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Sample records for factors potentially contributing

  1. Postmyocardial Infarct Remodeling and Heart Failure: Potential Contributions from Pro- and Antiaging Factors

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    Halliday A. Idikio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction and adverse postinfarct remodeling in older persons lead to poor outcome and need greater understanding of the contributions of age-related factors on abnormal cardiac function and management. In this perspective, how normal aging processes could contribute to the events of post-myocardial infarction and remodeling is reviewed. Post-myocardial infarction and remodeling involve cardiomechanical factors and neurohormonal response. Many factors prevent or accelerate aging including immunosenescence, recruitment and regeneration of stem cells, telomere shortening, oxidative damage, antiaging hormones klotho and melatonin, nutrition, and Sirtiun protein family, and these factors could affect post-MI remodeling and heart failure. Interest in stem cell repair of myocardial infarcts to mitigate post-MI remodeling needs more information on aging of stem cells, and potential effects on stem cell use in infarct repair. Integrating genomics and proteomics methods may help find clinically novel therapy in the management of post-MI remodeling and heart failure in aged individuals.

  2. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor enhances Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation potentially contributing to cystic fibrosis pathogenesis.

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    Tynan, Aisling; Mawhinney, Leona; Armstrong, Michelle E; O'Reilly, Ciaran; Kennedy, Sarah; Caraher, Emma; Jülicher, Karen; O'Dwyer, David; Maher, Lewena; Schaffer, Kirsten; Fabre, Aurélie; McKone, Edward F; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Cooke, Gordon; Donnelly, Seamas C

    2017-08-02

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key proinflammatory mediator that we have previously shown to be associated with an aggressive clinical phenotype in cystic fibrosis. It possesses unique tautomerase enzymatic activity. However, to date, no human-derived substrate has been identified that has the capacity to interact with this cytokine's unique tautomerase activity. This led us to hypothesize that MIF may have the capacity to interact with external substrates. We describe for the first time how Pseudomonas aeruginosa can utilize human recombinant MIF (rMIF) to significantly (P < 0.01) enhance its endogenous biofilm formation. Our in vivo studies demonstrate that utilizing a small-molecular-weight inhibitor targeting MIF's tautomerase activity (SCD-19) significantly reduces the inflammatory response in a murine pulmonary chronic P. aeruginosa model. In addition, we show that in in vitro experiments, pretreatment of P. aeruginosa with rMIF is associated with reduced bacterial killing by tobramycin. Our novel findings support the concept of an anti-MIF strategy that targets this enzymatic activity as a potential future antibacterial therapeutic approach.-Tynan, A., Mawhinney, L., Armstrong, M. E., O'Reilly, C., Kennedy, S., Caraher, E., Jülicher, K., O'Dwyer, D., Maher, L., Schaffer, K., Fabre, A., McKone, E. F., Leng, L., Bucala, R., Bernhagen, J., Cooke, G., Donnelly, S. C. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor enhances Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation potentially contributing to cystic fibrosis pathogenesis. © FASEB.

  3. Lead ingestion as a potential contributing factor to the decline in vulture populations in southern Africa.

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    Naidoo, V; Wolter, K; Botha, C J

    2017-01-01

    Vulture populations in southern Africa have been on the decline for years, which unlike the Asian vulture crisis, has no one specific cause. Reasons attributable are deliberate and secondary poisonings, drowning, power line injuries, electrocutions, traditional medicine ("muti" trade) and calcium deficiencies. However, lead toxicity as a potential causal factor is hardly mentioned. The potential for lead toxicity needs to be considered as substantial game hunting occurs in the region with little regulatory control on bullet types. In this study, we determined the whole blood lead concentrations of captive and wild vulture populations in South Africa and Namibia (n=185). Results were compared to previous published ranges indicative of background exposure (lead concentrations were higher for wild African White-backed vultures (Gyps africanus)(AWBV) than Cape vultures (G. coprotheres)(CGV) at 15.54±12.63μg/dL vs 12.53±8.88μg/dL (non-significantly different), while in the Bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus) no indication of exposure was evident. Very similar exposures resulted irrespective of the birds being in captivity or under wild, free-roaming conditions. A proportion of wild birds did, however, appear to be exposed to another source of lead than purely environmental (±12% and 30.6% for AWBV and CGV respectively). One bird, which had a whole blood concentration of 100μg/dL, died soon after capture. To find the relationship between whole blood lead concentration and likely exposure factors, birds were compared by their rural/urban location, vicinity to mines and surrounding soil lead concentrations. With no relationship being present for the latter factors, we believe that this is evidence that the portion of southern African vultures being exposed to unknown source of lead, which we suggest arises from leaded ammunition remaining from hunting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rearward Visibility Issues Related to Agricultural Tractors and Self-Propelled Machinery: Contributing Factors, Potential Solutions.

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    Ehlers, S G; Field, W E

    2016-01-01

    As the size, complexity, and speed of agricultural tractors and self-propelled machinery have increased, so have the visibility-related issues, placing significant importance on the visual skills, alertness, and reactive abilities of the operator. Rearward movement of large agricultural equipment has been identified in the literature as causing both fatalities and injuries to bystanders who were not visible to the operator and damage to both the machine and stationary objects. The addition of monitoring assistance, while not a new concept, has advanced significantly, offering agricultural machinery operators greater options for increasing their awareness of the area surrounding the machine. In this research, we attempt to (1) identify and describe the key contributors to agricultural machinery visibility issues, i.e., operator-related and machine-related factors, and (2) enumerate and evaluate the potential solutions being offered that address these factors. Enhanced operator safety and efficiency should result from a better understanding of the efforts to solve the visibility problems inherent in large tractors and self-propelled agricultural machinery.

  5. Nerve growth factor contribution via transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 to ectopic orofacial pain.

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    Shinoda, Masamichi; Asano, Masatake; Omagari, Daisuke; Honda, Kuniya; Hitomi, Suzuro; Katagiri, Ayano; Iwata, Koichi

    2011-05-11

    It is well known that oral inflammation causes tenderness in temporomandibular joints or masseter muscles. The exact mechanism of such an orofacial ectopic hyperalgesia remains unclear. Here, we investigated the functional significance of interaction of nerve growth factor (NGF) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in relation to heat hyperalgesia in the whisker pad skin caused by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection into the lower lip. CFA injection induced heat hyperalgesia of the ipsilateral whisker pad skin. Moreover, it leads to enhancement of spontaneous activity and heat responses in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons that was elicited by heat stimulation of the whisker pad skin. The heat hyperalgesia was dose-dependently reversed by intraperitoneal TRPV1 antagonist administration, also diminished by neutralizing anti-NGF antibody administration into the lower lip and intraganglionic administration of K252a, a tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor. Nerve fibers in bundle of mandibular nerve and TG neurons that innervates the whisker pad skin and lower lip both expressed labeled NGF, which was administrated into the lower lip. Moreover, the NGF concentrations in ophthalmic-maxillary and mandibular divisions of the TG increased after CFA injection into the lower lip. The number of TRPV1-positive neurons that innervates the whisker pad skin and lower lip was increased after CFA injection into the lower lip, and this increase was annulled by anti-NGF administration. The present findings suggest that inflammation in the lower lip induces release of NGF that regulates TRPV1 expression in TG neurons. This TRPV1 overexpression may underlie ectopic heat hyperalgesia in the whisker pad skin.

  6. Evaluation of Potential Factors Contributing to Microbiological Treatment Failure in Streptococcus Pyogenes Pharyngitis

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    Susan M Kuhn

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A cohort study of children with pharyngitis aged two to 16 years was conducted to assess the role of microbial and host factors in group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS microbiological treatment failure. METHODS: GABHS-infected children had pharyngeal swabs repeated two to five days after completing a 10-day course of penicillin V. M and T typing, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis were performed on the isolates, and the isolates were evaluated for tolerance. Patient characteristics and clinical features were noted and nasopharyngeal swabs for respiratory viruses were taken at enrolment. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 286 patients enrolled, 248 (87% could be evaluated. GABHS was cultured from 104 patients (41.9%, of whom 33 (33.7% had microbiological treatment failures on follow-up. Although there was a trend toward failure for younger children (mean 6.5±2.4 years versus 7.3±2.4 years, P=0.07 and M type 12 (24% versus 10%, P=0.08, no factors were associated with treatment failure.

  7. Earthquakes as a potential contributing factor to climate change at multi-decadal scale

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    KeYan Fang; Heikki Seppä

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes at the multi-decadal scale are often associated with multi-decadal phase shifts of the dominant sea surface temperature (SST) pattern, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The PDO may be associated with the North Pacific branch of the Thermohaline Circulation (THC). Great earthquakes (M>8), particularly along the route of the THC, might modulate the vertical mixing and bring deep, cold water to surface, contributing to multi-decadal changes in surface currents and the PDO. This may eventually lead to multi-decadal climate changes. We tested this hypothesis for the Pacific Ocean where great earthquakes have been frequently recorded. We found associations between the PDO and recurrent earthquakes along the route of the deep currents of the THC in the modern period since 1900, and relationships between hydroclimate change in Monsoonal Asia and historical earthquakes since 1300. However, it should be noted that this hypothesis is very preliminary and has many gaps that needs further evidences from more observational records and modeling studies.

  8. Contributing factors to potential turnover in a sample of South African management-level employees

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    Rudolph Muteswa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The overall purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which a number of key organisational variables influence the potential decision to leave the organisation in a sample of managerial-level employees. Organisational variables focused on included: career path strategies, management style, intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, team dynamics, training and development opportunities, and work / life balance. Methodology: An exploratory and descriptive research design was adopted. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers based on the related literature. 106 MBA students based in KwaZulu-Natal participated in the study. Findings: The three aspects of internal organisational functioning found to have a significant influence on the participant's potential turnover considerations were: management / leadership style, career path strategies and rewards. Value of the research: According to the Department of Labour (2008:5 there is need for an additional 22 600 managers in various professions in South Africa. As a result of the skills shortages, South African organisations find themselves competing with international organisations for managerial-level employees, resulting in a 'war for talent'. This research is of significant value to organisations as it provides information relevant to the design and support of talent management and retention strategies in South African organisations.

  9. Mortality of centrarchid fishes in the Potomac drainage: Survey results and overview of potential contributing factors

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    Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Starliper, Clifford E.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Barbash, P.; Hedrick, J.D.; Reeser, S.J.; Mullican, J.E.; Kelble, J.

    2010-01-01

    Skin lesions and spring mortality events of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and selected other species were first noted in the South Branch of the Potomac River in 2002. Since that year morbidity and mortality have also been observed in the Shenandoah and Monocacy rivers. Despite much research, no single pathogen, parasite, or chemical cause for the lesions and mortality has been identified. Numerous parasites, most commonly trematode metacercariae and myxozoans; the bacterial pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, and Flavobacterium columnare; and largemouth bass virus have all been observed. None have been consistently isolated or observed at all sites, however, nor has any consistent microscopic pathology of the lesions been observed. A variety of histological changes associated with exposure to environmental contaminants or stressors, including intersex (testicular oocytes), high numbers of macrophage aggregates, oxidative damage, gill lesions, and epidermal papillomas, were observed. The findings indicate that selected sensitive species may be stressed by multiple factors and constantly close to the threshold between a sustainable (healthy) and nonsustainable (unhealthy) condition. Fish health is often used as an indicator of aquatic ecosystem health, and these findings raise concerns about environmental degradation within the Potomac River drainage. Unfortunately, while much information has been gained from the studies conducted to date, due to the multiple state jurisdictions involved, competing interests, and other issues, there has been no coordinated approach to identifying and mitigating the stressors. This synthesis emphasizes the need for multiyear, interdisciplinary, integrative research to identify the underlying stressors and possible management actions to enhance ecosystem health.

  10. Prolyl-4-Hydroxylase 2 Potentially Contributes to Hepatocellular Carcinoma-Associated Erythrocytosis by Maintaining Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-4α Expression

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    Wenwen Sun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased red blood cell count (Erythrocytosis is an important paraneoplastic syndrome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and is a significant risk factor for lethal lung artery thromboembolism. HCC-associated erythrocytosis is partially caused by the ability of several HCC cells to produce erythropoietin (EPO. Prolyl-4-hydroxylase 2 (PHD2 is an enzyme encoded by the gene EGLN1. The best-known function of PHD2 is to mediate the oxygen-dependent degradation of the labile α-subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF. However, there is increasing evidence that PHD2 also regulates HIF-independent pathways by interacting with other substrates. Methods: In the EPO-producing human HCC cell line HepG2, the expression of PHD2 gene was silenced with siRNA. EPO production was estimated using quantitative PCR and ELISA. Results: In HepG2 cells, PHD2 suppresses the activity of TGF-β1 pathway and consequently maintains the expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α, an important transcription factor promoting the EPO expression in hepatocytes. PHD2 knockdown caused a marked reduction of EPO production. HIF seemed not to be involved in this biology. Conclusion: Our findings show that PHD2 represents a potential contributing factor for HCC-associated erythrocytosis. Selective inhibition of PHD2 in HCC cells might be considered as a new way to manage erythrocytosis in HCC patients.

  11. Propionibacterium acnes CAMP factor and host acid sphingomyelinase contribute to bacterial virulence: potential targets for inflammatory acne treatment.

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    Teruaki Nakatsuji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the progression of acne vulgaris, the disruption of follicular epithelia by an over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes permits the bacteria to spread and become in contact with various skin and immune cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have demonstrated in the present study that the Christie, Atkins, Munch-Peterson (CAMP factor of P. acnes is a secretory protein with co-hemolytic activity with sphingomyelinase that can confer cytotoxicity to HaCaT keratinocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages. The CAMP factor from bacteria and acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase from the host cells were simultaneously present in the culture supernatant only when the cells were co-cultured with P. acnes. Either anti-CAMP factor serum or desipramine, a selective ASMase inhibitor, significantly abrogated the P. acnes-induced cell death of HaCaT and RAW264.7 cells. Intradermal injection of ICR mouse ears with live P. acnes induced considerable ear inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and an increase in cellular soluble ASMase. Suppression of ASMase by systemic treatment with desipramine significantly reduced inflammatory reaction induced by intradermal injection with P. acnes, suggesting the contribution of host ASMase in P. acnes-induced inflammatory reaction in vivo. Vaccination of mice with CAMP factor elicited a protective immunity against P. acnes-induced ear inflammation, indicating the involvement of CAMP factor in P. acnes-induced inflammation. Most notably, suppression of both bacterial CAMP factor and host ASMase using vaccination and specific antibody injection, respectively, cooperatively alleviated P. acnes-induced inflammation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings envision a novel infectious mechanism by which P. acnes CAMP factor may hijack host ASMase to amplify bacterial virulence to degrade and invade host cells. This work has identified both CAMP factor and ASMase as potential molecular targets for the development of drugs

  12. Extrahepatic sources of factor VIII potentially contribute to the coagulation cascade correcting the bleeding phenotype of mice with hemophilia A.

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    Zanolini, Diego; Merlin, Simone; Feola, Maria; Ranaldo, Gabriella; Amoruso, Angela; Gaidano, Gianluca; Zaffaroni, Mauro; Ferrero, Alessandro; Brunelleschi, Sandra; Valente, Guido; Gupta, Sanjeev; Prat, Maria; Follenzi, Antonia

    2015-07-01

    A large fraction of factor VIII in blood originates from liver sinusoidal endothelial cells although extrahepatic sources also contribute to plasma factor VIII levels. Identification of cell-types other than endothelial cells with the capacity to synthesize and release factor VIII will be helpful for therapeutic approaches in hemophilia A. Recent cell therapy and bone marrow transplantation studies indicated that Küpffer cells, monocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells could synthesize factor VIII in sufficient amount to ameliorate the bleeding phenotype in hemophilic mice. To further establish the role of blood cells in expressing factor VIII, we studied various types of mouse and human hematopoietic cells. We identified factor VIII in cells isolated from peripheral and cord blood, as well as bone marrow. Co-staining for cell type-specific markers verified that factor VIII was expressed in monocytes, macrophages and megakaryocytes. We additionally verified that factor VIII was expressed in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and endothelial cells elsewhere, e.g., in the spleen, lungs and kidneys. Factor VIII was well expressed in sinusoidal endothelial cells and Küpffer cells isolated from human liver, whereas by comparison isolated human hepatocytes expressed factor VIII at very low levels. After transplantation of CD34(+) human cord blood cells into NOD/SCIDγNull-hemophilia A mice, fluorescence activated cell sorting of peripheral blood showed >40% donor cells engrafted in the majority of mice. In these animals, plasma factor VIII activity 12 weeks after cell transplantation was up to 5% and nine of 12 mice survived after a tail clip-assay. In conclusion, hematopoietic cells, in addition to endothelial cells, express and secrete factor VIII: this information should offer further opportunities for understanding mechanisms of factor VIII synthesis and replenishment.

  13. Unhealthy parenting and potential mediators as contributing factors to future intimate violence: a review of the literature.

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    Schwartz, Jonathan P; Hage, Sally M; Bush, Imelda; Burns, Lauren Key

    2006-07-01

    Efforts to understand and prevent intimate violence have often focused on the intergenerational transmission of intimate violence. Although witnessing and/or experiencing abuse in the family of origin is well supported in the literature as a key component of the intergenerational transmission of intimate violence, there has been less attention to other family-of-origin factors that contribute to or mediate and/or moderate future intimate violence. Particularly, a focus on the effect of parenting on future intimate violence is needed beyond the effect of modeling abusive behavior. In this article, corporal punishment and poor parenting are reviewed as family-of-origin factors related to future intimate violence. In addition, attachment theory, interpersonal skills, and emotional and behavioral regulation and/or conduct disorder are reviewed as variables that may result and mediate the relationship between family-of-origin factors and future intimate violence. Implications for preventing intimate violence by intervening in the family of origin are also identified.

  14. Greater Metacognition and Lower Fear of Negative Evaluation: Potential Factors Contributing to Improved Stigma Resistance among Individuals Diagnosed with Schizophrenia.

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    Firmin, Ruth L; Luther, Lauren; Salyers, Michelle P; Buck, Kelly D; Lysaker, Paul H

    2017-01-01

    Stigma resistance, one's ability to block the internalization of stigma, appears to be a key domain of recovery. However, the conditions in which one is most likely to resist stigma have not been identified, and models of stigma resistance have yet to incorporate one's ability to consider the mind of others. The present study investigated the impact of the interaction between metacognition, or one's ability to form an integrated representation of oneself, others, and the world, and fear of negative evaluation on one's ability to resist stigma. Narratives of encounters with stigma shared by 41 persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders were first coded for spontaneous expressions of fear of negative evaluation from others. Two-step cluster analyses were then conducted in order to test the hypothesis that metacognition and fearing negative evaluation from others are important, interacting pathways which contribute to resisting stigma. Those with high (n = 11; 26.8%), intermediate (n = 9; 22.0%), and low metacognition (n = 21; 51.2%) significantly differed on stigma resistance (F = 9.49, pmetacognition group was most likely to resist stigma. Those with high and low metacognition did not express fear of negative evaluation, while those with intermediate metacognition did express fear of negative evaluation.

  15. Tumor necrosis factor- α and interleukin-6: potential interorgan inflammatory mediators contributing to destructive periodontal disease in obesity or metabolic syndrome.

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    Khosravi, Roozbeh; Ka, Khady; Huang, Ting; Khalili, Saeed; Nguyen, Bich Hong; Nicolau, Belinda; Tran, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide health burden in the last two decades. Obesity has been associated with increased comorbidities, such as coronary artery disease, diabetes, and destructive periodontal disease. Obesity is also part of a group of risk factors occurring together in an individual, which is referred to as metabolic syndrome. Clinical studies have shown higher risk for destructive periodontal disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the role of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the onset and development of destructive periodontal disease has not yet been fully understood. In this review, we discuss a working model, which focuses on interorgan inflammation as a common etiological factor for destructive periodontal disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Specifically, we suggest that elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) or interleukin 6 (IL-6)--both adipokines and known risk factors for destructive periodontal disease--in obesity and metabolic syndrome contribute to the onset and development of destructive periodontal disease. The connections between destructive periodontal disease and systemic conditions, such as obesity or metabolic syndrome, are complex and potentially multidirectional. This review largely focuses on TNF- α and IL-6, inflammatory mediators, as potential common risk factors and does not exclude other biological mechanisms.

  16. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interleukin-6: Potential Interorgan Inflammatory Mediators Contributing to Destructive Periodontal Disease in Obesity or Metabolic Syndrome

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    Roozbeh Khosravi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a worldwide health burden in the last two decades. Obesity has been associated with increased comorbidities, such as coronary artery disease, diabetes, and destructive periodontal disease. Obesity is also part of a group of risk factors occurring together in an individual, which is referred to as metabolic syndrome. Clinical studies have shown higher risk for destructive periodontal disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the role of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the onset and development of destructive periodontal disease has not yet been fully understood. In this review, we discuss a working model, which focuses on interorgan inflammation as a common etiological factor for destructive periodontal disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Specifically, we suggest that elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α or interleukin 6 (IL-6—both adipokines and known risk factors for destructive periodontal disease—in obesity and metabolic syndrome contribute to the onset and development of destructive periodontal disease. The connections between destructive periodontal disease and systemic conditions, such as obesity or metabolic syndrome, are complex and potentially multidirectional. This review largely focuses on TNF-α and IL-6, inflammatory mediators, as potential common risk factors and does not exclude other biological mechanisms.

  17. Brain derived neurotrophic factor contributes to the cardiogenic potential of adult resident progenitor cells in failing murine heart.

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    Rasmita Samal

    Full Text Available Resident cardiac progenitor cells show homing properties when injected into the injured but not to the healthy myocardium. The molecular background behind this difference in behavior needs to be studied to elucidate how adult progenitor cells can restore cardiac function of the damaged myocardium. Since the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF moderates cardioprotection in injured hearts, we focused on delineating its regulatory role in the damaged myocardium.Comparative gene expression profiling of freshly isolated undifferentiated Sca-1 progenitor cells derived either from heart failure transgenic αMHC-CyclinT1/Gαq overexpressing mice or wildtype littermates revealed transcriptional variations. Bdnf expression was up regulated 5-fold during heart failure which was verified by qRT-PCR and confirmed at protein level. The migratory capacity of Sca-1 cells from transgenic hearts was improved by 15% in the presence of 25 ng/ml BDNF. Furthermore, BDNF-mediated effects on Sca-1 cells were studied via pulsed Stable Isotope Labeling of Amino acids in Cell Culture (pSILAC proteomics approach. After BDNF treatment significant differences between newly synthesized proteins in Sca-1 cells from control and transgenic hearts were observed for CDK1, SRRT, HDGF, and MAP2K3 which are known to regulate cell cycle, survival and differentiation. Moreover BDNF repressed the proliferation of Sca-1 cells from transgenic hearts.Comparative profiling of resident Sca-1 cells revealed elevated BDNF levels in the failing heart. Exogenous BDNF (i stimulated migration, which might improve the homing ability of Sca-1 cells derived from the failing heart and (ii repressed the cell cycle progression suggesting its potency to ameliorate heart failure.

  18. Risk factors for vulnerable youth in urban townships in South Africa: The potential contribution of reactive attachment disorder.

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    Pritchett, Rachel; Rochat, Tamsen J; Tomlinson, Mark; Minnis, Helen

    2013-12-01

    Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a psychiatric disorder developing in early or middle childhood as a consequence of significant failures in the caregiving environment. RAD results in children failing to relate socially, either by exhibiting markedly inhibited behaviour or by indiscriminate social behaviour and is associated with significant socio-behavioural problems in the longer term. This study examined RAD in South Africa, a setting with high environmental risks. We recruited a sub-sample of 40 10-year-old children from a cohort enrolled during pregnancy for whom early attachment status was known. Children were purposefully selected to represent the four attachment categories using the data available on the strange situation procedure (SSP) at 18 months. The Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (MCAST) assessed current attachment and RAD was diagnosed using a standardised assessment package. A high proportion of the children (5/40% or 12.5%) fulfilled diagnostic criteria for RAD; all were boys and were displaying the disinhibited type. SSP classification at 18 months was not significantly associated with RAD symptoms at age of 10 years, while current MCAST classifications were. This suggests that children in this sample are at much higher risk of RAD than in high-income populations, and despite a fairly typical attachment distribution in this population at 18 months, RAD was evidenced in later childhood and associated with current attachment disorganisation. The strengths of this research include its longitudinal nature and use of diagnostic assessments. Given increasing evidence that RAD is relatively stable over time and introduces longer term socio-behavioural risks; the high rate of RAD in this sample (12.5%) highlights potential developmental threats to children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our results should be interpreted with caution given sample size and risk of selection bias. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.

  19. Multivariate analysis of structure and contribution per shares made by potential risk factors at malignant neoplasms in trachea, bronchial tubes and lung

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    G.T. Aydinov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of multivariate analysis of structure and contribution per shares made by potential risk factors at malignant neoplasms in trachea, bronchial tubes and lung. The authors used specialized databases comprising personified records on oncologic diseases in Taganrog, Rostov region, over 1986-2015 (30,684 registered cases of malignant neoplasms, including 3,480 cases of trachea cancer, bronchial tubes cancer, and lung cancer. When carrying out analytical research we applied both multivariate statistical techniques (factor analysis and hierarchical cluster correlation analysis and conventional techniques of epidemiologic analysis including etiologic fraction calculation (EF, as well as an original technique of assessing actual (epidemiologic risk. Average long-term morbidity with trachea, bronchial tubes and lung cancer over 2011-2015 amounts to 46.64 o / oooo . Over the last 15 years a stable decreasing trend has formed, annual average growth being – 1.22 %. This localization holds the 3rd rank place in oncologic morbidity structure, its specific weight being 10.02 %. We determined etiological fraction (EF for smoking as a priority risk factor causing trachea, bronchial tubes and lung cancer; this fraction amounts to 76.19 % for people aged 40 and older, and to 81.99 % for those aged 60 and older. Application of multivariate statistical techniques (factor analysis and cluster correlation analysis in this research enabled us to make factor structure more simple; namely, to highlight, interpret, give a quantitative estimate of self-descriptiveness and rank four group (latent potential risk factors causing lung cancer.

  20. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

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    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  1. Partitioning the contributions of mega-, macro- and meiofauna to benthic metabolism on the upper continental slope of New Zealand: Potential links with environmental factors and trawling intensity

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    Leduc, Daniel; Pilditch, Conrad A.; Nodder, Scott D.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding and predicting change in deep-sea benthic ecosystem function remains a major challenge. Here, we conducted analyses combining data on the abundance and biomass of benthic fauna and sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) on New Zealand's continental margin to estimate and compare the contributions of meio-, macro-, and megafauna to total benthic metabolism and identify potential links with environmental factors and trawling intensity. We focussed on two regions in close proximity-the high surface primary productivity Chatham Rise and low surface productivity Challenger Plateau. Mean megafauna biomass was twenty times greater on Chatham Rise than Challenger Plateau, likely reflecting differences in food supply between the two regions; this contrast in megafaunal biomass was mainly due to differences in mean body weight rather than abundance. Meio- and macrofauna made similar contributions to SCOC and together accounted for 12% of benthic metabolism on average. In contrast, the estimated contribution of megafauna never exceeded 1.5%. Significant positive correlations between faunal respiration and food availability indicate a link between food supply and benthic community function. Our analyses also show that fauna made a greater contribution to SCOC in conditions of high food availability, and that microorganisms (i.e., the proportion of SCOC not accounted for by the fauna) tended to be more dominant at sites with low food availability. These findings provide support for the concept that large organisms are more strongly affected by a reduction in food resources than small organisms, which in turn underlies one of the most widely described patterns in the deep-sea benthos, i.e., the reduction in organism body size with depth. Because metabolism in deep-sea sediments is typically dominated by microorganisms and small fauna, the absence of a relationship between bottom trawling intensity and the respiration of benthic fauna in the present study may

  2. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

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    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  3. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

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    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  4. Different contributions of platelet-activating factor and nitric oxide in long-term potentiation of the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

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    Pettorossi, V E; Grassi, S

    2001-01-01

    In rat brainstem slices, we investigated the differential role of nitric oxide (NO) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) in long-term potentiation (LTP) induced in the ventral portion of the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) by high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the primary vestibular afferents. The NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO) and the PAF receptor antagonist ginkgolide B (BN-52021) were administered before and after induction of potentiation. The effect of carboxy-PTIO was to completely prevent LTP. By contrast, BN-52021 only reduced the amplitude of HFS potentiation, which could develop fully at the drug washout or decline to zero, becoming a short-term phenomenon, in the case of long-lasting PAF receptor block. Both drugs, when given after HFS, had no effect on the already established potentiation, but whilst BN-52021 showed an influence within 5 min of the LTP induction, carboxy-PTIO did not affect the response once HFS was delivered. Moreover, we showed that the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, and methylcarbamyl PAF (mc-PAF) induced LTP which was associated with an increase in glutamate release as shown by reduction in the paired-pulse facilitation ratio. The mc-PAF LTP was prevented by the NO scavenger, while NO LTP was only reduced by BN-52021. We suggest that NO and PAF are implicated as retrograde messengers in two different phases of vestibular LTP: NO in the induction phase; and PAF in the full expression phase.

  5. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations do not support these results, indicating adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution, both absent in the models. Here we provide a first-order assessment of the potential importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of equilibrium water table depth from available observations and a groundwater model simulation constrained by these observations. We then present a map of maximum capillary flux these water table depths, combined with the fine-textured soils in the Amazon, can potentially support. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. These water table depths can potentially accommodate a maximum capillary flux of 2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites.

    We note that the results presented here are based on limited observations and simple equilibrium model calculations, and as such, have important limitations and must be interpreted accordingly. The potential capillary fluxes are not indicative of their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration, and they are only an assessment of the possible rate at which this flux can occur, to illustrate the power of soil capillary force acting on a shallow water table in fine textured soils. They may over-estimate the actual flux where the surface soils remain moist. Their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration can only be assessed through fully coupled model simulation of the dynamic feedbacks between soil water and groundwater with sub-daily climate forcing. The equilibrium water table

  6. The plausibility of maternal nutritional status being a contributing factor to the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: the potential influence of zinc status as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Carl L; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, Wladimir W; Chambers, Christina D

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of alcohol is increased under conditions of Zn deficiency, whereas its teratogenicity is lessened when animals are given Zn-supplemented diets or Zn injections before the alcohol exposure. Alcohol can precipitate an acute-phase response, resulting in a subsequent increase in maternal liver metallothionein, which can sequester Zn and lead to decreased Zn transfer to the fetus. Importantly, the teratogenicity of acute alcohol exposure is reduced in metallothionein knockout mice, which can have improved Zn transfer to the conceptus relative to wild-type mice. Consistent with the above, Zn status has been reported to be low in alcoholic women at delivery. Preliminary data from two basic science and clinical nutritional studies that are ongoing as part of the international Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders support the potential role of Zn, among other nutritional factors, relative to risk for FASD. Importantly, the nutrient levels being examined in these studies are relevant to general clinical populations and represent suboptimal levels rather than severe deficiencies. These data suggest that moderate deficiencies in single nutrients can act as permissive factors for FASD, and that adequate nutritional status or intervention through supplementation may provide protection from some of the adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.

  7. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  8. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lyndel J; Davey, Jeremy; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J; Armstrong, Kerry

    2014-08-01

    Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  9. Patients who fall in hospital - Contributing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Bright

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of the factors which contributed to accidental injuries sustained by those patients who fell in a White provincial hospital in die period 1 January to 30 June 1982. The research study was undertaken by Diploma in Nursing Administration students during their 3-week hospital practice at a White provincial hospital.

  10. Potential Contribution of Iron Deficiency and Multiple Factors to Anemia among 6- to 72-Month-Old Children in the Kokang Area of Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, Ai; Gao, Hongchong; Li, Bo; Yu, Kai; Win, Naing Naing; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of anemia among children in Myanmar has been reported to be among the highest in the world. This study was conducted to determine 1) the prevalence of anemia in preschool children and 2) risk factors associated with anemia. A total of 138 children aged from 6 to 72 months were recruited through cluster sampling from six villages in Kokang. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, blood trace elements, and anthropometric indicators were measured. Feces samples were collected to examine fo...

  11. Potential Contribution of Iron Deficiency and Multiple Factors to Anemia among 6- to 72-Month-Old Children in the Kokang Area of Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ai; Gao, Hongchong; Li, Bo; Yu, Kai; Win, Naing Naing; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of anemia among children in Myanmar has been reported to be among the highest in the world. This study was conducted to determine 1) the prevalence of anemia in preschool children and 2) risk factors associated with anemia. A total of 138 children aged from 6 to 72 months were recruited through cluster sampling from six villages in Kokang. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, blood trace elements, and anthropometric indicators were measured. Feces samples were collected to examine fo...

  12. Extraluminal factors contributing to inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arvind Batra; Thorsten Stroh; Britta Siegmund

    2011-01-01

    Many identified and yet unknown factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).The genome-wide association studies clearly support the earlier developed concept that IBD occurs in genetically predisposed individuals who are exposed to distinct environmental factors, which together result in dysregulation of the mucosal immune system. Thus, the majority of previous studies have focused on the immune response within the intestinal wall. The present review aims to emphasize the contribution of three extraluminal structures to this inflammatory process, namely the mesenteric fat tissue, the lymphatics and the microvasculature.Broadening our view across the intestinal wall will not only facilitate our understanding of the disease,but will also us to identify future therapeutic targets.

  13. Extraluminal factors contributing to inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Arvind; Stroh, Thorsten; Siegmund, Britta

    2011-01-01

    Many identified and yet unknown factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The genome-wide association studies clearly support the earlier developed concept that IBD occurs in genetically predisposed individuals who are exposed to distinct environmental factors, which together result in dysregulation of the mucosal immune system. Thus, the majority of previous studies have focused on the immune response within the intestinal wall. The present review aims to emphasize the contribution of three extraluminal structures to this inflammatory process, namely the mesenteric fat tissue, the lymphatics and the microvasculature. Broadening our view across the intestinal wall will not only facilitate our understanding of the disease, but will also us to identify future therapeutic targets. PMID:21350706

  14. Potential Contribution of Iron Deficiency and Multiple Factors to Anemia Among 6- to 72-Month-Old Children in the Kokang Area of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ai; Gao, Hongchong; Li, Bo; Yu, Kai; Win, Naing Naing; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of anemia among children in Myanmar has been reported to be among the highest in the world. This study was conducted to determine 1) the prevalence of anemia in preschool children and 2) risk factors associated with anemia. A total of 138 children aged from 6 to 72 months were recruited through cluster sampling from six villages in Kokang. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, blood trace elements, and anthropometric indicators were measured. Feces samples were collected to examine for the presence of ascarid eggs. The overall prevalence of anemia in children was 61.6%, including 10.9% with severe anemia. Meanwhile, high prevalence of stunting (40.0%), underweight (22.4%), wasting (6.3%), and small head circumference (6.7%) was found. Children with anemia were more prone to stunting. Children with severe anemia and moderate anemia had significantly lower blood iron and zinc levels than children without anemia (P water was positively associated with anemia (odds ratio [OR] = 6.368). This study demonstrated that anemia is an important public health problem among children from the Kokang area. Iron deficiency and drinking spring water may be the important causes of anemia among children. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Potential Contribution of Iron Deficiency and Multiple Factors to Anemia among 6- to 72-Month-Old Children in the Kokang Area of Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ai; Gao, Hongchong; Li, Bo; Yu, Kai; Win, Naing Naing; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of anemia among children in Myanmar has been reported to be among the highest in the world. This study was conducted to determine 1) the prevalence of anemia in preschool children and 2) risk factors associated with anemia. A total of 138 children aged from 6 to 72 months were recruited through cluster sampling from six villages in Kokang. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, blood trace elements, and anthropometric indicators were measured. Feces samples were collected to examine for the presence of ascarid eggs. The overall prevalence of anemia in children was 61.6%, including 10.9% with severe anemia. Meanwhile, high prevalence of stunting (40.0%), underweight (22.4%), wasting (6.3%), and small head circumference (6.7%) was found. Children with anemia were more prone to stunting. Children with severe anemia and moderate anemia had significantly lower blood iron and zinc levels than children without anemia (P anemia. Drinking spring water was positively associated with anemia (odds ratio [OR] = 6.368). This study demonstrated that anemia is an important public health problem among children from the Kokang area. Iron deficiency and drinking spring water may be the important causes of anemia among children. PMID:26195457

  16. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B; Bahijri, Suhad M; Alfadul, Sulaiman M; Ajabnoor, Ghada M A; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 10(14) microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 10(14) microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  17. Gut Microbiota: a contributing factor to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve M Harakeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review.Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  18. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M.; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B.; Bahijri, Suhad M.; Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Ajabnoor, Ghada M. A.; Azhar, Esam I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014 microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity. PMID:27625997

  19. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations show enhanced growth in response to higher radiation under less cloudy skies, indicating an adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution. Here we assess the importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of water table depth from observations and groundwater modeling, and a map of potential capillary flux these water table depths can sustain. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be quite shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. The water table can potentially sustain a capillary flux of >2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites. Current models simulate a large-scale reduction in dry-season photosynthesis under today's climate and a possible dieback under projected future climate with a longer dry season, converting the Amazon from a net carbon sink to a source and accelerating warming. The inclusion of groundwater and capillary flux may modify the model results.

  20. The potential contribution of sinks to meeting Kyoto Protocol commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missfeldt, F.; Haites, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol to the climate convention makes provision for sink enhancement activities to contribute to meeting the greenhouse gas emissions limitation commitments of industrialised countries. This paper analyses the potential contribution of sink enhancement activities to meeting commitments...

  1. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PERINATAL MORTALITY : OPTIMIZING OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the various causes of perinatal deaths and adopt strategies to improve perinatal outcome at a referral teaching hospital in North Kerala. METHODS: A prospective observational study conducted at Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Government Medical College, Kozhikode. All perinatal deaths during the period January 2013 to December 2014 were analysed and from this factors responsible for perinatal deaths were identified. RESULTS: Out of total 30,042 deliveries , there were 966 perinatal deaths during the study period. 566 were still births and 400 early neonatal deaths. The perinatal mortality rate was 31.1 per 1000 live births. Perinatal asphyxia was the major cause of perinatal mortality. The important factors contributing to perinatal asphyxia were prematurity (39%, abruptio placenta (19% and MSAF ( 12%. Among the antenatal factors, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy leading to iatrogenic elective preterm delivery were the most important. CONCLUSION: Perinatal asphyxia due to prematurity and low birth weight emerged as the most important cause of perinatal mortality in this study and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the most important antenatal complication leading to prematurity

  2. Refined Factorizations of Solvable Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Negro, J; Rosas-Ortiz, O

    2000-01-01

    A generalization of the factorization technique is shown to be a powerful algebraic tool to discover further properties of a class of integrable systems in Quantum Mechanics. The method is applied in the study of radial oscillator, Morse and Coulomb potentials to obtain a wide set of raising and lowering operators, and to show clearly the connection that link these systems.

  3. Associations between errors and contributing factors in aircraft maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan; Williamson, Ann

    2003-01-01

    In recent years cognitive error models have provided insights into the unsafe acts that lead to many accidents in safety-critical environments. Most models of accident causation are based on the notion that human errors occur in the context of contributing factors. However, there is a lack of published information on possible links between specific errors and contributing factors. A total of 619 safety occurrences involving aircraft maintenance were reported using a self-completed questionnaire. Of these occurrences, 96% were related to the actions of maintenance personnel. The types of errors that were involved, and the contributing factors associated with those actions, were determined. Each type of error was associated with a particular set of contributing factors and with specific occurrence outcomes. Among the associations were links between memory lapses and fatigue and between rule violations and time pressure. Potential applications of this research include assisting with the design of accident prevention strategies, the estimation of human error probabilities, and the monitoring of organizational safety performance.

  4. 中国电力行业CO2减排潜力及其贡献因素%Factors contributing to CO2 emission reduction potential of the power sector in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾佰和; 谭显春; 穆泽坤; 曾元

    2015-01-01

    Reducing carbon emissions from the power sector is of great importance for China in moving towards a low-carbon economy. Key issues include how to scientifically analyze potential for reductions, identifying a feasible transition strategy, and developing effective policies and measures to achieve goals. Many studies have explored future CO2 emissions from the power sector, but few have quantitatively analyzed factors associated with CO2 emission reduction potential, and research has thus failed to propose targeted policy solutions. This study was built on a CO2 emissions accounting model with a bottom-up approach. Factors that impact the CO2 emissions, i.e., terminal electricity consumption, low-carbon power production, thermal power efficiency, and line loss rate, were included in the model. The LMDI method was used to measure the weight of the contribution from each factor. Three scenarios, i.e. a Business As Usual (BAU) Scenario, a Current Policy (CP) Scenario, and a Low-carbon ( LC) Policy Scenario, were developed to stimulate emission reductions by the sector during the period 2015—2020. The study results reveal that CO2 emissions from China′s power sector will continue to grow under all three scenarios over the period of 2010 to 2020, with annual growth rates of 10.7% (BAU), 6.5% (CP) and 4.5%( LC) . As the Current Policy Scenario was based on existing plans and policies for the power sector, we believe that it should be possible to achieve the 2701 Mt CO2 emission reduction forecast under CP. As the Low-carbon Policy Scenario requires more radical policies to be adopted in the power sector, we believe that the forecast 3688 Mt reduction by 2020 ( down to only 4720 Mt ) is likely to be the upper limit of CO2 emission reductions possible for the sector. By further studying all the factors that contribute to CO2 emission reduction potential, we found that the most influential factor driving the growth of CO2 emissions from the sector until 2020 is terminal

  5. Fever after percutaneous nephrolithotomy: contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Aghdas, Farzaneh; Akhavizadegan, Hamed; Aryanpoor, Aryan; Inanloo, Hassan; Karbakhsh, Mojgan

    2006-08-01

    The exact mechanism of fever and urosepsis after percutaneous procedures has not been established. This research studied the frequency of fever after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and the contributing factors. In a cross-sectional study, from September 2003 to March 2004, all 217 patients with nephrolithiasis treated with PCNL at the Labbafinegad Specialized Urology Center were studied. Data were collected before, during, and after surgery. The frequency of fever after PCNL was 25.8% (n=56) although in 62.2% of the cases (n=135), no prophylactic antibiotics had been administered. The mean durations of hospitalization in patients with and without fever were 5.4+/-2.3 and 3.4+/-1.7 days, respectively (p=0.001). Significant correlations were observed between fever and female sex (p=0.005), positive urine culture (p=0.02), and nephrostomy tube insertion (p=0.041). Other variables did not prove to be significant. In logistic regression analysis, female sex and nephrostomy tube insertion were independently related to post-operative fever. Although a considerable proportion of our patients had not received prophylactic antibiotics, the rate of fever after PCNL was no higher than is reported in the literature. Use of only a short course of antibiotics before surgery for staghorn stones did not result in a higher rate of fever. Female sex created a higher risk for fever, probably because of the greater propensity to urinary tract infection. The significant relation of a nephrostomy tube to fever could be attributed to its role as a foreign body or to use in more complicated cases.

  6. Kleptomania and Potential Exacerbating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Kleptomania is an impulse control disorder that can cause significant impairment and serious consequences. Often, the condition is kept secret by the patient, and usually help is sought only when confronted by the legal consequences of the impulsive behaviors. Historically, kleptomania has been viewed from a psychodynamic perspective, and the mainstay of treatment has been psychotherapy. Recently, attempts to explain kleptomania within a neuropsychiatric paradigm have highlighted the possible links between mood disorders, addictive behaviors, and brain injury with kleptomania. These associations with kleptomania can be extrapolated to pharmacological strategies that can potentially help in treating kleptomania. A case of kleptomania, which was potentially exacerbated by multiple factors, will be reviewed. Treatment modalities used in this case, including the use of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale as a surrogate marker to gauge response to treatment, will be discussed. PMID:22132369

  7. Mapping the Relationship of Contributing Factors for Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Zhao, Lei; Wong, Adrian; Wang, Defeng; Mok, Vincent

    2015-07-20

    While detecting and validating correlations among the contributing factors to the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (pAD) has been a focus, a potent meta-analysis method to integrate current findings is essential. The entity-relationship diagram with nodes as entities and edges as relationships is a graphical representation that summarizes the relationships among multiple factors in an intuitive manner. Based on this concept, a new meta-analysis approach with this type of diagram is proposed to summarize research about contributing factors of pAD and their interactions. To utilize the information for enriched visualization, width and color of the edges are encoded with reporting times, number of pAD subjects, correlation coefficient, and study design (cross-sectional or longitudinal). The proposed Probabilistic Entity-Relationship Diagram (PERD) demonstrated its effectiveness in this research for studying pAD. Another kind of diagram with occurrence order for some factors was also proposed to provide sequential information of the factors. In addition, PERD could potentially develop into an online application named PERD-online, which would help researchers to pool findings on the same relationships and guide further tests to validate uncertain relationships in PERD. PERD as a generic graphical meta-analysis tool can also be applied in studying other multifactorial diseases.

  8. Taming the Goldstone contributions to the effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Stephen P. [Fermilab

    2014-07-28

    The standard perturbative effective potential suffers from two related problems of principle involving the field-dependent Goldstone boson squared mass, G. First, in general G can be negative, and it actually is negative in the Standard Model; this leads to imaginary contributions to the effective potential that are not associated with a physical instability, and therefore spurious. Second, in the limit that G approaches zero, the effective potential minimization condition is logarithmically divergent already at two-loop order, and has increasingly severe power-law singularities at higher loop orders. I resolve both issues by resumming the Goldstone boson contributions to the effective potential. For the resulting resummed effective potential, the minimum value and the minimization condition that gives the vacuum expectation value are obtained in forms that do not involve G at all.

  9. Potential contribution of genomics and biotechnology in animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of the book chapter is to define the potential contribution of genomics in livestock production in Latin American countries. A brief description on what is genomics, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic selection (GS) is provided. Genomics has been rapidly adopte...

  10. Nucleus-nucleus potential with shell-correction contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, V Yu

    2015-01-01

    The full relaxed-density potential between spherical nuclei is considered as a sum of the macroscopic and shell-correction contributions. The macroscopic part of the potential is related to a nucleus-nucleus potential obtained in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi approach with the Skyrme and Coulomb forces and the relaxed-density ansatz for evaluation of proton and neutron densities of interacting nuclei. A simple prescription for the shell-correction part of the total potential is discussed. The parameters of the shell-correction and macroscopic parts of the relaxed-density potential are found by fitting the empirical barrier heights of the 89 nucleus-nucleus systems as well as macroscopic potentials evaluated for 1485 nucleus-nucleus systems at 12 distances around touching points.

  11. Early formula feeding practices and their potential contribution to later obesity risk

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-02

    Background and Aims: Early feeding practices, including early introduction to solid foods and overfeeding, are known risk factors for childhood obesity. This study aimed to assess maternal formula feeding practices and infant formula feeding patterns, factors that are known to potentially contribute to later obesity risk. \\r\

  12. Contributions of sociodemographic factors to criminal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundia L

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Rohani Matzin, Salwa Mahalle, Malai Hayati Hamid, Ratna Suriani Osman Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Abstract: We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years, employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. Keywords: crimes, prisoner, sociodemographic, recidivism, interventions, Brunei

  13. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 Contributes to Escherichia coli Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsien Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available E. coli is the most common Gram-negative bacteria causing neonatal meningitis, and E. coli meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Recent reports of E. coli meningitis caused by antimicrobial resistant strains are a particular concern. These findings indicate that a novel strategy is needed to identify new targets for prevention and therapy of E. coli meningitis. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1 is a bacterial virulence factor associated principally with E. coli strains causing urinary tract infection and meningitis. We have shown that CNF1 contributes to E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier and penetration into the brain, the essential step in the development of E. coli meningitis, and identified the host receptor for CNF1, 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor (37LRP. CNF1, however, is a cytoplasmic protein and its contribution to E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier requires its secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm. No signal peptide is found in the CNF1 sequence. CNF1 secretion is, therefore, a strategy utilized by meningitis-causing E. coli to invade the blood-brain barrier. Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in CNF1 secretion, as shown in this report with the involvement of Fdx and YgfZ provides the novel information on potential targets for prevention and therapy of E. coli meningitis by virtue of targeting the secretion of CNF1.

  14. Vestibular receptors contribute to cortical auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Neil P M; Paillard, Aurore C; Kluk, Karolina; Whittle, Elizabeth; Colebatch, James G

    2014-03-01

    Acoustic sensitivity of the vestibular apparatus is well-established, but the contribution of vestibular receptors to the late auditory evoked potentials of cortical origin is unknown. Evoked potentials from 500 Hz tone pips were recorded using 70 channel EEG at several intensities below and above the vestibular acoustic threshold, as determined by vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). In healthy subjects both auditory mid- and long-latency auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), consisting of Na, Pa, N1 and P2 waves, were observed in the sub-threshold conditions. However, in passing through the vestibular threshold, systematic changes were observed in the morphology of the potentials and in the intensity dependence of their amplitude and latency. These changes were absent in a patient without functioning vestibular receptors. In particular, for the healthy subjects there was a fronto-central negativity, which appeared at about 42 ms, referred to as an N42, prior to the AEP N1. Source analysis of both the N42 and N1 indicated involvement of cingulate cortex, as well as bilateral superior temporal cortex. Our findings are best explained by vestibular receptors contributing to what were hitherto considered as purely auditory evoked potentials and in addition tentatively identify a new component that appears to be primarily of vestibular origin.

  15. Women's Career Success: A Factor Analytic Study of Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, LuAnn Ricketts

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 466 women employed in retailing received 205 responses identifying (1) factors influencing the success and advancement of women in retailing and (2) how those factors differ for women in upper versus middle positions. Upper-level executives placed more importance on ambition and abilities; midlevel executives credited opportunity and…

  16. nf2 contributions to fermionic four-loop form factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roman N.; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    We compute the four-loop contributions to the photon quark and Higgs quark form factors involving two closed fermion loops. We present analytical results for all nonplanar master integrals of the two nonplanar integral families which enter our calculation.

  17. Assessment of factors contributing to flood disaster in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of factors contributing to flood disaster in Ibadan Metropolis: Implication for environmental health education. ... dumping of refuse inside waterways, the role of environmental health officers and level of adherence to the city master ...

  18. Frequency of pediatric medication administration errors and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Suzan; Kocaman, Gulseren; Ozturk, Candan; Seren, Seyda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of pediatric medication administration errors and contributing factors. This research used the undisguised observation method and Critical Incident Technique. Errors and contributing factors were classified through the Organizational Accident Model. Errors were made in 36.5% of the 2344 doses that were observed. The most frequent errors were those associated with administration at the wrong time. According to the results of this study, errors arise from problems within the system.

  19. Repeated-sprint ability - part I: factors contributing to fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Bishop, David

    2011-08-01

    Short-duration sprints (ability to recover and to reproduce performance in subsequent sprints is probably an important fitness requirement of athletes engaged in these disciplines, and has been termed repeated-sprint ability (RSA). This review (Part I) examines how fatigue manifests during repeated-sprint exercise (RSE), and discusses the potential underpinning muscular and neural mechanisms. A subsequent companion review to this article will explain a better understanding of the training interventions that could eventually improve RSA. Using laboratory and field-based protocols, performance analyses have consistently shown that fatigue during RSE typically manifests as a decline in maximal/mean sprint speed (i.e. running) or a decrease in peak power or total work (i.e. cycling) over sprint repetitions. A consistent result among these studies is that performance decrements (i.e. fatigue) during successive bouts are inversely correlated to initial sprint performance. To date, there is no doubt that the details of the task (e.g. changes in the nature of the work/recovery bouts) alter the time course/magnitude of fatigue development during RSE (i.e. task dependency) and potentially the contribution of the underlying mechanisms. At the muscle level, limitations in energy supply, which include energy available from phosphocreatine hydrolysis, anaerobic glycolysis and oxidative metabolism, and the intramuscular accumulation of metabolic by-products, such as hydrogen ions, emerge as key factors responsible for fatigue. Although not as extensively studied, the use of surface electromyography techniques has revealed that failure to fully activate the contracting musculature and/or changes in inter-muscle recruitment strategies (i.e. neural factors) are also associated with fatigue outcomes. Pending confirmatory research, other factors such as stiffness regulation, hypoglycaemia, muscle damage and hostile environments (e.g. heat, hypoxia) are also likely to compromise

  20. Resummation of Goldstone boson contributions to the MSSM effective potential

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Nilanjana

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the resummation of the Goldstone boson contributions to the effective potential of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). This eliminates the formal problems of spurious imaginary parts and logarithmic singularities in the minimization conditions when the tree-level Goldstone boson squared masses are negative or approach zero. The numerical impact of the resummation is shown to be almost always very small. We also show how to write the two-loop minimization conditions so that Goldstone boson squared masses do not appear at all, and so that they can be solved without iteration.

  1. Resummation of Goldstone boson contributions to the MSSM effective potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nilanjana; Martin, Stephen P.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the resummation of the Goldstone boson contributions to the effective potential of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model. This eliminates the formal problems of spurious imaginary parts and logarithmic singularities in the minimization conditions when the tree-level Goldstone boson squared masses are negative or approach zero. The numerical impact of the resummation is shown to be almost always very small. We also show how to write the two-loop minimization conditions so that Goldstone boson squared masses do not appear at all, and so that they can be solved without iteration.

  2. The Contributing Factors of Pragmatic Failure in China's ELT Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi-yuan

    2013-01-01

    Pragmatic failure is the inability to understand what is meant by what is said, which can often lead to misunderstanding or confusion in cross-cultural communication. For this reason, the present article explores the contributing factors of pragmatic failure in China's ELT Classrooms. According to the exploration, the following factors are found…

  3. European Clearinghouse - Contributing Factors to Incidents Related to Reactivity Management

    OpenAIRE

    BRUYNOOGHE Christiane; NOEL MARC

    2009-01-01

    In this paper shortcomings in reactivity management reported to the IAEA Incident Reporting System in the period 1981-2008 are investigated and contributing factors to reactivity management incidents are analysed. The aim of theworkwas to identify the initiating factors and associated root causes. Five of the seven factors identified for all events were present in the 1999 Shika-1 event where criticality has been unexpectedly reached and maintained during fifteen minutes. Most of the events r...

  4. An exploratory analysis of personality factors contributed to suicide attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Suresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: People who attempt suicide have certain individual predispositions, part of which is contributed by personality traits. Aims: The present study was conducted to identify the psycho-sociodemographic and personality related factors contributing to suicide attempts. Materials and Methods: 104 suicide attempters admitted in various departments and referred to the department of psychiatry of IQRAA Hospital formed the study sample. They were evaluated with a self designed socio-demographic proforma, Eysenck′s Personality Questionnaire Revised, Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Impulsivity Coping Scale, and Past Feelings and Acts of Violence Scale. Statistics Analysis: The data was initially analyzed by percentage of frequencies. Association between socio-demographic and selected psychological factors was analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. Intercorrelation among psychological factors was calculated by Pearson′s correlation coefficient "r". Results and Conclusion: Factors such as young age, being married, nuclear family, feeling lonely and burden to family, inability to solve the problems of day to day life, and presence of psychiatric diagnosis and personality traits such as neuroticism, impulsivity, and violence were contributed to suicide attempt. A significant positive relationship between these factors was also identified. Findings of the present study call the attention of mental health professionals to identify these high risk factors in susceptible individuals and to modify these factors to prevent them from attempting suicide.

  5. Potential success factors in brand development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2005-01-01

    not been overlooked by the literature a brainstorming session with practitioners and researchers was carried out. Based on the literature and the brainstorming session, we present a list of potential success factors in brand development in the FMCG sector. To test the validity of these factors, they were...

  6. Factors That Contribute to the Adjustment of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesidor, Jean Kesnold; Sly, Kaye F.

    2016-01-01

    Leaving home to attend college is an important milestone for college students. However, the transition from home to college can be challenging, especially for students studying abroad. In this article, the authors explore factors that contribute to the academic, cultural, social, and psychological adjustments of international students. Adjustment…

  7. Factors That Contribute to ePortfolio Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeaux, Tilisa; Cummings, Cynthia; Harapnuik, Dwayne

    2017-01-01

    This study examined factors that contributed to persistent use, or discontinued use, of ePortfolios beyond the program of study, as perceived by former educational technology students in a graduate program. The related literature points to contemporary research that choice, ownership, voice, and authentic learning are growing trends emerging as…

  8. Potential success factors in brand development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2005-01-01

    Branding is important to both retailers and manufacturers in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) industry, as both parties attempt to develop strong brands in order to improve their position vis-à-vis each other and direct competitors. But what is required to develop a strong brand...... to the marketing of the brand." The branding literature mentions many important aspects, factors, issues, brand requirements, steps, building blocks or guidelines for building strong brands. However, these are all quite general and abstract. Given the substantial body of literature on branding, surprisingly few...... of this paper is to identify potential success factors in developing strong brands and to test whether these factors can be used to discriminate between strong and weak brands. It does so through a review of the literature for potential success factors. Furthermore, to ensure that important factors have...

  9. Pressure Ulcers: Factors Contributing to Their Development in the OR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Dawn; Austin, Melody; McNichol, Laurie; Fencl, Jennifer; Gupta, Sat; Kazi, Haseeb

    2016-03-01

    The prevention of health care-associated pressure ulcers (HAPUs) is an important quality measure because HAPUs are considered a never event. The literature suggests that the prevalence rate of pressure ulcers is 8.5% or higher among patients who undergo surgical procedures that last longer than three hours. We performed a retrospective chart review to determine what factors contribute to the development of pressure ulcers in patients who undergo surgical procedures. The sample population included patients who acquired a pressure ulcer that was not present at admission and developed during their postoperative hospital stay. The project revealed consistent risk factors that may contribute to the development of pressure ulcers in patients who have undergone surgical procedures. These findings can drive the implementation of preventive measures to reduce the occurrence of HAPUs associated with surgical procedures.

  10. STUDY OF AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PAEDIATRIC STRABISMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dharmaraju

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To know various causes, sex distribution, socioeconomic status, onset, severity, visual prognosis of paediatric strabismus. METHODOLOGY The present study was undertaken for a period of 18 months. All the patients were selected from those attending the outpatient department. 50 cases of squint were evaluated thoroughly to know the various factors responsible for squint and how it was caused. RESULTS Total Number of Patients who attended OPD were 72,431 (4000 per month. Total Number of Paediatric squint cases among them were 121. So, Incidence of Paediatric squint in general OP was-0.16%. In the present study of total 121 paediatric squint cases, 21 cases did not fulfil the inclusion criteria and in the remaining 100, cases were included by taking every 2nd patient. Esotropia is seen in 38 children contributing to 76% of total and exotropia is seen in 12 children contributing 24% of total cases. Most common cause of esotropia is Essential Infantile Esotropia contributing to 31% of total esotropias. Males are affected more commonly than females with an incidence of 60%. Esotropia is seen in 38 children contributing to 76% of total and exotropia is seen in 12 children contributing 24% of total cases. In this study, males are affected more commonly than females contributing to 60% of total and females constitute 40% of the total. In this study, incidence of paediatric squint is more commonly seen in lower socioeconomic population contributing 60% of the total. 15 cases are of congenital in onset constituting 30% of total and 35 cases are of acquired in onset constituting 70% of total. Small angle Esotropia and large angle Esotropia: In this study out of total 38 cases of esotropia, large angle esotropias are more common and contributing to 89% of the total. Out of total 50 cases, 16% had an angle of 30⁰. Out of 50 cases, significant family history was present in 15 cases contributing to 30% of total cases. Following early

  11. Environmental risk factors contributing to childhood overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kawalec

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and teenagers is a major challenge for public health. Obesity is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, affected by many interacting genetic and non-genetic factors. The aim of this article was to focus on the environmental risk factors for childhood obesity. Among different factors contributing to an increase in BMI, we highlighted the role of exposure to cigarette smoke, DDT, bisphenol A, pesticides, and noise. The correlation between exposure to environmental toxins during prenatal period and obesity development in later life was underlined. According to obesogenic environment hypothesis, some features of distal and proximal neighbourhood also have a pivotal impact on children's behaviour and may contribute to increasing the risk for overweight. The area of residence (urban or rural may affect access to sports facilities or other opportunities for physical activity. Therefore, for designing adequate prophylaxis, it is essential to take into account modifiable risk factors present in residential neighbourhood. Prevention of childhood obesity should integrate activities for both micro- and macro-environment surrounding the child.

