Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the incidence, imaging characteristics and mechanical factors in scoliotic patients with pectus excavatum. Methods A total of 142 scoliostic patients with pectus excavatum were evaluated prior to operation. The evaluation included a complete physical exam, phenotype and severity of the pectus excavatum, incidence and severity of scoliosis, and analysis of radiological images, including calculation of the Haller index. Results Twenty five out of 142 patients (17.61% with pectus excavatum had scoliosis with a Cobb angle >10 degrees, and in 80.00% of the cases the spinal column was bent to the right. Seventeen patients had bent-to-the-right spines that involved the 6th to 10 th thoracic vertebrae. We found that 23 out of 25 patients with a Cobb angle more than 10° were teenagers and adults. The incidence of scoliosis was only 6.06% in the children under 11 years whereas it was 21.79% in the teenage group. Conclusions Mechanical forces appear to play a role in the coexistence of pectus excavatum and scoliosis. There is a relationship between age, severity (Haller index, asymmetry and scoliosis. The heart and mediastinum play a role in providing an outward force to the left of the sternum which may be an important reason for the coexistence of pectus excavatum and scoliosis, but the correlation needs further proof.
Baran, Christopher P.; Fischer, Sara N.; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Kabbout, Mohamed N.; Hitchcock, Charles L.; Bringardner, Benjamin D.; McMaken, Sara; Newland, Christie A.; Cantemir-Stone, Carmen Z.; Phillips, Gary S.; Ostrowski, Michael C.
Ets-2 is a ubiquitous transcription factor activated after phosphorylation at threonine-72. Previous studies highlighted the importance of phosphorylated ets-2 in lung inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling, two pathways involved in pulmonary fibrosis. We hypothesized that phosphorylated ets-2 played an important role in pulmonary fibrosis, and we sought to determine the role of ets-2 in its pathogenesis. We challenged ets-2 (A72/A72) transgenic mice (harboring a mutated form of ets-2 at phosphorylation site threonine-72) and ets-2 (wild-type/wild-type [WT/WT]) control mice with sequential intraperitoneal injections of bleomycin, followed by quantitative measurements of lung fibrosis and inflammation and primary cell in vitro assays. Concentrations of phosphorylated ets-2 were detected via the single and dual immunohistochemical staining of murine lungs and lung sections from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Ets-2 (A72/A72) mice were protected from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, compared with ets-2 (WT/WT) mice. This protection was characterized by decreased lung pathological abnormalities and the fibrotic gene expression of Type I collagen, Type III collagen, α–smooth muscle actin, and connective tissue growth factor. Immunohistochemical staining of lung sections from bleomycin-treated ets-2 (WT/WT) mice and from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis demonstrated increased staining of phosphorylated ets-2 that colocalized with Type I collagen expression and to fibroblastic foci. Lastly, primary lung fibroblasts from ets-2 (A72/A72) mice exhibited decreased expression of Type I collagen in response to stimulation with TGF-β, compared with fibroblasts from ets-2 (WT/WT) mice. These data indicate the importance of phosphorylated ets-2 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis through the expression of Type I collagen and (myo)fibroblast activation. PMID:21562315
Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca
The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…
Wang Yuncang; Chen Gang; Xie Liang; Tang Jiming; Ben Xiaosong; Zhang Dongkun; Xiao Pu; Zhou Haiyu; Zhou Zihao; Ye Xiong
Abstract Background This study investigated the incidence, imaging characteristics and mechanical factors in scoliotic patients with pectus excavatum. Methods A total of 142 scoliostic patients with pectus excavatum were evaluated prior to operation. The evaluation included a complete physical exam, phenotype and severity of the pectus excavatum, incidence and severity of scoliosis, and analysis of radiological images, including calculation of the Haller index. Results Twenty five out of 142 ...
Full Text Available Root exudates play an important role in the early signal exchange between host plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. M161, a pre-mycorrhizal infection (pmi mutant of the tomoto (Solanum lycopersicum cultivar Micro-Tom, fails to establish normal arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses, and produces exudates that are unable to stimulate hyphal growth and branching of Glomus intraradices. Here, we report the identification of a purified active factor (AF that is present in the root exudates of wild-type tomato, but absent in those of M161. A complementation assay using the dual root organ culture system showed that the AF could induce fungal growth and branching at the pre-infection stage and, subsequently, the formation of viable new spores in the M161 background. Since the AF-mediated stimulation of hyphal growth and branching requires the presence of the M161 root, our data suggest that the AF is essential but not sufficient for hyphal growth and branching. We propose that the AF, which remains to be chemically determined, represents a plant signal molecule that plays an important role in the efficient establishment of mycorrhizal symbioses.
Kou, Xiaohong; Liu, Chen; Han, Lihua; Wang, Shuang; Xue, Zhaohui
NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in diverse physiological processes during development. To explore the role of NAC transcription factors in the ripening of fruits, we predicted the secondary and tertiary structure as well as regulative function of the SNAC4 (SlNAC48, Accession number: NM 001279348.2) and SNAC9 (SlNAC19, Accession number: XM 004236996.2) transcription factors in tomato. We found that the tertiary structure of SNAC9 was similar to that of ATNAP, which played an important role in the fruit senescence and was required for ethylene stimulation. Likewise, the bio-function prediction results indicated that SNAC4 and SNAC9 participated in various plant hormone signaling and senescence processes. More information about SNACs was obtained by the application of VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing). The silencing of SNAC4 and SNAC9 dramatically repressed the LeACS2, LeACS4 and LeACO1 expression, which consequently led to the inhibition of the ripening process. The silencing of SNACs down-regulated the mRNA levels of the ethylene perception genes and, at the same time, suppressed the expression of ethylene signaling-related genes except for LeERF2 which was induced by the silencing of SNAC4. The expressions of LeRIN were different in two silenced fruits. In addition, the silencing of SNAC4 reduced its mRNA level, while the silencing of SNAC9 induced its expression. Furthermore, the silencing of LeACS4, LeACO1 and LeERF2 reduced the expression of SNAC4 and SNAC9, while the silencing of NR induced the expression of all of them. In particular, these results indicate that SNAC transcription factors bind to the promoter of the ethylene synthesis genes in vitro. This experimental evidence demonstrates that SNAC4 and SNAC9 could positively regulate the tomato fruit ripening process by functioning upstream of ethylene synthesis genes. These outcomes will be helpful to provide a theoretical foundation for further
Bodrova, Elena; Leong, Deborah J.
Recent research provides evidence of the strong connections between quality of play in preschool years and children's readiness for school instruction. Mature play, characterized by imaginary situations, multiple roles, clearly defined rules, flexible themes, language development, length of play, helps students' cognitive development. (Contains 12…
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a common strategy of reverse genetics for characterizing function of genes in plant. The detailed mechanism governing RNA silencing efficiency triggered by virus is largely unclear. Here, we revealed that a petunia (Petunia hybrida) ocs element binding factor, ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants.
Contrasted three major theories on attitude change: cognitive dissonance, incentive, and social judgment. Results from student questionnaires provided little support for cognitive dissonance. Also provided credible, though overlapping, evidence for incentive and social judgment theories. Improvised role playing produced more change than did…
It is now well known that decentralised optimisation can be formulated as a potential game, and game-theoretical learning algorithms can be used to find an optimum. One of the most common learning techniques in game theory is fictitious play. However fictitious play is founded on an implicit assumption that opponents' strategies are stationary. We present a novel variation of fictitious play that allows the use of a more realistic model of opponent strategy. It uses a heuristic approach, from the online streaming data literature, to adaptively update the weights assigned to recently observed actions. We compare the results of the proposed algorithm with those of stochastic and geometric fictitious play in a simple strategic form game, a vehicle target assignment game and a disaster management problem. In all the tests the rate of convergence of the proposed algorithm was similar or better than the variations of fictitious play we compared it with. The new algorithm therefore improves the performance of game-t...
Jung Hwa Lee
Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria produce extracellular outer membrane vesicles (OMVs that interact with host cells. Unlike Gram-negative bacteria, less is known about the production and role of extracellular membrane vesicles (MVs in Gram-positive bacteria. The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes can survive under extreme environmental and energy stress conditions and the transcription factor σ(B is involved in this survival ability. Here, we first determined the production of MVs from L. monocytogenes and evaluated whether general stress transcription factor σ(B affected production of MVs in L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes secreted MVs during in vitro broth culture. The wild-type strain actively produced MVs approximately nine times more and also produced more intact shapes of MVs than those of the isogenic ΔsigB mutant. A proteomic analysis showed that 130 and 89 MV proteins were identified in the wild-type and ΔsigB mutant strains, respectively. Wild-type strain-derived MVs contained proteins regulated by σ(B such as transporters (OpuCA and OpuCC, stress response (Kat, metabolism (LacD, translation (InfC, and cell division protein (FtsZ. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis showed that wild-type-derived MV proteins corresponded to several GO terms, including response to stress (heat, acid, and bile resistance and extracellular polysaccharide biosynthetic process, but not the ΔsigB mutant. Internalin B (InlB was almost three times more contained in MVs derived from the wild-type strain than in MVs derived from the ΔsigB mutant. Taken together, these results suggest that σ(B plays a pivotal role in the production of MVs and protein profiles contained in MVs. L. monocytogenes MVs may contribute to host infection and survival ability under various stressful conditions.
Danis, K; Georgakopoulou, T; Stavrou, T; Laggas, D; Panagiotopoulos, T
To identify predictive factors of complete and age-appropriate vaccination status in Greece, we conducted a cross-sectional study, using stratified cluster sampling, among children attending the first year of the Greek Grammar school (about 6 years of age) and their parents/guardians. Almost 88% (N=3878) of pupils in the selected clusters (school classrooms) provided their vaccination booklet and their parents/guardians completed a questionnaire regarding beliefs and attitudes towards immunization. Belonging to a minority group, having other siblings and perceiving long distance to immunization site as a barrier were independent predictors of both incomplete and delayed vaccination status in the final logistic regression model. Maternal age >or=30 years and the perception that natural disease is preferable to vaccination were associated with complete vaccination, whereas paternal education of high school or higher was the other independent determinant of age-appropriate immunization. Socioeconomic factors rather than parental beliefs and attitudes towards immunization explained underimmunization. Further interventions are warranted to enhance vaccine coverage in high-risk groups identified in this study. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available LHY (late elongated hypocotyl is an important gene that regulates and controls biological rhythms in plants. Additionally, LHY is highly expressed in the SSH (suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library-induced stripe rust pathogen (CYR32 in our previous research. To identify the function of the LHY gene in disease resistance against stripe rust, we used RACE-PCR technology to clone TaLHY in the wheat variety Chuannong19. The cDNA of TaLHY is 3085 bp long with an open reading frame of 1947 bp. TaLHY is speculated to encode a 70.3 kDa protein of 648 amino acids , which has one typical plant MYB-DNA binding domain; additionally, phylogenetic tree shows that TaLHY has the highest homology with LHY of Brachypodium distachyon(BdLHY-like. Quantitative fluorescence PCR indicates that TaLHY has higher expression in the leaf, ear and stem of wheat but lower expression in the root. Infestation of CYR32 can result in up-regulated expression of TaLHY, peaking at 72 h. Using VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing technology to disease-resistant wheat in the fourth leaf stage, plants with silenced TaLHY cannot complete their heading stage. Through the compatible interaction with the stripe rust physiological race CYR32, Chuannong 19 loses its immune capability toward the stripe rust pathogen, indicating that TaLHY may regulate and participate in the heading of wheat, as well as the defense responses against stripe rust infection.
Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.
Olson, Heather; Shen, Yiping; Avallone, Jennifer; Sheidley, Beth R.; Pinsky, Rebecca; Bergin, Ann M.; Berry, Gerard T.; Duffy, Frank H.; Eksioglu, Yaman; Harris, David J.; Hisama, Fuki M.; Ho, Eugenia; Irons, Mira; Jacobsen, Christina M.; James, Philip; Kothare, Sanjeev; Khwaja, Omar; Lipton, Jonathan; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Markowitz, Jennifer; Maski, Kiran; Megerian, J. Thomas; Neilan, Edward; Raffalli, Peter C.; Robbins, Michael; Roberts, Amy; Roe, Eugene; Rollins, Caitlin; Sahin, Mustafa; Sarco, Dean; Schonwald, Alison; Smith, Sharon E.; Soul, Janet; Stoler, Joan M.; Takeoka, Masanori; Tan, Wen-Han; Torres, Alcy R.; Tsai, Peter; Urion, David K.; Weissman, Laura; Wolff, Robert; Wu, Bai-Lin; Miller, David T.; Poduri, Annapurna
Objective To evaluate the role of copy number abnormalities detectable by chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing in patients with epilepsy at a tertiary care center. Methods We identified patients with ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures and clinical CMA testing performed between October 2006 and February 2011 at Boston Children’s Hospital. We reviewed medical records and included patients meeting criteria for epilepsy. We phenotypically characterized patients with epilepsy-associated abnormalities on CMA. Results Of 973 patients who had CMA and ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures, 805 patients satisfied criteria for epilepsy. We observed 437 copy number variants (CNVs) in 323 patients (1–4 per patient), including 185 (42%) deletions and 252 (58%) duplications. Forty (9%) were confirmed de novo, 186 (43%) were inherited, and parental data were unavailable for 211 (48%). Excluding full chromosome trisomies, CNV size ranged from 18 kb to 142 Mb, and 34% were over 500 kb. In at least 40 cases (5%), the epilepsy phenotype was explained by a CNV, including 29 patients with epilepsy-associated syndromes and 11 with likely disease-associated CNVs involving epilepsy genes or “hotspots.” We observed numerous recurrent CNVs including 10 involving loss or gain of Xp22.31, a region described in patients with and without epilepsy. Interpretation Copy number abnormalities play an important role in patients with epilepsy. Given that the diagnostic yield of CMA for epilepsy patients is similar to the yield in autism spectrum disorders and in prenatal diagnosis, for which published guidelines recommend testing with CMA, we recommend the implementation of CMA in the evaluation of unexplained epilepsy. PMID:24811917
Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela
adventure game and a logic puzzle game. The game design was informed by the results obtained in a 1 year field study exploring and assessing techniques for transposing dynamic and complex domain-specific knowledge into games. Empirical results suggest that children may prefer different forms of play, mainly...... based upon the work conducted by Rogoff (1990) and Säljö (2010). Rogoff (1990) proposes the notion of apprenticeship in thinking, discussing how children learn new skills engaging into goal-directed activities with adults, who support them when reaching their zone of proximal development, defined...... is that we show how a computer game can effectively turn an abstract concept into a virtual artefact, that learners can then probe in a playful way, as well as study empirically, to explore alternative hypothesis circa its workings and verify them through experiments. This allows the learners to move from...
Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen
The purpose of this article is to qualitatively explore the affordances for risky play in two different preschool outdoor environments, an ordinary preschool playground and a nature playground, based on Gibson ("The ecological approach to visual perception," 1979) theory of affordances and Heft's and Kyttea's (Heft in "Children's…
This paper presents a study of the effects of cultural background on the communicative approach exemplified by the teaching of Integrated Skills of English (ISE).It proceeds from the interpretation of culture in light of linguis tic and pedagogic perspectives,then target on how cultural knowledge affects the communicative approach with the actual examples from ISE,and concludes that greater importance should be attached to EFL teaching
Full Text Available Although physical activity (PA is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based.
Luo, Xuesong; Fu, Xiaoqian; Yang, Yun; Cai, Peng; Peng, Shaobing; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun
We studied microbial communities in two paddy soils, which did not receive nitrogen fertilization and were distinguished by the soil properties. The two microbial communities differed in the relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria and total microbial biomass. Variability in microbial communities between the two fields was related to the levels of phosphorus and soil moisture. Redundancy analysis for individual soils showed that the bacterial community dynamics in the high-yield soil were significantly correlated with total carbon, moisture, available potassium, and pH, and those in the low-yield cores were shaped by pH, and nitrogen factors. Biolog Eco-plate data showed a more active microbial community in the high yield soil. The variations of enzymatic activities in the two soils were significantly explained by total nitrogen, total potassium, and moisture. The enzymatic variability in the low-yield soil was significantly explained by potassium, available nitrogen, pH, and total carbon, and that in the high-yield soil was partially explained by potassium and moisture. We found the relative abundances of Gram-negative bacteria and Actinomycetes partially explained the spatial and temporal variations of soil enzymatic activities, respectively. The high-yield soil microbes are probably more active to modulate soil fertility for rice production.
Luo, Xuesong; Fu, Xiaoqian; Yang, Yun; Cai, Peng; Peng, Shaobing; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun
We studied microbial communities in two paddy soils, which did not receive nitrogen fertilization and were distinguished by the soil properties. The two microbial communities differed in the relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria and total microbial biomass. Variability in microbial communities between the two fields was related to the levels of phosphorus and soil moisture. Redundancy analysis for individual soils showed that the bacterial community dynamics in the high-yield soil were significantly correlated with total carbon, moisture, available potassium, and pH, and those in the low-yield cores were shaped by pH, and nitrogen factors. Biolog Eco-plate data showed a more active microbial community in the high yield soil. The variations of enzymatic activities in the two soils were significantly explained by total nitrogen, total potassium, and moisture. The enzymatic variability in the low-yield soil was significantly explained by potassium, available nitrogen, pH, and total carbon, and that in the high-yield soil was partially explained by potassium and moisture. We found the relative abundances of Gram-negative bacteria and Actinomycetes partially explained the spatial and temporal variations of soil enzymatic activities, respectively. The high-yield soil microbes are probably more active to modulate soil fertility for rice production.
Ukkola, A. M.; Keenan, T. F.; Kelley, D. I.; Prentice, I. C.
Future environmental change is expected to modify the global hydrological cycle, with consequences for the regional distribution of freshwater supplies. Regional precipitation projections, however, differ largely between models, making future water resource projections highly uncertain. Using two representative concentration pathways and nine climate models, we estimate 21st century water resources across Australia, employing both a process-based dynamic vegetation model and a simple hydrological framework commonly used in water resource studies to separate the effects of climate and vegetation on water resources. We show surprisingly robust, pathway-independent regional patterns of change in water resources despite large uncertainties in precipitation projections. Increasing plant water use efficiency (due to the changing atmospheric CO2) and reduced green vegetation cover (due to the changing climate) relieve pressure on water resources for the highly populated, humid coastal regions of eastern Australia. By contrast, in semi-arid regions across Australia, runoff declines are amplified by CO2-induced greening, which leads to increased vegetation water use. These findings highlight the importance of including vegetation dynamics in future water resource projections.
Erikson, J M
Joan M. Erikson (1902-1997) was an artist, a writer, a mother, and the wife and collaborator of Erik H. Erikson (1902-1994), one of the most important and influential psychoanalysts in the world. The following is an edited dialogue on one of her favorite topics--The Importance of Play in Adulthood. It features her thoughts on the subject and reminiscences of the ways she played throughout her life. She muses on play in relation to humor, fun, the role of the fool, and more. The article was a project undertaken in the spirit of play and it will hopefully evoke further playful musings in the minds of readers.
Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Burke, Karly A; Lodish, Harvey F
Gene-targeting experiments report that the homeodomain-interacting protein kinases 1 and 2, Hipk1 and Hipk2, are essential but redundant in hematopoietic development because Hipk1/Hipk2 double-deficient animals exhibit severe defects in hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis, whereas the single knockouts do not. These serine-threonine kinases phosphorylate and consequently modify the functions of several important hematopoietic transcription factors and cofactors. Here we show that Hipk2 knockdown alone plays a significant role in terminal fetal liver erythroid differentiation. Hipk1 and Hipk2 are highly induced during primary mouse fetal liver erythropoiesis. Specific knockdown of Hipk2 inhibits terminal erythroid cell proliferation (explained in part by impaired cell-cycle progression as well as increased apoptosis) and terminal enucleation as well as the accumulation of hemoglobin. Hipk2 knockdown also reduces the transcription of many genes involved in proliferation and apoptosis as well as important, erythroid-specific genes involved in hemoglobin biosynthesis, such as alpha-globin and mitoferrin 1, demonstrating that Hipk2 plays an important role in some but not all aspects of normal terminal erythroid differentiation.
Kwiecinski, Jakub; Jin, Tao; Josefsson, Elisabet
Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of skin infections that range from mild diseases up to life-threatening conditions. Mechanisms of S. aureus virulence in those infections remain poorly studied. To investigate the impact of S. aureus surface proteins on skin infection, we used mouse models of skin abscess formation and skin necrosis, induced by a subcutaneous injection of bacteria. In the skin abscess model, a sortase-deficient S. aureus strain lacking all of its cell-wall anchored proteins was less virulent than its wild-type strain. Also, strains specifically lacking protein A, fibronecting binding proteins, clumping factor A or surface protein SasF were impaired in their virulence. When a model of dermonecrosis was studied, the S. aureus surface proteins could not be shown to be involved. In summary, surface proteins play an important role in virulence of S. aureus skin abscess infections, but not in formation of skin necrosis.
Driscoll, Joan Riley; Easterbrooks, M. Ann
There is no one style of parenting which characterizes young mothers as a group. In addition, life circumstances play an important role in shaping maternal behaviour. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of maternal play behaviour and contextual (social and personal) factors associated with these different patterns. In this study, 107…
Pita, Miguel Vieira
Dissertation title: Logoplaste: How Business Models can play an important role in the achievement of Sustained Competitive Advantage Author: Miguel Vieira Pita The following dissertation gives focus to the case study of Logoplaste, a successful Portuguese company where strategy plays an important role in the short and long term success of the company. Focusing on writing a dissertation that gives highlight to the creation and development of the firm’s valuable resources and ...
An, You Sun; Kim, Mi-Ra [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiation and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Sook [Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, Korea Institute of Radiation and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sil [College of Pharmacy and Division of Life Science and Pharmaceuticals, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Eunkyung [Department of Genetic Engineering, College of Life Science, Kyung-Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jie-Young [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiation and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeeyong, E-mail: email@example.com [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiation and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Jae Youn, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiation and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) regulates various biological processes, including differentiation, bone remodeling and angiogenesis, and is particularly important as a regulator of homeostasis and cell growth in normal tissue. Interestingly, some studies have reported that TGF-β1 induces apoptosis through induction of specific genes, whereas others suggest that TGF-β1 inhibits apoptosis and facilitates cell survival. Resolving these discrepancies, which may reflect differences in cellular context, is an important research priority. Here, using the parental mink lung epithelial cell line, Mv1Lu, and its derivatives, R1B and DR26, lacking TGF-β receptors, we investigated the involvement of TGF-β signaling in the effects of γ-irradiation. We found that canonical TGF-β signaling played an important role in protecting cells from γ-irradiation. Introduction of functional TGF-β receptors or constitutively active Smads into R1B and DR26 cell lines reduced DNA fragmentation, Caspase-3 cleavage and γ-H2AX foci formation in γ-irradiated cells. Notably, we also found that de novo protein synthesis was required for the radio-resistant effects of TGF-β1. Our data thus indicate that TGF-β1 protected against γ-irradiation, decreasing DNA damage and reducing apoptosis, and thereby enhanced cell survival. - Highlights: ► TGF-β1 pretreatment inhibits γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis. ► TGF-β signaling reduces γ-irradiation-induced γ-H2AX foci formation. ► de novo protein synthesis is necessary for TGF-β1-induced radio-resistance.
F. Camboim Rockett
Full Text Available The present cross-sectional study was designed to assess the frequency of 36 possible triggering factors precipitating a migraine crisis (hormonal, environmental, and dietary in adult outpatients suffering from migraine attacks. A group of 123 migraine sufferers, aged 43.2 ± 13.9 (mean ± SD years, including 114 (92.7% women, 68.3% having migraine without aura, 68.3% reporting pain severe enough to require drug prophylaxis, and 29.3% presenting with hypertension, were evaluated. The most common triggers were stress and fasting, and environmental and hormonal factors were frequently found to precipitate a crisis. More than 90% of the patients reported susceptibility to 5 or more factors, and only 2.4% did not complain about any dietary factor. The large number of triggers detected in the present study emphasises the importance of awareness and avoidance of these factors in the management of patients with migraine.
Full Text Available Background: Adipocyte, the main cellular component of white adipose tissue, plays a vital role in energy balance in higher eukaryotes. In recent years, adipocytes have also been identified as a major endocrine organ involved in immunological responses, vascular diseases, and appetite regulation. In farm animals, fat content and categories are closely correlated with meat quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, participate in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through regulating the transcription or translation of target mRNAs. MiR-378 plays an important role in a number of biological processes, including cell growth, cell differentiation, tumor cell survival and angiogenesis. Methods: In the present study, bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were used to identify and validate the target genes of miR-378. In vitro cell transfection, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, Oil Red O staining, and triglyceride content measurement were conducted to analyze the effects of miR-378 on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. Results: MiR-378 was induced during adipocyte differentiation. In the differentiated adipocytes overexpressing miR-378, the volume of lipid droplets was enlarged, and the triglyceride content was increased. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP, were significantly elevated in the differentiated, mature adipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1 was markedly reduced. E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2 and Ras-related nuclear (RAN-binding protein 10 (RANBP10 were the two target genes of miR-378. The mRNA expression levels of E2F2 and RANBP10 did not significantly change in bovine preadipocytes
@@ Pipeline Research Institute of CNPC (PRI) is playing a more and more important role in the oil and natural gas pipeline industrial development in the present-day China. The pipeline technology and equipment developed by PRI have proven costeffective and extremely useful in the country's WestEast gas transmission pipeline project
Methodologies to determine the proliferation resistance (PR) of nuclear facilities often rely on either expert elicitation, a resource-intensive approach without easily reproducible results, or numeric evaluations, which can fail to take into account the institutional knowledge and expert experience of the nonproliferation community. In an attempt to bridge the gap and bring the institutional knowledge into numeric evaluations of PR, a survey was conducted of 33 individuals to find the relative importance of a set of 62 nonproliferation factors, subsectioned into groups under the headings of Diversion, Transportation, Transformation, and Weaponization. One third of the respondents were self-described nonproliferation professionals, and the remaining two thirds were from secondary professions related to nonproliferation, such as industrial engineers or policy analysts. The factors were taken from previous work which used multi-attribute utility analysis with uniform weighting of attributes and did not include institutional knowledge. In both expert and non-expert groups, all four headings and the majority of factors had different relative importance at a confidence of 95% (p=0.05). This analysis and survey demonstrates that institutional knowledge can be brought into numeric evaluations of PR, if there is a sufficient investment of resources made prior to the evaluation.
