailing nutrition-related issues in the world. An emerging feature of obesity is their relationship with chronic inflammation that begins in white adipose tissue and eventually becomes systemic. One potential dietary strategy to reduce glucose intolerance and inflammation is consumption of polyphenol-rich cocoa-like cocoa or their by-products. In vitro as well as in vivo data indicate that cocoa polyphenols (CPs) may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Polyphenols commonly found in cocoa have been reported to regulate lipid metabolism via inducing metabolic gene expression or activating transcription factors that regulate the expression of numerous genes, many of which play an important role in energy metabolism. Currently, several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor Kappa B, activated protein-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, liver X receptors, and adiponectin gene) have been identified, which may explain potential beneficial obesity-associated diseases effects of CPs. Further studies have been performed regarding the protective effects of CPs against metabolic diseases by suppressing transcription factors that antagonize lipid accumulation. Thus, polyphenols-rich cocoa products may diminish obesity-mediated metabolic diseases by multiple mechanisms, thereby attenuating chronic inflammation.

  14. Populations potentially exposed to traffic-related air pollution in seven world cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jason G; Apte, Joshua S; Lipsitt, Jonah; Garcia-Gonzales, Diane A; Beckerman, Bernardo S; de Nazelle, Audrey; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Jerrett, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) likely exerts a large burden of disease globally, and in many places, traffic is increasing dramatically. The impact, however, of urban form on the portion of population potentially exposed to TRAP remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimate portions of population potentially exposed to TRAP across seven global cities of various urban forms. Data on population distributions and road networks were collected from the best available sources in each city and from remote sensing analysis. Using spatial mapping techniques, we first overlaid road buffers onto population data to estimate the portions of population potentially exposed for four plausible impact zones. Based on a most likely scenario with impacts from highways up to 300meters and major roadways up to 50meters, we identified that the portions of population potentially exposed for the seven cities ranged from 23 to 96%. High-income North American cities had the lowest potential exposure portions, while those in Europe had the highest. Second, we adjusted exposure zone concentration levels based on a literature suggested multiplier for each city using corresponding background concentrations. Though Beijing and Mexico City did not have the highest portion of population exposure, those in their exposure zones had the highest levels of exposure. For all seven cities, the portion of population potentially exposed was positively correlated with roadway density and, to a lesser extent, with population density. These analyses suggest that urban form may influence the portion of population exposed to TRAP and vehicle emissions and other factors may influence the exposure levels. Greater understanding of urban form and other factors influencing potential exposure to TRAP may help inform interventions that protect public health.

  15. PPAR-α Ligands as Potential Therapeutic Agents for Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol del V Cano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR's are members of the steroid/thyroid nuclear receptor, superfamily of transcription factors. There are currently three known PPAR subtypes, α, β, and γ. The PPARs are now recognized participants in a number of biological pathways some of which are implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. These include immune modulation, lipid regulation, and oxidant/antioxidant pathways important to the onset and progression of “dry” AMD, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF mediated pathways that stimulate choroidal neovascularization (CNV, characteristic of “wet” AMD. PPAR-α is found in retina and also on vascular cells important to formation of CNV. At this time, however, relatively little is known about potential contributions of PPAR-α to the pathogenesis of dry and wet AMD. This review examines current literature for potential roles of PPAR-α in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of AMD with emphasis on prevention and treatment of wet AMD.

  16. Brain functions after sports-related concussion: insights from event-related potentials and functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Nadia; Saluja, Rajeet Singh; Chen, Jen-Kai; Bottari, Carolina; Johnston, Karen; Ptito, Alain

    2010-10-01

    The high incidence of concussions in contact sports and their impact on brain functions are a major cause for concern. To improve our understanding of brain functioning after sports-related concussion, advanced functional assessment techniques, namely event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have been recently used in research studies. Contrary to neuropsychological tests that measure verbal and/or motor responses, ERPs and fMRI assess the neural activities associated with cognitive/behavioral demands, and thus provide access to better comprehension of brain functioning. In fact, ERPs have excellent temporal resolution, and fMRI identifies the involved structures during a task. This article describes ERP and fMRI techniques and reviews the results obtained with these tools in sports-related concussion. Although these techniques are not yet readily available, they offer a unique clinical approach, particularly for complex cases (ie, athletes with multiple concussions, chronic symptoms) and objective measures that provide valuable information to guide management and return-to-play decision making.

  17. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs.

  18. Nicotine enhances an auditory Event-Related Potential component which is inversely related to habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Theresa; Taroyan, Naira; Overton, Paul G

    2017-07-01

    Nicotine is a psychoactive substance that is commonly consumed in the context of music. However, the reason why music and nicotine are co-consumed is uncertain. One possibility is that nicotine affects cognitive processes relevant to aspects of music appreciation in a beneficial way. Here we investigated this possibility using Event-Related Potentials. Participants underwent a simple decision-making task (to maintain attentional focus), responses to which were signalled by auditory stimuli. Unlike previous research looking at the effects of nicotine on auditory processing, we used complex tones that varied in pitch, a fundamental element of music. In addition, unlike most other studies, we tested non-smoking subjects to avoid withdrawal-related complications. We found that nicotine (4.0 mg, administered as gum) increased P2 amplitude in the frontal region. Since a decrease in P2 amplitude and latency is related to habituation processes, and an enhanced ability to disengage from irrelevant stimuli, our findings suggest that nicotine may cause a reduction in habituation, resulting in non-smokers being less able to adapt to repeated stimuli. A corollary of that decrease in adaptation may be that nicotine extends the temporal window during which a listener is able and willing to engage with a piece of music.

  19. Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

  20. On factors related to car accidents on German Autobahn connectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnowski, Martin; Manner, Hans

    2011-09-01

    We make an attempt to identify factors that explain accidents on German Autobahn connectors. To find these factors we perform an empirical study making use of count data models with fixed and random coefficients. The findings are based on a set of 197 ramps, which we classify into three distinct types of ramps. For these ramps, accident data is available for a period of 3 years (January 2003 until December 2005). The negative binomial model with some random coefficients proved to be an appropriate model in our cross-sectional setting for detecting factors that are related to accidents. The most significant variable is a measure of the average daily traffic. For geometric variables, not only continuous effects were found to be significant, but also threshold effects indicating the exceedance of certain values. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recognizing influencing factors on students' leadership trait potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hosseini Moghadam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to investigate the effect of university education on leadership capacity of both male and female management students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The data were collected from the first and the last year students using classified sampling method. The results of 116 questionnaires analyzed using SPSS software indicate that university education had a different effect on both male and female students' leadership capacity. Comparing the results of this study with other countries shows that the role of culture should be considered as an effective factor, while evaluating and comparing students' leadership capacity among communities.

  2. Therapeutic potential of growth factors in pulmonary emphysematous condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyal, Jai Prakash; Muyal, Vandana; Kotnala, Sudhir; Kumar, Dhananjay; Bhardwaj, Harsh

    2013-04-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a major manifestation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized by progressive destruction of alveolar parenchyma with persistent inflammation of the small airways. Such destruction in the distal respiratory tract is irreversible and irreparable. All-trans-retinoic acid was suggested as a novel therapy for regeneration of lost alveoli in emphysema. However, profound discrepancies were evident between studies. At present, no effective therapeutic options are available that allow for the regeneration of lost alveoli in emphysematous human lungs. Recently, some reports on rodent's models have suggested the beneficial effects of various growth factors toward alveolar maintenance and repair processes.

  3. Cosmological General Relativity With Scale Factor and Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Firmin J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the four-dimensional space-velocity Cosmological General Relativity of Carmeli is developed by a general solution to the Einstein field equations. The metric is given in the Tolman form and the vacuum mass density is included in the energy-momentum tensor. The scale factor redshift equation is obtained, forming the basis for deriving the various redshift-distance relations of cosmological analysis. A linear equation of state dependent on the scale factor is assumed to account for the effects of an evolving dark energy in the expansion of the universe. Modeling simulations are provided for a few combinations of mass density, vacuum density and state parameter values over a sample of high redshift SNe Ia data. Also, the Carmeli cosmological model is derived as a special case of the general solution.

  4. Lifestyle-related factors and access to medically assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, W; de Wert, G; Pennings, G; Shenfield, F; Devroey, P; Tarlatzis, B; Barri, P

    2010-03-01

    Lifestyle is increasingly recognized as an outcome-determining factor in assisted reproduction, not only with regard to the cost-effectiveness but also in view of the balance of benefits and risks, including risks related to the welfare of the future child. This document briefly summarizes the evidence concerning the impact of three lifestyle-related factors (obesity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption) on both natural and assisted reproduction (IVF) and discusses the implications of this for the practice of medically assisted reproduction in the light of relevant ethical principles. The central question is whether and to what extent fertility treatment of obese, smoking or drinking patients should be made conditional on prior lifestyle changes.

  5. Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette

    Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors Jette Østergaard Rathe1, Pia V. Larsen1, Morten Andersen2, Janus L. Thomsen3, Maja S. Paulsen1, Jens Søndergaard1 1. Research Unit of General Practice, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark 2. Centre...... substitutable drug. Data were linked with a prescription database. Results We found no associations between generic substitution and, respectively, gender, age, drug group and polypharmacy. Earlier switches of the index drug are statistically significant associated with acceptance of generic substitution...... generics in the antiepileptic and antidepressant groups (antiepileptics OR 0.37 and antidepressants OR 0.53). Conclusion We did not find any patient-related factors associated with generic substitution; however, patients who have once experienced a generic substitution with a specific drug are more likely...

  6. Factors related to adherence to treatment for systemic hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Coelho Leite Fava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to seek the evidence available in the literature regarding the factors related to adherence to treatment for systemic hypertension. It used the method of integrative review in the databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, and LILACS, using the keywords: hypertension, compliance, non-compliance, adherence, non-adherence, patient compliance, in the period 2004 – 2008, and articles in Portuguese, English and Spanish, with the use of a validated instrument and content analysis. 28 studies were selected, 64.3% of which had level of evidence VI. The following were identified as factors related to adherence to treatment: treatment costs, educational activities, sex, physician-patient relationship, physiological and behavioral aspects, drug therapy, attending checkups and lifestyle. The use of combined strategies is suggested in order to increase the individuals’ adherence to the treatment. Gaps point to the valorization of dialogic relationships for integrated and more efficacious health practices.

  7. Factor H-related proteins determine complement-activating surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsi, Mihály; Tortajada, Agustin; Uzonyi, Barbara; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2015-06-01

    Complement factor H-related proteins (FHRs) are strongly associated with different diseases involving complement dysregulation, which suggests a major role for these proteins regulating complement activation. Because FHRs are evolutionarily and structurally related to complement inhibitor factor H (FH), the initial assumption was that the FHRs are also negative complement regulators. Whereas weak complement inhibiting activities were originally reported for these molecules, recent developments indicate that FHRs may enhance complement activation, with important implications for the role of these proteins in health and disease. We review these findings here, and propose that FHRs represent a complex set of surface recognition molecules that, by competing with FH, provide improved discrimination of self and non-self surfaces and play a central role in determining appropriate activation of the complement pathway.

  8. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...... disease seems to be influenced by age, gender, drinking pattern and type of alcohol....

  9. Psychosocial Factors Related to Underuse of Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G; Brook, David W

    2016-08-01

    In this longitudinal study, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the historical, predisposing, enabling/barrier, and need factors as related to the underuse of medical services during early midlife. We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort of community-dwelling men and women (N = 548) followed from adolescence to early midlife. The findings supported a mediational model: A mutually affectionate parent-child relationship in early adolescence was inversely related to underuse of medical services in early midlife via the mediational roles played by later predisposing factors (i.e., depressive mood and cigarette smoking), need factor (i.e., physical health problems), barriers (i.e., financial difficulty), and enabling factors (i.e., social support for health services in early midlife). In addition, satisfaction with medical services in the neighborhood had an association with less underuse of medical services in early midlife. Family therapy focused on an increase in the affectionate relationship between the adolescents and his/her parents and cognitive-behavioral treatment of depressive mood may lead to a decrease in the underuse of medical services.

  10. Analysis of Factors of Influence of the Market Environment upon Formation of the Enterprise Labour Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Zborovska Olha M.; Halan Olena Ye.

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses external and internal factors of the market environment, which influence formation of the enterprise labour potential. It offers supplement the existing classification properties with the following ones: international, political-legal and natural-climate factors. It shows that, in the result of the balanced reaction on the international level of influence of factors of formation of labour potential, it is possible to sharply accelerate development of the labour potential ...

  11. Nosocomial infections and related factors in southern khorasan hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Nosocomial infections are defined as infections occurring during a patient's stay at hospital (48-72h after admission).Nosocomial infections are one of the important problems of health. This study aimed was determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections, and related factors in hospitals with more than 100 beds in south Khorasan Province. Materials and Methods: In this crass-sectional study, an investigator-administered questionnaire was completed for each patien...

  12. Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Iranian High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Sajedinejad, Sima; Nazemi, Saeed; Fereidoon Mohasseli, Khadije; Valizade, Behzad; Vahedi, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Amiri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: In different studies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption has been growing in high schools boys. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its related factors among Iranian high school students in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 male students from 15 high schools of Shahroud (northeast of Iran) were selected for evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding tobacco consumption...

  13. EXPLORING FACTORS OF E-LEARNING RELATED TO STUDENT ENGAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on exploring the factors which relate learner engagement with E-Learning.It tries to explorethe strength of the link between learner engagement and E-Learning.E-Learning in today’s world has become a common mode of study and knowledge dissemination. E-Learning is an educational, training and learning method which is spreading widely and becoming a popular method of delivery among both educational and corporate environments. Is it beneficial for educational institut...

  14. Angiopoietin-related growth factor level in preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim. Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) is associated with angiogenesis but it can also affect glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine AGF levels in preeclampsia. Method. The study included 32 women with preeclampsia (preeclampsia group) and 32 non-preeclamptic, healthy, third trimester pregnant women (Control group). We analyzed serum levels of AGF and other biochemical and anthropometric markers in all subjects. Results. Serum AGF levels were sig...

  15. Balneotherapy is a potential risk factor for Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Deutsch

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The practice of immersion in burn patient has been abandoned in many parts of the world but in Brazil it is still common. The aim of this study was to ascertain if balneotherapy is a risk factor for Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in thermally injured patients. Eighteen patients from a Burn Center were studied for 14 weeks for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Samples were collected by swabbing the exudate of wounds, before and after giving bath to the patients and from balneotherapy table. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to determine bacterial genetic relatedness. Thirty-seven P. aeruginosa isolates were detected from 292 swabs collected from patients' burn surface area and from the balneotherapy table. Profile analysis of P. aeruginosa DNA fragmentation showed 10 clones among the 37 strains analyzed. Type A is the most prevalent clone, with 23 strains distributed into eight subtypes. These were present in the swabs collected, before and after the patients' bath, from the surface of the bath table, suggesting that there was cross-contamination between the patients in different ways. This work demonstrates that balneotherapy is a risk factor in the Burn Center studied, because the same clone was found among P. aeruginosa isolates collected at various points and times.

  16. Insulin as a potential factor influencing blood pressure in amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, H G; Yalow, R S; Schweitzer, P; Schwartz, E

    1986-09-01

    War-injured, bilateral above-knee amputees are known to be at increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. To evaluate possible risk factors, we compared blood pressures and plasma glucose and insulin responses to orally administered glucose in 19 above-knee amputees from the Vietnam War (mean age, 36 +/- 1 years) with those of 12 age-matched unilateral below-elbow amputees. Body composition by densitometry and maximal oxygen consumption during arm or leg exercise were also determined. Nine of 19 leg amputees were hypertensive compared with one of 12 arm amputees. Their 3-hour average insulin responses were markedly increased (260 +/- 60 microU/ml) compared with those of normotensive leg (125 +/- 24 microU/ml) and arm amputees (101 +/- 20 microU/ml), and their mean body fat content (37.2%) also was elevated compared with that in both of these groups (23.2 and 22.6%, respectively). A unique finding was that both insulin response and body fat content were strongly and independently correlated with diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.55, p less than 0.01, and r = 0.62, p less than 0.01, respectively). We conclude that insulin may be a major factor in blood pressure regulation in the maturity-onset obesity that develops following traumatic leg amputation in young, healthy men.

  17. Clastogenic Factors as Potential Biomarkers of Increased Superoxide Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Emerit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of clastogenic factors (CF and their damaging effects are mediated by superoxide, since superoxide dismutase is regularly protective. CF are produced via superoxide and stimulate the production of superoxide by monocytes and neutrophils. This results in a selfsustaining and longlasting process of clastogenesis, which may exceed the DNA repair system and ultimately lead to cancer (Emerit, 1994. An increased cancer risk is indeed observed in conditions accompanied by CF formation. These include irradiated persons, patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, HIV-infected persons and the chromosomal breakage syndromes ataxia telangiectasia, Bloom’s syndrome and Fanconi’s anemia. Biochemical analysis has identifi ed lipid peroxidation products, arachidonic acid metabolites, nucleotides of inosine and cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor alpha, as the clastogenic and also superoxide stimulating components of CF. Due to their chromosome damaging effects, these oxidants can be detected with classical cytogenetic techniques. Their synergistic action renders the CF-test particularly sensitive for the detection of a pro-oxidant state. Correlations were observed between CF and other biomarkers of oxidative stress such as decreases in total plasma thiols or increases in TBARS or chemiluminescence. Correlations between CF and disease activity, between CF and radiation exposure, suggest the study of CF for monitoring these conditions. CF may also be useful as biochemical markers and intermediate endpoints for the evaluation of promising antioxidant drugs. CF formation represents a link between chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. Prophylactic use of superoxide scavengers as anticarcinogens is therefore suggested.

  18. Estimate from below for the x^2 y^4 potential and closely related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Brice

    2016-03-01

    We give a lower bound on the ground-state energy for the 2-dimensional Schrödinger operator with non-confining potential x^2 y^4 on {R}^2. A method for potentials in dimension n>2 with similar scaling properties is given.

  19. Potential risk and its influencing factors for separated bicycle paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Yang, Ying; Jin, Sheng; Qu, Zhaowei; Hou, Lei

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose two potential risk indicators to define and evaluate the safety of bicycle path at the microscopic level. Field bicycle data were collected from three survey sites under different traffic conditions. These two risk indicators based on speed dispersion were proposed and calculated during each 5-min interval. The risk influences of various widths of bicycle path and traffic conditions were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. We further proposed a generalized linear model (GLM) for modeling and analyzing the relationships between bicycle risks and v/c ratio and percentages of electric bicycles, male cyclists, young cyclists, and loaded cyclists. The stepwise regression models were applied for determination of coefficients. The results show that the influences of gender and age of cyclists on potential risks are not significant. The risks increase with the width of bicycle path and percentage of electric bicycles, while only for wider bicycle path (4-lane case in this study), the risks are associated with whether or not cyclists are loaded. The findings could contribute for analysis and evaluation of the safety for bicycle path. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Urbanization and traffic related exposures as risk factors for Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    that traffic related exposures affect schizophrenia risk and that this potential effect is responsible for the urban-rural differences. The geographical distance from place of residence to nearest major road was used as a proxy variable for traffic related exposures. We used a large population-based sample...... of the Danish population (1.89 million people) including information on all permanent addresses linked with geographical information on all roads and house numbers in Denmark. Schizophrenia in cohort members (10,755 people) was identified by linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. RESULTS...

  1. Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahieh Moradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

  2. Sharks: a potential source of antiangiogenic factors and tumor treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung; Kim, Young

    2002-12-01

    Since angiogenesis is a key feature of tumor growth, inhibiting this process is one way to treat cancer. Cartilage is a natural source of material with strong antiangiogenic activity. This report reviews knowledge of the anticancer properties of shark cartilage and clinical information on drugs such as neovastat and squalamine. Because their entire endoskeleton is composed of cartilage, sharks are thought to be an ideal source of angiogenic and tumor growth inhibitors. Shark cartilage extract has shown antiangiogenic and antitumor activities in animals and humans. The oral administration of cartilage extract was efficacious in reducing angiogenesis. Purified antiangiogenic factors from shark cartilage, such as U-995 and neovastat (AE-941), also showed antiangiogenic and antitumor activity. AE-941 is under phase III clinical investigation. Squalamine, a low molecular weight aminosterol, showed strong antitumor activity when combined with chemotherapeutic materials. The angiogenic tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 3 (TIMP-3) and tumor suppressor protein (snm23) genes from shark cartilage were cloned and characterized.

  3. Transdiagnostic Psychiatric Symptoms and Event-Related Potentials following Rewarding and Aversive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Jeffrey S.; Potts, Geoffrey F.; Gooding, Diane C.; Trachik, Benjamin J.; Chan, Chi C.; Spencer, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms that relate to neurophysiological abnormalities following rewarding and aversive feedback in order to inform development of novel targeted treatments. To address this need, we examined a transdiagnostic sample of 44 adults (mean age: 35.52; 57% female), which consisted of individuals with broadly-defined schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n = 16), bipolar disorders (n = 10), other mood and anxiety disorders (n = 5), and no history of a psychiatric disorder (n = 13). Participants completed a Pavlovian monetary reward prediction task during 32-channel electroencephalogram recording. We assessed the event-related potentials (ERPs) of feedback-related negativity (FRN), feedback-related positivity (FRP), and the late positive potential (LPP), following better and worse than expected outcomes. Examination of symptom relationships using stepwise regressions across the entire sample revealed that an increase in the clinician-rated Negative Symptoms factor score from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, was related to a decreased LPP amplitude during better than expected (i.e., rewarding) outcomes. We also found that increased self-reported scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Brief-Revised) Disorganized factor related to an increased FRN amplitude during worse than expected (i.e., aversive) outcomes. Across the entire sample, the FRP component amplitudes did not show significant relationships to any of the symptoms examined. Analyses of the three diagnostic groups of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders, and nonpsychiatric controls did not reveal any statistically significant differences across the ERP amplitudes and conditions. These findings suggest relationships between specific neurophysiological abnormalities following rewarding and aversive outcomes and particular transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27299996

  4. Transdiagnostic Psychiatric Symptoms and Event-Related Potentials following Rewarding and Aversive Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Bedwell

    Full Text Available There is a need for a better understanding of transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms that relate to neurophysiological abnormalities following rewarding and aversive feedback in order to inform development of novel targeted treatments. To address this need, we examined a transdiagnostic sample of 44 adults (mean age: 35.52; 57% female, which consisted of individuals with broadly-defined schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n = 16, bipolar disorders (n = 10, other mood and anxiety disorders (n = 5, and no history of a psychiatric disorder (n = 13. Participants completed a Pavlovian monetary reward prediction task during 32-channel electroencephalogram recording. We assessed the event-related potentials (ERPs of feedback-related negativity (FRN, feedback-related positivity (FRP, and the late positive potential (LPP, following better and worse than expected outcomes. Examination of symptom relationships using stepwise regressions across the entire sample revealed that an increase in the clinician-rated Negative Symptoms factor score from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, was related to a decreased LPP amplitude during better than expected (i.e., rewarding outcomes. We also found that increased self-reported scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Brief-Revised Disorganized factor related to an increased FRN amplitude during worse than expected (i.e., aversive outcomes. Across the entire sample, the FRP component amplitudes did not show significant relationships to any of the symptoms examined. Analyses of the three diagnostic groups of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders, and nonpsychiatric controls did not reveal any statistically significant differences across the ERP amplitudes and conditions. These findings suggest relationships between specific neurophysiological abnormalities following rewarding and aversive outcomes and particular transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms.

  5. Relation of anthropometric variables to coronary artery disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra C Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Anthropometric variables and their relation to conventional coronary artery disease (CAD risk factors in railway employees have been inadequately studied in India. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Solapur division of the Central railway in the year 2004, to assess the anthropometric variables in railway employees and their relation to conventional CAD risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 995 railway employees, with 872 males and 123 females participated in this cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar level. Various anthropometric indices were calculated for body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, and abdominal volume index (AVI. Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info 6 statistical software. Results: Compared to all other obesity indices, WHtR was most prevalent in both genders. High WHtR was present in 699 (80.16% males and 103 (83.73% females. Age ≥45 years, high systolic BP, high diastolic BP, low HDL, high triglyceride, and diabetes mellitus were positively correlated with high BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI. High BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI were negatively associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions: Over all, anthropometric variables in both genders were significantly deranged in subjects with coronary risk factors. Compared to all other anthropometric variables, WHtR was statistically significantly associated with a majority of coronary artery risk factors. Hence we recommend inclusion of WHtR as a parameter of obesity to predict coronary artery disease risk factor along with WC, WHR, and BMI in epidemiologic studies.

  6. Dysphagia in the high-risk infant: potential factors and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal dysphagia, or abnormalities of swallowing, represent a major global problem, and consequences of dysfunctional feeding patterns carry over into infancy and toddler age groups. Growth, development, and independent feeding skills are all delayed among high-risk infants. Such a group comprises premature birth, low-birth-weight, congenital anomalies, perinatal asphyxia, postsurgical, and sepsis categories. The conflict between pathophysiologic and pragmatic feeding strategies remains a major conundrum and is largely due to a lack of validated diagnostic approaches amid heterogeneity of the patient phenotype. Thus, well-tested feeding management strategies that can be generalizable are lacking. Furthermore, the aerodigestive symptoms and signs, potential risk factors, and contributory etiologies remain nonspecific. This article presents mechanistic evidence related to the pathophysiologic basis of neonatal dysphagia as well as potential opportunities to improve feeding abilities and long-term development.

  7. Factors related to physical activity: a study of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, R; Thorlindsson, T

    1998-09-01

    Although the consequences of physical activity have been carefully documented, less is known about its correlates, particularly among children and youth. Based on a representative national survey of 1131 Icelandic adolescents, the study examined various physical, psychological, social and demographic factors related to physical activity. Male sex, significant others' involvement in physical activity (father, friend and older brother), sociability, perceived importance of sport and of health improvement and satisfaction with mandatory gym classes in school, were all related to more involvement, whereas hours of paid work and TV-viewing were related to less. Furthermore, the data suggested that the influence of friend's participation in physical activity depends on his or her emotional significance. Influential others appeared to affect males and females in the same way. The meaning of the results and their implications for future research are discussed.

  8. Potential Application Of Radionuclide Scaling Factors To High Level Waste Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-09-30

    Production sources, radiological properties, relative solubilities in waste, and laboratory analysis techniques for the forty-five radionuclides identified in Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Feed Acceptance Data Quality Objectives (DQO) document are addressed in this report. Based on Savannah River Site (SRS) experience and waste characteristics, thirteen of the radionuclides are judged to be candidates for potential scaling in High Level Waste (HLW) based on the concentrations of other radionuclides as determined through laboratory measurements. The thirteen radionuclides conducive to potential scaling are: Ni-59, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Cd-113m, Sn-121m, Sn-126, Cs-135, Sm-151, Ra-226, Ra-228, Ac-227, Pa-231, and Th-229. The ability to scale radionuclides is useful from two primary perspectives: 1) it provides a means of checking the radionuclide concentrations that have been determined by laboratory analysis; and 2) it provides a means of estimating radionuclide concentrations in the absence of a laboratory analysis technique or when a complex laboratory analysis technique fails. Along with the rationale for identifying and applying the potential scaling factors, this report also provides examples of using the scaling factors to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in current SRS waste and into the future. Also included in the report are examples of independent laboratory analysis techniques that can be used to check results of key radionuclide analyses. Effective utilization of radionuclide scaling factors requires understanding of the applicable production sources and the chemistry of the waste. As such, the potential scaling approaches identified in this report should be assessed from the perspective of the Hanford waste before reaching a decision regarding WTP applicability.

  9. Potential factors that may promote successful cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance DE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available David E VanceCenter for Nursing Research, School of Nursing, Edward R Roybal Center for Translational Research in Aging and Mobility, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: With the unprecedented number of older adults worldwide, it is important to consider ways of facilitating successful cognitive aging. One way to think of this is by augmenting or bolstering cognitive reserve. Loosely defined, cognitive reserve is considered a neurological reservoir that can be depleted by physiological insults (eg, white matter hyperintensities, oxidative stress to the brain but yet maintain optimal cognitive functioning. Cognitive reserve is built up or depleted by processes of positive and negative neuroplasticity, respectively. Lifestyle factors such as physical exercise (+, mental stimulation (+, good sleep hygiene (+, substance abuse (-, sedentary lifestyle (-, chronic stress and depression (-, social isolation (-, and poor health (- can either promote or discourage positive and negative neuroplasticity, which in turn impacts cognitive reserve. Nurses are encouraged to understand these processes so they can help facilitate successful cognitive aging in their patients.Keywords: cognitive reserve, Alzheimer's disease, neuroplasticity

  10. Libyan Paleozoic: A review of the factors limiting hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanes, W.H.; Mairn, A.E.M.; Aburawi, R.M.

    1988-08-01

    Of the three main Paleozoic basins - Ghadames, Murquz, and Kufra - only the Ghadames and its continuation into Algeria, the Illizi (or Fort Polignac) basin, has yielded hydrocarbons in significant quantity. The Paleozoic on the Cyrenaica platform and basement of the Sirte basin has a potential not fully considered. The paleogeography of the Paleozoic system is reviewed to illustrate the extent to which inherited and reactivated basement-controlled structures have influenced later Paleozoic sedimentation and hence the distribution of source rocks, reservoirs, and seals. In all instances, the source rocks are restricted to shales of the Tanezufft Formation or occur in the Upper Devonian Aouinet Oeunine Formation. Multiple fine-grained sequences serve as seals in all the fields. The reservoirs range from the well-cemented but highly fractured Cambrian-Ordovician Gargaf sandstones to the Acacus-Tadrart clastics to the fine-grained Lower Carboniferous Tahara Sandstone. The principal plays are associated with minor structures, and stratigraphic trapping mechanisms play a minor role. The average field size (excluding the Sirte basin) is approximately 80 million bbl of recoverable oil. Paleozoic structural plays in the Sirte basin and the Cyrenaica platform include reactivated infra-Cambrian faults. The lower Paleozoic accumulations of the Murzuq basin are tied to large structures. With the exception of local areas in the Ghadames basin, the Paleozoic succession remains a stratigraphic frontier province - still incompletely explored but with several interesting possibilities for large amounts of stratigraphically trapped hydrocarbons.