  12. Risk contributions in an asymptotic multi-factor framework

    CERN Document Server

    Tasche, D

    2005-01-01

    So far, regulatory capital requirements for credit risk portfolios are calculated in a bottom-up approach by determining the requirements at asset level and then adding up them. In contrast, economic capital for a credit risk portfolio is calculated for the portfolio as a whole and then decomposed into risk contributions of assets or sub-portfolios for, e.g., diagnostic purposes like identifying risk concentrations. In the "Asymptotic Single Risk Factor" model that underlies the most important part of the "Basel II Accord", bottom-up and top-down approach yield identical results. However, the model fails in detecting exposure concentrations and recognizing diversification effects. We investigate multi-factor extensions of the ASRF model and derive exact formulae for the risk contributions to Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall. As an application of the risk contribution formulae we introduce a new concept for a diversification index. The use of this new index is illustrated with an example calculated with a ...

  13. Violence against women in Pakistan: contributing factors and new interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmaliani, Rozina; Pasha, Aneeta; Hirani, Saima; Somani, Rozina; Hirani, Shela; Asad, Nargis; Cassum, Laila; McFarlane, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Pakistan ranks 125th out of 169 countries on the Gender Development Index and has high prevalence rates of Violence against Women (VAW). Contributing factors toward gender based violence at the micro, meso and macro levels include the acceptability of violence amongst both men and women, internalization of deservability, economic disempowerment, lack of formal education, joint family systems, entrenched patriarchal norms and values, and a lack of awareness of legal and other support systems. These factors have a long-lasting impact on the health of women and children. The gender disparities in the experience of women seeking health care in Pakistan are well-recognized and documented. In the past, common government policy responses to these disparities have included developing the role of community health workers (CHWs) and lady health visitors (LHVs). Despite being commendable initiatives, these too have been unsuccessful in addressing these multi-faceted disparities. Within this complex scenario, new interventions to address VAW and its impact on health in Pakistan include Group Counselling, Economic Skills Building, Health-Based Microfinance, and Family-Based models that increase male involvement, especially at the primary health care level. The purpose of this article is to outline key contributing factors to VAW, explore tested and new interventions, and highlight the opportunities that exist in implementing them.

  14. Potential follow-up increases private contributions to public goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Todd; Ternovski, John; Yoeli, Erez

    2016-05-10

    People contribute more to public goods when their contributions are made more observable to others. We report an intervention that subtly increases the observability of public goods contributions when people are solicited privately and impersonally (e.g., mail, email, social media). This intervention is tested in a large-scale field experiment (n = 770,946) in which people are encouraged to vote through get-out-the-vote letters. We vary whether the letters include the message, "We may call you after the election to ask about your voting experience." Increasing the perceived observability of whether people vote by including that message increased the impact of the get-out-the-vote letters by more than the entire effect of a typical get-out-the-vote letter. This technique for increasing perceived observability can be replicated whenever public goods solicitations are made in private.

  15. Orbital Contributions to the Electron g Factor in Semiconductor Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Georg W.; Varjas, Dániel; Skolasinski, Rafal; Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Troyer, Matthias; Wimmer, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Recent experiments on Majorana fermions in semiconductor nanowires [S. M. Albrecht, A. P. Higginbotham, M. Madsen, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, and C. M. Marcus, Nature (London) 531, 206 (2016), 10.1038/nature17162] revealed a surprisingly large electronic Landé g factor, several times larger than the bulk value—contrary to the expectation that confinement reduces the g factor. Here we assess the role of orbital contributions to the electron g factor in nanowires and quantum dots. We show that an L .S coupling in higher subbands leads to an enhancement of the g factor of an order of magnitude or more for small effective mass semiconductors. We validate our theoretical finding with simulations of InAs and InSb, showing that the effect persists even if cylindrical symmetry is broken. A huge anisotropy of the enhanced g factors under magnetic field rotation allows for a straightforward experimental test of this theory.

  16. Identification of contributing factors to pedestrian overpass selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of overpass and the safety level of pedestrian, this paper aims to investigate the contributing factors for selective preference of overpass. Eight overpasses were investigated in Xi’an, and a questionnaire was conducted by the pedestrians near the overpass. Totally, 1131 valid samples (873 used of overpasses and 258 non-used of overpasses were collected. Based on the data, a binary logit (BL model was developed to identify what and how the factors affect the selective preference of overpass. The BL model was calibrated by the maximum likelihood method. Likelihood ratio test and McFadden-R2 were used to analyze the goodness-of-fit of the model. The results show that the BL model has a reasonable goodness-of-fit, and the prediction accuracy of the BL model can reach 81.9%. The BL model showed that the selective preference of overpass was significantly influenced by eight factors, including gender, age, career, education level, license, detour wishes, detour distance, and crossing time. Besides, the odds ratios of significant factors were also analyzed to explain the impacts of the factors on selective preference of overpass.

  17. Commuter motorcycle crashes in Malaysia: An understanding of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jennifer; Yuen, Jeremy; Ravi, Mano Deepa; Hoareau, Effie; Mohammed, Mohammed Azman Aziz; Bakar, Harun; Venkataraman, Saraswathy; Nair, Prame Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, two-thirds of reported workplace-related fatal and serious injury incidents are the result of commuting crashes (especially those involving motorcyclists), however, little is known about the contributing factors to these collisions. A telephone survey of 1,750 motorcyclists (1,004 adults who had been involved in a motorcycle commuting crash in the last 2 years and 746 adult motorcyclists who had not been involved in a motorcycle crash in the last 2 years) was undertaken. The contributions of a range of behavioural, attitudinal, employment and travel pattern factors to collision involvement were examined. The findings revealed that the majority of participants were licensed riders, rode substantial distances (most often for work purposes), and reported adopting safe riding practices (helmet wearing and buckling). However, there were some concerning findings regarding speeding behaviour, use of mobile phones while riding, and engaging in other risky behaviours. Participants who had been involved in a collision were younger (aged 25-29 years), had higher exposure (measured by distances travelled, frequency of riding, and riding on high volume and higher speed roads), reported higher rates of riding for work purposes, worked more shift hours and had a higher likelihood of riding at relatively high speeds compared with participants who had not been involved in a collision. Collisions generally occurred during morning and early evening hours, striking another vehicles, and during normal traffic flow. The implications of these findings for policy decisions and development of evidence-based behavioural/training interventions addressing key contributing factors are discussed.

  18. Critical Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Formation of Interlanguage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵栩

    2015-01-01

    Interlanguage is a common phenomenon in foreign language learning process.It refers to the language system which is formed in a certain period in learners' second language or foreign language learning process.In the past,behaviorist learning theory and mentalist learning theory has dominated language learning for a long period of time,but both of them have some deficiencies.This paper is to make a critical analysis on the factors contributing to the formation of interlanguage,which reflects the practical importance of interlanguage to language teaching and learning.

  19. Critical Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Formation of Interlanguage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵栩

    2015-01-01

    Interlanguage is a common phenomenon in foreign language learning process.It refers to the language system which is formed in a certain period in learners’ second language or foreign language learning process.In the past,behaviorist learning theory and mentalist learning theory has dominated language learning for a long period of time,but both of them have some deficiencies.This paper is to make a critical analysis on the factors contributing to the formation of interlanguage,which reflects the practical importance of interlanguage to language teaching and learning.

  20. Factors contributing to malnutrition in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung R; Chung, Sun J; Yoo, Sung-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Our objective in this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and to identify clinical, psychosocial, and nutritional factors contributing to malnutrition in Korean patients with Parkinson's disease. We used a descriptive, cross-sectional study design. Of 102 enrolled patients, 26 (25.5%) were malnourished and 27 (26.5%) were at risk of malnutrition based on Mini-Nutritional Assessment scores. Malnutrition was related to activity of daily living score, Hoehn and Yahr stage, duration of levodopa therapy, Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger's Anxiety Inventory scores, body weight, body weight at onset of Parkinson's disease, and body mass index. On multiple logistic regression analysis, anxiety score, duration of levodopa therapy, body weight at onset of Parkinson's disease, and loss of body weight were significant factors predicting malnutrition in Parkinson's disease patients. Therefore, nutritional assessment, including psychological evaluation, is required for Parkinson's disease patients to facilitate interdisciplinary nutritional intervention for malnourished patients.

  1. Factors that contribute to the willingness to try "street hypnosis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Orin C; Gao, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    This study takes a context-specific approach to examine people's willingness to try hypnosis under various conditions and the factors that contribute to their willingness. It examined 378 participants, who completed a web-based hypnosis survey. The results showed that people's willingness to try hypnosis varies by context. Specifically, people are more willing to try hypnosis when it is framed as "peak focus" rather than "hypnosis" and when they perceive the environment as being safer. Moreover, factors including participants' demographics, hypnotists' demographics (relative to the subjects'), participants' control bias, and knowledge of hypnosis affect people's degrees of willingness to try hypnosis, depending on the specific context. The results suggest further analysis of hypnosis occurring in public contexts and the effects it may have on attitudes and therapeutic outcomes.

  2. BMP7 and EREG Contribute to the Inductive Potential of Dental Mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Zhou, Xin; Zhou, Xuedong; Pi, Caixia; Xu, Ruoshi; Wan, Mian; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Yue; Liu, Chengcheng; Sun, Jianxun; Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Liwei

    2015-05-08

    Odontogenesis is accomplished by reciprocal signaling between the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments. It is generally accepted that the inductive mesenchyme is capable of inducing the odontogenic commitment of both dental and non-dental epithelial cells. However, the duration of this signal in the developing dental mesenchyme and whether adult dental pulp tissue maintains its inductive capability remain unclear. This study investigated the contribution of growth factors to regulating the inductive potential of the dental mesenchyme. Human oral epithelial cells (OEs) were co-cultured with either human dental mesenchymal/papilla cells (FDPCs) or human dental pulp cells (ADPCs) under 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional conditions. Odontogenic-associated genes and proteins were detected by qPCR and immunofluorescence, respectively, and significant differences were observed between the two co-culture systems. The BMP7 and EREG expression levels in FDPCs were significantly higher than in ADPCs, as indicated by human growth factor PCR arrays and immunofluorescence analyses. OEs co-cultured with ADPCs supplemented with BMP7 and EREG expressed ameloblastic differentiation genes. Our study suggests that BMP7 and EREG expression in late bell-stage human dental papilla contributes to the inductive potential of dental mesenchyme. Furthermore, adult dental pulp cells supplemented with these two growth factors re-established the inductive potential of postnatal dental pulp tissue.

  3. BMP7 and EREG Contribute to the Inductive Potential of Dental Mesenchyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Zhou, Xin; Zhou, Xuedong; Pi, Caixia; Xu, Ruoshi; Wan, Mian; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Yue; Liu, Chengcheng; Sun, Jianxun; Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenesis is accomplished by reciprocal signaling between the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments. It is generally accepted that the inductive mesenchyme is capable of inducing the odontogenic commitment of both dental and non-dental epithelial cells. However, the duration of this signal in the developing dental mesenchyme and whether adult dental pulp tissue maintains its inductive capability remain unclear. This study investigated the contribution of growth factors to regulating the inductive potential of the dental mesenchyme. Human oral epithelial cells (OEs) were co-cultured with either human dental mesenchymal/papilla cells (FDPCs) or human dental pulp cells (ADPCs) under 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional conditions. Odontogenic-associated genes and proteins were detected by qPCR and immunofluorescence, respectively, and significant differences were observed between the two co-culture systems. The BMP7 and EREG expression levels in FDPCs were significantly higher than in ADPCs, as indicated by human growth factor PCR arrays and immunofluorescence analyses. OEs co-cultured with ADPCs supplemented with BMP7 and EREG expressed ameloblastic differentiation genes. Our study suggests that BMP7 and EREG expression in late bell-stage human dental papilla contributes to the inductive potential of dental mesenchyme. Furthermore, adult dental pulp cells supplemented with these two growth factors re-established the inductive potential of postnatal dental pulp tissue. PMID:25952286

  4. SIDS–CDF Hypothesis Revisited: Cause vs. Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siren, Pontus M. A.

    2017-01-01

    The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)–critical diaphragm failure (CDF) hypothesis was first published by Siren and Siren in 2011 (1). Since its publication, the hypothesis has continued to generate interest and several colleagues have contributed perspectives and insights to it (2–5). The basic premise of the hypothesis is that the diaphragm is a vital organ that must continuously generate adequate force to maintain ventilation, and that CDF is a terminal event and the cause of death in SIDS. I have argued in two follow-up articles that all SIDS factors either increase the workload of the respiratory muscles, the diaphragm being the primary muscle affected, or reduce its force generating capacity (6, 7). The SIDS–CDF hypothesis posits that SIDS has many contributing factors but only one cause, namely, the failure of the vital respiratory pump. There are several known SIDS factors, such as the prone sleeping position, non-lethal infections, deep sleep, gestational prematurity, low birth weight, cigarette smoke, male gender, and altitude, but of these, some such as the prone sleeping position more significantly both impact diaphragm function and correlate with SIDS. However, SIDS cases are multifactorial and as such can be caused by different combinations of factors. An infection combined with a prone sleeping position and elevated room temperature could lead to SIDS, whereas in other circumstances, low birth weight, cigarette smoke, prone sleeping position, and altitude could result in CDF and SIDS. The SIDS–CDF hypothesis also posits that SIDS does not have a congenital or genetic origin, and that efforts to identify significant genetic anomalies in SIDS victims are unlikely to be successful (8–11). PMID:28138321

  5. Extremophilic micro-algae and their potential contribution in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Prachi; Mikulic, Paulina; Vonshak, Avigad; Beardall, John; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2015-05-01

    Micro-algae have potential as sustainable sources of energy and products and alternative mode of agriculture. However, their mass cultivation is challenging due to low survival under harsh outdoor conditions and competition from other, undesired, species. Extremophilic micro-algae have a role to play by virtue of their ability to grow under acidic or alkaline pH, high temperature, light, CO2 level and metal concentration. In this review, we provide several examples of potential biotechnological applications of extremophilic micro-algae and the ranges of tolerated extremes. We also discuss the adaptive mechanisms of tolerance to these extremes. Analysis of phylogenetic relationship of the reported extremophiles suggests certain groups of the Kingdom Protista to be more tolerant to extremophilic conditions than other taxa. While extremophilic microalgae are beginning to be explored, much needs to be done in terms of the physiology, molecular biology, metabolic engineering and outdoor cultivation trials before their true potential is realized.

  6. External Factors Are Only one Element Contributing to Inflation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪红驹; 张晓晶

    2008-01-01

    Our paper first fully examines the stylized facts of the translation of global liquidity into other economic phenomena, transmission of international commodity prices into other forms, the contractionary effects of renminbi appreciation, and the factor price distortion enhanced by external shocks. It then uses the extension of Phillips curve and VAR model to test the impacts of external shocks on domestic inflation. The regression results indicate that: in the short run, world food price is the main reason for domestic inflation; the influence of world oil prices on inflation will take effect in the median and long term; renminbi appreciation is contractionary through a relatively long time; world interest rates have a certain impact on domestic prices; and the translation of global liquidity has no significant effects on domestic prices thanks to the central bank’s offset efforts. In sum, GDP growth is still the root cause of inflation and the external shocks are just one contributing factor. Therefore, the following policies would be vital to curbing inflation: maintaining a moderate rather than excessive growth rate, adjusting the distorted factor price to control investment demand, and increasing the flexibility of the exchange rate regime and making the independent monetary policy the first line of defense against external shocks.

  7. Potential Contributions of Music Education to Peacebuilding: Curricular Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the potential role of music education in peacebuilding, specifically concentrating on issues of structural, indirect violence often unwittingly perpetuated through Eurocentric music curricula. I point out that such violence occurs not only in curricula that represent only European classical traditions, but moreover in…

  8. Factors Contributing to Personal Commitment in Chinese Interethnic Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmiao Zhong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interethnic relationships are increasingly common in many societies, yet interethnic couples have a higher divorce rate compared to intraethnic couples. Given these facts and the dearth of research, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to couples’ commitment in interethnic relationships. This study investigated the personal commitment of Chinese interethnic couples in the United Kingdom and the United States. Specifically, whether love, dyadic adjustment and “couple cultural identity” (i.e. acculturation to the partner and couple’s similarity on individualism/collectivism would predict personal commitment and whether each variable would account for unique variance in personal commitment of the participants. Thirty-seven Chinese/non-Chinese heterosexual couples participated in the study and significant relationships between love and personal commitment, dyadic adjustment and personal commitment were found. Also, couple cultural identity was important for women’s personal commitment. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling showed that partners in interethnic relationships defined personal commitment in different ways with men emphasizing love and dyadic adjustment, and women emphasizing love and acculturation to their partner. The discovery of the importance of couple cultural identity in contributing to personal commitment, besides love and dyadic adjustment, helps researchers to gain a greater understanding of such relationships and to extend the research on interethnic relationships.

  9. System-related factors contributing to diagnostic errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Thammasitboon, Supat; Singhal, Geeta

    2013-10-01

    Several studies in primary care, internal medicine, and emergency departments show that rates of errors in test requests and result interpretations are unacceptably high and translate into missed, delayed, or erroneous diagnoses. Ineffective follow-up of diagnostic test results could lead to patient harm if appropriate therapeutic interventions are not delivered in a timely manner. The frequency of system-related factors that contribute directly to diagnostic errors depends on the types and sources of errors involved. Recent studies reveal that the errors and patient harm in the diagnostic testing loop have occurred mainly at the pre- and post-analytic phases, which are directed primarily by clinicians who may have limited expertise in the rapidly expanding field of clinical pathology. These errors may include inappropriate test requests, failure/delay in receiving results, and erroneous interpretation and application of test results to patient care. Efforts to address system-related factors often focus on technical errors in laboratory testing or failures in delivery of intended treatment. System-improvement strategies related to diagnostic errors tend to focus on technical aspects of laboratory medicine or delivery of treatment after completion of the diagnostic process. System failures and cognitive errors, more often than not, coexist and together contribute to the incidents of errors in diagnostic process and in laboratory testing. The use of highly structured hand-off procedures and pre-planned follow-up for any diagnostic test could improve efficiency and reliability of the follow-up process. Many feedback pathways should be established so that providers can learn if or when a diagnosis is changed. Patients can participate in the effort to reduce diagnostic errors. Providers should educate their patients about diagnostic probabilities and uncertainties. The patient-safety strategies focusing on the interface between diagnostic system and therapeutic

  10. Factors contributing to the surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gualberto de Cerqueira Luz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate contributing factors in patients requiring surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures. Of all the patients with mandibular fractures who were treated using internal fixation at a trauma hospital over a seven-year period, 20 patients (4.7% required a second surgery and thus composed the “reoperated” group. The control group comprised 42 consecutive patients with mandibular fractures who were treated at the same clinic and who healed without complications. Medical charts were reviewed for gender, age, substance abuse history, dental condition, etiology, location of fracture, degree of fragmentation, fracture exposure, teeth in the fracture line, associated facial fractures, polytrauma, time elapsed between trauma and initial treatment, surgical approach and fixation system. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0; descriptive statistics and the chi-squared test were used to determine differences between groups. Significant differences in substance abuse (p = 0.006, dental condition (p < 0.001, location of fracture (p = 0.010, degree of fragmentation (p = 0.003 and fracture exposure (p < 0.001 were found. With regard to age and time elapsed between trauma and initial treatment, older patients (31.4 years, SD = 11.1 and a delay in fracture repair (19.1 days, SD = 18.7 were more likely to be associated with reoperation. It was concluded that substance abuse, age, dental condition, location of fracture, degree of fragmentation, fracture exposure and the time between trauma and initial treatment should be considered contributing factors to the occurrence of complications that require surgical retreatment of mandibular fractures.

  11. Patient and carer identified factors which contribute to safety incidents in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, Andrea L; Giles, Sally J; Fuller, Jeffrey; Johnson, Julie K; Walker, Christine; Dunbar, James A

    2015-09-01

    Patients can have an important role in reducing harm in primary-care settings. Learning from patient experience and feedback could improve patient safety. Evidence that captures patients' views of the various contributory factors to creating safe primary care is largely absent. The aim of this study was to address this evidence gap. Four focus groups and eight semistructured interviews were conducted with 34 patients and carers from south-east Australia. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of primary care. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and specific factors that contribute to safety incidents were identified in the analysis using the Yorkshire Contributory Factors Framework (YCFF). Other factors emerging from the data were also ascertained and added to the analytical framework. Thirteen factors that contribute to safety incidents in primary care were ascertained. Five unique factors for the primary-care setting were discovered in conjunction with eight factors present in the YCFF from hospital settings. The five unique primary care contributing factors to safety incidents represented a range of levels within the primary-care system from local working conditions to the upstream organisational level and the external policy context. The 13 factors included communication, access, patient factors, external policy context, dignity and respect, primary-secondary interface, continuity of care, task performance, task characteristics, time in the consultation, safety culture, team factors and the physical environment. Patient and carer feedback of this type could help primary-care professionals better understand and identify potential safety concerns and make appropriate service improvements. The comprehensive range of factors identified provides the groundwork for developing tools that systematically capture the multiple contributory factors to patient safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  12. Biological factors contributing to bark and ambrosia beetle species diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohli, Jostein; Kirkendall, Lawrence R; Smith, Sarah M; Cognato, Anthony I; Hulcr, Jiri; Jordal, Bjarte H

    2017-05-01

    The study of species diversification can identify the processes that shape patterns of species richness across the tree of life. Here, we perform comparative analyses of species diversification using a large dataset of bark beetles. Three examined covariates-permanent inbreeding (sibling mating), fungus farming, and major host type-represent a range of factors that may be important for speciation. We studied the association of these covariates with species diversification while controlling for evolutionary lag on adaptation. All three covariates were significantly associated with diversification, but fungus farming showed conflicting patterns between different analyses. Genera that exhibited interspecific variation in host type had higher rates of species diversification, which may suggest that host switching is a driver of species diversification or that certain host types or forest compositions facilitate colonization and thus allopatric speciation. Because permanent inbreeding is thought to facilitate dispersal, the positive association between permanent inbreeding and diversification rates suggests that dispersal ability may contribute to species richness. Bark beetles are ecologically unique; however, our results indicate that their impressive species diversity is largely driven by mechanisms shown to be important for many organism groups. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Factors Contributing to Foreign Direct Investment in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariunzul Javzandorj

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, globalization has led to a rapid increase in the growth of foreign direct investment (FDI all over the world. Mongolia for more than a decade has been in the process of radical transformation and has taken significant steps to build a market-based economic structure. Foreign Direct Investment plays a very important role in achieving rapid economic growth in the developing countries. This can be achieved by taking advantage of available mobilizing domestic savings, foreign capital, technology transfers, establishment of new premises and favorable foreign policies It is now widely acknowledged that FDI has potential benefits that can accrue to developing countries. This view is mainly based on the neo liberal and development economists. They suggest that FDI is crucial for economic growth as it provides the much needed capital for investment, increases competition in host countries economies, and helps local firms to become more productive by adopting more efficient technology or by investing in human or physical capital [1]. FDI is also said to contribute to growth in a substantive manner because it’s more stable than other forms of capital flows. This paper investigates the key drivers of foreign direct investment (FDI in Mongolia.

  14. Contribution of thermal and nonthermal factors to the regulation of body temperature in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Igor B. Mekjavic; Ola Eiken

    2006-01-01

    .... This reciprocal inhibition theory, presumably reflecting the manner in which thermal factors contribute to homeothermy in humans, does not incorporate the effect of nonthermal factors on temperature regulation...

  15. Contribution factor of wood properties of three poplar clones to strength of laminated veneer lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucheng Bao; Feng Fu; Elvin Choong; Chung-Yun Hse

    2001-01-01

    The term "Contribution Factor" (c.) was introduced in this paper to indicate the contribution ratio of solid wood properties to laminated veneer lumber (LVL) strength. Three poplar (Populus sp.) clones were studied, and the results showed that poplar with good solid wood properties has high Contribution Factor. The average Contribution...

  16. Factors contributing to communication skills development in cochlear implanted children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostojić Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Over the last 10 years more than 300 persons received cochlear implant in Serbia and more than 90% of the recipients were children under 10 years of age. The program of cochlear implantation includes postoperative rehabilitation in which cognitive, integrative and developmental methods are used. The study was conducted to reveal factors affecting communication performance (CP of cochlear implanted (CI children. Special attention was focused on the influence of the duration and intensity of rehabilitation and hearing age on further development of communication skills. Methods. A group of 30 CI children (13 boys and 17 girls aged 2 to 5 years was enrolled in the study. All of the children had average intelligence and no other developmental disorder. They lived in families and attended rehabilitative seances 3 to 5 times a week. Their parents/ caregivers answered structured questionnaire about functioning after pediatric cochlear implantation (FAPCI and the results were the subject of detailed statistical analysis. Results. Analysis of variance did not show any difference between the boys and the girls regarding FAPCI achievements (F (1, 28 = 2.909; p = 0.099 and age aberration in CP score (F (1, 28 = 0.114, p = 0.738. Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant difference in FAPCI scores related to hearing age and duration of rehabilitation. Regression analysis (enter method showed that model consisting of indipendent variables significantly contributed to prediction of overall FAPCI scores and Adjusted R2 value could explain 32% difference in communication skills of participants in this study. Conclusion. Communication skills of CI children evaluated by FAPCI are falling behind normatives for normal hearing children 18.6 months on the average. Hearing age, duration and intensity of rehabilitation have positive predictive value for communication skills development. Later identification of hearing loss and later cochlear

  17. Factors contributing to communication skills development in cochlear implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Sanja; Djoković, Sanja; Radić-šestić, Marina; Nikolić, Mina; Mikić, Branka; Mirić, Danica

    2015-08-01

    Over the last 10 years more than 300 persons received cochlear implant in Serbia and more than 90% of the recipients were children under 10 years of age. The program of cochlear implantation includes postoperative rehabilitation in which cognitive, integrative and developmental methods are used. The study was conducted to reveal factors affecting communication performance (CP) of cochlear implanted (Cl) children. Special attention was focused on the influence of the duration and intensity of rehabilitation and hearing age on further development of communication skills. A group of 30 CI children (13 boys and 17 girls) aged 2 to 5 years was enrolled in the study. All of the children had average intelligence and no other developmental disorder. They lived in families and attended rehabilitative seances 3 to 5 times a week. Their parents/caregivers answered structured questionnaire about functioning after pediatric cochlear implantation (FAPCI) and the results were the subject of detailed statistical analysis. Analysis of variance did not show any difference between the boys and the girls regarding FAPCI achievements (F(1, 28) = 2.909; p = 0.099) and age aberration in CP score (F(1,28) = 0.114, p = 0.738). Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant difference in FAPCI scores related to hearing age and duration of rehabilitation. Regression analysis (enter method) showed that model consisting of indipendent variables significantly contributed to prediction of overall FAPCI scores and Adjusted R2 value could explain 32% difference in communication skills of participants in this study. Communication skills of CI children evaluated by FAPCI are falling behind normatives for normal hearing children 18.6 months on the average. Hearing age, duration and intensity of rehabilitation have positive predictive value for communication skills development. Later identification of hearing loss and later cochlear implantation lead to delayed development of communication

  18. Biomechanical factors contributing to self-organization in seagrass landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M.S.; Koehl, M.A.R.; Kopp, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    Field observations have revealed that when water flow is consistently from one direction, seagrass shoots align in rows perpendicular to the primary axis of flow direction. In this study, live Zostera marina shoots were arranged either randomly or in rows perpendicular to the flow direction and tested in a seawater flume under unidirectional flow and waves to determine if shoot arrangement: a) influenced flow-induced force on individual shoots, b) differentially altered water flow through the canopy, and c) influenced light interception by the canopy. In addition, blade breaking strength was compared with flow-induced force to determine if changes in shoot arrangement might reduce the potential for damage to shoots. Under unidirectional flow, both current velocity in the canopy and force on shoots were significantly decreased when shoots were arranged in rows as compared to randomly. However, force on shoots was nearly constant with downstream distance, arising from the trade-off of shoot bending and in-canopy flow reduction. The coefficient of drag was higher for randomly-arranged shoots at low velocities (< 30 cm s- 1) but converged rapidly among the two shoot arrangements at higher velocities. Shoots arranged in rows tended to intercept slightly more light than those arranged randomly. Effects of shoot arrangement under waves were less clear, potentially because we did not achieve the proper plant size?row spacing ratio. At this point, we may only suggest that water motion, as opposed to light capture, is the dominant physical mechanism responsible for these shoot arrangements. Following a computation of the Environmental Stress Factor, we concluded that even photosynthetically active blades may be damaged or broken under frequently encountered storm conditions, irrespective of shoot arrangement. We hypothesize that when flow is generally from one direction, seagrass bed patterns over multiple scales of consideration may arise as a cumulative effect of

  19. Contribution of Spaceflight Environmental Factors to Vision Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Susana B.

    2011-01-01

    the combined effects of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury in rat eyes. All main eye structures will be analyzed in this study: retina, lens and cornea. A study in collaboration with the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element (SHFH) investigates the effects of lunar dust exposure on the rat cornea. It is anticipated that common underlying oxidative stress mechanisms of damage may be observed as a result of these three stressors: radiation, nutritional iron and lunar dust. The contribution of fluid shift is addressed by a study using rats subjected to hindlimb suspension. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that the mechanical stress imparted by the pressure differential across the optic disc and lamina cribosa will impact oxygenation (therefore causing oxidative stress and hypoxia) and cell survival. This study also includes the assessment of two nutritional antioxidant countermeasures: epigallocatechin gallate (green tea) and resveratrol. Finally, as a result of two successful tissue sharing efforts, we are proceeding with the analysis of eye samples of mice aboard two shuttle missions: STS-133 and STS-135. Results from the STS-133 study are presented in an independent abstract. Briefly, the results show that spaceflight represents a source of environmental stress that directly translates into oxidative and cellular stress in the retina. Similar analysis is also planned for the cornea. These samples add large value to our current vision research as they provide data on the direct effects of low-earth orbit spaceflight on eye structures and physiology.

  20. Does Tenure Matter? Factors Influencing Faculty Contributions to Institutional Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Casey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Institutional repositories (IRs provide colleges and universities a way to ensure stability of access to and dissemination of digital scholarly communications. Yet, many institutions report that faculty willingness to contribute to IRs is often limited. This study investigates faculty attitudes about IR contributions by tenure status and category of material. METHODS Two focus group interviews were conducted in the spring of 2009 among English department faculty at a large Midwestern university. One group consisted of tenured faculty and the other of tenure-track and adjunct faculty. RESULTS Both groups recognize the benefit of open access to research materials but expressed concern about their intellectual property rights. Untenured faculty spoke more about nonprint research. Both groups also shared concerns about contributing instructional materials, primarily in regard to plagiarism and outdated materials. In regard to faculty service, the tenured group discussed many items they would contribute, while the untenured faculty mentioned very little. DISCUSSION Some minor differences emerged related to experience and tenure status in regard to contributing research and instructional artifacts, but the major variation was the strong support tenured participants gave for contributing service items, compared to the untenured faculty, who did not view this category positively. Tenured faculty viewed the IR as a way to document their own service activities, investigate those of colleagues, and had fewer concerns about plagiarism or other negative effects in the service category. CONCLUSION Promoting faculty contribution of service-related items to an IR may be a way to encourage larger numbers to participate.

  1. Factors contributing to defaulting scheduled therapy sessions by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contributing to caregivers' defaulting scheduled rehabilitation therapy sessions. Methods ... disabilities poses excess psychological2,3, physical, and economic strain on the caregiver4. ... Weekly clinics are conducted every. Monday for ...

  2. Educators' Perceptions of Factors Contributing to School Violence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thematic content analysis was used to report results ... for violence, and violent acts are caused by the complex interaction of differing contributing variables and experiences. (Krug, Dahlberg ...... Warner, B. S., Weist, M. D., & Krulak, A. (1999).

  3. Availability, usage and expected contribution of potential nursery habitats for the California halibut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodrie, F. Joel; Mendoza, Guillermo

    2006-06-01

    Coastal ecosystems have been identified as important nursery habitats for many of the world's fishery species. Beyond this, there remain many questions about what exactly constitutes high-value, even critical, habitat for juvenile fish. A first step in investigating nursery habitat value should be to catalogue the spatial coverage (availability) of all potential nursery habitats as well as the distribution (usage) of juvenile fish within those habitats. We conducted two years of fall surveys in the nearshore areas of San Diego County, CA, examining the spatial distribution of 0-group California halibut, Paralichthys californicus. The database generated by 527 otter trawls and block-net seine collections was used to produce a series of models employing regression trees to study the abiotic factors (water column and bottom features) that affect juvenile distributions. Along the exposed coast, highest 0-group densities (0.002-0.008 individuals/m 2 (indiv/m 2)) occurred where temperatures exceeded 21.5 °C (2003), and at depths between 3.3 and 5.2 m (2004). Within protected embayments, densities were higher at depths less than 1.5 m (0.054-0.430 indiv/m 2) and, in 2004, inside channeled marsh estuaries (0.156 indiv/m 2). The spatial coverage of potential nursery habitats was calculated using a Geographic Information System (GIS) database, and the total number of resident 0-group halibut within each site was estimated (habitat area × juvenile halibut density) as a proxy for expected contribution of halibut advancing to the adult stock from each nursery. Although 85% of the potential nursery habitat area occurred along the exposed coastline, 69% (2003) to 58% (2004) of 0-group halibut resided in protected embayments. Embayment contribution is much greater in the southern half of the study region, largely due to Mission and San Diego bays. We conclude that all nursery habitat types demonstrate the potential to contribute significantly to stock fitness, and that in

  4. The School Absenteeism among High School Students: Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Arslan, Gökmen; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship between student school absenteeism, personal factors (academic self- perception, attitudes towards teacher and school, goal valuation and motivation/ self-regulation), family factors (parents' educational level and income), and academic achievement in structural equation…

  5. Factors Contributing to Self Control for Incarcerated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winquist, Trancita

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine characteristics contributing to high self control for incarcerated youth. Subjects include fifty youth (8 females and 42 males) ages 14 through 18 incarcerated for at least 60 days. Data on subjects' responses from a validated measure (Grasmick et. al. Scale, 1993) and data from historical records, STAR reading…

  6. Do Chinese and American contributions in top journals have an equal citation potential?

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Jielan; Rousseau, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose: We want to contribute to the evaluation of Chinese research, focusing on contributions in top journals. Design/methodology/approach: Using a Mann-Whitney test we investigate if contributions in Nature, Science or the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) by Chinese or American authors only, i.e. articles for which all authors have a Chinese or an American address, have a different citation potential. Findings: There is no rea...

  7. Elite Coaches Views on Factors Contributing to Excellence in Orienteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Ferreira Celestino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el deporte de orientación, los estudios en el contexto de la excelencia deportiva son aún escasos. Las investigaciones realizadas hasta la fecha se han centrado en el análisis aislado de los factores específicos que contribuyen a la excelencia. El objetivo de este estudio, por tanto, fue identificar los factores que los entrenadores consideran de mayor prevalencia en el desarrollo y mantenimiento de la excelencia en este deporte. Diez entrenadores portugueses e españoles de orientación de nivel elite completaron entrevistas semi-estructuradas y los datos fueran analizados mediante el análisis de contenido. Los resultados mostraron que los entrenadores pusieron gran énfasis en un conjunto de factores personales, designados por factores de influencia primaria, donde se incluyen los atributos psicológicos, la preparación deportiva y los factores genéticos. Los entrenadores también identificaron los factores ambientales que ejercen una influencia secundaria, con especial énfasis en la familia, los aspectos socioculturales y los grupos de pares y de amistad. Por último, los entrenadores de elite reconocieron la necesidad de la interacción e interconexión entre estos factores de influencia primaria y secundaria para el desarrollo y mantenimiento de la excelencia en la orientación.

  8. Analysis of the structure factor of dense krypton gas: Bridge contributions and many-body effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aers, G. C.; Dharma-Wardana, M. W. C.

    1984-05-01

    The pair-correlation function g(r) of the Kr-type model fluid with only pair interactions was calculated using the Rosenfeld-Ashcroft modification of the hypernetted-chain (HNC) equation which includes bridge diagrams, and gave results in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo g(r) data. These bridge functions and the known pair potential were used to analyze the neutron-diffraction structure-factor data of Teitsma and Egelstaff, to determine the effective strength of the three-body potential as a function of the density assuming it to be of the Axilrod-Teller (AT) form. The strength of the effective three-body contribution s=ννtheor, where νtheor is the theoretical value, decreases for higher densities, suggesting that the many-body terms (beyond the Axilrod-Teller form) screen the AT interaction as the density increases. The results are very sensitive to the uncertainties in the structure factor S(k) for small k if parameter optimization is used to determine the effective pair potential. However, prediction of the compressibility using s=1 allows us to conclude that νtheor is consistent with the experimental data for low densities, to within the uncertainties in the presently available pair potentials and in the structure-factor data.

  9. Factors contributing to therapeutic effects evaluated in acupuncture clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Guang-Xia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acupuncture treatment has been widely used for many conditions, while results of the increasing numbers of randomized trials and systematic reviews remain controversial. Acupuncture is a complex intervention of both specific and non-specific factors associated with therapeutic benefit. Apart from needle insertion, issues such as needling sensation, psychological factors, acupoint specificity, acupuncture manipulation, and needle duration also have relevant influences on the therapeutic effects of acupuncture. Taking these factors into consideration would have considerable implications for the design and interpretation of clinical trials.

  10. Associated Factors Contributing to Child Stunting in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Laetícia Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-01-01

    "Malnutrition is part of a vicious cycle involving associated underlying factors, which means that undernourishment is related not only to biological but also social aspects. As the causes of child malnutrition are complex, there are several models explaining its determinants. We have adapted the conceptual framework developed by Hien and Hoa (2009), which provides a way of understanding how different factors affecting child malnutrition may be connected. This framework allows us to verify ho...

  11. Factors contributing to the rheology of tomato puree

    OpenAIRE

    Abson, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum Iycopersicum) puree is created by homogenising the flesh of tomato fruits. The viscosity of this material and the fibrous content is of commercial interest. Tomato puree consists of suspended particles (consisting of whole cells, broken cells and cellular fragments) in an aqueous serum. The contribution of the non-soluble and soluble material to tomato puree rheology was studied with reference to the varying composition of solids and firmness of tomato fruit at four stages of ...

  12. Potential for use of environmental factors in urban planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Ricardo; van der Ploeg, Martine; van Delden, Hedwig; Fleskens, Luuk

    2016-04-01

    Projections for population growth estimate, on top of the current 7.4 billion world population, an increase of 2 billion people for the next 40 years. It is also projected that 66 per cent of the world population in 2050 will live in urban areas. To accommodate the urban population growth cities are changing continuously land cover to urban areas. Such changes are a threat for natural resources and food production systems stability and capability to provide food and other functions. However, little has been done concerning a rational soil management for food production in urban and peri-urban areas. This study focuses on the assessment of soil lost due to urban expansion and discusses the potential loss regarding the quality of the soil for food production and environmental functions. It is relevant to increase the knowledge on the role of soils in peri-urban areas and in the interaction of physical, environmental and social factors. The methodology consists of assessing the soil quality in and around urban and peri-urban areas. It focuses particularly on the physical properties and the environmental factors, for two periods of time and account the potential losses due to urban expansion. This project is on-going, therefore current advances will be presented and will look for a discussion on the contribution of soil quality for decision-making and land management in urban and peri-urban areas.

  13. An observational study of bullying as a contributing factor in youth suicide in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyor, Mark; Schaffer, Ayal; Cheung, Amy H

    2014-12-01

    Bullying has been identified as a potential contributing factor in youth suicide. This issue has been highlighted in recent widely publicized media reports, worldwide, in which deceased youth were bullied. We report on an observational study conducted to determine the frequency of bullying as a contributing factor to youth suicide. Coroner records were reviewed for all suicide deaths in youth aged between 10 and 19 in the city of Toronto from 1998 to 2011. Data abstracted were recent stressors (including bullying), clinical variables, such as the presence of mental illness, demographics, and methods of suicide. Ninety-four youth suicides were included in the study. The mean age was 16.8 years, and 70.2% were male. Bullying was present in 6 deaths (6.4%), and there were no deaths where online or cyberbullying was detected. Bullying was the only identified contributing factor in fewer than 5 deaths. The most common stressors identified were conflict with parents (21.3%), romantic partner problems (17.0%), academic problems (10.6%), and criminal and (or) legal problems (10.6%). Any stressor or mental and (or) physical illness was detected in 78.7% of cases. Depression was detected in 40.4% of cases. Our study highlights the need to view suicide in youth as arising from a complex interplay of various biological, psychological, and social factors of which bullying is only one. It challenges simple cause-and-effect models that may suggest that suicide arises from anyone factor, such as bullying.

  14. Factors Contributing to Child Scrambling: Evidence from Ukrainian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhaylyk, Roksolana

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the word order phenomenon of optional scrambling in Ukrainian. It aims to test factors such as semantic features and object type that have been shown to affect scrambling in other languages. Forty-one children between 2 ; 7 and 6 ; 0, and twenty adult speakers participated in an elicited production experiment. The picture…

  15. Contribution of Educational Factors in the Capacity to Overcome Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Joaquina; Montes de Oca, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that predict resilience and social mobility in persons living in extreme poverty in Mexico by analyzing an extensive set of school-related variables. A total of 913 adults were surveyed, with 65.2% women and an average age of 43.71 years. Significant correlations were found between the seven…

  16. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    , attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders...

  17. Contribution of Educational Factors in the Capacity to Overcome Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Joaquina; Montes de Oca, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that predict resilience and social mobility in persons living in extreme poverty in Mexico by analyzing an extensive set of school-related variables. A total of 913 adults were surveyed, with 65.2% women and an average age of 43.71 years. Significant correlations were found between the seven…

  18. Factors Contributing to Adult Knowledge of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, John H.; Needham, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, most efforts to improve public knowledge of science and technology have focused on improvements in K-12 schooling, although post-secondary education and informal education have also been mentioned as important factors. Currently, little empirical data exist to determine how or when to best leverage science and technology education…

  19. Factors contributing to individual differences in facial expression categorisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Corinne; Guo, Kun

    2016-12-29

    Individuals vary in perceptual accuracy when categorising facial expressions, yet it is unclear how these individual differences in non-clinical population are related to cognitive processing stages at facial information acquisition and interpretation. We tested 104 healthy adults in a facial expression categorisation task, and correlated their categorisation accuracy with face-viewing gaze allocation and personal traits assessed with Autism Quotient, anxiety inventory and Self-Monitoring Scale. The gaze allocation had limited but emotion-specific impact on categorising expressions. Specifically, longer gaze at the eyes and nose regions were coupled with more accurate categorisation of disgust and sad expressions, respectively. Regarding trait measurements, higher autistic score was coupled with better recognition of sad but worse recognition of anger expressions, and contributed to categorisation bias towards sad expressions; whereas higher anxiety level was associated with greater categorisation accuracy across all expressions and with increased tendency of gazing at the nose region. It seems that both anxiety and autistic-like traits were associated with individual variation in expression categorisation, but this association is not necessarily mediated by variation in gaze allocation at expression-specific local facial regions. The results suggest that both facial information acquisition and interpretation capabilities contribute to individual differences in expression categorisation within non-clinical populations.

  20. Factors potentially affecting the function of kidney grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jun; ZHENG Xin; XIE Ze-lin; SUN Wen; ZHANG Lei; TIAN Ye; GUO Yu-wen

    2013-01-01

    Background Donor and recipient risk factors on graft function have been well characterized.The contribution of demographic factors,such as age,gender,and other potential factors of donor and recipient at the time of transplantation on the function of a graft is much less well understood.In this study,we analyzed the effects of factors such as age,gender,etc.,on the short-term and long-term graft function in kidney transplant recipients from living donor.Methods A total of 335 living donors and their recipients,who had kidney transplantation in our center from May 2004 to December 2009,were included.Serum creatinine level was used as the assessment criterion (serum creatinine level lower than 115 mmol/L is normal).Factors related to graft function such as age,gender,blood relation by consanguinity,human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch,ABO type,etc.,were analyzed separately.Results Donor age is the key factor affecting both the short-term and long-term function of a grafted kidney from a living donor.The group with donors younger than 48 years showed the best kidney function post transplantation.Match of gender and age is another important factor that influences the function of grafted kidney from a living donor.The older donor to younger recipient group had the worst outcome after kidney transplantation.After 36 months post transplantation,female donor to male recipient group had worse kidney function compared to other groups.We also found that calcinerin inhibitor used in the maintenance period may influence the function of a grafted kidney.No significant statistical differences were found in consanguinity,blood type,and mismatch of HLA.Conclusions Donor age is an important factor affecting the function of a grafted kidney from a living donor.We also recommend taking nephron,immunology factor,infection,and demographic information all into consideration when assessing the outcome of kidney transplantation.

  1. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlan B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye

  2. Genetic Factors in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Contribution to Disease Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Perricone, Carlo; Borgiani, Paola; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Rufini, Sara; Cipriano, Enrica; Alessandri, Cristiano; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Sili Scavalli, Antonio; Novelli, Giuseppe; Valesini, Guido; Conti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors exert an important role in determining Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility, interplaying with environmental factors. Several genetic studies in various SLE populations have identified numerous susceptibility loci. From a clinical point of view, SLE is characterized by a great heterogeneity in terms of clinical and laboratory manifestations. As widely demonstrated, specific laboratory features are associated with clinical disease subset, with different severity degree. Similarly, in the last years, an association between specific phenotypes and genetic variants has been identified, allowing the possibility to elucidate different mechanisms and pathways accountable for disease manifestations. However, except for Lupus Nephritis (LN), no studies have been designed to identify the genetic variants associated with the development of different phenotypes. In this review, we will report data currently known about this specific association. PMID:26798662

  3. Method to determine factors contributing to thermoplastic sheet shrinkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensch, Greg J.; Frye, Brad A.

    A test method is presented for the determination of shrinkage behavior in vacuum-formed thermoplastic resin sheeting, as presently simulated for various resin lots, sheet-gage thicknesses, sheet orientations, and mold profiles. The thermoforming machine and vacuum-forming mold characteristics are discussed. It is established that the four variable factors exert statistically significant effects on the shrinkage response of three Declar resin lots, but that these are of no real practical significance for either engineering or manufacturing operations.

  4. Sociocultural factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in Zomba district, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphagawani, Nanzen Caroline; Kalipeni, Ezekiel

    2017-06-01

    This study explores sociocultural and other risk factors associated with unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district of Malawi. Data were obtained from 505 participants under the age of 20 years using a questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews held at five antenatal clinics. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency tables and chi-square analysis which allowed comparative understanding of the sociocultural risk factors for planned and unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba district. The findings revealed that teenage pregnancy is a major health and social problem. Over 76% of the teenage respondents in the study had experienced unplanned pregnancy. Among the prominent factors that stood out in the analysis for this high rate of teenage pregnancy were early sex and marriage, low contraceptive use, low educational levels, low socio-economic status, lack of knowledge of reproductive and sexual health, gender inequity, and physical/sexual violence. The consequences on teenage mothers of unplanned pregnancy have been tragic and have compromised their physical, psychological and socioeconomic wellbeing, not just on them but also their families and society at large. The findings point to the need for a multi-sectoral approach to tackle the problem on teenage pregnancy in this district, and likely throughout Malawi.

  5. Increasing access to modern contraceptives: the potential role of community solidarity through altruistic contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwujekwe Obinna E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need for universal access to modern contraceptives in Nigeria, to facilitate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and other national goals. This study provides information on the potential role of community solidarity in increasing access to contraceptives for the most-poor people through exploration of the role of altruism by determining level of altruistic willingness to pay (WTP for modern contraceptives across different geographic contexts in Nigeria. Methods It was a cross-sectional national survey which took place in six states spread across the six-geopolitical zones of the country. In each state, an urban and a rural area were selected for the study, giving a total of 6 urban and 6 rural sites. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from at least 720 randomly selected householders from each state. The targeted respondent in a household was a female primary care giver of child bearing age (usually the wives, or in her absence, another female household member of child bearing age. A scenario on altruistic WTP was presented before the value was elicited using a binary with open-ended follow-up question format. Test of validity of elicited altruistic WTP was undertaken using Tobit regression. Findings More than 50 % of the respondents across all the states were willing to contribute some money so that the very poor would be provided with modern contraceptives. The average amount of money that people were willing to contribute annually was 650 Naira (US$4.5. Mean altruistic WTP differed across SES quintiles and urban-rural divide (p  Conclusion There is room for community solidarity to ensure that the very poor benefit from modern contraceptives and assure universal coverage with modern contraceptives. The factors that determine altruistic WTP should be harnessed to ensure that altruistic contributions are actually made. The challenge will

  6. Implication of Heat Shock Factors in Tumorigenesis: Therapeutical Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thonel, Aurelie de [INSERM U866, Dijon (France); Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Burgundy, 21033 Dijon (France); Mezger, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.mezger@univ-paris-diderot.fr [CNRS, UMR7216 Epigenetics and Cell Fate, Paris (France); University Paris Diderot, 75013 Paris (France); Garrido, Carmen, E-mail: valerie.mezger@univ-paris-diderot.fr [INSERM U866, Dijon (France); Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Burgundy, 21033 Dijon (France); CHU, Dijon BP1542, Dijon (France)

    2011-03-07

    Heat Shock Factors (HSF) form a family of transcription factors (four in mammals) which were named according to the discovery of their activation by a heat shock. HSFs trigger the expression of genes encoding Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) that function as molecular chaperones, contributing to establish a cytoprotective state to various proteotoxic stresses and in pathological conditions. Increasing evidence indicates that this ancient transcriptional protective program acts genome-widely and performs unexpected functions in the absence of experimentally defined stress. Indeed, HSFs are able to re-shape cellular pathways controlling longevity, growth, metabolism and development. The most well studied HSF, HSF1, has been found at elevated levels in tumors with high metastatic potential and is associated with poor prognosis. This is partly explained by the above-mentioned cytoprotective (HSP-dependent) function that may enable cancer cells to adapt to the initial oncogenic stress and to support malignant transformation. Nevertheless, HSF1 operates as major multifaceted enhancers of tumorigenesis through, not only the induction of classical heat shock genes, but also of “non-classical” targets. Indeed, in cancer cells, HSF1 regulates genes involved in core cellular functions including proliferation, survival, migration, protein synthesis, signal transduction, and glucose metabolism, making HSF1 a very attractive target in cancer therapy. In this review, we describe the different physiological roles of HSFs as well as the recent discoveries in term of non-cogenic potential of these HSFs, more specifically associated to the activation of “non-classical” HSF target genes. We also present an update on the compounds with potent HSF1-modulating activity of potential interest as anti-cancer therapeutic agents.

  7. Stochastic contribution to the growth factor in the LCDM model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, A. L.B.; Andrade, A. P.A.; Letelier, P. S.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of noise on the evolution of the growth factor of density perturbations in the context of the LCDM model. Stochasticity is introduced as a Wiener process amplified by an intensity parameter alpha. By comparing the evolution of deterministic and stochastic cases for different values of alpha we estimate the intensity level necessary to make noise relevant for cosmological tests based on large-scale structure data. Our results indicate that the presence of random forces underlying the fluid description can lead to significant deviations from the nonstochastic solution at late times for alpha>0.001.

  8. Structural equation modeling of factors contributing to quality of life in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve quality of life (QOL in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, it is important to decrease disability and prevent relapse. The aim of this study was to examine the causal and mutual relationships contributing to QOL in Japanese patients with MS, develop path diagrams, and explore interventions with the potential to improve patient QOL. Methods Data of 163 Japanese MS patients were obtained using the Functional Assessment of MS (FAMS and Nottingham Adjustment Scale-Japanese version (NAS-J tests, as well as four additional factors that affect QOL (employment status, change of income, availability of disease information, and communication with medical staff. Data were then used in structural equation modeling to develop path diagrams for factors contributing to QOL. Results The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score had a significant effect on the total FAMS score. Although EDSS negatively affected the FAMS symptom score, NAS-J subscale scores of anxiety/depression and acceptance were positively related to the FAMS symptom score. Changes in employment status after MS onset negatively affected all NAS-J scores. Knowledge of disease information improved the total NAS-J score, which in turn improved many FAMS subscale scores. Communication with doctors and nurses directly and positively affected some FAMS subscale scores. Conclusions Disability and change in employment status decrease patient QOL. However, the present findings suggest that other factors, such as acquiring information on MS and communicating with medical staff, can compensate for the worsening of QOL.

  9. Structural equation modeling of factors contributing to quality of life in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiromi; Mifune, Nobuhiro; Niino, Masaaki; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Kohriyama, Tatsuo; Ota, Kohei; Tanaka, Masami; Ochi, Hirofumi; Nakane, Shunya; Kikuchi, Seiji

    2013-01-22

    To improve quality of life (QOL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is important to decrease disability and prevent relapse. The aim of this study was to examine the causal and mutual relationships contributing to QOL in Japanese patients with MS, develop path diagrams, and explore interventions with the potential to improve patient QOL. Data of 163 Japanese MS patients were obtained using the Functional Assessment of MS (FAMS) and Nottingham Adjustment Scale-Japanese version (NAS-J) tests, as well as four additional factors that affect QOL (employment status, change of income, availability of disease information, and communication with medical staff). Data were then used in structural equation modeling to develop path diagrams for factors contributing to QOL. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score had a significant effect on the total FAMS score. Although EDSS negatively affected the FAMS symptom score, NAS-J subscale scores of anxiety/depression and acceptance were positively related to the FAMS symptom score. Changes in employment status after MS onset negatively affected all NAS-J scores. Knowledge of disease information improved the total NAS-J score, which in turn improved many FAMS subscale scores. Communication with doctors and nurses directly and positively affected some FAMS subscale scores. Disability and change in employment status decrease patient QOL. However, the present findings suggest that other factors, such as acquiring information on MS and communicating with medical staff, can compensate for the worsening of QOL.

  10. Structural equation modeling of factors contributing to quality of life in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To improve quality of life (QOL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is important to decrease disability and prevent relapse. The aim of this study was to examine the causal and mutual relationships contributing to QOL in Japanese patients with MS, develop path diagrams, and explore interventions with the potential to improve patient QOL. Methods Data of 163 Japanese MS patients were obtained using the Functional Assessment of MS (FAMS) and Nottingham Adjustment Scale-Japanese version (NAS-J) tests, as well as four additional factors that affect QOL (employment status, change of income, availability of disease information, and communication with medical staff). Data were then used in structural equation modeling to develop path diagrams for factors contributing to QOL. Results The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score had a significant effect on the total FAMS score. Although EDSS negatively affected the FAMS symptom score, NAS-J subscale scores of anxiety/depression and acceptance were positively related to the FAMS symptom score. Changes in employment status after MS onset negatively affected all NAS-J scores. Knowledge of disease information improved the total NAS-J score, which in turn improved many FAMS subscale scores. Communication with doctors and nurses directly and positively affected some FAMS subscale scores. Conclusions Disability and change in employment status decrease patient QOL. However, the present findings suggest that other factors, such as acquiring information on MS and communicating with medical staff, can compensate for the worsening of QOL. PMID:23339479

  11. Neuromuscular factors contributing to in vivo eccentric moment generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, S; Kriellaars, D

    1997-07-01

    Muscle series elasticity and its contribution to eccentric moment generation was examined in humans. While subjects [male, n = 30; age 26.3 +/- 4.8 (SD) yr; body mass 78.8 +/- 13.1 kg] performed an isometric contraction of the knee extensors at 60 degrees of knee flexion, a quick stretch was imposed with a 12 degrees -step displacement at 100 degrees /s. The test was performed at 10 isometric activation levels ranging from 1.7 to 95.2% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). A strong linear relationship was observed between the peak imposed eccentric moment derived from quick stretch and the isometric activation level (y = 1.44x + 7.08; r = 0.99). This increase in the eccentric moment is consistent with an actomyosin-dependent elasticity located in series with the contractile element of muscle. By extrapolating the linear relationship to 100% MVC, the predicted maximum eccentric moment was found to be 151% MVC, consistent with in vitro data. A maximal voluntary, knee extensor strength test was also performed (5-95 degrees, 3 repetitions, +/-50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 degrees/s). The predicted maximum eccentric moment was 206% of the angle- and velocity-matched, maximal voluntary eccentric moments. This was attributed to a potent neural regulatory mechanism that limits the recruitment and/or discharge of motor units during maximal voluntary eccentric contractions.

  12. Anxiety in early pregnancy: prevalence and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubertsson, C; Hellström, J; Cross, M; Sydsjö, G

    2014-06-01

    Antenatal anxiety symptoms are not only a health problem for the expectant mother. Research has found that maternal anxiety may also have an impact on the developing baby. Therefore, it is important to estimate the prevalence of maternal anxiety and associated factors. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of anxiety symptoms during the first trimester of pregnancy and to identify associated risk factors. Secondly, to investigate other factors associated with anxiety during early pregnancy including fear of childbirth and a preference for cesarean section. In a population-based community sample of 1,175 pregnant women, 916 women (78%) were investigated in the first trimester (gestation week 8-12). The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS-A) was used to measure anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms (HADS-A scores≥8 during pregnancy) was 15.6% in early pregnancy. Women under 25 years of age were at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy (OR 2.6, CI 1.7-4.0). Women who reported a language other than Swedish as their native language (OR 4.2, CI 2.7-7.0), reported high school as their highest level of education (OR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.3), were unemployed (OR 3.5, CI 2.1-5.8), used nicotine before pregnancy (OR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.5), and had a self-reported psychiatric history of either depression (OR 3.8, CI 2.6-5.6) or anxiety (OR 5.2, CI 3.5-7.9) before their current pregnancy were all at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy. Anxiety symptoms during pregnancy increased the rate of fear of birth (OR 3.0, CI 1.9-4.7) and a preference for cesarean section (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8). Caregivers should pay careful attention to history of mental illness to be able to identify women with symptoms of anxiety during early pregnancy. When presenting with symptoms of anxiety, the women might need counseling and or treatment in order to decrease her anxiety.

  13. Nanoparticles and Colloids as Contributing Factors in Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    This review explores the processes underlying the deleterious effects of the presence of insoluble or colloidal depositions within the central nervous system. These materials are chemically unreactive and can have a prolonged residence in the brain. They can be composed of mineral or proteinaceous materials of intrinsic or exogenous origin. Such nanoparticulates and colloids are associated with a range of slow-progressing neurodegenerative states. The potential common basis of toxicity of these materials is discussed. A shared feature of these disorders involves the appearance of deleterious inflammatory changes in the CNS. This may be due to extended and ineffective immune responses. Another aspect is the presence of excess levels of reactive oxygen species within the brain. In addition with their induction by inflammatory events, these may be further heightened by the presence of redox active transition metals to the large surface area afforded by nanoparticles and amphipathic micelles. PMID:21776226

  14. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources that have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination of the environment in the future. To protect the environment from radioactive contamination, impact and risk assessments are performed prior to or during a release event, short or long term after deposition or prior and after implementation of countermeasures. When environmental impact and risks are assessed, however, a series of factors will contribute to the overall uncertainties. To provide environmental impact and risk assessments, information on processes, kinetics and a series of input variables is needed. Adding problems such as variability, questionable assumptions, gaps in knowledge, extrapolations and poor conceptual model structures, a series of factors are contributing to large and often unacceptable uncertainties in impact and risk assessments. Information on the source term and the release scenario is an essential starting point in impact and risk models; the source determines activity concentrations and atom ratios of radionuclides released, while the release scenario determine the physico-chemical forms of released radionuclides such as particle size distribution, structure and density. Releases will most often contain other contaminants such as metals, and due to interactions, contaminated sites should be assessed as a multiple stressor scenario. Following deposition, a series of stressors, interactions and processes will influence the ecosystem transfer of radionuclide species and thereby influence biological uptake (toxicokinetics) and responses (toxicodynamics) in exposed organisms. Due to the variety of biological species, extrapolation is frequently needed to fill gaps in knowledge e.g., from effects to no effects, from effects in one organism to others, from one stressor to mixtures. Most toxtests are, however, performed as short term exposure of adult organisms

  15. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-01-27

    Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an "ageist" approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons.