Kominami, Tetsuya; Akagawa, Megumi; Takata, Hiromi
To gain information on the process of ectoderm patterning, the animal halves of sea urchin embryos were isolated at various stages, and their morphology was examined when control embryos developed into pluteus larvae. The animal halves separated at the 8-cell stage developed into 'dauerblastula', without showing any conspicuous ectoderm differentiation. In contrast, some of the animal halves isolated at the 60-cell stage (after the sixth cleavage) formed a ciliated band and oral opening, suggesting that some patterning signal was transmitted from the vegetal to animal hemisphere during early cleavage. Further patterning of the animal hemisphere did not seem to occur until hatching, since both the animal halves isolated at the 60-cell stage and hatching stage showed the same degree of ectoderm patterning. After hatching, the later animal halves were isolated, the more patterned ectoderm they formed. The animal halves isolated just prior to gastrulation differentiated well-patterned ectoderm. It is of note, however, that the level of separation was a more crucial factor than the timing of separation; even the animal fragments of newly hatched embryos differentiated well-patterned ectoderm if they had been separated at a subequatorial level. This suggests that the signal for ectoderm patterning is transmitted over the equator after hatching, and once the cells in the supra-equatorial region receive the signal, they, in turn, can transmit the signal upwardly. Interestingly, if the third cleavage plane was shifted toward the vegetal pole, the isolated animal pole-side fragments developed into 'embryoids' with fully patterned ectoderm. These results indicate that not the micromere descendants but the subequatorial cytoplasm plays an important role in ectoderm patterning.
Vapaatalo, H; Mervaala, E
The endothelium, a continuous cellular monolayer lining the blood vessels, has an enormous range of important homeostatic roles. It serves and participates in highly active metabolic and regulatory functions including control of primary hemostasis, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, platelet and leukocyte interactions with the vessel wall, interaction with lipoprotein metabolism, presentation of histocompatibility antigens, regulation of vascular tone and growth and further of blood pressure. Many crucial vasoactive endogenous compounds like prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide, endothelin, angiotensin, endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor, free radicals and bradykinin are formed in the endothelial cells to control the functions of vascular smooth muscle cells and of circulating blood cells. These versatile and complex systems and cellular interactions are extremely vulnerable. The balances may be disturbed by numerous endogenous and exogenous factors including psychological and physical stress, disease states characterized by vasospasm, inflammation, leukocyte and platelet adhesion and aggregation, thrombosis, abnormal vascular proliferation, atherosclerosis and hypertension. The endothelial cells are also the site of action of many drugs and exogenous toxic substances (e.g. smoking, alcohol). As markers and assays for endothelial dysfunction, direct measurement of nitric oxide, its metabolites from plasma and urine, functional measurement of vascular nitric oxide dependent responses and assay of different circulating markers have been used. In numerous pathological conditions (e.g. atherosclerosis, hypertension, congestive heart failure, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, renal failure, transplantation, liver cirrhosis) endothelial dysfunction has been described to exist. Some of them, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors and drug treatment will be discussed in this short review.
Stankevicius, Deividas; Jady, Hawraa Amira; Drachen, Anders
the perceived user experience factors relevant for Continuation Desire and then attempts to predict play-ers’ intention to continue playing. Structural Equation Mod-eling analysis was performed to validate the model and to predict the intention of continuation desire. At the same time, exploring why people...... continue playing, based on ex-periments using Candy Crush Saga, one of the most popular Free-to-Play mobile games worldwide. The findings indi-cate that motivation is an important factor of Continuation Desire in Free-to-Play mobile games, with engagement, en-joyment and flow being less important...
Earls, Melissa K.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…
窦非; 谢维; 董雪吟; 徐贤秀
Antibacterial peptides have received increasing attention as a new pharmaceutical substance. But the molecular mechanism of lysis is still poorly understood. CMIV gene and mutant CMIV gene in GST fusion system were expressed. After cleaving with different cleavage reagents, the peptide with an excess of N-terminus and with an un-amidated C-terminus stopped the activity while the peptide with an excess Asn at the C-terminus had the activity level the same as natural CMIV. The results showed that the terminal structure of cecropin CMIV played an important role in its biological activity.
Zhu, Chang; Yao, Wen-Long; Tan, Wei; Zhang, Chuan-Han
Evidence has shown that stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1/CXCL12) plays an important role in maintaining adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs). SDF-1 is also known to enhance recovery by recruiting NPCs to damaged regions and recent studies have revealed that SDF-1α exhibits pleiotropism, thereby differentially affecting NPC subpopulations. In this study, we investigated the role of SDF-1 in in vitro NPC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation, following treatment with different concentrations of SDF-1 or a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100. We observed that AMD3100 inhibited the formation of primary neurospheres. However, SDF-1 and AMD3100 exhibited no effect on proliferation upon inclusion of growth factors in the media. Following growth factor withdrawal, AMD3100 and SDF-1 treatment resulted in differential effects on NPC proliferation. SDF-1, at a concentration of 500ng/ml, resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of oligodendrocytes following growth factor withdrawal-induced differentiation. Using CXCR4 knockout mice, we observed that SDF-1 affected NPC proliferation in the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ). We also investigated the occurrence of differential CXCR4 expression at different stages during lineage progression. These results clearly indicate that signaling interactions between SDF-1 and CXCR4 play an important role in adult SVZ lineage cell proliferation and differentiation.
Yan, Xiao-Jin; Yu, Xuan; Wang, Xin-Pei; Jiang, Jing-Fei; Yuan, Zhi-Yi; Lu, Xi; Lei, Fan; Xing, Dong-Ming
After being studied for approximately a century, berberine (BBR) has been found to act on various targets and pathways. A great challenge in the pharmacological analysis of BBR at present is to identify which target(s) plays a decisive role. In the study described herein, a rescue experiment was designed to show the important role of mitochondria in BBR activity. A toxic dose of BBR was applied to inhibit cell proliferation and mitochondrial activity, then α-ketobutyrate (AKB), an analogue of pyruvate that serves only as an electron receptor of NADH, was proven to partially restore cell proliferation. However, mitochondrial morphology damage and TCA cycle suppression were not recovered by AKB. As the AKB just help to regenerate NAD+, which is make up for part function of mitochondrial, the recovered cell proliferation stands for the contribution of mitochondria to the activity of BBR. Our results also indicate that BBR suppresses tumour growth and reduces energy charge and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in a HepG2 xenograft model. In summary, our study suggests that mitochondria play an important role in BBR activity regarding tumour cell proliferation and metabolism. PMID:28181523
Xiao-Ying Dou; Ke-Zhen Yang; Zhao-Xia Ma; Li-Qun Chen; Xue-Qin Zhang; Jin-Rong Bai; De Ye
In flowering plants, pol en tube growth is essential for delivery of male gametes into the female gametophyte or embryo sac for double fertilization. Although many genes have been identified as being involved in the process, the molecular mechanisms of pol en tube growth remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified that the Arabidopsis Transmembrane Protein 18 (AtTMEM18) gene played important roles in pol en tube growth. The AtTMEM18 shares a high similarity with the Transmembrane 18 proteins (TMEM18s) that are conserved in most eukaryotes and may play important roles in obesity in humans. Mutation in the AtTMEM18 by a Ds insertion caused abnormal cal ose deposition in the pol en grains and had a significant impact on pol en germination and pol en tube growth. AtTMEM18 is expressed in pol en grains, pol en tubes, root tips and other vegetative tissues. The pol en-rescued assays showed that the mutation in AtTMEM18 also caused defects in roots, stems, leaves and transmitting tracts. AtTMEM18-GFP was located around the nuclei. Genetic assays demonstrated that the localization of AtTMEM18 around the nuclei in the generative cel s of pol en grains was essential for the male fertility. Furthermore, expression of the rice TMEM18-homologous protein (OsTMEM18) driven by LAT52 promoter could recover the fertility of the Arabidopsis attmem18 mutant. These results suggested that the TMEM18 is important for plant growth in Arabidopsis.
Chu, Fei-Fei; Chu, Pei-Na; Cai, Pei-Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Paul K S; Zeng, Raymond J
To investigate the role of phosphorus in lipid production under nitrogen starvation conditions, five types of media possessing different nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations or their combination were prepared to culture Chlorella vulgaris. It was found that biomass production under nitrogen deficient condition with sufficient phosphorus supply was similar to that of the control (with sufficient nutrition), resulting in a maximum lipid productivity of 58.39 mg/L/day. Meanwhile, 31P NMR showed that phosphorus in the medium was transformed and accumulated as polyphosphate in cells. The uptake rate of phosphorus in cells was 3.8 times higher than the uptake rate of the control. This study demonstrates that phosphorus plays an important role in lipid production of C. vulgaris under nitrogen deficient conditions and implies a potential to combine phosphorus removal from wastewater with biodiesel production via microalgae.
Jia Ning Yu; Jian Huang; Zi Ning Wang; Jin Song Zhang; Shou Yi Chen
A vacuole Na+/H+ antiporter gene TaNHX2 was obtained by screening the wheat cDNA library and by the 5′-RACE method. The expression of TaNHX2 was induced in roots and leaves by treatment with NaCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG), cold and abscisic acid (ABA). When expressed in a yeast mutant (nhx1), TaNHX2 suppressed the salt sensitivity of the mutant, which was deficient in vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter, and caused partial recovery of growth of nhx1 in NaCl and LiCl media. The survival rate of yeast cells was improved by overexpressing the TaNHX2 gene under NaCl, KCl, sorbitol and freezing stresses when compared with the control. The results imply that TaNHX2 might play an important role in salt and osmotic stress tolerance in plant cells.
Maldonado Martin, A; Gil Extremera, B; Rubio Luengo, M A
Calcium ions play an important role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Calcium antagonists, a group of first line drugs in the treatment of hypertension, reduce the intracellular content of calcium in vascular smooth muscle cells, and decrease the peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure. These drugs differ from other vasodilators in that they also have natriuretic effects; thus they can affect the kidney on three levels: Renal haemodynamics are affected by increased renal blood flow, and increased glomerular filtration rate. Changes in the renin-angiotensin system can decrease aldosterone secretion. Finally, they affect sodium management by acting directly on the renal tubule, increasing sodium excretion and inhibiting tubular reabsorption of this ion. The natriuretic effect of calcium antagonists is independent of the subject's sodium balance. The vasodilating action of these drugs is therefore accompanied by a natriuretic effect that makes satisfactory control of hypertension possible without placing the patient on a low-salt or salt-free diet.
Discusses children's play in conjunction with intellectual development, language, and social benefits. Suggests that play develops personality, encourages personal relations, stimulates creativity, adds to happiness, and advances learning. Encourages parents and teachers to provide children with richly varied play experiences to promote cognition,…
Wu, Fan; Wang, Jun-Tao; Yang, Jun; Li, Jing; Zheng, Yuan-Ming
Arsenic (As) can cause serious hazards to human health, especially in mining areas. Soil bacterial communities, which are critical parts of the soil ecosystem, were analyzed directly for soil environmental factors. As a consequence, it is of great significance to understand the ecological risk of arsenic contamination on bacteria, especially at the local scale. In this study, 33 pairs of soil and grain samples were collected from the corn and paddy fields around an arsenic mining area in Shimen County in Hunan Province, China. Significant differences were found between the soil nitrogen, As concentrations, and bacteria activities among these two types of land use. According to the structural equation model (SEM) analysis, compared with other environmental factors, soil As was not the key factor affecting the bacterial community, even when grain As was beyond the threshold of the national food hygiene standards of China. In the corn field, soil pH was the main factor dominating the bacterial richness, composition and grain As. Meanwhile, in the paddy field the soil total nitrogen (TN) and total carbon (TC) were the main factors impacting the bacterial richness, and the bacterial community composition was mainly affected by pH. The interactions between grain As and soil As were weak in the corn field. The bacterial communities played important roles in the food chain risk of As. The local policy of transforming paddy soil to dry land could greatly reduce the health risk of As through the food chain.
Higuchi, Masato; Celino, Fritzie T; Shimizu-Yamaguchi, Sonoko; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi
It has been demonstrated that taurine has various physiological functions in the body. We demonstrated that taurine is abundant in the serum, liver, muscle and testis of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). In the eel testis, taurine is found mainly in spermatogonia and is weakly expressed also in the Sertoli cells. We have further found in the eel testis that taurine is actively accumulated via the sodium/chloride-dependent taurine transporter (TauT; SLC6A6), which is expressed in germ cells. In our current study, the effects of taurine on the anti-oxidant response were examined. Taurine was found to promote the total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the testis. Moreover, our results indicate that taurine does not affect the mRNA levels of copper-zinc (Cu/Zn) SOD or manganese SOD, but promotes the translation of Cu/Zn SOD. Overall, our present data suggest that taurine may modulate Cu/Zn SOD at the translational level and thereby may play an important role in the protection of germ cells from oxidative stress.
Ma, Gang; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ma, Chun-Sen
Organisms in natural environments experience diel temperature fluctuations, including sporadic extreme conditions, rather than constant temperatures. Studies based mainly on model organisms have tended to focus on responses to average temperatures or short-term heat stress, which overlooks the potential impact of daily fluctuations, including stressful daytime periods and milder night-time periods. Here, we focus on daily maximum temperatures, while holding night-time temperatures constant, to specifically investigate the effects of high temperature on demographic parameters and fitness in the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae. We then compared the observed effects of different daily maximum temperatures with predictions from constant temperature-performance expectations. Moderate daily maximum temperatures depressed aphid performance while extreme conditions had dramatic effects, even when mean temperatures were below the critical maximum. Predictions based on daily average temperature underestimated negative effects of temperature on performance by ignoring daily maximum temperature, while predictions based on daytime maximum temperatures overestimated detrimental impacts by ignoring recovery under mild night-time temperatures. Our findings suggest that daily maximum temperature will play an important role in regulating natural population dynamics and should be considered in predictions. These findings have implications for natural population dynamics, particularly when considering the expected increase in extreme temperature events under climate change.
Zhang, Lei; Zhang, La; Li, Yin; Guo, Xin-Feng; Liu, Xu-Sheng
Compared with herbal drugs, medicine processed from animals (animal medicine) was thought to have more bioactive substances and higher activities. Biotransformation effect often plays an important role in their effect. However, researches about effect of animal medicine on diabetic nephropathy and applying animal medicine as natural bio-transformer were seldom reported. The purpose of this paper was to reveal the use of Bombyx Mori L. on diabetic nephropathy from ancient to modern times. The classical literature indicated that Saosi Decoction (), which contains Bombyx Mori L. or silkworm cocoon, was applied to treat disorders congruent with modern disease diabetic nephropathy from the Ming to Qing Dynasty in ancient China. Modern studies showed that Bombyx Mori L. contains four main active constituents. Among these, 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) and quercetin showed promising potential to be new agents in diabetic nephropathy treatment. The concentrations of 1-DNJ and the activities of quercetin in Bombyx Mori L. are higher than in mulberry leaves, because of the biotransformation in the Bombyx Mori L. body. However, these specifific components need further human and mechanistic studies to determine their therapeutic potential for this challenging condition.
Mi-ichi, Fumika; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Takao, Shouko; Jeelani, Ghulam; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Hara, Hiromitsu; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Yoshida, Hiroki
Hydrogenosomes and mitosomes are mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) that have highly reduced and divergent functions in anaerobic/microaerophilic eukaryotes. Entamoeba histolytica, a microaerophilic, parasitic amoebozoan species, which causes intestinal and extraintestinal amoebiasis in humans, possesses mitosomes, the existence and biological functions of which have been a longstanding enigma in the evolution of mitochondria. We previously demonstrated that sulfate activation, which is not generally compartmentalized to mitochondria, is a major function of E. histolytica mitosomes. However, because the final metabolites of sulfate activation remain unknown, the overall scheme of this metabolism and the role of mitosomes in Entamoeba have not been elucidated. In this study we purified and identified cholesteryl sulfate (CS) as a final metabolite of sulfate activation. We then identified the gene encoding the cholesteryl sulfotransferase responsible for synthesizing CS. Addition of CS to culture media increased the number of cysts, the dormant form that differentiates from proliferative trophozoites. Conversely, chlorate, a selective inhibitor of the first enzyme in the sulfate-activation pathway, inhibited cyst formation in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that CS plays an important role in differentiation, an essential process for the transmission of Entamoeba between hosts. Furthermore, we show that Mastigamoeba balamuthi, an anaerobic, free-living amoebozoan species, which is a close relative of E. histolytica, also has the sulfate-activation pathway in MROs but does not possess the capacity for CS production. Hence, we propose that a unique function of MROs in Entamoeba contributes to its adaptation to its parasitic life cycle.
@@ Generally Speaking, the importance of a state on the international arena largely depends on its power. Though it is difficult to make an assessment of the power of a country since analysts cannot do that job in an absolutely objective and exact way, it seems that very few people deny that the United States, today or even in the foreseeable future, will remain the strongest power or the only superpower in the world.
Xie, Ning; Li, Mo; Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun; Wang, Binbin; Tang, Feng
Previous studies implied indirectly that an elevated osteopontin (OPN) level might play a key role in the pathomechanism of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Nonetheless, up to now, no direct evidence was proposed to determine this issue. The aim was to determine the role of OPN in the pathomechanism of scoliosis. This was an experimental study to investigate the role of OPN in a bipedal mouse scoliosis model. All procedures were performed under the approval and supervision of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of our university. A new bipedal mouse model with elevated OPN level was established in this study. Amputation of forelimbs and tail was performed on 80 male C3H/HeJ mice at the age of 3 weeks. Then, these mice were randomly divided into two groups: Group A consisted of 40 mice treated with OPN 40 mg/kg daily and Group B consisted of the remaining 40 mice treated with saline. Then, 40 quadruped mice with saline were included in Group C. Body length, X-rays, and computed tomographic scans were obtained at the twentieth week. Then, scoliosis incidence, curve magnitude, and circulating OPN level were compared among groups. Osteopontin level was significantly higher in Group A compared with that in Groups B and C. Spine deformity was identified in 37 mice in Group A, 21 mice in Group B, and 5 mice in Group C. The average Cobb angle was 29.8° in Group A, 20.9° in Group B, and 17.5° in Group C. Although no significant difference of body length was found, significant statistical difference was noted in terms of scoliosis incidence and curve magnitude, among the three groups. The results of the present study indicated that the elevated OPN level might play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of scoliosis, that is, it not only raises the risk for scoliosis in bipedal mice but also contributes to curve progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adams, Gregory A.; Haddad, Fadia; Baldwin, Kenneth M.
Several muscles in the body exist mainly to work against gravity. Whether gravity is important in the development of these muscles is not known. By examining the basic proteins that compose muscle, questions about the role of gravity in muscle development can be answered. Myosin heavy chains (MHCs) are a family of proteins critically important for muscle contraction. Several types of MHCs exist (e.g., neonatal, slow, fast), and each type is produced by a particular gene. Neonatal MHCs are produced early in life. Slow MHCs are important in antigravity muscles, and fast MHCs are found in fast-twitch power muscles. The gene that is turned on or expressed will determine which MHC is produced. Early in development, antigravity skeletal muscles (muscles that work against gravity) normally produce a combination of the neonatal/embryonic MHCs. The expression of these primitive MHCs is repressed early in development; and the adult slow and fast MHC genes become fully expressed. We tested the hypothesis that weightbearing activity is critical for inducing the normal expression of the slow MHC gene typically expressed in adult antigravity muscles. Also, we hypothesized that thyroid hormone, but not opposition to gravity, is necessary for expressing the adult fast IIb MHC gene essential for high-intensity muscle performance. Groups of normal thyroid and thyroid-deficient neonatal rats were studied after their return from the 16-day Neurolab mission and compared to matched controls. The results suggest: (1) Weightlessness impaired body and limb skeletal muscle growth in both normal and thyroid-deficient animals. Antigravity muscles were impaired more than those used primarily for locomotion andor nonweightbearing activity. (2) Systemic and muscle expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), an important body and tissue growth factor, was depressed in flight animals. (3) Normal slow, type I MHC gene expression was markedly repressed in the normal thyroid flight group. (4
Ong, Yong Lock; Yap, Hwa Ling
We report the case of a 29-year-old mixed-race woman suffering from recurrent major depressive episodes, with suicidal ideation and risk, involving several inpatient admissions. A comorbid diagnosis of borderline personality disorder was also recorded in one of her previous inpatient admissions. During her last inpatient admission, a multidisciplinary case discussion and review of the patient's life highlighted several possible intercultural trigger factors that could have contributed to the exacerbation of her psychiatric illness. We emphasise the need to explore intercultural predisposing and precipitating factors for a more complete psychodynamic understanding of psychiatric illnesses among the multiracial population of Singapore. This also adds to the discussion on the management of such patients with the option of formal in-depth psychotherapy in adjunct to medication. This may prevent recurrent relapses, modify suicide intent and reduce the necessity for inpatient treatment, which will be cost-effective and result in efficacious treatment.
Zhao, Yan; Yan, Xinfeng; Li, Xia; Zheng, Yabing; Li, Shufeng; Chang, Xiaotian
Some studies have indicated that glucose metabolism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed to find the novel genes affecting glucose metabolism in RA. Synovial tissues of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were analyzed with Rat Glucose Metabolism RT(2) Profiler™ PCR Array to screen those genes with special expressions in glucose metabolism. Real-time PCR, western blotting, and ELISA were used to confirm the result in synovial tissues and blood of human RA. Culture synovial fibroblast cells (RASF) was treated with siRNA to suppress expressions of the target genes. CCK-8 cell proliferation assay and two-compartment transwell system were performed to examine cell proliferation and cell migration of the treated RASF. Both PCR array and real-time PCR detected the up-regulation of ENO1, HK2, and PGK1 and the down-regulation of PCK1 and PDK4 in synovial tissues of CIA rats. Real-time PCR and western blotting detected the increased expression of ENO1 and PGK1 in RA synovial tissues. ELISA detected a high level of PGK1 in the blood of RA patients. Decreased cell proliferation and cell migration capabilities were significantly detected in RASF following treatment of anti-PGK1 siRNA. IL-1β and IFN-γ rather than TNF-α and IL-1α levels were significantly declined in supernatants of the treated RASF. PGK1, a glycolytic enzyme catalyzing the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate into 2-phosphoglycerate, has increased expression in synovial tissues and blood of RA, which may be involved in pro-inflammation and synovial hyperplasia of the disease.
Huang, Mingzhu; Liu, Yuan; Xie, Chenying; Wang, Wei-Na
DJ-1 was first identified as an oncogene that transformed mouse NIH3T3 cells in cooperation with activated Ras. It has since exhibited a variety of functions in a range of organisms. In this study, the DJ-1 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvDJ-1) was identified and characterized. A recombinant protein LvDJ-1 was produced in Pichia pastoris. LvDJ-1 expression in vivo was knocked down by dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi), which led to significantly decreased levels of LvDJ-1 mRNA and protein. When the L. vannamei were challenged with RNAi and Vibrio alginolyticus, the transcription and expression of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (LvCZSOD) in the hepatopancreas were dramatically lower in shrimp with knocked down LvDJ-1 than in controls. Transcription and expression of P53 (LvP53) were significantly higher in shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 than in controls. Hepatopancreas samples were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Moreover, blood samples from the shrimp, assessed with flow cytometry, showed significant increases in respiratory burst and apoptosis in those lacking LvDJ-1 compared to the controls. Cumulative mortality in the shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 was significantly different from that in the control group after challenge with V. alginolyticus. Altogether, the results prove that LvDJ-1 regulates apoptosis and antioxidant activity, and that these functions play an important role in L. vannamei resistance against V. alginolyticus.
Mi-ichi, Fumika; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Takao, Shouko; Jeelani, Ghulam; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Hara, Hiromitsu; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Yoshida, Hiroki
Hydrogenosomes and mitosomes are mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) that have highly reduced and divergent functions in anaerobic/microaerophilic eukaryotes. Entamoeba histolytica, a microaerophilic, parasitic amoebozoan species, which causes intestinal and extraintestinal amoebiasis in humans, possesses mitosomes, the existence and biological functions of which have been a longstanding enigma in the evolution of mitochondria. We previously demonstrated that sulfate activation, which is not generally compartmentalized to mitochondria, is a major function of E. histolytica mitosomes. However, because the final metabolites of sulfate activation remain unknown, the overall scheme of this metabolism and the role of mitosomes in Entamoeba have not been elucidated. In this study we purified and identified cholesteryl sulfate (CS) as a final metabolite of sulfate activation. We then identified the gene encoding the cholesteryl sulfotransferase responsible for synthesizing CS. Addition of CS to culture media increased the number of cysts, the dormant form that differentiates from proliferative trophozoites. Conversely, chlorate, a selective inhibitor of the first enzyme in the sulfate-activation pathway, inhibited cyst formation in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that CS plays an important role in differentiation, an essential process for the transmission of Entamoeba between hosts. Furthermore, we show that Mastigamoeba balamuthi, an anaerobic, free-living amoebozoan species, which is a close relative of E. histolytica, also has the sulfate-activation pathway in MROs but does not possess the capacity for CS production. Hence, we propose that a unique function of MROs in Entamoeba contributes to its adaptation to its parasitic life cycle. PMID:25986376
Full Text Available Ten F1 combinations with their male and female parents were employed to evaluate their heat tolerance during the flowering and early grain filling stages. The rice plants were subjected to heat stress (39 °C–43 °C for 1–15 d during flowering. Based on the heat stress index, heat tolerance was only observed in the F1 combinations H2 (K22A × R207, H3 (Bobai A × R207 and H4 (Bobai A × Minghui 63, whereas the others received above 0.5000 of heat stress index. Both parents of the tolerant combination (heat-tolerant × heat-tolerant possessed heat tolerance, whereas the susceptible combinations were crossed by heat-tolerant (sterile lines × heat-susceptible (restorer lines, heat-susceptible × heat-tolerant, or heat-susceptible × heat-susceptible parents. This result indicated that heat tolerance in rice was controlled by recessive genes. Thus, both parents should possess high temperature tolerance to develop heat-tolerant F1 combinations. Furthermore, the heat stress index of F1 combinations was significantly correlated with the heat stress index of restorer lines but not with the heat stress index of maintainer lines. This result suggested that male parents play a more important role in heat-tolerant combinations than female parents. Therefore, the heat susceptibility of the hybrid rice in China is mainly due to the wide application of low-heat-tolerant restorer lines with high yield in three-line hybrid rice breeding.