  11. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF IONIC LIQUIDS IN WOOD RELATED INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqin Han

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of ionic liquids (ILs has provided a new platform for efficient utilization of wood. In this paper, applications of ILs in wood-related industries are reviewed. First, the dissolution of wood in ILs and its application are described. Then the ILs used for wood preservation and improvement of wood anti-electrostatic and fire-proof properties are illustrated. Finally, “green” wood processing with ILs is discussed. Although some basic studies of ILs, such as their economical syntheses and toxicology are eagerly needed and some engineering problems still exist, research for application of ILs in wood-related industries has made great progress in recent years.

  12. Relativity constraints on the two-nucleon contact potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girlanda, Luca [Univ. of Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pisa (Italy); Pastore, Saori [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Schiavilla, Rocco [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Viviani, Michele [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pisa (Italy)

    2010-03-01

    We construct the most general, relativistically invariant, contact Lagrangian at order $Q^2$ in the power counting, $Q$ denoting the low momentum scale. A complete, but non-minimal, set of (contact) interaction terms is identified, which upon non-relativistic reduction generate 2 leading independent operator combinations of order $Q^0$ and 7 sub-leading ones of order $Q^2$---a result derived previously in the heavy-baryon formulation of effective field theories (EFT's). We show that Poincar\\'e covariance of the theory requires that additional terms with fixed coefficients be included, in order to describe the two-nucleon potential in reference frames other than the center-of-mass frame. These terms will contribute in systems with mass number $A>2$, and their impact on EFT calculations of binding energies and scattering observables in these systems should be studied.

  13. Loneliness and Its Related Factors among Elderly People in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Vakili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Old people appear to be most prone to loneliness and depression perhaps because of decrease in their ability in daily livings, increase in morbidity, loss of close ties caused by loss of friends and spouses. This study was conducted for investigation of the loneliness and its related factors in elderly people in Yazd. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 200 old people (over 60 years old from three zone; health centers, nursing home and retirement center by convenient sampling method. Data was collected by UCLA Loneliness Scale that was consisting of 20 items for loneliness measurement. Scores 41 and more defined as loneliness. Collected data was analyzed by proper statistical tests with SPSS software. Results: Results showed that 71 % of subjects had Not Feel Lonely, 24 % moderate and 5 % severe felling of loneliness. Factors such as level of education, marital status, numbers of daughter and sons, previous job, residence site, current job status, living in nursing home, insufficient income, place of praying, sleep quantity and quality of sleep and feeling of healthy were associated with  loneliness status (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Our findings showed loneliness is common in elderly that support needs for more investigations and attention to loneliness related factors, educational courses conduction for family to take care of their elders, preparing of recreational measures and social support groups to decrease the loneliness in old people and so they spend this period by good and healthy sensation. 

  14. Subjective sleep quality in perimenopausal women and its related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Zhang; Fen Lia; Yongjie Lin; Qiu Sheng; Xuewen Yu; Xinwen Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sleep quality and its related factors among perimenopausal women. Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was administered to 506 perimenopausal women. The questionnaire included the influencing factors on the sleep quality, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales (SDS), the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety (SAS) and the Modified Kupperman Index (KI). Data were analyzed by SPSS11.5. Results: The mean PSQI was 5.97±4.30.Twenty-four percent of perimenopausal women reported poor sleep. Age and perimenopausal symptoms were significantly correlated with sleep quality. The sleep quality of the 45~49 age group was the poorest and the 40~44 age group was the best. The women who had higher Kupperman index were more likely to be poor sleepers. There was no significant correlation between occupation and sleep quality. Night sweat, depression, anxiety, hot flash, stressful life event, and regular exercise were significantly and independently related with sleep quality. Among them, regular exercise was a protective factor of sleep quality. Conclusion:High incidence of poor sleep quality exists among perimenopausal women. Some effective interventions should be taken to improve the sleep quality of perimenopausal women.

  15. Factors related to the performance of Specialized Dental Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Christiane de Azevedo Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Specialized Dental Care Centers (SDCC have the mission to expand access to public medium complexity dental care and support the primary health care actions at this level of complexity. However, it is necessary to ensure the quality of services and to evaluate such services continuously to identify weaknesses and strengths that support the processes of leadership/management. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of studies on the assessment of oral health in specialized care that may indicate which factors should be investigated. Therefore, this integrated literature review sought to explore the plethora of publications on the evaluation of SDCC in the LILACS and MEDLINE data bases in October 2013 to identify factors possibly related to the performance of such health services. Thus, 13 references were included in this review pointing to forms of organization and management of work processes related to the creation of healthcare networks (operation of regulation centers and setting up of health consortiums. They include the contextual characteristics of the places where SDCCs are located (population size, Family Health Strategy coverage, Municipal Human Development Index, governance, governing capacity were factors that influenced the SDCCs performance.

  16. Risk factors for central venous catheter-related thrombosis in children: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Agarwal, Arnav; Tassone, Maria Cristina; Shahjahan, Nadia; Walton, Mark; Chan, Anthony; Mondal, Tapas

    2016-06-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) placement is associated with increased risk of thrombosis in the paediatric population, particularly in relation to the type of catheter and the manner of its insertion. Here, we investigate risk factors associated with CVC-related thrombosis in children, with particular emphasis on positioning of the catheter tip. Patients aged 0-18 who underwent at least one CVC placement from 2008 to 2013 at a single centre with a subsequent follow-up echocardiogram were included for a total of 104 patients and 147 lines. Data on clinical and catheter-related risk factors were collected from patient charts. Statistical analysis using Pearson's χ tests, independent samples t-test, and odds ratios were used to assess potential risk factors for thrombosis. Neither insertion site (subclavian vein or otherwise), left- vs. right-sided insertion, nor catheter type were significant risk factors for thrombosis. There were no thrombotic events reported at the superior vena cava (SVC)-right atrium junction and no significant differences in thrombotic risk with initial tip placement in the SVC-right atrium junction vs. the SVC, right atrium, or inferior vena cava. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was a major clinical risk factor for thrombosis. Tip movement was common and may have been an important factor in the development of CVC-related thrombi. Prospective studies can yield insight into the role of follow-up imaging in the prevention of catheter-related thrombosis in children.

  17. Oncogenic potential of Human Papillomavirus (HPV and its relation with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Muhammad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the most common cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer being the second most common cancer after lung cancer, affecting women of different age groups; has a prevalence of about 20% in young sexually active women. Among different types of HPV, HPV16 the major strain causing this cancer and is sexually transmitted had been unnoticed for decades. Keeping in mind the multiple risk factors related with cervical cancer such as early age sexual activities, teenage pregnancies, smoking, use of oral contraceptives, having multiple sex partners, hormone replacement therapies and various other unknown factors lead to the onset of the disease. Awareness for various diagnostic procedures such as Pap smears screening prove to be an effective way in eradicating the oncogenic potential of HPV.

  18. Anterior cruciate ligament remnants nodule: potential factor causing extension loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; AO Ying-fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Extension loss caused by anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) remnants nodule was usually reported by case reports.There is no systematic report analyzing ACL remnants nodule.The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of extension loss caused by remnants of ACL after injury.Methods From June 2008 to December 2011,ACL remnants were observed by atthroscopy in 1012 cases with ACL injuries at the time of primary reconstruction.ACL remnants nodules were recorded.The time of extension loss occurrence caused by ACL remnants nodule,associated symptom and sign,magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),and arthroscopic findings were observed.Histological examination was performed on the lesion resected.Results Twenty-four cases with ACL remnants nodules were found by arthroscopy.Among them extension loss caused by remnants of ACL happened in 19 cases (male 13; female 6).The average extension loss were 9.1° (range,5°-20°).The average time from injury to operation was 8.9 weeks (range,3-26 weeks).The remnants of ACL depressed in the inter-condylar notch were found on MRI in 15 cases with extension loss.The rupture locations of ACL were all close to the upper insertion of ACL.The microscopic examination of the resected remnants of ACL revealed disorganized fibrous connective tissue and tissue of ACL ligament.Conclusions Among 1012 ACL injury cases,24 ACL remnants nodules were found with arthroscopy and 19 nodules could cause knee extension loss.ACL remnants nodule should be paid attention to as a potential cause of extension loss.

  19. Functional state of knee arthritis patients and related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Kim, Jung-Hee; Chung, EunJung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study is to provide a direction for efficient management of arthritis through the analysis of multiple factors related to the functional state of patients. [Subjects and Methods] The Visual Analog Scale, Knee Society Knee Score & Function Score, Hospital for Special Surgery, Short Form-36 Health Survey and Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for a total of 135 patients with knee arthritis were determined with a survey. [Results] There is a significant correlation between age, pain, Knee Society Knee Score, Hospital for Special Surgery, Knee Society Function Score, and Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score. [Conclusion] It is necessary to improve the factors that affect knee function and quality of life, and a study on knee joint muscle strength is suggested as a follow-up study. PMID:28265166

  20. Myocardin-related transcription factor regulates Nox4 protein expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozycki, Matthew; Bialik, Janne Folke; Speight, Pam

    2016-01-01

    TGFβ-induced expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is essential for fibroblast-myofibroblast transition. Rho has been implicated in Nox4 regulation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), a Rho/actin polymerization-controlled coactivator...... translocation of MRTF. Because the Nox4 promoter harbors a serum response factor/MRTF cis-element (CC(A/T)6GG box), we asked if MRTF (and thus cytoskeleton organization) could regulate Nox4 expression. We show that Nox4 protein is robustly induced in kidney tubular cells exclusively by combined application...... of contact uncoupling and TGFβ. Nox4 knockdown abrogates epithelial-myofibroblast transition-associated reactive oxygen species production. Laser capture microdissection reveals increased Nox4 expression in the tubular epithelium also during obstructive nephropathy. MRTF down-regulation/inhibition suppresses...

  1. Potential mechanisms for hypoalgesia induced by anti-nerve growth factor immunoglobulin are identified using autoimmune nerve growth factor deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, E. Matthew; Zhang, Zijia; Anderson, Michael B.; Schechter, Ruben; Miller, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) antagonism has long been proposed as a chronic pain treatment. In 2010, the FDA suspended clinical trials using tanezumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-NGF antibody, to treat osteoarthritis due to worsening joint damage in 16 patients. Increased physical activity in the absence of acute pain which normally prevents self harm was purported as a potential cause. Such an adverse effect is consistent with an extension of tanezumab's primary mechanism of action by decreasing pain sensitivity below baseline levels. In animal inflammatory pain models, NGF antagonism decreases intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density and attenuates increases in expression of nociception related proteins, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). Little is known of the effects of NGF antagonism in noninflamed animals and the hypoalgesia that ensues. In the current study, we immunized rats with NGF or cytochrome C (cytC) and examined 1) nocifensive behaviors with thermal latencies, mechanical thresholds, the hot plate test, and the tail flick test, 2) IENF density, and 3) expression of CGRP, SP, voltage-gated sodium channel 1.8 (Nav1.8), and glutaminase in subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons separated by size and isolectin B4 (IB4) labeling. Rats with high anti-NGF titers had delayed responses on the hot plate test but no other behavioral abnormalities. Delayed hot plate responses correlated with lower IENF density. CGRP and SP expression was decreased principally in medium (400-800 μm2) and small neurons (<400 μm2), respectively, regardless of IB4 labeling. Expression of Nav1.8 was only decreased in small and medium IB4 negative neurons. NGF immunization appears to result in a more profound antagonism of NGF than tanezumab therapy, but we hypothesize that decreases in IENF density and nociception related protein expression are potential mechanisms for tanezumab induced hypoalgesia. PMID:21802499

  2. Natural cocoa consumption: Potential to reduce atherogenic factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Venable, Adam S; Henning, Andrea L; Prado, Eric A; Best Sampson, Jill N; Vingren, Jakob L; Hill, David W

    2015-06-01

    Short-term consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been demonstrated to improve various facets of vascular health. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 4 weeks of natural cocoa consumption on selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers in young (19-35 years) women of differing body mass indices (BMI; normal, overweight or obese). Subjects (n = 24) consumed a natural cocoa-containing product (12.7 g natural cocoa, 148 kcal/serving) or an isocaloric cocoa-free placebo daily for 4 weeks in a random, double-blind manner with a 2-week washout period between treatment arms. Fasted (>8-h) blood samples were collected before and after each 4-week period. Serum was analyzed to determine lipid profile (chemistry analyzer) and CVD biomarkers (26 biomarkers). EDTA-treated blood was used to assess monocytes (CD14, CD16, v11b and CD62L), while citrate-treated blood was used to measure changes in endothelial microparticles (EMPs; CD42a-/45-/144+) by flow cytometry. Natural cocoa consumption resulted in a significant decrease in haptoglobin (P = .034), EMP concentration (P = .017) and monocyte CD62L (P = .047) in obese compared to overweight and normal-weight subjects. Natural cocoa consumption regardless of BMI group was associated with an 18% increase in high-density lipoprotein (P = .020) and a 60% decrease in EMPs (P = .047). Also, obese subjects experienced a 21% decrease in haptoglobin (P = .034) and a 24% decrease in monocyte CD62L expression in (P = .047) following 4 weeks of natural cocoa consumption. Collectively, these findings indicate that acute natural cocoa consumption was associated with decreased obesity-related disease risk. More research is needed to assess the stability of the observed short-term changes.

  3. Cultural Competence and Related Factors Among Taiwanese Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Nu; Mastel-Smith, Beth; Alfred, Danita; Lin, Yu-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is a multicultural and multiethnic society with a growing number of immigrants who have diverse ethnic, racial, and cultural needs. Although this diversity highlights the pressing need for culturally competent healthcare providers, cultural competence is a concept that is little understood and implemented only sporadically in Taiwan. This study investigates the cultural competence of Taiwanese nurses and the related factors of influence. An online self-report survey was used to collect data from 221 Taiwanese nurses from December 2012 through January 2013. Data from the demographic questionnaire, the Nurses' Cultural Competence Scale, and the Perceived Nurses' Cultural Competence Rating were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, independent sample t tests, and multiple regressions. The cultural competence of the participants was in the "low to moderate" range, with relatively higher mean scores for the subscales of cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity and relatively lower scores for the subscales of cultural knowledge and cultural skills. Participants generally perceived themselves as being "not culturally competent." Variables found to predict cultural competence included years of work experience, hours of continuing education related to cultural nursing care, and frequency of caring for clients from culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds. Participating Taiwanese nurses rated their level of cultural competence as in the low-to-moderate range and self-perceived as being not culturally competent. These findings support the need to further expand and enhance cultural-competence-related continuing education and to address the topic of cultural care in the nursing curricula.

  4. Risk factors for osteoporosis and factors related to the use of DXA in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M. P.; Rubin, K. H.; Gram, J.

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: To evaluate the case-finding strategy for osteoporosis in Norway, a questionnaire concerning risk factors for osteoporosis and history of osteodensitometry was mailed to a population-based cohort of 6000 men and 6000 women. Suboptimal examination rates among high risk and reallocation...... of scanning capacity to seemingly low-risk individuals was found. PURPOSE: In Norway, a case-finding strategy for osteoporosis has been used. No data exist regarding the efficacy of this approach. The aim was to examine the prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and factors related to the use of dual X......-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in Norway. METHODS: Questionnaires regarding previous history of DXA, risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture were sent to an age-stratified, nationwide cross-sectional sample of 6000 men and 6000 women aged 40-90 years, drawn from the Norwegian Civil Registration System. RESULTS: Valid...

  5. Influence of soil, plant and meteorological factors on water relations and yield in Hevea brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. Gururaja; Rao, P. Sanjeeva; Rajagopal, R.; Devakumar, A. S.; Vijayakumar, K. R.; Sethuraj, M. R.

    1990-09-01

    Influence of factors governing the soil-plantatmosphere system on components of water relations and yield was studied in two clones of rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, viz. RRII 105 and RRII 118. Clonal variations were evident in yield and yield components and associated physiological parameters in response to soil moisture status and meteorological factors. Observations made during different seasons indicatedvariations in yield are attributed to differences in plugging index and initial flow rates, to the major yield components and also variations in components of water relations as influenced by meteorological factors. Among the two clones, RRII 105 was found to be fairly drought tolerant compared to RRII 118. RRII 105 was found to respond well to dry weather through higher stomatal resistances, higher leaf water potentials, lowered transpirational water loss and lower relative transpiration ratios, while RRII 118 was susceptible to stress situations.

  6. Integrative review of factors related to the nursing diagnosis nausea during antineoplastic chemotherapy 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysés, Aline Maria Bonini; Durant, Lais Corsino; de Almeida, Ana Maria; Gozzo, Thais de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify factors related to the nursing diagnosis nausea among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Method: integrative review conducted in four electronic databases (PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL and LILACS) using the key words: neoplasia, antineoplastic agents and nausea. Results: only 30 out of 1,258 papers identified met the inclusion criteria. The most frequent related factors were: being younger than 50 years old, motion sickness, being a woman, emetogenic potential of the chemotherapy, anxiety, conditioned stimulus, and expecting nausea after treatment. Conclusion: this review's findings, coupled with the incidence of nausea among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, reveal an important difference between evidence found and that used by NANDA International, Inc. Even though it provides an appropriate definition of related factors, it does not mention chemotherapy, despite the various studies addressing the topic using different designs and presenting various objectives and outcomes. PMID:27737380

  7. Research of personal decision process using event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofeng

    2011-10-01

    To gain insights into the neural basis of such adaptive decision-making processes, we investigated the nature of learning process in humans playing a competitive game with binary choices, using a matching pennies game. As in reinforcement learning, the subject's choice during a competitive game was biased by its choice and reward history, as well as by the strategies of its opponent. Analyses of ERP data focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN), we found that the magnitude of ERPs after losing to the computer opponent predicted whether subjects would change decision behavior on the subsequent trial. These findings provide novel evidence that humans engage a reinforcement learning process to adjust representations of competing decision options.

  8. Color-factor symmetry and BCJ relations for QCD amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Tree-level $n$-point gauge-theory amplitudes with $n-2k$ gluons and $k$ pairs of (massless or massive) particles in the fundamental (or other) representation of the gauge group are invariant under a set of symmetries that act as momentum-dependent shifts on the color factors in the cubic decomposition of the amplitude. These symmetries lead to gauge-invariant constraints on the kinematic numerators. They also directly imply the BCJ relations among the Melia-basis primitive amplitudes previously obtained by Johansson and Ochirov.

  9. Celecoxib inhibits Helicobacter pylori colonization-related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of celecoxib,a selective COX-2 inhibitor,on Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) colonization-related factors and its mechanism.METHODS:After co-incubation with celecoxib,morphology of H.pylori strain 26695 was observed under a transmission electron microscope.Flagella motility was assessed by stab agar motility test.Adherence of H.pylori to AGS cells was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.Levels of mRNA expression in flagellar genes(flaA,flaB),urease genes(ureA,ureB)and ...

  10. Auger relative sensitivivity factors for CdTe oxide

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bartolo-Pérez; J. L. Peña; M.H. Farías

    1999-01-01

    The Auger lineshape of Te MNN in measurements of Auger spectra of CdTe oxide films with various degrees of oxidation was analyzed. By using standards from stoichiometric compounds, Auger relative sensitivity factors (RSF´s) of Cd, Te and O for CdTe oxide thin films were obtained. The value of the RFS of oxygen is about constant, 0.27-0.28, for the standard compound, CdO, TeO2 and CdTeO3 (considering the RSF of Cd as 1). However, the obtained RSF of Te changes from 0.69 in CdTe up to 0.87 in C...

  11. Postmyocardial Infarct Remodeling and Heart Failure: Potential Contributions from Pro- and Antiaging Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliday A. Idikio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction and adverse postinfarct remodeling in older persons lead to poor outcome and need greater understanding of the contributions of age-related factors on abnormal cardiac function and management. In this perspective, how normal aging processes could contribute to the events of post-myocardial infarction and remodeling is reviewed. Post-myocardial infarction and remodeling involve cardiomechanical factors and neurohormonal response. Many factors prevent or accelerate aging including immunosenescence, recruitment and regeneration of stem cells, telomere shortening, oxidative damage, antiaging hormones klotho and melatonin, nutrition, and Sirtiun protein family, and these factors could affect post-MI remodeling and heart failure. Interest in stem cell repair of myocardial infarcts to mitigate post-MI remodeling needs more information on aging of stem cells, and potential effects on stem cell use in infarct repair. Integrating genomics and proteomics methods may help find clinically novel therapy in the management of post-MI remodeling and heart failure in aged individuals.

  12. Work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Podlogar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Work is an important part of adult life. As such it is closely connected to health and mental health. Aspects of occupation, work and employment can represent risk factors for suicidal behaviour or protective factors against it. Aim of this article is to present the known work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for preventive activities in this context. An important risk factor for suicidal behaviour is unemployment. Connection between unemployment and suicidality is complex and can be explained in two ways: (i underlying vulnerability leads to both unemployment and suicidal behaviour, while (ii the connection is also thought be causal to some extent. The addressed topic is very important in the period of economic recession, when unemployment rates are high and adverse changes in terms of working conditions can occur. Different psycho-social and other working conditions are also connected to suicidal behaviour. Efficient preventive activities include approaches on multiple levels: active politics of solving economic crisis and improving the labour market conditions, creating and maintaining stimulating working conditions, raising awareness and mental health promotion among the employees, gatekeeper training, and restriction of means for suicide in occupations with access to them. Due to complexity of suicidal behaviour there is a need for further research, which would contribute to better understanding of specific risk factors and especially protective factors in vulnerable groups.

  13. Health-related quality of life in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: contribution of demographic factors, disease-related factors, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, Lianne C; Oostenbrink, R; de Goede-Bolder, Arja; Aarsen, Femke K; Elgersma, Ype; Moll, Henriëtte A

    2009-03-01

    To investigate health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) with parental reports and children's self-reports, and to investigate the potential contribution of demographic factors, disease-specific factors, and problems in school performance or behavior. In a prospective observational study, parents of 58 children with NF1 (32 boys, 26 girls, age 12.2 +/- 2.5 years) visiting a university clinic, and their 43 children 10 years or older were assessed with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ). Potential determinants of domain scores were assessed in 3 explorative regression models. Parents reported a significant impact of NF1 on 9/13 CHQ scales, with moderate effect sizes on 8 (general health perceptions, physical functioning, general behavior, mental health, self esteem, family activities, role functioning emotional/behavioral, and parent emotional impact). Children report an impact on bodily pain, and an above average general behavior. Multiple CHQ scales were sensitive to demographic factors and behavioral problems, and 1 to NF1 severity. NF1 visibility and school problems did not influence HR-QOL. Parents, but not the children with NF1, report a profound impact of NF1 on physical, social, behavioral, and emotional aspects of HR-QOL. Multiple HR-QOL domains were most sensitive to behavioral problems, which points to an exciting potential opportunity to improve HR-QOL in children with NF1 by addressing these behavioral problems.

  14. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during...... admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors......People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...

  15. Gender and number processing in Chinese learners of Spanish - evidence from Event Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowens, Margaret Gillon; Guo, Taomei; Guo, Jingjing; Barber, Horacio; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Traditionally, age of acquisition (AoA) has been considered the single most important factor in second language (L2) acquisition and processing, particularly in the area of syntax processing. However, there is now growing evidence of the importance of other factors, such as the level of proficiency attained and the degree of overlap or similarity between the first language (L1) and L2 structures and possibility of transfer of features and/or processing routines. However, the relative importance of these factors and the nature of L1-L2 transfer are still unclear. To shed light on these issues, we recorded the electrical brain activity of a group of Chinese proficient late learners of Spanish, using the Event Related Potentials technique, while they read Spanish sentences containing violations of number and grammatical gender agreement (adjective-noun agreement and article-noun agreement). Unlike Spanish, Mandarin Chinese is an isolating language in which morphosyntactic features such as gender and number are not computed and so the ERP results from this group can help to clarify the role of L1-L2 transfer in morpho-syntax processing routines. The results included P600 effects for both gender and number agreement violations, with no differences between these disagreement conditions. These results are taken to support second language acquisition models which stress the roles of proficiency and L1-L2 transfer in L2 syntax processing.

  16. Risk indicators and potential risk factors for caries in 5-year-olds of different ethnic groups in Amsterdam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Horst, G. ter; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: first, to assess the oral health of Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Dutch and "other" 5-yr-old children living in Amsterdam; second, to identify risk indicators for caries, in addition to ethnicity; and third, to identify potential risk factors related to differen

  17. Risk indicators and potential risk factors for caries in 5-year-olds of different ethnic groups in Amsterdam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Horst, G. ter; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: first, to assess the oral health of Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Dutch and "other" 5-yr-old children living in Amsterdam; second, to identify risk indicators for caries, in addition to ethnicity; and third, to identify potential risk factors related to

  18. The Relation between Work-related Psychosocial Factors and the Development of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Conrad, Nicole; Bech, Per

    2008-01-01

    the evidence. Social support at work was associated with a decrease in risk for future depression, as all four studies dealing with this exposure showed  associations with relative risks of about 0.6. Even if this literature study has identified work-related psychosocial factors that in high......This review is based on a literature search made in January 2007 on request by the Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries. The search in PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO resulted in more than 1,000 publications. This was reduced to 14 after the titles, abstracts, and papers were evaluated...... by using the following criteria: 1) a longitudinal study, 2) exposure to work-related psychosocial factors, 3) the outcome a measure of depression, 4) relevant statistical estimates, and 5) nonduplicated publication. Of the 14 studies, seven used standardized diagnostic instruments as measures...

  19. Slowing of Event-Related Potentials in Primary Progressive Aphasia. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Giaquinto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA is a rare and insidious language impairment that worsens over time. It belongs to the group of fronto–temporal dementias. This study was aimed at assessing the role of speed of cognitive abilities, such as word recognition, in PPA. The design is a single-case, longitudinal study. A male patient suffering from PPA was enrolled and 15 healthy older adults were the control group. An event-related electrical potential connected with word recognition, namely the N400, was delayed by 200 msec at baseline compared to healthy controls and progressively deteriorated. One year later, the delay was greater and two years later the potential had disappeared. Reduced speed of processing is an early pathological factor that negatively affecting higher cognitive functions in APP. Event–related electrical potentials are recommended in the field of aphasia and cognitive decline. They permit observation of a speed decline in higher cognitive abilities, when pathological changes at a central level begin and language comprehension seems to be unaffected.

  20. Factors relating to the perceived management of emergency situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkvad Rasmussen, Maria; Tolsgaard, Martin G; Dieckmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explored individual, team, and setting factors associated with the quality of management of in-hospital emergency situations experienced by former Advanced Life Support (ALS) course participants. METHODS: This study was a survey of former ALS course participants' long......-term experience of management of in-hospital, emergency situations. The survey was carried out in 2012 in Denmark and Norway. RESULTS: A questionnaire was send to 526 potential responders and (281/479 × 100) 58.7% responded. The results demonstrated that 75% of the emergency situations were perceived as "managed...... to apply ALS principles, the team atmosphere and communication. Responders' ratings of quality of management of emergency situations increased with intensity of setting. However, the 'clinical setting' was rated significantly lower as attributor to ability to apply ALS principles compared to 'co...

  1. Principles and factors of formation and use of the investment potential of the enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Bormotova, M.; Moskalenko, B.; Sukhorebryi, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the principles and factors of formation and use of the investment potential of the enterprise. The authors found the most effective directions of improvement in the investment potential of the enterprise by acting on the factors of its formation. The most effective ways to ensure the growth of the investment potential of the enterprise is to provide favorable conditions for the production process at the plant and the removal of bureaucratic and criminal barriers to activ...

  2. Risk factors of HIV-related oral lesions in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Noel Marzano Rodrigues Petruzzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk factors in the occurrence of oral lesions in HIV-positive adults. METHODS: A retrospective analytical-descriptive survey was conducted using the medical/dental records of 534 patients with oral lesions associated with HIV. The data were collected from five referral centers for managing HIV and associated comorbidities in the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, between 1996 and 2011. Using a standardized form, socio-demographic and clinical data were recorded. Exclusively and definitively diagnosed oral pathologies were included and classified according to ECC criteria on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. For data analysis cross-tabulations, Chi-squared tests and logistic regression models were used where appropriate. RESULTS: CD4+ counts lower than 350 cells/mm³ (p < 0.001, alcohol consumption (p = 0.011 and female gender (p = 0.031 were predisposing factors for oral candidiasis. The occurrence of hairy leukoplakia was independently associated with CD4+ counts below 500 cells/mm³, (p = 0.029 a viral load above 5,000 copies/mm³ (p = 0.003 and smoking (p = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate and severe degrees of immunodeficiency and detectable viral loads were risk factors for the onset of oral lesions. Smoking and alcohol consumption also increased susceptibility to the development of opportunistic infections in HIV-positive adults from Porto Alegre, irrespective of the use of antiretroviral therapy.

  3. Risk Factors Related to Low Birth Weight in Cienfuegos Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rafael Zerquera Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the low birth weight still constitutes a complex a complex health problem. It is determined by some factors and it is the most important predictive index of infantile mortality. Objective: identifying the risk factors related to low birth weight. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted. There were analyzed the 77 birth of children with inferior weigh to 2500g, occurred in 2010 at the municipality of Cienfuegos, puerperas were included, mothers of those children. The pregnancy's follow-up cards, patient’s clinical records and municipal and provincial statistics were checked. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics, the nutritional state, numbers of pregnancies, heavy profit during pregnancy, age, toxic habits and diseases correlated to pregnancy were analyzed. Results: the index of low birth weigh oscillated between 3.6 and 6.7 per month. The 52% of low birth weight newborn’s mothers had school university level. The 74 % of mothers work. The 70.1 % were smokers and the 57, 1 % developed a gravidum hypertensive disease. Conclusions: the most associated factors to low birth weight were, the mother’s habit to smoke, as well as the diseases that affected them during pregnancy, fundamentally the hypertensive disease and the vaginal sepsis.

  4. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Tyson; Lozada, Remedios; Anderson, Christy M; Patterson, Thomas L; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2011-04-08

    To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs.