  16. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  17. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  18. UNRECOGNIZED OR POTENTIAL RISK FACTORS FOR CHILDHOOD CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional epidemiological studies suggest that the contribution of environmental agents to childhood cancer may be minor. However, epidemiological methods can only seldom identify causal factors associated with a relative risk of less than a factor of one and a half to two. App...

  19. Factors contributing to amphibian road mortality in a wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijun GU; Qiang DAI; Qian WANG; Yuezhao WANG

    2011-01-01

    To understand road characteristics and landscape features associated with high road mortality of amphibians in Zoige Wetland National Nature Reserve,we surveyed road mortality along four major roads after rainfall in May and September 2007.Road mortality of three species,Rana kukunoris,Nanorana pleskei and Bufo minshanicus,was surveyed across 225 transects (115 in May and 110 in September).Transects were 100 m long and repeated every two kilometers along the four major roads.We used model averaging to assess factors that might determine amphibian road mortality.We recorded an average of 24.6 amphibian road mortalities per kilometer in May and 19.2 in September.Among road characteristics,road width was positively associated with road morality for R.kukunori and B.minshanicus.Traffic volume also increased the road mortality of B.minshanicus in September.Of the landscape features measured,area proportions of three types of grassland (wet,mesic and dry) within 1 km of the roads,particularly that of wet grassland,significantly increased road mortality for R.kukunori and total mortality across all three species.To most effectively reduce road mortality of amphibians in the Zoige wetlands,we suggest better road design such as avoiding wet grasslands,minimizing road width,underground passes and traffic control measures.The implementation of public transit in the area would reduce traffic volume,and hence mortality [Current Zoology 57 (6):768-774,2011].

  20. Leaving from and returning to nursing practice: contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Isabel; Taua, Chris

    2009-07-01

    Many nurses leave nursing and never return. Others return after a period of time. Given the global shortage of nurses a better understanding of these movements is needed. The present study focused on nurses who had been out of nursing for more than five years, and explored factors that influenced their leaving and return to practice. All the nurses who had undertaken a Competency Assessment Programme at a given New Zealand tertiary institution during 2005 were invited to participate. Of the 70 questionnaires mailed out 32 (44.5%) were completed and returned. Quantitative data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, and the qualitative data were coded and analysed by means of content analysis. For each, leaving and returning, three key issues emerged. Nurses left for personal reasons, to seek a career change, or because of poor working conditions. They returned when they had the personal freedom to do so, for fiscal reasons, or because they were motivated by some sense of unfinished business. These findings indicate that it is important for educators involved with Competency Assessment Programmes to collaborate with employers in ensuring that there are opportunities for re-entry to positive work environments, with a degree of flexibility that suits the demographic characteristics of those nurses returning to practice.

  1. Transient Receptor Potential Channels Contribute to Pathological Structural and Functional Remodeling After Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer; Correll, Robert N.; Trappanese, Danielle M.; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Troupes, Constantine D.; Berretta, Remus M.; Kubo, Hajime; Madesh, Muniswamy; Chen, Xiongwen; Gao, Erhe; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Houser, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The cellular and molecular basis for post myocardial infarction (MI) structural and functional remodeling is not well understood. Objective To determine if Ca2+ influx through transient receptor potential (canonical) (TRPC) channels contributes to post-MI structural and functional remodeling. Methods and Results TRPC1/3/4/6 channel mRNA increased after MI in mice and was associated with TRPC-mediated Ca2+ entry. Cardiac myocyte specific expression of a dominant negative (dn: loss of function) TRPC4 channel increased basal myocyte contractility and reduced hypertrophy and cardiac structural and functional remodeling after MI while increasing survival. We used adenovirus-mediated expression of TRPC3/4/6 channels in cultured adult feline myocytes (AFMs) to define mechanistic aspects of these TRPC-related effects. TRPC3/4/6 over expression in AFMs induced calcineurin (Cn)-Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) mediated hypertrophic signaling, which was reliant on caveolae targeting of TRPCs. TRPC3/4/6 expression in AFMs increased rested state contractions and increased spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ sparks mediated by enhanced phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor. TRPC3/4/6 expression was associated with reduced contractility and response to catecholamines during steady state pacing, likely due to enhanced SR Ca2+ leak. Conclusions Ca2+ influx through TRPC channels expressed after MI activates pathological cardiac hypertrophy and reduces contractility reserve. Blocking post-MI TRPC activity improved post-MI cardiac structure and function. PMID:25047165

  2. Transient receptor potential channel M2 contributes to neointimal hyperplasia in vascular walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Xiaochen; Zheng, Changbo; Zhao, Qiannan; Lan, Hui-Yao; Huang, Yu; Wan, Song; Mori, Yasuo; Yao, Xiaoqiang

    2015-07-01

    A hallmark of atherosclerosis is progressive intimal thickening (namely neointimal hyperplasia), which leads to occlusive vascular diseases. Over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alteration of Ca2+ signaling are among the key factors contributing to neointimal growth. In the present study, we investigated the role of TRPM2, a ROS-sensitive Ca2+ entry channel, in neointimal hyperplasia. Perivascular cuffs were used to induce neointimal hyperplasia in rat/mouse arteries. Immunostaining showed numerous TRPM2-positive smooth muscle cells in neointimal regions. ROS were over-produced and PCNA-positive proliferating cells were numerous in the neointimal regions. The neointimal hyperplasia was substantially reduced in Trpm2 knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. In the cultured rat/mouse aortic smooth muscle cells, H2O2 treatment was found to stimulate cell proliferation and migration. The effect of H2O2 was reduced by a TRPM2-specific blocking antibody TM2E3 or Trpm2 knockout. The signaling molecules downstream of TRPM2 were found to be Axl and Akt. These data suggest a critical functional role of TRPM2 in the progression of neointimal hyperplasia. The study also highlights the possibility of targeting TRPM2 as a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of occlusive vascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Contribution of plasminogen activation towards the pathogenic potential of oral streptococci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Itzek

    Full Text Available Oral streptococci are a heterogeneous group of human commensals, with a potential to cause serious infections. Activation of plasminogen has been shown to increase the virulence of typical human pathogenic streptococci such as S. pneumoniae. One important factor for plasminogen activation is the streptococcal α-enolase. Here we report that plasminogen activation is also common in oral streptococci species involved in clinical infection and that it depends on the action of human plasminogen activators. The ability to activate plasminogen did not require full conservation of the internal plasminogen binding sequence motif FYDKERKVY of α-enolase that was previously described as crucial for increased plasminogen binding, activation and virulence. Instead, experiments with recombinant α-enolase variants indicate that the naturally occurring variations do not impair plasminogen binding. In spite of these variations in the internal plasminogen binding motif oral streptococci showed similar activation of plasminogen. We conclude that the pathomechanism of plasminogen activation is conserved in oral streptococci that cause infections in human. This may contribute to their opportunistic pathogenic character that is unfurled in certain niches.

  4. Electronic prescription as contributing factor for hospitalized patients' safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenes FRE

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The following study was performed to identify factors related to medication errors in the computerized physician order entry and their advantages and disadvantages according to doctors, nursing team and administrative officers. It is a survey descriptive study carried out at three units of a Brazilian academic hospital in the southeast area. The study was divided in two phases. In the first phase, we analyzed a total of 1,349 prescriptions from general medical unit, surgical and orthopaedic wards during 30 days consecutively. A semi-structured instrument, elaborated by a group of researchers for the study proposals, was used. In the second phase, a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to the health professionals containing closed and open items approaching their opinion about the composition of electronic prescription, the advantages and disadvantages of them, and their suggestions for its improvement. Out of 1,349 prescriptions observed, 17.5% presented deletions, 25.0% medicines written manually and 17.0% of them were incomplete. Some of the advantages pointed by health professionals were its legibility (37.5%, little time spent when elaborating and emitting them (20.5% and the way they are a practical and organized (8%. The disadvantages pointed were repetition of previous prescriptions (34%, typing mistakes (17%, dependence on computers (11% and alterations made manually (7%. We conclude, this way, that the computerized prescription order entry represents a great progress among the strategies used to minimize medication errors caused by prescriptions badly formulated. However, it doesn't eradicate the possibility of medication error occurrences, needing some system modifications.

  5. TECHNIQUES AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vladimirovna Glukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of working out and introduction in educational process of higher educational institutions of the innovative technology for developing skills of critical thinking skills of the future specialists. Research is aimed at revealing of the factors promoting formation of students’ critical thinking in high schools; the search of strategy and the receptions actualizing creative abilities of students and helping to formation of an active, independent person. The author gives the reasoned proving that it’s necessary to set up the creative educational environment and adjustment of positive dialogue between the teacher and the trainee for education of such person, development of abilities of an objective reflection, interpretation of the phenomena, formulations of adequate conclusions, well-founded evaluating. Methods. The methods involve the analysis of the philosophical, psychology-pedagogical, methodical literature and the scientific periodical publications; generalisation of the Russian and foreign background, classification and arrangement of the considered issues, supervision. Results. Current approaches to the rendering of critical thinking and a problem of its formation in the scientific literature are considered; the concept «the creative educational environment» is specified; the ways of increasing the educational process efficiency are shown. Scientific novelty. The complex of procedures and the conditions promoting effective development of critical thinking skills is theoretically proved on the basis of the analysis of various information sources. Practical significance. The research outcomes and the recommended methods of critical thinking skills formation can be useful for the professors and lecturers of higher education institutions to optimize subject matter selection, techniques and methods of education under the conditions of dynamically updated educational process. 

  6. Isolating the non-polar contributions to the intermolecular potential for water-alkane interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Deepti; Venkataraman, Pradeep; Fouad, Wael A; Cox, Kenneth R; Chapman, Walter G

    2014-08-14

    Intermolecular potential models for water and alkanes describe pure component properties fairly well, but fail to reproduce properties of water-alkane mixtures. Understanding interactions between water and non-polar molecules like alkanes is important not only for the hydrocarbon industry but has implications to biological processes as well. Although non-polar solutes in water have been widely studied, much less work has focused on water in non-polar solvents. In this study we calculate the solubility of water in different alkanes (methane to dodecane) at ambient conditions where the water content in alkanes is very low so that the non-polar water-alkane interactions determine solubility. Only the alkane-rich phase is simulated since the fugacity of water in the water rich phase is calculated from an accurate equation of state. Using the SPC/E model for water and TraPPE model for alkanes along with Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rules for the cross parameters produces a water solubility that is an order of magnitude lower than the experimental value. It is found that an effective water Lennard-Jones energy ε(W)/k = 220 K is required to match the experimental water solubility in TraPPE alkanes. This number is much higher than used in most simulation water models (SPC/E-ε(W)/k = 78.2 K). It is surprising that the interaction energy obtained here is also higher than the water-alkane interaction energy predicted by studies on solubility of alkanes in water. The reason for this high water-alkane interaction energy is not completely understood. Some factors that might contribute to the large interaction energy, such as polarizability of alkanes, octupole moment of methane, and clustering of water at low concentrations in alkanes, are examined. It is found that, though important, these factors do not completely explain the anomalously strong attraction between alkanes and water observed experimentally.

  7. The potential contribution to climate change mitigation from temporary carbon storage in biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Nielsen, Per H.

    2015-01-01

    of biomaterials.The recently developed approach for quantifying the climate tipping potential (CTP) of emissions is used, with some adaption, to account for the value of temporary carbon storage. CTP values for short-, medium- and long-term carbon storage in chosen biomaterials are calculated for two possible...... future atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration development scenarios. The potential magnitude of the temporary carbon storage in biomaterials is estimated by considering the global polymer production being biobased in the future.Both sets of CTP values show the same trend; storage which releases...... contributes with negative CTP values, which means mitigation. The longer the duration of the storage, the larger the mitigation potential.Temporary carbon storage in biomaterials has a potential for contributing to avoid or postpone the crossing of a climatic target level of 450 ppm CO2e, depending on GHG...

  8. The potential contribution to climate change mitigation from temporary carbon storage in biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Nielsen, Per H.

    2015-01-01

    contributes with negative CTP values, which means mitigation. The longer the duration of the storage, the larger the mitigation potential.Temporary carbon storage in biomaterials has a potential for contributing to avoid or postpone the crossing of a climatic target level of 450 ppm CO2e, depending on GHG...... concentration development scenario. The potential mitigation value depends on the timing of sequestration and re-emission of CO2. The suggested CTP approach enables inclusion of the potential benefit from temporary carbon storage in the environmental profile of biomaterials. This should be seen as supplement...... value of temporary carbon storage in terms of climate change mitigation has been widely discussed, this has not yet been directly coupled to avoiding climatic target levels representing predicted climatic tipping points. This paper provides recommendations on how to model temporary carbon storage...

  9. Perceptual factors contribute more than acoustic factors to sound localization abilities with virtual sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eAndeol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human sound localization abilities rely on binaural and spectral cues. Spectral cues arise from interactions between the sound wave and the listener’s body (head related transfer function, HRTF. Large individual differences were reported in localization abilities, even in young normal-hearing adults. Several studies have attempted to determine whether localization abilities depend mostly on acoustic cues or on perceptual processes involved in the analysis of these cues. These studies have yielded inconsistent findings, which could result from methodological issues. Here, we measured sound localization performance with normal and modified acoustic cues (i.e., with individual and non-individual HRTFs, respectively in 20 naïve listeners. Test conditions were chosen to address most methodological issues from past studies. Procedural training was provided prior to sound localization tests. The results showed no direct relationship between behavioral results and an acoustical metric (spectral-shape prominence of individual HRTFs. Despite uncertainties due to technical issues with the normalization of the HRTFs, large acoustic differences between individual and non-individual HRTFs seemed to be needed to produce behavioral effects. A subset of 15 listeners then trained in the sound localization task with individual HRTFs. Training included either visual correct-answer feedback (for the test group or no feedback (for the control group, and was assumed to elicit perceptual learning for the test group only. Few listeners from the control group, but most listeners from the test group, showed significant training-induced learning. For the test group, learning was related to pre-training performance (the poorer the pre-training performance, the greater the learning amount and was retained after one month.The results are interpreted as being in favor of a larger contribution of perceptual factors than of acoustic factors to sound localization abilities

  10. Contribution to activity: a lens for understanding students' potential and agency in physics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi, Sanaz

    2017-03-01

    In this paper I argue for using the concept of contribution to activity to understand student engagement with science education and its transformational potential in formal settings. Drawing on transformative activist stance, I explain contribution as how individuals take part in and transform collective practices according to their own life agendas and get transformed themselves. As contribution to science education is a concept based on transformation, not adaptation, it can be especially informative when examining how underrepresented students in science can be more engaged in science education and eventually science. Using survey, interview and group conversations, and field observations in an undergraduate physics course, I put forward Zoey's case to illustrate my argument and show how her contribution to the activities in the course initiated change in the activity among her peers.

  11. Transgenic Nonhuman Primate Models for Human Diseases: Approaches and Contributing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongchang Chen; Yuyu Niu; Weizhi Ji

    2012-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) provide powerful experimental models to study human development,cognitive functions and disturbances as well as complex behavior,because of their genetic and physiological similarities to humans.Therefore,NHPs are appropriate models for the study of human diseases,such as neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's,Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases,which occur as a result of genetic mutations.However,such diseass afflicting humans do not occur naturally in NHPs.So transgenic NHPs need to be established to understand the etiology of disease pathology and pathogenesis.Compared to rodent genetic models,the generation of transgenic NHPs for human diseases is inefficient,and only a transgenic monkey model for Huntington's disease has been reported.This review focuses on potential approaches and contributing factors for generating transgenic NHPs to study human diseases.

  12. Microscopic formulation of medium contributions to the first-order optical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, C. R.; Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R. M.

    1993-12-01

    A refinement of the first-order optical potential is introduced, consistent with multiple scattering theory and the spectator expansion. A systematic formalism is presented to treat medium contributions associated with the difference between the effective NN t matrix as required by multiple scattering theory and the free NN t matrix. A mean field potential is used to represent the action of the residual (A-1) nucleus upon the struck target nucleon (medium effects). We calculate elastic proton and neutron scattering from 40Ca, using the full Bonn interaction and two different mean field potentials taken from realistic and proven nuclear structure models. Results indicate that the medium contributions are insignificant at energies above 300 MeV and provide a significant improvement of the theoretical predictions for laboratory energies between 48 and 200 MeV.

  13. Microscopic formulation of medium contributions to the first-order optical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, C.R. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States) Center for Computationally Intensive Physics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)); Elster, C. (Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States)); Thaler, R.M. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States) Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States))

    1993-12-01

    A refinement of the first-order optical potential is introduced, consistent with multiple scattering theory and the spectator expansion. A systematic formalism is presented to treat medium contributions associated with the difference between the effective [ital NN] [ital t] matrix as required by multiple scattering theory and the free [ital NN] [ital t] matrix. A mean field potential is used to represent the action of the residual ([ital A][minus]1) nucleus upon the struck target nucleon (medium effects). We calculate elastic proton and neutron scattering from [sup 40]Ca, using the full Bonn interaction and two different mean field potentials taken from realistic and proven nuclear structure models. Results indicate that the medium contributions are insignificant at energies above 300 MeV and provide a significant improvement of the theoretical predictions for laboratory energies between 48 and 200 MeV.

  14. E-Prescribing Errors in Community Pharmacies: Exploring Consequences and Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore types of e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies and their potential consequences, as well as the factors that contribute to e-prescribing errors. Methods Data collection involved performing 45 total hours of direct observations in five pharmacies. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 20 study participants. Transcripts from observations and interviews were subjected to content analysis using NVivo 10. Results Pharmacy staff detected 75 e-prescription errors during the 45 hour observation in pharmacies. The most common e-prescribing errors were wrong drug quantity, wrong dosing directions, wrong duration of therapy, and wrong dosage formulation. Participants estimated that 5 in 100 e-prescriptions have errors. Drug classes that were implicated in e-prescribing errors were antiinfectives, inhalers, ophthalmic, and topical agents. The potential consequences of e-prescribing errors included increased likelihood of the patient receiving incorrect drug therapy, poor disease management for patients, additional work for pharmacy personnel, increased cost for pharmacies and patients, and frustrations for patients and pharmacy staff. Factors that contribute to errors included: technology incompatibility between pharmacy and clinic systems, technology design issues such as use of auto-populate features and dropdown menus, and inadvertently entering incorrect information. Conclusion Study findings suggest that a wide range of e-prescribing errors are encountered in community pharmacies. Pharmacists and technicians perceive that causes of e-prescribing errors are multidisciplinary and multifactorial, that is to say e-prescribing errors can originate from technology used in prescriber offices and pharmacies. PMID:24657055

  15. The contribution of endogenous and exogenous factors to male alopecia: a study of identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatherwright, James; Liu, Mengyuan T; Amirlak, Bardia; Gliniak, Christy; Totonchi, Ali; Guyuron, Bahman

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of environmental factors and testosterone on male alopecia. Ninety-two identical male twins were recruited from 2009 to 2011. A comprehensive questionnaire was completed followed by the acquisition of sputum samples for testosterone analysis and standardized digital photography. Frontal, temporal, and vertex hair loss was assessed from these photographs. Hair loss was then correlated with survey responses and testosterone levels between twin pairs. Two independent, blinded observers also rated the photographs for hair thinning. Increased smoking duration (p money spent on hair loss products (p = 0.050) were all associated with increased temporal hair loss. Daily hat use (p = 0.050), higher body mass index (p = 0.012), and higher testosterone levels (p = 0.040) were associated with decreased temporal hair loss. Factors that were significantly associated with increased vertex hair loss included abstinence from alcohol consumption (p = 0.030), consumption of more than four alcoholic drinks per week (p = 0.004), increased smoking duration (p = 0.047), increased exercise duration (p = 0.050), and increased stress duration (p = 0.010). Lower body mass index, more children, increased caffeine consumption, history of skin disease, and abstinence from alcohol were significantly associated with increased hair thinning scores (p exogenous factors may have a clinically significant impact on hair loss. Risk, III.

  16. Endotoxin levels and contribution factors of endotoxins in resident, school, and office environments - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Laitinen, Sirpa; Clifford, Sam; Mikkola, Raimo; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-10-01

    As endotoxin exposure has known effects on human health, it is important to know the generally existing levels of endotoxins as well as their contributing factors. This work reviews current knowledge on the endotoxin loads in settled floor dust, concentrations of endotoxins in indoor air, and different environmental factors potentially affecting endotoxin levels. The literature review consists of peer-reviewed manuscripts located using Google and PubMed, with search terms based on individual words and combinations. References from relevant articles have also been searched. Analysis of the data showed that in residential, school, and office environments, the mean endotoxin loads in settled floor dust varied between 660 and 107,000 EU/m2, 2180 and 48,000 EU/m2, and 2700 and 12,890 EU/m2, respectively. Correspondingly, the mean endotoxin concentrations in indoor air varied between 0.04 and 1610 EU/m3 in residences, and 0.07 and 9.30 EU/m3 in schools and offices. There is strong scientific evidence indicating that age of houses (or housing unit year category), cleaning, farm or rural living, flooring materials (the presence of carpets), number of occupants, the presence of dogs or cats indoors, and relative humidity affect endotoxin loads in settled floor dust. The presence of pets (especially dogs) was extremely strongly associated with endotoxin concentrations in indoor air. However, as reviewed articles show inconsistency, additional studies on these and other possible predicting factors are needed.

  17. Searching for the Final Answer: Factors Contributing to Medication Administration Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Tess M.

    2001-01-01

    Causal factors contributing to errors in medication administration should be thoroughly investigated, focusing on systems rather than individual nurses. Unless systemic causes are addressed, many errors will go unreported for fear of reprisal. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)

  18. Factors Contribute to Safety Culture in the Manufacturing Industry in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ong Choon Hee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of safety culture in the manufacturing industry in Malaysia and identify factors contribute to safety culture. It is suggested in this study that leadership support, management commitment and safety management system are important factors that contribute to safety culture. This study also provides theoretical implications to guide future research and offers practical implications to the managers in the development of safety culture. Given that ...

  19. Key Factors Contributing The Succes of Informal Sector Business Owners In Makssar

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    - The purposess of this research are to investigate the key factors contributed to the informal sector businesses success how the key factors formed and how unique the key factaors contributed to daily profit The researh was undertaken in Makassar City South Sulawesi Indonesia by asking 450 respondent using listed indicators mentioned in questionmaires observasing the informal sector bussiness in several street in Makassar and asking the participants to list the importan indicators which a...

  20. Expression of elongation factor-2 kinase contributes to anoikis resistance and invasion of human glioma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHANG; Yi ZHANG; Xiao-yuan LIU; Zheng-hong QIN; Jin-ming YANG

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2 kinase) contributes to the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma multiforme by promoting the migration and invasion of glioma cells. The mechanism involved was also explored.Methods: Human glioma cell lines T98G and LN-229 were used. The expression of eEF-2 kinase was silenced using siRNA, and the invasive potential of tumor cells was assessed using a wound-healing assay and a Matrigel invasion assay. Apoptosis was determined using propidium iodide (PI) staining and Western blot analysis of cleaved caspase-3.Results: Silencing the expression of eEF-2 kinase by siRNA significantly suppressed both the migration and invasion of human glioma cells. Silencing eEF-2 kinase expression also sensitized glioma cells to anoikis, thereby decreasing tumor cell viability in the absence of attachment. Treatment of tumor cells with the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk down-regulated Bim accumulation and abolished glioma cell sensitivity to anoikis.Conclusion: The results suggest that the expression of eEF-2 kinase contributes to migration and invasion of human glioma cells by protecting them from anoikis. eEF-2 kinase expression may serve as a prognostic marker and a novel target for cancer therapy.

  1. Concentrating solar power. Its potential contribution to a sustainable energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This report summarises the findings and recommendations of a study of concentrating solar power (CSP). The study has examined the potential contribution of CSP in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (the MENA region) over the period to 2050, and the scientific and technical developments that will be required to realise that potential. This study critically reviews existing work and describes the scientific consensus on the status and prospects of this technology. It also identifies key outstanding issues and where knowledge gaps need to be filled for CSP to fulfil its potential contribution in Europe and the MENA region. Based on these findings, the study makes recommendations on how to improve national and European support programmes for CSP development and deployment. Specific aims of the study have been the following: (1) to review the current status of CSP technologies and identify the technological developments and research and development (R and D) needed to achieve reliable operation and cost competitiveness with fossil fuelled electricity generation; (2) to consider how issues associated with the intermittent nature of CSP for electricity generation due to the daily pattern of insolation and the potential for cloudy days can best be addressed; (3) to identify the environmental impacts and infrastructure requirements of CSP, and comment on the significance of these in relation to other options for electricity supply; and, consequently, (4) to develop a view of the potential contribution that CSP located in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa could make to the energy mix in those regions by 2020 and 2050. This report focuses primarily on the generation of electricity from CSP, but it is recognised that there are other potentially significant 'products' from CSP such as process steam for industry, water desalination, alternative energy carriers such as hydrogen and syngas, and decontamination of water supplies. Although not discussed in

  2. Radiative contribution to the effective potential in a composite Higgs model

    CERN Document Server

    DeGrand, T A; Jay, W I; Neil, E T; Shamir, Y; Svetitsky, B

    2016-01-01

    The SU(4) gauge theory with two flavors of Dirac fermions in the sextet representation shares features of a candidate for a composite Higgs model. The analogue of the Higgs multiplet of the Standard Model lives in the Goldstone manifold resulting from spontaneous breaking of the global symmetry SU(4) to SO(4). The Higgs potential arises from interaction with the particles of the Standard Model. We have computed the gauge boson contribution to the Higgs potential, using valence overlap fermions on a Wilson-clover sea. The calculation is similar to that of the electromagnetic mass splitting of the pion multiplet in QCD.

  3. The Potential Contribution of Phytoestrogens and Organochlorine Pesticides in an Experimental Fish Diet to Estrogenic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Munekazu; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Ushijima, Marie; Inudo, Makiko; Honda, Eiko; IWAHARA, Masayoshi; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Arizono, Koji

    2005-01-01

    Phytoestrogens and organochlorine pesticides in the diet of laboratory animals are a possible source of interference in bioassays that assess estrogenic activity. In the present study, we investigated the levels of dietary phytoestrogens, organochlorine pesticides and the estrogenic activity of various diets for an experimental fish and discuss the potential contribution of these substances to estrogenic activity, in comparison with those used in previous studies. After hydrolysis with β-gluc...

  4. Kinetic and Potential Sputtering of Lunar Regolith: Contribution of Solar-Wind Heavy Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. W.; Harris, P. R.; Meyer, H. M., III; Hijiazi, H.; Barghouty, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Sputtering of lunar regolith by protons as well as solar-wind heavy ions is considered. From preliminary measurements of H+, Ar+1, Ar+6 and Ar+9 ion sputtering of JSC-1A AGGL lunar regolith simulant at solar wind velocities, and TRIM simulations of kinetic sputtering yields, the relative contributions of kinetic and potential sputtering contributions are estimated. An 80-fold enhancement of oxygen sputtering by Ar+ over same-velocity H+, and an additional x2 increase for Ar+9 over same-velocity Ar+ was measured. This enhancement persisted to the maximum fluences investigated is approximately 1016/cm (exp2). Modeling studies including the enhanced oxygen ejection by potential sputtering due to the minority heavy ion multicharged ion solar wind component, and the kinetic sputtering contribution of all solar wind constituents, as determined from TRIM sputtering simulations, indicate an overall 35% reduction of near-surface oxygen abundance. XPS analyses of simulant samples exposed to singly and multicharged Ar ions show the characteristic signature of reduced (metallic) Fe, consistent with the preferential ejection of oxygen atoms that can occur in potential sputtering of some metal oxides.

  5. Phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens in surface waters--Their sources, occurrence, and potential contribution to estrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarošová, Barbora; Javůrek, Jakub; Adamovský, Ondřej; Hilscherová, Klára

    2015-08-01

    This review discusses the potential contribution of phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens to in vitro estrogenic activities occurring in surface waters and in vivo estrogenic effects in fish. Main types, sources, and pathways of entry into aquatic environment of these detected compounds were summarized. Reviewed concentrations of phyto/mycoestrogens in surface waters were mostly undetectable or in low ng/L ranges, but exceeded tens of μg/L for the flavonoids biochanin A, daidzein and genistein at some sites. While a few phytosterols were reported to occur at relatively high concentrations in surface waters, information about their potencies in in vitro systems is very limited, and contradictory in some cases. The relative estrogenic activities of compounds (compared to standard estrogen 17β-estradiol) by various in vitro assays were included, and found to differ by orders of magnitude. These potencies were used to estimate total potential estrogenic activities based on chemical analyses of phyto/mycoestrogens. In vivo effective concentrations of waterborne phyto/mycoestrogens were available only for biochanin A, daidzein, formononetin, genistein, equol, sitosterol, and zearalenone. The lowest observable effect concentrations in vivo were reported for the mycoestrogen zearalenone. This compound and especially its metabolites also elicited the highest in vitro estrogenic potencies. Despite the limited information available, the review documents low contribution of phyto/mycoestrogens to estrogenic activity in vast majority of surface waters, but significant contribution to in vitro responses and potentially also to in vivo effects in areas with high concentrations.

  6. Incidence and potential risk factors of obesity among Tehranian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Mirbolouk, Mohammadhassan; Mossadeghkhah, Ali; Barzin, Maryam; Serahati, Sara; Delshad, Hossein; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the incidence of obesity and its risk factors among Tehranian adults. In this population-based cohort, non-obese participants, aged ≥20years, were followed for development of obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥30). Incidence density and cumulative incidence rates of obesity were calculated for each sex. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the association of potential obesity risk factors including: age, BMI, metabolic syndrome, waist circumference (WC), smoking, marital status, education, and physical activity. A total of 7257 participants (3536 men) were followed for a median of 8years. At baseline, mean age, BMI and WC were 41.3±14.6years, 25.1±2.9kg/m(2) (24.9±3kg/m(2) men and 25.2±3kg/m(2) women), and 84.8±9.8cm (87.06±9.2cm men and 82.6±9.9cm women) respectively. During the follow-up, 1345 participants (876 women) developed obesity contributing to cumulative incidences of 31.3% (CI: 29.9%-32.7%), 38.1% (CI: 36.2%-40.1%), and 23.4% (CI: 21.6%-25.3%) for the whole population, women, and men, respectively. Corresponding incidence density rates per 1000 person-year were 25.9 (CI: 24.5-27.3), 33.67 (CI: 31.5-36.0), and 18.0 (CI: 16.5-19.7), respectively. Highest incidence rates were observed during their 40s and 20s for women and men, respectively. Participants with metabolic syndrome, lower educational level, higher BMI and WC, were at higher risk of obesity development in both sexes. High incidence of obesity was observed among Tehranian adults with higher incidence of obesity in women. Different modifiable variables may act as risk factors for obesity development which should be targeted to control the epidemic of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Factorization and infrared properties of non-perturbative contributions to DIS structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolaev, B.I. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Greco, M. [University Roma Tre, Department of Physics (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy); Troyan, S.I. [St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    In this paper we present a new derivation of QCD factorization. We deduce the k{sub T} and collinear factorizations for the DIS structure functions by consecutive reductions of a more general theoretical construction. We begin by studying the amplitude of forward Compton scattering off a hadron target, representing this amplitude as a set of convolutions of two blobs connected by the simplest, two-parton intermediate states. Each blob in the convolutions can contain both the perturbative and non-perturbative contributions. We formulate conditions for separating the perturbative and non-perturbative contributions and attributing them to the different blobs. After that the convolutions correspond to QCD factorization. Then we reduce this totally unintegrated (basic) factorization first to k{sub T} -factorization and finally to collinear factorization. In order to yield a finite expression for the Compton amplitude, the integration over the loop momentum in the basic factorization must be free of both ultraviolet and infrared singularities. This obvious mathematical requirement leads to theoretical restrictions on the non-perturbative contributions (parton distributions) to the Compton amplitude and the DIS structure functions related to the Compton amplitude through the Optical Theorem. In particular, our analysis excludes the use of the singular factors x{sup -a} (with a >0) in the fits for the quark and gluon distributions because such factors contradict the integrability of the basic convolutions for the Compton amplitude. This restriction is valid for all DIS structure functions in the framework of both k{sub T} -factorization and collinear factorization if we attribute the perturbative contributions only to the upper blob. The restrictions on the non-perturbative contributions obtained in the present paper can easily be extended to other QCD processes where the factorization is exploited. (orig.)

  8. The contributions of risk factor trends and medical care to cardiovascular mortality trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzati, Majid; Obermeyer, Ziad; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Mayosi, Bongani M; Elliott, Paul; Leon, David A

    2016-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are responsible for an estimated 17.5 million annual deaths in the world. If account is taken of population aging, death rates from CVDs are estimated to be steadily decreasing in the world as a whole, and in regions with reliable trend data. The declines in high-income countries and some countries in Latin America have been ongoing for decades with no indication of slowing. In high-income countries, these positive trends have broadly coincided with, and benefited from, declines in smoking and physiological risk factors like blood pressure and serum cholesterol. Improvements in medical care, including effective primary prevention through management of physiological risk factors, better diagnosis and treatment of acute CVDs, and post-hospital care of those with prior CVDs, are also likely to have contributed to declining CVD event and death rates, especially in the past 40 years. However, the measured risk factor and treatment variables neither explain why the decline began when it did, nor much of the similarities and differences in the start time and rate of the decline across countries or between men and women. There have been sharp changes and fluctuations in CVDs in the former communist countries of Europe and the Soviet Union since the fall of communism in the early 1990s, with changes in volume and patterns of alcohol drinking, as a major cause of the rise in Russia and some other former Soviet countries. The challenge of reaching more definitive conclusions concerning the drivers of what constitutes one of the most remarkable international trends in adult mortality in the past half-century in part reflects the paucity of time trend data not only on disease incidence, risk factors, and clinical care, but also on other potential drivers, including infection and associated inflammatory processes throughout the lifecourse. PMID:26076950

  9. Fatigue in patients receiving maintenance dialysis: a review of definitions, measures, and contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhamb, Manisha; Weisbord, Steven D; Steel, Jennifer L; Unruh, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Fatigue is a debilitating symptom or side effect experienced by many patients on long-term dialysis therapy. Fatigue has a considerable effect on patient health-related quality of life and is viewed as being more important than survival by some patients. Renal providers face many challenges when attempting to reduce fatigue in dialysis patients. The lack of a reliable, valid, and sensitive fatigue scale complicates the accurate identification of this symptom. Symptoms of daytime sleepiness and depression overlap with fatigue, making it difficult to target specific therapies. Moreover, many chronic health conditions common in the long-term dialysis population may lead to the development of fatigue and contribute to the day-to-day and diurnal variation in fatigue in patients. Key to improving the assessment and treatment of fatigue is improving our understanding of potential mediators, as well as potential therapies. Cytokines have emerged as an important mediator of fatigue and have been studied extensively in patients with cancer-related fatigue. In addition, although erythropoietin-stimulating agents have been shown to mitigate fatigue, the recent controversy regarding erythropoietin-stimulating agent dosing in patients with chronic kidney disease suggests that erythropoietin-stimulating agent therapy may not serve as the sole therapy to improve fatigue in this population. In conclusion, fatigue is an important and often underrecognized symptom in the dialysis population. Possible interventions for minimizing fatigue in patients on long-term dialysis therapy should aim at improving health care provider awareness, developing improved methods of measurement, understanding the pathogenesis better, and managing known contributing factors.

  10. Professional behaviours and factors contributing to nursing professionalism among nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Michiko; Taketomi, Kikuko; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu; Kawamoto, Rieko

    2016-01-01

    To examine the perception of professional behaviours and factors contributing to nursing professionalism among nurse managers. Professional behaviours influence nursing professionalisation and managers' behaviours strongly impact professional development. In Japan, few studies have examined professional nursing behaviours from the nurse managers' perspective. The Behavioural Inventory for Professionalism in Nursing was performed with 525 nurse managers representing 15 facilities in Japan. The highest professional behaviours score obtained was 'competence and continuing education' and the lowest behavioural score was 'publication and communication'. The results demonstrate that higher nursing professionalism is related significantly to the increased length of nursing experience, a higher level of educational preparation and the current position as a nurse administrator. This study demonstrated that nursing professionalism is influenced by years of experience and nursing management education. Awareness of extrinsic professional factors is important continually to maintain nursing professionalism. The findings of our study may help nurse managers to continue their self-development and to realise the potential of their nursing staff by developing professionalism. These findings also provide an understanding of international professionalism trends to achieve higher levels of nursing professionalism through the evaluation of professional nursing behaviours. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Exactly Solvable Hydrogen-like Potentials and Factorization Method

    CERN Document Server

    Rosas-Ortiz, J O

    1998-01-01

    It is introduced a set of factorization energies giving place to a generalization of the Schrödinger and Infeld-Hull factorization for the radial Hydrogen-like Hamiltonian. An algebraic intertwinning technique involving such factorization energies leads us to derive $n$-parametric families of potentials in general almost-isospectral to the Hydrogen-like radial Hamiltonians. The construction of a SUSY partner Hamiltonian using a factorization energy $\\epsilon_l^{(k)}$ greater than the ground state energy of the departure Hamiltonian is explicitely performed.

  12. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  13. Factors Contributing to Teachers' Use of Computer Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein

    2013-01-01

    There are many factors for teachers to use computer technology in their classrooms. The goal of this study is to identify some of the important factors contributing the teachers' use of computer technology. The first goal of this paper is to discuss computer self-efficacy. The second goal is to explain teaching experience. The third goal is to…

  14. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  15. η′-g*-g transition form factor with gluon content contribution tested

    OpenAIRE

    Muta, Taizo; Yang, Mao-Zhi

    2000-01-01

    We study the η′-g*-g transition form factor by using the η′ wave function constrained by the experimental data on the η′-γ*-γ transition form factor provided by CLEO and L3. We also take into account the contribution of the possible gluonic content of the η′ meson.

  16. $\\eta'-g^*-g$ Transition Form Factor with Gluon Content Contribution Tested

    OpenAIRE

    Muta, Taizo; Yang, Mao-Zhi

    1999-01-01

    We study the $\\eta'-g^*-g$ transition form factor by using the $\\eta'$ wave function constrained by the experimental data on the $\\eta'-\\gamma^*-\\gamma$ transition form factor provided by CLEO and L3 . We also take into account the contribution of the possible gluonic content of the $\\eta'$ meson.

  17. $\\eta'-g*-g$ Transition Form Factor with Gluon Content Contribution Tested

    CERN Document Server

    Muta, T; Muta, Taizo; Yang, Mao-Zhi

    2000-01-01

    We study the $\\eta'-g^*-g$ transition form factor by using the $\\eta'$ wave function constrained by the experimental data on the $\\eta'-\\gamma^*-\\gamma$ transition form factor provided by CLEO and L3 . We also take into account the contribution of the possible gluonic content of the $\\eta'$ meson.

  18. Contribution of the risk factor concept to patient care in coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.

    1983-01-01

    This article deals with the question of whether or not the risk factor concept, a principal aspect of preventive cardiology, has contributed to patient care in coronary heart disease. The risk factors considered are plasma cholesterol, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes and marked obesity. With

  19. Fine root branch orders contribute differentially to uptake, allocation, and return of potentially toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-Ying; Wang, Jun-Jian; Kong, De-Liang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Da-Li; Wang, Yan-Bing; Xie, Qing-Long; Liu, Yang-Sheng; Zeng, Hui

    2013-10-15

    Growing evidence has revealed high heterogeneity of fine root networks in both structure and function, with different root orders corporately maintaining trees' physiological activities. However, little information is available on how fine root heterogeneity of trees responds to environmental stresses. We examined concentrations of seven potentially toxic metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) within fine root networks and their correlations with root morphological and macro-elemental traits in six Chinese subtropical trees. The contributions of different orders of roots to fine-root metal storage and return were also estimated. Results showed no consistent pattern for the correlation among different metal concentration against root traits. Unlike root metal concentration that generally decreased with root order, root metal storage was commonly lowest in middle root orders. Root senescence was at least comparable to leaf senescence contributing to metal removal. Although the first-order roots constituted 7.2-22.3% of total fine root biomass, they disproportionately contributed to most of metal return fluxes via root senescence. The two distinct root functional modules contributed differentially to metal uptake, allocation, and return, with defensive (lower-order) roots effectively stabilizing and removing toxic metals and bulk buffering (higher-order) roots possessing a persistent but diluted metal pool. Our results suggest a strong association of physiological functions of metal detoxification and metal homeostasis with the structural heterogeneity in fine root architecture.

  20. The contribution of electrical synapses to field potential oscillations in the hippocampal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posłuszny, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Electrical synapses are a type of cellular membrane junction referred to as gap junctions (GJs). They provide a direct way to exchange ions between coupled cells and have been proposed as a structural basis for fast transmission of electrical potentials between neurons in the brain. For this reason GJs have been regarded as an important component within the neuronal networks that underlie synchronous neuronal activity and field potential oscillations. Initially, GJs appeared to play a particularly key role in the generation of high frequency oscillatory patterns in field potentials. In order to assess the scale of neuronal GJs contribution to field potential oscillations in the hippocampal formation, in vivo and in vitro studies are reviewed here. These investigations have shown that blocking the main neuronal GJs, those containing connexin 36 (Cx36-GJs), or knocking out the Cx36 gene affect field potential oscillatory patterns related to awake active behavior (gamma and theta rhythm) but have no effect on high frequency oscillations occurring during silent wake and sleep. Precisely how Cx36-GJs influence population activity of neurons is more complex than previously thought. Analysis of studies on the properties of transmission through GJ channels as well as Cx36-GJs functioning in pairs of coupled neurons provides some explanations of the specific influence of Cx36-GJs on field potential oscillations. It is proposed here that GJ transmission is strongly modulated by the level of neuronal network activity and changing behavioral states. Therefore, contribution of GJs to field potential oscillatory patterns depends on the behavioral state. I propose here a model, based on large body of experimental data gathered in this field by several authors, in which Cx36-GJ transmission especially contributes to oscillations related to active behavior, where it plays a role in filtering and enhancing coherent signals in the network under high-noise conditions. In contrast

  1. Factors influencing knowledge contribution:An empirical investigation of social networking website users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengli; DENG; Ting; ZHOU; Min; ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:In the Web 2.0 era,leveraging the collective power of user knowledge contributions has become an important part of the study of collective intelligence.This research aims to investigate the factors which influence knowledge contribution behavior of social networking sites(SNS)users.Design/methodology/approach:The data were obtained from an online survey of 251 social networking sites users.Structural equation modeling analysis was used to validate the proposed model.Findings:Our survey shows that the individuals’motivation for knowledge contribution,their capability of contributing knowledge,interpersonal trust and their own habits positively influence their knowledge contribution behavior,but reward does not significantly influence knowledge contribution in the online virtual community.Research limitations:Respondents of our online survey are mainly undergraduate and graduate students.A limited sample group cannot represent all of the population.A larger survey involving more SNS users may be useful.Practical implications:The results have provided some theoretical basis for promoting knowledge contribution and user viscosity.Originality/value:Few studies have investigated the impact of social influence and user habits on knowledge contribution behavior of SNS users.This study can make a theoretical contribution by examining how the social influence processes and habits affect one’s knowledge contribution behavior using online communities.

  2. Potential contribution of wind farms to damp oscillations in weak grids with high wind penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R.D. [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, P.O. Box 91, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Mantz, R.J. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CICpba) (Argentina); Battaiotto, P.E. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina)

    2008-08-15

    In Argentinean Patagonia, there exists a growing interest in understanding local problems associated with the increasing of wind energy penetration in the grid. Recent papers show that some of these power quality problems can be reduced by the proper control of the wind farms. In this way, this work deals with the impact and potential contribution of wind generation on the damping of the electromechanical oscillations called inter- and intra-area oscillations. For gaining qualitative insights and understandings on this complex subject, a test system that allows to isolate the oscillations modes is considered. The analysis shows that new control concepts for wind farm can efficiently contribute to the power system damping. (author)

  3. Global Economic Effects of USA Biofuel Policy and the Potential Contribution from Advanced Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbadebo Oladosu; Keith Kline; Paul Leiby; Rocio Uria-Martinez; Maggie Davis; Mark Downing; Laurence Eaton

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the global economic effects of the USA renewable fuel standards (RFS2), and the potential contribution from advanced biofuels. Our simulation results imply that these mandates lead to an increase of 0.21 percent in the global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2022, including an increase of 0.8 percent in the USA and 0.02 percent in the rest of the world (ROW); relative to our baseline, no-RFS scenario. The incremental contributions to GDP from advanced biofuels in 2022 are estimated at 0.41 percent and 0.04 percent in the USA and ROW, respectively. Although production costs of advanced biofuels are higher than for conventional biofuels in our model, their economic benefits result from reductions in oil use, and their smaller impacts on food markets compared with conventional biofuels. Thus, the USA advanced biofuels targets are expected to have positive economic benefits.

  4. Factorization and infrared properties of non-perturbative contributions to DIS structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ermolaev, B I; Troyan, S I

    2010-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the non-perturbative components of the hadronic scattering amplitudes and the DIS structure functions are not usually obtained from theoretical considerations, but are introduced phenomenologically by fitting the data. We derive some restrictions for such contributions from the general concepts of factorization and integrability. These restrictions are obtained in the context of both k_T and collinear factorizations. We also show that the use of the collinear factorization basically makes the DIS structure functions be dependent on the factorization scale. Our analysis shows that singular factors of the type x^{-a} in the initial parton densities can be used for the singlet component of the structure function F_1, provided a <1, but excludes the use of them for the other structure functions. The restrictions for the non-perturbative contributions we obtain can also be applied to other QCD reactions at high energies.

  5. Contributing factors in restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks, FoodNet sites, 2006 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L Hannah; Rosenblum, Ida; Nicholas, David; Phan, Quyen; Jones, Timothy F

    2013-11-01

    An estimated 48 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year in the United States, resulting in approximately 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Over half of all foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are associated with eating in restaurants or delicatessens. We reviewed data from restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks to better understand the factors that contribute to these outbreaks. Data on restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported by sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were analyzed to characterize contributing factors reported in foodborne disease outbreaks and the levels of evidence used to identify these factors. Of 457 foodborne disease outbreaks reported in 2006 and 2007 by FoodNet sites, 300 (66%) were restaurant associated, and of these 295 (98%) had at least one reported contributing factor. One to nine (with a median of two) contributing factors were reported per outbreak. Of the 257 outbreaks with a single etiology reported, contributing factors associated with food worker health and hygiene were reported for 165 outbreaks (64%), factors associated with food preparation practices within the establishment were reported for 88 outbreaks (34%), and factors associated with contamination introduced before reaching the restaurant were reported for 56 outbreaks (22%). The pronounced role of food workers in propagating outbreaks makes it clear that more work is needed to address prevention at the local level. Food workers should be instructed not to prepare food while ill to prevent the risk of transmitting pathogens.

  6. Factors contributing to popularity of loyalty programs: evidence from emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yan; Zhijian, Cui

    2016-01-01

    Using secondary data from multiple sources, this study empirically examines the factors that contribute to the popularity of loyalty programs in the airline and hotel industries in the context of emerging market economies. We find that the number of partners, the number of redemption options, and the threshold for obtaining elite status all positively contribute to a loyalty program’s popularity. However, the award redemption requirement has the opposite effects on a program’s pop...

  7. Risk factors for potential drug interactions in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lars; Gonzalez Lopez-Valcarcel, Beatriz; Petersen, Gert

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacoepidemiologic Database, OPED) covering prescriptions to all inhabitants in the county of Funen, Denmark. All individuals exposed to concurrent use of two or more drugs (polypharmacy) were identified. Combinations of drugs with potential interactions were registered and classified as major, moderate, or minor......, depending on the severity of outcome and the quality of documentation. A two-level random coefficient logistic regression model was used to investigate factors related to potential drug interactions. Results: One-third of the population was exposed to polypharmacy, and 6% were exposed to potential drug...

  8. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men. To this purpose, German-speaking male weight trainers (N = 248) completed an online survey to determine the extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to drive for muscularity and its related attitudes and behaviors. Using multiple regression models, findings showed that media ideal body internalization was the strongest positive predictor for drive for muscularity, while age (M = 25.9, SD = 7.4) held the strongest negative association with drive for muscularity. Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes. Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia. Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition

  9. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men. To this purpose, German-speaking male weight trainers (N = 248) completed an online survey to determine the extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to drive for muscularity and its related attitudes and behaviors. Using multiple regression models, findings showed that media ideal body internalization was the strongest positive predictor for drive for muscularity, while age (M = 25.9, SD = 7.4) held the strongest negative association with drive for muscularity. Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes. Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia. Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition

  10. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to... alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability (as described in §...

  11. Understanding the contribution of environmental factors in the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephanie

    2015-07-01

    The overuse and abuse of antibiotics have contributed to the global epidemic of antibiotic resistance. Current evidence suggests that widespread dependency on antibiotics and complex interactions between human health, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine, have contributed to the propagation and spread of resistant organisms. The lack of information on pathogens of major public health importance, limited surveillance, and paucity of standards for a harmonised and coordinated approach, further complicates the issue. Despite the widespread nature of antimicrobial resistance, limited focus has been placed on the role of environmental factors in propagating resistance. There are limited studies that examine the role of the environment, specifically water, sanitation and hygiene factors that contribute to the development of resistant pathogens. Understanding these elements is necessary to identify any modifiable interactions to reduce or interrupt the spread of resistance from the environment into clinical settings. This paper discusses some environmental issues that contribute to antimicrobial resistance, including soil related factors, animal husbandry and waste management, potable and wastewater, and food safety, with examples drawn mainly from the Asian region. The discussion concludes that some of the common issues are often overlooked and whilst there are numerous opportunities for environmental factors to contribute to the growing burden of antimicrobial resistance, a renewed focus on innovative and traditional environmental approaches is needed to tackle the problem.

  12. Rare taxa have potential to make metabolic contributions in enhanced biological phosphorus removal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Christopher E; Strachan, Blake J; Hanson, Niels W; Hahn, Aria S; Hall, Eric R; Rabinowitz, Barry; Mavinic, Donald S; Ramey, William D; Hallam, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) relies on diverse but specialized microbial communities to mediate the cycling and ultimate removal of phosphorus from municipal wastewaters. However, little is known about microbial activity and dynamics in relation to process fluctuations in EBPR ecosystems. Here, we monitored temporal changes in microbial community structure and potential activity across each bioreactor zone in a pilot-scale EBPR treatment plant by examining the ratio of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) to SSU rRNA gene (rDNA) over a 120 day study period. Although the majority of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the EBPR ecosystem were rare, many maintained high potential activities based on SSU rRNA : rDNA ratios, suggesting that rare OTUs contribute substantially to protein synthesis potential in EBPR ecosystems. Few significant differences in OTU abundance and activity were observed between bioreactor redox zones, although differences in temporal activity were observed among phylogenetically cohesive OTUs. Moreover, observed temporal activity patterns could not be explained by measured process parameters, suggesting that other ecological drivers, such as grazing or viral lysis, modulated community interactions. Taken together, these results point towards complex interactions selected for within the EBPR ecosystem and highlight a previously unrecognized functional potential among low abundance microorganisms in engineered ecosystems. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Factors contributing to ongoing intimate partner abuse: childhood betrayal trauma and dependence on one's perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Rebecca L; Deprince, Anne P

    2013-05-01

    Identifying the factors that contribute to ongoing intimate partner abuse (IPA) among survivors of childhood abuse is essential to developing appropriate interventions. The current study assessed prospectively whether childhood betrayal trauma (BT) history and women's potential dependence on their perpetrators (unemployment, number of children below 13) increased women's risk of ongoing victimization, while controlling for trauma-related symptoms (PTSD, depression, dissociation). Women survivors of IPA (N = 190) from an urban U.S. city were recruited based on an IPA incident reported to the police. At the initial interview, women reported on childhood betrayal trauma experiences, their employment status, number of children, and current trauma-related symptoms. Women returned 6 months later and reported on ongoing events of victimization (physical, sexual, psychological aggression, and injury) in their relationships with the initial IPA perpetrator. Results showed that higher levels of childhood BT were associated with ongoing victimization over the course of 6 months. Women's unemployment status predicted greater physical and sexual aggression and injuries. Higher levels of depression and lower levels of PTSD symptoms were also associated with increases in physical, sexual, and psychological aggression, and bodily injury. The findings have important implications for interventions by demonstrating the need to process women's betrayal trauma experiences, target depression symptoms, and increase women's economic opportunities to prevent further victimization.

  14. The contribution of interindividual factors to variability of response in transcranial direct current stimulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been an explosion of research using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS for investigating and modulating human cognitive and motor function in healthy populations. It has also been used in many studies seeking to improve deficits in disease populations. With the slew of studies reporting ‘promising results’ for everything from motor recovery after stroke to boosting memory function, one could be easily seduced by the idea of tDCS being the next panacea for all neurological ills. However, huge variability exists in the reported effects of tDCS, with great variability in the effect sizes and even contradictory results reported. In this review, we consider the interindividual factors that may contribute to this variability. In particular, we discuss the importance of baseline neuronal state and features, anatomy, age and the inherent variability in the injured brain. We additionally consider how interindividual variability affects the results of motor evoked potential (MEP testing with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, which, in turn, can lead to apparent variability in response to tDCS in motor studies.

  15. The Potential Contributions of Lethal and Edema Toxins to the Pathogenesis of Anthrax Associated Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Q. Eichacker

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of Bacillus anthracis in the US and Europe over the past 10 years have emphasized the health threat this lethal bacteria poses even for developed parts of the world. In contrast to cutaneous anthrax, inhalational disease in the US during the 2001 outbreaks and the newly identified injectional drug use form of disease in the UK and Germany have been associated with relatively high mortality rates. One notable aspect of these cases has been the difficulty in supporting patients once shock has developed. Anthrax bacilli produce several different components which likely contribute to this shock. Growing evidence indicates that both major anthrax toxins may produce substantial cardiovascular dysfunction. Lethal toxin (LT can alter peripheral vascular function; it also has direct myocardial depressant effects. Edema toxin (ET may have even more pronounced peripheral vascular effects than LT, including the ability to interfere with the actions of conventional vasopressors. Additionally, ET also appears capable of interfering with renal sodium and water retention. Importantly, the two toxins exert their actions via quite different mechanisms and therefore have the potential to worsen shock and outcome in an additive fashion. Finally, both toxins have the ability to inhibit host defense and microbial clearance, possibly contributing to the very high bacterial loads noted in patients dying with anthrax. This last point is clinically relevant since emerging data has begun to implicate other bacterial components such as anthrax cell wall in the shock and organ injury observed with infection. Taken together, accumulating evidence regarding the potential contribution of LT and ET to anthrax-associated shock supports efforts to develop adjunctive therapies that target both toxins in patients with progressive shock.

  16. Genetic Factors Influencing Coagulation Factor XIII B-Subunit Contribute to Risk of Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanscombe, Ken B; Traylor, Matthew; Hysi, Pirro G; Bevan, Stephen; Dichgans, Martin; Rothwell, Peter M; Worrall, Bradford B; Seshadri, Sudha; Sudlow, Cathie; Williams, Frances M K; Markus, Hugh S; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2015-08-01

    Abnormal coagulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, but how this association is mediated and whether it differs between ischemic stroke subtypes is unknown. We determined the shared genetic risk between 14 coagulation factors and ischemic stroke and its subtypes. Using genome-wide association study results for 14 coagulation factors from the population-based TwinsUK sample (N≈2000 for each factor), meta-analysis results from the METASTROKE consortium ischemic stroke genome-wide association study (12 389 cases, 62 004 controls), and genotype data for 9520 individuals from the WTCCC2 ischemic stroke study (3548 cases, 5972 controls-the largest METASTROKE subsample), we explored shared genetic risk for coagulation and stroke. We performed three analyses: (1) a test for excess concordance (or discordance) in single nucleotide polymorphism effect direction across coagulation and stroke, (2) an estimation of the joint effect of multiple coagulation-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in stroke, and (3) an evaluation of common genetic risk between coagulation and stroke. One coagulation factor, factor XIII subunit B (FXIIIB), showed consistent effects in the concordance analysis, the estimation of polygenic risk, and the validation with genotype data, with associations specific to the cardioembolic stroke subtype. Effect directions for FXIIIB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly discordant with cardioembolic disease (smallest P=5.7×10(-04)); the joint effect of FXIIIB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms was significantly predictive of ischemic stroke (smallest P=1.8×10(-04)) and the cardioembolic subtype (smallest P=1.7×10(-04)). We found substantial negative genetic covariation between FXIIIB and ischemic stroke (rG=-0.71, P=0.01) and the cardioembolic subtype (rG=-0.80, P=0.03). Genetic markers associated with low FXIIIB levels increase risk of ischemic stroke cardioembolic subtype. © 2015 The

  17. Contributing Factors to High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among Iranian Adolescent Girls: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoradi, Zainab; Kariman, Nourossadat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Adolescence is a period of overwhelming changes and challenges, which expose the adolescents to high-risk behaviors. Risky sexual relationship is one of these behaviors that entails physical risks and psychosocial harms. Various factors have been recognized to shape sexual behaviors in adolescents. This paper is an attempt to investigate the factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods: A literature review of the research published by Iranian authors, in Farsi or English language in local and foreign journals, was conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, IranDoc, and Google Scholar. The search in each database included all the years covered at that time using keywords such as “sexual, adolescents, and Iran”, and continued using other keywords such as “sexual behavior, high-risk behavior, sexual risk and reproductive behavior” individually and in combination Results: Sixteen published articles were identified. Factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in girls can be divided into four general groups including personal, family, peer, school and community. Conclusion: Regarding the identified risk and protective factors, appropriate individual, family and school-based interventions can be designed and implemented to strengthen protective factors. While individual and family factors are considered more in research, factors related to peers, school and community have received less attention. Since social values, beliefs and norms are important factors in formation of sexual behaviors, further research regarding these factors is suggested. PMID:28097173

  18. Factors contributing to poor glycaemic control in diabetic patients at Mopani District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. Shiluban

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is not only a major burden in the developed world, it is also an increasing health problem in less developed countries. Although health education could be a tool to achieve better glycaemic control, it is important to understand that health education should be adjusted to patients’ literacy, cultural environment and economic status. Among other factors, lack of money has an influence on the outcome of diabetes mellitus. Thus the purpose of the study is to identify factors contributing to poor glycaemia control in diabetic patients. Data was collected using self-report questionnaire on a convenient sample of 32 diabetic patients and unstructured, open-ended interviews on eight patients’ inorder to allow them freedom of expressing themselves with regard to factors that contribute to poor glycaemic control on diabetic patients. Data was then analysed using a computer program called Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The socioeconomic factors appeared to have significant influence on glycaemic control among participants, for instance 75% of the total subjects (32 indicated that they experienced problems of accessing health care services due to lack of money. Ignorance related to where to seek support system such as educational programme, and nutrition counselling were factors that were identified to contribute to diabetic patients’ poor glycaemia control.Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the Provincial Department of Health and the managers of the institutions where the study was conducted. Recommendations for dealing with the identified factors have been formulated.