Tania Mara Zancanaro Pieczkowski
Full Text Available This study investigated what kind of playing and how visually impaired children play in the family and educational contexts, aiming at understanding playing and the role of toys in these children‟s development. The study was based on the historical-cultural perspective, mainly considering Vygotsky‟s studies. Empirical material was collected from five families with blind or short-sighted children and from the specialized institution these children attend. We adopted semi-structured interviews with parents and educators and observation of the relevant contexts. The data collected was categorized and theorized through content analysis. We concluded that the mediation of another person during playing enables the visually impaired child to develop confidence to explore the physical space, objects and to elaborate concepts.
Full Text Available Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO, and ABA (NCED biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29 was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold. Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.
Full Text Available Background: MBD4 (methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4 is an important G: T glycosylase that can identify T-G mismatches. It plays a role in active demethylation through base excision repair. Overexpression of MBD4 gene can cause the demethylation of numerous genes, and the remethylation of MBD4-associated genes can occur when the MBD4 gene is knocked out. To date, the functions and regulatory mechanisms of the MBD4 gene in the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes have not been clearly established. Methods: Subcutaneous fat cells from 1- to 7-day-old Junmu-1 piglets were cultured in vitro, induced to differentiate, and then identified. A real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis was conducted to detect MBD4 messenger RNA (mRNA expression. Cells were treated with MBD4-siRNA (small interfering RNA and induced to differentiate. Changes in the lipid droplets were observed by oil red O staining. Changes in the mRNA and protein expression levels of MBD4 and the adipose differentiation-associated genes C/EBPα (CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha, PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and aP2 (adipocyte protein 2 were detected. In addition, the bisulfite sequencing method was used to detect changes in methylation in the promoters of certain genes associated with adipose differentiation. Results: Levels of MBD4 mRNA and protein expression varied with time over the course of the porcine adipocyte differentiation, with the highest levels of this expression observed on day two of the differentiation process. After silencing MBD4 and inducing differentiation, the production of lipid droplets decreased, the mRNA expression levels of C/EBPα, PPARγ, and aP2 were significantly reduced, and DNA methylation modification levels were significantly elevated in the examined promoter regions. Conclusion: The silencing of the MBD4 gene can influence the DNA methylation levels of preadipocyte
Yi, Zhigang; Behrendt, Thomas; Bunk, Rüdiger; Wu, Dianming; Kesselmeier, Jürgen
Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a quite stable gas in the troposphere and is transported up to the stratosphere, where it contributes to the sulfate aerosol layer (Crutzen 1976). The tropospheric concentration seems to be quite constant, indicating a balance between sinks and sources. Recent work by Sandoval-Soto et al. (2005) demonstrated the enormous strength of the vegetation sink and the urgent needs to understand the sinks and sources. The role of soils is a matter of discussion (Kesselmeier et al., 1999; Van Diest and Kesselmeier, 2008; Maseyk et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2015). To better understand the influence of soil water content and OCS mixing ratio on OCS fluxes, we used an OCS analyzer (LGR COS/CO Analyzer 907-0028, Los Gatos, CA, USA) coupled with automated soil chamber system (Behrendt et al., 2014) to measure the OCS fluxes with a slow drying of four different types of soil (arable wheat soil in Mainz, blueberry soil in Waldstein, spruce soil in Waldstein and needle forest soil in Finland). Results showed that OCS fluxes as well as the optimum soil water content for OCS uptake varied significantly for different soils. The net production rates changed significantly with the soil drying out from 100% to about 5% water holding capacity (WHC), implying that soil water content play an important role in the uptake processes. The production and uptake processes were distinguished by the regression of OCS fluxes under different OCS mixing ratios. OCS compensation points (CP) were found to differ significantly for different soil types and water content, with the lowest CP at about 20% WHC, implying that when estimating the global budgets of OCS, especially for soils fluxes, soil water content should be taken into serious consideration. References Crutzen, P. J. 1976, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 73-76. Sandoval-Soto, L. et al., 2005, Biogeosciences, 2, 125-132. Kesselmeier, J. et al., 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11577-11584. Van Diest, H. and Kesselmeier, J. 2008
Xiaoxia WU; Guang ZHI; Tao WAN; Jiajin WU
To investigate the relationship between transcription factor and the change of protein expression levels in heart failure. Methods Bioinformatic method was used to analyze the data of binding-sites on the 5 ' flaking regions of four genes whose mRNA level changed in failing heart from three databases about nucleic acid-EMBL, transcriptional regulation factor-TRANSFAC and protein-SWISS-PORT.The expression level of selected transcription factor was determined by immunohischemical method.Results Nine transcription factors were inferred to influence the proteins' levels in occurrence and development of heart failure.Serum response factor (SRF) was selected from the nine factors and assayed. The results showed that there was a higher level of SRF in healthy group than in chronic heart failure (CHF), and the level was associated with the degree of CHF. It was also found that there was a relative higher level of SRF in the acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than that in CHF, but which was lower than the healthy. Conclusion It showed that SRF had a quantitative change in the development of heart failure, and suggested SRF might play an important regulative role in heart failure. The expression changes of proteins related to myocardial function might be regulated by the quantitative change of transcription factor(s).
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Love and Play: A Pair of Paintings by..., I hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``Love and Play: A Pair...
C.E. van der Put; G.J.J.M. Stams; M. Hoeve; M. Deković; H.J.M. Spanjaard; P.H. van der Laan; R.P. Barnoski
This study examined which dynamic risk factors for recidivism play an important role during adolescence. The sample consisted of 13,613 American juveniles who had committed a criminal offense. The results showed that the importance of almost all dynamic risk factors, both in the social environment d
Full Text Available This article analyzes the first experience in the implementation into the pedagogical process of one of the methods of active training — role playing. The need for intensification of medical education process is linked primarily to the rapid increase in the volume required to provide students with information and the lack of training time. The analysis showed that the game significantly increases the level of students' knowledge, but require substantial modernization of the educational process.
Zhao, Chen; Lu, Funian; Chen, Hongxia; Zhao, Xianda; Sun, Jun; Chen, Honglei
Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is a transmembrane protein that belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. Evidence determines that JAM-A plays a role in numerous cellular processes, including tight junction assembly, leukocyte migration, platelet activation, angiogenesis and virus binding. Recent research suggests that JAM-A is dysregulated in various cancers and is vital for tumor progression. JAM-A is implicated in carcinogenesis via different signal pathways such as TGF-β1 signaling. Furthermore, JAM-A expression in cancers is usually associated with certain outcome of patients and might be a prognostic indicator. In this review, the correlation between JAM-A expression and human cancers will be described.
Wu, Jiangbo; De Theije, Caroline M G; Da Silva, Sofia Lopes; Van Der Horst, Hilma; Reinders, Margot T M; Broersen, Laus M.; Willemsen, Linette E M; Kas, Martien J H; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is multifactorial, with both genetic as well as environmental factors working in concert to develop the autistic phenotype. Immunological disturbances in autistic individuals have been reported and a role for food allergy has been suggested in ASD. Single gene mutation
<正>Available statistics shows that China not only has the world largest bismuth deposit but also is the world largest producer, exporter and consumer country. Particularly in the recent three years, China’s production and supply as well as the related policy changes has become a major factor in the bismuth market price fluctuations. China’s bismuth ore production in the recent two years has been kept stable and China’s output of bismuth ore concentrates accounts for
Full Text Available Gap junction (GJ channels provide direct passage for ions and small molecules to be exchanged between neighbouring cells and are crucial for many physiological processes. GJ channels can be gated by transjunctional voltage (known as Vj-gating and display a wide range of unitary channel conductance (γj, yet the domains responsible for Vj-gating and γj are not fully clear. The first extracellular domain (E1 of several connexins has been shown to line part of their GJ channel pore and play important roles in Vj-gating properties and/or ion permeation selectivity. To test roles of the E1 of Cx50 GJ channels, we generated a chimera, Cx50Cx36E1, where the E1 domain of Cx50 was replaced with that of Cx36, a connexin showing quite distinct Vj-gating and γj from those of Cx50. Detailed characterizations of the chimera and three point mutants in E1 revealed that, although the E1 domain is important in determining γj, the E1 domain of Cx36 is able to effectively function within the context of the Cx50 channel with minor changes in Vj-gating properties, indicating that sequence differences between the E1 domains in Cx36 and Cx50 cannot account for their drastic differences in Vj-gating and γj. Our homology models of the chimera and the E1 mutants revealed that electrostatic properties of the pore-lining residues and their contribution to the electric field in the pore are important factors for the rate of ion permeation of Cx50 and possibly other GJ channels.
In the late Pleistocene (~50-10,000 years ago), ninety-seven genera of large animals (>44kg) (megafauna) went extinct, concentrated in the Americas and Australia. The loss of megafauna had major effects on ecosystem structure, seed dispersal and land surface albedo. However, the impact of this dramatic extinction on ecosystem nutrient biogeochemistry, through the lateral transport of dung and bodies, has never been explored. Here we explore these nutrient impacts using a novel mathematical framework that analyses this lateral transport as a diffusion-like process and demonstrates that large animals play a disproportionately large role in the horizontal transfer of nutrients across landscapes. For example, we estimate that the extinction of the Amazonian megafauna led to a >98% reduction in the lateral transfer flux of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P) with similar, though less extreme, decreases in all continents outside of Africa. This resulted in strong decreases in phosphorus availability in Eastern Amazonia away from fertile floodplains, a decline which may still be ongoing, and current P limitation in the Amazon basin may be partially a relic of an ecosystem without the functional connectedness it once had. More broadly, the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions resulted in major and ongoing disruptions to terrestrial biogeochemical cycling at continental scales and increased nutrient heterogeneity globally.
Wang, Xiaohong; Xu, Chengfeng; Hua, Yitong; Sun, Leitao; Cheng, Kai; Jia, Zhongming; Han, Yong; Dong, Jianli; Cui, Yuzhen; Yang, Zhenlin
Release of exosomes have been shown to play critical roles in drug resistance by delivering cargo. Targeting the transfer of exosomes from resistant cells to sensitive cells may be an approach to overcome some cases of drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the potential role of exosomes in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells. Exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugation of culture media from MCF-7/ADR cells (ADR/exo) and MCF-7 parental cells (S/exo). Exosomes were characterized by morphology, exosomal markers and size distribution. The ability of ADR/exo to transfer multidrug resistance was assessed by MTT and real-time quantitative PCR. The different formation and secretion of exosomes were detected by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Then we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis using RNA-Seq technology and real-time quantitative PCR to better understand the gene expression regulation in exosmes formation and release after psoralen treatment. Our data showed that exosomes derived from MCF-7/ADR cells were able to promote active sequestration of drugs and could induce a drug resistance phenotype by transferring drug-resistance-related gene MDR-1 and P-glycoprotein protein. Psoralen could reduce the formation and secretion of exosomes to overcome drug resistance. There were 21 differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology (GO) pathway analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the most significantly expressed genes were linked to PPAR and P53 signaling pathways which were related to exosomes formation, secretion and cargo sorting. Psoralen can affect the exosomes and induce the reduction of resistance transmission via exosomes might through PPAR and P53 signaling pathways, which might provide a novel strategy for breast cancer resistance to chemotherapy in the future.
Full Text Available Temporomandibular disorder (TMD is the general term used to describe the symptoms originated from temporomandibular joint region. The most common symptom of the disorder is pain during mandibular movement. Etiology of TMD is multifactorial. Several factors such as trauma, occlusal discrepancies, stress, parafunctions, hypermobility, and heredity can make one more vulnerable to this disorder. It has been reported that viola playing might be a predisposing factor for TMD. In this article, we present a 24 year old male patient suffering from TMD symptoms exacerbated by viola playing and emphasize that viola playing may be a powerful aggravating factor for TMD.
Bahadur Adhikari, Khem; Shomer, Ilan
Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA......H 3.5 ( pKa) incubated fruits (~2 N). The protein bands at ~29 kDa, ~75 kDa, ~32 kDa and 87 kDa were exclusively or prominently found in ICA strengthened fruits (pH 3.5
Vestergaard, Bill; Appa, Rupa S.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens
study was to evaluate the importance of the kidneys in the clearance process of rFVIIa after iv administration to rats using a nephrectomy model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nephrectomized rat model was established and validated using inulin, a compound primarily cleared by the kidneys, as a test substance...... of mixed effects methods, where a pharmacokinetic model was used to simultaneously model all data from healthy, sham operated, and nephrectomized rats. RESULTS: Nephrectomized animals showed stable rectal temperature, SpO2 and pulse and as expected, clearance of inulin was essentially abolished compared...
Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed; Manjunatha Ankathatti Munegowda; Yufeng Xie; Jim Xiang
Intercellular communication is an important means of molecular information transfer through exchange of membrane proteins from cells to cells. Advent of the latest analytical and imaging tools has allowed us to enhance our understanding of the cellular communication through the intercellular exchange of intact membrane patches, also called trogocytosis, which is a ubiquitous phenomenon. Immune responses against pathogens or any foreign antigens require fine immune regulation, where cellular communications are mediated by either soluble or cell surface molecules. It has been demonstrated that the membrane molecule transfer between immune cells such as dendritic and T cells can be derived through internalization/recycling pathway, dissociation-associated pathway, uptake of exosomes and membrane nanotube formations. Recent evidence implicates the trogocytosis as an important mechanism of the immune system to modulate immune responses. Exchange of membrane molecules/ antigens between immune cells has been observed for a long time, but the mechanisms and functional consequences of these transfers remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms of trogocytosis and its physiological relevance to immune system, with special reference to T cells and the stimulatory or suppressive immune responses derived from T cells with acquired dendritic cell membrane molecules. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(4):261-269.
Boron is an essential nutrition for higher plants.However, the primary function of boron remains a matter of discussion.Boron may function by forming complexes with compounds having cis-hydroxyl groups(diols), e.g., pectic materials in cell walls, glycoproteins or glycolipids in membranes and o-diphenols.The well-defined functions of boron are its involvement in maintaining cell wall structure and both the structural and the functional integrity of plasma membrane.Lack of boron causes an increase in the leakage of ions and compounds which reflects the impairment of plasma membrane.Boron is functionally important in forming a pectic network in cell wall which is responsible for the extensibility of cell wall and consequently regulates cell growth.
Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Pandey, Sona
Heterotrimeric G proteins comprising Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits regulate many fundamental growth and development processes in all eukaryotes. Plants possess a relatively limited number of G-protein components compared with mammalian systems, and their detailed functional characterization has been performed mostly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the presence of single Gα and Gβ proteins in both these species has significantly undermined the complexity and specificity of response regulation in plant G-protein signaling. There is ample pharmacological evidence for the role of G proteins in regulation of legume-specific processes such as nodulation, but the lack of genetic data from a leguminous species has restricted its direct assessment. Our recent identification and characterization of an elaborate G-protein family in soybean (Glycine max) and the availability of appropriate molecular-genetic resources have allowed us to directly evaluate the role of G-protein subunits during nodulation. We demonstrate that all G-protein genes are expressed in nodules and exhibit significant changes in their expression in response to Bradyrhizobium japonicum infection and in representative supernodulating and nonnodulating soybean mutants. RNA interference suppression and overexpression of specific G-protein components results in lower and higher nodule numbers, respectively, validating their roles as positive regulators of nodule formation. Our data further show preferential usage of distinct G-protein subunits in the presence of an additional signal during nodulation. Interestingly, the Gα proteins directly interact with the soybean nodulation factor receptors NFR1α and NFR1β, suggesting that the plant G proteins may couple with receptors other than the canonical heptahelical receptors common in metazoans to modulate signaling.
Brogden, Graham; Adamek, Mikołaj; Proepsting, Marcus J; Ulrich, Reiner; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter
The Cyprinus herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is a member of the new Alloherpesviridae virus family in the Herpesvirales order. CyHV-3 has been implicated in a large number of disease outbreaks in carp populations causing up to 100% mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the requirement of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in CyHV-3 entry and replication in carp cells. Plasma membrane cholesterol was depleted from common carp brain (CCB) cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). Treated and non-treated cells were infected with CyHV-3 and virus binding and infection parameters were assessed using RT-qPCR, immunocytochemistry and virus titration. The effect of cholesterol reduction severely stunted virus entry in vitro, however after cholesterol replenishment virus entry and subsequent replication rates were similar to the control infection. Furthermore, cholesterol depletion did not significantly influence virus binding and the subsequent post-entry replication stage, however had an impact on virus egress. Comparative analysis of the lipid compositions of CyHV-3 and CCB membrane fractions revealed strong similarities between the lipid composition of the CyHV-3 and CCB lipid rafts. The results presented here show that cholesterol-rich lipid rafts are important for the CyHV-3 replication cycle especially during entry and egress.
Full Text Available Centromeres are important chromosomal regions necessary for eukaryotic cell segregation and replication. Due to high amounts of tandem repeats and transposons, centromeres have been difficult to sequence in most multicellular organisms, thus their sequence structure and evolution are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed transposons in the centromere 8 (Cen8 from the African cultivated rice (O. glaberrima and two subspecies of the Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa, indica and japonica. We detected much higher transposon contents (>69% in centromere regions than in the whole genomes of O. sativa ssp japonica and O. glaberrima (~35%. We compared the three Cen8s and identified numerous recent insertions of transposons that were frequently organized into multiple-layer nested blocks, similar to nested transposons in maize. Except for the Hopi retrotransposon, all LTR retrotransposons were shared but exhibit different abundances amongst the three Cen8s. Even though a majority of the transposons were located in intergenic regions, some gene-related transposons were found and may be involved in gene diversification. Chromatin immunoprecipitated (ChIP data analysis revealed that 165 families from both Class I and Class II transposons were found in CENH3-associated chromatin sequences. These results indicate essential roles for transposons in centromeres and that the rapid divergence of the Cen8 sequences between the two cultivated rice species was primarily caused by recent transposon insertions.
Jantan, Hafsah Binti; Bin Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Yahya, Fauziah Hj; Saleh, Halimatussadiah Binti; Ong, Mohd Hanafi Bin Azman
This study focused on preschool teachers' belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in using play in Malaysia. Its purpose is to find out indicators significantly contribute to belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in play of preschool teachers in Malaysia. The method used was factor analysis in order to confirm indicators in each variable…
Kim, Han-Byul; Kim, Sae-Hyung; So, Wi-Young
This study explored the factors affecting archery performance by calculating their relative importance in Korean archery. This study used the Delphi technique and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). After reviewing the literature and collecting data on performance factors in archery, the importance of factors affecting archery performance was calculated by holding meetings with experts (20 archery experts) and conducting confirmatory factor analysis (463 archers) and the AHP (36 archery experts). Performance factors were divided into mental, skill, and fitness categories. Fitness factors affecting performance included "drawing a bow without an arrow," "lower-body weight training," and "upper-body weight training." Skill factors affecting performance included "extending by maintaining left and right shoulder balance during aiming," "shooting skill over a regular clicker time," "maintaining pace and direction at release," and "drawing skill by maintaining left and right shoulder balance." Mental factors affecting performance were "confidence," "concentration," "emotion control," and "positive thinking." "Confidence" was identified as the most important factor among the 11 subfactors. The performance factors identified in this study and their relative importance in determining successful performance can be used in training for optimal archery performance worldwide.
Mehdi Molaee Ghara
Full Text Available Today, human resources are considered as the most precious assets for any organization and it is important to empower them as much as possible to create competitive advantage and to cope with rapid changes in organizations. In this paper, we present an empirical study on one of food industries in province of Qom, Iran to determine important factors influencing empowering human resources. The proposed study uses factor analysis by choosing a sample of 380 people. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.88, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.7 and validates the overall questionnaire. Based on the results of this survey, there are three important factors including job related, personal related and organizational related issues. The study also uses Pearson correlation as well as Freedman tests to rank the factors and the results demonstrate that organizational factor plays the most important role in empowering human resources followed by job related factors and personal factors.
Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Doherty, Jennifer A; Van Den Berg, David J
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling axis plays an important role in cancer biology. We hypothesized that genetic variation in this pathway may influence risk of ovarian cancer. A three-center study of non-Hispanic whites including 1880 control women, 1135 women with invasive epithelial...... as an important gene for ovarian cancer; additional genotyping is warranted to further confirm these associations with IGF2 and to narrow down the region harboring the causal SNP....
Vjollca Visoka Hasani; Jusuf Zeqiri
The objective of this study is to determine the elements that play an important role on consumer’s buying behavior. The purpose of this research is to find out the main important factors related with the packaging effect. Companies in order to create the right packaging for their products, they must understand the consumer buying process and understand the role and the impact of packaging elements as variables that can influence the purchase decision. So, by understanding what factors influen...
Full Text Available Introduction: Osgood–Schlatter disease is an irritation of the patellar tendon at the tibial tubercle. Sports with jumps, running, and repeated contractions of knee extension apparatus are considered to be importantexternal risk-factors which could cause Osgood–Schlatter disease.Objectives of the study are to draw attention to the importance of clinical examination in diagnostics of Osgood–Schlatter disease in boys playing soccer or basketball.Methods: The research included data obtained from 120 boys, average age of 14 years. Examinees were split into two groups, one with young athletes which regularly have soccer or basketball trainings and thesecond one with boys who do not participating in sports. We performed anthropological measurements and clinical examinations of both knees and hips for both groups. For the statistical analysis we used pointbiserialcorrelation coefficient.Results: Based on clinical examination, Osgood–Schlatter disease was diagnosed in 51 examinees (42.5%. In “athletic group” Osgood–Schlatter disease had 31 boys or 52%, comparing with “non-athletic group” wherewe found 20 adolescents with disease (33%. Number of boys with Osgood–Schlatter disease was higher for 19% in “athletic group” comparing with “non-athletic group”. Comparing incidence rate for boys in both groups with diagnosed II and III level of Osgood–Schlatter disease we found that rate is higher in “athletic group” 2.25 times comparing with “non-athletic group”.Conclusions: Clinical examination is critical method in the process of diagnosing Osgood–Schlatter disease especially for identifying II and III level of this disease.
Kempton, Thomas; Coutts, Aaron J
To examine the effects of match-related and individual player characteristics on running performance in professional rugby league matches. Longitudinal observational study. Global positioning system (GPS) and technical performance measures (attacking involvements and tackles made) were collected from 23 players competing in the National Rugby League (NRL) over 24 matches during a season. The GPS data were categorised into relative total distance (mmin(-1)) and relative high-speed running distance (HSR mmin(-1), >14.4kmh(-1)). Each match was classified according to season phase, location, recovery length, opposition strength and result. Individual player fitness status was obtained from a 1.2-km shuttle run test conducted prior to the start of the season. Two separate linear mixed models were constructed to examine the influence of match-related and individual player characteristics on relative total and HSR distances. Matches played away from home, early in the season and following short recovery cycles were associated with reduced relative total and HSR distances. Matches won contained less relative total and HSR distance; whereas only HSR distance was higher against weaker opposition. The total time the ball was out of play reduced relative total but not HSR distances. The number of defensive but not attacking involvements influenced both physical performance measures. Finally, player fitness was positively related to both relative total and HSR distances. There appears to be a complex interplay of factors affecting match-running performance in rugby league. The results underline the importance of considering contextual factors when analysing rugby league match-activity profiles. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Corominas, Margarida; Martínez, Iris; Barrau, Víctor; Prats, Laura; Casas, Miguel; Ribasés, Marta
The existing literature that reports findings linked with the involvement of neurotrophic factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reviewed. Neurotrophins, a family of neurotrophic factors, are a kind of proteins that are specific to the nervous system and play an essential role in neuron survival, differentiation and proliferation during the development of the central and peripheral nervous system. These molecules stimulate axonal growth and exert an influence on the connections with the target tissue in order to establish the synaptic connections. The study of neurotrophins in ADHD, a neurodevelopmental disorder, is of interest mainly due to the functions that these proteins perform in the central nervous system. Studies on animal, pharmacological and molecular genetic models yield evidence that relates neurotrophins with the disorder. This work reviews the results from the studies conducted to date on ADHD and neurotrophic factors, especially brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, although pharmacological studies suggest that the response to atomoxetine in adults with ADHD is not directly mediated by the effect on the BDNF, reductions in BDNF levels in the plasma of adult patients with ADHD have been reported. Further studies with broader samples and greater control of environmental factors that can regulate neurotrophin expression, such as diet, physical exercise and situations of social risk, are needed to be able to determine the role they play in the aetiology of ADHD.
Lester, Stuart; Russell, Wendy
In this working paper, Wendy Russell and Stuart Lester of the UK's University of Gloucestershire discuss why play is fundamental to the health and well-being of children. They argue that both state signatories to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (Article 31 of which enshrines the right to play) and adults generally should…
Cerasi, Mauro; Liu, Janet Z.; Ammendola, Serena; Poe, Adam J.; Petrarca, Patrizia; Pesciaroli, Michele; Pasquali, Paolo; Raffatellu, Manuela; Battistoni, Andrea
Zinc is an essential metal for cellular homeostasis and function in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. To acquire this essential nutrient, bacteria employ transporters characterized by different affinity for the metal. Several studies have investigated the role of the high affinity transporter ZnuABC in the bacterial response to zinc shortage, showing that this transporter has a key role in adapting bacteria to zinc starvation. In contrast, the role of the low affinity zinc importer ZupT has been the object of limited investigations. Here we show that a Salmonella strain lacking ZupT is impaired in its ability to grow in metal devoid environments and that a znuABC zupT strain exhibits a severe growth defect in zinc devoid media, is hypersensitive to oxidative stress and contains reduced level of intracellular free zinc. Moreover, we show that ZupT plays a role also in the ability of S. Typhimurim to colonize the host tissues. During systemic infections, the single zupT mutant strain was attenuated only in Nramp1+/+ mice, but competition experiments between znuABC and znuABC zupT mutants revealed that ZupT contributes to metal uptake in vivo independently from the presence a functional Nramp1 transporter. Altogether, the here reported results show that ZupT plays an important role in Salmonella zinc homeostasis, being involved in metal import both in vitro and in infected animals. PMID:24430377
Zamboanga, Byron L; Audley, Shannon; Olthuis, Janine V; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Tomaso, Cara C; Bui, Ngoc; Borsari, Brian
Playing drinking games can be characterized as a high-risk drinking activity because games are typically designed to promote heavy alcohol consumption. While research suggests that young adults are motivated to play drinking games for a variety of reasons (e.g., for thrills/fun, for the competition), the Motives for Playing Drinking Games measure has received limited empirical attention. We examined the psychometric properties of this measure with a confirmation sample of young adults recruited from Amazon's MTurk ( N = 1,809, ages 18-25 years, 47% men; 41% not currently enrolled in college) and a validation sample of college students ( N = 671; ages 18-23 years; 26% men). Contrary to the 8-factor model obtained by Johnson and Sheets in a study published in 2004, examination of the factor structure with our confirmation sample yielded a revised 7-factor model that was invariant across race/ethnicity and college student status. This model was also validated with the college student sample. In the confirmation sample, enhancement/thrills and sexual pursuit motives for playing drinking games were positively associated with gaming frequency/consumption and negative gaming consequences. Furthermore, conformity motives for playing drinking games were positively associated with negative gaming consequences, while competition motives were positively associated with gaming frequency. These findings have significant implications for research and prevention/intervention efforts.
Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is the general term used to describe the symptoms originated from temporomandibular joint region. The most common symptom of the disorder is pain during mandibular movement. Etiology of TMD is multifactorial. Several factors such as trauma, occlusal discrepancies, stress, parafunctions, hypermobility, and heredity can make one more vulnerable to this disorder. It has been reported that viola playing might be a predisposing factor for TMD. In this article, we p...
1 ResultsLi-ion batteries are the most promising secondary batteries for IT and EV applications, where it is required to increase the capacity and power capability to a great extent. In responding to the demand we have been studied on the anode materials especially paying attention on the improved graphite active materials and modified silicon. In both cases we realized that the nano-structured design plays an important role. In this paper the examples of nano-size structure working in the actual materi...
Kahalas, Harvey; And Others
The values of various undergraduate business majors, with a prime focus on accounting majors, are analyzed. Among the significant findings are the value dimensions, the level of importance of honesty as a value factor, and the low correlation between finance and accounting students' values. (Author)
Language communication, in some way, is cultural communication, in order to have a better ability of communicating, students have to know and understand enough culture knowledge. This paper will analyze the relationship between language and culture, emphasize the importance of cultural factors in oral English studying.
Nealey, Stanley M.
This paper reports on a new two-phase measurement technique that permits a direct comparison of the perceived relative importance of economic vs. non-economic factors in a job situation in accounting for personnel retention, the willingness to produce, and job satisfaction. The paired comparison method was used to measure the preferences of 91…
Zhang, Xianrong; Tamasi, Joseph; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Ji; Chen, Haiyan; Tian, Xiaoyan; Lee, Tang-Cheng; Threadgill, David W; Kream, Barbara E; Kang, Yibin; Partridge, Nicola C; Qin, Ling
While the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling pathway has been shown to have vital roles in many developmental and pathologic processes, its functions in the development and homeostasis of the skeletal system has been poorly defined. To address its in vivo role, we constructed transgenic and pharmacologic mouse models and used peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), micro-computed tomography (µCT) and histomorphometry to analyze their trabecular and cortical bone phenotypes. We initially deleted the EGFR in preosteoblasts/osteoblasts using a Cre/loxP system (Col-Cre Egfr(f/f)), but no bone phenotype was observed because of incomplete deletion of the Egfr genomic locus. To further reduce the remaining osteoblastic EGFR activity, we introduced an EGFR dominant-negative allele, Wa5, and generated Col-Cre Egfr(Wa5/f) mice. At 3 and 7 months of age, both male and female mice exhibited a remarkable decrease in tibial trabecular bone mass with abnormalities in trabecular number and thickness. Histologic analyses revealed decreases in osteoblast number and mineralization activity and an increase in osteoclast number. Significant increases in trabecular pattern factor and structural model index indicate that trabecular microarchitecture was altered. The femurs of these mice were shorter and smaller with reduced cortical area and periosteal perimeter. Moreover, colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay indicates that these mice had fewer bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and committed progenitors. Similarly, administration of an EGFR inhibitor into wild-type mice caused a significant reduction in trabecular bone volume. In contrast, Egfr(Dsk5/+) mice with a constitutively active EGFR allele displayed increases in trabecular and cortical bone content. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the EGFR signaling pathway is an important bone regulator and that it primarily plays an anabolic role in bone metabolism. Copyright © 2011
Full Text Available We have characterized a novel pleiotropic role for CymR, the master regulator of cysteine metabolism. We show here that CymR plays an important role both in stress response and virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. Genes involved in detoxification processes, including oxidative stress response and metal ion homeostasis, were differentially expressed in a DeltacymR mutant. Deletion of cymR resulted in increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-, disulfide-, tellurite- and copper-induced stresses. Estimation of metabolite pools suggests that this heightened sensitivity could be the result of profound metabolic changes in the DeltacymR mutant, with an increase in the intracellular cysteine pool and hydrogen sulfide formation. Since resistance to oxidative stress within the host organism is important for pathogen survival, we investigated the role of CymR during the infectious process. Our results indicate that the deletion of cymR promotes survival of S. aureus inside macrophages, whereas virulence of the DeltacymR mutant is highly impaired in mice. These data indicate that CymR plays a major role in virulence and adaptation of S. aureus for survival within the host.
Full Text Available Building national brand plays an important role on today's economy to attract interested tourists in visiting various countries. There are different factors impacting national brand such as advertisement, natural attraction, etc. In this paper, we perform an empirical investigation to find the impact of ten most important factors on building brand. The study designs and distributes a questionnaire among 384 international tourists who visited Iran during the year of 2010 and it uses factor analysis to group important factors. The results extract four groups; the first factor includes three most important components including satellite advertisement programs, public awareness on economical power and public awareness on specialized symposium and conferences. The second factor includes three other important factors, which are public awareness on human right, advertisement programs through distribution brushers and internet advertisement. The third factor includes two variables, which are public awareness on education and access to educational services and introducing cultural heritage. Finally, the last factor includes introducing natural attraction and advertisement programs through distribution brushers.
Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Paleologou, Victoria; Niakas, Dimitris
Background The purpose of this study was to identify important motivational factors according to the views of health-care professionals in Greek hospitals and particularly to determine if these might differ in the public and private sectors. Methods A previously developed -and validated- instrument addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements) was used. Three categories of health care professionals, doctors (N = 354), nurses (N = 581) and office workers (N = 418), working in public and private hospitals, participated and motivation was compared across socio-demographic and occupational variables. Results The range of reported motivational factors was mixed and Maslow's conclusions that lower level motivational factors must be met before ascending to the next level were not confirmed. The highest ranked motivator for the entire sample, and by professional subgroup, was achievements (P incentive only for professionals in managerial positions. Health professionals in private hospitals were motivated by all factors significantly more than their public-hospital counterparts. Conclusion The results are in agreement with the literature which focuses attention to management approaches employing both monetary and non-monetary incentives to motivate health care workers. This study showed that intrinsic factors are particularly important and should become a target for effective employee motivation. PMID:19754968
Streiter, S; Fisch, B; Sabbah, B; Ao, A; Abir, R
The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and neurotrophin 4/5 (NT4/5), in addition to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the neuronal growth factors, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and vasointestinal peptide (VIP). Although there are a few literature reviews, mainly of animal studies, on the importance of neurotrophins in the ovary, we aimed to provide a complete review of neurotrophins as well as neuronal growth factors and their important roles in normal and pathological processes in the ovary. Follicular assembly is probably stimulated by complementary effects of NGF, NT4/5 and BDNF and their receptors. The neurotrophins, GDNF and VIP and their receptors have all been identified in preantral and antral follicles of mammalian species, including humans. Transgenic mice with mutations in the genes encoding for Ngf, Nt4/5 and Bdnf and their tropomyosin-related kinase β receptor showed a reduction in preantral follicles and an abnormal ovarian morphology, whereas NGF, NT3, GDNF and VIP increased the in vitro activation of primordial follicles in rats and goats. Additionally, NGF, NT3 and GDNF promoted follicular cell proliferation; NGF, BDNF and VIP were shown to be involved in ovulation; VIP inhibited follicular apoptosis; NT4/5, BDNF and GDNF promoted oocyte maturation and NGF, NT3 and VIP stimulated steroidogenesis. NGF may also exert a stimulatory effect in ovarian cancer and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Low levels of NGF and BDNF in follicular fluid may be associated with diminished ovarian reserve and high levels with endometriosis. More knowledge of the roles of neuronal growth factors in the ovary has important implications for the development of new therapeutic drugs (such as anti-NGF agents) for ovarian cancer and PCOS as well as various infertility problems, warranting further research.
Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of genital prolapse depends on numerous factors. The contribution of race, gender and genetic factors is significant. However, additional factors of initiation, promotion and decomposition are necessary if a person with the genetic predisposition to genital prolapse begins to suffer from it. At least 50% of parous women are believed to suffer from genital prolapse of various degrees. Moreover, the prevalence of genital prolapse increases with age. The prevalence of genital prolapse is expected to be even higher in the future due to the extension of the lifespan of women worldwide. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the most common etiologic factors in the development of genital prolapse in the population of Serbia. Methods The study was conducted as prospective and included 50 women who underwent surgical treatment due to the problems caused by genital prolapse. Results Mean age of the women was 58.74 years. Twenty percent of the women had the menstrual cycle, while 80% were in menopause. Mean menopause period was 8.88 years. None of the women used hormone replacement therapy. Mean BMI was 27.395 kg/m2. Twenty-eight percent of the women were of normal weight, while 72% of the women were obese (42% were obese and 30% were severely obese. Ninety-eight percent of the women were parous, and mean parity was 2.08. Mean birth weight of neonates was 3682.77 g. Sixty-four percent of the women did physical labour and lifted heavy objects. Conclusion Vaginal childbirth is one of the most important initiating factors. The most significant promoting factor is obesity and heavy labour. Ageing and entering menopause are the most important factors of decomposition as well as the occurrence of clinical manifestations of the pelvic floor dysfunction. .
Chiba, Norika; Shimada, Kenichi; Chen, Shuang; Jones, Heather D; Alsabeh, Randa; Slepenkin, Anatoly V; Peterson, Ellena; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe
Mast cells are known as central players in allergy and anaphylaxis, and they play a pivotal role in host defense against certain pathogens. Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important human pathogen, but it is unclear what role mast cells play during C. pneumoniae infection. We infected C57BL/6 (wild-type [WT]) and mast cell-deficient mice (Kit(W-sh/W-sh) [Wsh]) with C. pneumoniae. Wsh mice showed improved survival compared with WT mice, with fewer cells in Wsh bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), despite similar levels of cytokines and chemokines. We also found a more rapid clearance of bacteria from the lungs of Wsh mice compared with WT mice. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizer, reduced BALF cells and bacterial burden similar to the levels seen in Wsh mice; conversely, Compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulator, increased the number of BALF cells and bacterial burden. Histology showed that WT lungs had diffuse inflammation, whereas Wsh mice had patchy accumulations of neutrophils and perivascular accumulations of lymphocytes. Infected Wsh mice had reduced amounts of matrix metalloprotease-9 in BALF and were resistant to epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, suggesting that barrier integrity remains intact in Wsh mice. Mast cell reconstitution in Wsh mice led to enhanced bacterial growth and normal epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, highlighting the specific role of mast cells in this model. These data suggest that mast cells play a detrimental role during C. pneumoniae infection by facilitating immune cell infiltration into the airspace and providing a more favorable replicative environment for C. pneumoniae.
Du, Fengxia [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Minjie [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Ye [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Genomic Stability, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, MA 02134 (United States); Price, Brendan, E-mail: Brendan_Price@dfci.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Genomic Stability, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, MA 02134 (United States); Sun, Yingli, E-mail: email@example.com [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)
Highlights: • ATM phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. • The PETPVFRLT box of ATM plays a key role in its dimer dissociation in DNA repair. • The dephosphorylation of ATM is critical for dimer re-formation after DNA repair. - Abstract: The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair.
Bjork, A. A.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Aagaard, S.; Andresen, C. S.; Bamber, J. L.; van den Broeke, M.; Colgan, W. T.; Funder, S.; Khan, S. A.; Larsen, N. K.; Machguth, H.; Nuth, C.; Schomacker, A.; Kjaer, K. H.
As the Greenland Ice Sheet and Greenland's glaciers are continuing to loss mass at high rates, knowledge of their past response to climatic changes is ever important. By harvesting the archives for images, both terrestrial and airborne, we are able to expand the record of glacier observation by several decades, thus supplying crucial knowledge on glacier behavior to important climatic transitions such as the end of the Little Ice Age and the early 20th Century warming. Here we show how a large collection of historical aerial images portray the glacial response to the Little Ice Age deglaciation in Greenland and document frontal change throughout the 20th Century. A detailed story of the LIA-deglaciation is told by supplementing with terrestrial photos that capture the onset of retreat and high resolution aerial images that portray geomorphological evidence of the Little Ice Age maximum extent. This work is the result of several generations of Greenland researches and their efforts to portray and document the state of the glaciers, and highlights that while interpretations and conclusions may be challenged and changed through time, the raw observations remain extremely valuable. Finally, we also show how archival data besides photos may play an important role in future glacier research in Greenland.
Webster, Leonie V.; Hardy, James; Hardy, Lew
While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict) appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports. PMID:28744235
Leonie V. Webster
Full Text Available While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports.
Laus, Maria Fernanda; Miranda, Valter Paulo Neves; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Braga Costa, Telma Maria; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo
This study compared body image concerns among adolescents from different geographic locations in Brazil, and the influence of sex and nutritional status. Seven hundred eighty-eight adolescents completed the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and had their weight and height measured. There were significant cross-regional differences in BSQ scores. Also, body image concerns were more prevalent among girls and among overweight adolescents. It is suggested that sex and nutritional status may play an important role in body image concerns, which is more common between adolescents from urban areas. Furthermore, our findings contribute to the literature by examining patterns of body image concerns within subgroups of adolescents who have received little research attention on these issues.
Du, Fengxia; Zhang, Minjie; Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun; Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang; Xu, Ye; Price, Brendan; Sun, Yingli
The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to identify important motivational factors according to the views of health-care professionals in Greek hospitals and particularly to determine if these might differ in the public and private sectors. Methods A previously developed -and validated- instrument addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements was used. Three categories of health care professionals, doctors (N = 354, nurses (N = 581 and office workers (N = 418, working in public and private hospitals, participated and motivation was compared across socio-demographic and occupational variables. Results The range of reported motivational factors was mixed and Maslow's conclusions that lower level motivational factors must be met before ascending to the next level were not confirmed. The highest ranked motivator for the entire sample, and by professional subgroup, was achievements (P P Conclusion The results are in agreement with the literature which focuses attention to management approaches employing both monetary and non-monetary incentives to motivate health care workers. This study showed that intrinsic factors are particularly important and should become a target for effective employee motivation.
Morita, Tomohiko; Yamada, Takatomi; Yamada, Shintaro; Matsumoto, Kouji; Ohta, Kunihiro
Activating transcription factor/cAMP response element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family transcription factors play central roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis. They are activated in response to environmental stimuli, bind to CRE sequences in the promoters of stress-response genes and regulate transcription. Although ATF/CREB proteins are widely conserved among most eukaryotes, their characteristics are highly diverse. Here, we investigated the functions of a fission yeast ATF/CREB protein Atf21 to find out its unique properties. We show that Atf21 is dispensable for the adaptive response to several stresses such as nitrogen starvation and for meiotic events including nuclear divisions. However, spores derived from atf21Δ mutants are not as mature as wild-type ones and are unable to form colonies under nutrition-rich conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Atf21 protein, which is scarce in early meiosis, gradually accumulates as meiosis proceeds; it reaches maximum levels approximately 8 h after nitrogen starvation and is present during germination. These results suggest that Atf21 is expressed and functions long after nitrogen starvation. Given that other well-characterized fission yeast ATF/CREB proteins Atf1 and Pcr1 accumulate and function promptly upon exposure to environmental stresses, we propose that Atf21 is a distinct member of the ATF/CREB family in fission yeast. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Zhang, Song-Dou; Shen, Zhong-Jian; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Xia
Glutaredoxins (Grxs), also known as thioltransferases, play key roles in maintaining intracellular redox balance and protecting cells from oxidative damage in plants and mammals. We tested whether Grxs play important roles in antioxidant defense in insects using the moth, Helicoverpa armigera. We obtained the full-length cDNA sequences of three novel Grx genes, named HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5. Sequence analysis indicated that HaGrx shared a high amino acid identity (58%-78%) and a CPYC motif of conserved redox activity with homologues from other selected insect species. In contrast, HaGrx3 and HaGrx5 both shared a CGF(S/G) motif, a conserved catalytic domain, with other orthologous genes. Quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 exhibited temporally- and spatially-dependent patterns of expression. The mRNA expression of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 was induced by various temperature stresses and H2O2 treatments. We further investigated the knockdown of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 in H. armigera larvae and found that most of the selected antioxidant genes were up regulated. However, Tpx was down regulated, and further interpretation of the complementary functions of these antioxidant genes is still required. We also determined the effect of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 knockdown on antioxidant enzymatic activity and metabolite content. The enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and POD, and the metabolite contents of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate, protein carbonyl, and total GSH increased after RNAi mediated knockdown of HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5. These results supported our hypothesis that HaGrx, HaGrx3, and HaGrx5 play important roles in antioxidant defense of Helicoverpa armigera and provided a theoretical basis for further in-depth study of physiological function in the insect glutaredoxin family genes.
This report presents importance and sensitivity analysis for the environmental radiation model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN). ERMYN is a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis concerns the output of the model, biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater, and the volcanic ash exposure scenarios. It identifies important processes and parameters that influence the BDCF values and distributions, enhances understanding of the relative importance of the physical and environmental processes on the outcome of the biosphere model, includes a detailed pathway analysis for key radionuclides, and evaluates the appropriateness of selected parameter values that are not site-specific or have large uncertainty.
Full Text Available In academic life, it is possible for all students to experience different obstacles, hardships and setbacks. While some students fail to negotiate their way through these difficulties, many are successful. In this context, the purpose of this study is to reveal the factors that play a role in the academic resilience of academicians. In this context, a qualitative study was employed, with semi-structured interviews conducted with 11 academicians from the Educational Sciences Faculty of Ankara University, Turkey. Eligibility criteria required academicians to have had a risk factor in their life. The academicians were also selected on the basis of their title and years of experience to sustain variety. In order to conduct interviews, an interview guide was prepared by the researchers. The questions in the interview guide for this study were linked to risk factors, and internal and external protective factors. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze collected data. According to the findings, mainly risk factors which academically resilient academicians had experienced were poverty, and negative environmental conditions. On the other hand, this study revealed that internal factors such as self-esteem, decisiveness, curiosity and external factors such as family support, qualified teachers, and peer relations helped them to overcome their risk factors.
Inoue, Takeshi; Goi, Takanori; Hirono, Yasuo; Katayama, Kanji; Yamaguchi, Akio
The RIN1 protein has SH2, three domains, and H-Ras binding domains; thus, it is presumed to be an important molecule in an intracellular signaling pathway. We examined the effect of the introduction of a membrane protein-encoding, mutated (S351A)RIN1 gene into a colon cancer. In the LoVo colon cancer cell line, endogenous RIN1 protein was strongly expressed in the cytoplasmic fraction, and the RIN1 protein in the cytoplasmic fraction was strongly bound to the 14-3-3 protein. In the mutated (S351A)RIN1-transfected LoVo cells, the mutated (S351A)RIN1 protein was identified in the cell membrane, and was bound to HRas protein. Also, in vitro the proliferative capacity of the mutated (S351A)RIN1-transfected LoVo cells was significantly inhibited, compared with that of their empty vector-transfected counterparts. In the mutated (S351A)RIN1-transfected LoVo cells, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 proteins downstream of the H-Ras molecule was inhibited, compared with the counterparts. This study is the first to show that the localization of RIN1 protein plays an important role in the carcinogenesis in colon cancer cells LoVo (i.e., signal transduction in the Ras-ERK pathway).
Full Text Available The olive tree (Olea europaea L. is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.
Huang, Wei; Yang, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Shi-Bao; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Cao, Kun-Fang
Resurrection plants could survive severe drought stress, but the underlying mechanism for protecting their photosynthetic apparatus against drought stress is unclear. Cyclic electron flow (CEF) has been documented as a crucial mechanism for photoprotection in Arabidopsis and tobacco. We hypothesized that CEF plays an important role in protecting photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) against drought stress for resurrection plants. To address this hypothesis, the effects of mild drought stress on light energy distribution in PSII and P700 redox state were examined in a resurrection plant Paraboea rufescens. Cyclic electron flow was not activated below the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 400 μmol m⁻² s⁻¹ in leaves without drought stress. However, CEF was activated under low light in leaves with mild drought stress, and the effective quantum yield of PSII significantly decreased. Meanwhile, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was significantly stimulated not only under high light but also under low light. Compared with the control, the fraction of overall P700 that cannot be oxidized in a given state (PSI acceptor side limitation) under high light was maintained at low level of 0.1 in leaves with water deficit, indicating that the over-reduction of the PSI acceptor side was prevented by the significant stimulation of CEF. Furthermore, methyl viologen could significantly increase the PSII photo-inhibition induced by high light compared with chloramphenicol. These results suggested that CEF is an important mechanism for protecting PSI and PSII from drought stress in resurrection plants.
Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Dengah, H J Francois; Lacy, Michael G; Fagan, Jesse
Yee (2006) found three motivational factors-achievement, social, and immersion-underlying play in massively multiplayer online role-playing games ("MMORPGs" or "MMOs" for short). Subsequent work has suggested that these factors foster problematic or addictive forms of play in online worlds. In the current study, we used an online survey of respondents (N = 252), constructed and also interpreted in reference to ethnography and interviews, to examine problematic play in the World of Warcraft (WoW; Blizzard Entertainment, 2004-2013). We relied on tools from psychological anthropology to reconceptualize each of Yee's three motivational factors in order to test for the possible role of culture in problematic MMO play: (a) For achievement, we examined how "cultural consonance" with normative understandings of success might structure problematic forms of play; (b) for social, we analyzed the possibility that developing overvalued virtual relationships that are cutoff from offline social interactions might further exacerbate problematic play; and (c) in relation to immersion, we examined how "dissociative" blurring of actual- and virtual-world identities and experiences might contribute to problematic patterns. Our results confirmed that compared to Yee's original motivational factors, these culturally sensitive measures better predict problematic forms of play, pointing to the important role of sociocultural factors in structuring online play.
Ana L B Schogor
Full Text Available Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, the most abundant lignan in flaxseed, is metabolized by the ruminal microbiota into enterolignans, which are strong antioxidants. Enterolactone (EL, the main mammalian enterolignan produced in the rumen, is transferred into physiological fluids, with potentially human health benefits with respect to menopausal symptoms, hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and diabetes. However, no information exists to our knowledge on bacterial taxa that play a role in converting plant lignans into EL in ruminants. In order to investigate this, eight rumen cannulated cows were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed with four treatments: control with no flax meal (FM, or 5%, 10% and 15% FM (on a dry matter basis. Concentration of EL in the rumen increased linearly with increasing FM inclusion. Total rumen bacterial 16S rRNA concentration obtained using Q-PCR did not differ among treatments. PCR-T-RFLP based dendrograms revealed no global clustering based on diet indicating between animal variation. PCR-DGGE showed a clustering by diet effect within four cows that had similar basal ruminal microbiota. DNA extracted from bands present following feeding 15% FM and absent with no FM supplementation were sequenced and it showed that many genera, in particular Prevotella spp., contributed to the metabolism of lignans. A subsequent in vitro study using selected pure cultures of ruminal bacteria incubated with SDG indicated that 11 ruminal bacteria were able to convert SDG into secoisolariciresinol (SECO, with Prevotella spp. being the main converters. These data suggest that Prevotella spp. is one genus playing an important role in the conversion of plant lignans to human health beneficial antioxidants in the rumen.
Thompson, Pam; White, Samantha
Play is an important part of a child's life and essential to learning and development (Vygotsky, 1978). It is vital that students participate in play and that play be conducted in a restorative manner. Play allows a variety of group dynamics to emerge. Irvin Yalom (1995) identifies 11 curative factors of the group experience. These factors include…
Full Text Available Background: Decompressive craniectomy is often performed as an empirical lifesaving measure to protect the injured brain from the damaging effects of propagating oedema and intracranial hypertension. However, there are no clearly defined indications or specified guidelines for patient selection for the procedure. Aims: To evaluate outcome determinants and factors important in patientselection for the procedure. Methods: We reviewed the literature on decompressive craniectomy, including single case reports and reported case series, to identify factors affecting outcome followingthe procedure, as well as its pitfalls and associated complications. Results: Glasgow coma score of 8 and above, age less than 50 years and early intervention were found to be among the most significantdeterminants of prognosis. Conclusion: Improving patient selection for decompressive craniectomy may be expected to further improve the outcome following the procedure in severely brain injured patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several distinct pathways for the repair of damaged DNA exist in all cells. DNA modifications are repaired by base excision or nucleotide excision repair, while DNA double strand breaks (DSBs can be repaired through direct joining of broken ends (non homologous end joining, NHEJ or through recombination with the non broken sister chromosome (homologous recombination, HR. Rad50 protein plays an important role in repair of DNA damage in eukaryotic cells, and forms a complex with the Mre11 nuclease. The prokaryotic ortholog of Rad50, SbcC, also forms a complex with a nuclease, SbcD, in Escherichia coli, and has been implicated in the removal of hairpin structures that can arise during DNA replication. Ku protein is a component of the NHEJ pathway in pro- and eukaryotic cells. Results A deletion of the sbcC gene rendered Bacillus subtilis cells sensitive to DNA damage caused by Mitomycin C (MMC or by gamma irradiation. The deletion of the sbcC gene in a recN mutant background increased the sensitivity of the single recN mutant strain. SbcC was also non-epistatic with AddAB (analog of Escherichia coli RecBCD, but epistatic with RecA. A deletion of the ykoV gene encoding the B. subtilis Ku protein in a sbcC mutant strain did not resulted in an increase in sensitivity towards MMC and gamma irradiation, but exacerbated the phenotype of a recN or a recA mutant strain. In exponentially growing cells, SbcC-GFP was present throughout the cells, or as a central focus in rare cases. Upon induction of DNA damage, SbcC formed 1, rarely 2, foci on the nucleoids. Different to RecN protein, which forms repair centers at any location on the nucleoids, SbcC foci mostly co-localized with the DNA polymerase complex. In contrast to this, AddA-GFP or AddB-GFP did not form detectable foci upon addition of MMC. Conclusion Our experiments show that SbcC plays an important role in the repair of DNA inter-strand cross-links (induced by MMC, most likely
Berens, Heather M.; Tyler, Kenneth L.