  5. Gene expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors for potential targeted therapy of canine hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Gentoku; Asano, Kazushi; Seki, Mamiko; Sakai, Manabu; Kutara, Kenji; Ishigaki, Kumiko; Kagawa, Yumiko; Yoshida, Orie; Teshima, Kenji; Edamura, Kazuya; Watari, Toshihiro

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors of primary hepatic masses, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and nodular hyperplasia (NH), in dogs. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression of 18 genes in 18 HCCs, 10 NHs, 11 surrounding non-cancerous liver tissues and 4 healthy control liver tissues. Platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B), transforming growth factor-α, epidermal growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor were found to be differentially expressed in HCC compared with NH and the surrounding non-cancerous and healthy control liver tissues. PDGF-B is suggested to have the potential to become a valuable ancillary target for the treatment of canine HCC.

  6. Study Of Socio- Economic Factors In Relation To Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahjabeen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: what are the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy and their implications? Objectives: (i To study the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy.(ii To assess the impact of disease on patients’ job/income. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting and Participants: Patients attending the dermatology OPD, J.N. Medical college hospital, A.M.U., Aligarh. Sample size: 200 leprosy patients. Study variables: education, occupation, social class, incapacitation, change in job, reduction in income. Statically analysis: Chi-square test Results: 46% of the leprosy patients were illiterate. A large majority of patients (78% were involved in heavy manual work as farmers and labourers. 68.5% patients belonged to low social classes (IV and V. More males (26.3% suffered from incapacitation than females (8.5%. 2.5% patients lost their job or were unable to work and 11.5% had to change their jobs due to the disease or disability caused by it. 17.5% patients had a history of reduction in their income after occurrence of leprosy.

  7. [Relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-ping; Xu, Jing; Bi, Bao-gui

    2009-03-01

    To clarify the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors is of significance to the prediction and evaluation of landslide and debris flow hazards. Base on the latitudinal and longitudinal information of 18431 landslide and debris flow hazards in China, and the 1 km x 1 km grid data of elevation, elevation difference, slope, slope aspect, vegetation type, and vegetation coverage, this paper analyzed the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards in this country to above-mentioned environmental factors by the analysis method of frequency ratio. The results showed that the landslide and debris flow hazards in China more occurred in lower elevation areas of the first and second transitional zones. When the elevation difference within a 1 km x 1 km grid cell was about 300 m and the slope was around 30 degree, there was the greatest possibility of the occurrence of landslide and debris hazards. Mountain forest land and slope cropland were the two land types the hazards most easily occurred. The occurrence frequency of the hazards was the highest when the vegetation coverage was about 80%-90%.

  8. Age at Natural Menopause and Related Factors in Isfahan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshiri, Parastoo; Abdollahzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the age at natural menopause and related factors among women in a population based study in 2015 in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study 960 menopausal women were selected by cluster sampling. Demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle behavior and reproductive history aspects were collected using a structured questionnaire. Woman and her husband's educational level and occupation with family income were the variables to construct socioeconomic status using principal component analysis. Results Mean and median of natural menopause age were 48.66 and 48 years, respectively. Women body mass index (BMI) more than 30 kg/m2 had significantly higher menopausal age than women with lower BMI (P value = 0.022). The mean of menopausal age was not statistically significant in regard to marital status, physical activity, smoking status, menarche age, age at first pregnancy and history of abortion. Menopause age with pregnancy numbers and age at last pregnancy had a significant positive association. Women with better socioeconomic status had significantly higher natural menopause age. Multiple linear regression shows significant relationship between lower age at menopause with higher age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Age at menopause in our studied sample is similar to previous estimates reported for other Iranian populations. Age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status were the significant factors in relations to age at menopause. PMID:27617243

  9. Socio Demographic Factors Related to Smoking among Rural Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of premature death, disease, and disability. Adolescence is the period of physical, psychological and social maturation from childhood to adulthood and adolescent smoking is a continuous process which is related to many disease factors. Objective: To find out the factors related to smoking among rural adolescents. Materials and method: One hundred and fifty one male adolescent aged 13 to 19 years from rural areas were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire during January to June 2013, at Dhamrai Upazilla Health Complex, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The socio demographic details, smoking and depression history were recorded. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale was used to measure the presence of depression. Smoking behavior was measured by a number of questions. Results: Mean(±SD age of the study subjects was 16.8(±1.9 years. Most of the respondents started smoking around the average age of 14.3 years. The study shows that 64% respondents were smokers. Among smokers 80% were influenced by their friends about smoking. Seventy eight percent of the smokers were suffering from depression while 22% of nonsmokers were depressed (p<0.001. Majority (72% of the issues of the smoker parents were smoker (p<0.5. Domestic violence (p<0.001 and stressful events in life (p<0.05 also played significant roles for smoking. Conclusion: Depression, parent smoking and peer smoking, domestic violence, and stressful life events are important factors to start smoking in rural adolescents.

  10. Depressive symptoms in medical students: prevalence and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bomi; Roh, Hyerin

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of depression and the factors that influence it in Korean medical students. We evaluated depression in 122 first- and second-year medical students in December 2011 using the Korean Beck Depression Inventory (K-BDI). Sixteen potential factors were considered: gender, class year, grade point average, breakfast habits, residence type, leisure activity, sleep satisfaction, relationship status, a close friend or a significant other, finances, present health status, history of mood disorders, family history of mood disorders, religion, and self-esteem. The average BDI score was 8.9. There were 80 (65.6%), 16 (13.1%), 15 (12.3%), and 11 (9.0%) students with minimal, mild, moderate, and severe depression, respectively. The group with depressive symptoms comprised males with a total BDI score > or =24 and females with total BDI > or =25 and constituted 9.0% of students. Students in the depressive symptom group had lower self-esteem and lower grade point averages and were more frequently ill, less likely to be in a relationship, and more likely to have a history of mood disorders (pself-esteem score was an independent factor. The BDI scores in our study were similar to those that have been reported in other countries but slightly higher than in other Korean medical and university students. Self-esteem, grade point average, health status, history of mood disorders, family history of mood disorders, and presence of a significant other correlated significantly with depression in medical students.

  11. Relation between the equalized molecular chemical potential and the ionization potential of organic homologs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晨忠

    1995-01-01

    The ionization potential of organic homologs can be expressed as I_p=(∑X_i)/(a+bn).Here,X_i is the electronegativity(the average energy of valence electrons in a ground-state free atom)of the ith atomin an organic homologous molecule;n,the number of repeating units in the molecule;and(a+bn),the electronmoving range in the molecule orbit.The results of linear regression analysis show that the correlationcoefficients r are all "excellent"(r>0.990)for the 146 sets of photo electron spectroscopy data of 42 organichomologous series.

  12. System-related factors contributing to diagnostic errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Thammasitboon, Supat; Singhal, Geeta

    2013-10-01

    Several studies in primary care, internal medicine, and emergency departments show that rates of errors in test requests and result interpretations are unacceptably high and translate into missed, delayed, or erroneous diagnoses. Ineffective follow-up of diagnostic test results could lead to patient harm if appropriate therapeutic interventions are not delivered in a timely manner. The frequency of system-related factors that contribute directly to diagnostic errors depends on the types and sources of errors involved. Recent studies reveal that the errors and patient harm in the diagnostic testing loop have occurred mainly at the pre- and post-analytic phases, which are directed primarily by clinicians who may have limited expertise in the rapidly expanding field of clinical pathology. These errors may include inappropriate test requests, failure/delay in receiving results, and erroneous interpretation and application of test results to patient care. Efforts to address system-related factors often focus on technical errors in laboratory testing or failures in delivery of intended treatment. System-improvement strategies related to diagnostic errors tend to focus on technical aspects of laboratory medicine or delivery of treatment after completion of the diagnostic process. System failures and cognitive errors, more often than not, coexist and together contribute to the incidents of errors in diagnostic process and in laboratory testing. The use of highly structured hand-off procedures and pre-planned follow-up for any diagnostic test could improve efficiency and reliability of the follow-up process. Many feedback pathways should be established so that providers can learn if or when a diagnosis is changed. Patients can participate in the effort to reduce diagnostic errors. Providers should educate their patients about diagnostic probabilities and uncertainties. The patient-safety strategies focusing on the interface between diagnostic system and therapeutic

  13. Musculoskeletal Disorders and Their Related Risk Factors Among Iranian Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghinejad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are one of the most occupational problems among nurses and often cause many physical and psychological complications for nurses, and are a financial burden for health-care systems. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence MSDs and their related risk factors among Iranian nurses. Patients and Methods This descriptive-correlational study included 240 hospital nurses, with a baccalaureate nursing degree, who worked at three public hospitals of the Ilam province of Iran. Data were collected through a validated self-administered questionnaire. Finally, 156 questionnaires were returned (response rate: 65% and 135 questionnaires qualified for subsequent analysis. The data were analyzed using the SPSS version 15.0 software. Descriptive and inferential statistics (logistic regression were used. Results Overall, 97 (71.9% hospital nurses experienced MSDs in at least one anatomical site within the last year. Low back pain was the most prevalent MSDs (40% and hip and thigh were the least (11.1% frequent sites. Most of the nurses with MSDs worked at surgery wards (17.8%, emergency (15.6% and intensive care units (12.6%. Pain (48.1% and cramps (31.9% were the most frequent symptoms of MSDs and loss of limbs control (5.9% was the least frequent symptom. Bend or twist at waist for performing nursing procedures, patient transfer from and to beds, working with the hands higher than shoulder height and changing position of patients in beds were the most frequent occupational factors that influenced MSDs. Increased age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI and gender had no significant association with MSDs. However, being single and involved in any kinds of physical activity were significantly associated with the prevalence of MSDs (P < 0.05. Conclusions The study findings indicated high prevalence of worked-related MSDs among Iranian hospital nurses. Accordingly, appropriate policies

  14. New approaches and potential treatments for dry age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Max Damico

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging treatments for dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD and geographi c atrophy focus on two strategies that target components involved in physiopathological pathways: prevention of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium loss (neuroprotection induction, oxidative damage prevention, and visual cycle modification and suppression of inflammation. Neuroprotective drugs, such as ciliary neurotrophic factor, brimonidine tartrate, tandospirone, and anti-amyloid β antibodies, aim to prevent apoptosis of retinal cells. Oxidative stress and depletion of essential micronutrients are targeted by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS formulation. Visual cycle modulators reduce the activity of the photoreceptors and retinal accumulation of toxic fluorophores and lipofuscin. Eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration present chronic inflammation and potential treatments include corticosteroid and complement inhibition. We review the current concepts and rationale of dry age-related macular degeneration treatment that will most likely include a combination of drugs targeting different pathways involved in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration.

  15. Nurses’ working motivation sources and related factors: A questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Bodur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motivation is an important issue for personnel management in health care settings, as it is related to both performance and intention to quit. Objectives: The study was aimed to determine nurses’ working motivation sources and related factors in hospitals. Design: Descriptive study. Settings: A state university hospital and a public hospital in Turkey. Participants: Two hundred and two nurses were randomly selected from each department in a university and in a public hospital. Methods: Data were collected using a socio-demographic questionnaire and the Motivation Sources Inventory and were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Among five motivation sources, internal self-concept-based motivation was the highest and intrinsic process motivation was the lowest in nurses. There was a significant relation between scores of some motivation sources and managerial experience, income level, satisfaction from the unit, staff roles, and perception of work stress. Conclusions: Intrinsic process motivation, instrumental motivation, and external self-concept-based motivation sources may be improved to increase nurses’ total motivation.

  16. Relationship between oral health in children and poverty related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squassi, Aldo; Mauro, Silvia; Mauro, María José; Sánchez, Gabriel; Bordoni, Noemí

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the variables related to poverty and its influence on oral health in children living in a suburban area ofBuenos Aires, Argentina. The study population consisted of 1,049 children. 579 children at social risk (Group I) were recruited from five neighborhoods with critical lacks (Katzman, 1989) and divided into 2 subgroups according to age: (A) preschool children and (B) school children. 470 preschool and school children from the same district but living in homes without critical lacks served as controls (Group II). The following variables associated with poverty were analyzed: (a) parents' instructional level, (b) employment conditions, and (c) accessibilty to regular oral health care. Group I comprised children from five neighborhoods categorized according to the incidence rate of each variable. Clinical examinations were performed under similar conditions by three calibrated investigators. DMFS, dmfs, total DMFS + dmfs, DS + ds, Care Index and Loe & Silness plaque index were recorded and analyzed using Students t test, ANOVA and Chi square test (level of significance p poverty-related variables rose. The highest number of children with high cariogenic risk was observed in neighborhoods with the highest social risk (c2 = 30.48; p poverty-related variables seemed to be associated with factors that play a role in the dental caries development process in school and preschool children living in the Metropolitan area of Buenos Aires.

  17. 低出生体重早产儿闪光视觉诱发电位变化及相关影响因素探讨%Study of the variation of flash visual evoked potential in preterm low birth weight infants and its related influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周北燕; 周平; 高延; 卫焱星; 卢光进

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨低出生体重早产儿闪光刺激视觉诱发电位(FVEP)变化及相关影响因素.方法:对2007年11月至2008年12月本院住院、围产期有合并症的低出生体重儿和极低出生体重儿进行FVEP检测,与无合并症的低出生体重早产儿(低体重对照组)及健康足月儿进行对比.对有合并症早产儿的围产因素进行Logistic回归分析,筛选出与主波Pl异常相关的影响因素,列出回归方程.结果:极低体重儿组Nl、Pl、N2波潜伏期均值分别为(181.4±26.7)ms、(217.3±26.5)ms和(249.2±26.5)ms,低体重儿组分别为(177.6±18.7)ms、(217.6±23.2)ms和(250.1±20.4)ms,低体重对照组分别为(158.9±32.1)ms、(199.9±13.3)ms和(232.9±16.7)ms,足月儿组分别为(159.5±18.3)ms、(200.3±13.9)ms和(231.6±15.7)ms.极低体重儿组和低体重儿组各波潜伏期均较足月儿组长,主波Pl波潜伏期较足月儿和低体重对照组长,差异有统计学意义(P均<0.001).极低体重儿组、低体重儿组Pl波异常率较低体重对照组高(75.6%、58.4%比5.0%,P<0.O01).114例有合并症早产儿主波异常的主要相关影响因素是脑损伤(OR=3.955).结论:围产期有合并症的低体重早产儿和极低出生体重儿FVEP检查异常率较高;FVEP异常改变与脑损伤病变关系密切.%Objective To study the variation of flash visual evoked potential ( FVEP) in preterm low birth weight infants and its related influencing factors. Methods FVEP was performed in low birth weight and very low birth weight infants hospitalized with perinatal complications from November 2007 to December 2008, and a group of preterm low birth weight infants without any complication as well as normal term infants goup served as controls. A logistic regression analysis for the perinatal factors was applied subsequently in the premature infants with abnormal main wave P1 and then regression equation was established by related factors screening Results The mean latency periods of N1, P

  18. Beyond Negative Pain-Related Psychological Factors: Resilience Is Related to Lower Pain Affect in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington, Kasey S; Cheng, Joshua C; Bosma, Rachael L; Rogachov, Anton; Kim, Junseok A; Davis, Karen D

    2017-09-01

    Resilience, a characteristic that enhances adaptation in response to stressful events, is a positive psychological factor that can predict and modulate health outcomes. However, resilience is rarely considered in pain research. Conversely, negative psychological factors (eg, anxiety, depression) are known to be related to the affective dimension of pain. It is critical to understand all potential psychological drivers of pain affect, a prominent component of chronic pain. We tested the hypothesis that higher resilience is associated with lower pain affect, above and beyond the predictive value of negative psychological factors. Healthy adults underwent psychophysical testing to acquire ratings of heat pain intensity and unpleasantness and completed the Resilience Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait form), Beck Depression Inventory, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Pain Vigilance and Attention Questionnaire. Multiple regression modeling (n = 68) showed resilience to be a negatively associated with pain affect (unpleasantness). Furthermore, in individuals with higher anxiety scores, resilience was protective against higher pain affect. This highlights the importance of resilience, a positive psychological factor, in the affective dimension of pain. This study is the first to assess a positive psychological factor and experimental pain affect, and has the potential to improve prediction of and treatment strategies for clinical pain. We report that resilience, a positive psychological factor, interacts with anxiety and is associated with heat pain affect (unpleasantness) in healthy individuals. Resilience may provide predictive value of chronic pain affect and treatment outcomes, and could be a target for behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Age-related changes in involuntary and voluntary attention as reflected in components of the event-related potential (ERP).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of age-related changes in both involuntary and voluntary attention in adult Ss as manifested in scalp-recorded event related potential (ERP)s. A decline in orienting with old age was inferred from a substantial reduction with age in the magnitude of deviance-related ERP componen

  20. Clinical features and related factors to anxiety disorders in adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the social and psychological risk factors to anxiety disorders in adolescents,and to screen protective factors and risk factors and establish the prediction model.Methods The Screen for Child Anxiety

  1. Identification of the potential risk factors for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance of progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Du, Juan; Hou, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a premalignant plasma cell disorder. The etiology of MGUS progression remains unclear and is a current topic of investigation. This review summarizes the essential features of MGUS and the potential risk factors for MGUS of progression. Many clinical studies have been conducted to identify the critical risk markers that play important roles in progression. Some clinical variables, such as immunophenotypic markers and cytogenetic changes, have been recognized as potential risk factors. In this review, we discuss novel insights from recent studies of potential risk factors, and we propose future directions for clinical management and additional studies.

  2. Association of Serum Phosphate and Related Factors in ESRD-Related Vascular Calcification

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    Cai-Mei Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is common in ESRD patients and is important in increasing mortality from cardiovascular complications in these patients. Hyperphosphatemia related to chronic kidney disease is increasingly known as major stimulus for vascular calcification. Hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification become popular discussion among nephrologist environment more than five decades, and many researches have been evolved. Risk factors for calcification are nowadays focused for the therapeutic prevention of vascular calcification with the hope of reducing cardiovascular complications.

  3. Oral health-related quality of life of removable partial denture wearers and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghian, S; Taghva, M; Abduo, J; Bagheri, R

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a group of removable partial denture (RPD) wearers in Shiraz (Iran), using the Persian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Two hundred removable partial denture wearers had completed a questionnaire regarding patients' demographic characteristics and denture-related factors. In addition, the OHIP-14 questionnaire was filled out by interviewing the patients. Two measures of interpreting the OHIP-14 scales were utilised: OHIP-14 sum and OHIP-14 prevalence. The relationship of the patients' demographic characteristics and denture-related factors, with their OHRQoL was investigated. The mean OHIP-14 sum and OHIP-14 prevalence of RPD wearers were 13·80 (±10·08) and 44·5%, respectively. The most problematic aspects of OHIP-14 were physical disability and physical pain. Twenty-seven percentage and 24% of participants had reported meal interruption and eating discomfort, respectively. OHIP-14 prevalence and OHIP-14 sum were found to be significantly associated with factors representing RPD wearer's oral health such as self-reported oral health and frequency of denture cleaning. Furthermore, OHIP-14 prevalence and OHIP-14 sum were significantly associated with factors related to frequency of denture use such as hours of wearing the denture during the day and wearing the denture while eating and sleeping. Therefore, it can be concluded that the OHRQoL of the patients of the study was generally not optimal and found to be strongly associated with oral health.

  4. [Quality-of-life-related factors in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, Marta; Martínez-Montilla, José Manuel; Guerra-Martín, María Dolores; Vargas-Martínez, Ana Magdalena; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín S

    2016-08-23

    To determine quality of life (QoL) and its relationship to lifestyles in adolescents in high schools. Cross-sectional, observational study with 256 students aged 12 to 17 in Seville (Spain). Multiple linear regression models were tested (p <0.05). The boys had higher scores in most of the QoL areas. The female gender was inversely related to physical, psychological, familial QoL areas and the general QoL index. Family functionality and performing physical activity were the factors most associated with better QoL in all areas. All multivariate models were statistically significant and explained from 11% of social QoL variability to 35% of the general QoL index. The findings could be useful for developing interventions to promote health in schools, with the objective of promoting healthy lifestyles and QoL. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors related to posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooner, Kate B; Linares, L Oriana; Batinjane, Jessica; Kramer, Rachel A; Silva, Raul; Cloitre, Marylene

    2012-07-01

    Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescence published from 2000 to 2011 indicate that adolescents are at greater risk of experiencing trauma than either adults or children, and that the prevalence of PTSD among adolescents is 3-57%. Age, gender, type of trauma, and repeated trauma are discussed as factors related to the increased rates of adolescent PTSD. PTSD in adolescence is also associated with suicide, substance abuse, poor social support, academic problems, and poor physical health. PTSD may disrupt biological maturational processes and contribute to the long-term emotion and behavior regulation problems that are often evident in adolescents with the disorder. Recommendations are presented for practice and research regarding the promotion of targeted prevention and intervention services to maximize adolescents' strengths and minimize vulnerabilities. Public policy implications are discussed.

  6. Nosocomial infections and related factors in southern khorasan hospitals

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    Bita Bijari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Nosocomial infections are defined as infections occurring during a patient's stay at hospital (48-72h after admission.Nosocomial infections are one of the important problems of health. This study aimed was determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections, and related factors in hospitals with more than 100 beds in south Khorasan Province. Materials and Methods: In this crass-sectional study, an investigator-administered questionnaire was completed for each patient with nosocomial infections diagnosis in hospitals with more than 100 beds in South Khorasan. This questionnaire conation demographic characteristic of patients, department, duration of admission, kind of pathogen and risk factors that was designed according to standard questionnaire of Iranian Nasocomial infections surveillance system (INIS of Center for communicable Disease Control, Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software. Results and discussion: Number of patients with nosocomial infection was 358. The incidence of nosocomial infection was 0.9%. ICU had the highest incidence rate (17.3%. The most common nosocomial infection was pneumonia (43%, and urinary tract infection (UTI (15.1%. In 33.5% culture result were negative. In other cases, culture results showed klebsiella spp. (12.8% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8% were the most prevalent bacteria. Most factors associated with nosocomial infection in patients were urinary catheters (70.4%, suction (66.8% and tracheal tube (54.2%. 24% of patients expired. The results showed lower ratio of nosocomial infection, that the main reason is failure to detection and reporting of actual cases of nosocomial infection. Promoting detection and reporting system for Prevention and control of nosocomial infection was recommended

  7. Factors related to orthodontic treatment time in adult patients

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    Ana Camila Esteves de Oliveira Melo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The length of time that it takes an orthodontist to treat adult patients varies widely. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how different variables influence treatment time. METHODS: Seventy clinical case reports of successfully treated adult patients were examined. The patients were selected from 4,723 records held by three experienced orthodontists. The influence exerted by the following variables on treatment time was assessed: age, sex, facial pattern, severity of malocclusion (measured by the PAR index, sagittal relationship of canines, type of brackets (ceramic or metal, tooth extractions, missed appointments and orthodontic appliance issues/breakages, the latter being the dependent variable. Assessment was performed by multiple linear regression analysis, followed by the stepwise method with P < 0.05. RESULTS: The number of times a patient missed their appointment (no-show (R² = 14.4%, p < 0.0001 and the number of appliance issues/breakages (R² = 29.71%, p = 0.0037 significantly affected variability in treatment time, and these two variables together can predict 43.75% (R² total of the overall variability in treatment time. Other factors, such as canine relationship at the beginning of treatment, bracket type (metal or ceramic, tooth extractions, age at start of treatment, severity of the initial malocclusion, sex and facial pattern had no significant bearing on treatment time. CONCLUSIONS: The duration of orthodontic treatment in adults, when performed by experienced orthodontists, is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. However, several factors which were not included in this study may contribute to variability in orthodontic treatment time.

  8. Factors that influence Greeks' decision to register as potential bone marrow donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanis, P A; Sparos, L D; Katostaras, T; Velonakis, E; Kalokerinou, A

    2008-06-01

    Hemopoietic stem cells can be used from bone marrow or blood or umbilical cord blood of matched siblings or appropriately matched unrelated volunteers. Today, large bone marrow registries have been established to help identify volunteer unrelated bone marrow donors for patients lacking a family donor. Despite there being almost 10 million registered potential bone marrow donors (PBMD) worldwide, only 50% of white patients have a suitable bone marrow match. Growth in the number of PBMD increases the likelihood of finding a compatible donor for a patient. The attitudes and knowledge of 250 registered PBMD and 315 not registered PBMD toward bone marrow donation, tissues and organs donation, and blood donation were surveyed, using a questionnaire with 27 items. Multivariate logistic regression identified gender (females more often than males), regular blood donation, having a relative or a friend who has already been registered as PBMD, having a relative or a friend who needs bone marrow transplantation, family discussion about tissue and organ donation, knowledge about bone marrow transplantation, information about bone marrow transplantation, and trust in health professionals were independent predictive factors influencing people's decision to register as PBMD. Knowledge of these factors is important to target recruitment efforts.

  9. Factors Influencing the Recurrence Potential of Benign Endometrial Polyps after Hysteroscopic Polypectomy.

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    Jehn-Hsiahn Yang

    Full Text Available An endometrial polyp is a frequently encountered gynecologic disease with abnormal uterine bleeding and infertility being the two common presenting problems, and hysteroscopic polypectomy is an effective method to remove them. The postoperative polyp recurrence might result in reappearance of abnormal uterine bleeding or infertility, whereas factors influencing the postoperative recurrence potential have limited data.This case-series report included 168 premenopausal women who suffered from endometrial polyps and underwent hysteroscopic polypectomy. All of them were awaiting a future pregnancy. Office hysteroscopy was done before and after hysteroscopic polypectomy, in which preoperative hysteroscopy examined the number, type, and location of endometrial polyps, and postoperative hysteroscopy checked the polyp recurrence. Surgical indications, either infertility or the presentation of abnormal uterine bleeding, and follow-up duration were recorded.Seventy-three out of 168 (43% women had polyp recurrence after hysteroscopic polypectomy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that more endometrial polyps (P = 0.015 and longer duration of follow-up (P = 0.004 were significantly associated with an increased risk of postoperative polyp recurrence. The type of endometrial polyps was not correlated with polyp recurrence potential, whereas pedunculated type endometrial polyps were closely related to the presentation of abnormal uterine bleeding (P = 0.001.A higher number of endometrial polyps and longer follow-up duration are associated with a greater potential of polyp recurrence after hysteroscopic polypectomy.

  10. Nursing Diagnosis of overweight and related factors in adolescents

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    Caroline Evelin Nascimento Kluczynik Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.The objective of the study was to compare the related factors to the nursing diagnosis (ND of overweight in adolescents with and without overweight. Methodology. Transversal study conducted in 2013 with 347 adolescents that attended public schools in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, answered a questionnaire and had anthroprometric evaluation. The subjects were divided into two groups, the group without ND (n=247 and the group with ND (n=100. Results. The prevalence of adolescents with ND overweight was 28.8%. The groups presented an unsatisfactory frequency of physical activity and a low consumption of healthy foods. The group with the ND overweight showed greater chance of consuming sweets and fried foods. The group with ND overweight had higher frequency of history family of illnesses. Conclusion. The prevalence of the ND overweight among adolescents in the public schools of Natal constitute a relevant nutritional deviance and the associated factors diet and family history disease are an alert for nursing in activities of prevention and follow-up for this population.

  11. Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Iranian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Sajedinejad, Sima; Nazemi, Saeed; Fereidoon Mohasseli, Khadije; Valizade, Behzad; Vahedi, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Amiri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: In different studies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption has been growing in high schools boys. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its related factors among Iranian high school students in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 male students from 15 high schools of Shahroud (northeast of Iran) were selected for evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding tobacco consumption. Results: Overall, 51% (95% CI: 46.5 - 55.7) of the students had positive history of smoking for at least one time and 7.1% (95% CI: 5 - 10) of them were current smokers. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was TV and radio programs (48%) and friends were the second source (22%). Based on the students’ opinions, entertainment and smoker friends were the most important reasons for smoking tendency. There was significant statistical association between students smoking and positive family history of smoking (P value < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking experince was very high among high school students. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was Iranian broadcasting companies. Positive family history of smoking and smoker friends were the important motivating factors toward smoking. PMID:26834798

  12. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.

  13. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloyan Kamenov

    Full Text Available Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.

  14. Post-operative pain after knee arthroscopy and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, G I; Stavropoulos, N I; Katsis, A; Kesidis, K; Kazakos, K; Verettas, D-A

    2008-06-13

    The aim of this study was to explore the intensity of post-arthroscopy knee pain during the first 24 hours, and to study the influence of pre-operative pain, tourniquet time and amount of surgical trauma on post-arthroscopy pain. In 78 male patients that underwent elective arthroscopic menisectomy or diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee, preoperative and post-operative pain were registered using the Visual Analogue Scale. Variance for repeated measures and for independent observations was analysed. Supplementary analgesia was required for 23% of the patients, more often in the recovery room and between 2 and 8 hours postoperatively. Of all factors analyzed, only time was statistically significant in determining the level of post-operative pain. Supplementary analgesia was required only in patients that underwent operative arthroscopy, and more often in patients with tourniquet time of more than 40 minutes. In conclusions, post-operative time is the most significant factor related to the post-arthroscopy knee pain.

  15. Post-Operative Pain after Knee Arthroscopy and Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Sutariya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the intensity of post-arthroscopy knee pain during the first 24 hours, and to study the influence of pre-operative pain, tourniquet time and amount of surgical trauma on post-arthroscopy pain. Methods: In 78 male patients that underwent elective arthroscopic menisectomy or diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee, preoperative and post-operative pain was registered using the Visual Analogue Scale. Variance for repeated measures and for independent observations was analysed. Results: Supplementary analgesia was required for 23% of the patients, more often in the recovery room and between 2 and 8 hours postoperatively. Of all factors analyzed, only time was statistically significant in determining the level of post-operative pain. Supplementary analgesia was required only in patients that underwent operative arthroscopy, and more often in patients with tourniquet time of more than 40 minutes. Conclusion: In conclusions, post-operative time is the most significant factor related to the post-arthroscopy knee pain. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 75-78

  16. Threat-Related Information Suggests Competence: A Possible Factor in the Spread of Rumors.

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    Pascal Boyer

    Full Text Available Information about potential danger is a central component of many rumors, urban legends, ritual prescriptions, religious prohibitions and witchcraft crazes. We investigate a potential factor in the cultural success of such material, namely that a source of threat-related information may be intuitively judged as more competent than a source that does not convey such information. In five studies, we asked participants to judge which of two sources of information, only one of which conveyed threat-related information, was more knowledgeable. Results suggest that mention of potential danger makes a source appear more competent than others, that the effect is not due to a general negativity bias, and that it concerns competence rather than a more generally positive evaluation of the source.