  19. Factors contributing to poor glycaemic control in diabetic patients at Mopani District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Shilubane,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is not only a major burden in the developed world, it is also an increasing health problem in less developed countries. Although health education could be a tool to achieve better glycaemic control, it is important to understand that health education should be adjusted to patients’ literacy, cultural environment and economic status. Among other factors, lack of money has an influence on the outcome of diabetes mellitus. Thus the purpose of the study is to identify factors contributing to poor glycaemia control in diabetic patients. Data was collected using self-report questionnaire on a convenient sample of 32 diabetic patients and unstructured, open-ended interviews on eight patients’ inorder to allow them freedom of expressing themselves with regard to factors that contribute to poor glycaemic control on diabetic patients. Data was then analysed using a computer program called Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The socioeconomic factors appeared to have significant influence on glycaemic control among participants, for instance 75% of the total subjects (32 indicated that they experienced problems of accessing health care services due to lack of money. Ignorance related to where to seek support system such as educational programme, and nutrition counselling were factors that were identified to contribute to diabetic patients’ poor glycaemia control. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the Provincial Department of Health and the managers of the institutions where the study was conducted. Recommendations for dealing with the identified factors have been formulated.

  20. Wait Not, Want Not: Factors Contributing to the Development of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Trish

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to examine prevalence and incident rates of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In addition, this article will review the psychological and sociological factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of an eating disorder. Finally, different treatment approaches will be discussed in…

  1. Contributing Factors to Student Success in Anatomy and Physiology: Lower outside Workload and Better Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David E.; Hannum, Lynn; Gupta, Sat

    2004-01-01

    A study of students of a traditional two-semester Anatomy and Physiology class was made to determine factors that contributed to success in the coursework. The test established a co-relation between the amount of study in mathematics and science done previously in school and final grades in the subject.

  2. Factors Contributing to Perceived Stress among Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kentya C.; Olotu, Busuyi S.; Thach, Andrew V.; Roberts, Rochelle; Davis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to report on perceived stress levels, identify its contributing factors, and evaluate the association between perceived stress and usage of university resources to cope with stress among a cross-section of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods: Perceived stress was measured via a web-based survey of…

  3. Factors Contributing to Perceived Stress among Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kentya C.; Olotu, Busuyi S.; Thach, Andrew V.; Roberts, Rochelle; Davis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to report on perceived stress levels, identify its contributing factors, and evaluate the association between perceived stress and usage of university resources to cope with stress among a cross-section of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods: Perceived stress was measured via a web-based survey of…

  4. Contributing Factors on Malaysia Preschool Teachers' Belief, Attitude and Competence in Using Play Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, Hafsah Binti; Bin Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Yahya, Fauziah Hj; Saleh, Halimatussadiah Binti; Ong, Mohd Hanafi Bin Azman

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on preschool teachers' belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in using play in Malaysia. Its purpose is to find out indicators significantly contribute to belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in play of preschool teachers in Malaysia. The method used was factor analysis in order to confirm indicators in each variable…

  5. Motivational Factors Contributing to Turkish High School Students' Achievement in Gases and Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of motivational factors to 10th grade students' achievement in gases and chemical reactions in chemistry. Three hundred fifty nine 10th grade students participated in the study. The Gases and Chemical Reactions Achievement Test and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire were…

  6. Patient-perceived factors contributing to low tuberculosis cure rate at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-03

    Apr 3, 2014 ... Objectives: The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the factors contributing to low TB ..... treatment on an empty stomach I experience abdominal pains. I ..... org.za/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Chapter12.pdf ... in Pakistan', The Lancet 357(9257), 664–669. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-.

  7. Factors Contributing to the Success of Undergraduate Business Students in Management Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Robert G.; Palocsay, Susan W.

    2005-01-01

    The introductory management science (MS) course has historically been recognized as one of the most difficult core courses in the business school curriculum. This study uses multiple regression to examine the factors that contribute to the success of undergraduate business students in an MS course, based on data gathered from the college…

  8. Factors contributing to possession and use of walking aids among persons with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, M. van der; Heijmans, M.; Dekker, J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possession and use of walking aids among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis (OA), and to identify factors contributing to possession and actual use of these aids. METHODS: A random sample of 640 patients with RA or OA was derived from a database

  9. An Investigation into Factors Contributing to Iranian Secondary School English Teachers' Job Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodmand Afshar, Hassan; Doosti, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored factors contributing to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of male and female Iranian secondary school English teachers. A Likert-scale 58-item questionnaire was developed which was completed by 210 participants. The questionnaire also included three open-ended questions which investigated participants' motivation and…

  10. Wait Not, Want Not: Factors Contributing to the Development of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Trish

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to examine prevalence and incident rates of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In addition, this article will review the psychological and sociological factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of an eating disorder. Finally, different treatment approaches will be discussed in…

  11. Contributing Factors to Older Teen Mothers' Academic Success as Very Young Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jennifer; Abu Rabia, Hazza M.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the factors contributed to 13 older teen mothers' academic success as very young mothers. The participants were older teen mothers who were pregnant and gave birth at the age of 16 years old or younger, and who have achieved a college degree from an accredited college or university while they raised their…

  12. Factors Contributing to Student Engagement in an Instructional Facebook Group for Undergraduate Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter L.; Gregory, Karen M.; Eddy, Erik R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates factors contributing to student engagement in an educational Facebook group. The study is based on survey results of 138 undergraduate mathematics students at a highly diverse urban public university. Survey measures included engagement in the Facebook group, access to Facebook, comfort using technology, and interest in the…

  13. Subjective and Objective Evaluation of Hypertext Reading Performance: In-Depth Analysis of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Min-chen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of reading hypertext on EFL learners' reading comprehension and analysis of contributing factors. Eighty-eight students joined the study. They took two reading comprehension tests: Hypertext Version and Printed text Version. After the tests, they were asked to fill out a questionnaire of…

  14. Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

  15. Potential contribution of microbial communities in technical ceramics for the improvement of rheological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Bernardino; Miller, Ana Z.; Santos, Ricardo; Monteiro, Sílvia; Dias, Diamantino; Neves, Orquídia; Dionísio, Amélia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2014-05-01

    Several bacterial and fungal species naturally occurring in ceramic raw materials used in construction, such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Aureobasidium, are known to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS). These polymers excreted by the cells are of widespread occurrence and may confer unique and potentially interesting properties with potential industrial uses, such as viscosity control, gelation, and flocculation, during ceramic manufacturing. In this study, the microbial communities present in clay raw materials were identified by both cultural methods and DNA-based molecular techniques in order to appraise their potential contribution to enhance the performance of technical ceramics through the use of EPS. Mineralogical identification by X- Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of the clay raw materials, as well as characterization of rheological properties of ceramic slips were also performed. Microbial EPS production and its introduction into ceramic slips will be then carried out in order to evaluate their effects on the rheological properties of the ceramic slips, powders and conformed bodies. Some positive aspects related to the use of EPS are: reduction of the environmental impact caused by synthetic organic additives, reduction of production costs, as well as the costs related with operator protection systems, gaseous effluent treatments, complex landfill, among others.

  16. The europa initiative for esa's cosmic vision: a potential european contribution to nasa's Europa mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Michel; Jones, Geraint H.; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of the habitability of Jupiter's icy moons is considered of high priority in the roadmaps of the main space agencies, including the decadal survey and esa's cosmic vision plan. the voyager and galileo missions indicated that europa and ganymede may meet the requirements of habitability, including deep liquid aqueous reservoirs in their interiors. indeed, they constitute different end-terms of ocean worlds, which deserve further characterization in the next decade. esa and nasa are now both planning to explore these ice moons through exciting and ambitious missions. esa selected in 2012 the juice mission mainly focused on ganymede and the jupiter system, while nasa is currently studying and implementing the europa mission. in 2015, nasa invited esa to provide a junior spacecraft to be carried on board its europa mission, opening a collaboration scheme similar to the very successful cassini-huygens approach. in order to define the best contribution that can be made to nasa's europa mission, a europa initiative has emerged in europe. its objective is to elaborate a community-based strategy for the proposition of the best possible esa contribution(s) to nasa's europa mission, as a candidate for the upcoming selection of esa's 5th medium-class mission . the science returns of the different potential contributions are analysed by six international working groups covering complementary science themes: a) magnetospheric interactions; b) exosphere, including neutrals, dust and plumes; c) geochemistry; d) geology, including expressions of exchanges between layers; e) geophysics, including characterization of liquid water distribution; f) astrobiology. each group is considering different spacecraft options in the contexts of their main scientific merits and limitations, their technical feasibility, and of their interest for the development of esa-nasa collaborations. there are five options under consideration: (1) an augmented payload to the europa mission main

  17. Venous anomalies as potentially lethal risk factors during ordinary catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savino Occhionorelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Venous malformations are rare but possible findings too, constituting a further risk factor for central venous catheter procedures. Herein we describe a case of death because of an innominate vein perforation by a catheter that incidentally was tucked into a sacciform malformation. Even if the technology advancement is constantly offering us new investigation tools, up to now diagnostic options are limited in the detection of those malformations that could potentially lead to dramatic complications as the described one. The present work raises the awareness about rare venous anomalies and their potential clinical implications. A proper literature review and diagnostic implementation proposal are reported.

  18. Factors contributing to the disturbance of coagulation and fibrinolysis in dengue virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chun Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage is one of the hallmarks of dengue hemorrhagic fever. However, the mechanisms that cause hemorrhage are unclear. In this review we focus on the possible factors that may be involved in the disturbance of coagulation and fibrinolysis during dengue virus (DENV infection. Factors such as autoantibodies and cytokines induced by DENV infection as well as hemostatic molecules expressed on DENV-infected cells, and DENV viral proteins may all contribute to the defect of hemostasis during DENV infection. It is the combination of these viral and host factors that may tilt the balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis toward bleeding in dengue patients.

  19. Dynamics of the late Na(+) current during cardiac action potential and its contribution to afterdepolarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Balazs; Banyasz, Tamas; Jian, Zhong; Hegyi, Bence; Kistamas, Kornel; Nanasi, Peter P; Izu, Leighton T; Chen-Izu, Ye

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this work is to examine the contribution of late Na(+) current (INa,L) to the cardiac action potential (AP) and arrhythmogenic activities. In spite of the rapidly growing interest toward this current, there is no publication available on experimental recording of the dynamic INa,L current as it flows during AP with Ca(2+) cycling. Also unknown is how the current profile changes when the Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling is altered, and how the current contributes to the development of arrhythmias. In this study we use an innovative AP-clamp Sequential Dissection technique to directly record the INa,L current during the AP with Ca(2+) cycling in the guinea pig ventricular myocytes. First, we found that the magnitude of INa,L measured under AP-clamp is substantially larger than earlier studies indicated. CaMKII inhibition using KN-93 significantly reduced the current. Second, we recorded INa,L together with IKs, IKr, and IK1 in the same cell to understand how these currents counterbalance to shape the AP morphology. We found that the amplitude and the total charge carried by INa,L exceed that of IKs. Third, facilitation of INa,L by Anemone toxin II prolonged APD and induced Ca(2+) oscillations that led to early and delayed afterdepolarizations and triggered APs; these arrhythmogenic activities were eliminated by buffering Ca(2+) with BAPTA. In conclusion, INa,L contributes a significantly large inward current that prolongs APD and unbalances the Ca(2+) homeostasis to cause arrhythmogenic APs.

  20. Dynamics of the Late Na+ current during cardiac action potential and its contribution to afterdepolarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Balazs; Banyasz, Tamas; Jian, Zhong; Hegyi, Bence; Kistamas, Kornel; Nanasi, Peter P.; Izu, Leighton T.; Chen-Izu, Ye

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to examine the contribution of late Na+ current (INa,L) to the cardiac action potential (AP) and arrhythmogenic activities. In spite of the rapidly growing interest toward this current, there is no publication available on experimental recording of the dynamic INa,L current as it flows during AP with Ca2+ cycling. Also unknown is how the current profile changes when the Ca2+-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling is altered, and how the current contributes to the development of arrhythmias. In this study we use an innovative AP-clamp Sequential Dissection technique to directly record the INa,L current during the AP with Ca2+ cycling in the guinea pig ventricular myocytes. First, we found that the magnitude of INa,L measured under AP-clamp is substantially larger than earlier studies indicated. CaMKII inhibition using KN-93 significantly reduced the current. Second, we recorded INa,L together with IKs, IKr, and IK1 in the same cell to understand how these currents counterbalance to shape the AP morphology. We found that the amplitude and the total charge carried by INa,L exceed that of IKs. Third, facilitation of INa,L by Anemone toxin II prolonged APD and induced Ca2+ oscillations that led to early and delayed afterdepolarizations and triggered APs; these arrhythmogenic activities were eliminated by buffering Ca2+ with BAPTA. In conclusion, INa,L contributes a significantly large inward current that prolongs APD and unbalances the Ca2+ homeostasis to cause arrhythmogenic APs. PMID:24012538

  1. A Shab potassium channel contributes to action potential broadening in peptidergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocki, E A; Marshall, J; Kaczmarek, L K

    1994-01-01

    We have cloned the gene for a potassium channel, Aplysia Shab, that is expressed in the bag cell neurons of Aplysia. The voltage dependence and kinetics of the Aplysia Shab current in oocytes match those of IK2, one of the two delayed rectifiers in these neurons. Like IK2, but in contrast with other members of the Shab subfamily, the Aplysia Shab current inactivates within several hundred milliseconds. This inactivation occurs by a process whose properties do not match those previously described for C-type and N-type mechanisms. Neither truncation of the N-terminus nor block by tetraethylammonium alters the time course of inactivation. By incorporating the characteristics of Aplysia Shab into a computational model, we have shown how this current contributes to the normal enhancement of action potentials that occurs in the bag cell neurons at the onset of neuropeptide secretion.

  2. Nutrient composition of important fish species in Bangladesh and potential contribution to recommended nutrient intakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogard, Jessica R.; Thilsted, Shakuntala H.; Marks, Geoffrey C.;

    2015-01-01

    Fish, in Bangladesh where malnutrition remains a significant development challenge, is an irreplaceable animal-source food in the diet of millions. However, existing data on the nutrient composition of fish do not reflect the large diversity available and have focused on only a few select nutrients....... The purpose of this study was to fill the gaps in existing data on the nutrient profiles of common fish in Bangladesh by analysing the proximate, vitamin, mineral and fatty acid composition of 55 fish, shrimp and prawn species from inland capture, aquaculture and marine capture fisheries. When comparing......, and all typically consumed whole with head and bones, could potentially contribute ≥25% of RNIs for three or more of these nutrients, simultaneously, from a standard portion. This illustrates the diversity in nutrient content of fish species and in particular the rich nutrient composition of small...

  3. Radiative contribution to the effective potential in composite Higgs models from lattice gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrand, Thomas; Golterman, Maarten; Jay, William I.; Neil, Ethan T.; Shamir, Yigal; Svetitsky, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    We develop methods to calculate the electroweak gauge boson contribution to the effective Higgs potential in the context of composite Higgs models, using lattice gauge theory. The calculation is analogous to that of the electromagnetic mass splitting of the pion multiplet in QCD. We discuss technical details of carrying out this calculation, including modeling of the momentum and fermion-mass dependence of the underlying current-current correlation function, direct integration of the correlation function over momentum, and fits based on the minimal-hadron approximation. We show results of a numerical study using valence overlap fermions, carried out in an SU(4) gauge theory with two flavors of Dirac fermions in the two-index antisymmetric representation.

  4. Factors Contributing to the Subjective Career Success among Islamic Educators in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesnan Supa`ad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A very limited research has been done in the field of career development among Islamic education teachers. Most of the previous researches showed an improvement in terms of grades, positions, and responsibilities of their previous routines as an indicator of their career advancement. However, this conceptual (concept paper discusses how personality factors, career planning, and career strategy can provide significant contribution to the success of Islamic education teachers’ career. Based on the Five Factor Model, Gould Planning Model, and the support of previous researches, this paper discusses how these three factors can contribute to the success of Islamic education teachers’ career. This paper also discusses its impact towards Islamic education teachers in Malaysia, schools management, District Education Office, Ministry of Education, and teachers education institutions.

  5. Contribution of thermal and nonthermal factors to the regulation of body temperature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekjavic, Igor B; Eiken, Ola

    2006-06-01

    The set point has been used to define the regulated level of body temperature, suggesting that displacements of core temperature from the set point initiate heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) responses. Human and animal experiments have demonstrated that the responses of sweating and shivering do not coincide at a set point but rather establish a thermoeffector threshold zone. Neurophysiological studies have demonstrated that the sensor-to-effector pathways for HP and HL overlap and, in fact, mutually inhibit each other. This reciprocal inhibition theory, presumably reflecting the manner in which thermal factors contribute to homeothermy in humans, does not incorporate the effect of nonthermal factors on temperature regulation. The present review examines the actions of these nonthermal factors within the context of neuronal models of temperature regulation, suggesting that examination of these factors may provide further insights into the nature of temperature regulation. It is concluded that, although there is no evidence to doubt the existence of the HP and HL pathways reciprocally inhibiting one another, it appears that such a mechanism is of little consequence when comparing the effects of nonthermal factors on the thermoregulatory system, since most of these factors seem to exert their influence in the region after the reciprocal cross-inhibition. At any given moment, both thermal and several nonthermal factors will be acting on the thermoregulatory system. It may, therefore, not be appropriate to dismiss the contribution of either when discussing the regulation of body temperature in humans.

  6. Potential Role of Activating Transcription Factor 5 during Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vicari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human adipose-derived stem cells are an abundant population of stem cells readily isolated from human adipose tissue that can differentiate into connective tissue lineages including bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle. Activating transcription factor 5 is a transcription factor of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB family. It is transcribed in two types of mRNAs (activating transcription factor 5 isoform 1 and activating transcription factor 5 isoform 2, encoding the same single 30-kDa protein. Although it is well demonstrated that it regulates the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, little is known about its potential role in osteogenic differentiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression levels of the two isoforms and protein during osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells. Our data indicate that activating transcription factor 5 is differentially expressed reaching a peak of expression at the stage of bone mineralization. These findings suggest that activating transcription factor 5 could play an interesting regulatory role during osteogenesis, which would provide a powerful tool to study bone physiology.

  7. Normal aging and cognition: the unacknowledged contribution of cerebrovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, L; Zade, D; McGlinchey, R E; Milberg, W P

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread assumption that cognitive decline is an inherent part of the normal aging process, research suggests that part of the variance in age-related cognitive decline is attributable to modifiable factors common in geriatric populations such as cerebrovascular risk factors. We completed a literature search using Science Citation Index and evaluated the most cited articles from the last 10 years to determine the extent to which investigations of normal aging and cognition account for the influence of cerebrovascular risk factors. We found that the majority of the most frequently cited literature does not adequately account for the contribution of cerebrovascular risk factors and therefore, it is possible that many conclusions about normal aging and cognition are flawed or incomplete. Further investigation of the role of cerebrovascular risk factors in age-related cognitive decline is imperative to more accurately understand the effect of aging on cognition.

  8. Analysis of the Contribution of Total Factor Productivity to Agricultural Yield in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing data concerning agricultural development from 1981 to 2010 in Anhui Province,the total factor productivity and growth rate of agriculture from 1981 to 2010 are estimated empirically.By dividing years from 1981 to 2010 into several subintervals,this paper evaluates and analyzes initial stage of reform and opening up,soft landing stage,the stage of financial crisis,the stage of subprime mortgage crisis and the impact of all factors on total factor growth rate of agriculture.Then it analyzes the contribution of growth of total factor productivity to total yield of agricultural economy.The research finds that the growth of total factor productivity in Anhui Province is significant to agricultural development.

  9. Potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Isolates to Contribute to Soil Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirima, George Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH-) polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates' partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA) production. A total of 44 isolates were obtained and belong to the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Microbacterium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhodococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. Data analysed by principal component analysis showed the Bacillus and Ochrobactrum isolates displayed outstanding IAA production. Generalized linear modelling statistical approaches were applied to evaluate the contribution of the four most represented genera (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Rhodococcus) to soil fertility. The Pseudomonas isolates were the most promising in all three soil fertility enhancement traits evaluated and all isolates showed potential for one or more of the attributes evaluated. These findings demonstrate a clear potential of the isolates to participate in restorative bioremediation of polluted soil, which will enhance sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection. PMID:27774456

  10. Potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Isolates to Contribute to Soil Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bello-Akinosho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH- polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates’ partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA production. A total of 44 isolates were obtained and belong to the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Microbacterium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhodococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. Data analysed by principal component analysis showed the Bacillus and Ochrobactrum isolates displayed outstanding IAA production. Generalized linear modelling statistical approaches were applied to evaluate the contribution of the four most represented genera (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Rhodococcus to soil fertility. The Pseudomonas isolates were the most promising in all three soil fertility enhancement traits evaluated and all isolates showed potential for one or more of the attributes evaluated. These findings demonstrate a clear potential of the isolates to participate in restorative bioremediation of polluted soil, which will enhance sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection.

  11. Can a finding of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials contribute to vestibular migraine diagnostics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihana Vešligaj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate differences in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP results with patients suffering from vestibular migraine and healthy people, taking into consideration values of threshold and latency of occurrence of the characteristic wave complex, size of amplitude, and interaural amplitude ratio. According to the results, determine the importance and usefulness of VEMP in vestibular migraine diagnostics. Methods A total number of 62 subjects were included in the study, 32 of them belonging to a group of patients suffering from vestibular migraine (VM, while other 30 were in a control group of healthy subjects. Information was collected during the diagnostic evaluation. General and otoneurological history of patients and bedside tests, audiological results, videonystagmography and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP were made. Results There was a difference in an interaural ratio of amplitudes in the experimental and control groups, but it was not found to be clinically significant. By ToneBurst 500 Hz method, the interaural amplitude ratio higher than 35% was measured in 46.97% subjects, while the response was totally unilaterally missing in 28.8% patients. Conclusion Even the sophisticated method as cVEMP does not give the ultimate result confirming the vestibular migraine diagnosis, and neither do other diagnostic methods. cVEMP result can contribute to the completion of full mosaic of vestibular migraine diagnostics.

  12. Valence quark contributions for the gamma N -> P11(1440) form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalho, G

    2010-01-01

    Using a covariant spectator quark model we estimate valence quark contributions to the F1*(Q2) and F2*(Q2) transition form factors for the gamma N -> P11(1440) reaction. The Roper resonance, P11(1440), is assumed to be the first radial excitation of the nucleon. The present model requires no extra parameters except for those already fixed by the previous studies for the nucleon. Our results are consistent with the experimental data in the high Q2 region, and those from lattice QCD. We also estimate the meson cloud contributions, focusing on the low Q2 region, where they are expected to be dominant.

  13. Physical and environmental factors contributing to music related injuries among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Natalie C; Jacobs, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study asserts that a combination of environmental and physical factors influence the child pianist's risk for developing a music related injury. 26 participants (10 piano students, 10 parents, and 6 piano teachers) were included in this study. Piano students were ages 5 to 11 and currently enrolled in piano lessons. Three questionnaires addressed the factors affecting the participant groups (children, parents, and piano teachers). Participants completed one questionnaire about the factors contributing to the development of music related injuries in child pianists. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results. None of the student participants had pain, discomfort, or a history of music related injuries. The majority of parents and teachers reported that the lighting was the most important environmental factor affecting students' playing in the piano lesson. 70% of parents reported that the presence of family members most greatly affected students' practicing at home. 100% of the teachers and parents reported that the most important physical factors contributing to students' injury-free playing were playing with proper technique and learning effective practice strategies. All parents and students who were taking piano lessons in their homes reported the most satisfaction with their piano lesson environment. The results of this study do not support a relationship between environmental or physical factors and the presence of pain, discomfort, or music related injuries in students.

  14. Factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients in intensive care units require rest and sleep to recuperate, but might suffer from sleep deprivation due to ongoing unit activities. The study aimed to identify and describe the factors contributing to sleep deprivation in one multi-disciplinary intensive care unit MDICU in a private hospital in South Africa. Quantitative, descriptive research was conducted to identify factors contributing to sleep deprivation in the research setting, and to make recommendations to enhance these patients’ abilities to sleep. Structured interviewswere conducted with 34 adult non-ventilated patients who had spent at least one night in the MDICU and who gave informed consent. Out of the 34 interviewed patients 70.6% n = 24 indicated that they suffered from sleep deprivation in the MDICU. The five major factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a MDICU were, (1 not knowing nurses’ names, noise caused by alarms, (2 stress, (3 inability to understand medical terms, and (3 blood pressure cuffs that restricted patients’ movements and smelled badly. Patients’ abilities to sleep were enhanced by reassuring nurses whose names they knew and with whom they could communicate. By attending to the identified five major factors, patients’ abilities to sleep in a MDICU could be enhanced enabling patients to recuperate faster. The implementation of such measures need not incur financial costs for the MDICU concerned.

  15. Factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients in intensive care units require rest and sleep to recuperate, but might suffer from sleep deprivation due to ongoing unit activities. The study aimed to identify and describe the factors contributing to sleep deprivation in one multi-disciplinary intensive care unit (MDICU in a private hospital in South Africa. Quantitative, descriptive research was conducted to identify factors contributing to sleep deprivation in the research setting, and to make recommendations to enhance these patients’ abilities to sleep. Structured interviews were conducted with 34 adult non-ventilated patients who had spent at least one night in the MDICU and who gave informed consent. Out of the 34 interviewed patients 70.6% (n = 24 indicated that they suffered from sleep deprivation in the MDICU. The five major factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a MDICU were, (1 not knowing nurses’ names, noise caused by alarms, (2 stress, (3 inability to understand medical terms, and (3 blood pressure cuffs that restricted patients’ movements and smelled badly. Patients’ abilities to sleep were enhanced by reassuring nurses whose names they knew and with whom they could communicate. By attending to the identified five major factors, patients’ abilities to sleep in a MDICU could be enhanced enabling patients to recuperate faster. The implementation of such measures need not incur financial costs for the MDICU concerned.

  16. Gully erosion: A comparison of contributing factors in two catchments in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mararakanye, Ndifelani; Sumner, Paul D.

    2017-07-01

    Gully erosion is an environmental, agricultural and social problem requiring extensive research and mitigation actions to control. This study assesses the influence of factors contributing to gully erosion using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Information Value (InfVal) statistics from two catchments coded X12 and W55 in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Existing spatial data representing contributing factors; soil, geology, vegetation and land use were analyzed. Topographic variables were extracted from a 10 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) interpolated from map contours, and gullies were mapped from aerial photos with 0.5 m spatial resolution. A zonal approach was used to extract the proportion of gullies in each of the contributing factor classes using GIS software packages, and InfVal weighting was performed to determine the influence of each class. Comparison of the results shows the variation in the level of influence of factors contributing to gully erosion. The findings in catchment X12 support a commonly held assumption that gully formation is influenced by duplex soils underlain by colluvium and alluvial deposits on a lower slope position where overland flow converges and accumulates, resulting in high soil moisture. Gullies were also influenced by soils developed over weathered granite, gneiss and ultramafic rocks. The influence of a granite rock was further highlighted in catchment W55 where there is a variable thickness of very deep Hutton dominant soil form and shallow Lithosols with sandy texture, on an area of moderate to steep slopes where overland flow converges and accumulates, with high stream power in overgrazed grassland. An understanding of these factors will assist future modelling of the vulnerability to gully erosion over a wider geographical area.

  17. Robotic Reconnaissance Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic reconnaissance missions to small bodies will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near- Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. The science and technical data obtained from robotic precursor missions that investigate the surface and interior physical characteristics of an object will help identify the pertinent physical properties that will maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for both robotic assets and crew operating in close proximity to, or at the surface of, a small body. These data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations. Small Body Strategic Knowledge Gaps: For the past several years NASA has been interested in identifying the key SKGs related to future human destinations. These SKGs highlight the various unknowns and/or data gaps of targets that the science and engineering communities would like to have filled in prior to committing crews to explore the Solar System. An action team from the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) was formed specifically to identify the small body SKGs under the direction of the Human Exploration and Operations Missions Directorate (HEOMD), given NASA's recent interest in NEAs and the Martian moons as potential human destinations [1]. The action team

  18. RISK FACTORS FOR PANCREATIC CANCER: UNDERLYING MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL TARGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eKolodecik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the review:Pancreatic cancer is extremely aggressive, forming highly chemo-resistant tumors, and has one of the worst prognoses. The evolution of this cancer is multi-factorial. Repeated acute pancreatic injury and inflammation are important contributing factors in the development of pancreatic cancer. This article attempts to understand the common pathways linking pancreatitis to pancreatic cancer.Recent Findings:Intracellular activation of both pancreatic enzymes and the transcription factor NF-kB are important mechanisms that induce acute pancreatitis. Recurrent pancreatic injury due to genetic susceptibility, environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol intake, and conditions such as obesity lead to increases in oxidative stress, impaired autophagy and constitutive activation of inflammatory pathways. These processes can stimulate pancreatic stellate cells, thereby increasing fibrosis and encouraging chronic disease development. Activation of oncogneic Kras mutations through inflammation, coupled with altered levels of tumor suppressor proteins (p53 and p16 can ultimately lead to development of pancreatic cancer. Summary:Although our understanding of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer has tremendously increased over many years, much remains to be elucidated in terms of common pathways linking these conditions.

  19. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer: underlying mechanisms and potential targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodecik, Thomas; Shugrue, Christine; Ashat, Munish; Thrower, Edwin C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review: Pancreatic cancer is extremely aggressive, forming highly chemo-resistant tumors, and has one of the worst prognoses. The evolution of this cancer is multi-factorial. Repeated acute pancreatic injury and inflammation are important contributing factors in the development of pancreatic cancer. This article attempts to understand the common pathways linking pancreatitis to pancreatic cancer. Recent findings: Intracellular activation of both pancreatic enzymes and the transcription factor NF-κB are important mechanisms that induce acute pancreatitis (AP). Recurrent pancreatic injury due to genetic susceptibility, environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol intake, and conditions such as obesity lead to increases in oxidative stress, impaired autophagy and constitutive activation of inflammatory pathways. These processes can stimulate pancreatic stellate cells, thereby increasing fibrosis and encouraging chronic disease development. Activation of oncogenic Kras mutations through inflammation, coupled with altered levels of tumor suppressor proteins (p53 and p16) can ultimately lead to development of pancreatic cancer. Summary: Although our understanding of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer has tremendously increased over many years, much remains to be elucidated in terms of common pathways linking these conditions. PMID:24474939

  20. Potential contribution of anammox to nitrogen loss from paddy soils in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Hu; Nie, San-An; Su, Jian-Qiang; Weng, Bo-Sen; Zhu, Gui-Bing; Yao, Huai-Ying; Gilbert, Jack A; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-02-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) process has been observed in diverse terrestrial ecosystems, while the contribution of anammox to N2 production in paddy soils is not well documented. In this study, the anammox activity and the abundance and diversity of anammox bacteria were investigated to assess the anammox potential of 12 typical paddy soils collected in southern China. Anammox bacteria related to "Candidatus Brocadia" and "Candidatus Kuenenia" and two novel unidentified clusters were detected, with "Candidatus Brocadia" comprising 50% of the anammox population. The prevalence of the anammox was confirmed by the quantitative PCR results based on hydrazine synthase (hzsB) genes, which showed that the abundance ranged from 1.16 × 10(4) to 9.65 × 10(4) copies per gram of dry weight. The anammox rates measured by the isotope-pairing technique ranged from 0.27 to 5.25 nmol N per gram of soil per hour in these paddy soils, which contributed 0.6 to 15% to soil N2 production. It is estimated that a total loss of 2.50 × 10(6) Mg N per year is linked to anammox in the paddy fields in southern China, which implied that ca. 10% of the applied ammonia fertilizers is lost via the anammox process. Anammox activity was significantly correlated with the abundance of hzsB genes, soil nitrate concentration, and C/N ratio. Additionally, ammonia concentration and pH were found to be significantly correlated with the anammox bacterial structure.

  1. The NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to sarcopenia and lower muscle glycolytic potential in old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Marin Jane; Foley, Kevin P; D'Souza, Donna M; Li, Yujin E; Lau, Trevor C; Hawke, Thomas J; Schertzer, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    The mechanisms underpinning decreased skeletal muscle strength and slowing of movement during aging are ill-defined. "Inflammaging," increased inflammation with advancing age, may contribute to aspects of sarcopenia, but little is known about the participatory immune components. We discovered that aging was associated with increased caspase-1 activity in mouse skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that the caspase-1-containing NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to sarcopenia in mice. Male C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and NLRP3(-/-) mice were aged to 10 (adult) and 24 mo (old). NLRP3(-/-) mice were protected from decreased muscle mass (relative to body mass) and decreased size of type IIB and IIA myofibers, which occurred between 10 and 24 mo of age in WT mice. Old NLRP3(-/-) mice also had increased relative muscle strength and endurance and were protected from age-related increases in the number of myopathic fibers. We found no evidence of age-related or NLRP3-dependent changes in markers of systemic inflammation. Increased caspase-1 activity was associated with GAPDH proteolysis and reduced GAPDH enzymatic activity in skeletal muscles from old WT mice. Aging did not alter caspase-1 activity, GAPDH proteolysis, or GAPDH activity in skeletal muscles of NLRP3(-/-) mice. Our results show that the NLRP3 inflammasome participates in age-related loss of muscle glycolytic potential. Deletion of NLRP3 mitigates both the decline in glycolytic myofiber size and the reduced activity of glycolytic enzymes in muscle during aging. We propose that the etiology of sarcopenia involves direct communication between immune responses and metabolic flux in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Buzz Factor or Innovation Potential: What Explains Cryptocurrencies’ Returns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha

    2017-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular since the introduction of bitcoin in 2009. In this paper, we identify factors associated with variations in cryptocurrencies’ market values. In the past, researchers argued that the “buzz” surrounding cryptocurrencies in online media explained their price variations. But this observation obfuscates the notion that cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, are technologies entailing a true innovation potential. By using, for the first time, a unique measure of innovation potential, we find that the latter is in fact the most important factor associated with increases in cryptocurrency returns. By contrast, we find that the buzz surrounding cryptocurrencies is negatively associated with returns after controlling for a variety of factors, such as supply growth and liquidity. Also interesting is our finding that a cryptocurrency’s association with fraudulent activity is not negatively associated with weekly returns—a result that further qualifies the media’s influence on cryptocurrencies. Finally, we find that an increase in supply is positively associated with weekly returns. Taken together, our findings show that cryptocurrencies do not behave like traditional currencies or commodities—unlike what most prior research has assumed—and depict an industry that is much more mature, and much less speculative, than has been implied by previous accounts. PMID:28085906

  3. Buzz Factor or Innovation Potential: What Explains Cryptocurrencies' Returns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha; Vergne, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular since the introduction of bitcoin in 2009. In this paper, we identify factors associated with variations in cryptocurrencies' market values. In the past, researchers argued that the "buzz" surrounding cryptocurrencies in online media explained their price variations. But this observation obfuscates the notion that cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, are technologies entailing a true innovation potential. By using, for the first time, a unique measure of innovation potential, we find that the latter is in fact the most important factor associated with increases in cryptocurrency returns. By contrast, we find that the buzz surrounding cryptocurrencies is negatively associated with returns after controlling for a variety of factors, such as supply growth and liquidity. Also interesting is our finding that a cryptocurrency's association with fraudulent activity is not negatively associated with weekly returns-a result that further qualifies the media's influence on cryptocurrencies. Finally, we find that an increase in supply is positively associated with weekly returns. Taken together, our findings show that cryptocurrencies do not behave like traditional currencies or commodities-unlike what most prior research has assumed-and depict an industry that is much more mature, and much less speculative, than has been implied by previous accounts.

  4. Energy Metabolism Disorder as a Contributing Factor of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparative Proteomic and Metabolomic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yu Yang

    increased in FLS cells after HIF-1α knockdown.It was found that enhanced anaerobic catabolism and reduced aerobic oxidation regulated by HIF pathway are newly recognized factors contributing to the progression of RA, and low glucose and high lactic acid concentration in synovial fluid may be the potential biomarker of RA.

  5. The identification of factors contributing to self-reported anomalies in civil aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejczak, Chris; Karwowski, Waldemar; Thompson, William

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze anomalies voluntarily reported by pilots in civil aviation sector and identify factors leading to such anomalies. Experimental data were obtained from the NASA aviation safety reporting system (ASRS) database. These data contained a range of text records spanning 30 years of civilian aviation, both commercial (airline operations) and general aviation (private aircraft). Narrative data as well as categorical data were used. The associations between incident contributing factors and self-reported anomalies were investigated using data mining and correspondence analysis. The results revealed that a broadly defined human factors category and weather conditions were the main contributors to self-reported civil aviation anomalies. New associations between identified factors and reported anomaly conditions were also reported.

  6. Factors that contribute to the immmunogenicity of therapeutic recombinant human proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukovozov, Ilya; Sabljic, Thomas; Hortelano, Gonzalo; Ofosu, Frederick A

    2008-05-01

    Use of recombinant human proteins has revolutionized medicine by providing over 200 highly purified hormones and proteins that effectively treat many inherited and acquired peptide hormone and protein deficiencies. With the exception of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, these biological medicines are synthesized by cultured cells using DNA sequences that would yield proteins with identical amino acid sequences as endogenous human proteins. Therefore, there was the broad expectation that recombinant human biological medicines would be non-immunogenic in patients capable of synthesizing even sub-optimal levels of these therapeutic proteins to which they are innately tolerant. However, the widespread clinical use of recombinant human proteins has demonstrated that nearly all of them are immunogenic. This observation suggests that factors additional to differences in amino acid sequences of endogenous and biotherapeutic proteins contribute to the immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins. The main aim of this review is to summarize some of the factors that are known to contribute to the immunogenicity of recombinant therapeutic proteins.

  7. Analysis of contributing factors associated to related patients safety incidents in Intensive Care Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Delgado, M C; Merino de Cos, P; Sirgo Rodríguez, G; Álvarez Rodríguez, J; Gutiérrez Cía, I; Obón Azuara, B; Alonso Ovies, Á

    2015-01-01

    To explore contributing factors (CF) associated to related critical patients safety incidents. SYREC study pos hoc analysis. A total of 79 Intensive Care Departments were involved. The study sample consisted of 1.017 patients; 591 were affected by one or more incidents. The CF were categorized according to a proposed model by the National Patient Safety Agency from United Kingdom that was modified. Type, class and severity of the incidents was analyzed. A total 2,965 CF were reported (1,729 were associated to near miss and 1,236 to adverse events). The CF group more frequently reported were related patients factors. Individual factors were reported more frequently in near miss and task related CF in adverse events. CF were reported in all classes of incidents. The majority of CF were reported in the incidents classified such as less serious, even thought CF patients factors were associated to serious incidents. Individual factors were considered like avoidable and patients factors as unavoidable. The CF group more frequently reported were patient factors and was associated to more severe and unavoidable incidents. By contrast, individual factors were associated to less severe and avoidable incidents. In general, CF most frequently reported were associated to near miss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS OF EMPLOYEE’S PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF LOCAL NGOs IN PESHAWAR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqib Shahzad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research study has been focused to study the contributing factors towards employee’s performance. Performance of employees is one of the most significant factors for the growth and success of every organization. Data was collected through the distribution of questionnaires. 120 questionnaires as the sample size were distributed among the employees of local NGOs. The returned questionnaires were 106 having a response rate of 88.33%. The findings of the study found that job security, relationship with colleagues, relationship with supervisor, working conditions and employee’s empowerment were found to have significant impact on employee’s performance.

  9. Factors Contributing to the Performance of Agricultural Credit in Lombok Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sjah, Taslim; Cameron, Donald; Russell, Iean W.

    2003-01-01

    In Indonesia, national historical records show increasing agricultural credit provision by government, yet farmers seem to be unable to escape poverty. In addition, the repayment of credit has tended to be lower as years proceed. This paper analyses the performance of credit in terms of agricultural production, farmers' earnings, and credit repayment, and factors contributing to the performance. The analysis is based upon a survey conducted in Central Lombok, where the current KKP government ...

  10. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WATERFRONT PROJECTS IN PENANG ISLAND

    OpenAIRE

    WOO SUK WAH; ABDELNASER OMRAN

    2012-01-01

    The construction of waterfront projects in Penang Island is a new approach in bringing Penang Island to the next level of development. Projects involving reclamation of land by the edge of the river or the sea, through infrastructure or building projects, have progressed by leaps and bounds over the past few years. This paper aims to identify the factors contributing to the implementation of waterfront projects in Penang Island. Generally, implementation of the waterfront projects is led by f...

  11. Difference, adapted physical activity and human development: potential contribution of capabilities approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla Filomena; Howe, P David

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a call to Adapted Physical Activity (APA) professionals to increase the reflexive nature of their practice. Drawing upon Foucault's concept of governmentality (1977) APA action may work against its own publicized goals of empowerment and self-determination. To highlight these inconsistencies, we will draw upon historical and social factors that explain the implicit dangers of practice not following policy. We propose that APA practitioners work according to ethical guidelines, based upon a capabilities approach (Nussbaum, 2006, 2011; Sen, 2009) to counteract possible adverse effects of APA practitioner action. A capabilities approach is conducive to the development of each individual's human potential, by holistically considering the consequences of physical activity (i.e., biological, cultural, social, and psychological dimensions). To conclude, this paper will offer suggestions that may lead to an ethical reflection aligned with the best interest of APA's users.

  12. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors f...

  13. Robotic Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.; Rivkin, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Robotic missions to small bodies will directly address aspects of NASA's Asteroid Initiative and will contribute to future human exploration and planetary defense. The NASA Asteroid Initiative is comprised of two major components: the Grand Challenge and the Asteroid Mission. The first component, the Grand Challenge, focuses on protecting Earth's population from asteroid impacts by detecting potentially hazardous objects with enough warning time to either prevent them from impacting the planet, or to implement civil defense procedures. The Asteroid Mission involves sending astronauts to study and sample a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) prior to conducting exploration missions of the Martian system, which includes Phobos and Deimos. The science and technical data obtained from robotic precursor missions that investigate the surface and interior physical characteristics of an object will help identify the pertinent physical properties that will maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk for both robotic assets and crew operating in close proximity to, or at the surface of, a small body. These data will help fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning asteroid physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations at similar small body destinations. These data can also be applied for gaining an understanding of pertinent small body physical characteristics that would also be beneficial for formulating future impact mitigation procedures. Small Body Strategic Knowledge Gaps: For the past several years NASA has been interested in identifying the key SKGs related to future human destinations. These SKGs highlight the various unknowns and/or data gaps of targets that the science and engineering communities would like to have filled in prior to committing crews to explore the Solar System. An action team from the Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) was formed specifically to identify the small body SKGs under the

  14. Factors contributing to late breast cancer presentation for health care amongst women in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort Asoogo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delay in presenting breast cancer for health care is dangerous because it can increase the mortality rate amongst affected women. Delaying health care and treatment makes it difficult to manage advanced breast cancer successfully. Understanding the factors that contribute to delays in presentation for health care can save lives.Objectives: The purpose of the study was to describe the factors which contribute to the latepresentation of Ghanaian women with breast cancer for health care at a tertiary hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.Method: A descriptive qualitative research design was utilised to answer the research question: ‘What factors contribute to presenting with late breast cancer for health care amongst Ghanaian women who were treated for breast cancer at a tertiary hospital in Kumasi, Ghana?’ A sample of 30 women diagnosed with breast cancer and presented with Stage II and Stage III participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews and field notes were conducted for data collection. Content data analysis was used in line with the research question.Findings: Five themes were discovered as findings. These were: lack of knowledge about breast cancer; fear of cancer treatment and its outcomes; poverty; traditional and spiritual beliefs and treatments and caring for others.Conclusions: We recommend the development of breast cancer awareness programmes and health education at primary health care level.

  15. Diverse Bacterial Groups Contribute to the Alkane Degradation Potential of Chronically Polluted Subantarctic Coastal Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibert, Lilian M.; Loviso, Claudia L.; Borglin, Sharon; Jansson, Janet K.; Dionisi, Hebe M.; Lozada, Mariana

    2015-11-07

    We aimed to gain insight into the alkane degradation potential of microbial communities from chronically polluted sediments of a subantarctic coastal environment using a combination of metagenomic approaches. A total of 6178 sequences annotated as alkane-1-monooxygenases (EC 1.14.15.3) were retrieved from a shotgun metagenomic dataset that included two sites analyzed in triplicate. The majority of the sequences binned with AlkB described in Bacteroidetes (32 ± 13 %) or Proteobacteria (29 ± 7 %), although a large proportion remained unclassified at the phylum level. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU)-based analyses showed small differences in AlkB distribution among samples that could be correlated with alkane concentrations, as well as with site-specific variations in pH and salinity. A number of low-abundance OTUs, mostly affiliated with Actinobacterial sequences, were found to be only present in the most contaminated samples. On the other hand, the molecular screening of a large-insert metagenomic library of intertidal sediments from one of the sampling sites identified two genomic fragments containing novel alkB gene sequences, as well as various contiguous genes related to lipid metabolism. Both genomic fragments were affiliated with the phylum Planctomycetes, and one could be further assigned to the genus Rhodopirellula due to the presence of a partial sequence of the 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. This work highlights the diversity of bacterial groups contributing to the alkane degradation potential and reveals patterns of functional diversity in relation with environmental stressors in a chronically polluted, high-latitude coastal environment. In addition, alkane biodegradation genes are described for the first time in members of Planctomycetes.

  16. Diverse Bacterial Groups Contribute to the Alkane Degradation Potential of Chronically Polluted Subantarctic Coastal Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, Lilian M; Loviso, Claudia L; Borglin, Sharon; Jansson, Janet K; Dionisi, Hebe M; Lozada, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to gain insight into the alkane degradation potential of microbial communities from chronically polluted sediments of a subantarctic coastal environment using a combination of metagenomic approaches. A total of 6178 sequences annotated as alkane-1-monooxygenases (EC 1.14.15.3) were retrieved from a shotgun metagenomic dataset that included two sites analyzed in triplicate. The majority of the sequences binned with AlkB described in Bacteroidetes (32 ± 13 %) or Proteobacteria (29 ± 7 %), although a large proportion remained unclassified at the phylum level. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU)-based analyses showed small differences in AlkB distribution among samples that could be correlated with alkane concentrations, as well as with site-specific variations in pH and salinity. A number of low-abundance OTUs, mostly affiliated with Actinobacterial sequences, were found to be only present in the most contaminated samples. On the other hand, the molecular screening of a large-insert metagenomic library of intertidal sediments from one of the sampling sites identified two genomic fragments containing novel alkB gene sequences, as well as various contiguous genes related to lipid metabolism. Both genomic fragments were affiliated with the phylum Planctomycetes, and one could be further assigned to the genus Rhodopirellula due to the presence of a partial sequence of the 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. This work highlights the diversity of bacterial groups contributing to the alkane degradation potential and reveals patterns of functional diversity in relation with environmental stressors in a chronically polluted, high-latitude coastal environment. In addition, alkane biodegradation genes are described for the first time in members of Planctomycetes.

  17. Potential contribution of Type I lung epithelial cells to chronic neonatal lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Rozycki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The alveolar surface is covered by large flat Type I cells (alveolar epithelial cells 1, AEC1. The normal physiological function of AEC1s involves gas exchange, based on their location in approximation to the capillary endothelium and their thinness, and in ion and water flux, as shown by the presence of solute active transport proteins, water channels, and impermeable tight junctions between cells. With the recent ability to produce relatively pure cultures of AEC1 cells, new functions have been described. These may be relevant to lung injury, repair and the abnormal development that characterizes bronchopulmonary dysplasia. To hypothesize a potential role for AEC1 in the development of lung injury and abnormal repair/development in premature lungs, evidence is presented for their presence in the developing lung, how their source may not be the Type II cell (AEC2 as has been assumed for forty years, and how the cell can be damaged by same type of stressors as those which lead to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. Recent work shows that the cells are part of the innate immune response, capable of producing pro-inflammatory mediators, which could contribute to the increase in inflammation seen in early bronchopulmonary dysplasia. One of the receptors found exclusively on AEC1 cells in the lung, called RAGE, may also have a role in increased inflammation, and to alveolar simplification. While the current evidence for AEC1 involvement in BPD is circumstantial and limited at present, the accumulating data supports several hypotheses and questions regarding potential differences in the behavior of AEC1 cells from newborn and premature lung compared with the adult lung.

  18. Hypomethylation and Genetic Instability in Monosomy Blastocysts May Contribute to Decreased Implantation Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair R McCallie

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism responsible for gene regulation, chromatin remodeling, and genome stability, playing a fundamental role during embryonic development. The aim of this study was to determine if these epigenetic marks are associated with chromosomal aneuploidy in human blastocysts. Surplus, cryopreserved blastocysts that were donated to research with IRB consent were chosen with varying chromosomal aneuploidies and respective implantation potential: monosomies and trisomies 7, 11, 15, 21, and 22. DNA methylation analysis was performed using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (~485,000 CpG sites. The methylation profiles of these human blastocysts were found to be similar across all samples, independent of chromosome constitution; however, more detailed examination identified significant hypomethylation in the chromosome involved in the monosomy. Real-time PCR was also performed to determine if downstream messenger RNA (mRNA was affected for genes on the monosomy chromosome. Gene dysregulation was observed for monosomy blastocysts within significant regions of hypo-methylation (AVEN, CYFIP1, FAM189A1, MYO9A, ADM2, PACSIN2, PARVB, and PIWIL3 (P < 0.05. Additional analysis was performed to examine the gene expression profiles of associated methylation regulators including: DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, DNMT3L, chromatin modifying regulators (CSNK1E, KDM1, PRKCA, and a post-translational modifier (PRMT5. Decreased RNA transcription was confirmed for each DNMT, and the regulators that impact DNMT activity, for only monosomy blastocysts (P < 0.05. In summary, monosomy blastocysts displayed hypomethylation for the chromosome involved in the error, as well as transcription alterations of associated developmental genes. Together, these modifications may be contributing to genetic instability and therefore be responsible for the limited implantation potential observed for full monosomy

  19. Total Factor Productivity and Its Contribution to Malaysia’s Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmah Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines Total Factor Productivity (TFP growth of the Malaysian economy from 1971 to 2007. By using the method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, this study estimates the contribution of technological change and technical efficiency change to the TFP growth and further identifies the determinants of TFP. The results from this study show that for the overall periods between the years 1971 and 2007, the contribution of technological change to TFP is higher than the contribution of technical efficiency change. Similar results are found for the periods 1971-1985 and 1999-2007. Only for the period 1986-1998, the contribution of technical efficiency change exceeds that of technological change. The study found that even though TFP growth is a significant contributor to the economic growth, but its contribution is still lower than the capital and labor. In contrast, capital is the most important contributor to the economic growth of Malaysia. Further, the result shows that the manufacturing output growth is the main contributor to the growth of TFP, followed by the percentage of foreign-owned companies. The percentage of workers with tertiary education is not a significant determinant of TFP growth despite having a positive and the highest coefficient.

  20. Potential for future sea-level contributions from the Antarctic ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeConto, Rob; Pollard, David; Gasson, Ed

    2017-04-01

    Recent Antarctic ice-sheet modeling that includes the effects of surface meltwater on ice-sheet dynamics (through hydrofracturing and ice-cliff collapse) has demonstrated the previously underappreciated sensitivity of the ice sheet to atmospheric warming in addition to sub-ice oceanic warming. Here, we improve on our modeling of future ice-sheet retreat by using time-evolving atmospheric climatologies from a high-resolution regional climate model, synchronized with SSTs, subsurface ocean temperatures, and sub-ice melt rates from the NCAR CCSM4 GCM. Ongoing improvements in ice-sheet model physics are tested and calibrated relative to observations of recent and ancient (Pliocene, Last InterGlacial, and Last Deglaciation) ice-sheet responses to warming. The model is applied to a range of future greenhouse-gas emissions scenarios, including modified RCP scenarios corresponding to the 1.5° and 2.0° targets of the Paris Agreement and higher emissions scenarios including RCP8.5. The results imply that a threshold in the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and outlet glaciers in East Antarctica might be exceeded in the absence of aggressive mitigation policies like those discussed in Paris. We also explore the maximum potential for Antarctica to contribute to future sea-level rise in high greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, by testing a range of model physical parameters within the bounds of observations.

  1. Contribution of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 to endothelin-1-induced thermal hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, T; Ji, W; Yamamoto, J; Niiyama, Y; Furuse, S; Namiki, A

    2008-06-26

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays an important role in peripheral pain processing. However, the mechanisms of the nociceptive action of ET-1 have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the contribution of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) to ET-1-induced thermal hyperalgesia. Intraplantar ET-1-induced thermal hyperalgesia was examined by assessing the paw withdrawal latency to noxious heat stimuli. In electrophysiological study, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed to investigate the interaction of ET-1 and TRPV1 using human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells expressing endothelin type A receptor (ET(A)) and TRPV1. Intraplantar ET-1 (3, 10 and 30 pmol) produced thermal hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner. Thermal hyperalgesia was attenuated by the inhibition of ET(A) and protein kinase C (PKC) but not that of ET(B). ET-1-induced thermal hyperalgesia was significantly attenuated in TRPV1-deficient mice compared with that in wild-type mice. In voltage-clamp experiments, 10 nM capsaicin evoked small inward currents in HEK293 cells expressing TRPV1 and ET(A). In the presence of ET-1, capsaicin produced much larger current responses (Pthermal hyperalgesia.

  2. The Potential Contribution of Subsurface Drip Irrigation to Water-Saving Agriculture in the Western USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T L Thompson; PANG Huan-cheng; LI Yu-yi

    2009-01-01

    Water shortages within the western USA are resulting in the adoption of water-saving agricultural practices within this region. Among the many possible methods for saving water in agriculture, the adoption of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) provides a potential solution to the problem of low water use efficiency. Other advantages of SDI include reduced NO3 leaching compared to surface irrigation, higher yields, a dry soil surface for improved weed control, better crop health, and harvest flexibility for many specialty crops. The use of SDI also allows the virtual elimination of crop water stress, the ability to apply water and nutrients to the most active part of the root zone, protection of drip lines from damage due to cultivation and tillage, and the ability to irrigate with wastewater while preventing human contact. Yet, SDI is used only on a minority of cropland in the arid western USA. Reasons for the limited adoption of SDI include the high initial capital investment required, the need for intensive management, and the urbanization that is rapidly consuming farmland in parts of the western USA. The contributions of SDI to increasing yield, quality, and water use efficiency have been demonstrated. The two major barriers to SDI sustainability in arid regions are economics (i.e., paying for the SDI system), including the high cost of installation; and salt accumulation, which requires periodic leaching, specialized tillage methods, or transplanting of seedlings rather than direct-seeding. We will review advances in irrigation management with SDI.

  3. Potential contribution of aromatase inhibition to the effects of nicotine and related compounds on the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegon, Anat; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Fowler, Joanna S

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking continues to be a major public health problem, and while smoking rates in men have shown some decrease over the last few decades, smoking rates among girls and young women are increasing. Practically all of the important aspects of cigarette smoking and many effects of nicotine are sexually dimorphic (reviewed by Pogun and Yararbas, 2009). Women become addicted more easily than men, while finding it harder to quit. Nicotine replacement appears to be less effective in women. This may be linked to the observation that women are more sensitive than men to non-nicotine cues or ingredients in cigarettes. The reasons for these sex differences are mostly unknown. Several lines of evidence suggest that many of the reported sex differences related to cigarette smoking may stem from the inhibitory effects of nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids on estrogen synthesis via the enzyme aromatase (cyp19a gene product). Aromatase is the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, catalyzing the conversion of androgens to estrogens. This review provides a summary of experimental evidence supporting brain aromatase as a potential mediator and/or modulator of nicotine actions in the brain, contributing to sex differences in smoking behavior. Additional research on the interaction between tobacco smoke, nicotine, and aromatase may help devise new, sex specific methods for prevention and treatment of smoking addiction.

  4. Potential contribution of aromatase inhibition to the effects of nicotine and related compounds on the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat eBiegon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking continues to be a major public health problem, and while smoking rates in men have shown some decrease over the last few decades, smoking rates among girls and young women are increasing. Practically all of the important aspects of cigarette smoking are sexually dimorphic. Women become addicted more easily than men, while finding it harder to quit. Nicotine replacement appears to be less effective in women. This may be linked to the observation that women are more sensitive than men to non-nicotine cues or ingredients in cigarettes. The reasons for these sex differences are mostly unknown. Several lines of evidence suggest that many of the reported sex differences related to cigarette smoking may stem from the inhibitory effects of nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids on estrogen synthesis via the enzyme aromatase (cyp19a gene product. Aromatase is the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, catalyzing the conversion of androgens to estrogens. This review provides a summary of experimental evidence supporting brain aromatase as a potential mediator and/or modulator of nicotine actions in the brain, contributing to sex differences in smoking behavior. Additional research on the interaction between tobacco smoke, nicotine and aromatase may help devise new, sex specific methods for prevention and treatment of smoking addiction.

  5. NASA's Potential Contributions for Remediation of Retention Ponds Using Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lauren W.; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    This Candidate Solution uses NASA Earth science research on atmospheric ozone and aerosols data (1) to help improve the prediction capabilities of water runoff models that are used to estimate runoff pollution from retention ponds, and (2) to understand the pollutant removal contribution and potential of photocatalytically coated materials that could be used in these ponds. Models (the EPA's SWMM and the USGS SLAMM) exist that estimate the release of pollutants into the environment from storm-water-related retention pond runoff. UV irradiance data acquired from the satellite mission Aura and from the OMI Surface UV algorithm will be incorporated into these models to enhance their capabilities, not only by increasing the general understanding of retention pond function (both the efficacy and efficiency) but additionally by adding photocatalytic materials to these retention ponds, augmenting their performance. State and local officials who run pollution protection programs could then develop and implement photocatalytic technologies for water pollution control in retention ponds and use them in conjunction with existing runoff models. More effective decisions about water pollution protection programs could be made, the persistence and toxicity of waste generated could be minimized, and subsequently our natural water resources would be improved. This Candidate Solution is in alignment with the Water Management and Public Health National Applications.

  6. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 in Epidermal Keratinocytes May Contribute to Acute Pain in Herpes Zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Bum; Kim, Hyeree; Cho, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jeong Deuk; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Hei Sung

    2016-03-01

    The role of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) in the initiation of neurogenic inflammation and transduction of pain is well established. In this study 33 patients with herpes zoster (HZ) were recruited from a single centre and underwent a questionnaire interview at their first visit. Punch biopsies from the HZ lesions and the contralateral unaffected skin were performed to localize and quantify the expression of TRPV1. Immunofluorescent staining for TRPV1 was most prominent in the epidermal keratinocytes. Both TRPV1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in the HZ epidermis than in control epidermis (relative ratio 1.62 ± 0.27, p = 0.033 and 2.55 ± 0.51, p = 0.005, respectively). Protein TRPV1 ratio (HZ lesion/control) correlated with the degree of pain (measured on a visual analogue scale; VAS) (p = 0.017) and was significantly lower in patients who had taken either HZ medication or painkillers prior to their visit. These results suggest that non-neuronal TRPV1 may contribute to acute pain in herpes zoster.