Encephalitis induced by reovirus serotype 3 (T3) strains results from the apoptotic death of infected neurons. Extrinsic apoptotic signaling is activated in reovirus-infected neurons in vitro and in vivo, but the role of intrinsic apoptosis signaling during encephalitis is largely unknown. Bax plays a key role in intrinsic apoptotic signaling in neurons by allowing the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. We found Bax activation and cytochrome c release in neurons following infection of neonatal mice with T3 reoviruses. Bax−/− mice infected with T3 Abney (T3A) have reduced central nervous system (CNS) tissue injury and decreased apoptosis, despite viral replication that is similar to that in wild-type (WT) Bax+/+ mice. In contrast, in the heart, T3A-infected Bax−/− mice have viral growth, caspase activation, and injury comparable to those in WT mice, indicating that the role of Bax in pathogenesis is organ specific. Nonmyocarditic T3 Dearing (T3D)-infected Bax−/− mice had delayed disease and enhanced survival compared to WT mice. T3D-infected Bax−/− mice had significantly lower viral titers and levels of activated caspase 3 in the brain despite unaffected transneuronal spread of virus. Cytochrome c and Smac release occurred in some reovirus-infected neurons in the absence of Bax; however, this was clearly reduced compared to levels seen in Bax+/+ wild-type mice, indicating that Bax is necessary for efficient activation of proapoptotic mitochondrial signaling in infected neurons. Our studies suggest that Bax is important for reovirus growth and pathogenesis in neurons and that the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, mediated by Bax, is important for full expression of disease, CNS tissue injury, apoptosis, and viral growth in the CNS of reovirus-infected mice. PMID:21307199
Scialis, Renato J; Csanaky, Iván L; Goedken, Michael J; Manautou, José E
Diclofenac (DCF) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly prescribed to reduce pain in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. One of the main DCF metabolites is a reactive diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DCF-AG) that covalently binds to biologic targets and may contribute to adverse drug reactions arising from DCF use. Cellular efflux of DCF-AG is partially mediated by multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp). The importance of Mrp2 during DCF-induced toxicity has been established, yet the role of Mrp3 remains largely unexplored. In the present work, Mrp3-null (KO) mice were used to study the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of DCF and its metabolites. DCF-AG plasma concentrations were 90% lower in KO mice than in wild-type (WT) mice, indicating that Mrp3 mediates DCF-AG basolateral efflux. In contrast, there were no differences in DCF-AG biliary excretion between WT and KO, suggesting that only DCF-AG basolateral efflux is compromised by Mrp3 deletion. Susceptibility to toxicity was also evaluated after a single high DCF dose. No signs of injury were detected in livers and kidneys; however, ulcers were found in the small intestines. Furthermore, the observed intestinal injuries were consistently more severe in KO compared with WT. DCF covalent adducts were observed in liver and small intestines; however, staining intensity did not correlate with the severity of injuries, implying that tissues respond differently to covalent modification. Overall, the data provide strong evidence that (1) in vivo Mrp3 plays an important role in DCF-AG disposition and (2) compromised Mrp3 function can enhance injury in the gastrointestinal tract after DCF treatment.
Zhang, Wenming; Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Jianxin; Zhao, Yunhao; Gao, Kan; Zhang, Juan
Eighty-five strains of lactobacillus were isolated from the pig intestine and identified by sequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, from which five lactobacillus strains with high adhesive ability were selected. The inhibition ability of the five lactobacillus strains with or without S-layer proteins against adherence of Escherichia coli K88 and Salmonella enteritidis 50335 to Caco-2 was evaluated in vitro with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain (LGG) as a positive control. In addition, tolerance of lactobacilli to heat, acid, bile, Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) were assessed. All five selected strains, Lactobacillus salivarius ZJ614 (JN981856), Lactobacillus reuteri ZJ616 (JN981858), L. reuteri ZJ617 (JN981859), L. reuteri ZJ621 (JN981863) and L. reuteri ZJ623 (JN981865), showed inhibition against the two pathogens, E. coli K88 and S. enteritidis 50335. L. reuteri ZJ621 showed higher inhibition ability than the others to S. enteritidis 50335 (P S-layer protein, the inhibition activities of the lactobacilli against pathogens decreased significantly (P S-layer proteins plays an important role.
Wang, Ronghua; Sun, Qian; Wang, Peng; Liu, Man; Xiong, Si; Luo, Jing; Huang, Hai; Du, Qiang; Geller, David A.; Cheng, Bin
Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is driven and maintained by liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) that display stem cell properties. These LCSCs are promoted by the intersecting of Notch and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that LCSCs with markers CD90, CD24, CD13, and CD133 possess stem properties of self-renewal and tumorigenicity in NOD/SCID mice. The increased expression of these markers was correlated with advanced disease stage, larger tumors, and worse overall survival in 61 HCC cases. We also found that both Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways played important roles in increasing the stem-ness characteristics of LCSCs. Our data suggested that Notch1 was downstream of Wnt/β-catenin. The active form of Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) expression depended on Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation. Moreover, Notch1 negatively contributed to Wnt/β-catenin signaling modulation. Knock down of Notch1 with lentivirus N1ShRNA up-regulated the active form of β-catenin. Ectopic expression of NICD with LV-Notch1 in LCSCs attenuated β-catenin/TCF dependent luciferase activity significantly. In addition, there was a non-proteasome mediated feedback loop between Notch1 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LCSCs. The central role of Notch and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in LCSCs may provide an attractive therapeutic strategy against HCC. PMID:26735577
Li, Xi; Cen, Huameng; Chen, Youxiang; Xu, Siying; Peng, Lingli; Zhu, Hanmingyue; Li, Yiqiao
Phytoremediation is considered to be a promising approach to restore or stabilize soil contaminated by lead (Pb). Turfgrasses, due to their high biomass yields, are considered to be suitable for use in phytoextraction of soil contaminated with heavy metal. It has been demonstrated that centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack., Poaceae) is a good turfgrass for restore of soil contaminated by Pb. However, the enhanced tolerant mechanisms in metallicolous (M) centipedegrass accessions remain unknown. In this study, we made a comparative study of growth performance, Pb accumulation, antioxidant levels, and phytochelatin concentrations in roots and shoots from M and nonmetallicolous (NM) centipedegrass accessions. Results showed that turf quality and growth rate were less repressed in M accessions than in NM accession. Pb stress caused generation of reactive oxygen species in centipedegrass with relatively lower levels in M accessions. Antioxidant activity analysis indicated that superoxide dismutase and catalase played important roles in Pb tolerance in M accessions. M accessions accumulated more Pb in roots and shoots. Greatly increased phytochelatins and less repressed sulfur contents in roots and shoots of M accessions indicated that they correlated with Pb accumulation and tolerance in centipedegrass.
Wang, Ronghua; Sun, Qian; Wang, Peng; Liu, Man; Xiong, Si; Luo, Jing; Huang, Hai; Du, Qiang; Geller, David A; Cheng, Bin
Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is driven and maintained by liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) that display stem cell properties. These LCSCs are promoted by the intersecting of Notch and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that LCSCs with markers CD90, CD24, CD13, and CD133 possess stem properties of self-renewal and tumorigenicity in NOD/SCID mice. The increased expression of these markers was correlated with advanced disease stage, larger tumors, and worse overall survival in 61 HCC cases. We also found that both Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways played important roles in increasing the stem-ness characteristics of LCSCs. Our data suggested that Notch1 was downstream of Wnt/β-catenin. The active form of Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) expression depended on Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation. Moreover, Notch1 negatively contributed to Wnt/β-catenin signaling modulation. Knock down of Notch1 with lentivirus N1ShRNA up-regulated the active form of β-catenin. Ectopic expression of NICD with LV-Notch1 in LCSCs attenuated β-catenin/TCF dependent luciferase activity significantly. In addition, there was a non-proteasome mediated feedback loop between Notch1 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LCSCs. The central role of Notch and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in LCSCs may provide an attractive therapeutic strategy against HCC.
Jensen, R; Bendtsen, L; Olesen, J
Recent studies have indicated that muscular disorders may be of importance for the development of increased pain sensitivity in patients with chronic tension-type headache. The objective of the present study was to investigate this hypothesis by examining the pain perception in tension-type headache with and without muscular disorders defined as increased tenderness. We examined 28 patients with episodic tension-type headache, 28 patients with chronic tension-type headache, and 30 healthy controls. Pericranial myofascial tenderness was recorded with manual palpation, and pressure pain detection and tolerances in cephalic and extracephalic locations with an electronic pressure algometer. In addition, thermal pain sensitivity and electromyographic activity were recorded. The main result was significantly lower pressure pain detection thresholds and tolerances in all the examined locations in patients with chronic tension-type headache with a muscular disorder compared to those without a muscular disorder. There were no such differences in any of the examined locations when the two subgroups of patients with episodic tension-type headache were compared. Thermal pain sensitivity did not differ between patients with and without a muscular disorder, while electromyographic activity levels were significantly higher in patients with chronic tension-type headache with than in those without a muscular disorder. Our results strongly indicate that prolonged nociceptive stimuli from the pericranial myofascial tissue sensitize the central nervous system and, thereby, lead to an increased general pain sensitivity. Muscular factors may, therefore, be of major importance for the conversion of episodic into chronic tension-type headache. The present study complements the understanding of the important interactions between peripheral and central factors in tension-type headache and may lead to a better prevention and treatment of the most prevalent type of headache.
Cheng, Yu-Ting; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Jhang, Jhih-Jia; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Yen, Gow-Chin
Ketoprofen is widely used to alleviate pain and inflammation in clinical medicine; however, this drug may cause oxidative stress and lead to gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers. We previously reported that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in protecting cells against reactive oxygen species, and it facilitates the prevention of ketoprofen-induced GI mucosal ulcers. Recent reports suggested that Nrf2 becomes unstable in the absence of DJ-1/PARK7, attenuating the activity of Nrf2-regulated downstream antioxidant enzymes. Thus, increasing Nrf2 translocation by DJ-1 may represent a novel means for GI protection. In vitro, caffeic acid increases the nuclear/cytosolic Nrf2 ratio and the mRNA expression of the downstream antioxidant enzymes, ϒ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and heme oxygenase-1, by activating the JNK/p38 pathway in Int-407 cells. Moreover, knockdown of DJ-1 also reversed caffeic acid-induced nuclear Nrf2 protein expression in a JNK/p38-dependent manner. Our results also indicated that treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with caffeic acid prior to the administration of ketoprofen inhibited oxidative damage and reversed the inhibitory effects of ketoprofen on the antioxidant system and DJ-1 protein expression in the GI mucosa. Our observations suggest that DJ-1 plays an important role in caffeic acid-mediated protection against ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage in the GI mucosa.
Rohn, Troy T
Despite the fact that vascular dementia (VaD) represents the seconding leading cause of dementia in the USA, behind only Alzheimer's disease (AD), there remains a lack of consensus on the pathological criteria required for diagnosis of this disease. A number of clinical diagnostic criteria exist but are poorly validated and inconsistently applied. It is clear that vascular risk factors play an important role in the etiology of VaD, including hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Vascular risk factors may increase the risk for VaD by promoting inflammation, cerebral vascular disease, white matter lesions, and hippocampal sclerosis. Because vascular risk factors seem to impart a high degree of risk for conferring VaD, it seems logical that the apolipoprotein E (APOE) status of individuals may be important. APOE plays a critical role in transporting cholesterol in and out of the CNS and in AD it is known that harboring the APOE allele increases the risk of AD perhaps due to the improper functioning of this protein. The purpose of this review is to examine the important pathological features and risk factors for VaD and to provide a critical assessment of the current literature regarding whether or not apoE4 also confers disease risk in VaD. The preponderance of data suggests that harboring one or both APOE4 alleles elevates the risk for VaD, but not to the same extent as found in AD.
Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M.; Mirza, Rita E.; Koh, Timothy J.
The Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome/IL-1β pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases, but its biological role in wound healing remains to be elucidated. Since inflammation is typically thought to impede healing, we hypothesized that loss of NLRP-3 activity would result in a downregulated inflammatory response and accelerated wound healing. NLRP-3 null mice, caspase-1 null mice and C57Bl/6 wild type control mice (WT) received four 8 mm excisional cutaneous wounds; inflammation and healing were assessed during the early stage of wound healing. Consistent with our hypothesis, wounds from NLRP-3 null and caspase-1 null mice contained lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α compared to WT mice and had reduced neutrophil and macrophage accumulation. Contrary to our hypothesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and angiogenesis were delayed in NLRP-3 null mice and caspase-1 null mice compared to WT mice, indicating that NLRP-3 signaling is important for early events in wound healing. Topical treatment of excisional wounds with recombinant IL-1β partially restored granulation tissue formation in wounds of NLRP-3 null mice, confirming the importance of NLRP-3-dependent IL-1β production during early wound healing. Despite the improvement in healing, angiogenesis and levels of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF were further reduced in IL-1β treated wounds, suggesting that IL-1β has a negative effect on angiogenesis and that NLRP-3 promotes angiogenesis in an IL-1β-independent manner. These findings indicate that the NLRP-3 inflammasome contributes to the early inflammatory phase following skin wounding and is important for efficient healing. PMID:25793779
Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M; Mirza, Rita E; Koh, Timothy J
The Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome/IL-1β pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases, but its biological role in wound healing remains to be elucidated. Since inflammation is typically thought to impede healing, we hypothesized that loss of NLRP-3 activity would result in a downregulated inflammatory response and accelerated wound healing. NLRP-3 null mice, caspase-1 null mice and C57Bl/6 wild type control mice (WT) received four 8 mm excisional cutaneous wounds; inflammation and healing were assessed during the early stage of wound healing. Consistent with our hypothesis, wounds from NLRP-3 null and caspase-1 null mice contained lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α compared to WT mice and had reduced neutrophil and macrophage accumulation. Contrary to our hypothesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and angiogenesis were delayed in NLRP-3 null mice and caspase-1 null mice compared to WT mice, indicating that NLRP-3 signaling is important for early events in wound healing. Topical treatment of excisional wounds with recombinant IL-1β partially restored granulation tissue formation in wounds of NLRP-3 null mice, confirming the importance of NLRP-3-dependent IL-1β production during early wound healing. Despite the improvement in healing, angiogenesis and levels of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF were further reduced in IL-1β treated wounds, suggesting that IL-1β has a negative effect on angiogenesis and that NLRP-3 promotes angiogenesis in an IL-1β-independent manner. These findings indicate that the NLRP-3 inflammasome contributes to the early inflammatory phase following skin wounding and is important for efficient healing.
Soya, Shingo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hasegawa, Emi; Hondo, Mari; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Mieda, Michihiro; Sakurai, Takeshi
The noradrenergic (NA) projections arising from the locus ceruleus (LC) to the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis have been implicated in the formation of emotional memory. Since NA neurons in the LC (LC-NA neurons) abundantly express orexin receptor-1 (OX1R) and receive prominent innervation by orexin-producing neurons, we hypothesized that an OX1R-mediated pathway is involved in the physiological fear learning process via regulation of LC-NA neurons. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined the phenotype of Ox1r(-/-) mice in the classic cued and contextual fear-conditioning test. We found that Ox1r(-/-) mice showed impaired freezing responses in both cued and contextual fear-conditioning paradigms. In contrast, Ox2r(-/-) mice showed normal freezing behavior in the cued fear-conditioning test, while they exhibited shorter freezing time in the contextual fear-conditioning test. Double immunolabeling of Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase showed that double-positive LC-NA neurons after test sessions of both cued and contextual stimuli were significantly fewer in Ox1r(-/-) mice. AAV-mediated expression of OX1R in LC-NA neurons in Ox1r(-/-) mice restored the freezing behavior to the auditory cue to a comparable level to that in wild-type mice in the test session. Decreased freezing time during the contextual fear test was not affected by restoring OX1R expression in LC-NA neurons. These observations support the hypothesis that the orexin system modulates the formation and expression of fear memory via OX1R in multiple pathways. Especially, OX1R in LC-NA neurons plays an important role in cue-dependent fear memory formation and/or retrieval.
Thepnok, Piyasuda; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Soontorngun, Nitnipa, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Highlights: • TOG1 deletion results in defective growth on non-fermentable carbon sources. • Removal of TOG1 sensitizes cells to oxidative stress. • Tog1 directly binds and activates expression of oleate utilizing genes. • The Δtog1 cells display reduced peroxisomal content in oleate culture. • S. cerevisiae zinc cluster Tog1 is a novel activator of oleate utilization. - Abstract: Many zinc cluster proteins have been shown to play a role in the transcriptional regulation of glucose-repressible genes during glucose exhaustion and diauxic shift. Here, we studied an additional member of this family called Yer184c (herein called Tog1) for transcriptional regulator of oleate. Our results showed that a Δtog1 strain displays impaired growth with several non-fermentable carbons. Tog1 is also implicated in oxidative stress tolerance. Importantly, during the glucose–oleate shift, combined results from quantitative real time-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments showed that Tog1 acts as a direct activator of oleate utilizing genes, encoded key enzymes in β-Oxidation and NADPH regeneration (POX1, FOX2, POT1 and IDP2), the glyoxylate shunt (MLS1 and ICL1), and gluconeogenesis (PCK1 and FBP1). A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the Δtog1 strain assayed with oleate also revealed a substantial decrease in peroxisome abundance that is vital for fatty acid oxidation. Overall, our results clearly demonstrated that Tog1 is a newly characterized zinc cluster regulator that functions in the complex network of non-fermentable carbon metabolism in Saccharomycescerevisiae.
Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Nielsen, Jonas Østergaard;
The Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa has experienced recurrent droughts since the mid-1970s and today there is considerable concern for how this region will be able to adapt to future climate change. To develop well targeted adaptation strategies, the relative importance of climate factors...... to be reflected in national adaptation strategies in the region....
Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Nielsen, Jonas Østergaard
The Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa has experienced recurrent droughts since the mid-1970s and today there is considerable concern for how this region will be able to adapt to future climate change. To develop well targeted adaptation strategies, the relative importance of climate factors as ...
Gemal, Andre; Keravec, Joel; Menezes, Alexandre; Trajman, Anete
Despite the existence of effective treatment, tuberculosis is still a global public health issue. The World Health Organization recommends a six-month four-drug regimen in fixed-dose combination formulation to treat drug sensitive tuberculosis, and long course regimens with several second-line drugs to treat multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. To achieve the projected tuberculosis elimination goal by 2050, it will be essential to ensure a non-interrupted supply of quality-assured tuberculosis drugs. However, quality and affordable tuberculosis drug supply is still a significant challenge for National Tuberculosis Programs. Quality drug production requires a combination of complex steps. The first challenge is to guarantee the quality of tuberculosis active pharmaceutical ingredients, then ensure an adequate manufacturing process, according to international standards, to guarantee final product's safety, efficacy and quality. Good practices for storage, transport, distribution and quality control procedures must follow. In contrast to other high-burden countries, Brazil produces tuberculosis drugs through a strong network of public sector drug manufacturers regulated by a World Health Organization-certified national sanitary authority. The installed capacity for production surpasses the 71,000 needed treatments in the country. However, in order to be prepared to act as a global supplier, important bottlenecks are to be overcome. This article presents an in-depth analysis of the current status of production of tuberculosis drugs in Brazil and the bottlenecks and opportunities for the country to sustain national demand and play a role as a potential global supplier. Raw material and drug production, quality control, international certification and pre-qualification, political commitment and regulatory aspects are discussed, as well recommendations for tackling these bottlenecks. This discussion becomes more important as new drugs and regimens to treat tuberculosis are
Liu, Xin; Dong, Xiufen; Liu, Zihan; Shi, Zihang; Jiang, Yun; Qi, Mingfang; Xu, Tao; Li, Tianlai
-regulated ABI5 in tomato leaves demonstrated that ARF10 is the direct factor for inducing the water loss in 35S:mSlARF10-6. Here, we show that although SlARF10 increased the ABA synthesis/signal response by regulating stomatal aperture to mitigate water loss, SlARF10 also influenced stomatal development and AQP expression to affect water transport, and both act cooperatively to control the loss of leaf water in tomato. Therefore, this study uncovers a previously unrecognized leaf water loss regulatory factor and a network for coordinating auxin and ABA signalling in this important process. In an evolutionary context, miR160 regulates ARF10 to maintain the water balance in the leaf, thus ensuring normal plant development and environmental adaptation.
Full Text Available Internet marketing plays an important role on profitability of organizations, it can build a bridge between customers and business owners and anyone could purchase products and services through internet. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing internet marketing on Iranian food industry, named Shahrvand. The proposed study selects 280 out of 1040 managers who were involved in this industry during the year of 2012. Structural equation modeling has been performed to detect important factors including internal/external factors, ease of use and electronic marketing. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for these four items were mostly above 0.80, which validated the overall questionnaire of the survey. The results indicate that among internal factors, knowledge management, organizational culture and resources influence on acceptance of internet marketing, while these factors do not show any meaningful impact on ease of use. In addition, external factors including trend on market growth, competition and infrastructure influence on ease of use and acceptance of internet marketing but infrastructure and competition do not impact on ease of internet marketing.
Tang, M.; Li, X.; Liu, Y.
As a newly emerging field, the stable isotope geochemistry of germanium (Ge) needs basic equilibrium fractionation factors to explore its unknown world. In this study, the Ge isotope fractionations between systems including the aqueous Ge(OH)4 and GeO(OH)3- which are the dominant Ge species in seawater, the Ge-bearing organic complexes (e.g. Ge-catechol, Ge-oxalic acid and Ge-citric acid), the quartz- (or opal- ), albite-, K-feldspar- and olivine- like mineral structures are studied. It is the first time that some geologically important equilibrium Ge isotope fractionation factors are reported. Surprisingly, up to 5 per mil large isotopic fractionations between these Ge isotope systems are found at 25 degree. These results suggest a potentially broad application for the Ge isotope geochemistry. Our theoretical calculations are based on the Urey model (or Bigeleisen-Mayer equation) and high level quantum chemistry calculations. The B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level quantum chemistry method and the explicit solvent model ("water droplet" method) are used. Many different conformers are also used for the aqueous complexes in order to reduce the possible errors coming from the differences of configurations in solution. The accuracy of our calculation of the Ge isotopic fractionations is estimated about 0.2 per mil. Our results show quartz-like or opal-like structure can enrich most heavy Ge isotopes. Relative to quartz (or opal), some Ge isotopic fractionations are (at 25 C): quartz-organic Ge = 4-5,quartz-Ge(OH)4 =0.9,quartz-GeO(OH)3- =1.5,quartz-albite=0.6,quartz-K-feldspar=0.4 and quartz-olivine=3.9 per mil. The large fractionations between inorganic Ge complexes and organic Ge ones could be used to distinguish the possible bio-involving processes. Our results suggest a good explanation to the experimental observations of Siebert et al. (2006) and Rouxel et al. (2006) and provide important constraints to the study of Ge cycle in ocean.
Laura E Via
Full Text Available In T cells, the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells p (NFATp is a key regulator of the cytokine genes tumor necrosis factor (TNF and interferon-γ (IFN-γ. Here, we show that NFATp-deficient (NFATp(-/- mice have a dramatic and highly significant increase in mortality after Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb infection as compared to mortality of control animals after MTb infection. Animals deficient in NFATp have significantly impaired levels of TNF and IFN-γ transcription and protein expression in naïve or total CD4(+ T cells, but display wild-type levels of TNF mRNA or protein from MTb-stimulated dendritic cells (DC. The rapid mortality and disease severity observed in MTb-infected NFATp(-/- mice is associated with dysregulated production of TNF and IFN-γ in the lungs, as well as with increased levels of TNF, in their serum. Furthermore, global blocking of TNF production by injection of a TNF neutralizaing agent at 6 weeks, but not 12 weeks, post-MTb-infection further decreased the survival rate of both wild-type and NFATp(-/- mice, indicating an early role for TNF derived from cells from the monocyte lineage in containment of infection. These results thus demonstrate that NFATp plays a critical role in immune containment of TB disease in vivo, through the NFATp-dependent expression of TNF and IFN-γ in T cells.
Full Text Available KLF8 (Krüppel-like factor 8 is a zinc-finger transcription factor known to play an essential role in the regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation. However, its physiological roles and functions in adipogenesis remain unclear. In the present study, we show that KLF8 acts as a key regulator controlling adipocyte differentiation. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, we found that KLF8 expression was induced during differentiation, which was followed by expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα. Adipocyte differentiation was significantly attenuated by the addition of siRNA against KLF8, whereas overexpression of KLF8 resulted in enhanced differentiation. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that overexpression of KLF8 induced PPARγ2 and C/EBPα promoter activity, suggesting that KLF8 is an upstream regulator of PPARγ and C/EBPα. The KLF8 binding sites were localized by site mutation analysis to -191 region in C/EBPα promoter and -303 region in PPARγ promoter, respectively. Taken together, these data reveal that KLF8 is a key component of the transcription factor network that controls terminal differentiation during adipogenesis.
Rivka Bracha; Yael Nuchamowitz; David Mirelman
We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of expression of amoebapore A (AP-A) by antisense RNA caused a marked decrease in the virulence of the parasite. A four-fold over-expression of AP-A was obtained with plasmid (pA7) which has the ap-a gene under the control of gene EhgLE-3-RP-L21. The virulence of the transfected trophozoites, however, was also decreased. Excess of AP-A protein was found in the cytosol and a significant amount was released into the surrounding media. Transfection of the parasite with a plasmid (psAP-1) in which the ap-a gene was introduced with its own regulatory sequences, caused a total suppression of the transcription and translation of both the genomic and episomal ap-a genes. The silenced transfectant was not virulent at all. These results demonstrate that important factors need to be expressed at the correct cellular location and that the parasite has additional internal control mechanisms such as transcriptional gene silencing which can prevent excess amounts of gene expression.