  17. Conversion during thoracoscopic lobectomy: related factors and learning curve impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E; Dietrich, Agustin; Nicolas, Matias; Da Lozzo, Alejandro; Beveraggi, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy has become a standard procedure for lung cancer treatment. Conversion-related factors and learning curve impacts, were poorly described. The aim of this study was to review the reasons and related factor for conversion in VATS lobectomy and the impact on this of the surgeon's learning curve. From June 2009 to May 2014, 154 patients who underwent a VATS lobectomy were included in our study. Patients' characteristics, pathology background, operative times, overall length of stay, overall morbidity and type of major complications were recorded for all patients and compared between non converted (n = 133) and converted (n = 21) patients. To evaluate surgeon's learning curve, we analyzed rates and causes of conversion in the first period (first 77 patients) and in the last period (78-154 patients). Patients characteristics were similar between converted and non-converted groups. Patients who were converted to open thoracotomy presented more frecuently tumors >3 cms (P = 0.02). The average of operative times and the length of stay were not significantly different between groups. Overall morbidity and major complications were also similar in both groups. There were no impact of surgeon's learning curve in overall rate conversion in both groups. Emergency conversion was always secondary to vascular accidents, all in the first group (p = 0.059). Surgeons should be expecting to perform a conversion to a thoracotomy in patients who present in preoperative studies, tumors greater than 3 cms. Learning curve only affected the emergency conversion, occurred all in the first half of our series.

  18. Relation between methanogenic archaea and methane production potential in selected natural wetland ecosystems across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. Y.; Ding, W. X.; Jia, Z. J.; Cai, Z. C.

    2011-02-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions from natural wetland ecosystems exhibit large spatial variability at regional, national, and global levels related to temperature, water table, plant type and methanogenic archaea etc. To understand the underlying factors that induce spatial differences in CH4 emissions, and the relationship between the population of methanogenic archaea and CH4 production potential in natural wetlands around China, we measured the CH4 production potential and the abundance of methanogenic archaea in vertical soil profiles sampled from the Poyang wetland in the subtropical zone, the Hongze wetland in the warm temperate zone, the Sanjiang marsh in the cold temperate zone, and the Ruoergai peatland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the alpine climate zone. The top soil layer had the highest population of methanogens (1.07-8.29 × 109 cells g-1 soil) in all wetlands except the Ruoergai peatland and exhibited the maximum CH4 production potential measured at the mean in situ summer temperature. There is a significant logarithmic correlation between the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the soil organic carbon (R2 = 0.72, P nitrogen concentrations (R2 = 0.76, P affect the population of methanogens in wetland ecosystems. While the CH4 production potential is not significantly related to methanogen population (R2 = 0.01, P > 0.05, n = 13), it is related to the dissolved organic carbon concentration (R2 = 0.31, P = 0.05, n = 13). This suggests that the methanogen population might be not an effective index for predicting the CH4 production in wetland ecosystems. The CH4 production rate of the top soil layer increases with increasing latitude, from 273.64 μg CH4 kg-1 soil d-1 in the Poyang wetland to 664.59 μg CH4 kg-1 soil d-1 in the Carex lasiocarpa marsh of the Sanjiang Plain. We conclude that CH4 production potential in the freshwater wetlands of Eastern China is mainly affected by the supply of methanogenic substrates rather than temperature; in contrast

  19. The proportion of postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Netherlands attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, W.A. van; Lanting, C.I.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Grooters, H.G.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Monninkhof, E.M.; Vries, E. de; Peeters, P.H.M.; Elias, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the proportion of Dutch postmenopausal breast cancer cases in 2010 that is attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors. We calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of potentially modifiable risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer in Dutch women aged >50 in

  20. The proportion of postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Netherlands attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, W. A.; Lanting, C. I.; Goldbohm, R. A.; van den Brandt, P. A.; Grooters, H. G.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L. A. L. M.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Monninkhof, E. M.; de Vries, E.; Peeters, P. H.; Elias, S. G.

    We aimed to estimate the proportion of Dutch postmenopausal breast cancer cases in 2010 that is attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors. We calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of potentially modifiable risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer in Dutch women aged > 50 in

  1. The proportion of postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Netherlands attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. van Gemert; C.I. Lanting (Caren); R.A. Goldbohm; P.A. van den Brandt (Piet); H.G. Grooters (Hilda G.); E. Kampman (Ellen); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); F.E. van Leeuwen (F.); E. Monninkhof (Evelyn); E. de Vries (Esther); P.H.M. Peeters; S.G. Elias (Sjoerd)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe aimed to estimate the proportion of Dutch postmenopausal breast cancer cases in 2010 that is attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors. We calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of potentially modifiable risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer in Dutch women

  2. Fibroblast growth factor homologous factors in the heart: a potential locus for cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Eric Q; Barnett, Adam S; Pitt, Geoffrey S; Hennessey, Jessica A

    2011-10-01

    The four fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (FHFs; FGF11-FGF14) are intracellular proteins that bind and modulate voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Although FHFs have been well studied in neurons and implicated in neurologic disease, their role in cardiomyocytes was unclear until recently. This review discusses the expression profile and function of FHFs in mouse and rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Recent data show that FGF13 is the predominant FHF in the murine heart, directly binds the cardiac VGSC α subunit, and is essential for normal cardiac conduction. FHF loss-of-function mutations may be unrecognized causes of cardiac arrhythmias, such as long QT and Brugada syndromes.

  3. Transcriptomics, NF-κB Pathway, and Their Potential Spaceflight-Related Health Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; Krieger, Stephanie; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Neelam, Srujana; Wu, Honglu

    2017-01-01

    In space, living organisms are exposed to multiple stress factors including microgravity and space radiation. For humans, these harmful environmental factors have been known to cause negative health impacts such as bone loss and immune dysfunction. Understanding the mechanisms by which spaceflight impacts human health at the molecular level is critical not only for accurately assessing the risks associated with spaceflight, but also for developing effective countermeasures. Over the years, a number of studies have been conducted under real or simulated space conditions. RNA and protein levels in cellular and animal models have been targeted in order to identify pathways affected by spaceflight. Of the many pathways responsive to the space environment, the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) network appears to commonly be affected across many different cell types under the true or simulated spaceflight conditions. NF-κB is of particular interest, as it is associated with many of the spaceflight-related health consequences. This review intends to summarize the transcriptomics studies that identified NF-κB as a responsive pathway to ground-based simulated microgravity or the true spaceflight condition. These studies were carried out using either human cell or animal models. In addition, the review summarizes the studies that focused specifically on NF-κB pathway in specific cell types or organ tissues as related to the known spaceflight-related health risks including immune dysfunction, bone loss, muscle atrophy, central nerve system (CNS) dysfunction, and risks associated with space radiation. Whether the NF-κB pathway is activated or inhibited in space is dependent on the cell type, but the potential health impact appeared to be always negative. It is argued that more studies on NF-κB should be conducted to fully understand this particular pathway for the benefit of crew health in space. PMID:28561779

  4. Change of water consumption and its potential influential factors in Shanghai: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Different water choices affect access to drinking water with different quality. Previous studies suggested social-economic status may affect the choice of domestic drinking water. The aim of this study is to investigate whether recent social economic changes in China affect residents’ drinking water choices. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey to investigate residents’ water consumption behaviour in 2011. Gender, age, education, personal income, housing condition, risk perception and personal preference of a certain type of water were selected as potential influential factors. Univariate and backward stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed to analyse the relation between these factors and different drinking water choices. Basic information was compared with that of a historical survey in the same place in 2001. Self-reported drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found correlated with different water choices and water hygiene treatment using chi-square test. Results The percentage of tap water consumption remained relatively stable and a preferred choice, with 58.99% in 2001 and 58.25% in 2011. The percentage of bottled/barrelled water consumption was 36.86% in 2001 and decreased to 25.75% in 2011. That of household filtrated water was 4.15% in 2001 and increased to 16.00% in 2011. Logistic regression model showed strong correlation between one’s health belief and drinking water choices (P water-related diarrhoea was found in all types of water and improper water hygiene behaviours still existed among residents. Conclusions Personal health belief, housing condition, age, personal income, education, taste and if worm ever founded in tap water affected domestic drinking water choices in Shanghai. PMID:22708830

  5. Psychological rules of communication with relatives of a potential organ donor--the Polish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska-Winecka, A

    1998-01-01

    Increase of number of organs for transplantation depends on the positive attitude of the general public toward cadaveric organ donation and transplantation. This attitude is shaped as the result of education performed by mass media and as a result of individual experience of various people with the health-care service. Whenever a decision on post-mortem donation of a deceased is unknown, there are his close relations who might express his will. The aim of this article is to draw attention to several problems of psychological nature, which refer to proceeding with relatives of organ donors. A course and result of talks with relatives of a potential organ donor depend on a number of factors, which are pointed out below. Within the frames of this interaction, basic rules of effective communication are presented, including message on death of a close person in case of brain stem death diagnosis. Furthermore, examples are presented of the most frequent errors of those who talk with relatives, scope of appearing difficulties and several methods to avoid and/or overcome occurring problems.

  6. Evaluation of Risk Factors Related to Recidivism Among Sentenced Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Yıldız

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is taking the place of dangerousness in recent criminal research. Detection of static and dynamic risk factors related and/or interacting to recidivism in accordance with personality characteristics and crime types may help crime prevention strategies to improve. Out of all participants 35% (n=41 are sentenced for manslaughter/physical injury, 35% (n=41 sexual crime and 30% (n=35 theft. The mean age of the participants is 33.81 (sd=9-12 years. During the interview, a questionnaire which is prepared by the researcher by reviewing the literature, Symptom Checklist Short Form, aggression inventory was used. Interviews are conducted face to face by the researcher at the relevant correctional facilities with the permissions of Ministry of Justice and ethical committee. Recidivism is found related to having a period far away from nuclear family before age 18, criminal and drag-alcohol abusing friends, anti-social behaviors; abusing illegal drags, displaying disciplinary problems in prison and during military service. Discussion: Results are evaluated under demographics, relationships in family and close friends, childhood abuse by leaning on current literature. Key words: prevention and control, crime, risk assessment

  7. Effects of emotional intensity under perceptual load: An event-related potentials (ERPs) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Bardorff, Miriam; Schulz, Claudia; Peterburs, Jutta; Bruchmann, Maximilian; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Miltner, Wolfgang; Straube, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Effects of emotional intensity and valence on visual event-related potentials (ERPs) are still poorly understood, in particular in the context of limited attentional resources. In the present EEG study, we investigated the effect of emotional intensity of different emotional facial expressions on P1, N170, early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) while varying the amount of available attentional resources. A new stimulus set comprising 90 full color pictures of neutral, happy (low, high intensity), and angry (low, high intensity) expressions was developed. These facial expressions were presented centrally, superimposed by two horizontal bars, and participants engaged in a focal bars task. Availability of attentional resources was varied in two conditions by manipulating the difficulty of the focal bars task (low vs. high perceptual load). Our findings demonstrate intensity and valence effects of task-irrelevant facial expressions on early (N170) and intermediate processing stages (EPN). In addition, task-related effects of perceptual load evolved at intermediate processing stages and were full blown in the time window of LPP. In line with limited resource accounts, valence effects on N170 and EPN were reduced under high perceptual load. Interestingly, apart from this valence by load interaction no further interactions between stimulus and task-driven factors were obtained: Effects of emotional intensity were not modulated by the perceptual load of the focal bars task, indicating that emotional intensity was processed even though attentional resources were heavily restricted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Transformative potential of participatory research: Deconstructing power relations between a child and an adult

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    Vranješević Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformative potential of participatory research with children as participants is reflected in promoting the image of the child as an active actor in the social community, an equal partner whose voice is heard and appreciated, as well as in a critical reconsideration of an adult-centred perspective in research, based on hierarchical power relations between children and adults. The paper critically discusses the theoretical and methodological grounds which serve as the basis for the adult-centred perspective and analyses the factors that have significantly contributed to the change in research paradigm when it comes to the status of children in research: critical re-examination of methodology and objectives of certain social sciences, the movements calling for the emancipation of marginalised social groups and new policies in the field of protecting children’s rights. Transformative potential of participatory research is discussed both from the perspective of the role and position of adults in research process (adults’ responsibility: personal and epistemological reflexivity and the relationship between adults and children in research (the change of attitudes towards children and redefining the traditional roles of adults and children: the cooperative vs. hierarchical model of power, as well as in relation to: the change in the position of research participants (children, visibility of their perspective in public discourse and the development of competences and values important for living in a democratic society.

  9. Factors related to depression and anxiety in adults with bronchiectasis

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    Özgün Niksarlioglu EY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Elif Yelda Özgün Niksarlioglu,1 Gülcihan Özkan,2 Gülşah Günlüoğlu,1 Mehmet Atilla Uysal,1 Sule Gül,1 Lütfiye Kilic,1 Ayse Yeter,1 Güngör Çamsarı1 1Department of Chest Disease, Yedikule Chest Disease and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, 2Department of Chest Disease, Yeniyüzyıl University Gaziosmanpasa Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Introduction and background: Patients with chronic lung diseases frequently have depressive and anxiety symptoms, but there are very few studies looking at this in patients with bronchiectasis. Aim: This study aimed to investigate depression and anxiety and related factors among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.Patients and methods: This was a prospective study of 133 patients with bronchiectasis. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of bronchiectasis with high-resolution computed tomography were enrolled in the study. Patients that were clinically stable in the previous 4 weeks were evaluated with the Hospital Depression and Anxiety scale. Symptoms, pulmonary function tests, and medical treatments were recorded.Results: The mean age of patients was 49.5±14.5 years (range, 18–77 years, and 81 (60.9% patients were females. Twenty-eight (21.1% patients had depression, and 53 (39.8% had anxiety. Depression score was related to family situation (living with a partner, previous depression history and admission to an emergency department within the last year. Anxiety score was related to female gender, the family situation (living with a partner, previous depression history, and admission to an emergency department within the last year (P<0.05. Depression was positively correlated with hemoptysis, admission to an emergency department within the last year and living with a partner. Anxiety was positively correlated with education level, previous depression history, admission to an emergency department within the last year, and living with a partner.Conclusion: Patients with non

  10. Factors related to drug approvals: predictors of outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, Lawrence; Breckenridge, Alasdair; Hoekman, Jarno; McAuslane, Neil; Stolk, Pieter; Leufkens, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    There is growing interest in characterising factors associated with positive regulatory outcomes for drug marketing authorisations. We assessed empirical studies published over the past 15 years seeking to identify predictive factors. Factors were classified to one of four 'factor clusters': evidentiary support; product or indication characteristics; company experience or strategy; social and regulatory factors. We observed a heterogeneous mix of technical factors (e.g., study designs, clinical evidence of efficacy) and less studied social factors (e.g., company-regulator interactions). We confirmed factors known to be of relevance to drug approval decisions (imperative) and a cohort of less understood (compensatory) social factors. Having robust supportive clinical evidence, addressing rare or serious illness, following scientific advice and prior company experience were associated with positive outcomes, which illustrated the multifactorial nature of regulatory decision making and factors need to be considered holistically while having varying, context-dependent importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An integrative systems genetics approach reveals potential causal genes and pathways related to obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Westra, Harm-Jan;

    2015-01-01

    expression analysis was performed using the Obesity Index as a continuous variable in a linear model. eQTL mapping was then performed to integrate 60 K porcine SNP chip data with the RNA sequencing data. Results were restricted based on genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms, detected...... polymorphisms to detect obesity-related genes and pathways. Building a co-expression network using eQTLs resulted in the detection of a module strongly associated with lipid pathways. Furthermore, we detected several obesity candidate genes, for example, ENPP1, CTSL, and ABHD12B. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge......BACKGROUND: Obesity is a multi-factorial health problem in which genetic factors play an important role. Limited results have been obtained in single-gene studies using either genomic or transcriptomic data. RNA sequencing technology has shown its potential in gaining accurate knowledge about...

  12. Crossmodal effects of Guqin and piano music on selective attention: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weina; Zhang, Junjun; Ding, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changle; Ma, Yuanye; Xu, Dan

    2009-11-27

    To compare the effects of music from different cultural environments (Guqin: Chinese music; piano: Western music) on crossmodal selective attention, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data in a standard two-stimulus visual oddball task were recorded from Chinese subjects in three conditions: silence, Guqin music or piano music background. Visual task data were then compared with auditory task data collected previously. In contrast with the results of the auditory task, the early (N1) and late (P300) stages exhibited no differences between Guqin and piano backgrounds during the visual task. Taking our previous study and this study together, we can conclude that: although the cultural-familiar music influenced selective attention both in the early and late stages, these effects appeared only within a sensory modality (auditory) but not in cross-sensory modalities (visual). Thus, the musical cultural factor is more obvious in intramodal than in crossmodal selective attention.

  13. Childhood bruxism: Related factors and impact on oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Castilho, Thuanny; Marinho, Marcello; Fraga, Renato Silva; Antunes, Leonardo Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess childhood bruxism relating associated factors and the bruxism's impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A case-control study was performed with 3- to 6-year-old children obtained from public preschools in Brazil. The case and control groups had 21 and 40 children, respectively. Associations between bruxism and respiratory problems (p = 0.04, OR: 0.33, CI: 0.09 to 1.14), dental wear (p 0.05). The association between presence and absence of impact with bruxism or other variables showed no statistical relationship (p > 0.05). It could be concluded that childhood bruxism is related to respiratory problems, dental wear, dental caries, and malocclusion. Despite being a topic that demands special care in dentistry, bruxism does not significantly affect the OHRQoL.

  14. Factors potentially associated with the decision of admission to the intensive care unit in a middle-income country: a survey of Brazilian physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, João Gabriel Rosa; Passos, Rogerio da Hora; Baptista, Paulo Benigno Pena; Forte, Daniel Neves

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factors potentially associated with the decision of admission to the intensive care unit in Brazil. Methods An electronic survey of Brazilian physicians working in intensive care units. Fourteen variables that were potentially associated with the decision of admission to the intensive care unit were rated as important (from 1 to 5) by the respondents and were later grouped as "patient-related," "scarcity-related" and "administrative-related" factors. The workplace and physician characteristics were evaluated for correlation with the factor ratings. Results During the study period, 125 physicians completed the survey. The scores on patient-related factors were rated higher on their potential to affect decisions than scarcity-related or administrative-related factors, with a mean ± SD of 3.42 ± 0.7, 2.75 ± 0.7 and 2.87 ± 0.7, respectively (p < 0.001). The patient's underlying illness prognosis was rated by 64.5% of the physicians as always or frequently affecting decisions, followed by acute illness prognosis (57%), number of intensive care unit beds available (56%) and patient's wishes (53%). After controlling for confounders, receiving specific training on intensive care unit triage was associated with higher ratings of the patient-related factors and scarcity-related factors, while working in a public intensive care unit (as opposed to a private intensive care unit) was associated with higher ratings of the scarcity-related factors. Conclusions Patient-related factors were more frequently rated as potentially affecting intensive care unit admission decisions than scarcity-related or administrative-related factors. Physician and workplace characteristics were associated with different factor ratings.

  15. Phenotypic factor analysis of psychopathology reveals a new body-related transdiagnostic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Patrizia; Antfolk, Jan; Santtila, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Comorbidity challenges the notion of mental disorders as discrete categories. An increasing body of literature shows that symptoms cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries and interact in shaping the latent structure of psychopathology. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, we reveal the latent sources of covariation among nine measures of psychopathological functioning in a population-based sample of 13024 Finnish twins and their siblings. By implementing unidimensional, multidimensional, second-order, and bifactor models, we illustrate the relationships between observed variables, specific, and general latent factors. We also provide the first investigation to date of measurement invariance of the bifactor model of psychopathology across gender and age groups. Our main result is the identification of a distinct "Body" factor, alongside the previously identified Internalizing and Externalizing factors. We also report relevant cross-disorder associations, especially between body-related psychopathology and trait anger, as well as substantial sex and age differences in observed and latent means. The findings expand the meta-structure of psychopathology, with implications for empirical and clinical practice, and demonstrate shared mechanisms underlying attitudes towards nutrition, self-image, sexuality and anger, with gender- and age-specific features.

  16. Low back pain during labor and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Su, Tsann-Juu

    2008-09-01

    A substantial proportion of women in labor suffer from low back pain, yet this issue has only been specifically evaluated in a few Western studies. The purpose of this research was to (1) describe the following characteristics of low back pain during labor: prevalence, anatomic region(s) affected, type, pattern, intensity trend, effective interventions, and exacerbating factors; (2) identify the factors relating to intrapartum low back pain in Taiwan women. A correlational design with repeated measures was used to conduct this investigation. Ninety-three low-risk women in labor were recruited from a medical center in central Taiwan. Low back pain was repeatedly measured during the latent phase (cervix dilated 2-4 cm), early active phase (cervix dilated 5-7 cm), and late active phase (cervix dilated 8-10 cm) of labor. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, repeated measurement ANOVA, and logistic regression. The results showed as many as 75.3% of the participants suffered episodes of low back pain during labor. The mean pain scores were 36.66-76.20 in the various stages of labor. Pain intensified as labor progressed. The location of the pain also changed with the progression of labor. The type of low back pain in 54.29% of women in labor was "muscle soreness and pain"; The pattern of pain in 45.71% women was continuous. Massage was chosen as the most effective intervention to alleviate low back pain by 65.3% of women. The women in labor who suffered from low back pain during pregnancy (OR = 3.23; p low back pain group. In conclusion, our study demonstrates low back pain intensified with the progression of labor, suggesting early prevention is necessary, especially in the case of women who had low back pain during pregnancy and heavier body weight when hospitalized.

  17. Gait speed and related factors in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paker, Nurdan; Bugdayci, Derya; Goksenoglu, Goksen; Demircioğlu, Demet Tekdöş; Kesiktas, Nur; Ince, Nurhan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gait speed and various factors in ambulatory patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. [Subjects] Fifty ambulatory patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease who were admitted to an outpatient clinic were included in this cross-sectional study. [Methods] The Hoehn and Yahr Scale was used for measurement of the disease severity. Gait speed was measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test. Mobility status was assessed by Timed Up and Go Test. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used for evaluation of emotional state. Cognitive status was examined with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The Downton Index was used for fall risk assessment. Balance was evaluated with the Berg Balance Scale. Comorbidity was measured with the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey was completed for measurement of quality of life. [Results] The mean age was 66.7 (47–83) years. Twenty-eight (56%) patients were men. Gait speed was correlated positively with height, male gender, Mini-Mental Examination score, Berg Balance Scale score and physical summary scores of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. On the other hand, there was a negative correlation between gait speed and age, disease severity, TUG time, Downton Index, fear of falling, previous falls and the anxiety and depression scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. There was no correlation between gait speed and comorbidity. [Conclusion] The factors related with the slower gait speed are, elder age, clinically advanced disease, poor mobility, fear of falling, falling history, higher falling risk, and mood disorder. PMID:26834330

  18. Reproductive factors related to childbearing and mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghjyan, Lusine; Colditz, Graham A; Rosner, Bernard; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the associations of reproductive factors related to childbearing with percent breast density, absolute dense and nondense areas, by menopausal status. This study included 4110 cancer-free women within the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II cohorts. Percent breast density, absolute dense and nondense areas were measured from digitized mammography film images with computerized techniques. All density measures were square root-transformed in all the analyses to improve normality. The data on reproductive variables and other breast cancer risk factors were obtained from biennial questionnaires, at the time of the mammogram date. As compared to nulliparous women, parous postmenopausal women had lower percent density (β = -0.60, 95 % CI -0.84; -0.37), smaller absolute dense area (β = -0.66, 95 % CI -1.03; -0.29), and greater nondense area (β = 0.72, 95 % CI 0.27; 1.16). Among parous women, number of children was inversely associated with percent density in pre- (β per one child = -0.12, 95 % CI -0.20; -0.05) and postmenopausal women (β per one child = -0.07, 95 % CI -0.12; -0.02). The positive associations of breastfeeding with absolute dense and nondense areas were limited to premenopausal women, while the positive association of the age at first child's birth with percent density and the inverse association with nondense area were limited to postmenopausal women. Women with greater number of children and younger age at first child's birth have more favorable breast density patterns that could explain subsequent breast cancer risk reduction.

  19. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING T H I S RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma TEZEL ŞAHİ N

    2014-09-01

    in order to make him attain his personality. In this circle where enough support is given to the child, the qualities of the discipline and education given by the mother are positive. The child is grown up as brave and adaptive persons to the society. He learns to build his life upon positive efforts. The purpose of the current study wa s to determine a healthy mother - child relation, its importance and factors affecting mother - child relation. In this line, the studies regarding the issue were discussed and some recommendations were given over the studies to be carried out.

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with potential drug interactions among elderly in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Riani Gotardelo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of potential drug interactions and the factors associated with them among elderly patients covered by the Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Timóteo, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study, using stratified random sampling. A total of 273 household interviews were conducted in subjects aged 60 years or older, after obtaining informed consent, using a questionnaire containing questions related to identification, demography, health conditions and medication use. Drug interactions were identified and classified according to the software Micromedex®. Results: The overall prevalence of potential drug interactions was 55.6%, a total of 466 cases, of which 5.6% were mild, 81.6% moderate and 12.8% of greater severity. Therapeutic classes most frequently involved were anti-inflammatory drugs and especially drugs used in cardiovascular disease. The absence of hospitalization in the last four months was significantly associated with a lower chance of serious drug interactions and most patients who did not have any moderate drug interactions used only drugs prescribed by physicians. Conclusions: The prevalence of potential drug interactions was similar to that described in the literature, demonstrating the high frequency of this phenomenon among the elderly. The absence of prior hospitalization and drug prescription by physicians were associated with a lower frequency of interactions. The prescription of multiple drugs simultaneously to elderly patients can compromise the safety and health of this population, requiring, by caregivers, observation for the occurrence of potential drug interactions.

  1. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 dependent overexpression of sulfiredoxin and peroxiredoxin III in human lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Hye Lim; Lee, Ki Bum; Park, Joo Hun; Chung, Wou Young; Lee, Keu Sung; Sheen, Seung Soo; Park, Kwang Joo; Hwang, Sung Chul

    2011-09-01

    Oxidative stress results in protein oxidation and is implicated in carcinogenesis. Sulfiredoxin (Srx) is responsible for the enzymatic reversal of inactivated peroxiredoxin (Prx). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) binds to antioxidant responsive elements and upregulates the expression of Srx and Prx during oxidative stress. We aimed to elucidate the biological functions and potential roles of Srx in lung cancer. To study the roles of Srx and Prx III in lung cancer, we compared the protein levels of Nrf2, Prxs, thioredoxin, and Srx in 40 surgically resected human lung cancer tissues using immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses. Transforming growth factor-β(1), tumor necrosis factor-α, and camptothecin treatment were used to examine Prx III inactivation in Mv1Lu mink lung epithelial cells and A549 lung cancer cells. Prx I and Prx III proteins were markedly overexpressed in lung cancer tissues. A significant increase in the oxidized form of a cysteine sulfhydryl at the catalytic site of Prxs was found in carcinogenic lung tissue compared to normal lung tissue. Densitometric analyses of immunoblot data revealed significant Srx expression, which was higher in squamous cell carcinoma tissue (60%, 12/20) than in adenocarcinoma (20%, 4/20). Also, Nrf2 was present in the nuclear compartment of cancer cells. Srx and Prx III proteins were markedly overexpressed in human squamous cell carcinoma, suggesting that these proteins may play a protective role against oxidative injury and compensate for the high rate of mitochondrial metabolism in lung cancer.

  2. Determination of pair-structure factor of scattering potential of a collection of particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhao, Daomu

    2010-02-01

    The method of determination of the pair-structure factor of a collection of particles has been discussed. It is shown that the pair-structure factor of scattering potential of the collection of particles can be determined from the cross-spectral density function of the scattered field.

  3. Relation between visual function index and falls-related factors in patients with age-related cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Na Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the relation between vision function index and falls-related factors in patients with age-related cataract.METHODS:Ninety-six patients with age-related cataract were interviewed using a seven-item visual function questionnaire(VF-7, then classified into poor, moderate, or good visual function group. The differences of the three groups on visual acuity, balance and mobility function, cognition, depressive symptoms, self-reported fear of falling were analyzed. RESULTS:The patients in poor visual function group had older age, tendency to depression, was more afraid of falling, compared with groups with higher score in VF-7, and they had worse visual acuity, performed worse on all balance and mobility tests. CONCLUSION:Poor visual function is related to worse visual acuity, weaker balance and mobility performance in patients with age-related cataract. The VF-7, as a simple and convenient self-reported method, can be used as a falling risk monitoring in patients with age-related cataract.

  4. Theoretical and experimental factors affecting measurements of semiconductor mean inner potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, R S; Kasama, T; Boothroyd, C B; Dunin-Borkowski, R E [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Mortensen, J J, E-mail: robert.pennington@cen.dtu.d [Center for Atomic-Scale Materials Design, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2010-02-01

    We use density functional theory to explore the effect on calculations of semiconductor mean inner potentials of the presence of reconstructions, changes in lattice spacing and adsorbates on the surfaces of parallel-sided thin specimens. We also use electron holography to illustrate several factors that affect experimental measurements of mean inner potentials of semiconductor nanowires.

  5. Density analysis of the neutron structure factor and the determination of the pair potential of krypton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barocchi, F.; Zoppi, M.; Egelstaff, P. A.

    1985-04-01

    We propose a method of analysis of the density behavior of the experimental neutron scattering structure factor which permits us to derive directly from the experimental results an ``experimental'' pair potential. We apply the method to the recent results of Teitsma and Egelstaff in krypton gas and derive a pair potential which is in good agreement with the empirical potential of Barker et al. Some discrepancies in the range 4

  6. Environmental factors related to multiple sclerosis in Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaithra Malli

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is less prevalent among Indians when compared to white populations. Genetic susceptibility remaining the same it is possible that environmental associations may have a role in determining disease prevalence.To determine whether childhood infections, vaccination status, past infection with Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori, diet, socioeconomic and educational status were associated with MS.139 patients and 278 matched control subjects were selected. A validated environmental exposure questionnaire was administered. Estimation of serum H.pylori IgG antibody was done by ELISA. Patients and controls were genotyped for HLA-DRB1*15:01.In our cohort a significant association was seen with measles (p < 0.007, vegetarian diet (p < 0.001, higher educational status (p < 0.0001 and urban living (p < 0.0001. An inverse relationship was seen with H.Pylori infection and MS (p < 0.001. Measles infection (OR 6.479, CI 1.21-34.668, p < 0.029 and high educational status (OR 3.088, CI 1.212-7.872, p < 0.018 were significant risk factors associated with MS. H.pylori infection was inversely related to MS (OR 0. 319, CI 0.144- 0.706, p < 0.005.Environmental influences may be important in determining MS prevalence.