  7. Incorporating E-learning in teaching English language to medical students: exploring its potential contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidinia, Hossein; Zare Bidaki, Majid; Hekmati, Nargess

    2016-01-01

    Background: The spread of technology has influenced different aspects of human life, and teaching and learning are not exceptions. This study aimed to examine the potential contribution of the use of technology in teaching English language to medical students. Methods: This qualitative-action research study was conducted in Birjand University of Medical Sciences (BUMS), with 60 medical students taking a general English course in the Fall Semester of 2015. The class favored different tools and multimedia facilities such as a tube channel, e-dictionaries, educational films, and etextbooks to enhance students’ learning. In addition, the class had a weblog in which students could upload assignments and receive feedback from peers and the instructors. Results: The results revealed that e-learning could enhance students’ language proficiency and facilitate the teaching process. Learners preferred to use more e-dictionaries to learn the meaning of the new words, watch English medical films to boost their speaking and listening skills, and use the electronic version of their textbook as they could carry it wherever they wanted. Conclusion: The students preferred this method of learning English as they became more independent by using the electronic facilities. They found that learning English did not have a fixed institutionalized method, and e-learning activities could provide them with authentic input for language learning even outside of the classroom. PMID:28491837

  8. Evaluation of model-simulated source contributions to tropospheric ozone with aircraft observations in the factor-projected space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yoshida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Trace gas measurements of TOPSE and TRACE-P experiments and corresponding global GEOS-Chem model simulations are analyzed with the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF method for model evaluation purposes. Specially, we evaluate the model simulated contributions to O3 variability from stratospheric transport, intercontinental transport, and production from urban/industry and biomass burning/biogenic sources. We select a suite of relatively long-lived tracers, including 7 chemicals (O3, NOy, PAN, CO, C3H8, CH3Cl, and 7Be and 1 dynamic tracer (potential temperature. The largest discrepancy is found in the stratospheric contribution to 7Be. The model underestimates this contribution by a factor of 2–3, corresponding well to a reduction of 7Be source by the same magnitude in the default setup of the standard GEOS-Chem model. In contrast, we find that the simulated O3 contributions from stratospheric transport are in reasonable agreement with those derived from the measurements. However, the springtime increasing trend over North America derived from the measurements are largely underestimated in the model, indicating that the magnitude of simulated stratospheric O3 source is reasonable but the temporal distribution needs improvement. The simulated O3 contributions from long-range transport and production from urban/industry and biomass burning/biogenic emissions are also in reasonable agreement with those derived from the measurements, although significant discrepancies are found for some regions.

  9. Soils as a Solution: The Potential of Rangelands to Contribute to Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, W. L.; Ryals, R.; DeLonge, M. S.; Owen, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The majority of soil-related climate change research has focused on describing the problem - estimating rates of carbon (C) losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from natural and managed ecosystems. More research is needed to explore potential solutions to climate change through mitigation and adaptation. Here we report on an integrated set of studies aimed at critically evaluating the biogeochemical potential of rangeland soils to help mitigate climate change, while improving the sustainability and productivity of food production systems. We explored direct effects through enhanced net primary production (NPP) and soil C sequestration, and indirect effects through diversion of high emitting sources to lower emitting organic matter dynamics. We used a combination of long- and short-term field experiments, modeling, laboratory assays, life cycle assessment (LCA), and meta-analyses in consultation with a diverse group of stakeholders from both the private and public sectors. We found that organic matter amendments held particularly strong potential. Compost amendments increased soil C storage by 0.5-1.0 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in surface soils over 5 y, and increased NPP and water holding capacity. We measured 1.0 Mg of new C ha-1 y-1 over 3 y. Long-term amendment of cattle manure increased surface soil C by 19.0±7.3 Mg C ha-1 relative to unmanured fields. However, field and modeling experiments suggested that manure amendments lead to large nitrous oxide emissions that eventually eliminated CO2e benefits, whereas compost amendments continued to benefit climate for decades longer. An LCA identified a broader range of climate impacts. When scaled to an area of 25% of California's rangelands, new C sequestered following compost amendments (21 million Mg CO2e) exceeded emissions from cattle (15 million Mg CO2e); diverting organics from waste streams to amendments led to additional GHG savings. In collaboration with our partners, our research contributed to the development of

  10. The Contribution of Robert F. Corwin to Self-Potential and Geotechnical Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, D. V.

    2007-12-01

    Throughout his career, Robert F. Corwin developed innovative geophysical methods to solve geotechnical problems. Most notable is his work on self-potential (SP) where his focus was a blend of electricity and water, a potentially lethal brew, to solve very practical problems. Corwin's work in SP started with the idea of applying the technique to marine mineral exploration; this early work is characterized by a theme that ran through his career: understanding the effects that can influence measurements, developing methodologies to obtain consistent and reliable data, and interpreting those data in a conservative and believable manner supported by the facts. He expanded the electricity-water connection to geothermal fluids and the SP signals produced by them. He was involved in geothermal exploration throughout the western U.S. including Alaska and Mexico. In addition to developing reliable field techniques he worked on interpretational methods that made SP interpretation quantitative. Corwin's most significant contribution was the study of leaky dams using SP. Water leakage produces an SP anomaly because of the electrokinetic properties of geologic materials. Through a series of SP studies for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers he developed a methodology for making and interpreting SP measurements that helped locate, assess, and remediate leakage. This success led to numerous surveys throughout Canada for regional power authorities. Corwin returned to marine geophysical studies throughout his career including SP measurements to locate moveable concrete mats placed in the Mississippi River to control bank erosion. Because of changes in river flow, these large articulated mats were often undercut, moved, and reburied causing hazardous bank conditions. SP and electrical resistivity measurements were found to accurately locate the mats. Corwin also worked on electrical resistivity measurements of the ocean floor. Starting with stationary

  11. Contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies to Uncovering Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes: Diet, Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H.; Ardisson Korat, Andres V.; Sun, Qi; Tobias, Deirdre K.; Zhang, Cuilin; Qi, Lu; Willett, Walter C.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and the NHS II to addressing hypotheses regarding risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Methods. We carried out a narrative review of 1976 to 2016 NHS and NHS II publications. Results. The NHS and NHS II have uncovered important roles in type 2 diabetes for individual nutrients, foods, dietary patterns, and physical activity independent of excess body weight. Up to 90% of type 2 diabetes cases are potentially preventable if individuals follow a healthy diet and lifestyle. The NHS investigations have also identified novel biomarkers for diabetes, including adipokines, inflammatory cytokines, nutrition metabolites, and environmental pollutants, offering new insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Global collaborative efforts have uncovered many common genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes and improved our understanding of gene–environment interactions. Continued efforts to identify epigenetic, metagenomic, and metabolomic risk factors for type 2 diabetes have the potential to reveal new pathways and improve prediction and prevention. Conclusions. Over the past several decades, the NHS and NHS II have made major contributions to public health recommendations and strategies designed to reduce the global burden of diabetes. PMID:27459454

  12. A literature review of organisational, individual and teamwork factors contributing to the ICU discharge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Frances; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne

    2009-02-01

    It is everyday news that we need more intensive care unit (ICU) beds, thus effective use of existing resources is imperative. The aim of this literature review was to critically analyse current literature on how organizational factors, individual factors and teamwork factors influence the ICU discharge process. A better understanding of discharge practices has the potential to ultimately influence ICU resource availability. Databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, PROQUEST, SCIENCE DIRECT were searched using key terms such as ICU discharge, discharge process, ICU guidelines and policies, discharge decision-making, ICU organisational factors, ICU and human factors, and ICU patient transfer. Articles' reference lists were also used to locate relevant literature. A total of 21 articles were included in the review. Only a small number of ICUs used written patient discharge guidelines. Consensus, rather than empirical evidence, dictates the importance of guidelines and policies. Premature discharge, discharge after hours and discharge by triage still exist due to resources constraints, even though the literature suggests these are associated with increased mortality. Teamwork and team training appear to be effective in improving efficiency and communication between professions or between clinical areas. However, this aspect has rarely been researched in relation to ICU patient discharge. Intensive care patient discharge is influenced by organisational factors, individual factors and teamwork factors. Organisational interventions are effective in reducing ICU discharge delay and shortening patient hospital stay. More rigorous research is needed to discover how these factors influence the ICU discharge process.

  13. Acinetobacter baumannii: human infections, factors contributing to pathogenesis and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Michael J; Actis, Luis; Pachón, Jerónimo

    2013-03-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a medically important pathogen because of the increasing number of infections produced by this organism over the preceding three decades and the global spread of strains with resistance to multiple antibiotic classes. In spite of its clinical relevance, until recently, there have been few studies addressing the factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of this organism. The availability of complete genome sequences, molecular tools for manipulating the bacterial genome, and animal models of infection have begun to facilitate the identification of factors that play a role in A. baumannii persistence and infection. This review summarizes the characteristics of A. baumannii that contribute to its pathogenesis, with a focus on motility, adherence, biofilm formation, and iron acquisition. In addition, the virulence factors that have been identified to date, which include the outer membrane protein OmpA, phospholipases, membrane polysaccharide components, penicillin-binding proteins, and outer membrane vesicles, are discussed. Animal models systems that have been developed during the last 15 years for the study of A. baumannii infection are overviewed, and the recent use of these models to identify factors involved in virulence and pathogenesis is highlighted.

  14. Analyses of the contributing factors associated with foodborne outbreaks in school settings (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuto, Margaret; Garcia, Kristin

    2015-03-01

    State-reported school foodborne outbreaks account for about 3.8% (n = 464) of all outbreaks and 8.2% (n = 20,667) of all illnesses reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. Of 464 school foodborne outbreaks, 122 (26%) outbreaks, 7,603 illnesses, and 301 reported food safety errors met the criteria for inclusion in the analyses. The purpose of the authors' study was to examine the role of contributing factors in school foodborne outbreaks. Contamination factors accounted for the greatest proportion (49.2%) of outbreaks involving some level of food handling interaction by a school food service worker, followed by proliferation (34.9%) and survival factors (15.9%). Over 56% of all illnesses were associated with norovirus and food service worker practices. The results of these analyses highlight the importance of effective food safety education programs that focus on the role of contributing factors and prevention of foodborne disease from food safety errors.

  15. Established and potential risk factors for clostridum difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishnavi C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is the aetiological agent for almost all cases of pseudo membranous colitis and 15-25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. In recent years, C. difficile associated disease (CDAD has been increasing in frequency and severity due to the emergence of virulent strains. Severe cases of toxic mega colon may be associated with mortality rates of 24-38%. The prevalence of CDAD is global and the incidence varies considerably from place to place. In the initial stages of its discovery, C. difficile infection was regarded mainly as an outcome of antibiotic intake and not as a life threatening disease. Intervention by man has produced conditions making C. difficile a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The recent outbreak of CDAD in Quebec has sent the alarm bells ringing. Apart from a threefold increase in the incidence of CDAD, clinicians have also reported a higher number of cases involving toxic mega colon, colectomy or death. Among all the risk factors, inclusive of the host and the environmental factors, antibiotics are the most important ones. Surgical patients comprise 55-75% of all patients with CDAD due to the fact that perioperative prophylaxis requires the use of antibiotics. However, other drugs such as immunosuppressants and proton pump inhibitors are also important risk factors. Thus CDAD is a growing nosocomial and public health challenge. Additionally, the recognition of community acquired CDAD signals the presence of several risk factors. In this review, the established and potential risk factors of CDAD, along with the epidemiology, diagnostic modalities, management and preventive measures of the disease have been elaborated.

  16. Established and potential risk factors for Clostridum difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishnavi, C

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the aetiological agent for almost all cases of pseudo membranous colitis and 15-25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. In recent years, C. difficile associated disease (CDAD) has been increasing in frequency and severity due to the emergence of virulent strains. Severe cases of toxic mega colon may be associated with mortality rates of 24-38%. The prevalence of CDAD is global and the incidence varies considerably from place to place. In the initial stages of its discovery, C. difficile infection was regarded mainly as an outcome of antibiotic intake and not as a life threatening disease. Intervention by man has produced conditions making C. difficile a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The recent outbreak of CDAD in Quebec has sent the alarm bells ringing. Apart from a threefold increase in the incidence of CDAD, clinicians have also reported a higher number of cases involving toxic mega colon, colectomy or death. Among all the risk factors, inclusive of the host and the environmental factors, antibiotics are the most important ones. Surgical patients comprise 55-75% of all patients with CDAD due to the fact that perioperative prophylaxis requires the use of antibiotics. However, other drugs such as immunosuppressants and proton pump inhibitors are also important risk factors. Thus CDAD is a growing nosocomial and public health challenge. Additionally, the recognition of community acquired CDAD signals the presence of several risk factors. In this review, the established and potential risk factors of CDAD, along with the epidemiology, diagnostic modalities, management and preventive measures of the disease have been elaborated.

  17. Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Jason R.

    This investigation explored scientific, religious, and otherwise nonscientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution and related concepts, how students perceived these factors to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution and changes therein, and what patterns arose among students' articulations of how their levels of acceptance of evolution may have changed. This exploration also measured the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following a treatment designed to address factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution. Acceptance of evolution was measured using the MATE instrument (Rutledge and Warden, 1999; Rutledge and Sadler, 2007) among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic program during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than pre-treatment levels both immediately following and slightly over one year after treatment. Qualitative data from informal questionnaires, from formal course evaluations, and from semi-structured interviews of students engaged in secondary level education and former students at various stages of post-secondary education confirmed that the suspected factors were perceived by participants to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution. Furthermore, participant reports provided insight regarding the relative effects they perceived these factors to have had on their evolution acceptance levels. Additionally, many participants reported that their science teachers in public schools had avoided, omitted, or denigrated evolution during instruction, and several of these students expressed frustration regarding what they perceived to have been a lack of education of an important scientific principle. Finally, no students expressed feelings of being offended by having been taught about

  18. Graves-Basedow disease and potential risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Dušica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Graves-Basedow disease is a common multifactorial genetic syndrome, which is determined by several genes and environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of risk factors for developing Graves-Basedow disease between the groups of individuals with and without Graves-Basedow disease, and to compare the presence of risk factors between the affected individuals with or without positive family history for Graves- Basedow disease. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ćuprija (central Serbia during a period from December 2001 to April 2002. The case group comprised 132 individuals diagnosed with Graves-Basedow disease. The control group comprised 130 subjects without any of endocrine diseases. All participants were interviewed at the Medical Center Ćuprija using structural questionnaire. Data were collected on basic demographic characteristics, exposure to various chemical and physical agents, stress, smoking and family history of Graves-Basedow disease. In statistical analysis chi-square test was used. Results. The individuals with Graves-Basedow disease were statistically significantly older (above 50 (p = 0.020, exposed to stress (p = 0.024 and to physical agents (p = 0.031, and had significantly (p = 0.000 more relatives with Graves-Basedow disease than those without the disease. Among the affected individuals with positive family history of Graves-Basedow disease the number of women was significantly higher (p = 0.000, than the affected individuals without positive family history of Graves- Basedow disease. Conclusion. In our study, as in many other, gender, age, positive family history of Graves-Basedow disease and exposure to physical agents were identified as potential risk factors for the increased incidence of Graves- Basedow disease. Different risk factors are probably responsible for developing Graves-Basedow disease among the affected individuals with or without

  19. Traffic induced particle resuspension in Paris: Emission factors and source contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, F.; Favez, O.; Pandolfi, M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Moukhtar, S.; Bruge, B.; Verlhac, S.; Orza, J. A. G.; Bonnaire, N.; Le Priol, T.; Petit, J.-F.; Sciare, J.

    2016-03-01

    Gaining knowledge on the process of particle resuspension from urban paved roads is of particular importance considering the increasing relevance of this source in urban air quality management and the lack of basic information on emission factors and source contributions. In this study we performed extensive field measurements for the quantification of the emission factors from different types of road in the city of Paris, and investigated the causes of their variability and the contributions to the ambient air PM10 observed across one year at one traffic monitoring site in the ring road of Paris. Results show agreement between lower road dust loadings (RD10: 0.7-2.2 mg m-2) and emission factors (5.4-9.0 mg vehicle-1 km-1) at inner-roads of Paris, compared to the ring road (2.4 mg m-2 and 17 mg vehicle-1 km-1, respectively), where the two parameters are estimated independently. The higher values in the ring road were likely caused by the poor state of pavement and higher share of heavy duty vehicles. Road wear, brake wear and a carbonaceous source, were almost equally responsible for 96% of RD10. At the traffic monitoring site located at the ring road (220,000 vehicle/day), the contributions of road dust emissions were estimated by receptor modeling to be 13% of PM10 on an annual mean (6.3 μg m-3), while the sum of vehicle exhaust and wear accounted for 47% resulting in a total traffic contribution of 60% of PM10. Road salting resulted to be a minor contributor (1% of annual mean) also in winter time (2%).

  20. Health-related quality of life in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: contribution of demographic factors, disease-related factors, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, Lianne C; Oostenbrink, R; de Goede-Bolder, Arja; Aarsen, Femke K; Elgersma, Ype; Moll, Henriëtte A

    2009-03-01

    To investigate health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) with parental reports and children's self-reports, and to investigate the potential contribution of demographic factors, disease-specific factors, and problems in school performance or behavior. In a prospective observational study, parents of 58 children with NF1 (32 boys, 26 girls, age 12.2 +/- 2.5 years) visiting a university clinic, and their 43 children 10 years or older were assessed with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ). Potential determinants of domain scores were assessed in 3 explorative regression models. Parents reported a significant impact of NF1 on 9/13 CHQ scales, with moderate effect sizes on 8 (general health perceptions, physical functioning, general behavior, mental health, self esteem, family activities, role functioning emotional/behavioral, and parent emotional impact). Children report an impact on bodily pain, and an above average general behavior. Multiple CHQ scales were sensitive to demographic factors and behavioral problems, and 1 to NF1 severity. NF1 visibility and school problems did not influence HR-QOL. Parents, but not the children with NF1, report a profound impact of NF1 on physical, social, behavioral, and emotional aspects of HR-QOL. Multiple HR-QOL domains were most sensitive to behavioral problems, which points to an exciting potential opportunity to improve HR-QOL in children with NF1 by addressing these behavioral problems.

  1. Potential risk and its influencing factors for separated bicycle paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Yang, Ying; Jin, Sheng; Qu, Zhaowei; Hou, Lei

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose two potential risk indicators to define and evaluate the safety of bicycle path at the microscopic level. Field bicycle data were collected from three survey sites under different traffic conditions. These two risk indicators based on speed dispersion were proposed and calculated during each 5-min interval. The risk influences of various widths of bicycle path and traffic conditions were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. We further proposed a generalized linear model (GLM) for modeling and analyzing the relationships between bicycle risks and v/c ratio and percentages of electric bicycles, male cyclists, young cyclists, and loaded cyclists. The stepwise regression models were applied for determination of coefficients. The results show that the influences of gender and age of cyclists on potential risks are not significant. The risks increase with the width of bicycle path and percentage of electric bicycles, while only for wider bicycle path (4-lane case in this study), the risks are associated with whether or not cyclists are loaded. The findings could contribute for analysis and evaluation of the safety for bicycle path. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors Contributing to the Waste Generation in Building Projects of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees Ahmed Memon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation of construction waste is a worldwide issue that concerns not only governments but also the building actors involved in construction industry. For developing countries like Pakistan, rising levels of waste generation, due to the rapid growth of towns and cities have become critical issue. Therefore this study is aimed to detect the factors, which are the main causes of construction waste generation. Questionnaire survey has been conducted to achieve this task and RIW (Relative Importance Weight method has been used to analyze the results of this study. The important factors contributing to the generation of construction as identified in this study are: frequent changes/ revision in design during construction process; poor scheduling; unavailability of storage; poor workmanship; poor layout; inefficient planning and scheduling of resources and lack of coordination among supervision staff deployed at site. Based on the identified factors, the study also has presented some suggestions for the reduction of construction waste in building construction projects of Pakistan.

  3. OSD’s Obligation & Expenditure Rate Goals: An Examination of the Factors Contributing to the Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Delays (F24) fell below x while four factors rose above x: Shortage of Cost Estimators (F29), Shortage of Business and Finance Management Personnel (F30...ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = OSD’s Obligation & Expenditure Rate Goals: An Examination of the Factors ...the Factors Contributing to the Interference 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  4. Contribution of material, occupational, and psychosocial factors in the explanation of social inequalities in health in 28 countries in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabe, Bénédicte; Anderson, Robert; Lyly-Yrjänäinen, Maija; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Kelleher, C Cecily; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To analyse the associations between socioeconomic status (SES), measured using occupation, and self-reported health, and to examine the contribution of various material, occupational, and psychosocial factors to social inequalities in health in Europe. Methods This study was based on data from the European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) carried out in 2003. The total sample consisted of 6038 and 6383 working men and women in 28 countries in Europe (response rates: 30.3–91.2%). Each set of potential material, occupational, and psychosocial mediators included between 8 and 11 variables. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results Significant social differences were observed for self-reported health, manual workers being more likely to be in poor health (OR=1.89, 95% CI: 1.46–2.46 for men, OR=2.18, 95% CI: 1.71–2.77 for women). Strong social gradients were found for almost all potential mediating factors, and almost all displayed significant associations with self-reported health. Social differences in health were substantially reduced after adjustment for material, occupational, and psychosocial factors, material factors playing a major role. The four strongest contributions to reducing these differences were found for material deprivation, social exclusion, financial problems, and job reward. Taking all mediators into account led to an explanation of the social differences in health by 78–100% for men and women. Conclusion The association between SES and poor health may be attributed to differential distributions of several dimensions of material, occupational, and psychosocial conditions across occupational groups. Interventions targeting different dimensions might result in a reduction of social inequalities in health. PMID:20584725

  5. Analysis of Traffic Crashes Involving Pedestrians Using Big Data: Investigation of Contributing Factors and Identification of Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kun; Ozbay, Kaan; Kurkcu, Abdullah; Yang, Hong

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to explore the potential of using big data in advancing the pedestrian risk analysis including the investigation of contributing factors and the hotspot identification. Massive amounts of data of Manhattan from a variety of sources were collected, integrated, and processed, including taxi trips, subway turnstile counts, traffic volumes, road network, land use, sociodemographic, and social media data. The whole study area was uniformly split into grid cells as the basic geographical units of analysis. The cell-structured framework makes it easy to incorporate rich and diversified data into risk analysis. The cost of each crash, weighted by injury severity, was assigned to the cells based on the relative distance to the crash site using a kernel density function. A tobit model was developed to relate grid-cell-specific contributing factors to crash costs that are left-censored at zero. The potential for safety improvement (PSI) that could be obtained by using the actual crash cost minus the cost of "similar" sites estimated by the tobit model was used as a measure to identify and rank pedestrian crash hotspots. The proposed hotspot identification method takes into account two important factors that are generally ignored, i.e., injury severity and effects of exposure indicators. Big data, on the one hand, enable more precise estimation of the effects of risk factors by providing richer data for modeling, and on the other hand, enable large-scale hotspot identification with higher resolution than conventional methods based on census tracts or traffic analysis zones. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Which factors in raw cow's milk contribute to protection against allergies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Neerven, R J Joost; Knol, Edward F; Heck, Jeroen M L; Savelkoul, Huub F J

    2012-10-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have shown that growing up in a farming environment is associated with a decreased risk of allergies. A factor that correlates strongly with this effect is the early ingestion of unheated cow's milk. Although, to date, no controlled studies on raw milk consumption have been performed to formally demonstrate this effect, several factors in bovine milk have been described that might explain how raw cow's milk consumption can decrease the risk of allergies. In addition, increasing knowledge on the immunologically active factors in breast milk have also contributed to our understanding of the effects of bovine milk in infants because many of the factors in bovine milk are expected to have functional effects in human subjects as well. Here we review these factors and their mechanisms of action and compare their presence in bovine milk and breast milk. A better understanding of these factors, as well as how to retain them, might ultimately lead to the development of mildly processed milk and infant nutrition products that could become a part of preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of allergic disease.

  7. Host and viral factors contributing to CD8+ T cell failure in hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph Neumann-Haefelin; Hans Christian Spangenberg; Hubert E Blum; Robert Thimme

    2007-01-01

    Virus-specific CD8+ T cells are thought to be the major anti-viral effector cells in hepatitis C virus (HCV)infection. Indeed, viral clearance is associated with vigorous CD8+ T cell responses targeting multiple epitopes. In the chronic phase of infection, HCV-specific CD8+ T cell responses are usually weak, narrowly focused and display often functional defects regarding cytotoxicity, cytokine production, and proliferative capacity. In the last few years, different mechanisms which might contribute to the failure of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells in chronic infection have been identified,including insufficient CD4+ help, deficient CD8+ T cell differentiation, viral escape mutations, suppression by viral factors, inhibitory cytokines, inhibitory ligands, and regulatory T cells. In addition, host genetic factors such as the host's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) background may play an important role in the efficiency of the HCVspecific CD8+ T cell response and thus outcome of infection. The growing understanding of the mechanisms contributing to T cell failure and persistence of HCV infection will contribute to the development of successful immunotherapeutical and -prophylactical strategies.

  8. Seeking potential contributions to future carbon budget in conterminous US forests considering disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangmin; Pan, Yude; Birdsey, Richard A.; Chen, Jing M.; Dugan, Alexa

    2016-09-01

    Currently, US forests constitute a large carbon sink, comprising about 9 % of the global terrestrial carbon sink. Wildfire is the most significant disturbance influencing carbon dynamics in US forests. Our objective is to estimate impacts of climate change, CO2 concentration, and nitrogen deposition on the future net biome productivity (NBP) of US forests until the end of twenty-first century under a range of disturbance conditions. We designate three forest disturbance scenarios under one future climate scenario to evaluate factor impacts for the future period (2011-2100): (1) no wildfires occur but forests continue to age (Saging), (2) no wildfires occur and forest ages are fixed in 2010 (Sfixed_nodis), and (3) wildfires occur according to a historical pattern, consequently changing forest age (Sdis_age_change). Results indicate that US forests remain a large carbon sink in the late twenty-first century under the Sfixed_nodis scenario; however, they become a carbon source under the Saging and Sdis_age_change scenarios. During the period of 2011 to 2100, climate is projected to have a small direct effect on NBP, while atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition have large positive effects on NBP regardless of the future climate and disturbance scenarios. Meanwhile, responses to past disturbances under the Sfixed_nodis scenario increase NBP regardless of the future climate scenarios. Although disturbance effects on NBP under the Saging and Sdis_age_change scenarios decrease with time, both scenarios experience an increase in NBP prior to the 2050s and then a decrease in NBP until the end of the twenty-first century. This study indicates that there is potential to increase or at least maintain the carbon sink of conterminous US forests at the current level if future wildfires are reduced and age structures are maintained at a productive mix. The effects of CO2 on the future carbon sink may overwhelm effects of other factors at the end of the twenty

  9. Hip instability: a review of hip dysplasia and other contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeutler, Matthew J; Garabekyan, Tigran; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Hip instability has classically been associated with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in newborns and children. However, numerous factors may contribute to hip instability in children, adolescents, and adults. This review aims to concisely present the literature on hip instability in patients of all ages in order to guide health care professionals in the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of the various disorders which may contribute to an unstable hip. We reviewed the literature on the diagnosis and surgical management of hip dysplasia and other causes of hip instability. Multiple intra- and extra-articular variables may contribute to hip instability, including acetabular bony coverage, femoral torsion, femoroacetabular impingement, and soft tissue laxity. Physical examination and advanced imaging studies are essential to accurately diagnose the pathology contributing to a patient's unstable hip. Conservative management, including activity modification and physical therapy, may be used as a first-line treatment in patients with intra-articular hip pathology. Patients who continue to experience symptoms of pain or instability should proceed with arthroscopic or open surgical treatment aimed at correcting the underlying pathology. V.

  10. Can assessing for potential contribution of soil organic and inorganic components for butachlor sorption be improved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Liu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Haizhen; Shi, Jiachun; Xu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Sorption of butachlor to various types of common soil components was investigated. Six pure minerals (montmorillonite [Mont], kaolinite [Kaol], Ca homoionic montmorillonite [Ca-Mont] and kaolinite [Ca-Kaol], amorphous hydrated Al and Fe oxides [AHOs-Al, AHOs-Fe]), four soil alkali-extractable pure humic acids (HAs), and the four corresponding HAs originated real unmodified and HO-treated soils were selected as the representative sorbents. Results showed that the HAs played a crucial role, and clay minerals (especially Mont) also showed an important effect in butachlor sorption. The AHOs may likely influence only in a mediator way by enhancing the availability of sorption domains of HAs. By removing 78% (on average) of the total organic carbon (TOC) from the soils with HO, the content ratio of clay to TOC (RCO) increased by an average of 367% and became >60. This change simultaneously decreased the sorption capacity of soils (40%, on average). Considering that the surface sorption domain on clay minerals may be highly exposed and more competitive after the partial removal of soil organic matter (SOM), this reaffirmed the potential contribution from clay minerals. It can thus be inferred that in the real soil where SOM and clay minerals are associated, the coating of clay minerals may have weakened the partition function of SOM or blocked some sorption domain within SOM, resulting in a decreased sorption of butachlor. Therefore, clay minerals, especially 2:1 type expanding minerals, may play a dual function vs. SOM content for the sorption of butachlor in soil.

  11. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines: the potential contributions of ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eliana; Barnes, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Typically, ethnobotanical/ethnopharmacological (EB/EP) surveys are used to describe uses, doses/dosages, sources and methods of preparation of traditional herbal medicines; their application to date in examining the adverse effects, contraindications and other safety aspects of these preparations is limited. From a pharmacovigilance perspective, numerous challenges exist in applying its existing methods to studying the safety profile of herbal medicines, particularly where used by indigenous cultures. This paper aims to contribute to the methodological aspects of EB/EP field work, and to extend the reach of pharmacovigilance, by proposing a tool comprising a list of questions that could be applied during interview and observational studies. The questions focus on the collection of information on the safety profile of traditional herbal medicines as it is embedded in traditional knowledge, as well as on identifying personal experiences (spontaneous reports) of adverse or undesirable effects associated with the use of traditional herbal medicines. Questions on the precise composition of traditional prescriptions or 'recipes', their preparation, storage, administration and dosing are also included. Strengths and limitations of the tool are discussed. From this interweaving of EB/EP and pharmacovigilance arises a concept of ethnopharmacovigilance for traditional herbal medicines: the scope of EB/EP is extended to include exploration of the potential harmful effects of medicinal plants, and the incorporation of pharmacovigilance questions into EB/EP studies provides a new opportunity for collection of 'general' traditional knowledge on the safety of traditional herbal medicines and, importantly, a conduit for collection of spontaneous reports of suspected adverse effects. Whether the proposed tool can yield data sufficiently rich and of an appropriate quality for application of EB/EP (e.g. data verification and quantitative analysis tools) and pharmacovigilance

  12. Factors contributing to decreased protein stability when aspartic acid residues are in {beta}-sheet regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokkuluri, P. R.; Cai, X.; Raffen, R.; Gu, M.; Stevens, F. J.; Schiffer, M.

    2002-07-01

    domain both in vitro and in vivo, or it could contribute to the pathogenic potential of the protein in vivo.

  13. Motivation and engagement in computer-based learning tasks: investigating key contributing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ott, Mauro Tavella

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, drawing on a research project concerning the educational use of digital mind games with primary school students, aims at giving a contribution to the understanding of which are the main factors influencing student motivation during computer-based learning activities. It puts forward some ideas and experience based reflections, starting by considering digital games that are widely recognized as the most promising ICT tools to enhance student motivation. The project results suggest that student genuine engagement in learning activities is mainly related to the actual possession of the skills and of the cognitive capacities needed to perform the task. In this perspective, cognitive overload should be regarded as one of the main reasons contributing to hinder student motivation and, consequently, should be avoided. Other elements such as game attractiveness and experimental setting constraints resulted to have a lower effect on student motivation.

  14. A Study of Factors Contributing to Denture Stomatitis in a North Indian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Vinayak Naik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors like oral and denture hygiene, presence of saliva, age of the denture, and degree of colonization with Candida albicans are to be evaluated as local contributing factors for causing denture stomatitis. 100 patients aged 30 to 70 years were selected for the study. Among these, 70 patients were labeled test group showing signs of stomatitis and 30 patients as control group as they showed no inflammatory signs. Clinical tests included oral and denture hygiene evaluation, salivary measurements, and age of the dentures, and microscopic investigations were done. Results showed no significant differences between the two groups in terms of saliva, oral and denture hygiene habits, and denture age. Test group showed stomatitis in patients who were wearing dentures for 5 to 10 years compared to control group who were wearing dentures for 10 years and above. Denture age was proportional to Candida colonization and not to degree of inflammation. Significant differences were found in Candida colonization of the fitting surface of the denture between stomatitis and control groups. Poor denture hygiene habits are the most prominent contributing factor for denture stomatitis and colonization.

  15. The relative contribution of environmental and genetic factors to phenotypic variation in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Brandt, Benny; Berkun, Yackov; Lidar, Merav; Livneh, Avi

    2012-01-10

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease, caused by mutations in the FMF gene MEFV (MEditerranean FeVer). It has a large phenotypic diversity even in patients with similar genotypes. Despite evidence that environmental factors (EFs) and genetic factors, including MEFV mutations (such as M694V, E148Q) and background modifier genes (MGs), affect the clinical manifestations of FMF, the relative contribution of each remains unknown. To investigate the relative contribution of environmental and genetic factors to the phenotype of FMF, we compared the intra-pair clinical concordance of 10 mono and 7 dizygotic twins with FMF. The part played by EFs was determined by the phenotypic discordance of the monozygous twins, and the MGs effect was determined by deducing the environmental effect, computed for MZ twins, from the phenotypic discordance of the dizygous twins. The mean±SD of intra-pair concordance was higher in the MZ than in DZ twin group (88.1±13.2 vs. 70.7±14.1 respectively, P valueFMF is estimated as 11.9%±6.6% and the MGs effect as 17.4%±15.5% in average. In FMF the phenotype is affected by MEFV mutations, MGs and EFs in an estimated ratio of about 6:1.5:1 respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors contributing to parental decision-making in disclosing donor conception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indekeu, A; Dierickx, K; Schotsmans, P; Daniels, K R; Rober, P; D'Hooghe, T

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In recent years, changes in attitudes towards (non-)disclosure of donor conception to offspring and/or others have been observed. Studies have started to identify possible factors that contribute to these changes that are relevant for clinics, counsellors and policy-makers in their approach to the disclosure process. The aim of this systematic review was to integrate the existing knowledge on factors that influence the disclosure decision-making process of donor conception to offspring and/or others in heterosexual couples, and to discuss future trends and concerns. METHODS A bibliographic search of English, French, German and Dutch language publications of five computerized databases was undertaken from January 1980 to March 2012. A Cochrane Database systematic review approach was applied. RESULTS A total of 43 studies met the inclusion criteria, and these represented 36 study populations. The review shows that the parents' disclosure decision-making process is influenced by a myriad of intrapersonal, interpersonal, social and family life cycle features. These influences were not necessarily independent but rather were interwoven and overlapping. Theoretical frameworks have not yet been used to explain how the different factors influenced disclosure. Methodological limitations of the original publications (lack of information, several factors included in one study, descriptive character of studies) and this review (multiple factors that may interact) which hindered integration of the findings are outlined. CONCLUSIONS Intrapersonal, interpersonal, social and family life cycle factors influence the parents' disclosure decision-making process. The review has demonstrated the need for the development of a theoretical model to enable integration of the identified influencing factors. Further research is needed on the role of stigma, confrontation efficacy, extended family, donor siblings' characteristics, cross-border treatment, culture, gender and socio

  17. Computer Simulations Support a Morphological Contribution to BDNF Enhancement of Action Potential Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico F Galati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF regulates both action potential (AP generation and neuron morphology. However, whether BDNF-induced changes in neuron morphology directly impact AP generation is unclear. We quantified BDNF’s effect on cultured cortical neuron morphological parameters and found that BDNF stimulates dendrite growth and addition of dendrites while increasing both excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic inputs in a spatially restricted manner. To gain insight into how these combined changes in neuron structure and synaptic input impact AP generation, we used the morphological parameters we gathered to generate computational models. Simulations suggest that BDNF-induced neuron morphologies generate more APs under a wide variety of conditions. Synapse and dendrite addition have the greatest impact on AP generation. However, subtle alterations in excitatory/inhibitory synapse ratio and strength have a significant impact on AP generation when synaptic activity is low. Consistent with these simulations, BDNF rapidly enhances spontaneous activity in cortical cultures. We propose that BDNF promotes neuron morphologies that are intrinsically more efficient at translating barrages of synaptic activity into APs, which is a previously unexplored aspect of BDNF’s function.

  18. Contribution of Renal Impairment to Potentially Preventable Medication-Related Hospital Admissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leendertse, Anne J.; van Dijk, Elisabeth A.; De Smet, Peter A. G. M.; Egberts, Toine C. G.; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medication errors and renal impairment contribute to severe adverse drug events, which may lead to hospital admission. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether medication errors and renal impairment contribute to hospital admission and examine these errors for strategies to prevent admissions. ME

  19. 20 CFR 416.214 - You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You are disabled and drug addiction or....214 You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... because you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  20. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  1. PERIODONTAL INFECTION AS A POTENTIAL RISK FACTOR FOR SYSTEMIC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumintarti Sumintarti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral infection can have an adverse effect on other organs of the body. Oral infections, especially periodontitis, may affect the course and pathogenesis of a number of systemic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, pre-term low birth weight infant and respiratory disease. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the current status of oral infection especially periodontitis as a potential risk factor of systemic diseases. Three main pathways linking oral infection to secondary systemic effects have been proposed: metastatic infection, metastatic injury and metastatic inflammation. Periodontitis can cause bacteria to enter the blood stream and activate immune cells. These activated cells produce inflammatory cytokines that have a destructive effect throughout the entire body. Therefore, periodontitis as a major oral infection may affect the host’s susceptibility to systemic disease.

  2. Factors contributing to the poor bulk behavior of meat and bone meal and methods for improving these behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R A; Flores, R A; Mazenko, C E

    2007-11-01

    Meat and bone meal (MBM), a product of the rendering industry, is a potential feedstock for numerous bio-based applications. Design of processing equipment for MBM is difficult due to MBM's bulk behaviors; it flows less easily than many other granular materials, and it tends to foul the surfaces of processing equipment. This study examines the major factors contributing to MBM's poor bulk behavior, including moisture content, fat content, particle size distribution and temperature, and the relative importance of these factors. Potential methods for improving MBM's bulk properties, including use of an anti-caking agent, dehydration, fat extraction, milling and refrigeration are also studied. The effects of these factors were determined by a standard laboratory measurement, the Hausner ratio, as well as by the rate of surface-fouling and dust generation using a pilot-scale aspirator. In contrast to past studies with other granular materials, moisture content was shown to have an insignificant effect on MBM's bulk behavior. The results, however, show that MBM fat content is a major determinant of the bulk behavior of the MBM. Reduction of fat content resulted in major changes in MBM's bulk behavior, by all measures used. Less dramatic changes were achieved through refrigeration to solidify the fat and/or treatment with an anti-caking agent.

  3. Spatiotemporal variability of reference evapotranspiration and contributing climatic factors in China during 1961-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoli; Xie, Peiwei; Lai, Chengguang; Chen, Xiaohong; Wu, Xushu; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Li, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is an important parameter for characterization of the hydrological cycle, and it is also important for agricultural, environmental and other studies. The ETo for 4189 grid points in China from 1961 to 2013 was calculated in this study utilizing the FAO Penman-Monteith method (P-M) based on an updated high-resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) gridded dataset. Five climatic variables including wind speed (WS), sunlight duration (SD), relative humidity (RH), maximum daily temperature (Tm) and minimum daily temperature (Tn), were selected to identify the contribution to variability of ETo. The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of each climatic variable was also investigated. Results indicate that (1) ETo distribution in China differed significantly both in seasonal and spatial scale in general, and annual ETo significantly decreased 6.84 mm/decade (P < 0.05); a turning point occurred in 1982 for the temporal variability of ETo and the fluctuation periods of 2.4- and 3.4-years existed in the ETo series. (2) WS was the most influential climatic variable related to ETo variability with relative contribution of 32.31%, followed by Tm (26.65%), SD (19.70%), RH (14.33%) and Tn (7.02%); significant declines (P < 0.05) of WS and SD were indicated in the decrease of ETo while the increase of Tm and Tn and the decrease of RH contributed to enhancing ETo. (3) Relative contributions of climatic variables to ETo were temporally unstable and varied considerably in the nine agricultural regions and the whole China; spatial distribution for relative contribution of various climatic variables showed significant diversity among various agricultural regions. The results have the potential to provide a reference for agricultural production and management in China.

  4. Potential risk factors for developing diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Dušica

    2010-01-01

    of diabetes. Also they were significantly less exposed to physical agents (p=0,004. Discussion In our study, like in many others, age, place of residence, education, occupation, obesity, physical inactivity, positive family history of diabetes type 2 and exposure to physical agents were identified as potential risk factors for diabetes type 2. Conclusion Different risk factors are probably responsible for developing type 2 diabetes among individuals with and without positive family history of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Factors contributing to depressive mood states in everyday life: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Rachel; Fuller Tyszkiewicz, Matthew D

    2016-08-01

    Although accumulated evidence suggests that fluctuations in depressed mood are common among individuals with depression, and may be associated with onset, duration, and severity of illness, a systematic appraisal of putative predictors of depressed mood is lacking. A systematic search for relevant studies in the literature was conducted using PsycInfo and PubMed databases via EbscoHost in February 2016. The search was limited to articles using the experience sampling method, an approach suitable for capturing in situ fluctuations in mood states. Forty-two studies met inclusion criteria for the review, from which three key risk factors (poor sleep, stress, and significant life events) and two protective factors (physical activity and quality of social interactions) were identified. The majority of papers supported concurrent and lagged associations between these putative protective/risk factors and depressed mood. Despite support for each of the proposed protective/risk factors, few studies evaluated multiple factors in the same study. Moreover, the time course for the effects of these predictors on depressed mood remains largely unknown. The present review identified several putative risk and protective factors for depressed mood. A review of the literature suggests that poor sleep, negative social interactions, and stressful negative events may temporally precede spikes in depressed mood. In contrast, exercise and positive social interactions have been shown to predict subsequent declines in depressed mood. However, the lack of multivariate models in which the unique contributions of various predictors could be evaluated means that the current state of knowledge prevents firm conclusions about which factors are most predictive of depressed mood. More complex modeling of these effects is necessary in order to provide insights useful for clinical treatment in daily life of the depressed mood component of depressive disorders. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by

  6. Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor contributes to hypoxia-induced skeletal muscle vasodilation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilk, Samson; Herr, Michael D; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Leuenberger, Urs A

    2013-12-01

    Systemic hypoxia causes skeletal muscle vasodilation, thereby preserving O2 delivery to active tissues. Nitric oxide (NO), adenosine, and prostaglandins contribute to this vasodilation, but other factors may also play a role. We tested the hypothesis that regional inhibition of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor with the cytochrome P-450 2C9 antagonist fluconazole, alone or combined with the NO synthase antagonist N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), attenuates hypoxia-induced vasodilation. We compared forearm blood flow (FBF) and skin blood flow before and during brachial artery infusion of fluconazole (0.3 mg/min; trial 1) or fluconazole + L-NMMA (50 mg over 10 min; trial 2) and during systemic hypoxia (10 min, arterial Po2 ~37 mmHg) in infused (experimental) and control forearms of 12 healthy humans. During normoxia, fluconazole and fluconazole + L-NMMA reduced (P vasodilation and could be particularly relevant when other vasodilator systems are impaired.

  7. Psychosocial and Biological Factors Contributing to Body Weight Gain in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shae-Leigh C. Vella

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are frequently reported to be a significant issue in schizophrenia resulting in the inherent complications of these disorders. Body weight gain also commonly results from treatment with the most tolerable and efficacious pharmacological treatments, second-generation antipsychotics. However there are numerous other factors that contribute to increased body mass in individuals with schizophrenia prior to the initiation of treatment. With prior research indicating that individuals with schizophrenia have higher rates of overweight and obesity before treatment. Therefore this article provides a review of pertinent issues associated with body weight gain in schizophrenia in an attempt to delineate the impact of both the disease and treatment upon body weight gain. The results of the review indicate that body weight gain in schizophrenia occurs from both psychosocial and biological factors that are further compounded by antipsychotic treatment. The article concludes with recommendations for future research.

  8. Kinetic and Potential Sputtering of Lunar Regolith: The Contribution of the Heavy Highly Charged (Minority) Solar Wind Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. W.; Barghouty, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Solar wind sputtering of the lunar surface helps determine the composition of the lunar exosphere and contributes to surface weathering. To date, only the effects of the two dominant solar wind constituents, H+ and He+, have been considered. The heavier, less abundant solar wind constituents have much larger sputtering yields because they have greater mass (kinetic sputtering) and they are highly charged (potential sputtering) Their contribution to total sputtering can therefore be orders of magnitude larger than their relative abundances would suggest

  9. Predicting College Success: The Relative Contributions of Five Social/Personality Factors, Five Cognitive/Learning Factors, and SAT Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    To-date, studies have examined simultaneously the relative predictive powers of two or three factors on GPA. The present study examines the relative powers of five social/personality factors, five cognitive/learning factors, and SAT scores to predict freshmen and non-freshmen (sophomores, juniors, seniors) academic success (i.e., GPA). The results revealed many significant predictors of GPA for both freshmen and non-freshmen. However, subsequent regressions showed that only academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning, and high-knowledge integration explained unique variance in GPA (19%-freshmen, 23.2%-non-freshmen). Further for freshmen, SAT scores explained an additional unique 10.6% variance after the influences attributed to these three predictors was removed whereas for non-freshmen, SAT scores failed to explain any additional variance. These results highlight the unique and important contributions of academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning and high-knowledge integration to GPA beyond other previously-identified predictors. PMID:25568884

  10. Predicting College Success: The Relative Contributions of Five Social/Personality Factors, Five Cognitive/Learning Factors, and SAT Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2014-10-01

    To-date, studies have examined simultaneously the relative predictive powers of two or three factors on GPA. The present study examines the relative powers of five social/personality factors, five cognitive/learning factors, and SAT scores to predict freshmen and non-freshmen (sophomores, juniors, seniors) academic success (i.e., GPA). The results revealed many significant predictors of GPA for both freshmen and non-freshmen. However, subsequent regressions showed that only academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning, and high-knowledge integration explained unique variance in GPA (19%-freshmen, 23.2%-non-freshmen). Further for freshmen, SAT scores explained an additional unique 10.6% variance after the influences attributed to these three predictors was removed whereas for non-freshmen, SAT scores failed to explain any additional variance. These results highlight the unique and important contributions of academic self-efficacy, epistemic belief of learning and high-knowledge integration to GPA beyond other previously-identified predictors.

  11. Stereotactic core needle breast biopsy marker migration: An analysis of factors contributing to immediate marker migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashali; Khalid, Maria; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Georgian-Smith, Dianne; Kaplan, Jonah A; Buch, Karen; Grinstaff, Mark W; Hirsch, Ariel E; Hines, Neely L; Anderson, Stephan W; Gallagher, Katherine M; Bates, David D B; Bloch, B Nicolas

    2017-05-19

    To evaluate breast biopsy marker migration in stereotactic core needle biopsy procedures and identify contributing factors. This retrospective study analyzed 268 stereotactic biopsy markers placed in 263 consecutive patients undergoing stereotactic biopsies using 9G vacuum-assisted devices from August 2010-July 2013. Mammograms were reviewed and factors contributing to marker migration were evaluated. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated and comparisons were performed based on radiographically-confirmed marker migration. Of the 268 placed stereotactic biopsy markers, 35 (13.1%) migrated ≥1 cm from their biopsy cavity. Range: 1-6 cm; mean (± SD): 2.35 ± 1.22 cm. Of the 35 migrated biopsy markers, 9 (25.7%) migrated ≥3.5 cm. Patient age, biopsy pathology, number of cores, and left versus right breast were not associated with migration status (P> 0.10). Global fatty breast density (P= 0.025) and biopsy in the inner region of breast (P = 0.031) were associated with marker migration. Superior biopsy approach (P= 0.025), locally heterogeneous breast density, and t-shaped biopsy markers (P= 0.035) were significant for no marker migration. Multiple factors were found to influence marker migration. An overall migration rate of 13% supports endeavors of research groups actively developing new biopsy marker designs for improved resistance to migration. • Breast biopsy marker migration is documented in 13% of 268 procedures. • Marker migration is affected by physical, biological, and pathological factors. • Breast density, marker shape, needle approach etc. affect migration. • Study demonstrates marker migration prevalence; marker design improvements are needed.

  12. Watershed Potential to Contribute Phosphorus from Geologic Materials to Receiving Streams, Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data layer is a cell-based Raster model characterizing the contribution of phosphorus (P) to streams from weathering and erosion of surficial geologic...

  13. Factors contributing to the recalcitrance of herbaceous dicotyledons (forbs) to enzymatic deconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbour, Dina; Angelos, Evan R.; Mukhopadhyay, Achira; Womboldt, Alec; Borrusch, Melissa S.; Jonathan D. Walton

    2014-01-01

    Background Many different feedstocks are under consideration for the practical production of biofuels from lignocellulosic materials. The best choice under any particular combination of economic, agronomic, and environmental conditions depends on multiple factors. The use of old fields, restored prairie, or marginal lands to grow biofuel feedstocks offers several potential benefits including minimal agronomic inputs, reduced competition with food production, and high biodiversity. However, a ...

  14. Delirium as a contributing factor to "crescendo" pain: three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, N; Breitbart, W; Weaver, S; Portenoy, R

    1994-01-01

    Cancer patients occasionally experience periods of rapidly escalating pain--"crescendo" pain--that may present a challenge in assessment and management. Although these episodes are often associated with progressive neoplasm, any of a variety of other processes may be involved. Delirium is a potentially treatable and frequently unrecognized factor. We present three patients who illustrate this relationship between delirium and a crescendo pattern of cancer pain.

  15. Potential contribution of SIM2 and ETS2 functional polymorphisms in Down syndrome associated malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Arpita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper expression and functioning of transcription factors (TFs are essential for regulation of different traits and thus could be crucial for the development of complex diseases. Subjects with Down syndrome (DS have a higher incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL while solid tumors, like breast cancer (BC and oral cancer (OC, show rare incidences. Triplication of the human chromosome 21 in DS is associated with altered genetic dosage of different TFs. V-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 (ETS2 and Single Minded 2 (SIM2 are two such TFs that regulate several downstream genes involved in developmental and neurological pathways. Here we studied functional genetic polymorphisms (fSNP in ETS2 and SIM2 encoding genes in a group of patients and control subjects to better understand association of these variants with DS phenotypes. Methods We employed an in silico approach to identify potential target pathways of ETS2 and SIM2. fSNPs in genes encoding for these two TFs were identified using available databases. Selected sites were genotyped in individuals with DS, their parents, ALL, BC, OC as well as ethnically matched control individuals. We further analyzed these data by population-based statistical methods. Results Allelic/genotypic association analysis showed significant (P  Conclusions We infer from the present investigation that the difference in frequencies of fSNPs and their independent as well as interactive effects may be the cause for altered expression of SIM2 and ETS2 in DS and malignant groups, which affects different downstream biological pathways. Thus, altered expression of SIM2 and ETS2 could be one of the reasons for variable occurrence of different malignant conditions in DS.

  16. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1a contributes to dendritic overgrowth in tuberous sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longbo; Feliciano, David M; Huang, Tianxiang; Zhang, Shiliang; Bordey, Angélique

    2016-01-26

    Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF1a) is increased under several pathological conditions such as hyperactive mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Hyperactive mTORC1 and the resulting increased dendritic complexity of neurons are shared molecular and cellular alterations in several neurological disorders associated with cognitive disabilities. Despite some evidence that HIF1a contributes to dendritic overgrowth in vitro, it remains unknown whether increased HIF1a in TSC neurons could contribute to their increased dendritic complexity. To address this use in vivo, we generated TSC neurons by deleting Tsc1 in newborn olfactory bulb (OB) neurons of conditional Tsc1 transgenic mice using neonatal electroporation. In addition to their increased dendritic complexity, Tsc1(null) neurons have been reported to display increased Hif1a mRNA level and HIF1a transcriptional activity. We found that Tsc1(null)-dependent dendritic overgrowth was prevented by knocking down HIF1a or expressing a dominant negative HIF1a. In addition, overexpressing HIF1a in wild-type developing neurons resulted in increased dendritic complexity in vivo. These data highlight that an increase in HIF1a levels contributes to abnormal dendritic patterning in developing neurons under normal conditions and hyperactive mTORC1 conditions as in TSC.

  17. Enhancement of crop photosynthesis by diffuse light: quantifying the contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Heuvelink, E; Dueck, T A; Janse, J; Gort, G; Marcelis, L F M

    2014-07-01

    Plants use diffuse light more efficiently than direct light. However, experimental comparisons between diffuse and direct light have been obscured by co-occurring differences in environmental conditions (e.g. light intensity). This study aims to analyse the factors that contribute to an increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light and to quantify their relative contribution under different levels of diffuseness at similar light intensities. The hypothesis is that the enhancement of crop photosynthesis in diffuse light results not only from the direct effects of more uniform vertical and horizontal light distribution in the crop canopy, but also from crop physiological and morphological acclimation. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops were grown in three greenhouse compartments that were covered by glass with different degrees of light diffuseness (0, 45 and 71 % of the direct light being converted into diffuse light) while maintaining similar light transmission. Measurements of horizontal and vertical photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) distribution in the crop, leaf photosynthesis light response curves and leaf area index (LAI) were used to quantify each factor's contribution to an increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light. In addition, leaf temperature, photoinhibition, and leaf biochemical and anatomical properties were studied. The highest degree of light diffuseness (71 %) increased the calculated crop photosynthesis by 7·2 %. This effect was mainly attributed to a more uniform horizontal (33 % of the total effect) and vertical PPFD distribution (21 %) in the crop. In addition, plants acclimated to the high level of diffuseness by gaining a higher photosynthetic capacity of leaves in the middle of the crop and a higher LAI, which contributed 23 and 13 %, respectively, to the total increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light. Moreover, diffuse light resulted in lower leaf temperatures and less photoinhibition at the top of the canopy when

  18. GATA factor switching from GATA2 to GATA1 contributes to erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mikiko; Kobayashi-Osaki, Maki; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Pan, Xiaoqing; Ohmori, Shin'ya; Takai, Jun; Moriguchi, Takashi; Ohneda, Osamu; Ohneda, Kinuko; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Kanki, Yasuharu; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2013-11-01

    Transcription factor GATA2 is highly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors, whereas its expression declines after erythroid commitment of progenitors. In contrast, the start of GATA1 expression coincides with the erythroid commitment and increases along with the erythroid differentiation. We refer this dynamic transition of GATA factor expression to as the 'GATA factor switching'. Here, we examined contribution of the GATA factor switching to the erythroid differentiation. In Gata1-knockdown embryos that concomitantly express Gata2-GFP reporter, high-level expression of GFP reporter was detected in accumulated immature hematopoietic cells with impaired differentiation, demonstrating that GATA1 represses Gata2 gene expression in hematopoietic progenitors in vivo. We have conducted chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) on microarray analyses of GATA2 and GATA1, and results indicate that the GATA1-binding sites widely overlap with the sites pre-occupied by GATA2 before the GATA1 expression. Importantly, erythroid genes harboring GATA boxes bound by both GATA1 and GATA2 tend to be expressed in immature erythroid cells, whereas those harboring GATA boxes to which GATA1 binds highly but GATA2 binds only weakly are important for the mature erythroid cell function. Our results thus support the contention that preceding binding of GATA2 helps the following binding of GATA1 and thereby secures smooth expression of the transient-phase genes. © 2013 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2013 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Contribution of occupational risk factors to the global burden of disease - a summary of findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingerhut, M.; Driscoll, T.; Nelson, D.I.; Concha-Barrientos, M.; Punnett, L.; Pruss-Ustin, A.; Steenland, K.; Leigh, J.; Corvalan, C. [NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The World Health Organization conducted a comparative risk assessment to ascertain the contributions of 26 risk factors to the global burden of disease. Five occupational risk factors accounted for an estimated 37% of back pain, 16% of hearing loss, 13% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 11% of asthma, 9% of lung cancer, 8% of injuries, and 2% of leukemia worldwide. Virtually all cases of silicosis, asbestosis, and coal workers' pneumoconiosis were work-related. Contaminated sharps injuries accounted for 40% of hepatitis B, 40% of hepatitis C, and 4% of HIV/AlDS infections among health care workers. Data limitations, primarily in developing countries, prevented the inclusion of other major occupational risk factors. These selected occupational risks accounted for about 850,000 deaths and 24 million years of healthy life lost each year. The deaths due to these selected occupational risk factors constitute only 43% of the International Labour Organization's estimate of 2 million deaths worldwide due to work-related risks.

  20. Factors contributing to occupational stress experienced by individuals employed in the fast food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailids, Maria P; Elwkai, Mouafak E-ali

    2003-01-01

    The present study, examined through survey research methodology, the factors or combination of factors which appear to contribute to the experience of occupational stress of individuals working in the fast-food industry. The Occupational Stress Indicator was used. Preliminary findings showed that there exists, several compound factors, which appear to be the most frequently encountered factors by the sample tested, such as the way they feel about their job; the way they behave generally; the way they interpret events around them; the sources of pressure in their job; and the way they cope with stress they experience. It appears that there are statistically significant differences between males and females as regards to the way they respond to stress, the sources of pressure in their job and the way they cope with stress they experience. Also, statistically significant differences exist between individuals in managerial and non-managerial positions, as regards to their personality type, the degree of ambition, and work dedication they possess.

  1. Excess LIGHT contributes to placental impairment, increased secretion of vasoactive factors, hypertension, and proteinuria in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Parchim, Nicholas F; Iriyama, Takayuki; Luo, Renna; Zhao, Cheng; Liu, Chen; Irani, Roxanna A; Zhang, Weiru; Ning, Chen; Zhang, Yujin; Blackwell, Sean C; Chen, Lieping; Tao, Lijian; Hicks, M John; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2014-03-01

    Preeclampsia, a prevalent hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is believed to be secondary to uteroplacental ischemia. Accumulating evidence indicates that hypoxia-independent mediators, including inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, are associated with preeclampsia, but it is unclear whether these signals directly contribute to placental damage and disease development in vivo. We report that LIGHT, a novel tumor necrosis factor superfamily member, is significantly elevated in the circulation and placentas of preeclamptic women compared with normotensive pregnant women. Injection of LIGHT into pregnant mice induced placental apoptosis, small fetuses, and key features of preeclampsia, hypertension and proteinuria. Mechanistically, using neutralizing antibodies specific for LIGHT receptors, we found that LIGHT receptors herpes virus entry mediator and lymphotoxin β receptor are required for LIGHT-induced placental impairment, small fetuses, and preeclampsia features in pregnant mice. Accordingly, we further revealed that LIGHT functions through these 2 receptors to induce secretion of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and endothelin-1, 2 well-accepted pathogenic factors in preeclampsia, and thereby plays an important role in hypertension and proteinuria in pregnant mice. Lastly, we extended our animal findings to human studies and demonstrated that activation of LIGHT receptors resulted in increased apoptosis and elevation of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 secretion in human placental villous explants. Overall, our human and mouse studies show that LIGHT signaling is a previously unrecognized pathway responsible for placental apoptosis, elevated secretion of vasoactive factors, and subsequent maternal features of preeclampsia, and reveal new therapeutic opportunities for the management of the disease.