Hsu, Shang Hwa; Kao, Ching-Han; Wu, Muh-Cherng
Two studies were conducted to investigate whether player personality or social cognition influence preferences for heroic roles in role-playing games (RPG). In Study 1, 149 teenager subjects were categorized into five groups according to the Guilford Personality Inventory. Heroes were clustered into three types based on their attributes. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicated that each personality group did not display distinctive preference for any particular heroic type. However, of the three heroic types teenagers most strongly preferred, Justice Warrior was followed, in order of preference, by Visionary Leader and Saint. In Study 2, the influence of three player social cognition factors (similarity, proximity, and familiarity) on player preference for heroic roles was studied. Multiple regression analysis results indicated that similarity and familiarity predicted player preferences for heroic roles.
Goodwin, ALin; Low, Ee Ling; Ng, Pak Tee; Yeung, Alexander S; Cai, Li
... (SEM) found that the effect of cognitive playfulness on the perceived importance of ICT was mediated by risk taking orientation, but the mediation effect was not observed with perceived competence in ICT use...
van der Steeg, Jan W; Steures, Pieternel; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Habbema, J Dik F; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Hompes, Peter G A; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben W J
Sixteen vignettes of subfertile couples were constructed by varying fertility history, post-coital test, sperm motility, FSH concentration and Chlamydia antibody titre (CAT). Thirty-five gynaecologists estimated probabilities of treatment-independent pregnancy, intrauterine insemination (IUI) and IVF. Thereafter, they chose IUI, IVF or no treatment. The relative contribution of each factor to probability estimates and to subsequent treatment decisions was calculated. Duration of subfertility and maternal age were the most important contributors for gynaecologists' estimates of treatment-independent pregnancy [relative contribution (RC) 41, 26%]. Maternal age and FSH concentration were the most important contributors in the estimates for IUI (RC: 51, 25%) and for IVF (RC: 64, 31%). The decision to start IVF was mainly determined by maternal age, duration of subfertility, FSH concentration and CAT. The relative contribution of maternal age and duration of subfertility was in concordance with existing prediction models, whereas previous pregnancy and FSH concentration were under- and overestimated respectively. In conclusion, maternal age, duration of subfertility and FSH concentration are the main factors in clinical decision-making in subfertility. Gynaecologists overestimate the importance of FSH concentration, but underestimate that of a previous pregnancy, as compared with their importance reported in prediction models and guidelines.
Full Text Available Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF is a clinically severe type of liver injury with an extremely high mortality rate. Although the pathological mechanisms of FHF are not well understood, evidence suggests that the complement system is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of liver disorders. In the present study, to investigate the role of complement in FHF, we examined groups of mice following intraperitoneal injection of LPS/D-GalN: wild-type C57BL/6 mice, wild-type mice treated with a C3aR antagonist, C5aR monoclonal antibody (C5aRmAb or CR2-Factor H (CR2-fH, an inhibitor of the alternative pathway, and C3 deficient mice (C3⁻/⁻ mice. The animals were euthanized and samples analyzed at specific times after LPS/D-GalN injection. The results show that intraperitoneal administration of LPS/D-GalN activated the complement pathway, as evidenced by the hepatic deposition of C3 and C5b-9 and elevated serum levels of the complement activation product C3a, the level of which was associated with the severity of the liver damage. C3a receptor (C3aR and C5a receptor (C5aR expression was also upregulated. Compared with wild-type mice, C3⁻/⁻ mice survived significantly longer and displayed reduced liver inflammation and attenuated pathological damage following LPS/D-GalN injection. Similar levels of protection were seen in mice treated with C3aR antagonist,C5aRmAb or CR2-fH. These data indicate an important role for the C3a and C5a generated by the alternative pathway in LPS/D-GalN-induced FHF. The data further suggest that complement inhibition may be an effective strategy for the adjunctive treatment of fulminant hepatic failure.
van den Berg, M.R.; van Marrewijk, C.
Using micro-data for Dutch firms, we argue that the productivity spillovers from importing technology intensive products from Taiwan differ from importing unskilled-labor intensive products from Switzerland. We show that both the geographic component (what country is the import from) and the
Kannan, Kolenkode B; Colorado, Iriana; Reino, Diego; Palange, David; Lu, Qi; Qin, Xiaofa; Abungu, Billy; Watkins, Anthony; Caputo, Francis J; Xu, Da-Zhong; Semenza, Gregg L; Deitch, Edwin A; Feinman, Rena
Gut injury and loss of normal intestinal barrier function are key elements in the paradigm of gut-origin systemic inflammatory response syndrome, acute lung injury, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). As hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is a critical determinant of the physiological and pathophysiological response to hypoxia and ischemia, we asked whether HIF-1 plays a proximal role in the induction of gut injury and subsequent lung injury. Using partially HIF-1α-deficient mice in an isolated superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury model (45 min SMAO followed by 3 h of reperfusion), we showed a direct relationship between HIF-1 activation and intestinal I/R injury. Specifically, partial HIF-1α deficiency attenuated SMAO-induced increases in intestinal permeability, lipid peroxidation, mucosal caspase-3 activity, and IL-1β mRNA levels. Furthermore, partial HIF-1α deficiency prevented the induction of ileal mucosal inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein levels after SMAO and iNOS deficiency ameliorated SMAO-induced villus injury. Resistance to SMAO-induced gut injury was also associated with resistance to lung injury, as reflected by decreased levels of myeloperoxidase, IL-6 and IL-10 in the lungs of HIF-1α(+/-) mice. In contrast, a short duration of SMAO (15 min) followed by 3 h of reperfusion neither induced mucosal HIF-1α protein levels nor caused significant gut and lung injury in wild-type or HIF-1α(+/-) mice. This study indicates that intestinal HIF-1 activation is a proximal regulator of I/R-induced gut mucosal injury and gut-induced lung injury. However, the duration and severity of the gut I/R insult dictate whether HIF-1 plays a gut-protective or deleterious role.
Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gao, Wu-Jun
The present review discusses the roles of repetitive sequences played in plant sex chromosome evolution, and highlights epigenetic modification as potential mechanism of repetitive sequences involved in sex chromosome evolution. Sex determination in plants is mostly based on sex chromosomes. Classic theory proposes that sex chromosomes evolve from a specific pair of autosomes with emergence of a sex-determining gene(s). Subsequently, the newly formed sex chromosomes stop recombination in a small region around the sex-determining locus, and over time, the non-recombining region expands to almost all parts of the sex chromosomes. Accumulation of repetitive sequences, mostly transposable elements and tandem repeats, is a conspicuous feature of the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome, even in primitive one. Repetitive sequences may play multiple roles in sex chromosome evolution, such as triggering heterochromatization and causing recombination suppression, leading to structural and morphological differentiation of sex chromosomes, and promoting Y chromosome degeneration and X chromosome dosage compensation. In this article, we review the current status of this field, and based on preliminary evidence, we posit that repetitive sequences are involved in sex chromosome evolution probably via epigenetic modification, such as DNA and histone methylation, with small interfering RNAs as the mediator.
Full Text Available Prosody plays an important role in speech communication between humans. Although several computer-assisted language learning (CALL systems with utterance evaluation function have been developed, the accuracy of their prosody evaluation is still poor. In the present paper, we develop new methods by which to evaluate the rhythm and intonation of English sentences uttered by Japanese learners. The novel features of our study are as follows: (1 new prosodic features are added to traditional features, and (2 word importance factors are introduced in the calculation of intonation score. The word importance factor is automatically estimated using the ordinary least squares method and is optimized based on word clusters generated by a decision tree. Experiments conducted herein reveal the correlation coefficient (±1.0 denotes the best correlation between the rhythm score given by native speakers and the system was -0.55. In contrast, a conventional feature (pause insertion error rate gave a correlation coefficient of only -0.11. The correlation coefficient between the intonation scores given by native speakers and the system was only -0.29. However, the word importance factor with decision tree clustering improved the correlation coefficient to 0.45. In addition, we propose a method of integrating the rhythm score with the intonation score, which improved the correlation coefficient from 0.45 to 0.48 for evaluating intonation.
Full Text Available Purpose: Angiogenesis or formation of new blood vessels is an essential process for tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF and its receptors play an important role in angiogenesis-dependent tumors. VEGF-A is the most important factor in angiogenesis process. Human VEGF-A gene consists of eight exons that undergoes alternative exon splicing and produce five different proteins consisting of 121, 145, 165, 189 and 206 amino acids (named VEGF121, VEGF145, VEGF165, VEGF189, and VEGF206. Methods: In this study, VEGF121 gene synthesized and cloned into the pET-26b plasmid. The recombinant plasmid was transferred into appropriate expression strain of BL-21. Expression of VEGF121 induced by IPTG (Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western-Blotting. Recombinant VEGF121 was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. HUVECs (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelia Cells cells were isolated from umbilical vein and the effect of VEGF121 on tube formation of endothelial cells was investigated. Results: SDS-PAGE and Western-Blotting results verified the purification of VEGF121. The final yield of recombinant protein was about 5mg per liter. Endothelial cell tube formation assay results showed that VEGF121 leads to tube formation of endothelial cell on matrix and induces angiogenesis in vitro. Conclusion: Recombinant VEGF121 is important factor in tube formation of endothelial cell, so it could be used in different cancer researches and angiogenesis assay.
Sukhanova Irina Fedorovna
Full Text Available The current state of import substitution in Russia is considered. The authors’ definition is given to the concept of import substitution. The features of short-term and longterm strategies of import substitution are opened. The authors prove the need of diversification of the directions of foreign economic activity by reorientation of the foreign trade communications of Russia to the markets of the countries of CIS, the customs union and CES as well as the countries of the Asia Pacific region. The reasons of growth of import deliveries of foodstuff are opened. The comparative analysis of food consumption level in Russia is conducted. The food coefficients dependence on the most important food are calculated. The comparative analysis of productive indicators of domestic agricultural production with similar indicators of the foreign states is made. The strategies of import substitution for domestic agriculture taking into account its specifics and production potential, is offered. The assessment of potential of import substitution of Saratov region is presented. The priority actions on ensuring food security and growth of economy of the region are offered.
Wu, Jiangbo; de Theije, Caroline G M; da Silva, Sofia Lopes; van der Horst, Hilma; Reinders, Margot T M; Broersen, Laus M; Willemsen, Linette E M; Kas, Martien J H; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is multifactorial, with both genetic as well as environmental factors working in concert to develop the autistic phenotype. Immunological disturbances in autistic individuals have been reported and a role for food allergy has been suggested in ASD. Single gene mutation
AGU journals continue to rank highly in many categories in the 2010 Journal Citation Report (JCR), which was released by Thomson Reuters on 28 June. JCR reports on several measures of journal usage, including a journal's Eigenfactor score, its Article Influence score, its Impact Factor, and its rank within a cohort of similar journals. According to the 2010 statistics, AGU again has outperformed its larger competitors. Four different AGU titles are ranked in the top three journals in six different cohorts. The Impact Factor of several AGU journals increased significantly over the previous year.
Brockner, Joel; And Others
Conducted two studies to test the notion that various factors, i.e., situation-personal, may differentially affect degrees of entrapment (amount invested) depending upon the point in time at which they are introduced. The results of both studies suggest amount invested depends upon timing in the entrapment process. (RC)
K. de Winter (K.); H.H. van der Zee (Hessel); E.P. Prens (Errol)
textabstractHidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic of recurrent, inflammatory, follicular disease that usually presents after puberty with painful deep-seated, inflamed lesions in the inverse skin areas of the body. It has been hypothesized that mechanical pressure or friction is a risk factor f
Walsh, Zach; Kosson, David S.
The power of scales based on the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL; R. D. Hare, 1980) for prediction of violent behavior is well established. Although evidence suggests that this relationship is chiefly due to the impulsive and antisocial lifestyle component (Factor 2), the predictive power of psychopathy for violence may also reflect the multiplicative…
M.F. van Dooren (Marieke)
textabstractFor the studies described in this thesis we used a study protocol 'Environmental and Genetic factors in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and Esophageal Atresia', approved by the Institutional Review Board, in collaboration with the parent support groups, 'Stichting Hernia Diafragrnatica'
Toda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tsunoda, Tomoya; Nakai, Yukiei; Tanichi, Masaaki; Tanaka, Teppei; Hashimoto, Naoki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Shin; Kitaichi, Yuji; Boku, Shuken; Tanabe, Hajime; Nibuya, Masashi; Yoshino, Aihide; Kusumi, Ichiro
Previous studies have shown that various factors, such as genetic and environmental factors, contribute to the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study is to clarify how multiple factors, including affective temperaments, childhood abuse and adult life events, are involved in the severity of depressive symptoms in MDD. A total of 98 participants with MDD were studied using the following self-administered questionnaire surveys: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 measuring the severity of depressive symptoms; Life Experiences Survey (LES) measuring negative and positive adult life events; Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) measuring affective temperaments; and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS) measuring childhood abuse. The data were analyzed using single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM). The neglect score reported by CATS indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms through affective temperaments measured by TEMPS-A in SEM. Four temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious) directly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms. The negative change in the LES score also directly predicted severity. This study suggests that childhood abuse, especially neglect, indirectly increases the severity of depressive symptoms through increased scores of affective temperaments in MDD.
Corey, Linda A; Pellock, John M; Kjeldsen, Marianne J
Although there is strong evidence that genetic factors contribute to risk for epilepsy, their role in the determination of syndrome type is less clear. This study was undertaken to address this question. Information related to epilepsy was obtained from twins included in 455 monozygotic and 868...... dizygotic pairs ascertained from population-based twin registries in Denmark, Norway and the United States. Syndrome type was determined based on medical record information and detailed clinical interviews and classified using the International Classification Systems for the Epilepsies and Epileptic...... Syndromes. Concordance rates were significantly increased in monozygotic versus dizygotic pairs for all major syndrome groups except localization-related cryptogenic epilepsy. Among generalized epilepsies, genetic factors were found to play an important role in the determination of childhood absence...
Back pain and neck pain are very common and among the most frequent causes of sick-leave and disability pension, thereby greatly affecting the individual and the community. This stresses the need for prognostic research regarding these conditions. Aim: The main aim of the present work was to study prognostic factors, including manual therapy, for back and neck pain. The specific aims were, to investigate the influence of regular leisure physical activity and the body mass index (BMI) on...
Cecchetto, Fátima H.; Pena, Daniela B.; Pellanda, Lucia C.
Background Childhood obesity is an important health problem worldwide. In this context, there is a need for the development and evaluation of innovative educational interventions targeting prevention and formation of health habits. Objectives To ascertain the impact of ludic workshops on children’s knowledge, self-care, and body weight. Methods This was a randomized, clinical study with 79 students aged 7-11 years, conducted from March to November 2012. Anthropometric measurements were collected and two questionnaires (Typical Day of Physical Activities and Food Intake, in Portuguese, and the CARDIOKIDS, a questionnaire of knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors) were applied at baseline, at the end of intervention, and three months thereafter. The intervention consisted of eight playful workshops, which involved the presentation of a play. Results Seventy-nine students were randomized to the intervention (n = 40) or the control group (n = 39). Mean age was 10.0 ± 1.1 years. After eight weeks, the intervention group showed significant improvement in the knowledge score (p < 0.001). There was an increase in physical activity scores in both groups, but with no difference between the groups at the end of intervention (p = 0.209). A reduction in the BMI percentile was observed in the intervention group, but there was no significant statistical difference between the two groups after the intervention. Conclusions Playful interventions may improve knowledge and physical activity levels in children and, when combined with other strategies, may be beneficial to prevent child obesity and improve self-care. PMID:28746521
VERVOORN, JM; DUINKERKE, ASH; LUTEIJN, F; VANDEPOEL, ACM
The aim of this investigation was to explore the relative importance of psychologic variables in explaining the degree of denture satisfaction in full denture patients. A group of 125 patients who were on a waiting list to have new dentures constructed participated in this study. The patients
van de Weert, Marco; Jorgensen, Lene; Horn Moeller, Eva
Protein pharmaceuticals have matured into an important class of drugs, now comprising one in three novel drugs introduced on the market. However, significant gains are still to be made in reducing the costs of production, ensuring proper pharmacokinetics and efficacy, increasing patient compliance...
Li, Zhenghong; Zhang, Yuxing; Ge, Huibo
Surface browning is an important cause of deterioration of fresh-cut fruit during postharvest handling. In this paper, four pear cultivars with different extents of natural browning were selected to analyse the factors involved in browning. The main results are as follows: the lipoxygenase (LOX) activity of 'Mantianhong' and 'Yali' pears was higher accompanied by a stronger degree of browning, while the LOX activity in 'Xueqing' and 'Xinli 7' pears was lower, with less browning. A higher unsaturated fatty acid ratio of pear resulted in reduced browning. The cell membranes disappeared 30min after being cut in 'Mantianhong' pear, which browns easily; however, the cell membranes were still intact 30min after being cut in 'Xueqing' pear, which does not brown easily. Therefore, it can be assumed that the stability of the cell membrane plays an important role in inhibiting browning of fresh-cut pears. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Cancian, Giulia; Tozzi, Gianluca; Hussain, Amirul Ashraf Bin; De Mori, Arianna; Roldo, Marta
Age related bone diseases such as osteoporosis are considered among the main causes of reduced bone mechanical stability and bone fractures. In order to restore both biological and mechanical function of diseased/fractured bones, novel bioactive scaffolds that mimic the bone structure are constantly under development in tissue engineering applications. Among the possible candidates, chitosan-based thermosensitive hydrogel scaffolds represent ideal systems due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, enhanced antibacterial properties, promotion of osteoblast formation and ease of injection, which makes them suitable for less invasive surgical procedures. As a main drawback, these chitosan systems present poor mechanical performance that could not support load-bearing applications. In order to produce more mechanically-competent biomaterials, the combined addition of hydroxyapatite and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is proposed in this study. Specifically, the aim of this work is to develop thermosensitive chitosan hydrogels containing stabilised single-walled and multi-walled CNTs, where their effect on the mechanical/physiochemical properties, calcium deposition patterns and ability to provide a platform for the controlled release of protein drugs was investigated. It was found that the addition of CNTs had a significant effect on the sol-gel transition time and significantly increased the resistance to compression for the hydrogels. Moreover, in vitro calcification studies revealed that CNTs played a major role in the spatial arrangements of newly formed calcium deposits in the composite materials studied, suggesting that they may have a role in the way the repair of fragile and/or fractured bones occurs in vivo.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although the disturbance of T lymphocyte and glomerular podocyte exerts a crucial function in the pathogenesis of proteinuria, the potential link is still unclear. Methods: The balance of Treg and Th17 cells, and the expression of IL-17/IL-17R and c-mip were investigated in adrimycin-induced nephropathy (AN mice. The effect and mechanism of IL-17 on podocyte were explored in cultured podocytes. Results: The proportion of Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the amount of IL-17 in serum and kidney cortical homogenates, and the expression of IL-17R and c-mip in glomerular podocyte were increased obviously in AN mice. In cultured podocytes, recombinant IL-17 led to an induction of apoptosis and cytoskeletal disorganization, an overproduction of c-mip while down-regulation of phosphor-nephrin, and an increased binding of c-mip to NF-κB/RelA. Silence of c-mip prevented podocyte apoptosis and reduction of phosphor-nephrin by prompting nuclear translocation of NF-κB/RelA in IL-17 treated cells. Persistent activation of NF-κB up-regulated pro-survival protein Bcl-2 and decreased podocyte apoptosis, but had no effect on phosphor-nephrin level. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that induction of IL-17 released by Th17 cells plays a key role in podocytopathy most likely through down-regulation of phosphor-nephrin and Bcl-2 level via overproduction of c-mip.
Davood Salmani; Mohammad Reza Daraei; Ali Bayazdi
One of the most important methods for building good marketing strategy is to learn more about existing competitors, suppliers, etc. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between wholesalers, bargaining pricing, new rivals and pricing strategy on preparing appropriate marketing strategy in meat market in city of shiraz, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 200 experts in this market. Cronbach alpha has been...
Mok, T A
The majority of research on romantic relationships has tended to focus on marriage, with relatively less attention paid to dating. This study examined the relationship between Asian American dating, both interracial and intraracial, and a variety of factors thought to be associated with dating in this population, including acculturation, ethnic identity, attractiveness, interracial dating experience, ethnicity of friends, parental influence over dating, and density. Participants were administered measures of these variables and were asked questions regarding their likelihood of dating both Asian Americans and White Americans. An interesting pattern of results emerged when the variables were put into regression equations to predict both interracial and intraracial dating. Findings are presented and implications discussed.
coupling factor and the power as a function of the inert-core fraction. 15 Two Transducer Types Tonpilz k.ff = 0.55 Flextensional keff = 0.35 16 VIEWGRAPH...good high-power lead zirconate titanate with material k33 = 0.65. The tonpilz transducer uses a stack of PZT plates to drive a pistonlike head mass. A...would occur for the unloaded stack. For tonpilz typical, keff = 0.55. The flextensional transducer uses a similar stack to drive an oval shell into a
Guan, Guobo; Wang, Haitao; Liang, Weihong; Cao, Chengjun; Tao, Li; Naseem, Shamoon; Konopka, James B; Wang, Yue; Huang, Guanghua
The fungus Candida albicans is both a pathogen and a commensal in humans. The ability to utilize different carbon sources available in diverse host niches is vital for both commensalism and pathogenicity. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is an important signaling molecule as well as a carbon source in C. albicans. Here, we report the discovery of a novel gene MCU1 essential for GlcNAc utilization. Mcu1 is located in mitochondria and associated with multiple energy- and metabolism-related proteins including Por1, Atp1, Pet9, and Mdh1. Consistently, inactivating Por1 impaired GlcNAc utilization as well. Deletion of MCU1 also caused defects in utilizing non-fermentable carbon sources and amino acids. Furthermore, MCU1 is required for filamentation in several inducing conditions and virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. We also deleted TGL99 and GUP1, two genes adjacent to MCU1, and found that the gup1/gup1 mutant exhibited mild defects in the utilization of several carbon sources including GlcNAc, maltose, galactose, amino acids, and ethanol. Our results indicate that MCU1 exists in a cluster of genes involved in the metabolism of carbon sources. Given its importance in metabolism and lack of a homolog in humans, Mcu1 could be a potential target for developing antifungal agents.
Shagufta H. Khan
Full Text Available A number of proteins with intrinsically disordered (ID regions/domains are reported to be found disproportionately higher in transcription factors. Available evidences suggest that presence of ID region/domain within a transcription factor plays an important role in its biological functions. These ID sequences provide large flexible surfaces that can allow them to make more efficient physical and functional interactions with their target partners. Since transcription factors regulate expression of target genes by interacting with specific coregulatory proteins, these ID regions/domains can be used as a platform for such large macromolecular interactions, and may represent a mechanism for regulation of cellular processes. The precise structural basis for the function of these ID regions/domains of the transcription factors remains to be determined. In the recent years there has been growing evidence suggesting that an induced fit-like process leads to imposition of folded functional structure in these ID domains on which large multiprotein complexes are built. These multiprotein complexes may eventually dictate the final outcome of the gene regulation by the transcription factors.
Apoptosis plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure. Previous studies have showed that oxidative stress, physiological stress, and tumor necrosis factor and Fas ligand are involved in apoptosis of cardiovascular system. Recent studies also proved that another apoptosis--elated factor i. e. granzyme B/perforin system is involved in cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we collected the latest survey results show that granzyme B is involved in cardiovascular disease, and inhibiting granzyme B/perforin protein system may become a new therapeutic application.%细胞凋亡在心血管疾病如动脉粥样硬化,缺血性心脏病,充血性心力衰竭中起着重要的作用.以往的研究已经证明氧化应激、生理应激、肿瘤坏死因子和Fas配体参与了心血管系统的细胞凋亡.而最近的研究证明了另一个凋亡相关因子,即颗粒酶B/穿孔蛋白系统也参与了心血管系统的细胞凋亡.在这篇综述中,我们阐述了颗粒酶B在心血管疾病中的作用,并且发现颗粒酶B抑制剂的实验应用可以减轻心血管病的发生发展,从而使抑制颗粒酶B/穿孔蛋白系统治疗心血管疾病成为可能.
Brukner, Peter; Connell, David
Why do some hamstring and quadriceps strains take much longer to repair than others? Which injuries are more prone to recurrence? Intramuscular tendon injuries have received little attention as an element in 'muscle strain'. In thigh muscles, such as rectus femoris and biceps femoris, the attached tendon extends for a significant distance within the muscle belly. While the pathology of most muscle injures occurs at a musculotendinous junction, at first glance the athlete appears to report pain within a muscle belly. In addition to the musculotendinous injury being a site of pathology, the intramuscular tendon itself is occasionally injured. These injuries have a variety of appearances on MRIs. There is some evidence that these injuries require a prolonged rehabilitation time and may have higher recurrence rates. Therefore, it is important to recognise the tendon component of a thigh 'muscle strain'.
ZHANG Hong-shan; WU Qing-yu; XU Ming; ZHOU Yu-xiang; SHUI Chao-xiang
Background Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common malformation of children with an incidence of approximately 10％ of congenital heart disease patients.There can be a wide spectrum to the severity of the anatomic defects,which include ventricular septal defect,aortic override,right ventricular outflow tract obstruction,and right ventricular hypertrophy.We examined the relationship between right ventricular hypertrophy in patients with TOF and the gene expression of factors in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway.Methods To gain insight into the characteristic gene(s) involved in molecular mechanisms of right ventricular hypertrophy in TOF,differential mRNA and micro RNA expression profiles were assessed using expression-based micro array technology on right ventricular biopsies from young TOF patients who underwent primary correction and on normal heart tissue.We then analyzed the gene expression of the MAPK signal pathway using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in normals and TOF patients.Results Using the micro RNA chip V3.0 and human whole genome oligonucleotide microarray V1.0 to detect the gene expression,we found 1068 genes showing altered expression of at least two-fold in TOF patients compared to the normal hearts,and 47 micro RNAs that showed a significant difference of at least two-fold in TOF patients.We then analyzed these mRNAs and micro RNAs by target gene predicting software Microcosm Targets version 5.0,and determined those mRNA highly relevant to the right ventricular hypertrophy by RT-PCR method.There were obvious differences in the gene expression of factors in the MAPK signal pathway when using RT-PCR,which was consistent to the results of the cDNA microarray.Conclusion The upregulation of genes in the MAPK signal pathway may be the key events that contribute to right ventricular hypertroohv and stunted angiogenesis in patients with TOF.