  7. Related factors of comprehensive treatment effect on anisometropic amblyopia children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Xin Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the related factors of comprehensive treatment effect on anisometropic amblyopia children, and to provide a theoretical basis for clinical intervention. METHODS: Totally 100 cases of anisometropic amblyopia children in our hospital from October 2013 to October 2014 were selected and were divided into groups A, B and C according to curative effect after 6~18mo's treatment. Fifty-four cases of group A were judged to be cured, 34 cases of group B were judged to be improved, and 12 cases of group C was invalid. The age, compliance, anisometropia degree, anisometropia type, amblyopia degree and fixation behavior were analyzed. RESULTS: Anisometropia type among the three groups of patients showed no significant difference(P>0.05. While the age, compliance, anisometropia degree, amblyopia degree and fixation behavior among three groups of patients had statistically significant differences(PCONCLUSION: There are closed relationship between comprehensive treatment effect and age, compliance, anisometropia degree, amblyopia degree, fixation behavior, but there is no significant correlation between anisometropia type and comprehensive treatment effect.

  8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome, Periodic Limb Movements and Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Özgür Yalın

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is characterized by nocturnal repetitive apnea episodes. Periodic limb movements (PLMs is nocturnal, stereotypic, repetitive movements of the lower extremities. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of periodic limb movements in OSAS patients and correlation of PLM with OSAS severity. METHODS: One hundred and forty one OSAS suspected patients was enrolled into the study. All subjects’ blood pressure, heart rate measurements and neurologic examinations were made by the same neurologist. Sociodemographic characteristics were recorded. One night polysomnography (PSG was performed to all patients and results were analyzed. Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI ≥ 5 subjects were accepted as OSAS, and PLM Index (PLMI ≥ 5 subjects were accepted as having PLM. RESULTS: One hundred and two patients were diagnosed as OSAS. The control group consisted of 39 patients who had normal polysomnographic findings. OSAS patients’ were older and body mass index (BMI were higher than the control group. Systolic blood pressure was higher in OSAS group. Alcohol use was determined as a risk factor for OSAS. PLM were more common in OSAS group than the control group (% 30,3 - % 10,2. PLM frequency was associated with the severity of OSAS. CONCLUSION: In OSAS patients presence of PLM was related with OSAS severity, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and REM sleep depletion. PLM in OSAS patients could be regarded as an indicator of disease severity and also could aware clinician for increased complication rates.

  9. Klotho is a serum factor related to human aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖能明; 张焱明; 郑权; 顾军

    2004-01-01

    Background Does klotho (KL) protein exist in human serum, and is there any correlation between KL protein in serum with human aging? In order to answer those questions, we identified KL protein in human serum and established the correlation between KL protein in human serum and aging.Methods We prepared a polyclonal antibody against human KL protein that was able to recognize the C-terminal of human secreted KL protein. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to identify KL protein in human serum.Results In Western blot, the antibody specifically recognized a 60-kD KL protein in both human and mice serum. The population aged from 0 to 91 years screened by ELISA revealed that the level of serum KL declined while age increased, though each individual level was variable and that the trend of decreasing in serum KL had no difference in sex.Conclusion Our data suggest that KL is a serum factor related to human aging.

  10. Parental Factors Associated with Rumination Related Metacognitive Beliefs in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ka-Wai; Lo, Barbara C Y

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of research studies have suggested that metacognition is associated with individuals' mental health. Specifically, metacognitive beliefs about rumination was proposed to link to the onset and maintenance of depression according to the metacognitive model of depression. The current study aimed to serve as a pilot study exploring how parents' metacognitive beliefs and parenting characteristics are associated with rumination related metacognitive beliefs in adolescents. Eighty-five parent-youth dyads were invited to complete a set of questionnaires examining their metacognitive beliefs about rumination followed by a difficult puzzle task, in which parent-adolescent interaction patterns were recorded to examine the parenting style. Results found that parents' and adolescents' positive metacognitive beliefs about rumination were significantly associated with each other. In addition, parental negativity was significantly associated with adolescents' positive metacognitive beliefs of rumination and parental over-involvement was marginally associated with adolescents' negative metacognitive beliefs of rumination. The findings highlighted the association between parental factors and adolescents' metacognitive beliefs about rumination. Implications on the prevention of adolescent's depression were discussed.

  11. Compliance with antimicrobial therapy: Evaluating the related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Moradi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncontrolled and irrational use of antibiotics increases the rate of antimicrobial resistance and treatment failure. Compliance with antibiotics is an important indicator to show how patients use their prescribed drugs and it can explain the relationship between drug administration and treatment outcome that needs to be monitored and promoted. We decided to evaluate compliance to antimicrobial drugs in this study.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 patients referring to 4 different specialists’ offices were enrolled. The rate and type of non prescribed antibiotic administration were evaluated using predesigned questionnaires. The data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software using descriptive statistics and chi-square test for categorical data.Results: Our results showed that 62.4% of the study population had poor compliance and 37.6 % had good compliance with their prescribed regimen. “Feeling better “and “getting worse” on prescribed regimen were major reasons for drug discontinuation. About 70% of our study population get non prescribed antibiotic from pharmacies at least once a year. Most of the requested antibiotics were not first line options. Level of education was the only factor significantly related to the rate of patient compliance. Conclusion: This study shows the high rate of non prescribed antibiotic administration and low rate of compliance among the study population that emerge the need for particular patient education and putting restrictive rules to bound  non-prescribed and unsupervised  antibiotic marketing.

  12. Celecoxib inhibits Helicobacter pylori colonization-related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei-Hong; Li, Jiang; Liu, Fang-Xun

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization-related factors and its mechanism. METHODS: After co-incubation with celecoxib, morphology of H. pylori strain 26695 was observed under a transmission electron microscope. Flagella motility was assessed by stab agar motility test. Adherence of H. pylori to AGS cells was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of mRNA expression in flagellar genes (flaA, flaB), urease genes (ureA, ureB) and adhesin genes (babA, sabA, alpA, alpB, hpaA, hopZ) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Separation and non-integrity of bacterial cell wall, rarefaction and asymmetry of cytoplasm, and even lysis of H. pylori were observed in the presence of celecoxib. When H. pylori strains were incubated in the presence of celecoxib, their flagellar motility and adherence to AGS cells were inhibited. The expression of ureA, ureB, babA, sabA, alpA, alpB, hpaA, hopZ was up-regulated while the expression of flaA, flaB was down-regulated in the presence of celecoxib. CONCLUSION: Celecoxib inhibits flagellar motility and adherence of H. pylori to AGS cells, and destructs their normal structure in vitro. PMID:20143463

  13. Factors related to smoking habits of male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-09-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  14. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naing Nyi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1 the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2 mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3 there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  15. Exact solutions of a particle in a box with a delta function potential: The factorization method

    CERN Document Server

    Pedram, Pouria

    2010-01-01

    We find the exact eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for the problem of a particle in a box with a delta function potential $V(x)=\\lambda\\delta(x-x_{0})$ using the factorization method. We show that the presence of the delta function potential results in the discontinuity of the corresponding ladder operators. More importantly, the presence of the delta function potential allows us to obtain the full spectrum of the problem in the first step of the factorization procedure even for the weak coupling limit ($\\lambda\\to 0$).

  16. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a potential targeting agent for delivery of boron to malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J.; Barth, R.F.; Adams, D.M.; Bailey, M.Q.; Soloway, A.H. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Carlsson, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Sciences

    1994-12-31

    The majority of high grade gliomas express an amplified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and this often is associated with an increase in cell surface receptor expression. The rapid internalization and degradation of EGF-EGFR complexes, as well as their high affinity make EGF a potential targeting agent for delivery of {sup 10}B to tumor cells with an amplified number of EGFR. Human glioma cells can expresses as many as 10{sup 5} {minus}10{sup 6} EGF receptors per cell, and if these could be saturated with boronated EGF, then > 10{sup 8} boron atoms would be delivered per cell. Since EGF has a comparatively low molecular weight ({approximately} 6 kD), this has allowed us to construct relatively small bioconjugates containing {approximately} 900 boron atoms per EGF molecule{sup 3}, which also had high affinity for EGFR on tumor cells. In the present study, the feasibility of using EGF receptors as a potential target for therapy of gliomas was investigated by in vivo scintigraphic studies using {sup 131}I{minus} or {sup 99m}{Tc}-labeled EGF in a rat brain tumor model. Our results indicate that intratumorally delivered boron- EGF conjugates might be useful for targeting EGFR on glioma cells if the boron containing moiety of the conjugates persisted intracellularly. Further studies are required, however, to determine if this approach can be used for BNCT of the rat glioma.

  17. Educational aspiration-expectation discrepancies: relation to socioeconomic and academic risk-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Paul; Goldstein, Sara E; DeLorenzo, Tahlia; Savoy, Sarah; Mercado, Ignacio

    2011-08-01

    This study examines whether disconnection between educational aspirations and expectations is associated with socioeconomic status, academic performance, academic risk-related behaviors and related psychosocial factors in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of early adolescents from a public middle school (N = 761). Results suggest that students who aspire to achieve more than they expect to achieve also are likely to have more economically disadvantaged backgrounds and poorer academic performance. These students also show a variety of academic and social risks. Specifically, students whose aspirations exceeded their expectations reported lower levels of school bonding, higher levels of test/performance anxiety, and elevated behavioral/emotional difficulties. Results are discussed in terms of social-cognitive theory as well as applications for promoting student social and academic success.

  18. Analysis of Factors of Influence of the Market Environment upon Formation of the Enterprise Labour Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zborovska Olha M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses external and internal factors of the market environment, which influence formation of the enterprise labour potential. It offers supplement the existing classification properties with the following ones: international, political-legal and natural-climate factors. It shows that, in the result of the balanced reaction on the international level of influence of factors of formation of labour potential, it is possible to sharply accelerate development of the labour potential by means of realisation of programmes of international education, legal regulation of migration, active participation in various inter-state projects, etc. Influence of political-legal factors of formation of the labour potential shows up in inter-state agreements on labour migration regulation, in application of the system of uniform branch tariff-qualification reference books and in establishment of the system of licensing individual types of activity. Natural-climate conditions exert significant influence upon the level of labour potential. This influence shows up: in different life expectancies, sickness rate, labour life duration, etc. for various natural-climate zones. The article classifies the factors of labour potential with respect to the enterprise also both by exogenous and endogenous groups.

  19. Risk factor(s) related to high membrane permeability in peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Aydin; Sipahioglu, Murat Hayri; Kocyigit, Ismail; Tunca, Onur; Tokgoz, Bulent; Oymak, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients have different peritoneal membrane permeability (transport) characteristics. High peritoneal membrane permeability is associated with increased mortality risk in the patient population. In this study, we aimed to investigate possible risk factor(s) related to high peritoneal membrane permeability. The study included 475 PD patients (46.1 ± 14.5 years of mean age; 198 female and 277 male). The patients were divided two groups according to peritoneal equilibration test (PET) result: high-permeability group (high and high-average) and low- permeability group (low-average and low). In both the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, it was found that diabetes mellitus and hypoalbuminemia was significantly associated with high peritoneal membrane permeability [relative risk (RR): 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26-2.86, p: 0.002 and RR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.44-3.18, ppermeability. Diabetic patients had 1.9 times the likelihood of having high permeability. However, the relationship between hypoalbuminemia and high peritoneal permeability appears to be a result rather than cause.

  20. The factors in the development of marketing potential of trading enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubenets Iryna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is the selection and systematization of the influence factors the formation and development of marketing potential of trading enterprises. Currently, when enterprises have experienced an acute shortage of financial resources the value of the marketing potential of the enterprise increases. Since the marketing potential is determined by the possibility of using their own marketing resources, taking into account external and internal factors, their concretization and systematization for increasing the total effective functioning of the economic subsystems of the enterprise are now becoming ever more relevant. Taking into consideration the content of the main functions of business enterprises the author distinguishes the following groups of factors of formation and development of marketing potential of an enterprise: external (external development resources and market opportunities, external marketing environment; internal (internal marketing environment marketing reflects the tangible and intangible resources and capabilities internal development of commercial enterprise. The author has researched and identified the factors-activators of marketing potential of the trading enterprises, which influence greatly on the current and future state of the management system of the marketing potential of the enterprise and help define the desired strategy for the development of marketing potential.

  1. Factors of Formation of the tax Potential of the Securities Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenniy Anatoliy A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of identification of factors that influence volumes and dynamics of the tax potential of the securities market. The goal of the article is detection and systematisation of factors of formation and realisation of the tax potential of the securities market. In the result of the conducted study it systemises factors of formation and realisation of the tax potential of the securities market by two groups: economic and legislatory organisational. The main of the economic factors are: state of economic development, degree of the shadow economy, level of savings of the population, level of trust of the population and level of inflation. The article justifies interconnection that exist between the said factors and volumes of the tax potential of the securities market. In particular, it proves that increase of volumes of the shadow economy facilitates reduction of the tax potential of the securities market, since it facilitates outflow of capital from the official sector of economy. Growth of unorganised savings of the population, the volume of which grows proportionally to the growth of the level of distrust of the population to the securities market, has a negative impact on formation of the tax potential of the securities market. Degree of the negative impact of the said factors grows in the event of deterioration of the state of the macro-economic situation and growth of inflation. The legislatory organisational factors are: object, base, rates of taxation of securities trading and the securities market infrastructure. The article proves that low level of infrastructure development could significantly reduce the tax potential of the securities market. The proposed approach to the study of factors of formation of the tax potential gives a possibility to mark out, apart from de-shadowing of operations and expansion of the taxation base, one more direction on increase of the tax potential of the securities market

  2. Noise as an explanatory factor in work-related fatality reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshaies, Pierre; Martin, Richard; Belzile, Danny; Fortier, Pauline; Laroche, Chantal; Leroux, Tony; Nélisse, Hugues; Girard, Serge-André; Arcand, Robert; Poulin, Maurice; Picard, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Noise exposure in the workplace is a common reality in Québec, Canada as it is elsewhere. However, the extent to which noise acts as a causal or contributive factor in industrial work-related accidents has not been studied thoroughly despite its plausibility. This article aims to describe the importance or potential importance, during investigations looking into the specific causes of each work-related fatal accident, of noise as an explanatory factor. The written information contained in the accident reports pertaining to contextual and technical elements were used. The study used multiple case qualitative content analysis. This descriptive study was based on the content analysis of the 788 reports from the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec [Workers' Compensation Board (WCB)] investigating the fatal work-related accidents between 1990 and 2005. The study was descriptive (number and percentages). Noise was explicitly stated as one of the explanatory factors for the fatal outcome in 2.2% (17/788) of the fatal accidents, particularly when the work involved vehicular movement or the need to communicate between workers. Noise was not typically considered a unique cause in the accident, notably because the investigators considered that the accident would have probably occurred due to other risk factors (for example, disregard of safety rules, shortcomings in work methods, and inadequate training). Noise is an important risk factor when communication is involved in work. Since noise is ubiquitous and may also interfere with vigilance and other risk factors for accidents, it may be a much more important contributing factor to accidents than is currently recognized.

  3. Competitiveness as a moderator of the relation between appearance-related factors and disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleien, Jenna L; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined competitiveness as a moderator of the relationships between appearance-related factors (i.e., thin-ideal internalization, appearance contingent self-worth) and disordered eating behaviors (i.e., dieting, excessive exercise). Participants were 441 undergraduate females for cross-sectional analyses, with 237 also contributing data longitudinally, 1 year later. Results showed that, in a model including thin-ideal internalization and appearance contingent self-worth and their interactions with competitiveness, thin-ideal internalization (but not appearance contingent self-worth) interacted with competitiveness to identify concurrent levels of both dieting and excessive exercise. Individuals high in both thin-ideal internalization and competitiveness exhibited the highest levels of concurrent dieting and excessive exercise. After controlling for baseline levels of the dependent variables, neither appearance-related factor interacted with competitiveness to predict dieting or excessive exercise. These findings suggest that individuals who are both competitive and accept and strive to achieve the thin ideal may be at risk for disordered eating behaviors.

  4. Personal factors predictive of health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Catipon, Terry; Hwang, Jengliang Eric

    2011-01-01

    We explored personal factors that can predict health-related lifestyles of community-dwelling older adults. A convenience sample of 253 older adults was recruited to complete the Health Enhancement Lifestyle Profile (HELP), a comprehensive measure of health-promoting behaviors. Data were analyzed through univariate correlational/comparative statistics followed by stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine significant predictor variables for different aspects of health-related lifestyle. Personal health conditions, including the number of chronic diseases or impairments and self-rated health, were two strong predictors for the HELP (R2 = .571, p Leisure). When developing individualized plans for older adults in community settings, occupational therapists should consider the clients' strengths and vulnerabilities potentially derived from personal health factors and demographic attributes to yield more effective lifestyle interventions.

  5. On the relation between QCD potentials in momentum and position space

    OpenAIRE

    Jezabek, M.; Peter, M.; Sumino, Y.

    1998-01-01

    We derive a formula which relates the QCD potentials in momentum space and in position space in terms of the beta-function of the renormalization-group equation for the potential. This formula is used to study the theoretical uncertainties in the potential and in particular in its application to the determination of the pole mass m_b when we use perturbative expansions. We demonstrate the existence of these uncertainties for the Richardson potential explicitly and then discuss the limited the...

  6. Modifiable factors influencing relatives' decision to offer organ donation: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkin, Arabella L; Robertson, Laura C; Barber, Vicki S; Young, J Duncan

    2009-04-21

    To identify modifiable factors that influence relatives' decision to allow organ donation. Systematic review. Medline, Embase, and CINAHL, without language restriction, searched to April 2008. Review methods Three authors independently assessed the eligibility of the identified studies. We excluded studies that examined only factors affecting consent that could not be altered, such as donor ethnicity. We extracted quantitative results to an electronic database. For data synthesis, we summarised the results of studies comparing similar themes. We included 20 observational studies and audits. There were no randomised controlled trials. The main factors associated with reduced rates of refusal were the provision of adequate information on the process of organ donation and its benefits; high quality of care of potential organ donors; ensuring relatives had a clear understanding of brain stem death; separating the request for organ donation from notification that the patient had died; making the request in a private setting; and using trained and experienced individuals to make the request. Limited evidence suggests that there are modifiable factors in the process of requests for organ donation, in particular the skills of the individual making the request and the timing of this conversation, that might have a significant impact on rates of consent. Targeting these factors might have a greater and more immediate effect on the number of organs for donation than legislative or other long term strategies.

  7. Cloning of a novel signaling molecule, AMSH-2, that potentiates transforming growth factor β signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Akhilesh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-βs, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs and activins are important regulators of developmental cell growth and differentiation. Signaling by these factors is mediated chiefly by the Smad family of latent transcription factors. Results There are a large number of uncharacterized cDNA clones that code for novel proteins with homology to known signaling molecules. We have identified a novel molecule from the HUGE database that is related to a previously known molecule, AMSH (associated molecule with the SH3 domain of STAM, an adapter shown to be involved in BMP signaling. Both of these molecules contain a coiled-coil domain located within the amino-terminus region and a JAB (Domain in Jun kinase activation domain binding protein and proteasomal subunits domain at the carboxy-terminus. We show that this novel molecule, which we have designated AMSH-2, is widely expressed and its overexpression potentiates activation of TGF-β-dependent promoters. Coimmunoprecipitation studies indicated that Smad7 and Smad2, but not Smad3 or 4, interact with AMSH-2. We show that overexpression of AMSH-2 decreases the inhibitory effect of Smad7 on TGF-β signaling. Finally, we demonstrate that knocking down AMSH-2 expression by RNA interference decreases the activation of 3TP-lux reporter in response to TGF-β. Conclusions This report implicates AMSH and AMSH-2 as a novel family of molecules that positively regulate the TGF-β signaling pathway. Our results suggest that this effect could be partially explained by AMSH-2 mediated decrease of the action of Smad7 on TGF-β signaling pathway.

  8. The stem cell factor SOX2 regulates the tumorigenic potential in human gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütz, Katharina; Mejías-Luque, Raquel; Farsakova, Katarina; Ogris, Manfred; Krebs, Stefan; Anton, Martina; Vieth, Michael; Schüller, Ulrich; Schneider, Marlon R; Blum, Helmut; Wagner, Ernst; Jung, Andreas; Gerhard, Markus

    2014-04-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is still one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide, which is mainly attributable to late diagnosis and poor treatment options. Infection with Helicobacter pylori, different environmental factors and genetic alterations are known to influence the risk of developing gastric tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in gastric carcinogenesis are still not fully understood, making it difficult to design targeted therapeutic approaches. Aberrant expression of the specific gastric differentiation marker SOX2 has been observed in stomach cancer. However, the role of SOX2 in gastric tumors has not been well established to date. To elucidate the role of SOX2 in gastric tumorigenesis, SOX2 transcriptional activity was blocked in AZ-521 cells. Interestingly, inhibition of SOX2 reduced cell proliferation and migration, increased apoptosis and induced changes in cell cycle. Blocking of SOX2 also reduced the tumorigenic potential of AZ-521 cells in vivo. In addition, correlation of SOX2 expression and proliferation was observed in a subset of human gastric tumors. Finally, target genes of SOX2 were for the first time identified by RNA microarray in GC cells. Taken together, the results presented here indicate that SOX2 controls several aspects related to GC development and progression by regulating the expression of members of important signaling pathways. These findings could provide new therapeutic options for a subset of GCs exhibiting SOX2 deregulation.

  9. European Clearinghouse - Contributing Factors to Incidents Related to Reactivity Management

    OpenAIRE

    BRUYNOOGHE Christiane; NOEL MARC

    2009-01-01

    In this paper shortcomings in reactivity management reported to the IAEA Incident Reporting System in the period 1981-2008 are investigated and contributing factors to reactivity management incidents are analysed. The aim of theworkwas to identify the initiating factors and associated root causes. Five of the seven factors identified for all events were present in the 1999 Shika-1 event where criticality has been unexpectedly reached and maintained during fifteen minutes. Most of the events r...

  10. Community reintegration and related factors in a Nigerian stroke sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosile, Christopher; Nworah, Chioma; Okoye, Emmanuel; Adegoke, Babatunde; Umunnah, Joseph; Fabunmi, Ayodeji

    2016-09-01

    The goal of stroke rehabilitation has shifted from mere survival of a victim to how well a survivor can be effectively reintegrated back into the community. The present study determined the level of satisfaction with community reintegration (CR) and related factors among Nigerian community-dwelling stroke survivors (CDSS). This was a cross-sectional survey of 71 volunteering CDSS (35 males, 36 females) from selected South-Eastern Nigerian communities. Reintegration to Normal Living Index was used to assess participants' CR. Data was analysed using Spearman rank-order correlation, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at p≤0.05. Participants generally had deficits in CR which was either mild/moderate (52.1%) or severe (47.9%). Scores in the CR domains of distance mobility, performance of daily activities, recreational activities and family roles were particularly low (median scores ≤ 4). CR was significantly correlated with and influenced by age (r=-0.35; p=0.00) and presence/absence of diabetes mellitus (u=3.56.50; p=0.01), pre- (k=6.13; p=0.05) and post-stroke employment (k=18.26; p=0.00) status, type of assistive mobility device being used (AMD) (k=25.39; p=0.00) and support from the community (k=7.15; p=0.03) respectively. CR was generally poor for this CDSS sample. Survivors who are older, having diabetes as co-morbidity, using AMD (particularly wheel-chair) and without employment pre- and/or post-stroke may require keener attention. Rehabilitation focus may be targeted at enhancing mobility functions, vocational and social skills.

  11. Clinical incidents involving students on placement: an analysis of incident reports to identify potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaida, J E; Maloney, S; Lo, K; Morgan, P

    2015-06-01

    Students are sometimes involved in incidents during clinical training. To the authors' knowledge, no quantitative studies of incidents specifically involving physiotherapy students on clinical placement are available in the literature. A retrospective audit (2008 to 2011) of incident reports involving physiotherapy students was conducted to identify the nature and features of incidents. The study aimed to determine if injuries to a student or patient were more or less likely when the supervisor was in close proximity, and whether students with lower academic performance in their preclinical semester were more likely to be involved in an incident. There were 19 care-delivery-related and three equipment-related incidents. There were no incidents of violent, aggressive or demeaning behaviour towards students. The incident rate was 9.0/100,000 student-hours for third-year students and 6.8/100,000 student-hours for fourth-year students. The majority of incidents (55%) occurred from 11 am to 12-noon and from 3 pm to 3.30 pm. Incidents more often resulted in patient or student injury when the supervisor was not in close proximity (approximately 50% vs approximately 20%), although the difference was not significant (P=0.336). The academic results of students involved in incidents were equivalent to the whole cohort in their preclinical semester {mean 75 [standard deviation (SD) 6] vs 76 (SD 7); P=0.488}. The unexpected temporal clustering of incidents warrants further investigation. Student fatigue may warrant attention as a potential contributor; however, contextual factors, such as staff workload, along with organisational systems, structures and procedures may be more relevant. The potential relationship between supervisor proximity and injury also warrants further exploration. The findings of the present study should be integrated into clinical education curricula and communicated to clinical educators. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by

  12. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants as potential risk factors for developing diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants(POPs),such as dioxins,polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) ,and organochlorine pesticides(OCPs),which are synthetic chemicals or by-products with an intrinsic resistance to natural degradation processes,are released into the environment,resulting in the widespread dispersal and accumulation in the environment,as well as in human and ecological food chains.Due to their ubiquity in the environment and lipophilic properties,there is emerging concern over the potential risks of human exposure to POPs.Extensive growing evidence indicated that exposure to POPs might be strongly associated with increased risk of a worldwide epidemic of diabetes,especially type 2 diabetes,suggesting that POPs might play a key role in their pathogenesis.Based on summary of the related studies,this paper reviews the epidemiologic and experimental data that addresses the association between increased risk of diabetes and POP exposure,including dioxins,PCBs,OCPs,polybrominated flame retardants(PBFRs),and some environmental estrogens.The potential mechanisms whereby POPs cause diabetes were discussed,such as alterations in lipid metabolism,in glucose transport,in insulin signaling pathway,in steroid metabolism,and disruption of endocrine system,induction of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) .However,with respect to diabetes,some of the evidence on POPs linked to risk of diabetes was suggestive of a direct or indirect association but was limited or inconclusive.Future research is urgently needed for determining the relative contribution of POPs to diabetes and elucidating the exact mechanisms.

  13. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Finck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives.

  14. The deformed uncertainty relation and the corresponding beam quality factor

    CERN Document Server

    Li, K; Wang, S M; Li, Kang; Zhao, Dao Mu; Wang, Shao Min

    1996-01-01

    By using the theory of deformed quantum mechanics, we study the deformed light beam theoretically. The deformed beam quality factor M_q^2 is given explicitly under the case of deformed light in coherent state. When the deformation parameter q being a root of unity, the beam quality factor M_q^2 \\leq 1.

  15. The search for life on Europa: limiting environmental factors, potential habitats, and Earth analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Giles M; Fritsen, Christian H; Eicken, Hajo; Payne, Meredith C

    2003-01-01

    The putative ocean of Europa has focused considerable attention on the potential habitats for life on Europa. By generally clement Earth standards, these Europan habitats are likely to be extreme environments. The objectives of this paper were to examine: (1) the limits for biological activity on Earth with respect to temperature, salinity, acidity, desiccation, radiation, pressure, and time; (2) potential habitats for life on Europa; and (3) Earth analogues and their limitations for Europa. Based on empirical evidence, the limits for biological activity on Earth are: (1) the temperature range is from 253 to 394 K; (2) the salinity range is a(H2O) = 0.6-1.0; (3) the desiccation range is from 60% to 100% relative humidity; (4) the acidity range is from pH 0 to 13; (5) microbes such as Deinococcus are roughly 4,000 times more resistant to ionizing radiation than humans; (6) the range for hydrostatic pressure is from 0 to 1,100 bars; and (7) the maximum time for organisms to survive in the dormant state may be as long as 250 million years. The potential habitats for life on Europa are the ice layer, the brine ocean, and the seafloor environment. The dual stresses of lethal radiation and low temperatures on or near the icy surface of Europa preclude the possibility of biological activity anywhere near the surface. Only at the base of the ice layer could one expect to find the suitable temperatures and liquid water that are necessary for life. An ice layer turnover time of 10 million years is probably rapid enough for preserving in the surface ice layers dormant life forms originating from the ocean. Model simulations demonstrate that hypothetical oceans could exist on Europa that are too cold for biological activity (T salinities are high, which would restrict life to extreme halophiles. An acidic ocean (if present) could also potentially limit life. Pressure, per se, is unlikely to directly limit life on Europa. But indirectly, pressure plays an important role in

  16. Predictive factors for bleeding-related re-exploration after cardiac surgery: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Camila T; Brunori, Evelise H Fadini Reis; Santos, Vinicius Batista; Moorhead, Sue A; Lopes, Juliana de Lima; de Barros, Alba L Bottura Leite

    2016-04-01

    Bleeding-related re-exploration is a life-threatening complication after cardiac surgery. Nurses must be aware of important risk factors for this complication so that their assessment, monitoring and evaluation activities can be prioritized, focused and anticipated. To identify the predictive factors for bleeding-related re-exploration after cardiac surgery and to describe the sources of postoperative bleeding. This is a prospective cohort study at a tertiary cardiac school-hospital in São Paulo/SP, Brazil. Adult patients (n=323) submitted to surgical correction of acquired cardiac diseases were included. Potential risk factors for bleeding-related re-exploration within the 24 hours following admission to the intensive care unit were investigated in the patients' charts. A univariate analysis and a multiple analysis through logistic regression were conducted to identify the outcome predictors. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was calculated as a measure of accuracy considering the cut-off points with the highest sensitivity and specificity. The univariate factors significantly associated with bleeding-related re-exploration were a lower preoperative platelet count, a lower number of bypasses in coronary artery bypass surgery and postoperatively, a lower body temperature, infusion of lower intravenous volume, a higher positive end-expiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation and transfusion of blood products. The independent predictors of bleeding-related re-exploration included postoperative red blood cell transfusion, and transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, platelet or cryoprecipitate units. These predictors had a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 99.28% and an accuracy of 97.93%. Blood product transfusion postoperatively is an independent predictor of bleeding-related re-exploration. Surgical errors prevailed as sources of bleeding. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  17. Inverse Effectiveness and Multisensory Interactions in Visual Event-Related Potentials with Audiovisual Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushmakin, Maxim; Kim, Sunah; Wallace, Mark T.; Puce, Aina; James, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, it has become evident that neural responses previously considered to be unisensory can be modulated by sensory input from other modalities. In this regard, visual neural activity elicited to viewing a face is strongly influenced by concurrent incoming auditory information, particularly speech. Here, we applied an additive-factors paradigm aimed at quantifying the impact that auditory speech has on visual event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited to visual speech. These multisensory interactions were measured across parametrically varied stimulus salience, quantified in terms of signal to noise, to provide novel insights into the neural mechanisms of audiovisual speech perception. First, we measured a monotonic increase of the amplitude of the visual P1-N1-P2 ERP complex during a spoken-word recognition task with increases in stimulus salience. ERP component amplitudes varied directly with stimulus salience for visual, audiovisual, and summed unisensory recordings. Second, we measured changes in multisensory gain across salience levels. During audiovisual speech, the P1 and P1-N1 components exhibited less multisensory gain relative to the summed unisensory components with reduced salience, while N1-P2 amplitude exhibited greater multisensory gain as salience was reduced, consistent with the principle of inverse effectiveness. The amplitude interactions were correlated with behavioral measures of multisensory gain across salience levels as measured by response times, suggesting that change in multisensory gain associated with unisensory salience modulations reflects an increased efficiency of visual speech processing. PMID:22367585

  18. Factors related to staff stress in HIV/AIDS related palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prabha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Staff stress in HIV related palliative care has been identified as an important problem worldwide. This study aimed at estimating prevalence of staff stress and its correlates in a sample of palliative caregivers in HIV/AIDS in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two participants (29 female and 23 male completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, AIDS Contact Scale (ACS and AIDS Stress Scale (ASS and a semi-structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The majority (92% had average to high scores on at least one domain of MBI. High scores on the factors Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalisation, and Personal Accomplishment were seen in 10%, 17% and 58% of the sample respectively. ASS score, severity of stress in dealing with persons living with AIDS and having considered leaving HIV related work were predictors of high Emotional Exhaustion scores. ASS score, ACS score and severity of stress with death of a person with AIDS were predictors of high Depersonalisation scores. Female gender was a predictor of a high Personal Accomplishment score. CONCLUSIONS: The study emphasises the need to address issues related to staff burnout in HIV palliative care.