  2. Factors Contributing to the Hydrologic Effectiveness of a Rain Garden Network (Cincinnati OH USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Shuster

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltrative rain gardens can add retention capacity to sewersheds, yet factors contributing to their capacity for detention and redistribution of stormwater runoff are dynamic and often unverified. Over a four-year period, we tracked whole-system water fluxes in a two-tier rain garden network and assessed near-surface hydrology and soil development across construction and operational phases. The monitoring data provided a quantitative basis for determining effectiveness of this stormwater control measure. Based on 233 monitored warm-season rainfall events, nearly half of total inflow volume was detained, with 90 percent of all events producing no flow to the combined sewer. For the events that did result in flow to the combined sewer system, the rain garden delayed flows for an average of 5.5 h. Multivariate analysis of hydrologic fluxes indicated that total event rainfall depth was a predominant hydrologic driver for network outflow during both phases, with average event intensity and daily evapotranspiration as additional, independent factors in regulating retention in the operational phase. Despite sediment loads that can clog the rooting zone, and overall lower-than-design infiltration rates, tradeoffs among soil profile development and hydrology apparently maintained relatively high overall retention effectiveness. Overall, our study identified factors relevant to regulation of retention capacity of a rain garden network. These factors may be generalizable, and guide improvement of new or existing rain garden designs.

  3. Contributions of radiative factors to enhanced dryland warming over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanting; Guan, Xiaodan; Yu, Haipeng; Xie, Yongkun; Jin, Hongchun

    2017-08-01

    Enhanced near-surface atmospheric warming has occurred over East Asia in recent decades, especially in drylands. Although local factors have been confirmed to provide considerable contributions to this warming, such factors have not been sufficiently analyzed. In this study, we extracted the radiatively forced temperature (RFT) associated with the built-up greenhouse gases, aerosol emission, and various other radiative forcing over East Asia and found a close relationship between RFT and CO2. In addition, using climate model experiments, we explored the responses of temperature changes to black carbon (BC), CO2, and SO4 and found that the enhanced dryland warming induced by CO2 had the largest magnitude and was strengthened by the warming effect of BC. Moreover, the sensitivity of daily maximum and minimum temperature changes to BC, CO2, and SO4 was examined. It showed asymmetric responses of daily maximum and minimum temperature to radiative factors, which led to an obvious change of diurnal temperature range (DTR), especially in drylands. The DTR's response to CO2 is the most significant. Therefore, CO2 not only plays a dominant role in enhanced warming but also greatly affects the decrease of DTR in drylands. However, the mechanisms of these radiative factors' effects in the process of DTR change are not clear and require more investigation.

  4. SAT Performance: Understanding the Contributions of Cognitive/Learning and Social/Personality Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda; McNaughton-Cassill, Mary

    2011-07-01

    This study identifies a number of sources of individual differences in SAT performance by examining the simultaneous contributions of factors from two otherwise disparate research areas, namely cognition/learning and social/personality. Preliminary analysis revealed that just the cognitive/learning measures accounted for 37.8, 41.4 and 21.9% of the variance in SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT performance, respectively while just the social/personality measures accounted for 21.4, 18.2 and 17.3% of the variance. When combined, cognitive/learning and social/personality factors accounted for even larger amounts of variance in performance; specifically 43.4, 44.6 and 28% for the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT, respectively. Finally, the results revealed that three measures consistently predicted performance on the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT; two measures were the learning/cognitive factors of working memory and integration of new text-based information with information from long-term memory and one measure was the social/personality factor, test anxiety.

  5. An expert performance approach to examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandagopal, Kiruthiga

    Successful completion of the introductory course in organic chemistry is a prerequisite for many graduate and professional science programs, yet the failure rate for this course is notoriously high. To date, there have been few studies examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry. This study demonstrates that the online, longitudinal methods used by investigations of expert performance can examine and successfully identify factors contributing to academic success at the college level. Sixty-four students enrolled in introductory organic chemistry during the Fall 2007 and Spring 2008 semesters completed motivation questionnaires, interviews, diaries, and think-aloud reading and problem-solving tasks at three different points across a semester. Measures of spatial ability, general ability, and background preparation were also collected. Each measure was analyzed to determine significant differences between groups differing in grade-point average (GPA) prior to the start of the course and to identify predictors of organic chemistry grade. Variables measuring background preparation, problem-solving strategies and studying strategies were found to be the best predictors of academic success in organic chemistry. Implications for instruction in organic chemistry and effective studying behaviors are discussed.

  6. Prevalence of and contributing factors to overweight and obesity among the schoolchildren of Podgorica, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Childhood obesity is an emerging public health problem. The national prevalence of child overweight/obesity in Montenegro has increased by one third in the last decade. As the overwhelming majority of Montenegrin population is urban, investigation of obesity and correlates among urban children is of special public health interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and contributing factors to obesity among schoolchildren of Podgorica. Method. The sample included 1,134 schoolchildren (49.8% boys aged 7–12 years, from 10 elementary schools in Podgorica. We measured children’s body mass, body height, and waist circumference to calculate body mass index (BMI and waist-to-height ratio. The research instrument was a closed type of the original questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed according to the criteria recommended by the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization and International Obesity Task Force. Results. Among the investigated children there were 21.2% and 6% overweight and obese children, respectively. Obesity was more frequent among boys (7.6% compared to girls (4.4%. In a multiple regression, childhood obesity was positively related to the following: male gender, younger age, lower number of siblings, parental obesity, and low physical activity. Conclusion. One out of five urban Montenegrin schoolchildren is overweight/obese, with obesity being twice as frequent among boys compared to girls. A program against obesity among urban Montenegrin children should focus on the revealed contributing factors.

  7. Characteristics and contributing factors related to sports injuries in young volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Bastos, Fabio Nascimento; Tsutsumi, Gustavo Yuki Cantalejo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo

    2013-10-14

    The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries.

  8. Factors Contributing to Examination Malpractices at Secondary School Level in Kohat Division, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaiser Suleman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work was to identify the factors that contribute to examination malpractices at secondary school level. The target population of the study was all the heads, teachers and students at secondary school level in Kohat Division (Pakistan. The study was delimited to the 80 male secondary schools. The sample for this study was made up of 840 respondents which were selected through simple random sampling technique. A self-developed semi-structured questionnaire was used as research instrument for data collection. Descriptive statistics i.e., simple percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics i.e., ANOVA were applied for the statistical analysis of data. The findings of the study explored that there are various factors that contribute to examination malpractices i.e., corruption; poor implementation of examinations rules; students and parental threats; no fear of punishment; inadequate preparation for examination; poor invigilation; collusion; disloyalty of examination bodies; fear of failure; poor morale and economic depression of supervisory staff etc. Furthermore, the findings of the study revealed that bringing of unauthorized materials to examination hall; sending of prepared answers to students by teachers and parents; impersonation; questions and papers leakage; cheating; and scripts changing are the various forms of examination malpractices. Based on findings, it was recommended that examination rules should be implemented effectively and those who were found guilty should be given severe exemplary punishment according to the examination’s rules.

  9. The Extent, Nature and Contributing Factors of Violence Against Iranian Emergency Medical Technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Workplace Violence (WPV is one of the most complex and dangerous occupational hazards faced by pre-hospital emergency medical technicians (EMTs. Objectives This study aimed to assess the extent, nature and contributing factors of WPV against EMTs in Urmia, Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 EMTs from April to October 2014. A questionnaire was used for collecting the data. Descriptive statistics were applied to the data. Results Most of the participants (79% experienced WPV during the past six months. Accident scene was the most important place of violence and the patients’ companions were the main perpetrators of violence. Overall, 76% of violence victims reported “lack of awareness of the EMTs’ duties” as the most important contributing factor for WPV. Conclusions This study highlighted the high frequency of WPV against EMTs. Evidently, the health care systems’ officials would benefit from taking proper actions in this area, particularly by “staff and public education”.

  10. Networks of self-defining memories as a contributing factor to emotional openness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Iliane; Philippe, Frederick L; Lecours, Serge; Roulez, Josiane

    2017-02-06

    Emotional openness is characterised by a capacity to tolerate threatening self-relevant material and an interest towards new emotional situations. We investigated how specific networks of memories could be an important contributing factor to emotional openness. At Phase 1, participants completed measures of personality traits and emotional intelligence, described a self-defining memory, provided other memories associated with it, and rated the valence of each of their memories. A score assessing the complexity of this memory network, comprising the number of memories reported and their valence diversity, was created. Two weeks later, in laboratory, participants watched an anxiety-inducing film and took part in an interview assessing their emotional openness to the film. They completed a cognitive task before and after the film to measure ego depletion. Controlling for traits and emotional intelligence, memory network complexity was positively associated with emotional openness and negatively with ego depletion. The mental organisation of self-defining memories thus appears to be a critical factor contributing to emotional openness.

  11. Identifying contributing factors to fatal and serious injury motorcycle collisions involving children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jennifer; Ravi, Mano Deepa; Yuen, Jeremy; Hoareau, Effie; Hashim, Hizal Hanis

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, motorcycle crashes constitute approximately 60 percent of all road trauma, and a substantial proportion involve children 16 years and younger. There are, however, many gaps in our knowledge on contributing factors to crashes and injury patterns amongst children killed and seriously injured in motorcycle crashes. The aim of this study was to examine fatal and serious injury motorcycle-related collisions to identify contributing factors and injury patterns amongst child motorcyclists. All identified motorcyclist fatal crashes between 2007 and 2011 (inclusive) were extracted from the national Police-reported crash database (M-ROADS) and a range of variables were selected for examination. A total of 17,677 crashes were extracted where a rider or pillion was killed and of these crashes 2,038 involved children, equating to 12 percent. Examination of crashes involving children revealed that some crashes involved more than two children on the motorcycle, therefore, overall children constituted 9.5% of fatal and 18.4% of serious injury collisions. A high proportion of child fatal or serious injury collisions involved the child as the rider (62%), and this was most common for children aged between 10 and 16 years. The majority of collisions occurred on rural roads, in speed limit zones of 50-70km/h, and approximately one-third occurred at an intersection. Collisions involving another motorcycle or a passenger vehicle contributed to 41% and 53% of the total fatalities and severe injuries, respectively. A high proportion (43.9%) of the children (25.5% riders and 18.8% pillion) sustained head injuries with 37.7% being in the 10-16 age group. Furthermore, 52.4% of the children sustaining head injuries did not wear a helmet. The implications of these findings for countermeasures within a Safe System framework, particularly interventions aimed at reducing the rate of unlicensed riding and helmet wearing, and infrastructure countermeasures are discussed.

  12. The identification of factors linked to the potential acceptance of transgenic biopharmaceuticals: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Francois; Katsanis, Lea Prevel; Thakor, Mrugank V

    2003-01-01

    In this exploratory study, Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory was used to identify which factors are likely to contribute to the potential acceptance of transgenic biopharmaceuticals (TG-Bs). These products are not yet available to the general public. A scale was designed to assess three of five core attributes related to the potential adoption rate of innovations (Rogers 1995), as well as to measure potential acceptance characteristics for biotechnology products. These attributes were relative advantage, compatibility with existing values, and complexity. In addition, two other characteristics were included: knowledge (Gartrell and Gartrell 1979) and perceived risks (Bauer 1960). The survey was completed by 74 consumers (78% response rate) using convenience sampling. The research findings show that Rogers' three core attributes are supported, but that knowledge andperceived risks were excluded from the model. The model for transgenic biopharmaceuticals consists of: 1. Consumer-related benefits (positively correlated to potential adoption). 2. New types of animals (negatively correlated to potential 3. Perceived complexity (negatively correlated to potential adoption). All the scaled items developed for this study were highly significant, which indicates that they can be used successfully by other researchers working in this field. As TG-Bs are a discontinuous innovation, biotechnology companies may need to present the benefits of these products, as well as the ease of their use prior to their launch, in order to increase their potential acceptance by consumers.

  13. Quantitative investigation of physical factors contributing to gold nanoparticle-mediated proton dose enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jongmin; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Manohar, Nivedh; Kerr, Matthew; Krishnan, Sunil; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Some investigators have shown tumor cell killing enhancement in vitro and tumor regression in mice associated with the loading of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) before proton treatments. Several Monte Carlo (MC) investigations have also demonstrated GNP-mediated proton dose enhancement. However, further studies need to be done to quantify the individual physical factors that contribute to the dose enhancement or cell-kill enhancement (or radiosensitization). Thus, the current study investigated the contributions of particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE), Auger and secondary electrons, and activation products towards the total dose enhancement. Specifically, GNP-mediated dose enhancement was measured using strips of radiochromic film that were inserted into vials of cylindrical GNPs, i.e. gold nanorods (GNRs), dispersed in a saline solution (0.3 mg of GNRs/g or 0.03% of GNRs by weight), as well as vials containing water only, before proton irradiation. MC simulations were also performed with the tool for particle simulation code using the film measurement setup. Additionally, a high-purity germanium detector system was used to measure the photon spectrum originating from activation products created from the interaction of protons and spherical GNPs present in a saline solution (20 mg of GNPs/g or 2% of GNPs by weight). The dose enhancement due to PIXE/PIGE recorded on the films in the GNR-loaded saline solution was less than the experimental uncertainty of the film dosimetry (PIGE, and activation products contribute minimally to GNP/GNR-mediated proton dose enhancement, whereas Auger/secondary electrons contribute significantly but only at short distances (<100 nm) from GNPs/GNRs.

  14. Families, nurses and organisations contributing factors to medication administration error in paediatrics: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albara Alomari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication error is the most common adverse event for hospitalised children and can lead to significant harm. Despite decades of research and implementation of a number of initiatives, the error rates continue to rise, particularly those associated with administration. Objectives: The objective of this literature review is to explore the factors involving nurses, families and healthcare systems that impact on medication administration errors in paediatric patients. Design: A review was undertaken of studies that reported on factors that contribute to a rise or fall in medication administration errors, from family, nurse and organisational perspectives. The following databases were searched: Medline, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane library. The title, abstract and full article were reviewed for relevance. Articles were excluded if they were not research studies, they related to medications and not medication administration errors or they referred to medical errors rather than medication errors. Results: A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. The factors contributing to medication administration errors are communication failure between the parents and healthcare professionals, nurse workload, failure to adhere to policy and guidelines, interruptions, inexperience and insufficient nurse education from organisations. Strategies that were reported to reduce errors were doublechecking by two nurses, implementing educational sessions, use of computerised prescribing and barcoding administration systems. Yet despite such interventions, errors persist. The review highlighted families that have a central role in caring for the child and therefore are key to the administration process, but have largely been ignored in research studies relating to medication administration. Conclusions: While there is a consensus about the factors that contribute to errors, sustainable and effective solutions remain elusive. To date, families have not

  15. Factors that contribute to public sector nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani G. Tshitangano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ongoing worldwide phenomenon of a shortage of about 4.3 million nurses and midwives poses a threat to health service delivery. Limpopo province had the worst nurse shortage of over 60% in 2010. Authors attribute this shortage to turnover of nurses. The quest to describe factors contributing to nurses’ turnover led to this study in Limpopo province,South Africa.Objectives: To explore and describe factors that contribute to nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa by assessing public sector nurses’ job satisfaction in relation to common determinants of job satisfaction.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional approach used primary quantitative data collected from 141 of 380 respondents (31.1% response rate contacted incidentally. Self-administered hand delivered questionnaires were used to gather ordinal data, which were analysed in terms off requency and percentage tables using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 6. The sum of positive and negative effects was used to determine satisfaction; if positive effects were greater than negative effects respondents were judged to be satisfied and vice versa.Results: Frequency and percentage tables revealed that nurses in Limpopo province were more dissatisfied (53.9% than satisfied (37.8% with their jobs. Factors which respondents were found to be dissatisfied with included staffing (85.2%, availability of workplace resources(83.7%, salaries (78.8%, workplace safety (73.7%, career development opportunities (64.5% and hours of work (47.6%.Conclusion: Nurses’ turnover is attributed to nurses’ dissatisfaction with staffing, resources, salaries and workplace safety. Attention needs to be given to these specific issues if retentionof nurses is to be achieved.

  16. Factors contributing to attrition behavior in diabetes self-management programs: A mixed method approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offenheim Ana

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes self-management education is a critical component in diabetes care. Despite worldwide efforts to develop efficacious DSME programs, high attrition rates are often reported in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to examine factors that may contribute to attrition behavior in diabetes self-management programs. Methods We conducted telephone interviews with individuals who had Type 2 diabetes (n = 267 and attended a diabetes education centre. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with attrition behavior. Forty-four percent of participants (n = 118 withdrew prematurely from the program and were asked an open-ended question regarding their discontinuation of services. We used content analysis to code and generate themes, which were then organized under the Behavioral Model of Health Service Utilization. Results Working full and part-time, being over 65 years of age, having a regular primary care physician or fewer diabetes symptoms were contributing factors to attrition behaviour in our multivariable logistic regression. The most common reasons given by participants for attrition from the program were conflict between their work schedules and the centre's hours of operation, patients' confidence in their own knowledge and ability when managing their diabetes, apathy towards diabetes education, distance to the centre, forgetfulness, regular physician consultation, low perceived seriousness of diabetes, and lack of familiarity with the centre and its services. There was considerable overlap between our quantitative and qualitative results. Conclusion Reducing attrition behaviour requires a range of strategies targeted towards delivering convenient and accessible services, familiarizing individuals with these services, increasing communication between centres and their patients, and creating better partnerships between centres and primary care physicians.

  17. Some specification aspects for three-factor models of a company's production potential taking into account intellectual capital

    OpenAIRE

    Aivazian, S.; Afanasiev, M.; Rudenko, V.

    2012-01-01

    As a contribution to further development of the stochastic frontier methodology the specification method for a 3-factor stochastic model of the production potential of a company is given. Along with labor input and physical capital input we consider intellectual capital as a basic production factor. For the description of a random variable that defines production efficiency the truncated at zero normal distribution is used. The presented formalized scheme that is based on hypothesis testing c...

  18. Contribution of individual and environmental factors to physical activity level among Spanish adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA is a major risk for chronic disease and obesity. The main aims of the present study were to identify individual and environmental factors independently associated with PA and examine the relative contribution of these factors to PA level in Spanish adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,000 adults (18-75 years old from Gran Canaria (Spain was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The participants were interviewed at home using a validated questionnaire to assess PA as well as individual and environmental factors. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. One demographic variable (education, two cognitive (self-efficacy and perceived barriers, and one social environmental (organized format were independently associated with PA in both genders. Odds ratios ranged between 1.76-2.07 in men and 1.35-2.50 in women (both p<0.05. Individual and environmental factors explained about one-third of the variance in PA level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-efficacy and perceived barriers were the most significant factors to meet an adequate level of PA. The risk of insufficient PA was twofold greater in men with primary or lesser studies and who are employed. In women, living in rural environments increased the risk of insufficient PA. The promotion of organized PA may be an efficient way to increase the level of PA in the general population. Improvement in the access to sport facilities and places for PA is a prerequisite that may be insufficient and should be combined with strategies to improve self-efficacy and overcome perceived barriers in adulthood.

  19. Construct of Dialysis Employee Satisfaction: Acquiring Satisfaction Factors and Their Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiuzhu; Itoh, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    We developed a construct of dialysis employees' satisfaction as an assessment framework and identified the crucial factors that contribute to overall job satisfaction. We also seek to capture some important characteristics of dialysis professionals' job satisfaction/dissatisfaction in Japan. A questionnaire was developed, including 35 facet-specific job-related satisfaction and 10 general satisfaction items in closed-ended questions. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted between August and October 2013. A total of 799 valid responses (87% of response rate) were collected from 46 physicians, 470 nurses and 251 technologists in the dialysis department of 43 facilities in Japan. Five satisfaction factors were derived by applying principal component analysis with 61% of cumulative variance accounted for. Physicians, nurses and technologists in the dialysis department shared a similar trend of job satisfaction that they were more satisfied with leadership, and communication and teamwork among the five factors, whereas their satisfaction level was relatively low with salary and welfare conditions. Physicians expressed the strongest satisfaction with any factor while nurses were the least satisfied. Nurses' and technologists' overall job satisfaction was mostly determined by satisfaction with self-actualization, and work demands and workload. A five-factor construct of dialysis employee satisfaction was identified. Overall job satisfaction of dialysis nurses and technologists were not overly high in Japan, and this seems to be caused by their relatively low satisfaction with self-actualization and with work demands and workload. Therefore, it is suggested that their work conditions and environment must be improved to support their self-actualization and to reduce their workload.

  20. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: a review of factors contributing to morbidity and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Andrew D.; Bartlett, Edmund K.

    2016-01-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is associated with prolonged survival for appropriately selected patients with peritoneal dissemination of abdominal malignancies. CRS and HIPEC has been criticized for perceived high rates of morbidity and mortality. Morbidity and mortality rates of CRS and HIPEC, however, do not appear dissimilar to those of other large abdominal surgeries, particularly when relevant patient and operative factors are accounted for. The risk of morbidity and mortality following this surgery for a given individual can be predicted in part by a variety of patient and operative factors. While strong data are lacking, the limited data that exists on the matter suggests that the independent contribution of the heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy to CRS and HIPEC morbidity is relatively small. A more thorough understanding of the patient and operative factors associated with CRS and HIPEC morbidity and mortality, as well as the specific complications related to the intraperitoneal chemotherapy, can better inform clinicians in multidisciplinary teams and patients alike in the decision-making for this surgery. PMID:26941988

  1. Factors contributing to the off-target transport of pyrethroid insecticides from urban surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Brant C; Wissel-Tyson, Christopher; Young, Thomas M

    2012-08-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides used in urban and suburban contexts have been found in urban creek sediments and associated with toxicity in aquatic bioassays. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the main factors contributing to the off-target transport of pyrethroid insecticides from surfaces typical of residential landscapes. Controlled rainfall simulations over concrete, bare soil, and turf plots treated individually with pyrethroid insecticides in a suspension concentrate, an emulsifiable concentrate, or a granule formulation were conducted at different rainfall intensities and different product set-time intervals. Pyrethroid mass washoff varied by several orders of magnitude between experimental treatments. Suspension concentrate product application to concrete yielded significantly greater washoff than any other treatment; granule product application to turf yielded the least washoff. Fractional losses at 10 L of runoff ranged from 25.9 to 0.011% of pyrethroid mass applied, and 10 L nominal mass losses ranged from 3970 to 0.18 μg. Mass washoff depended principally on formulation and surface type combination and, to a lesser degree, on set-time interval and rainfall intensity. Treatment effects were analyzed by ANOVA on main factors of formulation, surface type, and set time. Factor effects were not purely additive; a significant interaction between formulation and surface type was noted.

  2. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea

    2015-07-22

    Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3) mandating personal protective equipment, (4) improving road signage, (5) comprehensive data collection, (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  3. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly Thompson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52% reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1 identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2 harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3 mandating personal protective equipment, (4 improving road signage, (5 comprehensive data collection, (6 developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7 safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8 increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  4. Potential contribution of hydro power plants to the energy consumption of East Asian islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, O.A.C.; Meijer, L.J.J.; Sarfianto, D.R.; Van der Ent, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and depleting fossil fuel resei-ves put a pressure on conventional methods of electricity generation. Hydropower is an alternative energy source that is known to have a large capacity potential. However, previous estimations of the potential capacity have

  5. Potential contribution of hydro power plants to the energy consumption of East Asian islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, O.A.C.; Meijer, L.J.J.; Sarfianto, D.R.; Van der Ent, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and depleting fossil fuel resei-ves put a pressure on conventional methods of electricity generation. Hydropower is an alternative energy source that is known to have a large capacity potential. However, previous estimations of the potential capacity have

  6. What Can Psychology Tell Us about Teaching Dance? The Potential Contribution of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedzoy, S. M.; Burden, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the potential contribution of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to our understanding of student teachers' strength of intention to teach dance prior to and following an intensive eight-hour module before beginning their school-based practice. Students attending a primary Postgraduate Certificate in Education Course (PGCE)…

  7. Factors contributing to delay in diagnosis and start of treatment of leprosy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholls, P.G.; Chhina, N; Aaen, Karen Bro

    2005-01-01

    The objective of our research was to identify factors contributing to delay in diagnosis and start of treatment in leprosy, focussing on patients' narratives of help-seeking behaviour. Our research took place in Purulia, West Bengal, India and in Nilphamari, northern Bangladesh. Between January...... and August 2000, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 104 patients that explored each individual's narrative of help-seeking behaviour and the context of beliefs and attitudes towards leprosy. Subsequently we surveyed 356 patients currently receiving treatment for leprosy and recorded specific...... aspects of each help-seeking action and their reports of local beliefs and attitudes towards leprosy. Delay was estimated from time of first symptoms through to start of effective treatment (mean 18 months, median 9 months in Purulia and mean 20 months, median 12 months in Nilphamari). The number of help...

  8. The Pion-Cloud Contribution to the Electromagnetic Nucleon Form Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupelwieser Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon within a hybrid constituent-quark model that comprises, in addition to the 3q valence component, also a 3q+π non-valence component. To this aim we employ a Poincaré-invariant multichannel formulation based on the point-form of relativistic quantum mechanics. With a simple 3-quark wave function for the bare nucleon, i.e. the 3q-component, we obtain reasonable results for the nucleon form factors and predict the meson-cloud contribution to be significant only below Q2 ≲ 0:5 GeV2 amounting to about 10% for Q2 → 0, in accordance with the findings of other authors.

  9. Word problems: A review of linguistic and numerical factors contributing to their difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella eDaroczy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Word problems belong to the most difficult and complex problem types that pupils encounter during their elementary-level mathematical development. In the classroom setting, they are often viewed as merely arithmetic tasks; however, recent research shows that a number of linguistic verbal components not directly related to arithmetic contribute greatly to their difficulty. In this review, we will distinguish three components of word problem difficulty: (i the linguistic complexity of the problem text itself, (ii the numerical complexity of the arithmetic problem, and (iii the relation between the linguistic and numerical complexity of a problem. We will discuss the impact of each of these factors on word problem difficulty and motivate the need for a high degree of control in stimuli design for experiments that manipulate word problem difficulty for a given age group.

  10. ANALYSIS ON THE PRESENT SITUATION AND CONTRIBUTING FACTORS OF VACANT COMMERCIAL HOUSING IN GUANGZHOU URBAN DISTRICT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yao-dong; ZHOU Chun-shan; FANG Yuan-ping

    2003-01-01

    According to the on-the-spot sampling investigation, this paper analyzes the conditions of different dis-tricts, different locales and different types of the vacant commercial housing as well as the contributing factors, whichwas completed in recent three years in Guangzhou urban district. It is found that vacant ratio of samples in Guangzhouaccounted for 20. 94%, which is relatively high. The authors argue that real estate industry of Guangzhou has made rapidprogress, at the same time, people should not overlook the vacant commercial housing. It will benefit the sustainable develop-ment of the real estate industry of Guangzhou to carry out effective measures and actively to make use of present vacant housing.

  11. Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Delayed presentation of symptomatic cancer is associated with poorer survival. Aboriginal patients with cancer have higher rates of distant metastases at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper examined factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal Australians from patient and service providers' perspectives. Methods In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted in two stages (2006–2007 and 2011). Inductive thematic analysis was assisted by use of NVivo looking around delays in presentation, diagnosis and referral for cancer. Participants Aboriginal patients with cancer/family members (n=30) and health service providers (n=62) were recruited from metropolitan Perth and six rural/remote regions of Western Australia. Results Three broad themes of factors were identified: (1) Contextual factors such as intergenerational impact of colonisation and racism and socioeconomic deprivation have negatively impacted on Aboriginal Australians' trust of the healthcare professionals; (2) health service-related factors included low accessibility to health services, long waiting periods, inadequate numbers of Aboriginal professionals and high staff turnover; (3) patient appraisal of symptoms and decision-making, fear of cancer and denial of symptoms were key reasons patients procrastinated in seeking help. Elements of shame, embarrassment, shyness of seeing the doctor, psychological ‘fear of the whole health system’, attachment to the land and ‘fear of leaving home’ for cancer treatment in metropolitan cities were other deterrents for Aboriginal people. Manifestation of masculinity and the belief that ‘health is women's domain’ emerged as a reason why Aboriginal men were reluctant to receive health checks. Conclusions Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate

  12. Factors contributing to the low uptake of medical male circumcision in Mutare Rural District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene O. Chiringa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical male circumcision (MMC has become a significant dimension of HIV prevention interventions, after the results of three randomised controlled trials in Uganda, South Africa and Kenya demonstrated that circumcision has a protective effect against contracting HIV of up to 60%. Following recommendations by the World Health Organization, Zimbabwe in 2009 adopted voluntary MMC as an additional HIV prevention strategy to the existing ABC behaviour change model.Purpose: The purpose of this study is thus to investigate the factors contributing to the low uptake of MMC.Methods: The study was a quantitative cross-sectional survey conducted in Mutare rural district, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires with open- and closed-ended questions were administered to the eligible respondents. The target population were male participants aged 15–29 who met the inclusion criteria. The households were systematically selected with a sample size of 234. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to analyse the data.Results: Socioculturally, circumcised men are viewed as worthless (37%, shameful (30% and are tainted as promiscuous (20%, psychological factors reported were infection and delayed healing (39%, being ashamed and dehumanised (58%, stigmatised and discriminated (40.2% and fear of having an erection during treatment period (89.7% whilst socio-economic factors were not having time, as it will take their time from work (58% and complications may arise leading to spending money on treatment (84%.Conclusion: Knowledge deficits regarding male medical circumcision lead to low uptake, education on male medical circumcision and its benefits. Comprehensive sexual health education should target men and dispel negative attitudes related to the use of health services.Keywords: Factors, Low uptake, Medical Male Circumcision (MMC

  13. Ecosystem Service Value Assessment and Contribution Factor Analysis of Land Use Change in Miyun County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unreasonable land use planning can reduce ecosystem service value and result in unsustainable land use. In this paper, the changes of ecosystem service value were investigated by using the GIS and dynamic simulation model of land use in Miyun of Beijing, China, based on the land use at four time points including 1991, 2006, 2021 and one improved scenario, respectively. The results showed the total ecosystem service value of Miyun was about 2968.34 million Yuan in 1991, 3304.72 million Yuan in 2006, 3106.48 million Yuan in 2021, and 3759.77 million Yuan in the improved scenario. In terms of ecosystem service function, the functions of water supply and soil formation and retention accounted for the largest proportion, which were 19.99% and 14.58% respectively; whereas the functions of food supply and recreation and culture were only 1.83% and 5.99%, respectively. Coefficients of sensitivity for forest cover, water bodies and arable land were relatively large, which were 0.73, 0.28 and 0.14, respectively. The contribution factors of total ecosystem service value with the land use change during different periods were mainly the unused land to forest cover and arable land, which respectively accounted for more than 63% and 21% of the contribution rate. These results suggested that sustainable land use planning should be undertaken with emphasis on vegetation restoration and protection of water bodies.

  14. Contribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus virulence factors to cytotoxicity, enterotoxicity, and lethality in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Hirotaka; Kodama, Toshio; Iida, Tetsuya; Honda, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, one of the human-pathogenic vibrios, causes three major types of clinical illness: gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia. Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) secreted by this bacterium has been considered a major virulence factor of gastroenteritis because it has biological activities, including cytotoxic and enterotoxic activities. Previous reports revealed that V. parahaemolyticus strain RIMD2210633, which contains tdh, has two sets of type III secretion system (T3SS) genes on chromosomes 1 and 2 (T3SS1 and T3SS2, respectively) and that T3SS1 is responsible for cytotoxicity and T3SS2 is involved in enterotoxicity, as well as in cytotoxic activity. However, the relative importance and contributions of TDH and the two T3SSs to V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity are not well understood. In this study, we constructed mutant strains with nonfunctional T3SSs from the V. parahaemolyticus strain containing tdh, and then the pathogenicities of the wild-type and mutant strains were evaluated by assessing their cytotoxic activities against HeLa, Caco-2, and RAW 264 cells, their enterotoxic activities in rabbit ileal loops, and their lethality in a murine infection model. We demonstrated that T3SS1 was involved in cytotoxic activities against all cell lines used in this study, while T3SS2 and TDH had cytotoxic effects on a limited number of cell lines. T3SS2 was the major contributor to V. parahaemolyticus-induced enterotoxicity. Interestingly, we found that both T3SS1 and TDH played a significant role in lethal activity in a murine infection model. Our findings provide new indications that these virulence factors contribute to and orchestrate each distinct aspect of the pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus.

  15. The Effect of Body Position on Physiological Factors that Contribute to Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Simon A.; Edwards, Bradley A.; Wellman, Andrew; Turton, Anthony; Skuza, Elizabeth M.; Berger, Philip J.; Hamilton, Garun S.

    2015-01-01

    Study objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) resolves in lateral sleep in 20% of patients. However, the effect of lateral positioning on factors contributing to OSA has not been studied. We aimed to measure the effect of lateral positioning on the key pathophysiological contributors to OSA including lung volume, passive airway anatomy/collapsibility, the ability of the airway to stiffen and dilate, ventilatory control instability (loop gain), and arousal threshold. Design: Non-randomized single arm observational study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients/participants: 20 (15M, 5F) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-treated severe OSA patients. Interventions: Supine vs. lateral position. Measurements: CPAP dial-downs performed during sleep to measure: (i) Veupnea: asleep ventilatory requirement, (ii) passive V0: ventilation off CPAP when airway dilator muscles are quiescent, (iii) Varousal: ventilation at which respiratory arousals occur, (iv) active V0: ventilation off CPAP when airway dilator muscles are activated during sleep, (v) loop gain: the ratio of the ventilatory drive response to a disturbance in ventilation, (vi) arousal threshold: level of ventilatory drive which leads to arousal, (vii) upper airway gain (UAG): ability of airway muscles to restore ventilation in response to increases in ventilatory drive, and (viii) pharyngeal critical closing pressure (Pcrit). Awake functional residual capacity (FRC) was also recorded. Results: Lateral positioning significantly increased passive V0 (0.33 ± 0.76L/min vs. 3.56 ± 2.94L/min, P Turton A, Skuza EM, Berger PJ, Hamilton GS. The effect of body position on physiological factors that contribute to obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1469–1478. PMID:25761982

  16. Evaluation of Adsorbed Arsenic and Potential Contribution to Shallow Groundwater in Tulare Lake Bed Area, Tulare Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S.; Fujii, R.; Chalmers, A.T.; Tanji, K.K.

    2004-01-01

    Elevated As concentrations in shallow groundwater in parts of the Tulare Basin, California, are a concern because of potential migration into deeper aquifers that could serve as a source of future drinking water. The objectives of this study were to evaluate adsorbed As and the potential contribution to groundwater using (i) isotopic dilution, (ii) successive extraction with an electrolyte solution resembling the pore-water chemical composition, and (iii) PO4 exchange for As. Sediment samples collected from 2 to 4 m below land surface in the Tulare Lake bed area contained a total As concentration of 24 mg As kg-1. Pore water extracted under hydraulic pressure contained a total As concentration of 590 ??g As L-1, which predominantly contained As as arsenate [As(V), 97%], a minor amount of arsenite [As(III), 3%], and non-detectable organic As. The isotopic dilution method [73As(V)] estimated that the concentration of adsorbed As(V) on the sediment was 5.7 mg As kg-1 at pH 8.5 and 6.7 mg As kg-1 at pH 7.5, respectively. Fourteen successive 24-h extractions with the artificial pore water released up to 57 to 61% of the adsorbed As(V) that was determined by isotopic dilution, indicating that only a portion of the adsorbed As could be released to groundwater. The phosphate-exchangeable As (0.1 M PO4, pH 8.5 or 7.5) was 63% of the isotopically exchangeable As(V). Thus, extraction of As by 0.1 M PO4 at ambient pHs is recommended as a method to determine the potential amount of As(V) on sediments that could be released to the solution phase. The overall results indicated that adsorbed As could be a significant source of As to groundwater. However, other factors that affect As transport such as the leaching rate need to be considered.

  17. Nutrient contributions and biogas potential of co-digestion of feedstocks and dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guiling; Neibergs, J Shannon; Harrison, Joseph H; Whitefield, Elizabeth M

    2017-06-01

    This study focused on collection of data on nutrient flow and biogas yield at a commercial anaerobic digester managed with dairy manure from a 1000 cow dairy and co-digestion of additional feedstocks. Feedstocks included: blood, fish, paper pulp, out of date beverages and grease trap waste. Mass flow of inputs and outputs, nutrient concentration of inputs and outputs, and biogas yield were obtained. It was determined that manure was the primary source of nutrients to the anaerobic digester when co-digested with feedstocks. The percentage of contribution from manure to the total nutrient inputs for total nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, phosphorus and total solids was 46.3%, 67.7%, 32.8% and 23.4%, respectively. On average, manure contributed the greatest amount of total nitrogen and ammonia-nitrogen. Grease trap waste contributed the greatest amount of phosphorus and total solids at approximately 50%. Results demonstrated that a reliable estimate of nutrient inflow could be obtained from the product of the nutrient analyses of a single daily composite of influent subsamples times the total daily flow estimated with an in-line flow meter. This approach to estimate total daily nutrient inflow would be more cost effective than testing and summing the contribution of individual feedstocks. Data collected after liquid-solid separation confirmed that the majority (>75%) of nutrients remain with the liquid effluent portion of the manure stream. It was demonstrated that the ash concentration in solids before and after composting could be used to estimate the mass balance of total solids during the compost process. This data confirms that biogas or methane yield could be accurately measured from the ratio of % volatile solids to % total solids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential contribution of hydro power plants to the energy consumption of East Asian islands

    OpenAIRE

    Hoes, O. A. C.; Meijer, L.J.J.; Sarfianto, D.R.; R. J. van der Ent

    2014-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and depleting fossil fuel resei-ves put a pressure on conventional methods of electricity generation. Hydropower is an alternative energy source that is known to have a large capacity potential. However, previous estimations of the potential capacity have been inconsistent and incomplete. In this study we identified all locations on East Asian islands (from Japan, Taiwan Phillipines to Indonesia) which are suitable for hydropower. For this we combin...

  19. Assessing positive matrix factorization model fit: a new method to estimate uncertainty and bias in factor contributions at the measurement time scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Hemann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model for aerosol pollution source apportionment was fit to a synthetic dataset simulating one year of daily measurements of ambient PM2.5 concentrations, comprised of 39 chemical species from nine pollutant sources. A novel method was developed to estimate model fit uncertainty and bias at the daily time scale, as related to factor contributions. A circular block bootstrap is used to create replicate datasets, with the same receptor model then fit to the data. Neural networks are trained to classify factors based upon chemical profiles, as opposed to correlating contribution time series, and this classification is used to align factor orderings across the model results associated with the replicate datasets. Factor contribution uncertainty is assessed from the distribution of results associated with each factor. Comparing modeled factors with input factors used to create the synthetic data assesses bias. The results indicate that variability in factor contribution estimates does not necessarily encompass model error: contribution estimates can have small associated variability across results yet also be very biased. These findings are likely dependent on characteristics of the data.

  20. Urban Household Carbon Emission and Contributing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan; Su, Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region – Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents’ low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:25884853

  1. Anaerobes and Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Virulence Factors Contributing to Vaginal Colonisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Africa, Charlene W. J.; Nel, Janske; Stemmet, Megan

    2014-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) is unclear but it appears to be associated with factors that disrupt the normal acidity of the vagina thus altering the equilibrium between the normal vaginal microbiota. BV has serious implications for female morbidity, including reports of pelvic inflammatory disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and infertility. This paper reviewed new available information regarding possible factors contributing to the establishment of the BV vaginal biofilm, examined the proposed role of anaerobic microbial species recently detected by new culture-independent methods and discusses developments related to the effects of BV on human pregnancy. The literature search included Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO), and Web of Science. Because of the complexity and diversity of population groups, diagnosis and methodology used, no meta-analysis was performed. Several anaerobic microbial species previously missed in the laboratory diagnosis of BV have been revealed while taking cognisance of newly proposed theories of infection, thereby improving our understanding and knowledge of the complex aetiology and pathogenesis of BV and its perceived role in adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25014248

  2. A Model of Factors Contributing to STEM Learning and Career Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Gwen; Barker, Bradley; Welch, Greg; Grandgenett, Neal; Wu, ChaoRong; Nelson, Carl

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of factors contributing to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning and career orientation, examining the complex paths and relationships among social, motivational, and instructional factors underlying these outcomes for middle school youth. Social cognitive career theory provided the foundation for the research because of its emphasis on explaining mechanisms which influence both career orientations and academic performance. Key constructs investigated were youth STEM interest, self-efficacy, and career outcome expectancy (consequences of particular actions). The study also investigated the effects of prior knowledge, use of problem-solving learning strategies, and the support and influence of informal educators, family members, and peers. A structural equation model was developed, and structural equation modeling procedures were used to test proposed relationships between these constructs. Results showed that educators, peers, and family-influenced youth STEM interest, which in turn predicted their STEM self-efficacy and career outcome expectancy. STEM career orientation was fostered by youth-expected outcomes for such careers. Results suggest that students' pathways to STEM careers and learning can be largely explained by these constructs, and underscore the importance of youth STEM interest.

  3. Urban household carbon emission and contributing factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibao Xu

    Full Text Available Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region--Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents' low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta.

  4. Anaerobes and Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Virulence Factors Contributing to Vaginal Colonisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene W. J. Africa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aetiology and pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV is unclear but it appears to be associated with factors that disrupt the normal acidity of the vagina thus altering the equilibrium between the normal vaginal microbiota. BV has serious implications for female morbidity, including reports of pelvic inflammatory disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and infertility. This paper reviewed new available information regarding possible factors contributing to the establishment of the BV vaginal biofilm, examined the proposed role of anaerobic microbial species recently detected by new culture-independent methods and discusses developments related to the effects of BV on human pregnancy. The literature search included Pubmed (NLM, LISTA (EBSCO, and Web of Science. Because of the complexity and diversity of population groups, diagnosis and methodology used, no meta-analysis was performed. Several anaerobic microbial species previously missed in the laboratory diagnosis of BV have been revealed while taking cognisance of newly proposed theories of infection, thereby improving our understanding and knowledge of the complex aetiology and pathogenesis of BV and its perceived role in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  5. Addictive Behaviors Amongst University Students: Contributing Factors, Student's Perception and Addiction Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Houri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors contributing to addictive behaviors affecting student health are analyzed in this study. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and the use of illegal drugs are assessed in a sample of 290 university students. General averages indicate that 37.2% of students smoke cigarettes, 49.8% drink alcohol regularly, and 17.9% have tried illegal drugs while 4.8% of them use it regularly. Age, academic achievement, gender, religion, family status and financial status were correlated to these addictive behaviors. Major findings show a clear relationship between smoking and most variables. The main factor involved in drinking was found to be religion, while illegal drug consumption was most clearly correlated to parents’ education and monthly income. Students’ self perception regarding smoking and tendency to use illegal drug was assessed showing that 11.7% of smokers consider themselves non-smokers while 11.8% considered trying illegal drugs acceptable. Addiction rates after initial consumption are analyzed showing 74.7% for alcohol, 51.7% for smoking cigarettes and 26.9% for drugs. A risk profile for each addiction type is presented.

  6. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Dominican Republic: Key Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Patria; Malow, Robert; Ruffin, Beverly; Rothe, Eugenio M; Rosenberg, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews HIV/AIDS epidemiological data and recent research conducted in the Dominican Republic, with a focus on explaining the variability in estimated seroincidence and prevalence within the country. HIV seroprevalence estimates range from 1.0% (in the general population) to 11.0% among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some have indicated that the highest HIV seroprevalence occurs in Haitian enclaves called bateyes (US Agency for International Development [USAID], 2008), which are migrant worker shantytowns primarily serving the sugar industry in the Dominican Republic. Others report higher or comparable rates to the bateyes in areas related to the tourism and sex industries. As in other Caribbean and Latin American countries, reported HIV transmission in the Dominican Republic is predominantly due to unprotected heterosexual sex and the infection rate has been increasing disproportionally among women. The Dominican Republic represents two thirds of the Hispaniola island; the western one third is occupied by Haiti, the nation with the highest HIV prevalence in the western hemisphere. Although data is limited, it shows important differences in seroprevalence and incidence between these two countries, but commonalities such as poverty, gender inequalities, and stigma appear to be pivotal factors driving the epidemic. This article will discuss these and other factors that may contribute to the HIV epidemic in the Dominican Republic, as well as highlight the gaps in the literature and provide recommendations to guide further work in this area, particularly in the role of governance in sustainable HIV prevention.

  7. Schools as Sanctuaries: A Systematic Review of Contextual Factors Which Contribute to Student Retention in Alternative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eva; Salmon, Nancy; Murphy, Carol-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Early school leaving is an international concern. Previous research indicates that the school context contributes to early school leaving. This systematic review is aimed to gather marginalised young peoples' perceptions concerning contextual factors that contributed to and interfered with their decisions to stay in alternative education.…

  8. Potential contributions of extremophiles to hydrocarbon resources in marine extreme environments:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiasheng; WANG Yongbiao; LI Qing

    2007-01-01

    To understand the potential mechanism of marine extremophiles participating in the formation and the evolution of hydrocarbon resources in marine extreme environments,some typical kinds of extremophiles and their distributions in marine hydrothermal and cold vents are discussed and evaluated respectively.The potential relationship between extremophile activities and hydrocarbon resources in marine extreme environments are then discussed in details.It could be now preliminary concluded that archaea and bacteria are the two main kinds of extremophiles in marine extreme environments.The dominating microbe communities in hydrothermal vents are heterotrophic zymogens,sulfate reducers and methanogens,while the ANME-2 group(Methanosarcinales) surrounded by sulfate-reducing bacteria and ANME-1 group dominate in cold vents.Marine extremophiles would be able to use CH,and H2S to synthesize energy for metabolism and to support food chains for other unique macrobiota nearby,which together present a high abundance but a low diversity with distinct characteristics of horizontal and vertical distributions.Marine extremophiles might play an important role either directly or indirectly in the processes of hydrocarbon formation and subsequent alteration,and could indicate the evolution of hydrocarbon resources in marine extreme environments.Our research thus has a great significance both in theoretical approach of potential hydrocarbon resources formed by marine extremophile activities and in practical exploration of the potential hydrocarbonsource sedimentary layers formed in the Earth history or the potential strata in southern China.

  9. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  10. Adiponectin Potentially Contributes to the Antidepressive Effects of Baduanjin Qigong Exercise in Women With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Like Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jessie S M; Li, Ang; Ng, Siu-Man; Ho, Rainbow T H; Xu, Aimin; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Wang, Xiao-Min; So, Kwok-Fai; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2017-03-13

    Our recent study demonstrates that adiponectin signaling plays a significant role in mediating physical exercise-exerted effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepression in mice. Whether the findings can be translated to humans remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Baduanjin Qigong exercise on adiponectin and to evaluate whether adiponectin is involved in the antidepressive effects of Qigong exercise on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)-like illness. This is a randomized, waitlist-controlled trial. One hundred eight female participants were randomly assigned to either Qigong exercise or waitlist groups. Sixteen 1.5-h Qigong lessons were conducted. Outcome measures were taken at three time points. Baseline adiponectin levels were negatively associated with body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist/hip ratio in women with CFS-like illness. Compared with the waitlist control, Qigong exercise significantly reduced anxiety and depression symptoms and significantly raised plasma adiponectin levels (median = 0.8 vs. -0.1, p Qigong exercise were associated with decreases in depression scores for the Qigong group (r = -0.38, p = 0.04). Moreover, adjusted linear regression analysis further identified Qigong exercise and change in adiponectin levels as the significant factors accounting for reduction of depression symptoms. Baduanjin Qigong significantly increased adiponectin levels in females with CFS-like illness. Decreases in depression symptoms were associated with increases in adiponectin levels following Qigong exercise, indicating that the potential contribution of adiponectin to Qigong exercise elicited antidepressive effects in human subjects.

  11. Distinct Contributions of Median Raphe Nucleus to Contextual Fear Conditioning and Fear-Potentiated Startle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R. C. B.; Cruz, A. P. M.; Avanzi, V.; Landeira-Fernandez, J.; Brandão, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    Ascending 5-HT projections from the median raphe nucleus (MRN), probably to the hippocampus, are implicated in the acquisition of contextual fear (background stimuli), as assessed by freezing behavior. Foreground cues like light, used as a conditioned stimulus (CS) in classical fear conditioning, also cause freezing through thalamic transmission to the amygdala. As the MRN projects to the hippocampus and amygdala, the role of this raphe nucleus in fear conditioning to explicit cues remains to be explained. Here we analyzed the behavior of rats with MRN electrolytic lesions in a contextual conditioning situation and in a fear-potentiated startle procedure. The animals received MRN electrolytic lesions either before or on the day after two consecutive training sessions in which they were submitted to 10 conditioning trials, each in an experimental chamber (same context) where they. received foot-shocks (0.6 mA, 1 sec) paired to a 4-sec light CS. Seven to ten days later, the animals were submitted to testing sessions for assessing conditioned fear when they were placed for five shocks, and the duration of contextual freezing was recorded. The animals were then submitted to a fear-potentiated startle in response to a 4-sec light-CS, followed by white noise (100 dB, 50 ms). Control rats (sham) tested in the same context showed more freezing than did rats with pre- or post-training MRN lesions. Startle was clearly potentiated in the presence of light CS in the sham-lesioned animals. Whereas pretraining lesions reduced both freezing and fear-potentiated startle, the post-training lesions reduced only freezing to context, without changing the fear-potentiated startle. In a second experiment, neurotoxic lesions of the MRN with local injections of N-methyl-D-aspartate or the activation of 5-HT1A somatodendritic auto-receptors of the MRN by microinjections of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy- 2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) before the training sessions also

  12. Factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijuade Abayomi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is common in many endemic and other settings but there is no clear recommendation on when to change therapy when there is delay in parasite clearance after initiation of therapy in African children. Methods The factors contributing to delay in parasite clearance, defined as a clearance time > 2 d, in falciparum malaria were characterized in 2,752 prospectively studied children treated with anti-malarial drugs between 1996 and 2008. Results 1,237 of 2,752 children (45% had delay in parasite clearance. Overall 211 children (17% with delay in clearance subsequently failed therapy and they constituted 72% of those who had drug failure, i.e., 211 of 291 children. The following were independent risk factors for delay in parasite clearance at enrolment: age less than or equal to 2 years (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]1.44-3.15, P 50,000/ul (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.77-2.75, P 20000/μl a day after treatment began, were independent risk factors for delay in clearance. Non-artemisinin monotherapies were associated with delay in clearance and treatment failures, and in those treated with chloroquine or amodiaquine, with pfmdr 1/pfcrt mutants. Delay in clearance significantly increased gametocyte carriage (P Conclusion Delay in parasite clearance is multifactorial, is related to drug resistance and treatment failure in uncomplicated malaria and has implications for malaria control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Multiple factors contribute to anautogenous reproduction by the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Elliot, Anne; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R

    2015-11-01

    Aedes aegypti is an anautogenous mosquito that must blood feed on a vertebrate host to produce and lay a clutch of eggs. The rockpool mosquito, Georgecraigius atropalpus, is related to A. aegypti but is a facultatively autogenous species that produces its first clutch of eggs shortly after emerging without blood feeding. Consumption of a blood meal by A. aegypti triggers the release of ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH) and insulin-like peptide 3 (ILP3) from the brain, which stimulate egg formation. OEH and ILP3 also stimulate egg formation in G. atropalpus but are released at eclosion independently of blood feeding. These results collectively suggest that blood meal dependent release of OEH and ILP3 is one factor that prevents A. aegypti from reproducing autogenously. Here, we examined two other factors that potentially inhibit autogeny in A. aegypti: teneral nutrient reserves and the ability of OEH and ILP3 to stimulate egg formation in the absence of blood feeding. Measures of nutrient reserves showed that newly emerged A. aegypti females had similar wet weights but significantly lower protein and glycogen reserves than G. atropalpus females when larvae were reared under identical conditions. OEH stimulated non-blood fed A. aegypti females to produce ecdysteroid hormone and package yolk into oocytes more strongly than ILP3. OEH also reduced host seeking and blood feeding behavior, yet females produced few mature eggs. Overall, our results indicate that multiple factors prevent A. aegypti from reproducing autogenously.

  14. The potential contributions of concept maps for learning website to assessment for learning practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Filiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the promising contributions of the Concept Maps for Learning (CMfL website to assessment for learning practices. The CMfL website generates concept maps from relatedness degree of concepts pairs through the Pathfinder Scaling Algorithm. This website also confirms the established principles of effective assessment for learning, for it is capable of automatically assessing students’ higher order knowledge, simultaneously identifying strengths and weaknesses, immediately providing useful feedback and being user-friendly. According to the default assessment plan, students first create concept maps on a particular subject and then they are given individualized visual feedback followed by associated instructional material (e.g., videos, website links, examples, problems, etc. based on a comparison of their concept map and a subject matter expert’s map. After studying the feedback and instructional material, teachers can monitor their students’ progress by having them create revised concept maps. Therefore, we claim that the CMfL website may reduce the workload of teachers as well as provide immediate and delayed feedback on the weaknesses of students in different forms such as graphical and multimedia. For the following study, we will examine whether these promising contributions to assessment for learning are valid in a variety of subjects.

  15. Modern Biotechnology—Potential Contribution and Challenges for Sustainable Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jane Morris

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern biotechnology, including the application of transgenic techniques to produce Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs, can play a significant role in increasing agricultural production in a sustainable way, but its products need to be tailored for the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa, the capacity to develop GMOs and ensure they meet stringent regulatory requirements is somewhat limited. Most African governments contribute little to science and technology either financially or through strong policies. This leaves the determination of research and development priorities in the hands of international funding agencies. Whereas funding from the United States is generally supportive of GM technology, the opposite is true of funding from European sources. African countries are thus pulled in two different directions. One alternative to this dilemma might be for countries in the sub-Saharan Africa region to develop stronger South-South collaborations, but these need to be supported with adequate funding. African governments as well as external funding agencies are urged to consider the important role that biotechnology, including GM technology, can play in contributing to sustainable development in Africa, and to provide adequate support to the development of capacity to research, develop and commercialize GMOs in the region.

  16. Factors potentially influencing academic performance among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Shawwa L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lana Al Shawwa,1 Ahmad A Abulaban,2 Abdulrhman A Abulaban,3 Anas Merdad,3 Sara Baghlaf,3 Ahmed Algethami,3 Joullanar Abu-shanab,3 Abdulrahman Balkhoyor3 1Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 2Department of Medicine-Neurology, King Fahad National Guard Hospital, King Abdulziz Medical City, Riyadh, 3Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Studies are needed to examine predictors of success in medical school. The aim of this work is to explore factors that potentially influence excellence of medical students. Methods: The study was conducted in the Medical Faculty of King Abdulaziz University during October 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Medical students with a grade point average (GPA ≥4.5 (out of 5 were included and compared to randomly selected medical students with a GPA <4.5, who were available at the time of the study. Results: A total of 359 undergraduate students participated in the study. 50.4% of the sample was students with a GPA ≥4.5. No statistically significant difference regarding the time spent on outings and social events was found. However, 60.7% of high GPA students spend less than 2 hours on social networking per day as compared to 42.6% of the lower GPA students (P<0.01. In addition, 79% of high GPA students prefer to study alone (P=0.02, 68.0% required silence and no interruptions during studying time (P=0.013, and 47% revise their material at least once before an exam (P=0.02. Conclusion: Excellent medical students have many different characteristics. For example, they do not use social networking for prolonged periods of time, and they have strong motivation and study enjoyment. Further studies are needed to examine whether these differences have a real impact on GPA or not. Keyword: King Abdulaziz University KAU, medical school, study habits, exam habits 

  17. Abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension: contribution of neural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jere H

    2017-06-01

    During both dynamic (e.g., endurance) and static (e.g., strength) exercise there are exaggerated cardiovascular responses in hypertension. This includes greater increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and efferent sympathetic nerve activity than in normal controls. Two of the known neural factors that contribute to this abnormal cardiovascular response are the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) and functional sympatholysis. The EPR originates in contracting skeletal muscle and reflexly increases sympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart and blood vessels as well as decreases parasympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart. These changes in autonomic nerve activity cause an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular contractility, and vasoconstriction in the arterial tree. However, arterial vessels in the contracting skeletal muscle have a markedly diminished vasoconstrictor response. The markedly diminished vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle has been termed functional sympatholysis. It has been shown in hypertension that there is an enhanced EPR, including both its mechanoreflex and metaboreflex components, and an impaired functional sympatholysis. These conditions set up a positive feedback or vicious cycle situation that causes a progressively greater decrease in the blood flow to the exercising muscle. Thus these two neural mechanisms contribute significantly to the abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. In addition, exercise training in hypertension decreases the enhanced EPR, including both mechanoreflex and metaboreflex function, and improves the impaired functional sympatholysis. These two changes, caused by exercise training, improve the muscle blood flow to exercising muscle and cause a more normal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. FACTORS CONTRIBUTION TO THE ADOPTION OF PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES BY POTATO GROWERS IN NORTHWEST BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Sharif Uddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the factors which contribute to the adoption of potato production technologies by the growers. The adoption of potato production technologies by the growers was measured by computing of scores of proper land preparation, cultivation of modern variety, fertilizer dose, fertilizer application method, irrigation, plant protection measures, seed quality, intercultural operations, planting time, seed size and planting space. Data were collected from randomly selected 232 potato growers by using interview schedule in three Upazilla of Rajshahi district in Bangladesh during July 2010 to February 2011. Out of 11 technologies relating to the adoption of potato production, recommended irrigation was at the top of highest ranking by the adoption index and plant spacing was the lowest. Majority (46.55% of the growers had medium adoption compared to high (29.74% and low (23.71% adoption. Pearson correlation test depicted that out of 22 variables, 16 had significant positive relationship with the adoption of potato production technologies. Results of stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that seven variables namely: innovativeness, potato production knowledge, aspiration, potato problem awareness, group contact, peer relationship and attitude contributed significantly which altogether explained to the extent of 65.30% of the total variation to the adoption of potato production technologies. Path analysis indicated that these variables had both direct and indirect effects to the adoption behaviour. Potato growers who had more innovativeness, better knowledge in connection to potato production, more aspiration, more contact with group members, more peer relation and more favourable attitude were found to better adopt the potato production technologies.

  19. Factors contributing to rapid wear and osteolysis in hips with modular acetabular bearings made of hylamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D L; Campbell, P A; McClung, C D; Schmalzried, T P

    2000-01-01

    There have been several reports of osteolysis associated with rapid wear of Hylamer. A detailed analysis of retrieved implants and tissues can identify factors contributing to rapid wear and osteolysis. The mean linear wear rate of 12 liners was 0.49 mm/y, and 11 of 12 hips had progressive retroacetabular osteolysis. The average patient age was 50 years, and the mean implantation time was 50 months. All liners were sterilized by gamma irradiation in air. There was an 11-month difference in the average shelf-life of the 3 liners that were white and those that were darker in color. The volumetric wear rate of the white liners was 30% less than that of the others, suggesting a difference in the wear resistance of the liners as a function of shelf life. The mean average surface roughness (Ra) and the mean maximum surface roughness (R(max)) of the femoral heads were increased 3-fold and 50-fold compared with typical values for unused femoral heads. Evidence of 3-body wear, such as metal particles embedded in the liners, was commonly present. The pattern of backside liner deformation and burnishing was consistent with relative motion between the liner and the shell. In addition to generating Hylamer wear particles, repetitive axial motion between the liner and shell could generate fluid pressure, which transmitted through holes in the acetabular shell could cause or contribute to the development of retroacetabular osteolysis. Hylamer particles of variable shape and size, consistent with generation by several wear modes, were isolated from periprosthetic tissues.

  20. Potential predictive factors of positive prostate biopsy in the Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... probability of a positive biopsy than any factor alone. ... predictive factors for a positive prostate biopsy in Chinese men. ... and sagittal projections. Prostate ..... Liu ZY, Sun YH, Xu CL, Gao X, Zhang LM, Ren SC (2009). Age- ...