Chen, Han-Jou; Mitchell, Jacqueline C; Novoselov, Sergey; Miller, Jack; Nishimura, Agnes L; Scotter, Emma L; Vance, Caroline A; Cheetham, Michael E; Shaw, Christopher E
Detergent-resistant, ubiquitinated and hyperphosphorylated Tar DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions are the pathological hallmark in ∼95% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and ∼60% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration cases. We sought to explore the role for the heat shock response in the clearance of insoluble TDP-43 in a cellular model of disease and to validate our findings in transgenic mice and human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis tissues. The heat shock response is a stress-responsive protective mechanism regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which increases the expression of chaperones that refold damaged misfolded proteins or facilitate their degradation. Here we show that manipulation of the heat shock response by expression of dominant active HSF1 results in a dramatic reduction of insoluble and hyperphosphorylated TDP-43 that enhances cell survival, whereas expression of dominant negative HSF1 leads to enhanced TDP-43 aggregation and hyperphosphorylation. To determine which chaperones were mediating TDP-43 clearance we over-expressed a range of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and identified DNAJB2a (encoded by DNAJB2, and also known as HSJ1a) as a potent anti-aggregation chaperone for TDP-43. DNAJB2a has a J domain, allowing it to interact with HSP70, and ubiquitin interacting motifs, which enable it to engage the degradation of its client proteins. Using functionally deleted DNAJB2a constructs we demonstrated that TDP-43 clearance was J domain-dependent and was not affected by ubiquitin interacting motif deletion or proteasome inhibition. This indicates that TDP-43 is maintained in a soluble state by DNAJB2a, leaving the total levels of TDP-43 unchanged. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the levels of HSF1 and heat shock proteins are significantly reduced in affected neuronal tissues from a TDP-43 transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and patients with
Full Text Available Rural development and diversification of rural economy depend on the level of education, knowledge and qualification. Though improving and maintaining the proper level of basic infrastructure is an important element in the social and economic development of the rural area, it is professional training that represents the “engine” of good development. Education and training are essential for rural communities, but there are obvious discrepancies from the point of view of school infrastructure. Though we can say that the number of schools in the rural area is above the necessary one, education quality is low because, on one hand, of the poor educational infrastructure and, on the other hand, because of the level o training of the teachers. Most of the schools need to be renovated, to be refurnished, to be reequipped and to be supplied with teaching materials. Infrastructures and facilities proper to professional training and to primary education are important tools for the conversion of agricultural labour force into non-agricultural labour force.
Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient and enzyme co-factor required for a wide range of cellular processes, especially for the function of mitochondria. For the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, the ability to obtain iron is required for growth and virulence during the infection process. However, knowledge of how mitochondria are involved in iron regulation is still limited. Here, we show that a mitochondrial iron transporter, MrsA, a homolog of yeast Mrs4p, is critical for adaptation to iron-limited or iron-excess conditions in A. fumigatus. Deletion of mrsA leads to disruption of iron homeostasis with a decreased sreA expression, resulted in activated reductive iron assimilation (RIA and siderophore-mediated iron acquisition (SIA. Furthermore, deletion of mrsA induces hypersusceptibility to azole and oxidative stresses. An assay for cellular ROS content in ΔmrsA combined with rescue from the mrsA-defective phenotype by the antioxidant reagent L-ascorbic acid indicates that the increased sensitivity of ΔmrsA to the azole itraconazole and to oxidative stress is mainly the result of abnormal ROS accumulation. Moreover, site-directed mutation experiments verified that three conserved histidine residues related to iron transport in MrsA are required for responses to oxidative and azole stresses. Importantly, ΔmrsA causes significant attenuation of virulence in an immunocompromised murine model of aspergillosis. Collectively, our results show that the putative mitochondrial iron transporter MrsA plays important roles in azole- and oxidative-stress responses and virulence by regulating the balance of cellular iron in A. fumigatus.
Long, Nanbiao; Xu, Xiaoling; Qian, Hui; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling
Iron is an essential nutrient and enzyme co-factor required for a wide range of cellular processes, especially for the function of mitochondria. For the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, the ability to obtain iron is required for growth and virulence during the infection process. However, knowledge of how mitochondria are involved in iron regulation is still limited. Here, we show that a mitochondrial iron transporter, MrsA, a homolog of yeast Mrs4p, is critical for adaptation to iron-limited or iron-excess conditions in A. fumigatus. Deletion of mrsA leads to disruption of iron homeostasis with a decreased sreA expression, resulted in activated reductive iron assimilation (RIA) and siderophore-mediated iron acquisition (SIA). Furthermore, deletion of mrsA induces hypersusceptibility to azole and oxidative stresses. An assay for cellular ROS content in ΔmrsA combined with rescue from the mrsA-defective phenotype by the antioxidant reagent L-ascorbic acid indicates that the increased sensitivity of ΔmrsA to the azole itraconazole and to oxidative stress is mainly the result of abnormal ROS accumulation. Moreover, site-directed mutation experiments verified that three conserved histidine residues related to iron transport in MrsA are required for responses to oxidative and azole stresses. Importantly, ΔmrsA causes significant attenuation of virulence in an immunocompromised murine model of aspergillosis. Collectively, our results show that the putative mitochondrial iron transporter MrsA plays important roles in azole- and oxidative-stress responses and virulence by regulating the balance of cellular iron in A. fumigatus.
Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Pandey, Sona
Heterotrimeric G proteins comprising Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits regulate many fundamental growth and development processes in all eukaryotes. Plants possess a relatively limited number of G-protein components compared with mammalian systems, and their detailed functional characterization has been performed mostly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the presence of single Gα and Gβ proteins in both these species has significantly undermined the complexity and specificity of response regulation in plant G-protein signaling. There is ample pharmacological evidence for the role of G proteins in regulation of legume-specific processes such as nodulation, but the lack of genetic data from a leguminous species has restricted its direct assessment. Our recent identification and characterization of an elaborate G-protein family in soybean (Glycine max) and the availability of appropriate molecular-genetic resources have allowed us to directly evaluate the role of G-protein subunits during nodulation. We demonstrate that all G-protein genes are expressed in nodules and exhibit significant changes in their expression in response to Bradyrhizobium japonicum infection and in representative supernodulating and nonnodulating soybean mutants. RNA interference suppression and overexpression of specific G-protein components results in lower and higher nodule numbers, respectively, validating their roles as positive regulators of nodule formation. Our data further show preferential usage of distinct G-protein subunits in the presence of an additional signal during nodulation. Interestingly, the Gα proteins directly interact with the soybean nodulation factor receptors NFR1α and NFR1β, suggesting that the plant G proteins may couple with receptors other than the canonical heptahelical receptors common in metazoans to modulate signaling. PMID:23569109
Němec, Michal; Syrová, Michaela; Dokoupilová, Lenka; Veselý, Petr; Šmilauer, Petr; Landová, Eva; Lišková, Silvie; Fuchs, Roman
We compared the responses of the nesting red-backed shrikes (Lanius collurio) to three dummies of a common nest predator, the Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius), each made from a different material (stuffed, plush, and silicone). The shrikes performed defensive behaviour including attacks on all three dummies. Nevertheless, the number of attacks significantly decreased from the stuffed dummy through the plush dummy and finally to the silicone dummy. Our results show that wild birds use not only colours but also other surface features as important cues for recognition and categorization of other bird species. Moreover, the silicone dummy was attacked only when presented after the stuffed or plush dummy. Thus, we concluded that the shrikes recognized the jay only the stuffed (with feathered surface) and plush (with hairy surface) dummies during the first encounter. Recognition of the silicon dummy (with glossy surface) was facilitated by previous encounters with the more accurate model. This process resembles the effect of perceptual priming, which is widely described in the literature on humans.
Thong Van Nguyen
Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.
LUO Ming; XIAO Yue-hua; LI Xian-bi; LI De-mou; HOU Lei; HU Ming-yu; PEI Yan
@@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers,one of the most important natural raw materials for the textile industry,are highly elongated trichomes from epidermal cells of cotton ovules.Among the longest plant cells ever characterized,cotton fiber is an ideal system for studying plant cell elongation.Brassinosteroids (BRs),a class of steroidal phytohormone,play an important role in plant cell division and elongation.
Fry, James; Fitton, Claire
This article highlights the importance of the role that palm oil plays in meeting the demand for oils and fats worldwide for food. On top of this food demand, the demand for vegetable oils for biofuels, which now absorb over 10% of world oil and fat supplies, has rapidly increased.
A M A Nasirudeen
Full Text Available Dengue virus (DV infection is one of the most common mosquito-borne viral diseases in the world. The innate immune system is important for the early detection of virus and for mounting a cascade of defense measures which include the production of type 1 interferon (IFN. Hence, a thorough understanding of the innate immune response during DV infection would be essential for our understanding of the DV pathogenesis. A recent application of the microarray to dengue virus type 1 (DV1 infected lung carcinoma cells revealed the increased expression of both extracellular and cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors; retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I, melanoma differentiation associated gene-5 (MDA-5 and Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3. These intracellular RNA sensors were previously reported to sense DV infection in different cells. In this study, we show that they are collectively involved in initiating an effective IFN production against DV. Cells silenced for these genes were highly susceptible to DV infection. RIG-I and MDA5 knockdown HUH-7 cells and TLR3 knockout macrophages were highly susceptible to DV infection. When cells were silenced for only RIG-I and MDA5 (but not TLR3, substantial production of IFN-β was observed upon virus infection and vice versa. High susceptibility to virus infection led to ER-stress induced apoptosis in HUH-7 cells. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that the intracellular RNA virus sensors (RIG-I, MDA5 and TLR3 are activated upon DV infection and are essential for host defense against the virus.
Broberg, Craig S; Burchill, Luke J
Pioneers in congenital heart surgery observed that exercise capacity did not return to normal levels despite successful surgical repair, leading some to cite a "myocardial factor" playing a role. They conjectured that residual alterations in myocardial function would be significant for patients' long-term outlook. In fulfillment of their early observations, today's adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) population shows well-recognized features of heart failure, even among patients without clear residual anatomic or hemodynamic abnormalities, demonstrating the vital role of the myocardium in their morbidity and mortality. Whereas the 'myocardial factor' was an elusive concept in the early history of congenital heart care, we now have imaging techniques to detect and quantify one such factor--myocardial fibrosis. Understanding the importance of myocardial fibrosis as a final common pathway in a variety of congenital lesions provides a framework for both the study and treatment of clinical heart failure in this context. While typical heart failure pharmacology should reduce or attenuate fibrogenesis, efforts to show meaningful improvements with standard pharmacotherapy in ACHD repeatedly fall short. This paper considers the importance of myocardial fibrosis and function, the current body of evidence for myocardial fibrosis in ACHD, and its implications for research and treatment.
Full Text Available Building a famous brand often makes it possible to have sustainable growth in competitive market. A good brand name plays an important role on increasing word of mouth advertisement, the number of loyal customers and repurchase habits. However, in order to build a good brand, we need to create sustainable brand identification and to do this we need to determine influential factors. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing brand identification. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 23 questions, distributes it among 400 people who purchase regularly from hyperstar and collects 400 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.735. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.784 and 2300.022, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived five factors including sense of brand, brand community, trust to brand, value of brand and personality of brand.
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus was identified as a risk factor for developing tuberculosis (TB infection, and relapse after therapy. The risk of acquiring TB is described as comparable to that of HIV population. The fact that diabetics are 3× times more prone to develop pulmonary TB than nondiabetics cannot be overlooked. With DM recognized as global epidemic, and TB affecting one-third of the world population, physicians must remain vigilant. We present a 45-year-old woman born in Dominican Republic (DR, with 10-year history of T2DM treated with metformin, arrived to our Urgency Room complaining of dry cough for the past 3months. Interview unveiled unintentional 15lbs weight loss, night sweats, occasional unquantified fever, and general malaise but denied bloody sputum. She traveled to DR 2years before, with no known ill exposure. Physical examination showed a thin body habitus, otherwise well appearing woman with stable vital signs, presenting solely right middle lung field ronchi. LDH, ESR, hsCRP and Hg A1C were elevated. Imaging revealed a right middle lobe cavitation. Sputum for AFB disclosed active pulmonary TB. Our case portrays that the consideration of TB as differential diagnosis in diabetics should be exercised with the same strength, as it is undertaken during the evaluation of HIV patients with lung cavitation. Inability to recognize TB will endanger the patient, hospital dwellers and staff, and perpetuate this global public health menace.
Kroeger, Iris; Duquesne, Sabine; Liess, Matthias
Newly established ponds, which are highly dynamic systems with changing levels of biological interactions among species, are common larval mosquito habitats. We investigated the impact of crustacean abundance and taxa diversity on mosquito oviposition and larval development. The effects of the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on mosquito larvae were monitored according to fluctuations in crustacean communities. Populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens colonized artificial ponds that contained crustacean communities at different time points of colonization by crustaceans: 1) 'no colonization' (no crustaceans), 2) 'simultaneous colonization' by crustaceans and mosquitoes, and 3) 'head-start colonization' by crustaceans (preceding colonization by mosquitoes). All types of ponds were treated with three concentrations of Bti (10, 100, or 1,000 µg/liter). Colonization of all ponds by Cx. pipiens (in terms of oviposition, larval abundance, and larval development) decreased significantly with increasing diversity of crustacean taxa. The total abundance of crustaceans had a minor effect on colonization by Cx. pipiens. The presence of crustaceans increased the sensitivity of Cx. pipiens larvae to Bti treatment by a factor of 10 and delayed the time of recolonization. This effect of Bti was relevant in the short term. In the long term, the presence of Cx. pipiens was determined by crustacean biodiversity. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.
Than, Thet Mon; Saw, Yu Mon; Khaing, Moe; Win, Ei Mon; Cho, Su Myat; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Eiko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki
Cost information is important for efficient allocation of healthcare expenditure, estimating future budget allocation, and setting user fees to start new financing systems. Myanmar is in political transition, and trying to achieve universal health coverage by 2030. This study assessed the unit cost of healthcare services at two public hospitals in the country from the provider perspective. The study also analyzed the cost structure of the hospitals to allocate and manage the budgets appropriately. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at 200-bed Magway Teaching Hospital (MTH) and Pyinmanar General Hospital (PMN GH), in Myanmar, for the financial year 2015-2016. The step-down costing method was applied to calculate unit cost per inpatient day and per outpatient visit. The costs were calculated by using Microsoft Excel 2010. The unit costs per inpatient day varied largely from unit to unit in both hospitals. At PMN GH, unit cost per inpatient day was 28,374 Kyats (27.60 USD) for pediatric unit and 1,961,806 Kyats (1908.37 USD) for ear, nose, and throat unit. At MTH, the unit costs per inpatient day were 19,704 Kyats (19.17 USD) for medicine unit and 168,835 Kyats (164.24 USD) for eye unit. The unit cost of outpatient visit was 14,882 Kyats (14.48 USD) at PMN GH, while 23,059 Kyats (22.43 USD) at MTH. Regarding cost structure, medicines and medical supplies was the largest component at MTH, and the equipment was the largest component at PMN GH. The surgery unit of MTH and the eye unit of PMN GH consumed most of the total cost of the hospitals. The unit costs were influenced by the utilization of hospital services by the patients, the efficiency of available resources, type of medical services provided, and medical practice of the physicians. The cost structures variation was also found between MTH and PMN GH. The findings provided the basic information regarding the healthcare cost of public hospitals which can apply the efficient utilization of the
Full Text Available Background: Preservatives present in cosmetics and other industrial products can cause allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of allergy to selected preservatives in consecutive patients examined due to contact dermatitis in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and to establish whether individuals sensitized to formaldehyde react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers. Material and Methods: A group of 405 patients (308 females and 97 males was examined in 2011–2013. In all participants patch tests with a series of 13 preservatives (paraben mix, formaldehyde, Quaternium 15, chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone mix, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, benzalkonium chloride, sodium metabisulfite, produced by Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden were performed. Results: Of the 405 patients 74 (including 52 females showed positive results of patch tests. Contact allergy to at least 1 preservative was noted in 47 (11.6% patients, including 34 (11% females and 13 (13.4% males. Methylisothiazolinone proved to be the most frequent sensitizer – 4.7% (5.2% females, 3.1% males while parabens, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and imidazolidinyl urea (0.2% were found to be the least frequent. Fourteen (3.4% participants, 10 women and 4 men, were allergic to formaldehyde and/or formaldehyde releasers. In 11 (78.6% of them monovalent hypersensitivity was observed. In 13 (3.2% of the examined group patients allergy to preservatives might have been of occupational origin. Conclusions: Preservatives, particularly isothiazolinones, are significant causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis, including occupational cases. Individuals sensitized to formaldehyde may react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers, however, such reactions are relatively rare. Med Pr 2015;66(3:327–332
Uddhav T Kumbhar, Armaity Dehmubed
Full Text Available Background: Blindness probably is the most feared infirmity of mankind. The blind individuals were considered useless for the centuries till recent development in culture and civilization. Present study was conducted with the aim to study important psychosocial aspects of blinds undergoing formal vocational training in institutes. Objective: to identify candidatesâ€™ psychosocial profile using Self Reporting Questionnaire (S.R.Q.. Materials and Methods: it was a cross sectional study conducted in two vocational training institutes for blinds (one for males and other for females in Mumbai. The individuals were subjected to pre tested S.R.Q. and the individuals found positive with this tool and double the number of matched S.R.Q. negative controls from the institute were subjected to psychiatric examination done by qualified psychiatrist. Analysis: analysis was done using fisherâ€™s exact test and chi square test results: 15 (7.18% blinds were found S.R.Q. positive indicating they either have or prone to have psychiatric morbidity. Conclusion: Psychological rehabilitation of the blinds should be considered before planning the vocational training of blinds.
Full Text Available The paper approaches the paradigmatic changes of the current economic situation, in the context of post-modernism and its challenges, which reconsiders human society according to new criteria. One of the characteristics of post-modernism is the development of information and communication techniques, which allowed the occurrence of the „knowledge-based society” whose consequence is the effervescence of fast barrier-free knowledge, absolute freedom of debates, equality of opportunities before the virtual space, but also the relativisation of information, the increases of the danger of manipulation, misleading, or even falsification of the truth. New challenges occur thus in social life, and especially in the economic one, where the human factor becomes increasingly important for the evolution of society. In this context, education seems to play the decisive part, but an education focused on real values, where the truth and the ethics prevail before efficiency and performance.
L Trnková; J Dršata; I Boušová
Protein oxidation, the process caused especially by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, is thought to play a major role in various oxidative processes within cells and is implicated in the development of many human diseases. This review provides a brief overview of the protein oxidation with the emphasis on the types of oxidation (oxidation of protein backbone and amino acid residues side chains, site-specific metal-catalysed protein oxidation), oxidation-dependent generation of protein hydroperoxides, carbonyl derivatives and protein–protein cross-linkages. Non-enzymatic glycoxidation (also known as Maillard reaction) as an important factor of protein damage, consequences of oxidative protein impairment and related diseases as well as means of monitoring and assessment of protein modifications are discussed.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of three factors of courtesy, generosity and responsibility on human resources development (HRM in one of Iranian auto industries based on Yoon method [Yoon, C. (2009. The effects of organizational citizenship behaviors on ERP system success. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(2, 421-428.]. The study considers whether having a good sense of responsibility improves the quality of information in HRM. It also investigates whether having good courtesy as well as excellence improve HRM and finally the study investigates the effect of excellence on improving innovation in the area of information technology. Using structural equation modeling, the study confirms all hypotheses of the survey and the implementation of Freedman test confirms that courtesy plays the most important effect followed by having a good generosity and responsibility.
Weisberg, Deena Skolnick
Pretend play is a form of playful behavior that involves nonliteral action. Although on the surface this activity appears to be merely for fun, recent research has discovered that children's pretend play has connections to important cognitive and social skills, such as symbolic thinking, theory of mind, and counterfactual reasoning. The current article first defines pretend play and then reviews the arguments and evidence for these three connections. Pretend play has a nonliteral correspondence to reality, hence pretending may provide children with practice with navigating symbolic relationships, which may strengthen their language skills. Pretend play and theory of mind reasoning share a focus on others' mental states in order to correctly interpret their behavior, hence pretending and theory of mind may be mutually supportive in development. Pretend play and counterfactual reasoning both involve representing nonreal states of affairs, hence pretending may facilitate children's counterfactual abilities. These connections make pretend play an important phenomenon in cognitive science: Studying children's pretend play can provide insight into these other abilities and their developmental trajectories, and thereby into human cognitive architecture and its development.
Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; King, Kevin M
Structured observations of parent-child interactions are commonly used in research and clinical settings, but require additional empirical support. The current study examined the capacity of child-directed play, parent-directed play, and parent-directed chore interaction analogs to uniquely predict the development of conduct problems across a 6-year follow-up period. Parent-child observations were collected from 338 families from high-risk neighborhoods during the summer following the child's first-grade year. Participating children were 49.2 % female, 54.4 % white, and 45.6 % black, and had an average age of 7.52 years at the first assessment. Conduct problems were assessed via parent report and teacher report at five assessment points between first grade and seventh grade. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze predictors of conduct problem trajectory across this 6-year follow-up period. When race, sex, socioeconomic status, and maternal depressive symptoms were controlled, parental negative attention during child-directed play predicted higher levels of parent-reported conduct problems concurrently and after a 6-year follow-up period. Parental negative attention during child-directed play also predicted higher teacher-reported conduct problems 6 years later. Findings support the use of child-directed play and parent-directed chore analogs in predicting longitudinal development of conduct problems. The presence of parental negative attention during child-directed play appears to be an especially important predictor of greater conduct problems over time and across multiple domains. Additionally, the potential importance of task-incongruent behavior is proposed for further study.
Pera, Tonio; Sami, Riham; Zaagsma, Johan; Meurs, Herman
Pera T, Sami R, Zaagsma J, Meurs H. TAK1 plays a major role in growth factor-induced phenotypic modulation of airway smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 301: L822-L828, 2011. First published August 26, 2011; doi:10.1152/ajplung.00017.2011.-Increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass is a
M. Alison Balbag
Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports that playing a musical instrument may benefit cognitive development and health at young ages. Whether playing an instrument provides protection against dementia has not been established. In a population-based cotwin control study, we examined the association between playing a musical instrument and whether or not the twins developed dementia or cognitive impairment. Participation in playing an instrument was taken from informant-based reports of twins’ leisure activities. Dementia diagnoses were based on a complete clinical workup using standard diagnostic criteria. Among 157 twin pairs discordant for dementia and cognitive impairment, 27 pairs were discordant for playing an instrument. Controlling for sex, education, and physical activity, playing a musical instrument was significantly associated with less likelihood of dementia and cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36 [95% confidence interval 0.13–0.99]. These findings support further consideration of music as a modifiable protective factor against dementia and cognitive impairment.
Warreyn, Petra; van der Paelt, Sara; Roeyers, Herbert
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder with a lifelong impact on multiple domains of functioning. Often, a diagnosis is possible by 3 years of age. Given the benefits of early intervention, it is advisable to start treatment as soon as possible after the diagnosis has been made. Among other factors, early intervention should focus on social-communicative abilities such as imitation, joint attention, and play. In this review, the typical developmental course and functions of these social-communicative abilities are described, and the problems young children with ASD experience in this domain. In addition, different approaches to promoting these abilities are explained. The authors recommend the inclusion of imitation, joint attention, and play as treatment goals in community settings for children with ASD.
Although much has been written about the role of therapists in children's recovery from child sexual abuse, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of nonoffending parents. This study investigated the work of a team of therapists who sometimes included such parents in therapy sessions with children. The study sought to understand what factors were influencing the degree and pattern of parental involvement and to understand what effect these patterns of parental involvement were having on the process and outcomes of therapy. The study successfully identified a range of factors influencing the patterns of parental involvement, but more research will be needed to understand the effect on outcomes.
F. Camboim Rockett
Full Text Available The present cross-sectional study was designed to assess the frequency of 36 possible triggering factors precipitating a migraine crisis (hormonal, environmental, and dietary in adult outpatients suffering from migraine attacks. A group of 123 migraine sufferers, aged 43.2 ± 13.9 (mean ± SD years, including 114 (92.7% women, 68.3% having migraine without aura, 68.3% reporting pain severe enough to require drug prophylaxis, and 29.3% presenting with hypertension, were evaluated. The most common triggers were stress and fasting, and environmental and hormonal factors were frequently found to precipitate a crisis. More than 90% of the patients reported susceptibility to 5 or more factors, and only 2.4% did not complain about any dietary factor. The large number of triggers detected in the present study emphasises the importance of awareness and avoidance of these factors in the management of patients with migraine.El presente es un estudio transversal que fue diseñado para estimar la frecuencia de 36 posibles factores desencadenantes de iniciar una crisis de migraña (hormonales, ambientales y dietéticos en pacientes adultos ambulatoriales que sufren ataques de migraña. Fue evaluado un grupo de 123 adultos que sufre de migraña, con edades entre 43,2 ± 13,9 (media ± DE, incluyendo 114 (92,7% mujeres con migraña sin aura, 68,3% de las cuales informaron sentir dolor suficiente como para requerir profilaxis con fármacos y 29,3% con hipertensión. Los factores desencadenantes más comunes fueron el estrés y el ayuno; factores ambientales y hormonales fueron también desencadenantes frecuentes. Más del 90% de los pacientes informaron susceptibilidad a 5 o más factores, y sólo el 2,4% no informó de ningún factor dietético. El gran número de factores desencadenantes detectados en el presente estudio enfatiza la importancia del cuidado y la prevención de estos factores en el manejo de pacientes con migraña.