  19. How Social Ties Influence Consumer: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jing; Yao, Zhong; Bai, Yan

    2017-01-01

    A considerable amount of marketing research has reported that consumers are more saliently influenced by friends (strong social ties) than by acquaintances and strangers (weak social ties). To shed light on the neural and psychological processes underlying such phenomenon, in this study we designed an amended S1-S2 paradigm (product-[reviewer-review]) that is based on realistic consumer purchase experiences. After incoming all given information (product, reviewer, review), participants were required to state their purchase intentions. The neurocognitive and emotional processes related to friend and stranger stimuli were delineated to suggest how social ties influence consumers during their shopping processes. Larger P2 (fronto-central scalp areas) and P3 (central and posterior-parietal scalp areas) components under stranger condition were elicited successfully. These findings demonstrate that the cognitive and emotional processing of friend and stranger stimuli occurs at stages of neural activity, and can be indicated by the P2 and P3 components. Electrophysiological data also support the hypothesis that different neural and emotional processing magnitude and strength underlie friend and stranger effect in the context of consumer purchase. During this process, the perception of stimuli evoked P2, subsequently emotional processing and attention modulation were activated and indicated by P2 and P3. The friend dominated phenomenon can be interpreted as the result of distinctive neurocognitive and emotional processing magnitude, which suggests that psychological and emotional factors can guide consumer decision making. This study consolidates that event related potential (ERP) methodology is likely to be a more sensitive method for investigating consumer behaviors. From the perspectives of management and marketing, our findings show that the P2 and P3 components can be employed as an indicator to probe the influential factors of consumer purchase intentions.

  20. How Social Ties Influence Consumer: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    A considerable amount of marketing research has reported that consumers are more saliently influenced by friends (strong social ties) than by acquaintances and strangers (weak social ties). To shed light on the neural and psychological processes underlying such phenomenon, in this study we designed an amended S1-S2 paradigm (product-[reviewer-review]) that is based on realistic consumer purchase experiences. After incoming all given information (product, reviewer, review), participants were required to state their purchase intentions. The neurocognitive and emotional processes related to friend and stranger stimuli were delineated to suggest how social ties influence consumers during their shopping processes. Larger P2 (fronto-central scalp areas) and P3 (central and posterior-parietal scalp areas) components under stranger condition were elicited successfully. These findings demonstrate that the cognitive and emotional processing of friend and stranger stimuli occurs at stages of neural activity, and can be indicated by the P2 and P3 components. Electrophysiological data also support the hypothesis that different neural and emotional processing magnitude and strength underlie friend and stranger effect in the context of consumer purchase. During this process, the perception of stimuli evoked P2, subsequently emotional processing and attention modulation were activated and indicated by P2 and P3. The friend dominated phenomenon can be interpreted as the result of distinctive neurocognitive and emotional processing magnitude, which suggests that psychological and emotional factors can guide consumer decision making. This study consolidates that event related potential (ERP) methodology is likely to be a more sensitive method for investigating consumer behaviors. From the perspectives of management and marketing, our findings show that the P2 and P3 components can be employed as an indicator to probe the influential factors of consumer purchase intentions. PMID

  1. Potential large wood-related hazards at bridges: the Czarny Dunajec River (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Mikuś, Paweł; Hajdukiewicz, Maciej; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Besides high water levels in the drainage network and important channel changes, the transport of large quantities of wood material must be considered an additional factor of flood hazard in forested areas. At critical sections such as bridges, the effect of the transport and deposition of large quantities of wood during floods is mainly a reduction of the cross-sectional area, triggering a quick succession of backwater effects with inundation of the adjacent valley floor, bed aggradation, channel avulsion and local scouring processes that ultimately may cause embankment/bridge collapse and bank erosion. Therefore, the aim of this work is to analyse potential hazards related to wood transport and deposition in the reach of the Czarny Dunajec (Tatra Mountains foreland, Polish Carpathians) where the river flows through the village of Długopole. Buildings in the village are located very close to the river and the bridge has a very narrow cross-section and is thus threatened by wood-related phenomena. The approach is based on the combination of numerical modelling and field observations. A numerical model which simulates the transport of large wood together with flow dynamics is applied and inlet and boundary conditions are designed based on field observations. We established several scenarios for flow conditions and the wood transport. Results provided data to compute bridge clogging probability under the designed scenarios and the potential impacts of the clogging on hydrodynamics, flooded area and effects on the bridge. This information will be very useful for flood risk assessment and management of the river. This work was supported by the Polish-Swiss FLORIST project (Flood risk on the northern foothills of the Tatra Mountains; PSPB no. 153/2010).

  2. Oiling the Wheels of Conflict? Local Grievances, Relative Deprivation and the Potential for Conflict in Cape Three Points, Ghana.

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Edwin Wuadom

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource, particularly oil, has been predicted to be a core factor of internal conflicts in the post-cold war era (Le Billon, 2001; Klare, 2001). This thesis explores the potential for conflict in new and emerging petro-states where recent oil discoveries have raised concerns about the risk of oil conflict occurring. The relative deprivation theory (Gurr, 1970) serves as the main theoretical point of discussion for this study. Using a case study of Cape Three Points in ...

  3. Exploring women's postpartum sexuality: social, psychological, relational, and birth-related contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, Lauren E; Kane Low, Lisa; van Anders, Sari M

    2012-09-01

    Women's postpartum sexuality can be influenced by factors related to physical, personal, and relationship transitions after the newborn arrives. Despite this, many experiential and social factors remain unexplored. This study aims to (i) investigate a range of variables thought to influence postpartum sexuality; (ii) expand the focus beyond latency to penis-vagina intercourse; and (iii) assess positive aspects of postpartum sexuality. Via retrospective reporting on the first 3 months postpartum, 304 women completed an online questionnaire. The main outcome measures were retrospective reports of sexual desire (Sexual Desire Inventory), latency to resumption of sexual activity, and perceptions of partner's sexual desire. Other measures were birth experience (Questionnaire Measuring Attitudes About Labor and Delivery), breastfeeding status, perceptions of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and body image (Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale). Significant differences in time to resumption were found. Women performed oral sex on their partners earlier than engaging in masturbation, which was followed by intercourse and then receiving oral sex. Post hoc analyses identified birth experience, social support, importance of partner's sexual fulfillment, and perception of partner's desire as contributors to this pattern. Women's postpartum sexual desire was influenced by their perceptions of their partner's postpartum sexuality and individual's level of fatigue. Results suggested that postpartum desire was not significantly influenced by breastfeeding status, vaginal issues, or psychosocial variables including stress, body image, or social support. Results suggest that women's perceptions of their partner's sexuality impact postpartum sexuality more than the physical factors most commonly studied (e.g., vaginal trauma and breastfeeding). These results portray postpartum sexuality as a multidimensional

  4. Factors related to treatment intensity in Swiss primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzi Beat

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questions about the existence of supplier-induced demand emerge repeatedly in discussions about governing Swiss health care. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the interrelationship between structural factors of supply and the volume of services that are provided by primary care physicians in Switzerland. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional investigation, based on the complete claims data from all Swiss health care insurers for the year 2004, which covered information from 6087 primary care physicians and 4.7 million patients. Utilization-based health service areas were constructed and used as spatial units to analyze effects of density of supply. Hierarchical linear models were applied to analyze the data. Results The data showed that, within a service area, a higher density of primary care physicians was associated with higher mortality rates and specialist density but not with treatment intensity in primary care. Higher specialist density was weakly associated with higher mortality rates and with higher treatment intensity density of primary care physicians. Annual physician-level data indicate a disproportionate increase of supplied services irrespective of the size of the number of patients treated during the same year and, even in high volume practices, no rationing but a paradoxical inducement of consultations occurred. The results provide empirical evidence that higher densities of primary care physicians, specialists and the availability of out-patient hospital clinics in a given area are associated with higher volume of supplied services per patient in primary care practices. Analyses stratified by language regions showed differences that emphasize the effect of the cantonal based (fragmented governance of Swiss health care. Conclusion The study shows high volumes in Swiss primary care and provides evidence that the volume of supply is not driven by medical needs alone. Effects related to the

  5. Factors influencing the implicitation of discourse relations across languages

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Relations that hold between discourse segments can, but need not, be made explicit by means of discourse connectives. Even though the explicit signaling of discourse relations is optional, not all relations can be easily conveyed implicitly. It has been proposed that readers and listeners have certain expectations about discourse and that discourse relations that are in line with these expectations (default) are more often implicit than the ones that are not (non-default). In this paper, we a...

  6. Factors Related to Depressive Symptoms in Mothers of Technology-Dependent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M

    2015-07-01

    Mothers caring for technology-dependent children at home often suffer clinically significant and unrecognized depressive symptoms. The study aim was to determine factors related to elevated depressive symptoms and provide information to target interventions that assists mothers in self-management of their mental health. Secondary data analysis from a descriptive, correlational study of 75 mothers was performed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis results indicate that younger, unpartnered mothers with lower normalization efforts and personal resourcefulness, and less care hours, had increased depressive symptoms. The importance of personal resourcefulness and the potential for a resourcefulness training intervention to reduce depressive symptoms are discussed.

  7. Relation between methanogenic archaea and methane production potential in selected natural wetland ecosystems across China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Liu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 emissions from natural wetland ecosystems exhibit large spatial variability at regional, national, and global levels related to temperature, water table, plant type and methanogenic archaea etc. To understand the underlying factors that induce spatial differences in CH4 emissions, and the relationship between the population of methanogenic archaea and CH4 production potential in natural wetlands around China, we measured the CH4 production potential and the abundance of methanogenic archaea in vertical soil profiles sampled from the Poyang wetland in the subtropical zone, the Hongze wetland in the warm temperate zone, the Sanjiang marsh in the cold temperate zone, and the Ruoergai peatland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the alpine climate zone. The top soil layer had the highest population of methanogens (1.07–8.29 × 109 cells g−1 soil in all wetlands except the Ruoergai peatland and exhibited the maximum CH4 production potential measured at the mean in situ summer temperature. There is a significant logarithmic correlation between the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the soil organic carbon (R2 = 0.72, P < 0.001, n = 13 and between the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the total nitrogen concentrations (R2 = 0.76, P < 0.001, n = 13 in wetland soils. This indicates that the amount of soil organic carbon may affect the population of methanogens in wetland ecosystems. While the CH4 production potential is not significantly related to methanogen population (R2 = 0.01, P > 0.05, n = 13, it is related to the dissolved organic carbon concentration (R2 = 0.31, P = 0.05, n = 13. This suggests that the methanogen population might be not an effective index for predicting the CH4 production in wetland

  8. Factors influencing the implicitation of discourse relations across languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Jet; Zufferey, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Relations that hold between discourse segments can, but need not, be made explicit by means of discourse connectives. Even though the explicit signaling of discourse relations is optional, not all relations can be easily conveyed implicitly. It has been proposed that readers and listeners have certa

  9. Potential implications of Helicobacter pylori-related neutrophil-activating protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jannis Kountouras; Ioannis Venizelos; Christos Zavos; Georgia Deretzi; Emmanuel Gavalas; Dimitrios Chatzopoulos; Panagiotis Katsinelos; Elena Tsiaousi; Stergios Gagalis; Stergios A Polyzos

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) virulence factors promote the release of various chemoattractants/inflammatory mediators, including mainly the neutrophilattractant chemokine interleukin-8 and neutrophilactivating protein (NAP), involved in H. pylori-induced gastric pathologies. Co-administration of Chios mastic gum (CMG), which inhibits H. pylori NAP, with an H. pylori eradication regimen might add clinical benefits against H. pylori-related gastric pathologies, but possibly not CMG as main therapy. Although H. pylori NAP and other H. pylori-related cytotoxins [i.e., vaculating cytotoxin (VacA)] appear to play a major role in generating and maintaining the H. pylori-associated gastric inflammatory response and H. pylori NAP is a promising vaccine candidate against H. pylori infection (H. pylori-I), concerns regarding its potential drawbacks, particularly neurogenic ones, due to possible crossmimicry, should be considered. Possible cross-mimicry between H. pylori NAP and/or bacterial aquaporin (AQP) and neural tissues may be associated with the anti-AQP-4 antibody-related neural damage in multiple sclerosis (MS)/neuromyelitis optica patients. Moreover, the sequence homology found between H. pylori VacA and human Na+/K+-ATPase A subunit suggests that antibodies to VacA involve ion channels in abaxonal Schwann cell plasmalemma resulting in demyelination in some patients. A series of factors have been implicated in inducing blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, including inflammatory mediators (e.g., cytokines and chemokines induced by H. pylori-I) and oxidative stress. BBB disruption permits access of AQP4-specific antibodies and T lymphocytes to the central nervous system, thereby playing a major role in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. Relative studies show a strong association between H. pylori-I and MS. H. pylori-I induces humoral and cellular immune responses that, owing to the sharing of homologous epitopes (molecular mimicry), cross-react with components of

  10. On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

  11. sponsorship-related factors with current cigarette smoking among in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... smoking among in-school adolescents in Zambia. Richard Zulu1 ... potential harm of secondhand smoke are associated with adolescents' smoking. Logistic .... your family discussed the harmful effects of smoking with you?

  12. Factors related to age at natural menopause: longitudinal analyses from SWAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ellen B; Crawford, Sybil L; Avis, Nancy E; Crandall, Carolyn J; Matthews, Karen A; Waetjen, L Elaine; Lee, Jennifer S; Thurston, Rebecca; Vuga, Marike; Harlow, Siobán D

    2013-07-01

    Early age at the natural final menstrual period (FMP) or menopause has been associated with numerous health outcomes and might be a marker of future ill health. However, potentially modifiable factors affecting age at menopause have not been examined longitudinally in large, diverse populations. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) followed 3,302 initially premenopausal and early perimenopausal women from 7 US sites and 5 racial/ethnic groups, using annual data (1996-2007) and Cox proportional hazards models to assess the relation of time-invariant and time-varying sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors to age at natural FMP. Median age at the FMP was 52.54 years (n = 1,483 observed natural FMPs). Controlling for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors, we found that racial/ethnic groups did not differ in age at the FMP. Higher educational level, prior oral contraceptive use, and higher weight at baseline, as well as being employed, not smoking, consuming alcohol, having less physical activity, and having better self-rated health over follow-up, were significantly associated with later age at the FMP. These results suggest that age at the natural FMP reflects a complex interrelation of health and socioeconomic factors, which could partially explain the relation of late age at FMP to reduced morbidity and mortality.

  13. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult stages of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Adamczuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors have a varied impact on the development of juvenile and adult Cladocera, depending on their different physiological conditions and body size. The values of these factors alter spatially and temporarily, thus implying that they play a role in the spatial distribution of the pre-reproductive and potentially reproductive stages of cladocerans. The aim of the study was to determine seasonal and spatial variations in the distribution of juvenile and adult individuals of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected physicochemical factors (temperature, conductivity, pH, concentration of dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids and fish predation pressure (measured by Chesson’s coefficient λ in deep Lake Piaseczno (eastern Poland. Adult Cladocera displayed spatial distribution related to fish predation pressure. The species selectively eaten, B. coregoni and D. longispina, and non-selectively eaten, D. cucullata, selected the pelagic zone to exist, whereas those avoided by fish, D. brachyurum and B. longirostris, were evenly distributed in the littoral and pelagic zone. Juvenile cladocerans were strongly impacted by physico-chemical factors. Juvenile Daphnia, Diaphanosoma and B. longirostris showed preferences to biotic zones similar to the adults but differed in their habitat choices. Juvenile and adult stages of B. coregoni differed in their distribution, indicating that adult individuals impacted by high predation pressure alternatively modified their habitat selection. Principal component analysis (PCA ordination showed a seasonal tendency for the spatial segregation of the cladocerans, suggesting that possible competitive interactions between the studied cladocerans may also influence their distribution patterns.

  14. Expression of brain derived-neurotrophic factor and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in the urothelium: relation with voiding function

    OpenAIRE

    Yuk, Seung Mo; Shin, Ju Hyun; Song, Ki Hak; Na, Yong Gil; Lim, Jae Sung; Sul, Chong Koo

    2015-01-01

    Background We designed this experiment to elucidate the relationship between the expression of brain derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), and the development of overactive bladder (OAB). In our previous study, the urothelium was observed to be more than a simple mechanosensory receptor and was found to be a potential therapeutic target for OAB. Moreover, neuregulin-1 and BDNF were found to be potential new biomarkers of OAB. Here...

  15. The NLstart2run study : Training-related factors associated with running-related injuries in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van der Worp, Henk; Huisstede, Bionka M A; Hartgens, Fred; Diercks, Ron; Verhagen, Evert; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The incidence of running-related injuries is high. Some risk factors for injury were identified in novice runners, however, not much is known about the effect of training factors on injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the associations between training factors

  16. Successful syllable detection in aphasia despite processing impairments as revealed by event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Frank

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of impaired sound and speech sound processing for auditory language comprehension deficits in aphasia is unclear. No electrophysiological studies of attended speech sound processing in aphasia have been performed for stimuli that are discriminable even for patients with severe auditory comprehension deficits. Methods Event-related brain potentials (ERPs were used to study speech sound processing in a syllable detection task in aphasia. In an oddball paradigm, the participants had to detect the infrequent target syllable /ta:/ amongst the frequent standard syllable /ba:/. 10 subjects with moderate and 10 subjects with severe auditory comprehension impairment were compared to 11 healthy controls. Results N1 amplitude was reduced indicating impaired primary stimulus analysis; N1 reduction was a predictor for auditory comprehension impairment. N2 attenuation suggests reduced attended stimulus classification and discrimination. However, all aphasic patients were able to discriminate the stimuli almost without errors, and processes related to the target identification (P3 were not significantly reduced. The aphasic subjects might have discriminated the stimuli by purely auditory differences, while the ERP results reveal a reduction of language-related processing which however did not prevent performing the task. Topographic differences between aphasic subgroups and controls indicate compensatory changes in activation. Conclusion Stimulus processing in early time windows (N1, N2 is altered in aphasics with adverse consequences for auditory comprehension of complex language material, while allowing performance of simpler tasks (syllable detection. Compensational patterns of speech sound processing may be activated in syllable detection, but may not be functional in more complex tasks. The degree to which compensational processes can be activated probably varies depending on factors as lesion site, time after injury, and

  17. Movement related slow cortical potentials in severely paralyzed chronic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge eYilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Movement-related slow cortical potentials (SCPs are proposed as reliable and immediate indicators of cortical reorganisation in motor learning. SCP amplitude and latency have been reported as markers for the brain’s computational effort, attention and movement planning. SCPs have been used as an EEG signature of motor control and as a main feature in Brain-Machine-Interfaces (BMIs. Some reports suggest SCPs are modified following stroke. In this study, we investigated movement-related SCPs in severe chronic stroke patients with no residual paretic hand movements preceding and during paretic (when they try to move and healthy hand movements. The aim was to identify SCP signatures related to cortex integrity and complete paralysis due to stroke in the chronic stage. 20 severely impaired (no residual finger extension chronic stoke patients, of whom 10 presented subcortical and 10 cortical and subcortical lesions, underwent EEG and EMG recordings during a cue triggered hand movement (open/close paradigm. SCP onset appeared and peaked significantly earlier during paretic hand movements than during healthy hand movements. Amplitudes were significantly larger over the midline (Cz, Fz for paretic hand movements while contralateral (C4, F4 and midline (Cz, Fz amplitudes were significantly larger than ipsilateral activity for healthy hand movements. Dividing the participants into subcortical only and mixed lesioned patient groups, no significant differences observed in SCP amplitude and latency between groups. This suggests lesions in the thalamocortical loop as the main factor in SCP changes after stroke. Furthermore, we demonstrated how, after long-term complete paralysis, post-stroke intention to move a paralyzed hand resulted in longer and larger SCPs originating in the frontal areas. These results suggest SCP are a valuable feature that should be incorporated in the design of new neurofeedback strategies for motor neurorehabilitation.

  18. A non-orthogonal SVD-based decomposition for phase invariant error-related potential estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlypo, Ronald; Jrad, Nisrine; Rousseau, Sandra; Congedo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The estimation of the Error Related Potential from a set of trials is a challenging problem. Indeed, the Error Related Potential is of low amplitude compared to the ongoing electroencephalographic activity. In addition, simple summing over the different trials is prone to errors, since the waveform does not appear at an exact latency with respect to the trigger. In this work, we propose a method to cope with the discrepancy of these latencies of the Error Related Potential waveform and offer a framework in which the estimation of the Error Related Potential waveform reduces to a simple Singular Value Decomposition of an analytic waveform representation of the observed signal. The followed approach is promising, since we are able to explain a higher portion of the variance of the observed signal with fewer components in the expansion.

  19. Potential escalation of heat-related working costs with climate and socioeconomic changes in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yan Zhao; Benjamin Sultan; Robert Vautard; Pascale Braconnot; Huijun J. Wang; Agnes Ducharne

    2016-01-01

    .... In mainland China, high-temperature subsidies (HTSs) are allocated to employees for each working day in extremely hot environments, but the potential heat-related increase in labor cost has not been evaluated so far...

  20. Core disgust and moral disgust are related to distinct spatiotemporal patterns of neural processing: an event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Y.; Shen, W.; Zhang, Y.; Feng, T.Y.; Huang, H.; Li, H.

    2013-01-01

    Core disgust is thought to rely more on sensory and perceptual processes, whereas moral disgust is thought to rely more on social evaluation processes. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying these two types of disgust. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from

  1. Age-related effects of different types of noise and stimulus quality: An event-related potential (ERP) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, R.; Kok, A.; Zeef, E.; Keuss, P.

    1996-01-01

    Young and elderly adults were exposed to meaningful conglomerate noise (c-noise) and white noise (w-noise) while they responded to intact and degraded visual stimuli. Complementary to performance measures P3 and the Slow Wave component of the event-related potential were recorded to the visual stimu

  2. Gender differences in the relations between work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2004-01-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints might be explained by differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to examine gender differences in the relations between these risk factors and muscu

  3. Identification of transcription factors potentially involved in the juvenile to adult phase transition in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Mari-Cruz; Forment, Javier; Gadea, José; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Juarez, José; Navarro, Luís; Ancillo, Gema

    2013-11-01

    The juvenile to adult transition (JAT) in higher plants is required for them to reach reproductive competence. However, it is a poorly understood process in woody plants, where only a few genes have been definitely identified as being involved in this transition. This work aims at increasing our understanding of the mechanisms regulating the JAT in citrus. Juvenile and adult plants from Pineapple sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Rough lemon (C. jambhiri) were used to screen for differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) using a 1·15K microarray developed on the basis of the CitrusTF database. Murcott tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and Duncan grapefruit (C. paradisi) were incorporated into the quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR validation in order to select those genes whose phase-specific regulation was common to the four species. A browsable web database has been created with information about the structural and functional annotation related to 1152 unigenes of putative citrus TFs (CTFs). This database constitutes a valuable resource for research on transcriptional regulation and comparative genomics. Moreover, a microarray has been developed and used that contains these putative CTFs, in order to identify eight genes that showed differential expression in juvenile and adult meristems of four different species of citrus. Those genes have been characterized, and their expression pattern in vegetative and reproductive tissues has been analysed. Four of them are MADS-box genes, a family of TFs involved in developmental processes, whereas another one resembles MADS-box genes but lacks the MADS box itself. The other three showed high partial sequence similarity restricted to specific Arabidopsis protein domains but negligible outside those domains. The work presented here indicates that the JAT in citrus could be controlled by mechanisms that are in part common to those of Arabidopsis, but also somehow different, since specific factors

  4. The sea surface currents as a potential factor in the estimation and monitoring of wave energy potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Stylianoy, Stavros; Liakatas, Aristotelis

    2015-04-01

    The use of wave energy as an alternative renewable is receiving attention the last years under the shadow of the economic crisis in Europe and in the light of the promising corresponding potential especially for countries with extended coastline. Monitoring and studying the corresponding resources is further supported by a number of critical advantages of wave energy compared to other renewable forms, like the reduced variability and the easier adaptation to the general grid, especially when is jointly approached with wind power. Within the framework, a number of countries worldwide have launched research and development projects and a significant number of corresponding studies have been presented the last decades. However, in most of them the impact of wave-sea surface currents interaction on the wave energy potential has not been taken into account neglecting in this way a factor of potential importance. The present work aims at filling this gap for a sea area with increased scientific and economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Based on a combination of high resolution numerical modeling approach with advanced statistical tools, a detailed analysis is proposed for the quantification of the impact of sea surface currents, which produced from downscaling the MyOcean-FO regional data, to wave energy potential. The results although spatially sensitive, as expected, prove beyond any doubt that the wave- sea surface currents interaction should be taken into account for similar resource analysis and site selection approaches since the percentage of impact to the available wave power may reach or even exceed 20% at selected areas.

  5. Factors of force potentiation induced by stretch-shortening cycle in plantarflexors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki Fukutani

    Full Text Available Muscle force is potentiated by countermovement; this phenomenon is called stretch-shortening cycle (SSC effect. In this study, we examined the factors strongly related to SSC effect in vivo, focusing on tendon elongation, preactivation, and residual force enhancement. Twelve healthy men participated in this study. Ankle joint angle was passively moved by a dynamometer, with a range of motion from 15° dorsiflexion (DF to 15° plantarflexion (PF. Muscle contraction was evoked by electrical stimulation, with stimulation timing adjusted to elicit three types of contraction: (1 concentric contraction without preliminary contraction (CON, (2 concentric contraction after preliminary eccentric contraction (ECC, and (3 concentric contraction after preliminary isometric contraction (ISO. Joint torque was recorded at DF5°, PF0°, and PF5°, respectively. SSC effect was calculated as the ratio of joint torque obtained in ECC or ISO with respect to that obtained in CON at the aforementioned three joint angles. SSC effect was prominent in the first half of movement in both ECC (DF5°, 329.3 ± 101.2%; PF0°, 159.2 ± 29.4%; PF5°, 125.5 ± 20.8% and ISO (DF5°, 276.4 ± 87.0%; PF0°, 134.5 ± 24.5%; PF5°, 106.8 ± 18.0% conditions. SSC effect was significantly larger in ECC than in ISO at all joint angles (P < 0.001. Even without preliminary eccentric contraction (i.e., ISO condition, SSC effect was clearly large, indicating that a significant part of SSC effect is derived from preactivation. However, the active lengthening-induced force potentiation mechanism (residual force enhancement also contributes to SSC effect.

  6. Risk factors for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and potential of magnesium supplementation for renal protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Kidera

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity remains a problem for patients who receive cisplatin chemotherapy. We retrospectively evaluated potential risk factors for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity as well as the potential impact of intravenous magnesium supplementation on such toxicity.We reviewed clinical data for 401 patients who underwent chemotherapy including a high dose (≥60 mg/m2 of cisplatin in the first-line setting. Nephrotoxicity was defined as an increase in the serum creatinine concentration of at least grade 2 during the first course of cisplatin chemotherapy, as assessed on the basis of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. The severity of nephrotoxicity was evaluated on the basis of the mean change in the serum creatinine level. Magnesium was administered intravenously to 67 patients (17%.Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was observed in 127 patients (32%. Multivariable analysis revealed that an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 (risk ratio, 1.876; P = 0.004 and the regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs (risk ratio, 1.357; P = 0.047 were significantly associated with an increased risk for cisplatin nephrotoxicity, whereas intravenous magnesium supplementation was associated with a significantly reduced risk for such toxicity (risk ratio, 0.175; P = 0.0004. The development of hypomagnesemia during cisplatin treatment was significantly associated with a greater increase in serum creatinine level (P = 0.0025. Magnesium supplementation therapy was also associated with a significantly reduced severity of renal toxicity (P = 0.012.A relatively poor performance status and the regular use of NSAIDs were significantly associated with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, although the latter association was marginal. Our findings also suggest that the ability of magnesium supplementation to protect against the renal toxicity of cisplatin warrants further

  7. The Dispersion Relation for the 1/sinh(exp 2) Potential in the Classical Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The dispersion relation for the inverse hyperbolic potential is calculated in the classical limit. This is shown for both the low amplitude phonon branch and the high amplitude soliton branch. It is shown these results qualitatively follow that previously found for the inverse squared potential where explicit analytic solutions are known.