  1. Potential contribution of GALILEO to the TRF and the determination of ERPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, R.; Englich, S.:

    2006-10-01

    1. INTRODUCTION In addition to the existing GPS and GLONASS systems the EC and ESA plan to launch an European Satellite Navigation System (GALILEO) till end of 2009. 30 GALILEO satellites will populate three orbital planes with an inclination of about 56o. This paper strives to summarize potential improvements in geodetic point positioning and especially in the determination of Earth Rotation gained from the combined use of all three systems or at least of GPS+GALILEO.

  2. Energetic contribution potential of building-integrated photovoltaics on airports in warm climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruether, Ricardo [LabEEE - Laboratorio de Eficiencia Energetica em Edificacoes, UFSC - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); LABSOLAR - Laboratorio de Energia Solar, UFSC - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Braun, Priscila [LabEEE - Laboratorio de Eficiencia Energetica em Edificacoes, UFSC - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    Especially in warm climates, a considerable fraction of the electricity demand in commercial buildings is due to the intensive use of air-conditioning systems. Airport buildings in sunny and warm regions present a perfect match between energy demand and solar resource availability. Airport buildings are also typically large and horizontal, isolated and free of shading, and have a great potential for the integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. In this work, we assess the potential impact in energy demand reduction at the Florianopolis International Airport in Brazil (27 S, 48 W) with the use of building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems. We analyse the building's hourly energy consumption and solar irradiation data, to assess the match between energy demand and potential generation, and we estimate the PV power necessary to supply both the total amount and fractions of the annual energy demand. Our results show that the integration of PV systems on airport buildings in warm climates can supply the entire electric power consumption of an airport complex, in line with the general concept of a zero-energy building (ZEB). (author)

  3. 20 CFR 404.1535 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a... medical evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism. (1) The key factor we will examine in...

  4. Close proximity to Igh is a contributing factor to AID-mediated translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Pedro P; Micsinai, Mariann; Kim, JungHyun Rachel; Hewitt, Susannah L; Souza, Patricia P; Trimarchi, Thomas; Strino, Francesco; Parisi, Fabio; Kluger, Yuval; Skok, Jane A

    2012-09-28

    Class switch recombination (CSR) has the potential to generate genomic instability in B cells as activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which mediates this process, is known to target many sites outside Igh. Nonetheless we do not fully understand what factors influence AID targeting genome-wide. Given that errors in CSR can lead to dangerous, oncogenic chromosomal translocations it is important to identify the elements that determine which genes are at risk of being "hit" and could be involved in aberrant rearrangements. Here we have investigated the influence of nuclear organization in determining "off-target" activity and the choice of fusion partners. Our studies indicate that the vast majority of known AID-mediated Igh translocation partners are found in chromosomal domains that contact this locus during class switching. Further, these interaction domains can be used to identify other genes that are hit by AID.

  5. SAFER Latinos: a community partnership to address contributing factors for Latino youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D; Andrade, Elizabeth; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Maria Ivonne; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a multilevel youth violence prevention effort called SAFER Latinos (Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos), a collaboration between The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services (GWU) and two key Latino community organizations. To implement and evaluate an intervention addressing factors within the social ecology of an immigrant Latino community. The intervention includes (1) Social promotores for family outreach and problem resolution; (2) Youth peer advocates at the high school level; (3) a drop-in center with support services for families and youth; and (4) community events, capacity building, and messages. Evaluation includes a baseline and follow-up surveys (N = 1,400) and focus groups. (1) Community circumstances change, requiring regular program adaptation. (2) Community interventions with research face potential contradictions in purpose impacting management of the collaboration and model fidelity. (3) Etiological models tied to interventions may have to be revisited owing to changes in the character and dynamics of the immigrant community.

  6. Applying data mining techniques to explore factors contributing to occupational injuries in Taiwan's construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Wu; Leu, Sou-Sen; Cheng, Ying-Mei; Wu, Tsung-Chih; Lin, Chen-Chung

    2012-09-01

    Construction accident research involves the systematic sorting, classification, and encoding of comprehensive databases of injuries and fatalities. The present study explores the causes and distribution of occupational accidents in the Taiwan construction industry by analyzing such a database using the data mining method known as classification and regression tree (CART). Utilizing a database of 1542 accident cases during the period 2000-2009, the study seeks to establish potential cause-and-effect relationships regarding serious occupational accidents in the industry. The results of this study show that the occurrence rules for falls and collapses in both public and private project construction industries serve as key factors to predict the occurrence of occupational injuries. The results of the study provide a framework for improving the safety practices and training programs that are essential to protecting construction workers from occasional or unexpected accidents.

  7. CONTRIBUTION TO THE POTENTIAL OF USING FRP MATERIALS IN THE REHABILITATION AND STABILIZATION OF TIMBERED BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Čejka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wooden log, timbered perimeter and interior walls ranked among the most common building constructions used from the Early Middle Ages. In most cases, the local natural resources, i.e. wood, clay, straw and stone, were used for building houses with wooden framing. This article outlines typical defects and failures of timbered houses, “classic” techniques for the rehabilitation of these defects and failures indicating the potential of using composite materials based on high- strength fibres and epoxy resin in the rehabilitation and strengthening of timbered buildings.

  8. Potential Contribution of Traffic to Air Pollution in the State of Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Al-Mutairi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The reduction in ambient air pollution is a universal goal-particularly in urban areas, the lack of resources often necessitates identification and prioritization of sources of air pollutants. Efficient planning and effective management of environmental pollutants is thus important for optimum utilization of limited resources. Approach: This study examined seven years of data from three air pollution monitoring stations in the State of Kuwait. The stations-each located at a different district-were selected such that the influence of traffic source and oil refineries/power stations on ambient air pollution contaminants could be detected. A sampling plan was developed and CH4, CO, O3, SO2, NO, NOX and TS concentrations were measured both during peak-traffic hours as well as off-peak hours. Results: Analyses of the data showed that concentrations of the air pollutants had slightly increased over the seven-year study period and only those of the NOX and SO2, exceed the permitted standard levels. Traffic was the main source of air pollution in the district located adjacent to the city centre, while oil refineries contributed most to ambient air pollution in the rural district. Conclusion: The concentration levels of NO, NOX and Total Sulfate (TS were significantly less at the district located away from urban traffic and oil refineries compared to those of with heavy daily traffic congestions and those of the district in proximity to oil refineries.

  9. A possible contribution to improving the therapeutic potentials of Babor's Typology of Alcohol Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Ribeiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to replicate Babor's Typology and to explore clinical features related to personality traits that may underlie this classification, in order to improve its therapeutic possibilities. Methods Observational prospective study on a group of 273 male alcoholics. After a replication of Babor's variables, Cluster Analysis, Chi-Square – applied on clinical variables related to a Lappda Tipology – and Kappa tests were performed. Results The study identified two distinct clusters that held similar features to those described for the Type A/Type B classification. Besides presenting a lower socio-economic situation, Cluster 2 patients were associated with higher vulnerability and severe clinical features and also differed from Cluster 1 in their response to treatment. These replicated clusters retained connections and also differences in relation to the variables derived from the Lappda Typology. Conclusion Considering that each of the two replicated clusters seem to be associated to different personality traits – according to their correlations to the affective, cognitive and behavioral dimensions brought forward by the Lappda Typology – it is acceptable that this study may contribute to the development of more comprehensive and effective therapeutic strategies specifically tailored to target more specific personality traits of these subgroups of alcoholic patients.

  10. On the potential contribution of open lead particle emissions to the central Arctic aerosol concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Held

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During the ice-breaker borne ASCOS expedition (Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study direct eddy covariance measurements of aerosol number fluxes were carried out in August 2008 on the edge of an ice floe drifting in the central Arctic Ocean between 2°–10° W longitude and 87°–87.5° N latitude. The median aerosol transfer velocities over different surface types (open water leads, ice ridges, snow and ice surfaces ranged from 0.27 to 0.68 mm s−1 during deposition-dominated episodes. Emission periods were observed more frequently over the open lead, while the snow behaved primarily as a deposition surface. Directly measured aerosol fluxes were compared with particle deposition parameterizations in order to estimate the emission flux from the observed net aerosol flux. Finally, the contribution of the open lead particle source to atmospheric variations in particle number concentration was evaluated and compared with the observed temporal evolution of particle number. The direct emission of aerosol particles from the open lead can only explain 5–10% of the observed particle number variation in the mixing layer close to the surface.

  11. The Microbiome in Mental Health: Potential Contribution of Gut Microbiota in Disease and Pharmacotherapy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Stephanie A; Ellingrod, Vicki L

    2015-10-01

    The gut microbiome is composed of ~10(13) -10(14) microbial cells and viruses that exist in a symbiotic bidirectional communicative relationship with the host. Bacterial functions in the gut have an important role in healthy host metabolic function, and dysbiosis can contribute to the pathology of many medical conditions. Alterations in the relationship between gut microbiota and host have gained some attention in mental health because new evidence supports the association of gut bacteria to cognitive and emotional processes. Of interest, illnesses such as major depressive disorder are disproportionately prevalent in patients with gastrointestinal illnesses such as inflammatory bowel disease, which pathologically has been strongly linked to microbiome function. Not only is the microbiome associated with the disease itself, but it may also influence the effectiveness or adverse effects associated with pharmacologic agents used to treat these disorders. This field of study may also provide new insights on how dietary agents may help manage mental illness both directly as well as though their influence on the therapeutic and adverse effects of psychotropic agents.

  12. GIVING WOMEN VOICE: THE ETHIOPIAN FEMALE SKILLED DIASPORA’S POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTION TO DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Amazan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Migration research, which tends to focus on the low paying and exploitative nature of female migrants’ work, often neglects female skilled migration. Under-representation of the gender dimension is not only common in international migration research, but is also present in policies, development strategies and initiatives. This lack of acknowledgement also impedes, and continues to marginalise, the role of women in development, and further perpetuates disparities between the sexes. Overall, the focus on gender within the study of international migration and diaspora mobility studies remains inadequate. The methodology behind this article involved questionnaires and semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with Ethiopian skilled and highly-skilled professionals residing in North America. Some temporary and permanent returnees were interviewed, including government officials, local NGOs and members of international organizations. The research sheds new light on the gender dimensions of the role of the diaspora in contributing to the re-shaping of Ethiopian society. The article explores aspects of ambiguity among gender roles in both North America and in Ethiopia. This article will explore these themes and also discuss the gender dimension of skilled migration and female diaspora mobility in the context of African development, specifically relating to Ethiopia. It will analyse the role of women in the realm of international skilled migration, in order to recognize and empower migrant women as agents of development and change.

  13. The Potential of Strava Data to Contribute in Non-Motorised Transport (nmt) Planning in Johannesburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selala, M. K.; Musakwa, W.

    2016-06-01

    Transportation is one of the most fundamental challenges of urban development in the modern world. Cities are currently moving towards sustainable transportation, which includes non-motorised transportation (NMT). The city of Johannesburg has a goal of becoming a smart city, with sustainable development and smart mobility. Encouraging the use of non-motorised transportation and public transport has the potential of reducing the use of private motorised transport and therefor its negative consequences within the city of Johannesburg. There is limited research on cycling and how cyclists interact with cycling infrastructure within the city. The lack of such knowledge hinders proper planning for NMT. This research studies the ability of geolocation based services to provide such information which can be useful in planning for NMT. Strava Metro application is the example of such geolocation based services. The potential of this app to influence planning is investigated. According to the information acquired by Strava Metro, there are more cyclists in suburbs at the centre of Johannesburg and towards the north and to the east, and in Kibler Park at the south western part of the city. There are indications that the numbers of cycling activities recorded by Strava Metro are affected by the availability of gated communities, income levels, crime levels and the provision of infrastructure.

  14. Potential contributions to space geodesy from the IridiumNEXT constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, B. C.; Encarnação, J.; Ditmar, P.; Klees, R.

    2012-12-01

    The IridiumNEXT constellation will soon replace the existing Iridium satellite telecommunication network, with initial launches set to start in 2015. In addition to the primary task of providing global telecommunication services, each IridiumNEXT satellite will also carry a hosted payload that will provide both private and public institutions the opportunity to place an instrument suite on one or all of constellation's satellites. This creates the possibility to gather continuous, global observations of Earth over the entire 15 year projected mission lifetime. Access to such a platform creates the potential to investigate many of Earth's highly dynamic processes at a spatiotemporal resolution that is simply not possible from single-satellite missions. Space geodesy is one the numerous fields that would benefit from such a mission. Precise orbits of the IridiumNEXT satellites derived through an on-board GNSS receiver (plus accelerometers and star cameras) have the potential to observe the large-scale, high-frequency variations in Earth's gravity field at time scales as short as one day. Additional positioning data from ground-based laser ranging stations would help improve the orbit determination, in addition to providing the necessary link to improve estimates of geocenter motion and reference frames. In this presentation, we will analyze the expected geodetic science returns from such a mission and will discuss the instrumental requirements needed to achieve these objectives.

  15. Data Mashups: Potential Contribution to Decision Support on Climate Change and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora E. Fleming

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Linking environmental, socioeconomic and health datasets provides new insights into the potential associations between climate change and human health and wellbeing, and underpins the development of decision support tools that will promote resilience to climate change, and thus enable more effective adaptation. This paper outlines the challenges and opportunities presented by advances in data collection, storage, analysis, and access, particularly focusing on “data mashups”. These data mashups are integrations of different types and sources of data, frequently using open application programming interfaces and data sources, to produce enriched results that were not necessarily the original reason for assembling the raw source data. As an illustration of this potential, this paper describes a recently funded initiative to create such a facility in the UK for use in decision support around climate change and health, and provides examples of suitable sources of data and the purposes to which they can be directed, particularly for policy makers and public health decision makers.

  16. Enzymatic activity in the rhizosphere of Spartina maritima: potential contribution for phytoremediation of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboreda, Rosa; Caçador, Isabel

    2008-02-01

    Extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) of five enzymes (peroxidase, phenol oxidase, beta-glucosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and acid phosphatase) was analysed in sediments colonised by Spartina maritima in two salt marshes (Rosário and Pancas) of the Tagus estuary (Portugal) with different characteristics such as sediment parameters and metal contaminant levels. Our aim was a better understanding of the influence of the halophyte on microbial activity in the rhizosphere under different site conditions, and its potential consequences for metal cycling and phytoremediation in salt marshes. Acid phosphatase and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase presented significantly higher EEA in Rosário than in Pancas, whereas the opposite occurred for peroxidase. This was mainly attributed to differences in organic matter between the two sites. A positive correlation between root biomass and EEA of hydrolases (beta-glucosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and acid phosphatase) was found, indicating a possible influence of the halophyte in sediment microbial function. This would potentially affect metal cycling in the rhizosphere through microbial reactions.

  17. Microparticles in vascular disorders: how tissue factor-exposing vesicles contribute to pathology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinjan, Ankie; Böing, Anita N; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2012-10-01

    Coagulation is initiated by tissue factor (TF). Coagulant TF is constitutively expressed by extravascular cells, but there is increasing evidence that TF can also be present within the blood, in particular during pathological conditions. Such TF is exposed on circulating cell-derived vesicles, and its presence has been associated with development of disseminated intravascular coagulation and venous thrombosis. For example, the presence of TF-exposing vesicles in the blood of cancer patients may be associated with their high risk of developing venous thromboembolism. Remarkably, high levels of coagulant TF-exposing vesicles are present in other body fluids such as saliva and urine of healthy persons, suggesting that these vesicles play a physiological role. We postulate that the presence of TF-exposing vesicles in body fluids as saliva and urine provides an additional source of coagulant TF that promotes coagulation, thereby reducing blood loss and contributing to host defence by reducing the risk of microorganisms entering the "milieu intérieur".

  18. Factors Contribute to Delay Project Construction in Higher Learning Education Case Study UKM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Tawil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The delay in construction project completion is a common phenomenon that occurs in the construction industry, especially where the government projects are concerned. This survey will center on the Ninth Malaysia Plan project delay as evidenced in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia campus. It will generally examine delay-related issues, which include the definition, type and category of delay, as well as the contributing factors (theoretically or practically that lead to delay in the project implementation. Data was compiled from literature review, interview and survey. Data obtained from the survey was analysed using the ‘relative Important Index (RII’ whereby the source with the highest RII is one that mostly influences the delay. The critical source of delay is due to the fact that the project contractor does not have enough working capital, the late advance payment, the delay in the client or consultant endorsing the study, issues involving contractor management, the scarcity of construction materials and new instructions for additional construction work.

  19. Passive Smoking in China: Contributing Factors and Areas for Future Interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to passive smoking in China.Methods Discussion consisting of 80 focus groups and 35 interviews were held in three rural intervention counties of Jiangxi,Henan,and Sichuan Provinces. Participants came from hospitals,schools,rural areas,and urban areas.Results Tobacco use and exposure to passive smoking were widely prevalent in the investigated schools,hospitals,county towns,and rural areas. Knowledge of the risks for passive smoking on health is lacking,especially in rural areas. Barriers to the control of tobacco use in public places include reluctance of administrators to implement tobacco control policies,lack of consistent policies,difficulties with regulations and enforcement,and reluctance of non-smokers to exercise their right to clean air.Conclusion To curb the current tobacco epidemic in China,tobacco control efforts must focus on reducing exposure to passive smoking. A strategy should be formulated to reduce the factors that contribute to tobacco use and exposure to passive smoking.

  20. Factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothiba, Tebogo M; Maputle, Maria S

    2012-07-11

    Teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy of a woman of less than 19 years. It is found commonly amongst young people who have been disadvantaged and have poor expectations with regard to either their education or job market. Adolescents may lack knowledge of access to conventional methods of preventing pregnancy, as they may be afraid to seek such information. The study purpose was to identify factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in one village in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. A quantitative descriptive research approach was chosen. Population consisted of all pregnant teenagers attending antenatal care during June to August 2007 at one clinic in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. Simple random probability sampling was used to include 100 pregnant teenagers who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through structured self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistical data analysis was used. Ethical considerations were ensured. Findings were classified as demographic data where 24% of the respondents were aged between 15-16 years and 76% were aged between 17-19 years. Findings further revealed that 60% of the respondents started to engage in sex at 13-15 years; 48% of the teenagers' partners were 21 years and above, 44% depended on a single parents' income; 20% father's income, 16% received a social grant and 8% lived on the pension fund of the grandparents. Pregnancy prevention strategies were recommended based on the results. The strategies focused on reproductive health services, male involvement and adult-teenager communication programmes.

  1. Gastrointestinal factors contribute to glucometabolic disturbances in nondiabetic patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idorn, Thomas; Knop, Filip K; Jørgensen, Morten; Holst, Jens J; Hornum, Mads; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2013-05-01

    Nondiabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have disturbed glucose metabolism, the underlying pathophysiology of which is unclear. To help elucidate this, we studied patients with ESRD and either normal or impaired glucose tolerance (10 each NGT or IGT, respectively) and 11 controls using an oral glucose tolerance test and an isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion on separate days. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and incretin hormones were measured repeatedly, and gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal (GIGD) based on glucose amounts utilized, and incretin effect based on incremental insulin responses, were calculated. The GIGD was significantly reduced in both ESRD groups compared with controls. Incretin effects were 69% (controls), 55% (ESRD with NGT), and 41% (ESRD with IGT), with a significant difference between controls and ESRDs with IGT. Fasting concentrations of glucagon and incretin hormones were significantly increased in patients with ESRD. Glucagon suppression was significantly impaired in both groups with ESRD compared with controls, while the baseline-corrected incretin hormone responses were unaltered between groups. Thus, patients with ESRD had reduced GIGD, a diminished incretin effect in those with IGT, and severe fasting hyperglucagonemia that seemed irrepressible in response to glucose stimuli. These factors may contribute to disturbed glucose metabolism in ESRD.

  2. [Accidental intravenous injection of potassium chloride: analysis of contributing factors and barriers to risk reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, A; Vantard, N; Charpiat, B; Pral, N; Leboucher, G; Philip-Girard, F; Viale, J-P

    2009-05-01

    Errors linked to injectable potassium chloride (KCl) have been the cause of deaths which have occurred for many years. Following an accidental direct intravenous injection of KCl of no clinical consequence for the patient, we have analyzed the contributive factors, established an action plan to prevent this risk and finally assessed its impact. Among the causes leading to medication errors, we have identified those linked to the handling of the drugs by nurses, the team, the work conditions, the organization, the institutional context and finally to the drug itself. The risk reduction procedure involved a withdrawal of injectable KCI ampoules from wards, possible in 52% of the care units, a reorganization of storage for the others. The subsequent monitoring of floorstocks revealed that these measures were insufficient and that the risks prevailed due to the presence of KCI ampoules in drawers assigned to other ionic solutions. A study carried out among the medical and nursing personnel revealed that 61.2% of the doctors thought that the risk existed in their ward and 68% of the nurses considered themselves to be exposed to the risk of a medication error. The drug supply chain of our institution, as in numerous others, is not safe. Hospitals are not yet organized adequately to prevent the occurrence of such an error. The comparison with foreign organizations of drug dispensation allows us to think that the improvement and professionalization of the drug supply chain will both be assets in the prevention of such medication errors.

  3. Osteoporosis in Japan: factors contributing to the low incidence of hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T

    1994-01-01

    Hip fracture incidence seems to be lower in Japan than in many Western countries, but the difference is apparently becoming smaller with progressive Westernization of the Japanese lifestyle and nutritional habits. Nutrition cannot explain the lower incidence of hip fracture. A lower calcium intake prevails in Japan. Genetic differences in body build, including a lower center of gravity, better motor function and agility, well developed hip musculature and small but more fracture-resistant bones secondary to a difference in life- and work-style may contribute to fewer falls and a lower fracture rate among Japanese than among their Western counterparts. Such traditional lifestyle habits as sitting directly on the floor are rapidly decreasing, and time will tell how much of the low incidence of hip fracture in Japan can be explained by lifestyle and how much by genetic and other factors. The Japanese women who now enjoy a low hip fracture incidence led a hard physical life when they were young. This may be a lesson to the young of future generations in how to avoid bone fractures when they are old. Bone health may be achieved by enjoying life through sports or even the tea ceremony in place of the hard physical work of their ancestors, which is gradually disappearing.

  4. New perspectives on contributing factors to the monthly behavior of the aa geomagnetic index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Blanca; Pazos, Marni; González, Luis Xavier

    2016-12-01

    We studied the Aa geomagnetic index ( aa index daily average) behavior on a monthly timescale using data from 1868 to 2015 for cycles 11-24. We identified solar- and lunar-associated periodicities in the Aa time series and found statistically significant Aa minima values a few days before the full Moon and high Aa values during the new Moon. When considering all the cycles, it was clear that the deepest Aa minima occurred during the Aa descending activity phase. However, when the cycles were separated according to the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), the Aa minima came from the contribution of cycles with the IMF pointing toward the Sun (Type 1). Furthermore, during the descending phase of cycles with the IMF pointing away from the Sun (Type 2), the smallest Aa index values were found along with smaller changes compared to Type 1 cases. This behavior implies that during Type 1 cycles there are larger Aa perturbations than during Type 2 cycles. It is very likely that the mechanisms responsible for the Aa monthly behavior are a combination of solar and lunar effects that depend on several factors: (a) the Moon phases (new and full Moon), (b) the phase of the solar cycle (ascending or descending), and (c) the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (away or toward the Sun).

  5. The contribution of tumor and host tissue factor expression to oncogene-driven gliomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Nathalie; Meehan, Brian; Garnier, Delphine; Hashemi, Maryam; Montermini, Laura; Lee, Tae Hoon; Milsom, Chloe; Pawlinski, Rafal; Ohlfest, John; Anderson, Mark; Mackman, Nigel; Rak, Janusz

    2014-11-14

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive form of glial brain tumors, associated with angiogenesis, thrombosis, and upregulation of tissue factor (TF), the key cellular trigger of coagulation and signaling. Since TF is upregulated by oncogenic mutations occurring in different subsets of human brain tumors we investigated whether TF contributes to tumourigenesis driven by oncogenic activation of EGFR (EGFRvIII) and RAS pathways in the brain. Here we show that TF expression correlates with poor prognosis in glioma, but not in GBM. In situ, the TF protein expression is heterogeneously expressed in adult and pediatric gliomas. GBM cells harboring EGFRvIII (U373vIII) grow aggressively as xenografts in SCID mice and their progression is delayed by administration of monoclonal antibodies blocking coagulant (CNTO 859) and signaling (10H10) effects of TF in vivo. Mice in which TF gene is disrupted in the neuroectodermal lineage exhibit delayed progression of spontaneous brain tumors driven by oncogenic N-ras and SV40 large T antigen (SV40LT) expressed under the control of sleeping beauty transposase. Reduced host TF levels in low-TF/SCID hypomorphic mice mitigated growth of glioma subcutaneously but not in the brain. Thus, we suggest that tumor-associated TF may serve as therapeutic target in the context of oncogene-driven disease progression in a subset of glioma.

  6. Differential contribution of transcription factors to Arabidopsis thaliana defence against Spodoptera littoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eSchweizer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to insect herbivory, Arabidopsis plants activate the synthesis of the phytohormone jasmonate-isoleucine (JA-Ile, which binds to a complex consisting of the receptor COI1 and JAZ repressors. Upon proteasome-mediated JAZ degradation, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (TFs MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 become activated and this results in the expression of defence genes. Although the jasmonate (JA pathway is known to be essential for the massive transcriptional reprogramming that follows herbivory, there is however little information on other TFs that are required for defence against herbivores and whether they contribute significantly to JA-dependent defence gene expression. By transcriptome profiling, we identified 41 TFs that were induced in response to herbivory by the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Among them, nine genes, including WRKY18, WRKY40, ANAC019, ANAC055, ZAT10, ZAT12, AZF2, ERF13, and RRTF1, were found to play a significant role in resistance to S. littoralis herbivory. However, compared to the triple mutant myc234 that is as sensitive as coi1-1 to herbivory, knockout lines of these nine TFs were only partially more sensitive to S. littoralis and showed only minor gene expression changes at the whole genome level. Data thus reveal that MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 are master regulators of Arabidopsis resistance to a generalist herbivore and identify new genes involved in insect defence.

  7. ES1 is a mitochondrial enlarging factor contributing to form mega-mitochondria in zebrafish cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takamasa; Wada, Yasutaka; Kawamura, Satoru

    2016-03-01

    Total mass of mitochondria increases during cell proliferation and differentiation through mitochondrial biogenesis, which includes mitochondrial proliferation and growth. During the mitochondrial growth, individual mitochondria have been considered to be enlarged independently of mitochondrial fusion. However, molecular basis for this enlarging process has been poorly understood. Cone photoreceptor cells in the retina possess large mitochondria, so-called mega-mitochondria that have been considered to arise via the enlarging process. Here we show that ES1 is a novel mitochondria-enlarging factor contributing to form mega-mitochondria in cones. ES1 is specifically expressed in cones and localized to mitochondria including mega-mitochondria. Knockdown of ES1 markedly reduced the mitochondrial size in cones. In contrast, ectopic expression of ES1 in rods significantly increased both the size of individual mitochondria and the total mass of the mitochondrial cluster without changing the number of them. RNA-seq analysis showed that ERRα and its downstream mitochondrial genes were significantly up-regulated in the ES1-expressing rods, suggesting facilitation of mitochondrial enlargement via ERRα-dependent processes. Furthermore, higher energy state was detected in the ES1-expressing rods, indicating that the enlarged mitochondria by ES1 are capable of producing high energy. ES1 is the mitochondrial protein that is first found to promote enlargement of individual mitochondria.

  8. Does the Evaluation of Coagulation Factors Contribute to Etiological Diagnosis of Pleural Effusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Marcelo Alexandre Costa; Vargas, Francisco Suso; de Andrade Marinho, Felipe Costa; D’Amico, Élbio Antonio; Rocha, Tânia Rubia Flores; Teixeira, Lisete Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to identify the participation of the coagulation system in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusions. INTRODUCTION Imbalance between immunologic and metabolic factors triggers a sequence of events resulting in pleural reactions and accumulation of fluid. The coagulation system, which is fundamental for the maintenance of homeostasis, contributes to the inflammatory process responsible for pleural effusions, and participates in cellular proliferation and migration as well as in the synthesis of inflammatory mediators. METHODS We evaluated the laboratory profile of coagulation and fibrinolysis in 54 pleural fluids (15 transudates and 39 exudates). RESULTS The coagulation system acts according to the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the development of pleural effusions. In inflammatory effusions (exudates), there is activation of coagulation with increased levels of fragment 1+2 and thrombin-antithrombin complex in addition to reduction of fibrinogen levels due to fibrinolysis and fibrin tissue incorporation. As a consequence, there is activation of the fibrinolytic system with increased levels of fibrin degradation products, including the D-dimer. These changes are not sufficient for differentiation of different subgroups of exudates. In transudates, these events were observed to a lesser degree. CONCLUSION The coagulation system plays an important role in the development of pleural diseases. Coagulation tests show differences between transudates and exudates but not among exudate subgroups. Understanding the physiopathological mechanisms of pleural disorders may help to define new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:19759883

  9. Does the evaluation of coagulation factors contribute to etiological diagnosis of pleural effusions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alexandre Costa Vaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the participation of the coagulation system in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusions. INTRODUCTION: Imbalance between immunologic and metabolic factors triggers a sequence of events resulting in pleural reactions and accumulation of fluid. The coagulation system, which is fundamental for the maintenance of homeostasis, contributes to the inflammatory process responsible for pleural effusions, and participates in cellular proliferation and migration as well as in the synthesis of inflammatory mediators. METHODS: We evaluated the laboratory profile of coagulation and fibrinolysis in 54 pleural fluids (15 transudates and 39 exudates. RESULTS: The coagulation system acts according to the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the development of pleural effusions. In inflammatory effusions (exudates, there is activation of coagulation with increased levels of fragment 1+2 and thrombin-antithrombin complex in addition to reduction of fibrinogen levels due to fibrinolysis and fibrin tissue incorporation. As a consequence, there is activation of the fibrinolytic system with increased levels of fibrin degradation products, including the D-dimer. These changes are not sufficient for differentiation of different subgroups of exudates. In transudates, these events were observed to a lesser degree. CONCLUSION: The coagulation system plays an important role in the development of pleural diseases. Coagulation tests show differences between transudates and exudates but not among exudate subgroups. Understanding the physiopathological mechanisms of pleural disorders may help to define new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  10. Using qualitative methods to understand factors contributing to patient satisfaction among dermatology patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Caitlin; Singh, Sanminder; Gibbons, Brittany; Clark, Caitlin; Torres, Josefina; Cheng, Michelle Y; Wang, Elizabeth A; Armstrong, April W

    2017-09-11

    In this systematic review, we aimed to synthesize data that identify factors contributing to patient satisfaction in dermatology care using qualitative methods. We performed a comprehensive search of the literature using the PubMed database for articles published between January 1, 2000 and February 9, 2015. The initial search yielded 186 articles, of which 13 were included after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. The systematic review of 13 articles included a total of 330 patients. Using in-field observations and semistructured interviews, studies found that qualitative methods and analysis increased the provider's sensitivity to patient needs and enhanced patient care. Analyses using qualitative methods found increased patient satisfaction in their healthcare provider is associated with (1) confidence in the provider's diagnosis, (2) perception of patient-centered, individualized recommendations and (3) quality of patient education and provider explanation during a visit. Patient satisfaction is measured using either quantitative or qualitative methods. Quantitative methods result in standardized data that often does not capture the nuances of patient experience. In contrast, qualitative methodology is integral to gathering patient perspectives on patient care and satisfaction and should be included in future research models.

  11. What factors contribute to successful appeals of nursing homes’ deficiencies in the informal dispute resolution process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Weimer, David L.; Spector, William D.; Bailey, Lauren; Harrington, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine what factors contribute to successful appeals of nursing home deficiencies in the Informal Dispute Resolution (IDR) process. Design We merged CMS data about IDRs with OSCAR data about nursing home characteristics. We performed multivariate statistical analyses to predict successful appeals as a function of characteristics of the deficiency being appealed, the survey that triggered the deficiency, characteristics of the nursing home, and the state. Setting All nursing homes nationally in the period 2005–2008. Measurements Successful appeals were defined as those in which the deficiency was removed or its severity or scope reduced. Independent variables included the CMS measures of severity and scope of deficiency, abuse and neglect, substandard care, total number of deficiencies in the survey, whether the IDR was triggered by a survey or complaint, facility ownership and reputation, and state stringency of regulation. Results 26% of submitted IDRs were successful in 2005–2008. Success was more likely for less severe deficiencies, when deficiencies were triggered by a survey rather than a complaint, and when fewer deficiencies were included in the appeal. Facility ownership and state stringency of regulation were not significantly associated with the IDR success. Conclusions Overall, 2.6% of deficiencies issued were overturned through the IDR process. Further study is required to determine the appropriateness of these overturned cases and the opportunities they offer to improve the survey process. PMID:23141210

  12. Unsustainable charcoal production as a contributing factor to woodland fragmentation in southeast Kenya

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    Ruuska, Eeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a holistic research approach, this paper contributes to the studies of land cover change and sustainable development in Kenya, and to the planning of sustainable future in Dakatcha Woodland, SE Kenya. As an un-protected global hotspot for biodiversity, Dakatcha Woodland has suffered from unsustainable forest resource use. The relation of charcoal production to land cover change and its socio-economic impact are studied in detail. A supervised land cover classification formed using four SPOT satellite images from 2005/06 and 2011 revealed that the woodland is fragmenting and the Important Bird Area (IBA demarcation should be reconsidered. Through in-situ observation, household questionnaires and semi-structured expert interviews it was found that more than half of the 90 households assessed are involved in charcoal production which is higher figure than peer studies have suggested, and that the charcoal network offers income to many, but bears an negative impact on the environment. It was discovered that, like in Kenya, in Dakatcha Woodland, too, the demand for woodfuels (charcoal and fuelwood is one of the key drivers of deforestation and land degradation. As such, woodfuel energy is a cross cutting issue, tying together forest resources, livelihoods and sustainable development, and thus demands further research. Forest management of Dakatcha Woodland must be planned in accordance with all stakeholders in a sustainable manner, drawing from agroforestry and participatory forest management systems, and keeping environmental factors in mind for the maintenance of ecosystem services.

  13. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF contributes to the pain hypersensitivity following surgical incision in the rats

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    Zhang Jian-Yi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenic role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the incisional pain is poorly understood. The present study explores the role of the BDNF in the incision-induced pain hypersensitivity. Methods A longitudinal incision was made in one plantar hind paw of isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Dorsal root ganglias (DRG and spinal cords were removed at various postoperative times (1–72 h. Expression pattern of BDNF was determined by immunohistochemistry and double-labeling immunofluorescence. Lidocaine-induced blockade of sciatic nerve function was used to determine the importance of afferent nerve activity on BDNF expression in the DRG and spinal cord after incision. BDNF antibody was administered intrathecally (IT or intraperitoneal (IP to modulate the spinal BDNF or peripheral BDNF after incision. Results After hind-paw incision, the BDNF was upregulated in the ipsilateral lumbar DRG and spinal cord whereas thoracic BDNF remained unchanged in response to incision. The upregulated BDNF was mainly expressed in the large-sized neurons in DRG and the neurons and the primary nerve terminals in the spinal cord. Sciatic nerve blockade prevented the increase of BDNF in the DRG and spinal cord. IT injection of BDNF antibody greatly inhibited the mechanical allodynia induced by incision whereas IP administration had only marginal effect. Conclusion The present study showed that incision induced the segmental upregulation of BDNF in the DRG and spinal cord through somatic afferent nerve transmission, and the upregulated BDNF contributed to the pain hypersensitivity induced by surgical incision.

  14. O-Linked Glycosylation Determines the Nephritogenic Potential of IgA Rheumatoid Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Masao; Ito, Kiyoaki; Nakata, Junichiro; Otani, Masako; Tran, Ngoc Lan; Morito, Naoki; Takahashi, Satoru; Wada, Yoshinao

    2014-01-01

    Deficient glycosylation of O-linked glycans in the IgA1 hinge region is associated with IgA nephropathy in humans, but the pathogenic contribution of the underlying structural aberrations remains incompletely understood. We previously showed that mice implanted with cells secreting the class-switch variant 6-19 IgA anti-IgG2a rheumatoid factor, but not 46-42 IgA anti-IgG2a rheumatoid factor, develop glomerular lesions resembling IgA nephropathy. Because the levels of O-linked glycosylation in the hinge region and the structures of N-linked glycans in the CH1 domain differ in 6-19 IgA and 46-42 IgA, we determined the respective contributions of O- and N-linked glycans to the nephritogenic potential of the 6-19 IgA rheumatoid factor in mice. Wild-type 6-19 IgA secreted by implanted cells induced significant formation of glomerular lesions, whereas poorly O-glycosylated 6-19 IgA glycovariants or a 6-19 IgA hinge mutant lacking O-linked glycans did not. However, we observed no apparent heterogeneity in the structure of N-linked glycans attached to three different sites of the Fc regions of nephritogenic and non-nephritogenic 6-19 IgAs. Collectively, our data suggest a critical role of O-linked glycans attached to the hinge region in the development of IgA nephropathy–like GN induced by 6-19 IgA rheumatoid factor in mice. PMID:24511137

  15. Factor H specifically capture novel Factor H-binding proteins of Streptococcus suis and contribute to the virulence of the bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Ma, Caifeng; Fu, Yang; He, Yanan; Yu, Yanfei; Du, Dechao; Yao, Huochun; Lu, Chengping; Zhang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Factor H (FH), a regulatory protein of the complement system, can bind specifically to factor H-binding proteins (FHBPs) of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2), which contribute to evasion of host innate immune defenses. In the present study, we aimed to identify novel FHBPs and characterize the biological functions of FH in SS2 pathogenesis. Here, a method that combined proteomics and Far-western blotting was developed to identify the surface FHBPs of SS2. With this method, fourteen potential novel FHBPs were identified among SS2 surface proteins. We selected eight newly identified proteins and further confirmed their binding activity to FH. The binding of SS2 to immobilized FH decreased dramatically after pre-incubation with anti-FHBPs polyclonal antibodies. We showed for the first time that SS2 also interact specifically with mouse FH. Furthermore, we found that FH play an important role in adherence and invasion of SS2 to HEp-2 cells. Additionally, using a mouse model of intraperitoneal challenge, we confirmed that SS2 pre-incubated with FH enhanced bacteremia and brain invasion, compared with SS2 not pretreated with FH. Taken together, this study provides a useful method to characterize the host-bacteria interactions. These results first indicated that binding of FH to the cell surface improved the adherence and invasion of SS2 to HEp-2 cells, promoting SS2 to resist killing and leading to enhance virulence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Contribution of manipulable and non-manipulable environmental factors to trapping efficiency of invasive sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Heather A.; Bravener, Gale; Beaulaurier, Joshua; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Twohey, Michael; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Brenden, Travis O.

    2017-01-01

    We identified aspects of the trapping process that afforded opportunities for improving trap efficiency of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in a Great Lake's tributary. Capturing a sea lamprey requires it to encounter the trap, enter, and be retained until removed. Probabilities of these events depend on the interplay between sea lamprey behavior, environmental conditions, and trap design. We first tested how strongly seasonal patterns in daily trap catches (a measure of trapping success) were related to nightly rates of trap encounter, entry, and retention (outcomes of sea lamprey behavior). We then tested the degree to which variation in rates of trap encounter, entry, and retention were related to environmental features that control agents can manipulate (attractant pheromone addition, discharge) and features agents cannot manipulate (water temperature, season), but could be used as indicators for when to increase trapping effort. Daily trap catch was most strongly associated with rate of encounter. Relative and absolute measures of predictive strength for environmental factors that managers could potentially manipulate were low, suggesting that opportunities to improve trapping success by manipulating factors that affect rates of encounter, entry, and retention are limited. According to results at this trap, more sea lamprey would be captured by increasing trapping effort early in the season when sea lamprey encounter rates with traps are high. The approach used in this study could be applied to trapping of other invasive or valued species.

  17. Ord's kangaroo rats living in floodplain habitats: Factors contributing to habitat attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.S.; Wilson, K.R.; Andersen, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    High densities of an aridland granivore, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii), have been documented in floodplain habitats along the Yampa River in northwestern Colorado. Despite a high probability of inundation and attendant high mortality during the spring flood period, the habitat is consistently recolonized. To understand factors that potentially make riparian habitats attractive to D. ordii, we compared density and spatial pattern of seeds, density of a competitor (western harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis), and digging energetics within floodplain habitats and between floodplain and adjacent upland habitats. Seed density within the floodplain was greatest in the topographically high (rarely flooded) floodplain and lowest immediately after a spring flood in the topographically low (frequently flooded) floodplain. Seed densities in adjacent upland habitat that never floods were higher than the lowest floodplain habitat. In the low floodplain prior to flooding, seeds had a clumped spatial pattern, which D. ordii is adept at exploiting; after spring flooding, a more random pattern resulted. Populations of the western harvester ant were low in the floodplain relative to the upland. Digging by D. ordii was energetically less expensive in floodplain areas than in upland areas. Despite the potential for mortality due to annual spring flooding, the combination of less competition from harvester ants and lower energetic costs of digging might promote the use of floodplain habitat by D. ordii.

  18. Interleukin-19 contributes as a protective factor in experimental Th2-mediated colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Matsuo, Yukiko; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Miki, Mariko; Azuma, Naoki; Teramoto, Midori; Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Izawa, Takeshi; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2017-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease results from chronic dysregulation of the mucosal immune system and aberrant activation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-19 is a member of the IL-10 family, and IL-10 plays an important role in inflammatory bowel disease. We have previously shown that IL-19 knockout mice are more susceptible to innate-mediated colitis. Next, we ask whether IL-19 contributes to T cells-mediated colitis. Here, we investigated the role of IL-19 in a mouse model of Th2 cell-mediated colitis. Inflammatory responses in IL-19-deficient mice were assessed using a Th2-mediated colitis induced by oxazolone. The colitis was evaluated by analyzing the body weight loss and histology of the colon. Lymph node cells were cultured in vitro to determine cytokine production. IL-19 knockout mice exacerbated oxazolone-induced colitis by stimulating the transport of inflammatory cells into the colon, and by increasing IgE production and the number of circulating eosinophil. The exacerbation of oxazolone-induced colonic inflammation following IL-19 knockout mice was accompanied by an increased production of IL-4 and IL-9, but no changes in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13 in lymph node cells. IL-19 plays an anti-inflammatory role in the Th2-mediated colitis model, suggesting that IL-19 may represent a potential therapeutic target for reducing colonic inflammation.

  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Cartilage Pathophysiology; Contributing Factors to Apoptosis and Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alexandria; Oxford, Alexandra E; Tawara, Ken; Jorcyk, Cheryl L; Oxford, Julia Thom

    2017-03-20

    Chondrocytes of the growth plate undergo apoptosis during the process of endochondral ossification, as well as during the progression of osteoarthritis. Although the regulation of this process is not completely understood, alterations in the precisely orchestrated programmed cell death during development can have catastrophic results, as exemplified by several chondrodystrophies which are frequently accompanied by early onset osteoarthritis. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie chondrocyte apoptosis during endochondral ossification in the growth plate has the potential to impact the development of therapeutic applications for chondrodystrophies and associated early onset osteoarthritis. In recent years, several chondrodysplasias and collagenopathies have been recognized as protein-folding diseases that lead to endoplasmic reticulum stress, endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation, and the unfolded protein response. Under conditions of prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress in which the protein folding load outweighs the folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum, cellular dysfunction and death often occur. However, unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling is also required for the normal maturation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Understanding how UPR signaling may contribute to cartilage pathophysiology is an essential step toward therapeutic modulation of skeletal disorders that lead to osteoarthritis.

  20. Replication and recombination factors contributing to recombination-dependent bypass of DNA lesions by template switch.

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    Fabio Vanoli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Damage tolerance mechanisms mediating damage-bypass and gap-filling are crucial for genome integrity. A major damage tolerance pathway involves recombination and is referred to as template switch. Template switch intermediates were visualized by 2D gel electrophoresis in the proximity of replication forks as X-shaped structures involving sister chromatid junctions. The homologous recombination factor Rad51 is required for the formation/stabilization of these intermediates, but its mode of action remains to be investigated. By using a combination of genetic and physical approaches, we show that the homologous recombination factors Rad55 and Rad57, but not Rad59, are required for the formation of template switch intermediates. The replication-proficient but recombination-defective rfa1-t11 mutant is normal in triggering a checkpoint response following DNA damage but is impaired in X-structure formation. The Exo1 nuclease also has stimulatory roles in this process. The checkpoint kinase, Rad53, is required for X-molecule formation and phosphorylates Rad55 robustly in response to DNA damage. Although Rad55 phosphorylation is thought to activate recombinational repair under conditions of genotoxic stress, we find that Rad55 phosphomutants do not affect the efficiency of X-molecule formation. We also examined the DNA polymerase implicated in the DNA synthesis step of template switch. Deficiencies in translesion synthesis polymerases do not affect X-molecule formation, whereas DNA polymerase δ, required also for bulk DNA synthesis, plays an important role. Our data indicate that a subset of homologous recombination factors, together with DNA polymerase δ, promote the formation of template switch intermediates that are then preferentially dissolved by the action of the Sgs1 helicase in association with the Top3 topoisomerase rather than resolved by Holliday Junction nucleases. Our results allow us to propose the choreography through which different

  1. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the set...

  2. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D; Poloni, Estella S; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; De Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; De Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the settin

  3. Potential contribution of progesterone receptors to the development of sexual behavior in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroziers, Elodie; Brock, Olivier; Bakker, Julie

    2016-05-07

    We previously showed that estradiol can have both defeminizing and feminizing effects on the developing mouse brain. Pre- and early postnatal estradiol defeminized the ability to show lordosis in adulthood, whereas prepubertal estradiol feminized this ability. Furthermore, we found that estradiol upregulates progesterone receptors (PR) during development, inducing both a male-and female-typical pattern of PR expression in the mouse hypothalamus. In the present study, we took advantage of a newly developed PR antagonist (ZK 137316) to determine whether PR contributes to either male- or female-typical sexual differentiation. Thus groups of male and female C57Bl/6j mice were treated with ZK 137316 or OIL as control: males were treated neonatally (P0-P10), during the critical period for male sexual differentiation, and females were treated prepubertally (P15-P25), during the critical period for female sexual differentiation. In adulthood, mice were tested for sexual behavior. In males, some minor effects of neonatal ZK treatment on sexual behavior were observed: latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation were decreased in neonatally ZK treated males; however, this effect disappeared by the second mating test. By contrast, female mice treated with ZK during the prepubertal period showed significantly less lordosis than OIL-treated females. Mate preferences were not affected in either males or females treated with ZK during development. Taken together, these results suggest a role for PR and thus perhaps progesterone in the development of lordosis behavior in female mice. By contrast, no obvious role for PR can be discerned in the development of male sexual behavior.

  4. Repaglinide-gemfibrozil drug interaction: inhibition of repaglinide glucuronidation as a potential additional contributing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jinping; Chen, Weiqi; Shen, Hong; Gao, Ling; Hong, Yang; Tian, Yuan; Li, Wenying; Zhang, Yueping; Tang, Yuwei; Zhang, Hongjian; Humphreys, William Griffith; Rodrigues, A David

    2010-12-01

    To further explore the mechanism underlying the interaction between repaglinide and gemfibrozil, alone or in combination with itraconazole. Repaglinide metabolism was assessed in vitro (human liver subcellular fractions, fresh human hepatocytes, and recombinant enzymes) and the resulting incubates were analyzed, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and radioactivity counting, to identify and quantify the different metabolites therein. Chemical inhibitors, in addition to a trapping agent, were also employed to elucidate the importance of each metabolic pathway. Finally, a panel of human liver microsomes (genotyped for UGT1A1*28 allele status) was used to determine the importance of UGT1A1 in the direct glucuronidation of repaglinide. The results of the present study demonstrate that repaglinide can undergo direct glucuronidation, a pathway that can possibly contribute to the interaction with gemfibrozil. For example, [³H]-repaglinide formed glucuronide and oxidative metabolites (M2 and M4) when incubated with primary human hepatocytes. Gemfibrozil effectively inhibited (∼78%) both glucuronide and M4 formation, but had a minor effect on M2 formation. Concomitantly, the overall turnover of repaglinide was also inhibited (∼80%), and was completely abolished when gemfibrozil was co-incubated with itraconazole. These observations are in qualitative agreement with the in vivo findings. UGT1A1 plays a significant role in the glucuronidation of repaglinide. In addition, gemfibrozil and its glucuronide inhibit repaglinide glucuronidation and the inhibition by gemfibrozil glucuronide is time-dependent. Inhibition of UGT enzymes, especially UGT1A1, by gemfibrozil and its glucuronide is an additional mechanism to consider when rationalizing the interaction between repaglinide and gemfibrozil. © 2010 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. The isoflavone irilone contributes to the estrogenic potential of dietary supplements containing red clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Stefanie; Schmalbach, Katja; Esch, Harald L; Lehmann, Leane

    2014-02-01

    A recent intervention study demonstrated the occurrence of irilone as second most abundant isoflavone next to daidzein in human plasma after consumption of a red clover-based dietary supplement (RCDS) containing predominately formononetin ≫ biochanin A > irilone (12 % of these isoflavones). To elucidate the relevance of this finding, in the present study (1) the representativeness of the isoflavone composition of the RCDS and (2) the estrogenic activity of irilone were investigated. Thus, major isoflavones were quantified in eight commercially available RCDS. Furthermore, the estrogenic activities of irilone and other isoflavones were determined by marker gene expression in Ishikawa and cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells. Irilone amounted to 1.8-10.9 mg/g capsule content and 5-18 % of the three major isoflavones, respectively, demonstrating the general occurrence of irilone in RCDS. Moreover, irilone significantly induced the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AlP) as well as AlP, progesterone receptor, and androgen receptor mRNA levels in Ishikawa cells. Furthermore, irilone significantly induced MCF-7 cell proliferation. Neither 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced AlP activity nor E2-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation was affected by irilone. ICI182,780 antagonized IRI-induced effects on both AlP activity and cell proliferation, suggesting an estrogen receptor agonistic mode of action. Taking into account the estrogenic activity of red clover isoflavones (formononetin, biochanin A, prunetin, glycitein) and their biotransformation products (daidzein, genistein, ethylphenol) as well as published plasma levels of isoflavones after consumption of RCDS, irilone could contribute approximately 50 % of the E2 equivalents estimated for daidzein.

  6. Potential contribution of materials investigations in reducing the risks of unavailability of nuclear civil engineering infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goy, R.; Gaine, C.; Cornish-Bowden, I.; Auge, L.; Thillard, G.; Capra, B. [Oxand (France)

    2011-07-01

    Many consulting assignments undertaken by Oxand within the framework of life-cycle management of existing nuclear civil engineering structures, relied on taking into account the structure's level of deterioration, the quantitative estimate of its residual strength capacity and the future progression of this capacity over time. The developments of structure assessment techniques allow more and more the integration of the real state of the existing structure by enhancing the value of measures and investigations carried out on structures. On one hand, this information allows to take into account the structure's ageing and therefore estimate the residual resistance and reliability. On the other hand, by investigating the real properties of the structure and of its operation, refined calculations can sometimes highlight a resistance margin of the structure 'such as built' higher than the one considered during design. The precision on the 'real' reliability of the structure allows to refine its management and thus to optimize the infrastructure's performance. Developments of assessment methods are increasingly oriented toward probabilistic approaches. Although they go out of the 'classical regulatory' framework, they bring precision on the 'real' reliability of the structure. Using higher assessment levels needs to have more important and precise input data, what can lead to the need to carry out more detailed investigations. However, these methods offer interesting ways, which can provide, in certain cases, useful additional information for the decision-making of actions to be engaged. The methodology is illustrated with the case of a network of reinforced concrete beams, which are subjected to a rapid increase in their mechanical stresses. In particular this example shows that investigations on the real performances of materials can provided a significant contribution in managing the risks of unavailability

  7. Early hypothalamic FTO overexpression in response to maternal obesity--potential contribution to postweaning hyperphagia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanni Caruso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition program hyperphagia, adiposity and glucose intolerance in offspring. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene have been linked to increased risk of obesity. FTO is highly expressed in hypothalamic regions critical for energy balance and hyperphagic phenotypes were linked with FTO SNPs. As nutrition during fetal development can influence the expression of genes involved in metabolic function, we investigated the impact of maternal obesity on FTO. METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or high fat diet (HFD for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal day 1 (PND1, some litters were adjusted to 3 pups (vs. 12 control to induce postnatal overnutrition. At PND20, rats were weaned onto chow or HFD for 15 weeks. FTO mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and liver, as well as hepatic markers of lipid metabolism were measured. RESULTS: At weaning, hypothalamic FTO mRNA expression was increased significantly in offspring of obese mothers and FTO was correlated with both visceral and epididymal fat mass (P<0.05; body weight approached significance (P = 0.07. Hepatic FTO and Fatty Acid Synthase mRNA expression were decreased by maternal obesity. At 18 weeks, FTO mRNA expression did not differ between groups; however body weight was significantly correlated with hypothalamic FTO. Postnatal HFD feeding significantly reduced hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1a but did not affect the expression of other hepatic markers investigated. FTO was not affected by chronic HFD feeding. SIGNIFICANCE: Maternal obesity significantly impacted FTO expression in both hypothalamus and liver at weaning. Early overexpression of hypothalamic FTO correlated with increased adiposity and later food intake of siblings exposed to HFD suggesting upregulation of FTO may contribute to subsequent hyperphagia, in line with some human

  8. Innovative potential, innovative strategy, environment factors, estimation of innovative potential, innovative development

    OpenAIRE

    Chernoivanova, G.

    2011-01-01

    The paper summarizes the elements of the innovation potential and the criteria for its evaluation. It is proposed methodical approach to the formation of innovation strategies with innovative potential.

  9. Potential contributions of noncontact atomic force microscopy for the future Casimir force measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, W J

    2010-01-01

    Surface electric noise, i.e., the non-uniform distribution of charges and potentials on a surface, poses a great experimental challenge in modern precision force measurements. Such a challenge is encountered in a number of different experimental circumstances. The scientists employing atomic force microscopy (AFM) have long focused their efforts to understand the surface-related noise issues via variants of AFM techniques, such as Kelvin probe force microscopy or electric force microscopy. Recently, the physicists investigating quantum vacuum fluctuation phenomena between two closely-spaced objects have also begun to collect experimental evidence indicating a presence of surface effects neglected in their previous analyses. It now appears that the two seemingly disparate science communities are encountering effects rooted in the same surface phenomena. In this report, we suggest specific experimental tasks to be performed in the near future that are crucial not only for fostering needed collaborations between...

  10. Contributing to the early detection of Rett syndrome: the potential role of auditory Gestalt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether there are qualitatively deviant characteristics in the early vocalizations of children with Rett syndrome, we had 400 native Austrian-German speakers listen to audio recordings of vocalizations from typically developing girls and girls with Rett syndrome. The audio recordings were rated as (a) inconspicuous, (b) conspicuous or (c) not able to decide between (a) and (b). The results showed that participants were accurate in differentiating the vocalizations of typically developing children compared to children with Rett syndrome. However, the accuracy for rating verbal behaviors was dependent on the type of vocalization with greater accuracy for canonical babbling compared to cooing vocalizations. The results suggest a potential role for the use of rating child vocalizations for early detection of Rett syndrome. This is important because clinical criteria related to speech and language development remain important for early identification of Rett syndrome.

  11. [Contribution of cognitive evoked potentials for detecting early cognitive disorders in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnié, M N; Bensa, C; Laloux, L; Bertogliati, C; Faure, S; Lebrun, C

    2007-11-01

    In Multiple Sclerosis (MS), one of the most frequent neurological diseases in young adults, cognitive dysfunctions have been under considered whereas their evolution may produce a fronto-sous-cortical deterioration and more than half of the MS patients present such dysfunctions. Nevertheless sensory evoked-potentials are classically used in this disease, event-related potentials (ERP) are not included in the clinical exploration of MS. Two studies are presented aimed at further tracking the usefulness of ERP for detecting early cognitive dysfunctions in MS. All of the patients presented a relapsing remitting MS for less than 5 years with a moderate physical handicap and complained from their memory. They performed a neuropsychological set and ERP were elicited using the oddball paradigm in both modalities, visual and auditory. In the first study, 10 patients without cognitive dysfunction at the neuropsychological evaluation and 10 patients with an attention deficit participated with 10 age-matched controls. In the second study, 10 patients with memory impairment at the neuropsychological evaluation and 10 age-matched controls were included. Our data argue for an earlier modification of ERP parameters in the visual modality than in the auditory one, even before the modification of cognitive scores. In both studies, P300 parameters were correlated to neuropsychological performances (and especially to the attention examination in the first study and to memory tests in the second study) in both modalities. Taking into account the clinical usefulness of ERPs, it is nowadays important to include this electrophysiological method in evaluation and follow-up of MS, and not only using the auditory modality but also the visual presentation in order to detect earlier cognitive dysfunctions even before modification of neuropsychological performances.

  12. Potential solar radiation and land cover contributions to digital climate surface modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pol; Batalla, Meritxell; Pesquer, Lluís; Ninyerola, Miquel

    2016-04-01

    Overview: We have designed a series of ad-hoc experiments to study the role of factors that a priori have a strong weight in developing digital models of temperature and precipitation, such as solar radiation and land cover. Empirical test beds have been designed to improve climate (mean air temperature and total precipitation) digital models using statistical general techniques (multiple regression) with residual correction (interpolated with inverse weighting distance). Aim: Understand what roles these two factors (solar radiation and land cover) play to incorporate them into the process of generating mapping of temperature and rainfall. Study area: The Iberian Peninsula and supported in this, Catalonia and the Catalan Pyrenees. Data: The dependent variables used in all experiments relate to data from meteorological stations precipitation (PL), mean temperature (MT), average temperature minimum (MN) and maximum average temperature (MX). These data were obtained monthly from the AEMET (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología). Data series of stations covers the period between 1950 to 2010. Methodology: The idea is to design ad hoc, based on a sample of more equitable space statistician, to detect the role of radiation. Based on the influence of solar radiation on the temperature of the air from a quantitative point of view, the difficulty in answering this lies in the fact that there are lots of weather stations located in areas where solar radiation is similar. This suggests that the role of the radiation variable remains "off" when, instead, we intuitively think that would strongly influence the temperature. We have developed a multiple regression analysis between these meteorological variables as the dependent ones (Temperature and rainfall), and some geographical variables: altitude (ALT), latitude (LAT), continentality (CON) and solar radiation (RAD) as the independent ones. In case of the experiment with land covers, we have used the NDVI index as a proxy of land

  13. Personal and environmental factors contributing to participation in romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegerink, Diana J H G; Stam, Henk J; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Roebroeck, Marij E

    2012-01-01

    To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP, 76% GMFCS level I, 85% MACS level I). All participants were of normal intelligence. Romantic relationships, sexual activity (outcome measures), personal and environmental factors (associated factors) were assessed. Associations were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. More females than males with CP were in a current romantic relationship. Self-esteem, sexual esteem and feelings of competence regarding self-efficacy contributed positively to having current romantic relationships. A negative parenting style contributed negatively. Age and gross motor functioning explained 20% of the variance in experience with intercourse. In addition, sexual esteem and taking initiative contributed significantly to intercourse experience. For young adults with CP personal factors (20-35% explained variances) seem to contribute more than environmental factors (9-12% explained variances) to current romantic relationships and sexual experiences. We advice parents and professionals to focus on self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem in development of young adults with CP. [ • The severity of gross motor functioning contributed somewhat to sexual activities, but not to romantic relationships.• High self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem can facilitate involvement in romantic and sexual relationships for young adults with CP.