  8. Common Misconceptions about the Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices: Cauchy Relations, Lattice Potentials and Infinite Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcoro, Luis; Etxebarria, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    The requirement of rotational invariance for lattice potential energies is investigated. Starting from this condition, it is shown that the Cauchy relations for the elastic constants are fulfilled if the lattice potential is built from pair interactions or when the first-neighbour approximation is adopted. This is seldom recognized in widely used…

  9. Online detection of error-related potentials boosts the performance of mental typewriters

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Published by BioMed Central Schmidt, Nico M. ; Blankertz, Benjamin ; Treder, Matthias S. : Online detection of error-related potentials boosts the performance of mental typewriters. - In: BMC Neuroscience. - ISSN 1471-2202 (online). - 13 (2012), art. 19. - doi:10.1186/1471-2202-13-19. Background: Increasing the communication speed of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) is a major aim of current BCI-research. The idea to automatically detect error-related potentials (ErrPs) in order to veto...

  10. Market potential analysis of value propositions related to projector-sensor technology in hospitality environment

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The research task of this Master’s Thesis is to define and analyze potential markets related of projector-sensor technology in hospitality industry and to define service concepts and business ecosystems related to projector-sensor technology. From an academic point of view this study aims to participate in discussion around the concepts of customer value and business ecosystem. This is done by analyzing market potential of a value proposition through business biosphere -framework. The ke...

  11. HIV Patients Drop Out in Indonesia: Associated Factors and Potential Productivity Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiatma YM. Siregar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: this study reported various factors associated with a higher probability of HIV patients drop out, and potential productivity loss due to HIV patients drop out. Methods: we analyzed data of 658 HIV patients from a database in a main referral hospital in Bandung city, West Java, Indonesia from 2007 to 2013. First, we utilized probit regression analysis and included, among others, the following variables: patients’ status (active or drop out, CD4 cell count, TB and opportunistic infection (OI, work status, sex, history of injecting drugs, and support from family and peers. Second, we used the drop out data from our database and CD 4 cell count decline rate from another study to estimate the productivity loss due to HIV patients drop out. Results: lower CD4 cell count was associated with a higher probability of drop out. Support from family/peers, living with family, and diagnosed with TB were associated with lower probability of drop out. The productivity loss at national level due to treatment drop out (consequently, due to CD4 cell count decline can reach US$365 million (using average wage. Conclusion: first, as lower CD 4 cell count was associated with higher probability of drop out, we recommend (to optimize early ARV initiation at a higher CD 4 cell count, involving scaling up HIV service at the community level. Second, family/peer support should be further emphasized to further ensure treatment success. Third, dropping out from ART will result in a relatively large productivity loss.

  12. HIV Patients Drop Out in Indonesia: Associated Factors and Potential Productivity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Adiatma Ym; Pitriyan, Pipit; Wisaksana, Rudi

    2016-07-01

    this study reported various factors associated with a higher probability of HIV patients drop out, and potential productivity loss due to HIV patients drop out. we analyzed data of 658 HIV patients from a database in a main referral hospital in Bandung city, West Java, Indonesia from 2007 to 2013. First, we utilized probit regression analysis and included, among others, the following variables: patients' status (active or drop out), CD4 cell count, TB and opportunistic infection (OI), work status, sex, history of injecting drugs, and support from family and peers. Second, we used the drop out data from our database and CD 4 cell count decline rate from another study to estimate the productivity loss due to HIV patients drop out. lower CD4 cell count was associated with a higher probability of drop out. Support from family/peers, living with family, and diagnosed with TB were associated with lower probability of drop out. The productivity loss at national level due to treatment drop out (consequently, due to CD4 cell count decline) can reach US$365 million (using average wage). first, as lower CD 4 cell count was associated with higher probability of drop out, we recommend (to optimize) early ARV initiation at a higher CD 4 cell count, involving scaling up HIV service at the community level. Second, family/peer support should be further emphasized to further ensure treatment success. Third, dropping out from ART will result in a relatively large productivity loss.

  13. Factores de riesgo asociados con la maloclusión Malocclusion-related risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohany Duque de Estrada Riverón

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio analítico del tipo de casos y controles en el municipio de Colón, provincia de Matanzas, en el período comprendido del año 2000-2002. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por 939 niños de 9, 12 y 15 años de edad, de los cuales se tomó una muestra aleatoria equivalente a 120 niños: 63 femeninos y 57 masculinos. Se caracterizaron los riesgos relacionados con hábitos bucales deformantes (40 %, hipotonía muscular (16,70 %, comportamiento de la herencia (32,50 %, malnutrición (20 %, caries dental (56,70 % y dientes perdidos (25 %. Se calculó el Odds ratio relacionado con hábitos bucales (7,69, hipotonía muscular (12,43 y herencia (3,90, lo que significó la probabilidad de riesgo de enfermar en presencia de los factores de riesgo considerados, que permite establecer un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica al respecto.An analytical case-control study was performed in Colon municipality, Matanzas province, Cuba, from 2000 to 2002. The universe of study was made up of 939 children aged 9, 12 and 15 years, from whom 120 were taken as equivalent random sample (63 females and 57 males. The risk characterization was based on deforming oral habits (40%, muscular hypotonia (16,70%, heredity performance (32,5%, malnutrition (20%, dental caries (56,70% and lost teeth (25%. The estimated odds ratio was more related to oral habits (7,69% muscular hypotonia (12,43% and heredity (3,90%, which means that there exists the probability of getting sick in the face of the considered risk factors. This allows setting up an epidemiological surveillance system on this issue.

  14. Platelet-activating factor in liver injury: A relational scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolaos P Karidis; Gregory Kouraklis; Stamatios E Theocharis

    2006-01-01

    The hepatocyte, the main cellular component of the liver, exhibits variable susceptibility to different types of injury induced by endogenous or exogenous factors.Hepatocellular dysfunction or death and regeneration are dependent upon the complicated interactions between numerous biologically active molecules. Plateletactivating factor (PAF) seems to play a pivotal role as the key mediator of liver injury in the clinical and experimental setting, as implied by the beneficial effects of its receptor antagonists. A comprehensive up-todate overview of the specific functional and regulatory properties of PAF in conditions associated with liver injury is attempted in this review.

  15. The role of complement Factor H in age-related macular degeneration: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, Larry A; Vrabec, Tamara; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Factor H is a 155kDa sialic acid containing glycoprotein that plays an integral role in the regulation of the complement-mediated immune system that is involved in microbial defense, immune complex processing, and programmed cell death. These events take place primarily in fluid phase and on the cell surface and are particularly important in the context of distinguishing self from non-self. Activation of the complement system occurs within seconds and results in a proteolytic cascade eventually forming the membrane attack complex leading to cell lysis. Factor H protects host cells from injury resulting from unrestrained complement activation. Mutations and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in Factor H have been implicated in a variety of human conditions including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, and membranoproliferative glomuleronephritis type II or dense deposit disease. It should not be surprising that these seemingly unrelated diseases involving mutations in Factor H may share common features. Because the immune process involves, in part, an inflammatory response and common or similar surface antigens, it is also not unexpected to observe features of inflammation, including deposition of bioactive complement fragments such as C3a and C5a, a cellular influx of immune related cells such as lymphocytes, and the potential for multiple organ involvement. We review recent developments in molecular genetics; SNPs, including Y402H; the three-dimensional structure; and mass spectroscopy of Factor H as it relates to the pathogenesis of eye disease. In addition, we discuss the concepts of molecular mimicry, sequestered or hidden antigens, and antigenic cross reactivity, and propose that AMD should not simply be considered to be an eye disease, but rather a systemic vascular disease where the eye has the ability to self regulate a local immune response. Identification of the initial event or inciting antigen has yet to be

  16. Social Factors Related to the Utilization of Health Care Among Prison Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Kathryn M

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the demographic and social factors related to health care utilization in prisons using the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities. The findings show that education and employment, strong predictors of health care in the community, are not associated with health care in prisons. Although female inmates have a higher disease burden than male inmates, there are no sex differences in health care usage. The factors associated with health care, however, vary for women and men. Notably, Black men are significantly more likely to utilize health care compared to White and Latino men. The findings suggest that, given the constitutionally mandated health care for inmates, prisons can potentially minimize racial disparities in care and that prisons, in general, are an important context for health care delivery in the United States.

  17. Relative effects at work : Bayes factors for order hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeken, J.; Mulder, J.; Wood, S.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the relative importance of predictors has been of historical importance in a variety of disciplines including management, medicine, economics, and psychology. When approaching hypotheses on the relative ordering of the magnitude of predicted effects (e.g., the effects of discrimination fro

  18. CULTURAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS RELATING TO LEARNING DEVELOPMENT. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACCOBY, MICHAEL; MODIANO, NANCY

    THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO COMPARE CULTURAL AND CHARACTER VARIABLES AND RELATE THEM TO THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF MEXICAN PEASANT CHILDREN. THE CULTURAL VARIABLES STUDIED INCLUDE ECONOMIC LEVELS, MORAL AND AFFECTIVE JUDGMENTS, AND THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PARENTS AND CHILDREN. MODES OF ASSIMILATION, SOCIAL RELATIONS, FIXATIONS,…

  19. A Bartlett correction factor for tests on the cointegrating relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Likelihood ratio tests for restrictions on cointegrating vectors are asymptotically [chi]2 distributed. For some values of the parameters this asymptotic distribution does not give a good approximation to the finite sample distribution. In this paper we derive the Bartlett correction factor...

  20. Patient and social work factors related to successful placement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have led to changes in attitudes towards the management of psychiatric .... since 2005.36 In that project the hospital-based social workers liaised with and paid ... be identified of patient factors that are associated with successful community ...

  1. Factors Related to Teachers' Intention to Leave the Classroom Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippens, Abby; Ricketts, John C.; Morgan, A. Christian; Navarro, Marie; Flanders, Frank B.

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of retaining teachers in the profession of agricultural education is a prevalent and growing problem in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary factors contributing to intention to leave the profession among Georgia agriculture teachers. Teacher-participants responded to a web-based survey which…

  2. Factors Related to Rural School Administrators' Satisfaction with Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Hannum, Wallace H.; de la Varre, Claire; Farmer, Thomas W.; Keane, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rural school district administrators' satisfaction with distance education in the United States and to identify factors that may contribute to their satisfaction. Telephone interviews were conducted with administrators in randomly selected rural districts across the country. Analyses revealed that students'…

  3. The influence of psychosocial factors on pregnancy related pelvic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, G. van de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis encloses studies which are separate analyses of the PRIMIS Study. In the PRIMIS Study a cohort of healthy women who expected their first child was followed up from early pregnancy to one year after delivery. Self-report questionnaires regarding psychosocial factors, urogenital symptoms a

  4. Factors Related to Students' Learning of Biomechanics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, ChengTu; Smith, Jeremy D.; Bohne, Michael; Knudson, Duane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand a previous study to identify the factors that affect students' learning of biomechanical concepts. Students were recruited from three universities (N = 149) located in the central and western regions of the United States. Data from 142 students completing the Biomechanics Concept Inventory…

  5. Overweight and Obesity and Related Factors in Urban Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Urban Iranian Population Aged Between. 20 to 84 Years ... aimed to provide population‑based data on the prevalence of obesity and estimation the risk of some .... in Tehran, capital of Iran. ..... Prevalence and risk factors associated with obesity in the elderly ... obesity and central fat accumulation among Tehranian adults.

  6. Associations between Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors and Alzheimer Disease : A Mendelian Randomization Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostergaard, Soren D.; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Sharp, Stephen J.; Proitsi, Petroula; Lotta, Luca A.; Day, Felix; Perry, John R. B.; Boehme, Kevin L.; Walter, Stefan; Kauwe, John S.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Larson, Eric B.; Powell, John F.; Langenberg, Claudia; Crane, Paul K.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Scott, Robert A.; van der Schouw, YT|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073449253

    2015-01-01

    Background Potentially modifiable risk factors including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and smoking are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and represent promising targets for intervention. However, the causality of these associations is unclear. We sought to assess the causal nature of these a

  7. A review of potential factors relevant to coping in patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thora Grothe; Hansen, Susan Rydahl; Wagner, Lis

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to identify characteristics that are considered to describe coping in patients with advanced cancer, as seen from a patient perspective. Based on the identified characteristics, the second aim was to identify potential factors that are relevant to coping in patients with advanced cancer....

  8. Associations between Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors and Alzheimer Disease : A Mendelian Randomization Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostergaard, Soren D.; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Sharp, Stephen J.; Proitsi, Petroula; Lotta, Luca A.; Day, Felix; Perry, John R. B.; Boehme, Kevin L.; Walter, Stefan; Kauwe, John S.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Larson, Eric B.; Powell, John F.; Langenberg, Claudia; Crane, Paul K.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Scott, Robert A.; van der Schouw, YT

    2015-01-01

    Background Potentially modifiable risk factors including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and smoking are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and represent promising targets for intervention. However, the causality of these associations is unclear. We sought to assess the causal nature of these a

  9. Isihlambezo: utilization patterns and potential health effects of pregnancy-related traditional herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, C A; Veale, D J

    1997-04-01

    Isihlambezo is a herbal decoction used by many Zulu women in South Africa as a preventative health tonic during pregnancy. Though the practice is cited by ethnographers and medical practitioners, few studies have focused on specific elements of isihlambezo use and preparation. Moreover, though some evidence exists suggesting negative effects of its ingestion, the maternal-fetal health impact and toxicity of isihlambezo have not been adequately studied. We examined two aspects of this traditional antenatal health practice: (1) the potential impact of urbanization and access to Western clinic-based care on popularity and utilization patterns of isihlambezo, and (2) the potential maternal-fetal health effects of its use. Interviews were conducted among rural and urban women in clinic and non-clinic settings regarding socio-behavioral aspects of isihlambezo use. The pharmacology of certain plant ingredients of isihlambezo was investigated through laboratory assays, literature review, and interviews with traditional healers. There were significant differences by area of interview in nearly all aspects of isihlambezo use examined. Though isihlambezo was most popular among urbanites and clinic non-attenders, it was considered an important antenatal health care alternative by the majority of women surveyed. Mixing traditional and clinic-based antenatal care was also strongly advocated. Pharmacological analysis suggested the possibility of both therapeutic and harmful consequences of isihlambezo. It was suggested that the following factors might contribute the popularity of isihlambezo among urban women: high cost and inferior quality of clinic care, use of isihlambezo as a means of adapting to urbanization-related stress, and socio-cultural transition.

  10. Potential risk factors associated with contact dermatitis, lameness, negative emotional state, and fear of humans in broiler chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, A W; Arnould, C; Butterworth, A; Colin, L; De Jong, I C; Ferrante, V; Ferrari, P; Haslam, S; Wemelsfelder, F; Blokhuis, H J

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) identify determinants of poor welfare in commercial broiler chicken flocks by studying the associations between selected resource-based measures (RBM, potential risk factors), such as litter quality and dark period, and animal-based welfare indicators (ABM), such as foot pad dermatitis and lameness, and 2) establish the breadth of effect of a risk factor by determining the range of animal welfare indicators associated with each of the risk factors (i.e., the number of ABM related to a specific RBM). Eighty-nine broiler flocks were inspected in 4 European countries (France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands) in a cross-sectional study. The ABM were contact dermatitis (measured using scores of foot-pad dermatitis and hock burn, respectively), lameness (measured as gait score), fear of humans (measured by the avoidance distance test and the touch test), and negative emotional state (measured using qualitative behavior assessment, QBA). In a first step, risk factors were identified by building a multiple linear regression model for each ABM. Litter quality was identified as a risk factor for contact dermatitis. Length of dark period at 3 wk old (DARK3) was a risk factor for the touch test result. DARK3 and flock age were risk factors for lameness, and the number of different stockmen and DARK3 were risk factors for QBA results. Next, the ABM were grouped according to risk factor and counted. Then, in a second step, associations between the ABM were investigated using common factor analysis. The breadth of a risk factor's effect was judged by combining the number (count) of ABM related to this factor and the strength of association between these ABM. Flock age and DARK3 appeared to affect several weakly correlated ABM, thus indicating a broad range of effects. Our findings suggest that manipulation of the predominant risk factors identified in this study (DARK3, litter quality, and slaughter age) could generate

  11. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims. Chara

  12. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims. Chara

  13. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims.

  14. Catheter-related infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: virulence factors involved and their relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnickova, Katerina; Hola, Veronika; Ruzicka, Filip

    2014-11-01

    The nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is equipped with a large arsenal of cell-associated and secreted virulence factors which enhance its invasive potential. The complex relationships among virulence determinants have hitherto not been fully elucidated. In the present study, 175 catheter-related isolates were observed for the presence of selected virulence factors, namely extracellular enzymes and siderophore production, biofilm formation, resistance to antibiotics, and motility. A high percentage of the strains produced most of the tested virulence factors. A positive correlation was identified between the production of several exoproducts, and also between the formation of both types of biofilm. An opposite trend was observed between the two types of biofilm and the production of siderophores. Whereas the relationship between the submerged biofilm production (i.e. the biofilm formed on the solid surface below the water level) and the siderophore secretion was negative, the production of air-liquid interface (A-L) biofilm (i.e. the biofilm floating on the surface of the cultivation medium) and the siderophore secretion were positively correlated. All correlations were statistically significant at the level P = 0.05 with the correlation coefficient γ ≥ 0.50. Our results suggest that: (1) the co-production of the lytic enzymes and siderophores can play an important role in the pathogenesis of the catheter-related infections and should be taken into account when the virulence potential is assessed; (2) biofilm-positive strains are capable of forming both submerged and non-attached A-L biofilms; and (3) the different micro-environment in the submerged biofilm and A-L biofilm layers have opposite consequences for the production of other virulence factors.

  15. Potential of mediation for resolving environmental disputes related to energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    This study assesses the potential of mediation as a tool for resolving disputes related to the environmental regulation of new energy facilities and identifies possible roles the Federal government might play in promoting the use of mediation. These disputes result when parties challenge an energy project on the basis of its potential environmental impacts. The paper reviews the basic theory of mediation, evaluates specific applications of mediation to recent environmental disputes, discusses the views of environmental public-interest groups towards mediation, and identifies types of energy facility-related disputes where mediation could have a significant impact. Finally, potential avenues for the Federal government to encourage use of this tool are identified.

  16. Neural Basis of Intrinsic Motivation: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human intrinsic motivation is of great importance in human behavior. However, although researchers have focused on this topic for decades, its neural basis was still unclear. The current study employed event-related potentials to investigate the neural disparity between an interesting stop-watch (SW task and a boring watch-stop task (WS to understand the neural mechanisms of intrinsic motivation. Our data showed that, in the cue priming stage, the cue of the SW task elicited smaller N2 amplitude than that of the WS task. Furthermore, in the outcome feedback stage, the outcome of the SW task induced smaller FRN amplitude and larger P300 amplitude than that of the WS task. These results suggested that human intrinsic motivation did exist and that it can be detected at the neural level. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation could be quantitatively indexed by the amplitude of ERP components, such as N2, FRN, and P300, in the cue priming stage or feedback stage. Quantitative measurements would also be convenient for intrinsic motivation to be added as a candidate social factor in the construction of a machine learning model.

  17. Evaluation of embryonic alcoholism from auditory event-related potential in fetal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁勇; 王正敏; 屈卫东

    2004-01-01

    @@ Auditory event-related potential (AERP) is a kind of electroencephalography that measures the responses of perception, memory and judgement to special acoustic stimulation in the auditory cortex. AERP can be recorded with not only active but also passive mode. The active and passive recording modes of AERP have been shown a possible application in animals.1,2 Alcohol is a substance that can markedly affect the conscious reaction of human. Recently, AERP has been applied to study the effects of alcohol on the auditory centers of the brain. Some reports have shown dose-dependent differences in latency, amplitude, responsibility and waveform of AERP between persons who have and have not take in alcohol.3,4 The epidemiological investigations show that the central nervous function of the offspring of alcohol users might be also affected.5,6 Because the clinic research is limited by certain factors, several animal models have been applied to examine the influences of alcohol on consciousness with AERP. In the present study, young rats were exposed to alcohol during fetal development and AERP as indicator was recorded to monitor the central auditory function, and its mechanisms and characteristics of effects of the fetal alcoholism on auditory center function in rats were analyzed and discussed.

  18. Neural Basis of Intrinsic Motivation: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia; Yu, Liping; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    Human intrinsic motivation is of great importance in human behavior. However, although researchers have focused on this topic for decades, its neural basis was still unclear. The current study employed event-related potentials to investigate the neural disparity between an interesting stop-watch (SW) task and a boring watch-stop task (WS) to understand the neural mechanisms of intrinsic motivation. Our data showed that, in the cue priming stage, the cue of the SW task elicited smaller N2 amplitude than that of the WS task. Furthermore, in the outcome feedback stage, the outcome of the SW task induced smaller FRN amplitude and larger P300 amplitude than that of the WS task. These results suggested that human intrinsic motivation did exist and that it can be detected at the neural level. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation could be quantitatively indexed by the amplitude of ERP components, such as N2, FRN, and P300, in the cue priming stage or feedback stage. Quantitative measurements would also be convenient for intrinsic motivation to be added as a candidate social factor in the construction of a machine learning model.

  19. The role of event-related brain potentials in assessing central auditory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain, Claude; Tremblay, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    The perception of complex acoustic signals such as speech and music depends on the interaction between peripheral and central auditory processing. As information travels from the cochlea to primary and associative auditory cortices, the incoming sound is subjected to increasingly more detailed and refined analysis. These various levels of analyses are thought to include low-level automatic processes that detect, discriminate and group sounds that are similar in physical attributes such as frequency, intensity, and location as well as higher-level schema-driven processes that reflect listeners' experience and knowledge of the auditory environment. In this review, we describe studies that have used event-related brain potentials in investigating the processing of complex acoustic signals (e.g., speech, music). In particular, we examine the role of hearing loss on the neural representation of sound and how cognitive factors and learning can help compensate for perceptual difficulties. The notion of auditory scene analysis is used as a conceptual framework for interpreting and studying the perception of sound.

  20. Variations in retrieval monitoring during action memory judgments: evidence from event-related potentials (ERPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leynes, P Andrew; Kakadia, Bhavika

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigated the neuroscience of memory for actions using event-related potentials (ERPs). Actions were performed, initiated but not completed (i.e., interrupted), or watched while the experimenter performed the action during encoding. Memory was assessed in a reality monitoring (RM) test (performed vs. watched actions), as well as in an internal source monitoring (ISM) test (performed vs. interrupted) while ERPs were recorded. Behavioral measures provided evidence of robust old/new recognition for all actions, but the analysis of source errors revealed that interrupted actions were often confused with performed actions. The ERP correlate of recollection, the parietal "old/new" effect (700-900ms), was observed for all actions. The right frontal "old/new" effect (1500-1800ms) that correlates with general memory monitoring was observed in RM but not in ISM. Instead, ISM was associated with the late posterior negativity (LPN) that has been connected to more specific memory monitoring. This pattern of ERP findings suggest that, in this context, general monitoring was used to discriminate self- versus other-performed actions, whereas more specific monitoring was required to support the discrimination of completed and interrupted actions. We argue that the mix of general/specific monitoring processes is shaped by the global retrieval context, which includes the number of memory features that overlap and the combination of sources being considered among other factors.

  1. Modification of transition's factor in the compact surface-potential-based MOSFET model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevkić Tijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modification of an important transition's factor which enables continual behavior of the surface potential in entire useful range of MOSFET operation is presented. The various modifications have been made in order to obtain an accurate and computationally efficient compact MOSFET model. The best results have been achieved by introducing the generalized logistic function (GL in fitting of considered factor. The smoothness and speed of the transition of the surface potential from the depletion to the strong inversion region can be controlled in this way. The results of the explicit model with this GL functional form for transition's factor have been verified extensively with the numerical data. A great agreement was found for a wide range of substrate doping and oxide thickness. Moreover, the proposed approach can be also applied on the case where quantum mechanical effects play important role in inversion mode.

  2. Recipient Related Prognostic Factors for Graft Survival after Kidney Transplantation. A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Daciana ELEC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD severely impairs life expectancy and quality of life in affected patients. Considering its benefits, renal transplantation currently represents the optimal treatment solution for end stage kidney disease patients. Pre-transplant assessment aims to maximize the graft and patient survival by identifying potential factors influencing the post-transplant outcome. The aim of this study has been to analyze recipient related prognostic factors bearing an impact on graft survival. Material and Methods. We analyzed the graft outcomes of 426 renal transplantations performed at the Clinical Institute of Urology and Renal Transplantation of Cluj-Napoca, between January 2004 and December 2008. Variables related to recipient and to potential donor/recipient prognostic factors were studied using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results. Graft survivals at 1, 3, 5 and 7 years were 94.01%, 88.37%, 82.51% and 78.10%, respectively. Chronic rejection (41.11% and death with a functioning graft (18.88% were the main causes of graft loss. In uni and multivariate analysis the recipient related variables found to influence the renal graft outcome were: peritoneal dialysis, pre transplant residual diuresis, grade I hypertension, severe iliac vessel atheromatosis, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, dyslipidemia and denutrition. The worst graft outcomes have been found for recipients on peritoneal dialysis, with anuria, hypotension, severe iliac atheromatosis, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, dyslipidemia and a poor nutritional status. Conclusion. The type of dialysis, the pre transplant residual diuresis, recipient arterial blood pressure, iliac vessel atheromatosis, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, dyslipidemia and denutrition significantly influence graft survival.

  3. Risk factors of HIV-related oral lesions in adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petruzzi, Maria Noel Marzano Rodrigues; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro De

    2013-01-01

    .... Using a standardized form, socio-demographic and clinical data were recorded. Exclusively and definitively diagnosed oral pathologies were included and classified according to ECC criteria on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection...

  4. Factors Related to the Morale OF Agriculture Teachers in Machakos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... poor job performance, increased value for material rewards, dissatisfaction with school ... Besides qualification, personal characteristics were not significantly related to ... They include inadequate pay; poor career structure, lack of promotion ...

  5. Soil discontinuities as potential factors of shallow landslides: a case study from Calabria, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Morrone, Fabio; Pelle, Teresa; Buttafuoco, Gabriele; Conforti, Massimo; Muto, Francesco; Critelli, Salvatore; Fabbricatore, Davide; Filomena, Luciana; Rago, Valeria; Robustelli, Gaetano; Tripodi, Vincenzo; Versace, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Effects of chemical and physical weathering processes on different rock types as predisposing factors of a number of landslides are often investigated in detail. Conversely, very few research studies on triggering mechanisms of shallow landslides and related risk assessment are focused on evaluation of morphological and physical discontinuities caused by pedogenetic processes affecting parent materials. Also sampling strategies for geotechnical or hydrological laboratory analyses can be biased by the lack of detailed information about the soil spatial variability and of a consequent horizon-wise selection of samples from soil profiles. In this work we summarize the main results on the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility along the A3 highway section between Cosenza Sud and Altilia in northern Calabria (southern Italy). This research is part of a wider project (PON01-01503: "Integrated systems for hydrogeological risk monitoring, early warning and mitigation along the main lifelines"), aimed at hydro-geological risk mitigation and early warning along three highway sections of southern Italy. Based on a detailed geological and geomorphological survey, the main lithological, structural and relief features of the landscape were mapped, with a special emphasis on active, dormant and inactive landslides and their geo-lithological control factors. A soil survey was also carried out in the field, showing a dominance of Entisols and Inceptisols on steep slopes, and Mollisols and Alfisols on gentle landforms. Soil observations were focused on the identification of pedological discontinuities as potential factors that might trigger shallow landslides. A number of soil profiles, often close to landslide scarps, evidenced significant morphological changes of the parent materials, such as texture, pedogenic structure, dry consistence and moisture, or hydromorphic features caused by transient water-logging conditions, and clay-illuviated horizons. Buried soils were

  6. Error processing in heroin addicts:an event-related potential study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林彬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between impulsive behaviors and the error related negativity (ERN) component of event-related potentials of error processing in heroin addicts. Methods Using the paradigms for psychological experiment,the Iowa gambling task(IGT) was performed both in heroin

  7. Two Languages, One Developing Brain: Event-Related Potentials to Words in Bilingual Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, Barbara T.; Mills, Debra L.

    2006-01-01

    Infant bilingualism offers a unique opportunity to study the relative effects of language experience and maturation on brain development, with each child serving as his or her own control. Event-related potentials (ERPs) to words were examined in 19- to 22-month-old English-Spanish bilingual toddlers. The children's dominant vs. nondominant…

  8. State regulation in adult ADHD : An event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersema, Roeljan; Van Der Meere, Jaap; Antrop, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    The state regulation hypothesis postulates that poor task performance of children with ADHD is related to poor energetical state control. The current study aimed to investigate whether such a deficit persists in adult ADHD. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during administration of a Go/

  9. Predicting Reading Growth with Event-Related Potentials: Thinking Differently about Indexing "Responsiveness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Christopher J.; Key, Alexandra P. F.; Fuchs, Douglas; Yoder, Paul J.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Compton, Donald L.; Williams, Susan M.; Bouton, Bobette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if event-related potential (ERP) data collected during three reading-related tasks (Letter Sound Matching, Nonword Rhyming, and Nonword Reading) could be used to predict short-term reading growth on a curriculum-based measure of word identification fluency over 19 weeks in a sample of 29 first-grade…

  10. Conceptual Integration of Arithmetic Operations with Real-World Knowledge: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthormsen, Amy M.; Fisher, Kristie J.; Bassok, Miriam; Osterhout, Lee; DeWolf, Melissa; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2016-01-01

    Research on language processing has shown that the disruption of conceptual integration gives rise to specific patterns of event-related brain potentials (ERPs)--N400 and P600 effects. Here, we report similar ERP effects when adults performed cross-domain conceptual integration of analogous semantic and mathematical relations. In a problem-solving…

  11. Growth factors in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: relative roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Jeremy T

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients has evolved very slowly; the fundamental approach of corticosteroids alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents has had little impact on long-term survival. The continued use of corticosteroids is justified because of the lack of a more effective alternative. Current research indicates that the mechanisms driving idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis reflect abnormal, dysregulated wound healing within the lung, involving increased activity and possibly exaggerated responses by a spectrum of profibrogenic growth factors. An understanding of the roles of these growth factors, and the way in which they modulate events at cellular level, could lead to more targeted therapeutic strategies, improving patients' quality of life and survival.

  12. Factors related to surgery worries among iranian high school adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkani Z.S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery operations are the fearful events among all other medical procedures. This fear causes anxiety and stress which affects the outcome of treatments, recovery from surgery and some maladaptive behaviors. To cope with surgery worries and minimize the fear, it is important to study these fears and its associated factors. This study attempts to explore the surgery worries and the associated factors among Iranian high school adolescents.Methods: To measure surgery worries, high school adolescents of age 11-15 completed the Child Worries Questionnaire (CPCI adolescent form, and also answered the questions about the 14 independent variables (sex, age, parents education and occupation, previous hospitalization experience of child and immediate family and friends, number of hospitalization during Child's life long, previous surgery experience of child and her or his immediate families, death of close friends in hospital. Multivariate regression method was used for statistical analysis to determine the effective factors.Results: The results of this study showed that the Iranian Adolescents have most worries about the "Not being able to do the same things as before" and least worries about "What I will feel during the anesthesia". The factors associated with Surgery worries are; parent's education (P=.021 for father and 0.049 for mother, adolescent previous experience and number of hospitalizations (P=0.025 and P=0.008, respectively, the number of previous hospitalizations (P=.003, previous experience of hospitalization of immediate family and friends (P=0.035. The findings of this study have implications for parents, family, hospitals' staff and care given.Conclusions: It seems, according to the findings of this study, there should be a special educational program for children who are going to be operated in a hospital ward to reduce their worriships.

  13. Epidemiology of knee osteoarthritis in India and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prakash Pal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: There is scarcity of studies done in India which has varied socio geographical background and communities. We conducted this study for analyzing the current prevalence of OA in different locations. This study has evidenced a large percentage of population as borderline OA; therefore, it depends mainly on the prevention of modifiable risk factors to preserve at ease movement in elderly population through awareness programs.

  14. Healthcare Professionals’ Perception and Related Factors About Total Quality Management

    OpenAIRE

    Tapan, Birkan; ALICI, Selin; GAYEF, Albena; YILDIRIM, Nurdan; Sezen, Adem

    2015-01-01

    Quality defined as extent of features of any product or service to meet expectations of consumers enjoying such product or service. Although it was a concept first emerged in manufacturing industry, today, it has become an important competitive factor for service institutions as well. Total Quality Management approach is drawing more and more interest as international borders start to fade out in parallel with globalization and increasing competition. Total Quality Management is a ma...

  15. Incidence and risk factors of running-related injuries during preparation for a 4-mile recreational running event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, I.; Bredeweg, S. W.; Bessem, B.; van Mechelen, W.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Diercks, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective In this study, the incidence and the sex-specific predictors of running-related injury (RRI) among a group of recreational runners training for a 4-mile running event were determined and identified, respectively. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Several potential risk factors were

  16. Call-related factors influencing output power from mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillert, Lena; Ahlbom, Anders; Neasham, David; Feychting, Maria; Järup, Lars; Navin, Roshan; Elliott, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Mobile phone use is increasing but there is also concern for adverse health effects. Well-designed prospective studies to assess several health outcomes are required. In designing a study of mobile phone use, it is important to assess which factors need to be considered in classifying the exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF). A pilot study was performed in Sweden and in the UK 2002 to 2003 to test the feasibility of recruiting a cohort of mobile phone users from a random population sample and from mobile phone subscription lists for a prospective study. As one part of this pilot study, different factors were evaluated regarding possible influence on the output power of the phones. By local switch logging, information on calls made from predefined subscriptions or dedicated handsets were obtained and the output power of phones during calls made indoors and outdoors, in moving and stationary mode, and in rural as well in urban areas were compared. In this experiment, calls were either 1, 1.5 or 5 min long. The results showed that high mobile phone output power is more frequent in rural areas whereas the other factors (length of call, moving/stationary, indoor/outdoor) were of less importance. Urban and rural area should be considered in an exposure index for classification of the exposure to RF from mobile phones and may be assessed by first base station during mobile phone calls or, if this information is not available, possibly by using home address as a proxy.

  17. Dietary Factors in Relation to Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Mard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Helicobacter pylori (HP and diet are both risk factors for gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary habits common in Khuzestan province. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011–2013 on 374 patients. Participants were interviewed using a food frequency questionnaire and tissue sample of the antrum was sent for pathology lab. The histopathological major variables were graded on a scale of 3 (mild, moderate, and severe and data analyzed using nonparametric tests. Results. In this study, of 160 patients (43% that were determined, 8.1 percent had severe contamination. Among dietary patterns, relationship between energy intake and carbohydrate with H. pylori was significant. A direct association was found between mean daily intakes of sausage (P=0.001 and burgers (P<0.05 with HP infection. Low intake of fresh vegetables and fruits was the most significant risk factors (P<0.05. Conclusion. There is a possibility that some dietary factors such as consumption of fast foods and low intake of fresh vegetables may increase the chance of HP and severity of this infection.

  18. Anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty as potential risk factors for cyberchondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norr, Aaron M; Albanese, Brian J; Oglesby, Mary E; Allan, Nicholas P; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-03-15

    Online medical information seeking has become an increasingly common behavior. Despite the benefits of easily accessible medical information on the Internet, researchers have identified a vicious cycle of increased physical health concerns and online medical information seeking known as "cyberchondria". Despite proposed theoretical models of cyberchondria, there is a dearth of research investigating risk factors for the development of cyberchondria. Two potential risk factors are anxiety sensitivity (AS) and intolerance of uncertainty (IU). The current study investigated the relationships among AS, IU, and cyberchondria in a large community sample. Participants (N=526) completed self-report questionnaires via online crowdsourcing. Structural equation models utilizing latent variables revealed a significant unique positive relationship between AS, as well as the IU Inhibitory lower-order factor, and cyberchondria, controlling for the effects of health anxiety. Additionally, results revealed a significant unique relationship between the IU Inhibitory factor and mistrust of medical professionals, a proposed cyberchondria-relevant construct. The cross-sectional data in the current study do not offer a true test of AS and IU as risk factors. However, establishing these unique relationships is an important step forward in the literature. The results of the current study suggest the potential importance of both AS and IU in the development of cyberchondria. Future research is needed to establish the temporal precedence of elevated AS and/or IU to determine if they are true risk factors or simply correlates of cyberchondria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An integrative systems genetics approach reveals potential causal genes and pathways related to obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogelman, Lisette J. A.; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete; Franke, Lude; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a multi-factorial health problem in which genetic factors play an important role. Limited results have been obtained in single-gene studies using either genomic or transcriptomic data. RNA sequencing technology has shown its potential in gaining accurate knowledge about the

  20. An integrative systems genetics approach reveals potential causal genes and pathways related to obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogelman, Lisette J. A.; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete; Franke, Lude; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a multi-factorial health problem in which genetic factors play an important role. Limited results have been obtained in single-gene studies using either genomic or transcriptomic data. RNA sequencing technology has shown its potential in gaining accurate knowledge about the tr

  1. Hemispheric asymmetry in interpreting novel literal language: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Tristan; Coulson, Seana

    2013-04-01

    Conceptual mapping, or making connections between conceptual structure in different domains, is a key mechanism of creative language use whose neural underpinnings are not well understood. The present study involved the combination of event-related potentials (ERPs) with the divided visual field presentation technique to explore the relative contributions of the left and right hemispheres (LH and RH) to the construction of novel meanings in fully literal language. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded as healthy adults read sentences that supported either a conventional literal reading of the sentence final word ("His main method of transportation is a boat,"), or a novel literal meaning derived from conceptual mapping ("The clever boys used a cardboard box as a boat,"). The novel and conventional conditions were matched for cloze probability (a measure of predictability based on the sentence context), lexical association between the sentence frame and the final word (using latent semantic analysis), and other factors known to influence ERPs to language stimuli. To compare effects of novelty to previously reported effects of predictability, a high-cloze conventional condition ("The only way to get around Venice is to navigate the canals in a boat.") was included. ERPs were time-locked to sentence final words ("boat") presented in either the left visual field, to preferentially stimulate the RH (lvf/RH), or in the right visual field, targeting the LH (rvf/LH). The N400 component of the ERP was affected by predictability in both presentation sides, but by novelty only in rvf/LH. Two distinct late frontal positive effects were observed. Word predictability modulated a frontal positivity with a LH focus, but semantic novelty modulated a frontal positivity focused in RH. This is the first demonstration that the frontal positivity may be composed of multiple overlapping components with distinct functional and anatomical characteristics. Extending contemporary accounts

  2. Intolerance of uncertainty and startle potentiation in relation to different threat reinforcement rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Brian; Nelson, Brady D; Jackson, Felicia; Hajcak, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Fear conditioning research on threat predictability has primarily examined the impact of temporal (i.e., timing) predictability on the startle reflex. However, there are other key features of threat that can vary in predictability. For example, the reinforcement rate (i.e., frequency) of threat is a crucial factor underlying fear learning. The present study examined the impact of threat reinforcement rate on the startle reflex and self-reported anxiety during a fear conditioning paradigm. Forty-five participants completed a fear learning task in which the conditioned stimulus was reinforced with an electric shock to the forearm on 50% of trials in one block and 75% of trials in a second block, in counter-balanced order. The present study also examined whether intolerance of uncertainty (IU), the tendency to perceive or experience uncertainty as stressful or unpleasant, was associated with the startle reflex during conditions of low (50%) vs. high (75%) reinforcement. Results indicated that, across all participants, startle was greater during the 75% relative to the 50% reinforcement condition. IU was positively correlated with startle potentiation (i.e., increased startle response to the CS+ relative to the CS-) during the 50%, but not the 75%, reinforcement condition. Thus, despite receiving fewer electric shocks during the 50% reinforcement condition, individuals with high IU uniquely demonstrated greater defense system activation when impending threat was more uncertain. The association between IU and startle was independent of state anxiety. The present study adds to a growing literature on threat predictability and aversive responding, and suggests IU is associated with abnormal responding in the context of uncertain threat.

  3. [Risk factors related to surgical site infection in elective surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Garay, Ulises; Morales-Márquez, Lucy Isabel; Sandoval-Balanzarios, Miguel Antonio; Velázquez-García, José Arturo; Maldonado-Torres, Lulia; Méndez-Cano, Andrea Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: desde el ingreso del paciente hasta 30 días después del procedimiento quirúrgico es necesario identificar y vigilar los factores de riesgo de infección del sitio quirúrgico, debido a que 30% de esas infecciones se detectan cuando el paciente sale del hospital. Objetivo: calcular el riesgo relativo de los factores asociados con las infecciones del sitio quirúrgico en adultos con cirugía programada. Material y métodos: estudio de cohorte prospectiva de pacientes quirúrgicos clasificados según el grado de contaminación de la cirugía; expuesto si fue limpia-contaminada o contaminada, no expuesto si fue limpia. Los factores de riesgo estudiados fueron: los inherentes al paciente, pre-quirúrgicos, intraquirúrgicos y posquirúrgicos. El análisis bivariado se realizó con t de Student o U de Mann-Withney, ?2 para riesgo multivariado de riesgos proporcionales de Cox. Resultados: se estudiaron 403 pacientes durante 30 días después de operados (59.8% mujeres); 8.7% resultaron con infección del sitio quirúrgico. Los factores asociados con el análisis multivariado fueron: índice tabáquico con un riesgo relativo de 3.21, índice de masa corporal en bajo peso 3.4, técnica inadecuada de lavado de manos 4.61, transfusión durante la cirugía 3.22, cirugía contaminada 60, estancia de 8 a 14 días en terapia intensiva 11.64, permanencia 1 a 3 días con venoclisis 2.4 y con sonda vesical 1 a 3 días 2.27. Conclusión: es imposible evitar todos los factores de riesgo para infecciones del sitio quirúrgico; sin embargo, la vigilancia formal de los pacientes puede prevenir complicaciones.

  4. Application of General Circulation Models to Assess the Potential Impact of Climate Change on Potential Distribution and Relative Abundance of Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius (Orthoptera: Acrididae in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Olfert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate is the dominant factor determining the distribution and abundance of most insect species. In recent years, the issue of climatic changes caused by human activities and the effects on agriculture has raised concern. General circulation model scenarios were applied to a bioclimatic model of Melanoplus sanguinipes to assess the potential impact of global warming on its distribution and relative abundance. Native to North America and widely distributed, M. sanguinipes is one of the grasshopper species of the continent most responsible for economic damage to grain, oilseed, pulse, and forage crops. Compared to predicted range and distribution under current climate conditions, model results indicated that M. sanguinipes would have increased range and relative abundance under the three general circulation model scenarios in more northern regions of North America. Conversely, model output predicted that the range of this crop pest could contract in regions where climate conditions became limiting.

  5. Factores ambientales relacionados con la gravedad del asma ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATED TO ASTHMA SEVERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL OYARZÚN G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available factores determinantes de la gravedad del asma. Se revisan brevemente las fuentes y los efectos respiratorios y sobre la salud de los principales contaminantes intradomiciliarios. Existe evidencia abundante sobre las respuestas de los asmáticos a la exposición a aeroalergenos intradomiciliarios, tales como los alergenos de los ácaros domésticos. Para alergenos de mascotas, algunos estudios encuentran que una exposición temprana en la vida se asocia a sensibilización y enfermedad alérgica, en tanto que otros comunican un efecto protector. Los efectos de contaminantes intradomiciliarios de la combustión han sido menos caracterizados. Sin embargo, algunos estudios sugieren que ellos podrían estar asociados con exacerbaciones del asma. La exposición a humo de tabaco ha sido relacionada con exacerbación de asma infantil. Además la prevalencia de asma infantil y los ingresos hospitalarios por asma en adultos también se han relacionado con la exposición a humo de tabaco. La exposición de atópicos y asmáticos a contaminantes atmosféricos (O3 y NO2 aumentan la respuesta de las vías aéreas a los aeroalergenos. Por lo tanto, el control de los contaminantes atmosféricos podría disminuir cualquier interacción de contaminantes con alergenos en atópicos y asmáticosThis article review the role played by indoor and atmospheric air pollutants as factors determining asthma severity. Respiratory and health effects and sources of main indoor air pollutants are briefly reviewed. There is abundant evidence of asthmatic responses to indoor aeroallergens, such as exposure to house mite allergens. For pet allergens, some studies found that an early exposure in life was associated to sensitization and allergic disease, whereas others reported a protective effect. The effects of combustion indoor air pollutants have been less characterized. However, some studies suggest that they can be associated to exacerbations of asthma. Environmental tobacco

  6. Resistance to antivascular endothelial growth factor treatment in age-related macular degeneration

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    Tranos P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paris Tranos,1 Athanasios Vacalis,1 Solon Asteriadis,1 Stavrenia Koukoula,1 Athanasios Vachtsevanos,1 Georgia Perganta,1 Ilias Georgalas21Retina Centre, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Ophthalmology, "G Gennimatas" Hospital of Athens, University of Athens, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the main cause of visual impairment and blindness in people aged over 65 years in developed countries. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a positive regulator of angiogenesis and its proven role in the pathological neovascularization in wet AMD has provided evidence for the use of anti-VEGF agents as potential therapies. In this study, we review the literature for the possible causes of failure after treatment with anti-VEGF agents and attempt to propose an algorithm of suggestive actions to increase the chances of successful management of such difficult cases.Keywords: antiVEGF, age related macular degeneration, treatment

  7. Process-related factors associated with disciplinary board decisions

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    Birkeland Søren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most health care systems disciplinary boards have been organised in order to process patients’ complaints about health professionals. Although, the safe-guarding of the legal rights of the involved parties is a crucial concern, there is limited knowledge about what role the complaint process plays with regard to board decision outcomes. Using complaint cases towards general practitioners, the aim of this study was to identify what process factors are statistically associated with disciplinary actions as seen from the party of the complainant and the defendant general practitioner, respectively. Methods Danish Patient Complaints Board decisions concerning general practitioners completed in 2007 were examined. Information on process factors was extracted from the case files and included complaint delay, complainant’s lawyer involvement, the number of general practitioners involved, event duration, expert witness involvement, case management duration and decision outcome (discipline or no discipline. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed on compound case decisions eventually involving more general practitioners (as seen from the complainant’s side and on separated decisions (as seen from the defendant general practitioner’s side. Results From the general practitioner’s side, when the number of general practitioners involved in a complaint case increased, odds of being disciplined significantly decreased (OR=0.661 per additional general practitioner involved, pcase management duration was associated with higher odds of discipline (OR=1.038 per additional month, p=0.010. No association could be demonstrated with regard to complaint delay, lawyer involvement, event duration, or expert witness involvement. There was lawyer involvement in 5% of cases and expert witness involvement in 92% of cases. The mean complaint delay was 3 months and 18 days and the mean case management duration was 14 months and 7

  8. Aneuploidy in Early Miscarriage and its Related Factors

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    Chan-Wei Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genetic factors are the main cause of early miscarriage. This study aimed to investigate aneuploidy in spontaneous abortion by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using probes for 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X and Y chromosomes. Methods: A total of 840 chorionic samples from spontaneous abortion were collected and examined by FISH. We analyzed the incidence and type of abnormal cases and sex ratio in the samples. We also analyzed the relationship between the rate of aneuploidy and parental age, the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent abortion and sporadic abortion, the difference in incidence of aneuploidy between samples from previous artificial abortion and those from no previous induced abortion. Results: A total of 832 samples were finally analyzed. 368 (44.23% were abnormal, in which 84.24% (310/368 were aneuploidies and 15.76% (58/368 were polyploidies. The first was trisomy16 (121/310, followed by trisomy 22, and X monosomy. There was no significant difference in the rate of aneuploidy in the advanced maternal age group (≥35 years old and young maternal age group (<35 years old. However, the rate of trisomy 22 and the total rate of trisomies 21, 13, and 18 (the number of trisomy 21 plus trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 together showed significantly different in two groups. We found no skewed sex ratio. There was no significant difference in the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent miscarriage and sporadic abortion or between the samples from previous artificial abortion and those from no previous artificial abortion. Conclusions: Aneuploidy is a principal factor of miscarriage and total parental age is a risk factor. There is no skewed sex ratio in spontaneous abortion. There is also no difference in the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent abortion and sporadic abortion or between previous artificial abortion and no previous induced abortion.

  9. Epidemiology of knee osteoarthritis in India and related factors

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    Pal, Chandra Prakash; Singh, Pulkesh; Chaturvedi, Sanjay; Pruthi, Kaushal Kumar; Vij, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Among the chronic rheumatic diseases, hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent and is a leading cause of pain and disability in most countries worldwide. Its prevalence increases with age and generally affects women more frequently than men. OA is strongly associated with aging and heavy physical occupational activity, a required livelihood for many people living in rural communities in developing countries. Determining region-specific OA prevalence and risk factor profiles will provide important information for planning future cost effective preventive strategies and health care services. Materials and Methods: The study was a community based cross sectional study to find out the prevalence of primary knee OA in India which has a population of 1.252 billion. The study was done across five sites in India. Each site was further divided into big city, small city, town, and village. The total sample size was 5000 subjects. Tools consisted of a structured questionnaire and plain skiagrams for confirmation of OA. Diagnosis was done using Kellgren and Lawrence scale for osteoarthritis. Results: Overall prevalence of knee OA was found to be 28.7%. The associated factors were found to be female gender (prevalence of 31.6%) (P = 0.007), obesity (P = 0.04), age (P = 0.001) and sedentary work (P = 0.001). Conclusions: There is scarcity of studies done in India which has varied socio geographical background and communities. We conducted this study for analyzing the current prevalence of OA in different locations. This study has evidenced a large percentage of population as borderline OA; therefore, it depends mainly on the prevention of modifiable risk factors to preserve at ease movement in elderly population through awareness programs.

  10. Main factors of risk related to the cardiovascular diseases

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    Maria Glaner

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Obese people are at higher risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD than people with normal body fat. Therefore, the aim of this review was to synthetize the traditional risk factors for CVD. The search was made in Medline and Scielo, using the key-words cardiovascular disease, glucose, triglycerides, lipoproteins, obesity and body fat distribution. The studies showed that high values of glicemia, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides and, low rate of high-density lipoproteins are the main risk factors associated with central body fat distribution, which seems to be a greater risk factor for CDV than obesity itself. RESUMO Pessoas obesas têm um risco mais elevado para o desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares do que pessoas com gordura corporal normal. Portanto, o objetivo desta revisão foi sintetizar os fatores de risco mais tradicionais para as doenças cardiovasculares (DCV. A pesquisa foi feita no Medline e Scielo, usando as palavras-chave doença cardiovascular, glicose, triglicérides, lipoproteínas, obesidade e distribuição da gordura corporal. Os estudos mostraram que altas taxas de glicemia, lipoproteínas de baixa densidade, triglicérides e baixa taxa de lipoproteínas de alta densidade são os principais fatores de risco, para as DCV, associados à distribuição da gordura na região central. Esta gordura parece ser o maior fator de risco para as DCV, associada à glicemia, lipoproteínas de baixa densidade, triglicérides e lipoproteínas de alta densidade, do que a obesidade por si só.

  11. Aneuploidy in Early Miscarriage and its Related Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chan-Wei Jia; Li Wang; Yong-Lian Lan; Rui Song; Li-Yin Zhou; Lan Yu; Yang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Genetic factors are the main cause of early miscarriage.This study aimed to investigate aneuploidy in spontaneous abortion by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probes for 13,16,18,21,22,X and Y chromosomes.Methods:A total of 840 chorionic samples from spontaneous abortion were collected and examined by FISH.We analyzed the incidence and type of abnormal cases and sex ratio in the samples.We also analyzed the relationship between the rate of aneuploidy and parental age,the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent abortion and sporadic abortion,the difference in incidence of aneuploidy between samples from previous artificial abortion and those from no previous induced abortion.Results:A total of 832 samples were finally analyzed.368 (44.23%) were abnormal,in which 84.24% (310/368) were aneuploidies and 15.76% (58/368) were polyploidies.The first was trisomy16 (121/310),followed by trisomy 22,and X monosomy.There was no significant difference in the rate ofaneuploidy in the advanced maternal age group (≥35 years old) and young maternal age group (<35 years old).However,the rate oftrisomy 22 and the total rate oftrisomies 21,13,and 18 (the number oftrisomy 21 plus trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 together) showed significantly different in two groups.We found no skewed sex ratio.There was no significant difference in the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent miscarriage and sporadic abortion or between the samples from previous artificial abortion and those from no previous artificial abortion.Conclusions:Aneuploidy is a principal factor of miscarriage and total parental age is a risk factor.There is no skewed sex ratio in spontaneous abortion.There is also no difference in the rate of aneuploidy between recurrent abortion and sporadic abortion or between previous artificial abortion and no previous induced abortion.

  12. Investigation of the factors influencing the potential indicator of a construction site

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    Lapidus Azariy Abramovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Today the quality of a construction object represents a sum of a number of indicators, which depends on the construction complex as a whole during the implementation steps of a construction project. The lack of an instrument for evaluating the influence on the final quality indicator is vivid. In the article the method of expert estimation is presented as an instrument for choosing the factors influencing the potential indicator of a construction site. The means to analyze the results is chosen. The authors calculated the matrix of the factors intercorrelation, which influence the final figure. These factors are grouped with the purpose to reduce the general number of experiments. The weight characteristics of the formed groups are calculated. The authors also analyzed the information loss extend as a result of factors quantity change in a model.

  13. Nutritional Status and Related Factors in Elderly Nursing Home Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Bostani Khalesi; Mahshid Bokaie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A challenge for health care providers is that there will be a distinct rise globally in the number of elderly people aged 80 years and over. Malnutrition is a well-known problem among elderly people. The aim of this study was to determine nutritional status and its associated risk factors in elderly nursing home residents in Tehran, Iran. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out among 385 elderly people aged 60 years or elder in 2014. All subjects who were attending to...

  14. Spatial Diffusion of Influenza Outbreak-Related Climate Factors in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

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    Marc Souris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is one of the most important leading causes of respiratory illness in the countries located in the tropical areas of South East Asia and Thailand. In this study the climate factors associated with influenza incidence in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, were investigated. Identification of factors responsible for influenza outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Chiang Mai are long overdue. This work examines the association between yearly climate patterns between 2001 and 2008 and influenza outbreaks in the Chiang Mai Province. The climatic factors included the amount of rainfall, percent of rainy days, relative humidity, maximum, minimum temperatures and temperature difference. The study develops a statistical analysis to quantitatively assess the relationship between climate and influenza outbreaks and then evaluate its suitability for predicting influenza outbreaks. A multiple linear regression technique was used to fit the statistical model. The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were used in mapping the spatial diffusion of influenza risk zones. The results show that there is a significance correlation between influenza outbreaks and climate factors for the majority of the studied area. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the model comparing model outputs and actual outbreaks.

  15. Spatial diffusion of influenza outbreak-related climate factors in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakapan, Supachai; Tripathi, Nitin Kumar; Tipdecho, Taravudh; Souris, Marc

    2012-10-24

    Influenza is one of the most important leading causes of respiratory illness in the countries located in the tropical areas of South East Asia and Thailand. In this study the climate factors associated with influenza incidence in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, were investigated. Identification of factors responsible for influenza outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Chiang Mai are long overdue. This work examines the association between yearly climate patterns between 2001 and 2008 and influenza outbreaks in the Chiang Mai Province. The climatic factors included the amount of rainfall, percent of rainy days, relative humidity, maximum, minimum temperatures and temperature difference. The study develops a statistical analysis to quantitatively assess the relationship between climate and influenza outbreaks and then evaluate its suitability for predicting influenza outbreaks. A multiple linear regression technique was used to fit the statistical model. The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were used in mapping the spatial diffusion of influenza risk zones. The results show that there is a significance correlation between influenza outbreaks and climate factors for the majority of the studied area. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the model comparing model outputs and actual outbreaks.

  16. Relative Dating and Classification of Minerals and Rocks Based on Statistical Calculations Related to Their Potential Energy Index

    CERN Document Server

    Labushev, Mikhail M

    2012-01-01

    Index of proportionality of atomic weights of chemical elements is proposed for determining the relative age of minerals and rocks. Their chemical analysis results serve to be initial data for calculations. For rocks of different composition the index is considered to be classification value as well. Crystal lattice energy change in minerals and their associations can be measured by the index value change, thus contributing to the solution of important practical problems. There was determined the effect of more rapid increase of potential energy of limestone with relatively low lattice energy as compared with the others.

  17. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Physical, Verbal and Relational Aggression among Iranian Preschoolers

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    Alipasha Meysamie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Childhood aggression may lead to severe social disorders in adolescence and adulthood. Different psychiatric approaches are focused on preschool aged aggressive children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of childhood direct and indirect aggression Methods:In this cross sectional study a total of 1403 children attending 43 kindergartens were assessed. Data were collected through a structured 46-item questionnaire investigating symptoms of physical, verbal and relational aggression which was completed by parents and teachers of day-care centers. Complex sample survey analysis and multivariate logistic regression method were used for data analysis. Results:According to parents’rating, the prevalence of physical ,verbal and relational aggression, was 9.9% (95% CI=7.4%-12.4% , 6.3% (95% CI=5.0% -7.6% and 1.6% (95%CI=1.0%-2.2%, respectively; while based on teachers’ rating the prevalence of physical ,verbal and relational aggression were 10.9% (95% CI=8.9% -12.9%, 4.9%(95% CI=3.8% - 6.0% and 6% (95% CI=4.4% -7.6%, respectively. A wide range of family environment factors including living with a single parent, having a working mother, death of someone close to the child, and having less educated mother were significantly associated with different types of aggression; additionally, there was some evidence of a relationship between sex of the children and physical aggression, after controlling for other variables (p<0.05.Conclusion:This study revealed that children’s family environment alongside internal factors plays an important role as an external factor in determining the child’s potential aggressive behavior. Given this, to better prevent the aggressive behavior of children, intervention strategies should be planned for families and caregivers; specially mothers should receive training to use such strategies.

  18. Factors Influencing the HPLC Determination for Related Substances of Azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan; Wang, Li-Xin; Li, Ya-Ping; Hu, Chang-Qin

    2016-02-01

    The European Pharmacopoeia, the U.S. Pharmacopoeia, and the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China all prescribe a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method within a C18 column system for the separation of Azithromycin (AZT) and its related substances. The identification of impurities in the AZT complex was performed according to the relative retention time (RRT) between each impurity and AZT. However, the RRT values of impurities often vary on different types of C18 packing materials and at different column temperatures, which could affect the accurate and fast identification of impurities. In our study, five different commonly used C18 columns as well as nine different column temperature set points were assessed for the analysis of AZT and its related substances. A factorial design was applied to analysis the relationships between column types/column temperatures and RRT value of each impurity. The results showed that the change rates of the RRT values of impurities were different on different columns and at different column temperature set points. Therefore, the current method adopted by the three Pharmacopeias, in which the RRT values were used to identify the related substances, is not suitable to identify the ones in the AZT chromatographic system.

  19. RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOLOGIC FACTORS IN DENTURE SATISFACTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERVOORN, JM; DUINKERKE, ASH; LUTEIJN, F; VANDEPOEL, ACM

    The aim of this investigation was to explore the relative importance of psychologic variables in explaining the degree of denture satisfaction in full denture patients. A group of 125 patients who were on a waiting list to have new dentures constructed participated in this study. The patients

  20. After Divorce: Personality Factors Related to the Process of Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sandra Paul

    1982-01-01

    Considered personality variables related to postdivorce adjustment using a sample of 58 females and 31 males. Found persons with the best adjustment scored significantly higher on dominance/assertiveness, self-assurance, intelligence, creativity/imagination, social boldness, liberalism, self-sufficiency, ego strength and tranquility. (Author/JAC)