  14. Neurabin contributes to hippocampal long-term potentiation and contextual fear memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Jun Wu

    Full Text Available Neurabin is a scaffolding protein that interacts with actin and protein phosphatase-1. Highly enriched in the dendritic spine, neurabin is important for spine morphogenesis and synaptic formation. However, less is known about the role of neurabin in hippocampal plasticity and its possible effect on behavioral functions. Using neurabin knockout (KO mice, here we studied the function of neurabin in hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity and behavioral memory. We demonstrated that neurabin KO mice showed a deficit in contextual fear memory but not auditory fear memory. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings in the hippocampal CA1 neurons showed that long-term potentiation (LTP was significantly reduced, whereas long-term depression (LTD was unaltered in neurabin KO mice. Moreover, increased AMPA receptor but not NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission was found in neurabin KO mice, and is accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of GluR1 at the PKA site (Ser845 but no change at the CaMKII/PKC site (Ser831. Pre-conditioning with LTD induction rescued the following LTP in neurabin KO mice, suggesting the loss of LTP may be due to the saturated synaptic transmission. Our results indicate that neurabin regulates contextual fear memory and LTP in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

  15. Neurabin contributes to hippocampal long-term potentiation and contextual fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Long-Jun; Ren, Ming; Wang, Hansen; Kim, Susan S; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhuo, Min

    2008-01-09

    Neurabin is a scaffolding protein that interacts with actin and protein phosphatase-1. Highly enriched in the dendritic spine, neurabin is important for spine morphogenesis and synaptic formation. However, less is known about the role of neurabin in hippocampal plasticity and its possible effect on behavioral functions. Using neurabin knockout (KO) mice, here we studied the function of neurabin in hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity and behavioral memory. We demonstrated that neurabin KO mice showed a deficit in contextual fear memory but not auditory fear memory. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings in the hippocampal CA1 neurons showed that long-term potentiation (LTP) was significantly reduced, whereas long-term depression (LTD) was unaltered in neurabin KO mice. Moreover, increased AMPA receptor but not NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission was found in neurabin KO mice, and is accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of GluR1 at the PKA site (Ser845) but no change at the CaMKII/PKC site (Ser831). Pre-conditioning with LTD induction rescued the following LTP in neurabin KO mice, suggesting the loss of LTP may be due to the saturated synaptic transmission. Our results indicate that neurabin regulates contextual fear memory and LTP in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

  16. Potential contribution of fish restocking to the recovery of deteriorated coral reefs: an alternative restoration method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Obolski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Counteracting the worldwide trend of coral reef degeneration is a major challenge for the scientific community. A crucial management approach to minimizing stress effects on healthy reefs and helping the recovery of disturbed reefs is reef protection. However, the current rapid decline of the world’s reefs suggests that protection might be insufficient as a viable stand-alone management approach for some reefs. We thus suggest that the ecological restoration of coral reefs (CRR should be considered as a valid component of coral reef management, in addition to protection, if the applied method is economically applicable and scalable. This theoretical study examines the potential applicability and outcomes of restocking grazers as a restoration tool for coral reef recovery—a tool that has not been applied so far in reef restoration projects. We studied the effect of restocking grazing fish as a restoration method using a mathematical model of degrading reefs, and analyzed the financial outcomes of the restocking intervention. The results suggest that applying this restoration method, in addition to protection, can facilitate reef recovery. Moreover, our analysis suggests that the restocking approach almost always becomes profitable within several years. Considering the relatively low cost of this restoration approach and the feasibility of mass production of herbivorous fish, we suggest that this approach should be considered and examined as an additional viable restoration tool for coral reefs.

  17. Psychological Factors and Reference Potential of Market Mavens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jofi Puspa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The function of a market maven in the information transfer processes is apparently related to one’s psychological states such as inherent knowledge and involvement level. Understanding reference potential of mavens seems to be relevant to comprehend the implicit value of a maven in the communication process. This study shows that (1 apparently, maven groups can be clearly distinguished from a non-maven group on the basis on inherent personal knowledge level and involvement level; (2 market mavens have a high reference potential which confirmed their function in WOM-information.

  18. Injection-site lesion prevalence and potential risk factors in UK beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, E; Remnant, J; Butterworth, A; Wapenaar, W

    2017-01-21

    Injectable veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) are widely used in cattle in the UK, and in particular vaccines are often used on large numbers of animals in the herd. The formation of injection-site lesions (ISLs) is a risk when using injectable products and has potential consequences for meat quality, animal welfare and beef industry income. This study used carcase observation in four abattoirs in England to determine ISL prevalence in beef cattle. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was used to investigate vaccination technique among UK beef farmers. The ISL prevalence was 4.1 per cent (95 per cent CI 3.4 per cent to 4.9 per cent). A potential difference between sites being used for vaccination and the distribution of ISLs on carcases suggested that factors other than vaccination were contributing to ISL incidence. Questionnaire responses highlighted deficits in good vaccination practices such as using the recommended site of injection and needle hygiene. The role of the veterinarian in knowledge transfer is crucial in providing practical injection advice when prescribing vaccines and other VMPs. This study identified factors to address when aiming to reduce ISL formation in UK beef animals. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Factors Potentially Influencing the Tackiness of DWPF Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.C.

    2000-09-13

    This report summarizes a preliminary investigation into the sludge characteristics that could potentially influence properties such as rheology, reactivity toward nitric acid, and surface, or interfacial, tension (or energy) as it relates to adhesion to metallic surfaces. Suggested experiments that could help characterize the tackiness of future sludges are suggested.

  20. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Michael J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2008-01-01

    Background Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. Methods The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints), brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Results Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period). Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of Celsius for over 20

  1. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson Mark R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. Methods The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints, brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Results Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period. Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of

  2. Factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo M. Mothiba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy of a woman of less than 19 years. It is found commonly amongst young people who have been disadvantaged and have poor expectations with regard to either their education or job market. Adolescents may lack knowledge of access to conventional methods of preventing pregnancy, as they may be afraid to seek such information. The study purpose was to identify factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in one village in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province.A quantitative descriptive research approach was chosen. Population consisted of all pregnant teenagers attending antenatal care during June to August 2007 at one clinic in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. Simple random probability sampling was used to include 100 pregnant teenagers who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through structured self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistical data analysis was used. Ethical considerations were ensured.Findings were classified as demographic data where 24% of the respondents were aged between 15–16 years and 76% were aged between 17–19 years. Findings further revealed that 60% of the respondents started to engage in sex at 13–15 years; 48% of the teenagers’ partners were 21 years and above, 44% depended on a single parents’ income; 20% father’s income, 16% received a social grant and 8% lived on the pension fund of the grandparents.Pregnancy prevention strategies were recommended based on the results. The strategies focused on reproductive health services, male involvement and adult-teenager communication programmes.

  3. [Fungal aetiologies and contributing factors of interdigital tinea pedis among policemen in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiki-Barro, P C M; Konaté, A; Angora, E K; Kassi, F K; Bosson-Vanga, H; Bedia-Tanoh, A V; Djohan, V; Yavo, W; Menan, E I H

    2017-09-05

    Fungal interdigital tinea pedis are poorly documented in Ivory Coast. This study aimed to determine the distribution of fungal species and contributing factors of the disease among policemen in Abidjan. Our cross-sectional study was carried out at the police school in Abidjan. Our patients consisted of symptomatic or non-symptomatic police students. Samples of scales or serosities taken from inter-toes spaces were examinated with KOH mount and cultured on Sabouraud-chloramphenicol and Sabouraud-chloramphenicol-actidione media. The method of identification depended on the observed fungus. Among the 303 police students with clinical lesions of the inter-toe folds, 233 (76.9%; IC 95%=71.9-81.4) had a positive diagnosis after mycological examination. Lesions were predominantly located in the 3rd and 4th interdigital plantar spaces, with desquamation (100%) followed by maceration (82.5%) as the predominant functional sign. Dermatophytes accounted for 86.3% of the strains isolated with as majority species : Trichophyton interdigitale (40.3%), Microsporum langeronii (30.0%) and Trichophyton rubrum (15.5%). Yeasts accounted for 13.7% of the strains with Candida albicans (7.7%) as the most found species. The duration at the police school (P=0.004) and the practice of sports activities (P=0.0001) were statistically associated with the occurrence of the disease. A good hygiene of feet would reduce the incidence of the disease among the defense and security forces. Also, investigations for the influence of the seasons in the occurrence of interdigital tinea pedis will allow a better understand of epidemiology of this dermatomycosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Tumor necrosis factor-α produced in the kidney contributes to angiotensin II-dependent hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiandong; Patel, Mehul B; Griffiths, Robert; Mao, Alice; Song, Young-soo; Karlovich, Norah S; Sparks, Matthew A; Jin, Huixia; Wu, Min; Lin, Eugene E; Crowley, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Immune system activation contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and the resulting progression of chronic kidney disease. In this regard, we recently identified a role for proinflammatory Th1 T-lymphocyte responses in hypertensive kidney injury. Because Th1 cells generate interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), we hypothesized that interferon-γ and TNF-α propagate renal damage during hypertension induced by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, after confirming that mice genetically deficient of Th1 immunity were protected from kidney glomerular injury despite a preserved hypertensive response, we subjected mice lacking interferon-γ or TNF-α to our model of hypertensive chronic kidney disease. Interferon deficiency had no impact on blood pressure elevation or urinary albumin excretion during chronic angiotensin II infusion. By contrast, TNF-deficient (knockout) mice had blunted hypertensive responses and reduced end-organ damage in our model. As angiotensin II-infused TNF knockout mice had exaggerated endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in the kidney and enhanced nitric oxide bioavailability, we examined the actions of TNF-α generated from renal parenchymal cells in hypertension by transplanting wild-type or TNF knockout kidneys into wild-type recipients before the induction of hypertension. Transplant recipients lacking TNF solely in the kidney had blunted hypertensive responses to angiotensin II and augmented renal endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, confirming a role for kidney-derived TNF-α to promote angiotensin II-induced blood pressure elevation by limiting renal nitric oxide generation.

  5. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV-1) channels contribute to cutaneous thermal hyperaemia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Brett J; Fieger, Sarah M

    2010-11-01

    The initial, rapid increase in skin blood flow in response to direct application of heat is thought to be mediated by an axon reflex, which is dependent on intact cutaneous sensory nerves. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV-1) channels, which are putative channels located on sensory nerves, would attenuate the skin blood flow response to local heating in humans. Ten subjects were equipped with four microdialysis fibres which were randomly assigned one of four treatments: (1) vehicle control (90% propylene glycol + 10% lactated Ringer solution); (2) 20 mm capsazepine to inhibit TRPV-1 channels; (3) 10 mm l-NAME to inhibit NO synthase; and (4) combined 20 mm capsazepine + 10 mm l-NAME. Following baseline measurements, the temperature of skin heaters was increased from 33°C to 42°C at a rate of 1.0°C every 10 s and local temperature was held at 42°C for 20-30 min until a stable plateau in skin blood flow was achieved. An index of skin blood flow was measured directly over each microdialysis site via laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Beat-by-beat blood pressure was measured via photoplethysmography and verified via automated brachial auscultation. At the end of the local heating protocol, temperature of the heaters was increased to 43°C and 28 mm nitroprusside was infused to achieve maximal vasodilatation. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as LDF/mean arterial pressure and normalized to maximal values (%CVCmax). Initial peak in capsazepine (44 ± 4%CVCmax), l-NAME (56 ± 4%CVCmax) and capsazepine + l-NAME (32 ± 6%CVCmax) sites was significantly attenuated compared to control (87 ± 5%CVCmax; P thermal hyperaemia was significantly attenuated in capsazepine (73 ± 6%CVCmax), l-NAME (47 ± 5%CVCmax) and capsazepine + l-NAME (31 ± 7%CVCmax) sites compared to control (92 ± 5%CVCmax; P thermal hyperaemia. These data further suggest a portion of the NO component of thermal hyperaemia may be

  6. Contributing Factors in Restaurant-Associated Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, FoodNet Sites, 2006 and 2007†

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOULD, L. HANNAH; ROSENBLUM, IDA; NICHOLAS, DAVID; PHAN, QUYEN; JONES, TIMOTHY F.

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 48 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year in the United States, resulting in approximately 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Over half of all foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are associated with eating in restaurants or delicatessens. We reviewed data from restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks to better understand the factors that contribute to these outbreaks. Data on restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported by sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were analyzed to characterize contributing factors reported in foodborne disease outbreaks and the levels of evidence used to identify these factors. Of 457 foodborne disease outbreaks reported in 2006 and 2007 by FoodNet sites, 300 (66%) were restaurant associated, and of these 295 (98%) had at least one reported contributing factor. One to nine (with a median of two) contributing factors were reported per outbreak. Of the 257 outbreaks with a single etiology reported, contributing factors associated with food worker health and hygiene were reported for 165 outbreaks (64%), factors associated with food preparation practices within the establishment were reported for 88 outbreaks (34%), and factors associated with contamination introduced before reaching the restaurant were reported for 56 outbreaks (22%). The pronounced role of food workers in propagating outbreaks makes it clear that more work is needed to address prevention at the local level. Food workers should be instructed not to prepare food while ill to prevent the risk of transmitting pathogens. PMID:24215683

  7. Army Corps of Engineers: Factors Contributing to Cost Increases and Schedule Delays in the Olmsted Locks and Dam Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    and Dam Project The following information appears as interactive content in figure 3 when viewed electronically . • 1985: Lower Ohio River...ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS Factors Contributing to Cost Increases and Schedule Delays in the Olmsted Locks and Dam Project ...Contributing to Cost Increases and Schedule Delays in the Olmsted Locks and Dam Project What GAO Found Reports by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

  8. Human Resource – Potential Factor of Organiztional Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Cristian Negrulescu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At the level of any economic system, the change brings about the modification of the internal operating method of the relations between the actors and of the work habits. In other words, the substance (main, important modifications can be shaped on each of the organizational dominant of the system at a structural, functional or cultural level, in which the main actor, the human resource, intends to be part of this equation of changes. In this context, significant is the role played by the main organization actors, a role which can be materialized either as a factor of innovation, prevention and even progress, or as a conflict promoting factor, which, in time, generates a state of abnormality, of crisis. That is why major importance must be allotted to the human resources at the level of each organisation, considering the progress focused on knowledge, experience, experiments, attitude, behaviour and competences, these implying factors of correction and efficient reaction for the administration of the organizational crises.

  9. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

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    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  10. THE INVESTMENTS, ECONOMIC GROWTH FACTORS OR CONSUMPTION OF DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huru Dragos

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, in the last year the economic growth is a real phenomenon that is not our subject for demonstration or for analyze in this paper. Our concern is related with the way of manifestation for economic growth in the economic system. We study if not the economic growth on the contrary of development for current or further performance (regardless of economic aspect or level of analyze can unstuck in consumption of the availed resources for consolidate potential for development.

  11. Relative contribution of combined kinetic and exchange energy terms vs the electronic component of molecular electrostatic potential in hardness potential derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Rituparna; Roy, Ram Kinkar

    2013-11-14

    The relative contribution of the sum of kinetic [(10/9)CFρ(r)2/3] and exchange energy [(4/9)CXρ(r)1/3] terms to that of the electronic part of the molecular electrostatic potential [Vel(r)] in the variants of hardness potential is investigated to assess the proposed definition of Δ+h(k) = −[VelN+1(k) – VelN(k)] and Δ–h(k) = −[VelN(k) – VelN–1(k)] (Saha; et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2013, 34, 662). Some substituted benzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (undergoing electrophilic aromatic substitution), carboxylic acids, and their derivatives are chosen to carry out the theoretical investigation as stated above. Intra- and intermolecular reactivity trends generated by Δ+h(k) and Δ–h(k) are found to be satisfactory and are correlated reasonably well with experimental results.

  12. Stress and addiction: contribution of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF system in neuroplasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina L Haass-Koffler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF has been shown to induce various behavioral changes related to adaptation to stress. Dysregulation of the CRF system at any point can lead to a variety of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders (SUDs. CRF has been associated with stress-induced drug reinforcement. Extensive literature has identified CRF to play an important role in the molecular mechanisms that lead to an increase in susceptibility that precipitates relapse to SUDs. The CRF system has a heterogeneous role in SUDs. It enhances the acute effects of drugs of abuse and is also responsible for the potentiation of drug-induced neuroplasticity evoked during the withdrawal period. We present in this review the brain regions and circuitries where CRF is expressed and may participate in stress-induced drug abuse. Finally, we attempt to evaluate the role of modulating the CRF system as a possible therapeutic strategy for treating the dysregulation of emotional behaviors that result from the acute positive reinforcement of substances of abuse as well as the negative reinforcement produced by withdrawal.

  13. Increased expression of PITX2 transcription factor contributes to ovarian cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic K C Fung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paired-like homeodomain 2 (PITX2 is a bicoid homeodomain transcription factor which plays an essential role in maintaining embryonic left-right asymmetry during vertebrate embryogenesis. However, emerging evidence suggests that the aberrant upregulation of PITX2 may be associated with tumor progression, yet the functional role that PITX2 plays in tumorigenesis remains unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (Q-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical (IHC analyses, we demonstrated that PITX2 was frequently overexpressed in ovarian cancer samples and cell lines. Clinicopathological correlation showed that the upregulated PITX2 was significantly associated with high-grade (P = 0.023 and clear cell subtype (P = 0.011 using Q-PCR and high-grade (P<0.001 ovarian cancer by IHC analysis. Functionally, enforced expression of PITX2 could promote ovarian cancer cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth ability, migration/invasion and tumor growth in xenograft model mice. Moreover, enforced expression of PITX2 elevated the cell cycle regulatory proteins such as Cyclin-D1 and C-myc. Conversely, RNAi mediated knockdown of PITX2 in PITX2-high expressing ovarian cancer cells had the opposite effect. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the increased expression PITX2 is involved in ovarian cancer progression through promoting cell growth and cell migration/invasion. Thus, targeting PITX2 may serve as a potential therapeutic modality in the management of high-grade ovarian tumor.

  14. Stress and addiction: contribution of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) system in neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haass-Koffler, Carolina L; Bartlett, Selena E

    2012-01-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) has been shown to induce various behavioral changes related to adaptation to stress. Dysregulation of the CRF system at any point can lead to a variety of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders (SUDs). CRF has been associated with stress-induced drug reinforcement. Extensive literature has identified CRF to play an important role in the molecular mechanisms that lead to an increase in susceptibility that precipitates relapse to SUDs. The CRF system has a heterogeneous role in SUDs. It enhances the acute effects of drugs of abuse and is also responsible for the potentiation of drug-induced neuroplasticity evoked during the withdrawal period. We present in this review the brain regions and circuitries where CRF is expressed and may participate in stress-induced drug abuse. Finally, we attempt to evaluate the role of modulating the CRF system as a possible therapeutic strategy for treating the dysregulation of emotional behaviors that result from the acute positive reinforcement of substances of abuse as well as the negative reinforcement produced by withdrawal.

  15. Rules and regulations as potential moderator on the relationship between organizational internal and external factors with effective construction risk management in Nigerian construction companies: A proposed framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, A. Q.; Bahaudin, A. Y.; Kamaruddeen, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Certain organizational internal and external factors have been found to influence effective construction risk management within the construction company which has contributed to massive risk occurrence on the projects. Yet, the influence of the organizational factors such as effective communication, team competency with skills, active leadership, political factor, organizational culture, technology factor and economic factor on effective construction risk management among the construction companies operating in Abuja and Lagos state Nigeria have not received considerable attention. More so, a moderating variable is proposed. This paper proposes rules and regulations as the potential moderator on the relationship between organisational internal factors, external factors and effective construction risk management.

  16. Recognizing influencing factors on students' leadership trait potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hosseini Moghadam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to investigate the effect of university education on leadership capacity of both male and female management students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The data were collected from the first and the last year students using classified sampling method. The results of 116 questionnaires analyzed using SPSS software indicate that university education had a different effect on both male and female students' leadership capacity. Comparing the results of this study with other countries shows that the role of culture should be considered as an effective factor, while evaluating and comparing students' leadership capacity among communities.

  17. Therapeutic potential of growth factors in pulmonary emphysematous condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyal, Jai Prakash; Muyal, Vandana; Kotnala, Sudhir; Kumar, Dhananjay; Bhardwaj, Harsh

    2013-04-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a major manifestation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized by progressive destruction of alveolar parenchyma with persistent inflammation of the small airways. Such destruction in the distal respiratory tract is irreversible and irreparable. All-trans-retinoic acid was suggested as a novel therapy for regeneration of lost alveoli in emphysema. However, profound discrepancies were evident between studies. At present, no effective therapeutic options are available that allow for the regeneration of lost alveoli in emphysematous human lungs. Recently, some reports on rodent's models have suggested the beneficial effects of various growth factors toward alveolar maintenance and repair processes.

  18. Contribution of Salmonella Enteritidis virulence factors to intestinal colonization and systemic dissemination in 1-day-old chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addwebi, Tarek M; Call, Douglas R; Shah, Devendra H

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the most common serovars associated with poultry and poultry product contamination in the United States. We previously identified 14 mutant strains of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4) with significantly reduced invasiveness in human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2), chicken macrophages (HD-11), and chicken hepatocellular epithelial cells (LMH). These included Salmonella Enteritidis mutants with transposon insertions in 6 newly identified Salmonella Enteritidis-specific genes (pegD and SEN1393), and genes or genomic islands common to most other Salmonella serovars (SEN0803, SEN0034, SEN2278, and SEN3503) along with 8 genes previously known to contribute to enteric infection (hilA, pipA, fliH, fljB, csgB, spvR, and rfbMN). We hypothesized that Salmonella Enteritidis employs both common Salmonella enterica colonization factors and Salmonella Enteritidis-specific traits to establish infection in chickens. Four Salmonella Enteritidis mutants (SEN0034::Tn5, fliH::Tn5, SEN1393::Tn5, and spvR::Tn5) were indistinguishable from the isogenic wild-type strain when orally inoculated in 1-d-old chickens, whereas 2 mutants (CsgB::Tn5 and PegD::Tn5) were defective for intestinal colonization (P Salmonella Enteritidis pathogenesis, and the target genes identified here could potentially serve as targets for the development of live-attenuated or subunit vaccine.

  19. Informed Source Separation of Atmospheric and Surface Signal Contributions in Shortwave Hyperspectral Imagery using Non-negative Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L.; Coddington, O.; Pilewskie, P.

    2015-12-01

    Current challenges in Earth remote sensing require improved instrument spectral resolution, spectral coverage, and radiometric accuracy. Hyperspectral instruments, deployed on both aircraft and spacecraft, are a growing class of Earth observing sensors designed to meet these challenges. They collect large amounts of spectral data, allowing thorough characterization of both atmospheric and surface properties. The higher accuracy and increased spectral and spatial resolutions of new imagers require new numerical approaches for processing imagery and separating surface and atmospheric signals. One potential approach is source separation, which allows us to determine the underlying physical causes of observed changes. Improved signal separation will allow hyperspectral instruments to better address key science questions relevant to climate change, including land-use changes, trends in clouds and atmospheric water vapor, and aerosol characteristics. In this work, we investigate a Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) method for the separation of atmospheric and land surface signal sources. NMF offers marked benefits over other commonly employed techniques, including non-negativity, which avoids physically impossible results, and adaptability, which allows the method to be tailored to hyperspectral source separation. We adapt our NMF algorithm to distinguish between contributions from different physically distinct sources by introducing constraints on spectral and spatial variability and by using library spectra to inform separation. We evaluate our NMF algorithm with simulated hyperspectral images as well as hyperspectral imagery from several instruments including, the NASA Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), NASA Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) and National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) Imaging Spectrometer.

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 contributes to resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor drugs in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Roberto; Rosa, Roberta; Damiano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Gennaro; Gelardi, Teresa; Garofalo, Sonia; Tarallo, Valeria; De Falco, Sandro; Melisi, Davide; Benelli, Roberto; Albini, Adriana; Ryan, Anderson; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2008-08-15

    The resistance to selective EGFR inhibitors involves the activation of alternative signaling pathways, and Akt activation and VEGF induction have been described in EGFR inhibitor-resistant tumors. Combined inhibition of EGFR and other signaling proteins has become a successful therapeutic approach, stimulating the search for further determinants of resistance as basis for novel therapeutic strategies. We established human cancer cell lines with various degrees of EGFR expression and sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors and analyzed signal transducers under the control of EGFR-dependent and EGFR-independent pathways. Multitargeted inhibitor vandetanib (ZD6474) inhibited the growth and the phosphorylation of Akt and its effector p70S6 kinase in both wild-type and EGFR inhibitor-resistant human colon, prostate, and breast cancer cells. We found that the resistant cell lines exhibit, as common feature, VEGFR-1/Flt-1 overexpression, increased secretion of VEGF and placental growth factor, and augmented migration capabilities and that vandetanib is able to antagonize them. Accordingly, a new kinase assay revealed that in addition to VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2, RET, and EGFR, vandetanib efficiently inhibits also VEGFR-1. The contribution of VEGFR-1 to the resistant phenotype was further supported by the demonstration that VEGFR-1 silencing in resistant cells restored sensitivity to anti-EGFR drugs and impaired migration capabilities, whereas exogenous VEGFR-1 overexpression in wild-type cells conferred resistance to these agents. This study shows that VEGFR-1 contributes to anti-EGFR drug resistance in different human cancer cells. Moreover, vandetanib inhibits VEGFR-1 activation, cell proliferation, and migration, suggesting its potential utility in patients resistant to EGFR inhibitors.

  1. Analysis of Factors of Influence of the Market Environment upon Formation of the Enterprise Labour Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Zborovska Olha M.; Halan Olena Ye.

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses external and internal factors of the market environment, which influence formation of the enterprise labour potential. It offers supplement the existing classification properties with the following ones: international, political-legal and natural-climate factors. It shows that, in the result of the balanced reaction on the international level of influence of factors of formation of labour potential, it is possible to sharply accelerate development of the labour potential ...

  2. Balneotherapy is a potential risk factor for Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Deutsch

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The practice of immersion in burn patient has been abandoned in many parts of the world but in Brazil it is still common. The aim of this study was to ascertain if balneotherapy is a risk factor for Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in thermally injured patients. Eighteen patients from a Burn Center were studied for 14 weeks for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Samples were collected by swabbing the exudate of wounds, before and after giving bath to the patients and from balneotherapy table. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to determine bacterial genetic relatedness. Thirty-seven P. aeruginosa isolates were detected from 292 swabs collected from patients' burn surface area and from the balneotherapy table. Profile analysis of P. aeruginosa DNA fragmentation showed 10 clones among the 37 strains analyzed. Type A is the most prevalent clone, with 23 strains distributed into eight subtypes. These were present in the swabs collected, before and after the patients' bath, from the surface of the bath table, suggesting that there was cross-contamination between the patients in different ways. This work demonstrates that balneotherapy is a risk factor in the Burn Center studied, because the same clone was found among P. aeruginosa isolates collected at various points and times.

  3. Insulin as a potential factor influencing blood pressure in amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, H G; Yalow, R S; Schweitzer, P; Schwartz, E

    1986-09-01

    War-injured, bilateral above-knee amputees are known to be at increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. To evaluate possible risk factors, we compared blood pressures and plasma glucose and insulin responses to orally administered glucose in 19 above-knee amputees from the Vietnam War (mean age, 36 +/- 1 years) with those of 12 age-matched unilateral below-elbow amputees. Body composition by densitometry and maximal oxygen consumption during arm or leg exercise were also determined. Nine of 19 leg amputees were hypertensive compared with one of 12 arm amputees. Their 3-hour average insulin responses were markedly increased (260 +/- 60 microU/ml) compared with those of normotensive leg (125 +/- 24 microU/ml) and arm amputees (101 +/- 20 microU/ml), and their mean body fat content (37.2%) also was elevated compared with that in both of these groups (23.2 and 22.6%, respectively). A unique finding was that both insulin response and body fat content were strongly and independently correlated with diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.55, p less than 0.01, and r = 0.62, p less than 0.01, respectively). We conclude that insulin may be a major factor in blood pressure regulation in the maturity-onset obesity that develops following traumatic leg amputation in young, healthy men.

  4. Clastogenic Factors as Potential Biomarkers of Increased Superoxide Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Emerit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of clastogenic factors (CF and their damaging effects are mediated by superoxide, since superoxide dismutase is regularly protective. CF are produced via superoxide and stimulate the production of superoxide by monocytes and neutrophils. This results in a selfsustaining and longlasting process of clastogenesis, which may exceed the DNA repair system and ultimately lead to cancer (Emerit, 1994. An increased cancer risk is indeed observed in conditions accompanied by CF formation. These include irradiated persons, patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, HIV-infected persons and the chromosomal breakage syndromes ataxia telangiectasia, Bloom’s syndrome and Fanconi’s anemia. Biochemical analysis has identifi ed lipid peroxidation products, arachidonic acid metabolites, nucleotides of inosine and cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor alpha, as the clastogenic and also superoxide stimulating components of CF. Due to their chromosome damaging effects, these oxidants can be detected with classical cytogenetic techniques. Their synergistic action renders the CF-test particularly sensitive for the detection of a pro-oxidant state. Correlations were observed between CF and other biomarkers of oxidative stress such as decreases in total plasma thiols or increases in TBARS or chemiluminescence. Correlations between CF and disease activity, between CF and radiation exposure, suggest the study of CF for monitoring these conditions. CF may also be useful as biochemical markers and intermediate endpoints for the evaluation of promising antioxidant drugs. CF formation represents a link between chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. Prophylactic use of superoxide scavengers as anticarcinogens is therefore suggested.

  5. Contribution of central vs. peripheral factors to the force loss induced by passive stretch of the human plantar flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajano, Gabriel S; Seitz, Laurent; Nosaka, Kasunori; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2013-07-15

    The purpose of the present research was to identify the contribution of central vs. peripheral factors to the force loss after passive muscle stretching. Thirteen men randomly performed both a 5-min constant-torque stretch of the plantar flexors on an isokinetic dynamometer and a resting condition on 2 separate days. The triceps surae electromyogram (EMG) was recorded simultaneously with plantar flexor isometric torque. Measures of central drive, including the EMG amplitude normalized to the muscle compound action potential amplitude (EMG/M), percent voluntary activation and first volitional wave amplitude, and measures of peripheral function, including the twitch peak torque, 20-to-80-Hz tetanic torque ratio and torque during 20-Hz stimulation preceded by a doublet, were taken before and immediately and 15 min after each condition. Peak torque (-15.7%), EMG/M (-8.2%), and both twitch (-9.4%) and 20-Hz peak torques (-11.5%) were reduced immediately after stretch but recovered by 15 min. There were strong correlations between the torque loss and the reductions in central drive parameters (r = 0.65-0.93). Torque recovery was also strongly correlated with the recovery in EMG/M and percent voluntary activation (r = 0.77-0.81). The moderate decreases in measures of peripheral function were not related to the torque loss or recovery. These results suggest that 1) central factors were strongly related to the torque reduction immediately after stretch and during torque recovery; and 2) the muscle's contractile capacity was moderately reduced, although these changes were not associated with the torque reduction, and changes in excitation-contraction coupling efficiency were not observed.

  6. Hypoxic glucose metabolism in glioblastoma as a potential prognostic factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyonaga, Takuya; Hirata, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Manabe, Osamu; Watanabe, Shiro; Hattori, Naoya; Shiga, Tohru; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Yamaguchi, Shigeru [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Sapporo (Japan); Terasaka, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Sapporo (Japan); Kuge, Yuji [Hokkaido University, Central Institute of Isotope Science, Sapporo (Japan); Tanaka, Shinya [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cancer Pathology, Sapporo (Japan); Ito, Yoichi M. [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Sapporo (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Metabolic activity and hypoxia are both important factors characterizing tumor aggressiveness. Here, we used F-18 fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to define metabolically active hypoxic volume, and investigate its clinical significance in relation to progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in glioblastoma patients. Glioblastoma patients (n = 32) underwent FMISO PET, FDG PET, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before surgical intervention. FDG and FMISO PET images were coregistered with gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images. Volume of interest (VOI) of gross tumor volume (GTV) was manually created to enclose the entire gadolinium-positive areas. The FMISO tumor-to-normal region ratio (TNR) and FDG TNR were calculated in a voxel-by-voxel manner. For calculating TNR, standardized uptake value (SUV) was divided by averaged SUV of normal references. Contralateral frontal and parietal cortices were used as the reference region for FDG, whereas the cerebellar cortex was used as the reference region for FMISO. FDG-positive was defined as the FDG TNR ≥1.0, and FMISO-positive was defined as FMISO TNR ≥1.3. Hypoxia volume (HV) was defined as the volume of FMISO-positive and metabolic tumor volume in hypoxia (hMTV) was the volume of FMISO/FDG double-positive. The total lesion glycolysis in hypoxia (hTLG) was hMTV x FDG SUVmean. The extent of resection (EOR) involving cytoreduction surgery was volumetric change based on planimetry methods using MRI. These factors were tested for correlation with patient prognosis. All tumor lesions were FMISO-positive and FDG-positive. Univariate analysis indicated that hMTV, hTLG, and EOR were significantly correlated with PFS (p = 0.007, p = 0.04, and p = 0.01, respectively) and that hMTV, hTLG, and EOR were also significantly correlated with OS (p = 0.0028, p = 0.037, and p = 0.014, respectively). In contrast, none of FDG TNR, FMISO TNR, GTV, HV

  7. P01.02FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 4 CONTRIBUTES TO 3-DIMENSIONAL GROWTH OF HUMAN GLIOBLASTOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, D.; Englinger, B.; Pichler, J.; Hainfellner, J.; Marosi, C.; Czech, T.; Knosp, E.; Buchroithner, J.; Spiegl-Kreinecker, S.; Berger, W.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma growth is driven by receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated signals. One of the RTK systems recently coming into focus are the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) high-affinity receptors (FGFR1-FGFR4) due to mutation, overexpression or translocation in several cancer types. FGF/FGFR represents a complex signal network with essential functions in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and wound healing but also for malignant transformation and growth as well as tumor neoangiogenesis and therapy failure. Several studies have suggested a role of FGFRs in human glioblastoma whereby the information on FGFR4 is sparse. Here we investigated whether FGFR4 as compared to FGFR1 blockade impacts on glioblastoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Both in human glioblastoma cell lines (N = 8) and primary cell cultures from clinical samples (N = 26) we found a widespread expression of several FGFs (e.g. FGF1, FGF2, and FGF5) but also a significant overexpression of FGFR1 and FGFR4 in distinct subgroups as compared to non-malignant brain primo cell cultures. Regarding FGFR1 mRNA, all glioma cell models investigated expressed in addition to the FGFR1-IIIb also the mesenchymal and more oncogenic FGFR1-IIIc splice variant. Application of the FGFR inhibitors (nintedanib, ponatinib) as well as expression of dominant-negative (dn) versions of FGFR1 and FGFR4 significantly reduced in vitro cell growth and clonogenicity in the tested glioma cell models whereby dnFGFR1 tended to be more efficient than dnFGFR4. Accordingly, both dominant-negative FGFRs induced significant apoptosis whereby the effects of dnFGFR1 were again significantly stronger. Surprisingly, the inhibitory effects on anchorage-independent growth in soft agar were opposite with significant mitigation by dnFGFR1 but almost complete blockade by dnFGFR4 in the majority of the glioblastoma models analysed. Additionally, neurosphere formation, indicative for the presence of glioma stem cells, was profoundly reduced by

  8. Factors contributing to quality of life in COPD patients in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon HY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hye-Young Kwon,1,2 Eugene Kim2 1Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 2Institute of Health and Environment, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea Objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a chronic lung disease, and the burden of COPD is expected to increase in the rapidly aging nation of South Korea. This study aims to examine the factors contributing to health-related quality of life (HRQOL in COPD patients.Patients and methods: This study was based on 6-year-data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2012. COPD was diagnosed in 2,734 survey participants and the severity was graded according to the criteria set by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D index was used to assess the quality of life.Results: The EQ-5D index scores for COPD patients and the general population were 0.915±0.003 and 0.943±0.001, respectively. Males, younger people, and patients with higher education attainment and income levels had a higher utility score. In addition, the adjusted EQ-5D index scores for severity level IV significantly decreased by 0.100 (P=0.041, compared to the severity group I scores. No significant differences were found in stage II and III patients. Comorbidities (excluding cancer and hypertension appeared to negatively influence HRQOL among COPD patients. In particular, depression (EQ-5D index score =-0.089, P=0.0003 and osteoporosis (EQ-5D index score= -0.062, P=0.0039 had a significant influence, while smoking status did not appear to influence patient HRQOL.Conclusion: In this study, we found that the higher the severity of COPD, the lower the quality of life. In particular, patients with depression and osteoporosis had a relatively low utility score. Therefore, these comorbidities should be carefully monitored in order to improve quality

  9. Sharks: a potential source of antiangiogenic factors and tumor treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung; Kim, Young

    2002-12-01

    Since angiogenesis is a key feature of tumor growth, inhibiting this process is one way to treat cancer. Cartilage is a natural source of material with strong antiangiogenic activity. This report reviews knowledge of the anticancer properties of shark cartilage and clinical information on drugs such as neovastat and squalamine. Because their entire endoskeleton is composed of cartilage, sharks are thought to be an ideal source of angiogenic and tumor growth inhibitors. Shark cartilage extract has shown antiangiogenic and antitumor activities in animals and humans. The oral administration of cartilage extract was efficacious in reducing angiogenesis. Purified antiangiogenic factors from shark cartilage, such as U-995 and neovastat (AE-941), also showed antiangiogenic and antitumor activity. AE-941 is under phase III clinical investigation. Squalamine, a low molecular weight aminosterol, showed strong antitumor activity when combined with chemotherapeutic materials. The angiogenic tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 3 (TIMP-3) and tumor suppressor protein (snm23) genes from shark cartilage were cloned and characterized.

  10. Common Genetic and Nonshared Environmental Factors Contribute to the Association between Socioemotional Dispositions and the Externalizing Factor in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called…

  11. Comparative analysis of evolutionarily conserved motifs of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) predicts novel potential therapeutic epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiaohong; Zheng, Xuxu; Yang, Huanming;

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in breast cancer. With the availability of therapeutic antibodies against HER2, great strides have been made in the clinical management of HER2 overexpressing breast cancer...... for potential therapeutic application. Thus, this novel computational process for predicting or searching for potential epitopes or key target sites may contribute to epitope-based vaccine and function-selected drug design, especially when x-ray crystal structure protein data is not available....

  12. Factors that Contribute to Women's Career Development in Organizations: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Extensive research has focused on factors that hinder the advancement of women in organizations. However, scarce literature exists about factors that facilitate such development. This paper reviews recent scholarship on women at work, through an analysis of existing literature, in order to identify factors that facilitate the advancement of…

  13. Contribution of SecDF to Staphylococcus aureus resistance and expression of virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger-Bächi Brigitte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SecDF is an accessory factor of the conserved Sec protein translocation machinery and belongs to the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND family of multidrug exporters. SecDF has been shown in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to be involved in the export of proteins. RND proteins can mediate resistance against various substances and might be of relevance in antimicrobial therapy. The role of RND proteins in Staphylococcus aureus has not yet been determined. Results Markerless deletion mutants were constructed to analyze the impact of the so far uncharacterized RND proteins in S. aureus. While the lack of Sa2056 and Sa2339 caused no phenotype regarding growth and resistance, the secDF mutant resulted in a pleiotropic phenotype. The secDF mutant was cold sensitive, but grew normally in rich medium at 37°C. Resistance to beta-lactams, glycopeptides and the RND substrates acriflavine, ethidium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate was reduced. The secDF mutant showed an aberrant cell separation and increased spontaneous and Triton X-100 induced autolysis, although the amounts of penicillin-binding proteins in the membrane were unchanged. The impact of secDF deletion on transcription and expression of specific virulence determinants varied: While coagulase transcription and activity were reduced, the opposite was observed for the autolysin Atl. A reduction of the transcription of the cell wall anchored protein A (spa was also found. The accumulation of SpA in the membrane and lowered amounts in the cell wall pointed to an impaired translocation. Conclusions The combination of different effects of secDF deletion on transcription, regulation and translocation lead to impaired cell division, reduced resistance and altered expression of virulence determinants suggesting SecDF to be of major relevance in S. aureus. Thus SecDF could be a potential target for the control and eradication of S. aureus in the future.

  14. EMT transcription factors snail and slug directly contribute to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslehurst Alexandria M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT is a molecular process through which an epithelial cell undergoes transdifferentiation into a mesenchymal phenotype. The role of EMT in embryogenesis is well-characterized and increasing evidence suggests that elements of the transition may be important in other processes, including metastasis and drug resistance in various different cancers. Methods Agilent 4 × 44 K whole human genome arrays and selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry were used to investigate mRNA and protein expression in A2780 cisplatin sensitive and resistant cell lines. Invasion and migration were assessed using Boyden chamber assays. Gene knockdown of snail and slug was done using targeted siRNA. Clinical relevance of the EMT pathway was assessed in a cohort of primary ovarian tumours using data from Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 plus 2.0 arrays. Results Morphological and phenotypic hallmarks of EMT were identified in the chemoresistant cells. Subsequent gene expression profiling revealed upregulation of EMT-related transcription factors including snail, slug, twist2 and zeb2. Proteomic analysis demonstrated up regulation of Snail and Slug as well as the mesenchymal marker Vimentin, and down regulation of E-cadherin, an epithelial marker. By reducing expression of snail and slug, the mesenchymal phenotype was largely reversed and cells were resensitized to cisplatin. Finally, gene expression data from primary tumours mirrored the finding that an EMT-like pathway is activated in resistant tumours relative to sensitive tumours, suggesting that the involvement of this transition may not be limited to in vitro drug effects. Conclusions This work strongly suggests that genes associated with EMT may play a significant role in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer, therefore potentially leading to the development of predictive biomarkers of drug response or novel therapeutic strategies for

  15. EMT transcription factors snail and slug directly contribute to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslehurst, Alexandria M; Koti, Madhuri; Dharsee, Moyez; Nuin, Paulo; Evans, Ken; Geraci, Joseph; Childs, Timothy; Chen, Jian; Li, Jieran; Weberpals, Johanne; Davey, Scott; Squire, Jeremy; Park, Paul C; Feilotter, Harriet

    2012-03-19

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a molecular process through which an epithelial cell undergoes transdifferentiation into a mesenchymal phenotype. The role of EMT in embryogenesis is well-characterized and increasing evidence suggests that elements of the transition may be important in other processes, including metastasis and drug resistance in various different cancers. Agilent 4 × 44 K whole human genome arrays and selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry were used to investigate mRNA and protein expression in A2780 cisplatin sensitive and resistant cell lines. Invasion and migration were assessed using Boyden chamber assays. Gene knockdown of snail and slug was done using targeted siRNA. Clinical relevance of the EMT pathway was assessed in a cohort of primary ovarian tumours using data from Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 plus 2.0 arrays. Morphological and phenotypic hallmarks of EMT were identified in the chemoresistant cells. Subsequent gene expression profiling revealed upregulation of EMT-related transcription factors including snail, slug, twist2 and zeb2. Proteomic analysis demonstrated up regulation of Snail and Slug as well as the mesenchymal marker Vimentin, and down regulation of E-cadherin, an epithelial marker. By reducing expression of snail and slug, the mesenchymal phenotype was largely reversed and cells were resensitized to cisplatin. Finally, gene expression data from primary tumours mirrored the finding that an EMT-like pathway is activated in resistant tumours relative to sensitive tumours, suggesting that the involvement of this transition may not be limited to in vitro drug effects. This work strongly suggests that genes associated with EMT may play a significant role in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer, therefore potentially leading to the development of predictive biomarkers of drug response or novel therapeutic strategies for overcoming drug resistance.

  16. Evaluation of potential variables contributing to the development and duration of plantar lesions in a population of aquarium-maintained African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Dunn, J Lawrence; Camp, Tracy; Macha, Laurie; Mazzaro, Lisa; Tuttle, Allison D

    2012-01-01

    Bumblefoot (pododermatitis), often described as the most significant environmental disease of captive penguins, is commonly due to excessive pressure or trauma on the plantar surface of the avian foot, resulting in inflammation or necrosis and causing severe swelling, abrasions, or cracks in the skin. Although not formally evaluated in penguins, contributing factors for bumblefoot are thought to be similar to those initiating the condition in raptors and poultry. These factors include substrate, body weight, and lack of exercise. The primary purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate variables potentially contributing to the development and duration of plantar lesions in aquarium-maintained African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), including sex, weight, age, season, exhibit activity, and territory substrate. Results indicate that males develop significantly more plantar lesions than females. Penguins weighing between 3.51 and 4.0 kg develop plantar lesions significantly more often than penguins weighing between 2.5 and 3.5 kg, and because male African penguins ordinarily weigh significantly more than females, weight is likely a contributing factor in the development of lesions in males compared with females. Significantly more plantar lesions were observed in penguins standing for greater than 50% of their time on exhibit than swimming. Penguins occupying smooth concrete territories developed more plantar lesions compared with penguins occupying grate territories. Recommendations for minimizing bumblefoot in African penguins include training penguins for monthly foot examinations for early detection of plantar lesions predisposing for the disease, encouraging swimming activity, and replacing smooth surfaces on exhibit with surfaces providing variable degrees of pressure and texture on the feet. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Contribution of large submarine landslide to tsunami potential in the NE Atlantic region: The Gorringe Bank case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Inês; Omira, Rachid; Baptista, Maria Ana; Miranda, Miguel; Terrinha, Pedro; Batista, Luis; Roque, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami is recognized as a natural hazard, and it is now widely accepted that submarine mass-failures are one of possible tsunami sources. Various studies on tsunami-induced by submarine landslides were carried out based on a spontaneous trigger of the mass-failure. In this study we focus on the deep-water submarine landslide in the Gorringe Bank (GB) area, NE Atlantic. In particular, we investigate the contribution of such mass-failure, as an additional source, to tsunami potential. We assume that an initial tsunami is generated by a large earthquake in the south west Iberia margin area that also initiates the failure of the GB landslide. This mass-failure can play the role of a secondary source of tsunami and contribute to tsunami potential. We simulate the tsunami generation as combination between the sea free surface perturbation caused instantaneously by the earthquake and the initial wave generated progressively due to the slide motion. Okada's equations are employed to compute the initial tsunami induced by the earthquake. While, a multi-layers viscous shallow water (VSW) model is used to simulate the flow of the submarine mass failure and the resulting tsunami wave. To model the propagation and coastal impact of the tsunami resulted from a combination of earthquake and landslide, we use a non-linear shallow water model and a nested grid system that allow estimating properly near-shore wave heights and inundation. We consider a 1755-like earthquake of magnitude Mw8.5, and a landslide of an approximate volume of about 60 km3. The characteristics of the landslide come from the analysis of detailed marine geological data including the erosional area (dimensions and scarps) and the seismic profiles. The results are presents in terms of: i) evidences of submarine mass failures in the area of GB; ii) simulations of the slide motion and the resulting tsunami wave; iii) simulations of the tsunami generated by a combination of two triggers: earthquake and landslide

  18. Characterization of voltage-gated K+ currents contributing to subthreshold membrane potential oscillations in hippocampal CA1 interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, France; Haufler, Darrell; Skinner, Frances K; Lacaille, Jean-Claude

    2010-06-01

    CA1 inhibitory interneurons at the stratum lacunosum-moleculare and radiatum junction (LM/RAD-INs) display subthreshold membrane potential oscillations (MPOs) involving voltage-dependent Na(+) and A-type K(+) currents. LM/RAD-INs also express other voltage-gated K(+) currents, although their properties and role in MPOs remain unclear. Here, we characterized these voltage-gated K(+) currents and investigated their role in MPOs. Using outside-out patch recordings from LM/RAD-IN somata, we distinguished four voltage-gated K(+) currents based on their pharmacology and activation/inactivation properties: a fast delayed rectifier current (I(Kfast)), a slow delayed rectifier current (I(Kslow)), a rapidly inactivating A-type current (I(A)), and a slowly inactivating current (I(D)). Their relative contribution to the total K(+) current was I(A) > I(Kfast) > I(Kslow) = I(D). The presence of I(D) and the relative contributions of K(+) currents in LM/RAD-INs are different from those of other CA1 interneurons, suggesting the presence of differential complement of K(+) currents in subgroups of interneurons. We next determined whether these K(+) currents were sufficient for MPO generation using a single-compartment model of LM/RAD-INs. The model captured the subthreshold voltage dependence of MPOs. Moreover, all K(+) currents were active at subthreshold potentials but I(D), I(A), and the persistent sodium current (I(NaP)) were most active near threshold. Using impedance analysis, we found that I(A) and I(NaP) contribute to MPO generation by modulating peak spectral frequency during MPOs and governing the voltage range over which MPOs occur. Our findings uncover a differential expression of a complement of K(+) channels that underlies intrinsic rhythmic activity in inhibitory interneurons.

  19. Potential factors that may promote successful cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance DE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available David E VanceCenter for Nursing Research, School of Nursing, Edward R Roybal Center for Translational Research in Aging and Mobility, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: With the unprecedented number of older adults worldwide, it is important to consider ways of facilitating successful cognitive aging. One way to think of this is by augmenting or bolstering cognitive reserve. Loosely defined, cognitive reserve is considered a neurological reservoir that can be depleted by physiological insults (eg, white matter hyperintensities, oxidative stress to the brain but yet maintain optimal cognitive functioning. Cognitive reserve is built up or depleted by processes of positive and negative neuroplasticity, respectively. Lifestyle factors such as physical exercise (+, mental stimulation (+, good sleep hygiene (+, substance abuse (-, sedentary lifestyle (-, chronic stress and depression (-, social isolation (-, and poor health (- can either promote or discourage positive and negative neuroplasticity, which in turn impacts cognitive reserve. Nurses are encouraged to understand these processes so they can help facilitate successful cognitive aging in their patients.Keywords: cognitive reserve, Alzheimer's disease, neuroplasticity

  20. 20 CFR 416.935 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.935 How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to... evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or...

  1. Motivation to Participate in Workplace Training within the Intelligence Community and Beyond: A Study of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanard, Stephanie Vernice Overton

    2013-01-01

    Organizations can incur extensive costs to fund training typically available to employees free of charge. However, some employees do not participate. The body of research reviewed in adult education focused on relevant studies and models of contributing factors for participation in academia, the workplace, and the community. No studies were found…

  2. Quantifying abortion rates of reproductive organs and effects of contributing factors using time-to-event analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hemerik, L.

    2011-01-01

    Time-to-event analysis, or survival analysis, is a method to analyse the timing of events and to quantify the effects of contributing factors. We apply this method to data on the timing of abortion of reproductive organs. This abortion often depends on source and sink strength. We hypothesise that

  3. Quantifying abortion rates of reproductive organs and effects of contributing factors using time-to-event analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hemerik, L.

    2011-01-01

    Time-to-event analysis, or survival analysis, is a method to analyse the timing of events and to quantify the effects of contributing factors. We apply this method to data on the timing of abortion of reproductive organs. This abortion often depends on source and sink strength. We hypothesise that t

  4. Factors Contributing to Sexual Violence at Selected Schools for Learners with Mild Intellectual Disability in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyokangi, Doris; Phasha, Nareadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: This paper reports part of the findings of a study which exposed sexual violence in schools for learners with mild intellectual disability in South Africa. Special attention was paid on factors contributing to such a problem. Methods: Data were collected using focus groups and individual interviews with 16 learners with mild…

  5. Factors Contributing to under Representation of Female Teachers in Headship Positions in Primary Schools in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmao, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses factors contributing to under representation of female teachers in headship positions in Eldoret Municipality Kenya. The study was guided by socialization theory to hierarchical gender prescriptions which gave three distinct theoretical traditions that help, understand sex and gender. Descriptive survey was adopted for the…

  6. Motivation to Participate in Workplace Training within the Intelligence Community and Beyond: A Study of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanard, Stephanie Vernice Overton

    2013-01-01

    Organizations can incur extensive costs to fund training typically available to employees free of charge. However, some employees do not participate. The body of research reviewed in adult education focused on relevant studies and models of contributing factors for participation in academia, the workplace, and the community. No studies were found…

  7. Libyan Paleozoic: A review of the factors limiting hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanes, W.H.; Mairn, A.E.M.; Aburawi, R.M.

    1988-08-01

    Of the three main Paleozoic basins - Ghadames, Murquz, and Kufra - only the Ghadames and its continuation into Algeria, the Illizi (or Fort Polignac) basin, has yielded hydrocarbons in significant quantity. The Paleozoic on the Cyrenaica platform and basement of the Sirte basin has a potential not fully considered. The paleogeography of the Paleozoic system is reviewed to illustrate the extent to which inherited and reactivated basement-controlled structures have influenced later Paleozoic sedimentation and hence the distribution of source rocks, reservoirs, and seals. In all instances, the source rocks are restricted to shales of the Tanezufft Formation or occur in the Upper Devonian Aouinet Oeunine Formation. Multiple fine-grained sequences serve as seals in all the fields. The reservoirs range from the well-cemented but highly fractured Cambrian-Ordovician Gargaf sandstones to the Acacus-Tadrart clastics to the fine-grained Lower Carboniferous Tahara Sandstone. The principal plays are associated with minor structures, and stratigraphic trapping mechanisms play a minor role. The average field size (excluding the Sirte basin) is approximately 80 million bbl of recoverable oil. Paleozoic structural plays in the Sirte basin and the Cyrenaica platform include reactivated infra-Cambrian faults. The lower Paleozoic accumulations of the Murzuq basin are tied to large structures. With the exception of local areas in the Ghadames basin, the Paleozoic succession remains a stratigraphic frontier province - still incompletely explored but with several interesting possibilities for large amounts of stratigraphically trapped hydrocarbons.

  8. Plastic Responses Contribute to Explaining Altitudinal and Temporal Variation in Potential Flower Longevity in High Andean Rhodolirion montanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavieres, Lohengrin A.

    2016-01-01

    The tendency for flower longevity to increase with altitude is believed by many alpine ecologists to play an important role in compensating for low pollination rates at high altitudes due to cold and variable weather conditions. However, current studies documenting an altitudinal increase in flower longevity in the alpine habitat derive principally from studies on open-pollinated flowers where lower pollinator visitation rates at higher altitudes will tend to lead to flower senescence later in the life-span of a flower in comparison with lower altitudes, and thus could confound the real altitudinal pattern in a species´ potential flower longevity. In a two-year study we tested the hypothesis that a plastic effect of temperature on flower longevity could contribute to an altitudinal increase in potential flower longevity measured in pollinator-excluded flowers in high Andean Rhodolirium montanum Phil. (Amaryllidaceae). Using supplemental warming we investigated whether temperature around flowers plastically affects potential flower longevity. We determined tightly temperature-controlled potential flower longevity and flower height for natural populations on three alpine sites spread over an altitudinal transect from 2350 and 3075 m a.s.l. An experimental increase of 3.1°C around flowers significantly decreased flower longevity indicating a plastic response of flowers to temperature. Flower height in natural populations decreased significantly with altitude. Although temperature negatively affects flower longevity under experimental conditions, we found no evidence that temperature around flowers explains site variation in flower longevity over the altitudinal gradient. In a wetter year, despite a 3.5°C temperature difference around flowers at the extremes of the altitudinal range, flower longevity showed no increase with altitude. However, in a drier year, flower longevity increased significantly with altitude. The emerging picture suggests an increase in flower

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament remnants nodule: potential factor causing extension loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; AO Ying-fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Extension loss caused by anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) remnants nodule was usually reported by case reports.There is no systematic report analyzing ACL remnants nodule.The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of extension loss caused by remnants of ACL after injury.Methods From June 2008 to December 2011,ACL remnants were observed by atthroscopy in 1012 cases with ACL injuries at the time of primary reconstruction.ACL remnants nodules were recorded.The time of extension loss occurrence caused by ACL remnants nodule,associated symptom and sign,magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),and arthroscopic findings were observed.Histological examination was performed on the lesion resected.Results Twenty-four cases with ACL remnants nodules were found by arthroscopy.Among them extension loss caused by remnants of ACL happened in 19 cases (male 13; female 6).The average extension loss were 9.1° (range,5°-20°).The average time from injury to operation was 8.9 weeks (range,3-26 weeks).The remnants of ACL depressed in the inter-condylar notch were found on MRI in 15 cases with extension loss.The rupture locations of ACL were all close to the upper insertion of ACL.The microscopic examination of the resected remnants of ACL revealed disorganized fibrous connective tissue and tissue of ACL ligament.Conclusions Among 1012 ACL injury cases,24 ACL remnants nodules were found with arthroscopy and 19 nodules could cause knee extension loss.ACL remnants nodule should be paid attention to as a potential cause of extension loss.

  10. PBDE levels in human milk: the situation in Germany and potential influencing factors - a controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieth, B.; Mielke, H.; Ostermann, B.; Ruediger, T. [Federal Inst. for Risk Assessment, Berlin (Germany); Herrmann, T.; Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    An exponential increase of PBDE levels in breast milk from Sweden between 1972 and 1997 has been reported, which is in contrast to the continuous decline of other chlorinated POPs in breast milk. Also in blood samples from Germany, an increasing trend has been observed during the period from 1985 to 1999. The knowledge about human exposure pathways, which contribute to the PBDE body burden, is very limited. Consumption of food of animal origin, inhalation or ingestion of dust and further factors possibly influencing the PBDE levels in human matrices, like age, breast-feeding or smoking are under discussion. Only a few data on PBDE levels in breast milk from Germany have been published. To fill the data gaps, a controlled study was started in 2001 to characterise the PBDE levels in human milk from Germany with special efforts to identify and quantify deca-BDE-209. Furthermore, it was intended to verify potential factors possibly influencing PBDE levels. Two main hypotheses were proposed: (1) Are PBDE levels in breast milk from mothers consuming traditional food (omnivores) higher than those found in breast milk from mothers consuming vegetarian or vegan food? and (2) Are the PBDE levels found in human milk after a three-months period of breast-feeding lower than those detected at the beginning or does breast feeding result in a lower body burden, respectively? This paper summarises preliminary results. Further analytical data and results of data evaluation will be presented at the conference.

  11. Unique and Varied Contributions of Traditional CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Literature Review of CAD Risk Factors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, Joanne; Huo, Yong; Ji, Linong; Zhao, Dong; Boyd, Dylan; Meng, Hai Jin; Shiff, Susan; Hu, Dayi

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first systematic review of risk factors for stroke in China and supports the importance of current public health initiatives to manage the risk factors appropriately to reduce risk of stroke in high risk patients. Additionally, this study has been co-authored by prominent Chinese and US physicians and researchers with expertise in cardiovascular disease, neurologic disorders, epidemiology, and real world data. While there have been several systematic reviews of real world associations of risk factors for coronary artery disease, none focus specifically on the population of China, where there is growing evidence that such risk factors are poorly treated or uncontrolled, especially in rural areas. To better understand the impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in China, a systematic review of all Chinese observational studies published in either English or Chinese in MEDLINE and EMBASE over the last 5 years was performed and the association between any of 5 traditional risk factors (ie, hypertension, diabetes, elevated lipid levels, obesity, and smoking) and the risk of CAD was studied. The study found a consistent relationship between lipid levels and CAD. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values were associated with greater risk of CAD, with an odds ratio as high as 3.31. Other factors found to be significant contributors to the risk of CAD included hypertension (crude odds ratio range of 1.40-5.11), diabetes (1.50-5.97), and smoking (1.37-5.19). An association between obesity and CAD in China was observed, but the evidence supporting this was considered weak due to the paucity of studies found as part