Gonzalez, David; Luyten, Annouck; Bartholdy, Boris; Zhou, Qiling; Kardosova, Miroslava; Ebralidze, Alex; Swanson, Kenneth D; Radomska, Hanna; Zhang, Pu; Kobayashi, Susumu S; Welner, Robert S; Levantini, Elena; Steidl, Ulrich; Chong, Gilbert; Collombet, Samuel; Choi, Min Hee; Friedman, Alan D; Scott, Linda M; Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell; Tenen, Daniel G
The transcription factor (TF) C/EBPα is essential for myeloid differentiation and is frequently dysregulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). While studied extensively, the precise regulation of its gene by upstream factors has remained largely elusive. Here, we investigated its transcriptional activation during myeloid differentiation. We identified an evolutionarily conserved octameric sequence, CCCAGCAG, approximately 100 bases upstream of the CEBPA transcription start site (TSS), and demonstrated through mutational analysis that this sequence is crucial for C/EBPα expression. This sequence is present in the genes encoding C/EBPα in humans, rodents, chicken and frog, and is also present in the promoters of other C/EBP family members. We identified that ZNF143, the human homolog of the Xenopus transcriptional activator STAF, specifically binds to this 8bp sequence to activate C/EBPα expression in myeloid cells through a mechanism that is distinct from that observed in liver cells and adipocytes. Altogether, our data suggests that ZNF143 plays an important role in the expression of C/EBPα in myeloid cells. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study used a large-scale cancer database in determination of prognostic factors for the survival of lung cancer subjects in Taiwan. Methods Total of 24,910 subjects diagnosed with lung cancer was analysed. Survival estimates by Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional-hazards model estimated the death risk (hazard ratio (HR for various prognostic factors. Results The prognostic indicators associated with a higher risk of lung cancer deaths are male gender (males versus females; HR = 1.07, 95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.03–1.11, males diagnosed in later periods (shown in 1991–1994 versus 1987–1990; HR = 1.13, older age at diagnosis, large cell carcinoma (LCC/small cell carcinoma (SCC, and supportive care therapy over chemotherapy. The overall 5-year survival rate for lung cancer death was significantly poorer for males (21.3% than females (23.6%. Subjects with squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC and treatment by surgical resection alone had better prognosis. We find surgical resections to markedly increase 5-year survival rate from LCC, decreased risk of death from LCC, and no improved survival from SCC. Conclusion Gender and clinical characteristics (i.e. diagnostic period, diagnostic age, histological type and treatment modality play important roles in determining lung cancer survival.
Cecchetto, Fátima H; Pena, Daniela B; Pellanda, Lucia C
Childhood obesity is an important health problem worldwide. In this context, there is a need for the development and evaluation of innovative educational interventions targeting prevention and formation of health habits. To ascertain the impact of ludic workshops on children's knowledge, self-care, and body weight. This was a randomized, clinical study with 79 students aged 7-11 years, conducted from March to November 2012. Anthropometric measurements were collected and two questionnaires (Typical Day of Physical Activities and Food Intake, in Portuguese, and the CARDIOKIDS, a questionnaire of knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors) were applied at baseline, at the end of intervention, and three months thereafter. The intervention consisted of eight playful workshops, which involved the presentation of a play. Seventy-nine students were randomized to the intervention (n = 40) or the control group (n = 39). Mean age was 10.0 ± 1.1 years. After eight weeks, the intervention group showed significant improvement in the knowledge score (p teatro. Setenta e nove estudantes foram randomizados para o grupo intervenção (n = 40) ou para o grupo controle (n = 39). A idade média foi 10 ± 1,1 anos. Após oito semanas, o grupo intervenção mostrou uma melhora significativa no escore de conhecimento (p < 0,01). Houve um aumento nos escores de atividade física em ambos os grupos, mas sem diferença entre os grupos no final da intervenção (p=0,209). Observou-se uma redução no percentil do IMC no grupo intervenção, mas não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos após a intervenção. Intervenções lúdicas podem melhorar o conhecimento e níveis de atividade física em crianças e, quando combinadas com outras estratégias, podem ser benéficas na prevenção da obesidade e melhoria do autocuidado.
Xin, Hu-hu; Zhang, Deng-pan; Chen, Rui-ting; Cai, Zi-zheng; Lu, Yan; Liang, Shuang; Miao, Yun-gen
Salivary gland secretion is altered in Drosophila embryos with loss of function of the sage gene. Saliva has a reduced volume and an increased electron density according to transmission electron microscopy, resulting in regions of tube dilation and constriction with intermittent tube closure. However, the precise functions of Bmsage in silkworm (Bombyx mori) are unknown, although its sequence had been deposited in SilkDB. From this, Bmsage is inferred to be a transcription factor that regulates the synthesis of silk fibroin and interacts with another silk gland-specific transcription factor, namely, silk gland factor-1. In this study, we introduced a germline mutation of Bmsage using the Cas9/sgRNA system, a genome-editing technology, resulting in deletion of Bmsage from the genome of B. mori. Of the 15 tested samples, seven displayed alterations at the target site. The mutagenesis efficiency was about 46.7% and there were no obvious off-target effects. In the screened homozygous mutants, silk glands developed poorly and the middle and posterior silk glands (MSG and PSG) were absent, which was significantly different from the wild type. The offspring of G0 mosaic silkworms had indel mutations causing 2- or 9-bp deletions at the target site, but exhibited the same abnormal silk gland structure. Mutant larvae containing different open-reading frames of Bmsage had the same silk gland phenotype. This illustrated that the mutant phenotype was due to Bmsage knockout. We conclude that Bmsage participates in embryonic development of the silk gland.
Full Text Available Many psychophysical characteristics and abilities are important for sports success. One of the most impoertant psychic factors is self-confidence of a sportsman, i.e. trust in his own self and his abilities. The promenent component of self-confidence is a selfconcept i.e. self-awareness. It can be broken down to a self-image, (ego perception, ego ideal and an image of one's own body. Every individual evaluates himeself based on what he would like to be, how the others see him, what he thinks the others see him, on the basis of his personality traits, habits, achieved success, manifest behaviour, thoughts, physical appearance, etc.The purpose of this research is to determine which of the above components are the most important for self-confidence of a sportsman and his success.We have put forward a hypothesis that the major role for the awareness of a sportsman is perception of his own body, hence that there is a difference in self-confidence according to the subjective and objective evaluation of the current level of training and the quality of body movements. We have also assumed that there are those with whom the difference in the self-confidence level can be made easily at the moment when they perform, i.e. when they play a match or have another form of performance as opposed to other situations in life.
现今的社会中，学习钢琴的人越来越多，但是人们往往在钢琴演奏的过程中忽略了情感的表达。在音乐发生的过程中，情感表达却是一个必不可少的因素。因此，在钢琴演奏过程中，只有注重情感的表达才能将乐曲所包含的情感及思想表达得透彻，使听众感受到音乐的美。%In today's society, more and more people to learn to play the piano, but people often ignores the expression of emotion during the course of piano playing .In the process of music, emotional expression is an essential factor. Therefore,in the piano playing procession,only pay attention to the emotional expression can express the contains of music emotions and thoughts,and make the audience feel the beauty of music.
Full Text Available Genetic predisposition and environmental influences insidiously converge to cause glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Beta-cell compensates by secreting more insulin and when it fails, overt diabetes mellitus ensues. The need to understand the mechanisms involved in insulin secretion cannot be stressed enough. Phosphorylation of proteins plays an important role in regulating insulin secretion. In order to understand how a particular cellular process is regulated by protein phosphorylation the nature of the protein kinases and protein phosphatases involved and the mechanisms that determine when and where these enzymes are active should be investigated. While the actions of protein kinases have been intensely studied within the beta-cell, less emphasis has been placed on protein phosphatases even though they play an important regulatory role. This review focuses on the importance of protein phosphatase 2A in insulin secretion. Most of the present knowledge on protein phosphatase 2A originates from protein phosphatase inhibitor studies on islets and beta-cell lines. The ability of protein phosphatase 2A to change its activity in the presence of glucose and inhibitors provides clues to its role in regulating insulin secretion. An aggressive approach to elucidate the substrates and mechanisms of action of protein phosphatases is crucial to the understanding of phosphorylation events within the beta-cell. Characterizing protein phosphatase 2A within the beta-cell will certainly help us in understanding the mechanisms involved in insulin secretion and provide valuable information for drug development.
... 2016 Targeting cardiovascular disease risk factors may be important across a lifetime NIH-funded study suggests efforts ... of those risk factors may be a potential strategy to lower rates of cardiovascular disease across the ...
Full Text Available The increasingly social nature of gaming suggests the importance of understanding its associated experiences and potential outcomes. This study examined the influence of social processes in gameplay and different gaming contexts on the experience of individual and group flow when engaged in the activity. It also examined the affective experiences associated with different types of social gaming. The research consisted of a series of focus groups with regular gamers. The results of the thematic analysis revealed the importance of social belonging, opportunities for social networking and the promotion of social integration for game enjoyment. However, social experiences could also facilitate feelings of frustration in gameplay as a result of poor social dynamics and competitiveness. The analysis furthermore suggested that group flow occurs in social gaming contexts, particularly in cooperative gameplay. A number of antecedents of this shared experience were identified (e.g., collective competence, collaboration, task-relevant skills. Taken together, the findings suggest social gaming contexts enhance the emotional experiences of gaming. The study demonstrates the importance of examining social gaming processes and experiences to further understand their potential influence on associated affective outcomes. Areas of further empirical research are discussed in reference to the study’s findings.
LIU Hai-tao; WANG Hai-chang; TAO Ling; LI Cheng-xiang; LI Fei; ZHANG Yu-yang; LIU Bo-wu
Objective To provide an overview of the current knowledge of growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in heart disease.Data sources To identify relevant publications,we searched PubMED database combining the textual terms of heart,cardiac,cardiovascular disease with GDF-15.Study selection Well-controlled,relatively large-scale,retrospective studies as well as meaningful individual cases were all selected as materials.Results GDF-15 is a distant member of the transforming growth factor-β cytokine superfamily.In myocardium,GDF-15 is weakly expressed under physiological conditions.However,its expression level is increased in response to pathological stress.Growing evidence indicate that elevated levels of GDF-15 is a promising prognostic biomarker in cardiovascular diseases.Moreover,GDF-15 exhibits the properties of endogenous anti-hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and protecting the heart suffering from ischemia and reperfusion insult.Conclusion Ve GDF-15 may be a promising biomarker for evaluation and management of patient with cardiovascular diseases,and have potential protective properties on myocardium.
Abe, Akira; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Takekoshi, Yuka; Shimizu, Takashi; Kitaura, Hirotake; Maita, Hiroshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.; Ariga, Hiroyoshi
Prefoldin is a molecular chaperone composed of six subunits, PFD1–6, and prevents misfolding of newly synthesized nascent polypeptides. Although it is predicted that prefoldin, like other chaperones, modulates protein aggregation, the precise function of prefoldin against protein aggregation under physiological conditions has never been elucidated. In this study, we first established an anti-prefoldin monoclonal antibody that recognizes the prefoldin complex but not its subunits. Using this antibody, it was found that prefoldin was localized in the cytoplasm with dots in co-localization with polyubiquitinated proteins and that the number and strength of dots were increased in cells that had been treated with lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, and thapsigargin, an inducer of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Knockdown of prefoldin increased the level of SDS-insoluble ubiquitinated protein and reduced cell viability in lactacystin and thapsigargin-treated cells. Opposite results were obtained in prefoldin-overexpressed cells. It has been reported that mice harboring a missense mutation L110R of MM-1α/PFD5 exhibit neurodegeneration in the cerebellum. Although the prefoldin complex containing L110R MM-1α was properly formed in vitro and in cells derived from L110R MM-1α mice, the levels of ubiquitinated proteins and cytotoxicity were higher in L110R MM-1α cells than in wild-type cells under normal conditions and were increased by lactacystin and thapsigargin treatment, and growth of L110R MM-1α cells was attenuated. Furthermore, the polyubiquitinated protein aggregation level was increased in the brains of L110R MM-1α mice. These results suggest that prefoldin plays a role in quality control against protein aggregation and that dysfunction of prefoldin is one of the causes of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23946485
Bouchardy, Christine; Verkooijen, Helena M; Fioretta, Gérald
Reasons of the important impact of socioeconomic status on breast cancer prognosis are far from established. This study aims to evaluate and explain the social disparities in breast cancer survival in the Swiss canton of Geneva, where healthcare costs and life expectancy are among the highest in the world. This population-based study included all 3,920 female residents of Geneva, who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer before the age of 70 years between 1980 and 2000. Patients were divided into 4 socioeconomic groups, according to the woman's last occupation. We used Cox multivariate regression analysis to identify reasons for the socioeconomic inequalities in breast cancer survival. Compared to patients of high social class, those of low social class had an increased risk (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.4, 95% CI: 1.6-3.5) of dying as a result of breast cancer. These women were more often foreigners, less frequently had screen-detected cancer and were at more advanced stage at diagnosis. They less frequently underwent breast-conserving surgery, hormonal therapy, and chemotherapy, in particular, in case of axillary lymph node involvement. When adjusting for all these factors, patients of low social class still had a significantly increased risk of dying of breast cancer (HR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.6). Overmortality linked to low SES is only partly explained by delayed diagnosis, unfavorable tumor characteristics and suboptimal treatments. Other factors, not measured in this study, also could play a role. While waiting for the outcome of other researches, we should consider socioeconomic status as an independent prognostic factor and provide intensified support and surveillance to women of low social class. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Ever, Leah; Zhao, Rui-Jing; Eswarakumar, Veraragavan P; Gaiano, Nicholas
We used loss-of-function analysis to determine the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) in telencephalic progenitors, and also to examine interactions between FGFR and Notch signaling. While the telencephalon of FGFR2 mutants appears grossly normal, mutant telencephalic progenitors exhibit altered proliferative behavior in vivo and in vitro. Based upon our prior finding that Notch1 activation increased neurosphere frequency in FGF2, we tested whether this effect is mediated by FGFR1 or FGFR2. We found that Notch1 activation increased neurosphere frequency in cells mutant for either FGFR1 or FGFR2, but had no effect on the reduced size of neurospheres mutant for those receptors. Additional analyses revealed biochemical changes in the adult neocortex mutant for the IIIc isoform of FGFR2, and essential roles for FGFR2 in nasopharynx, eyelid, and cornea development.
Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier
the effector system of EGF. We conclude that Sucralfate does not change the binding of EGF to its receptor, but it is able to bind EGF in a pH dependent manner and at pH below 4.5 virtually all EGF is bound to Sucralfate. In vivo studies in rats with acid-induced gastric ulcers show that sucralfate carries EGF......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a mitogenic peptide synthesized in the submandibular glands and released in saliva. EGF is able to prevent the development of gastrointestinal ulcers in the rat and to accelerate their healing. The present work was undertaken to examine whether Sucralfate acts via...... to the ulcer, and that EGF is available for a longer period of time (3 hours) when EGF and Sucralfate are is given together than when EGF is given alone....
Xie, Xiu-Lan; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Kuang, Sheng; Zhang, Xi-Li; Yin, Xue-Ren; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Kun-Song
Ethylene responsive factors (ERFs) act as critical downstream components of the ethylene signalling pathway in regulating plant development and stress responses. However little is known about its role in regulation of photosynthesis. Here, we identified an ethylene-inducible ERF gene in citrus, CitERF13. Transient over-expression of CitERF13 in N. tabacum leaves, resulted in a significant decrease in net photosynthetic rate. Closer examination of photosynthetic activity of PSII and PSI indicated that CitERF13 overexpression led to declines of Fv/Fm, Y(II) and Y(I). However, change in NPQ was less pronounced. CitERF13 overexpression also significantly reduced Vc,max, Jmax and AQY, indicating inhibition of the Calvin cycle. The expression of photosynthesis-related genes was suppressed to a variable extent in leaf blades transiently over-expressing CitERF13. CitERF13 transient overexpression in tobacco or citrus both resulted in a decline of Chlorophyll content and CitERF13 overexpressing tobacco leaf disc was more susceptible to chlorosis in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress. The results suggest that CitERF13 is potentially involved in suppressing photosynthesis through multiple pathways, for instance, inhibiting photochemical activity of photosynthesis, CO2 carboxylation capacity and chlorophyll metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Consumer behavior plays an important role on purchasing goods and services from food chain stores. In this paper, we present a study to detect important factors impacting consumer behavior on Iranian food industry, named Shahrvand. The proposed study selects 384 customers who made some purchases during the year of 2012. Structural equation modeling has been performed to detect important factors influencing compulsive buying including emotional instability, attractive appearance, social recognition, financial success. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for these four mentioned items were well above 0.80, which validated the overall questionnaire of the survey. The results of our survey have confirmed that all four independent variable influenced positively on compulsive buy, significantly.
Iida, M; Brand, T M; Campbell, D A; Li, C; Wheeler, D L
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a central regulator of tumor progression in human cancers. Cetuximab is an anti-EGFR antibody that has been approved for use in oncology. Previously we investigated mechanisms of resistance to cetuximab using a model derived from the non-small cell lung cancer line NCI-H226. We demonstrated that cetuximab-resistant clones (Ctx(R)) had increased nuclear localization of the EGFR. This process was mediated by Src family kinases (SFKs), and nuclear EGFR had a role in resistance to cetuximab. To better understand SFK-mediated nuclear translocation of EGFR, we investigated which SFK member(s) controlled this process as well as the EGFR tyrosine residues that are involved. Analyses of mRNA and protein expression indicated upregulation of the SFK members Yes (v-Yes-1 yamaguchi sarcoma viral oncogene) and Lyn (v-yes-1 Yamaguchi sarcoma viral-related oncogene homolog) in all Ctx(R) clones. Further, immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that EGFR interacts with Yes and Lyn in Ctx(R) clones, but not in cetuximab-sensitive (Ctx(S)) parental cells. Using RNAi interference, we found that knockdown of either Yes or Lyn led to loss of EGFR translocation to the nucleus. Conversely, overexpression of Yes or Lyn in low nuclear EGFR-expressing Ctx(S) parental cells led to increased nuclear EGFR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed nuclear EGFR complexes associated with the promoter of the known EGFR target genes B-Myb and iNOS. Further, all Ctx(R) clones exhibited upregulation of B-Myb and iNOS at the mRNA and protein levels. siRNAs directed at Yes or Lyn led to decreased binding of EGFR complexes to the B-Myb and iNOS promoters based on ChIP analyses. SFKs have been shown to phosphorylate EGFR on tyrosines 845 and 1101 (Y845 and Y1101), and mutation of Y1101, but not Y845, impaired nuclear entry of the EGFR. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Yes and Lyn phosphorylate EGFR at Y1101, which influences EGFR
Sonne, Si Brask; Hoei-Hansen, C E; Fisher, J S
development, and may be provoked by external factors such as endocrine disruptors in addition to genetic predisposition. Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), considered the most severe symptom of TDS, have increased in incidence during the last 60 years, to become the most common malignancy in young...... (DBP) suggesting that ubiquitously present environmental endocrine disruptors may play a role in the aetiology of human TDS. So far, no animal model has been able to mimick all the symptoms of TDS including TGCTs although CIS-like cells have been found in a spontaneous testicular neoplasm in a rabbit....
Stankevicius, Deividas; Jady, Hawraa Amira; Drachen, Anders
experience, motivation and enjoyment, yet difficult to measure. These concepts were conceptualized into different factors and thereby it was identified which of them are re-lated. This resulted in a synthesized model that was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior model. This model takes into account......This paper explores the concept of Continuation Desire fur-ther by investigating the behavioral intent of players’ desire to keep playing. User experience is a complex, multifaceted topic, which is commonly studied through different aspects namely engagement, continuation desire, immersion, flow...
Full Text Available PepT1 is a member of the proton-oligopeptide cotransporter family SLC15, which mediates the transport of di/tripeptides from intestinal lumen into epithelial cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a small noncoding RNAs (21-23 nucleotides, post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding to the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs of their target mRNAs. Although the role of most miRNAs remains elusive, they have been implicated in vital cellular functions such as intestinal epithelial cells differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of intestinal epithelial PepT1 expression on microRNA (miRNA expression/secretion in the colons of control mice and in mice with experimentally induced colonic inflammation (colitis. The colonic miRNA expression was deregulated in both colitis and control mice but the deregulation of miRNA expression/secretion was specific to colonic tissue and did not affect other tissues such as spleen and liver. Intestinal epithelial PepT1-dependent deregulation of colonic miRNA expression not only affects epithelial cells but also other cell types, such as intestinal macrophages. Importantly, we found the miRNA 23b which was known to be involved in inflammatory bowel disease was secreted and transported between cells to impose a gene-silencing effect on recipient intestinal macrophages. Based on our data, we may conclude that the expression of a specific protein, PepT1, in the intestine affects local miRNA expression/secretion in the colon on a tissue specific manner and may play an important role during the induction and progression of colitis. Colonic miRNA expression/secretion, regulated by intestinal epithelial PepT1, could play a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication during colitis.
Full Text Available Customer purchasing behavior plays an essential role on marketing planning in today’s competitive environment. Immediate purchasing behavior is one of the most important components of purchasing behavior. In this paper, we use factor analysis to extract important factors influencing immediate purchasing behavior.The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire including 35 questions and through basic investigation, the questions are reduced to 21 ones. The questionnaire is distributed among 200 regular customers and 149 questionnaires have been collected. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.804, which is well above the minimum desirable level of 0.7. The survey is conducted among regular customers who normally make purchases from Shahrvand food chains in city of Tehran, Iran. The results of factor analysis reveals four major factors including intelligence pricing strategy, involvement, promotion margin and consumer behavior. The proposed study of this paper considers “intelligence pricing strategy” for the first time as an important factor in consumer’s purchasing behavior.
Wang, Li; Qin, Wenhan; Zhou, Yaying; Chen, Bin; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Hailin; Mi, Emma; Mi, Ella; Wang, Qingmei; Ning, Jiaolin
Povidone-iodine (PVI) is principally used as an antimicrobial agent. It has been found that 0.5% PVI can attenuate congestion, edema and pain induced by pressure sores. Thus this study aimed to assess the effects of 0.5% PVI on acute skin wounds. Four full-thickness excisional wounds were generated on the dorsal skin of male Sprague-Dawley rats with a 10-mm sterile punch. Two wounds were left untreated and the other two were dressed with gauze with 0.5% PVI for 1 hour per day for the first 5 days after injury. 10-mm full-thickness excisional wounds were also generated on the dorsal skin of rats treated with 10 mg/kg SB431542 and all wounds were treated with 0.5% PVI for 5 days. PVI treatment enhanced wound healing via promotion of expression of α SMA and TGF β, neovascularization and re-epithelialization. Interleukin 6 was reduced following PVI treatment. Inhibition of TGF β abolished the effect of PVI treatment on wound closure. These data show that topical application of 0.5% PVI could promote acute skin wound healing though increased expression of TGF β leading to enhanced formation of granulation tissue, even in the absence of obvious infection.
Kaur, Gurpreet; Delluc-Clavieres, Aurelie; Poon, Ivan K H; Forwood, Jade K; Glover, Dominic J; Jans, David A
The HMG (high-mobility group)-box-containing chromatin-remodelling factor SRY (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) plays a key role in sex determination. Its role in the nucleus is critically dependent on two NLSs (nuclear localization signals) that flank its HMG domain: the C-terminally located 'beta-NLS' that mediates nuclear transport through Impbeta1 (importin beta1) and the N-terminally located 'CaM-NLS' which is known to recognize the calcium-binding protein CaM (calmodulin). In the present study, we examined a number of missense mutations in the SRY CaM-NLS from human XY sex-reversed females for the first time, showing that they result in significantly reduced nuclear localization of GFP (green fluorescent protein)-SRY fusion proteins in transfected cells compared with wild-type. The CaM antagonist CDZ (calmidazolium chloride) was found to significantly reduce wild-type SRY nuclear accumulation, indicating dependence of SRY nuclear import on CaM. Intriguingly, the CaM-NLS mutants were all resistant to CDZ's effects, implying a loss of interaction with CaM, which was confirmed by direct binding experiments. CaM-binding/resultant nuclear accumulation was the only property of SRY found to be impaired by two of the CaM-NLS mutations, implying that inhibition of CaM-dependent nuclear import is the basis of sex reversal in these cases. Importantly, the CaM-NLS is conserved in other HMG-box-domain-containing proteins such as SOX-2, -9, -10 and HMGN1, all of which were found for the first time to rely on CaM for optimal nuclear localization. CaM-dependent nuclear translocation is thus a common mechanism for this family of important transcription factors.
Johnson, Earl E; Mueller, H Gustav; Ricketts, Todd A
To determine the amount of importance audiologists place on various items related to their selection of a preferred hearing aid brand manufacturer. Three hundred forty-three hearing aid-dispensing audiologists rated a total of 32 randomized items by survey methodology. Principle component analysis identified seven orthogonal statistical factors of importance. In rank order, these factors were Aptitude of the Brand, Image, Cost, Sales and Speed of Delivery, Exposure, Colleague Recommendations, and Contracts and Incentives. While it was hypothesized that differences among audiologists in the importance ratings of these factors would dictate their preference for a given brand, that was not our finding. Specifically, mean ratings for the six most important factors did not differ among audiologists preferring different brands. A statistically significant difference among audiologists preferring different brands was present, however, for one factor: Contracts and Incentives. Its assigned importance, though, was always lower than that for the other six factors. Although most audiologists have a preferred hearing aid brand, differences in the perceived importance of common factors attributed to brands do not largely determine preference for a particular brand.
Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dongyang; Yin, Qi; Wang, Dan; Jin, Xiang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Liming; Sun, Yong; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Peng, Ming
Cassava is one of the most important root crops as a reliable source of food and carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation in cassava storage root is a cascade process that includes large amounts of proteins and cofactors. Here, comparative proteomics were conducted in cassava root at nine developmental stages. A total of 154 identified proteins were found to be differentially expressed during starch accumulation and root tuberization. Many enzymes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly up-regulated, and functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated that the majority were binding-related enzymes. Many proteins were took part in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy. Among them, three 14-3-3 isoforms were induced to be clearly phosphorylated during storage root enlargement. Overexpression of a cassava 14-3-3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the older leaves of these transgenic plants contained higher sugar and starch contents than the wild-type leaves. The 14-3-3 proteins and their binding enzymes may play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root tuberization. These results not only deepened our understanding of the tuberous root proteome, but also uncovered new insights into carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root enlargement.
Bolin, Kristian; Lindgren, Anna; Lindgren, Björn; Lundborg, Petter
We analysed the relative importance of individual versus institutional factors in explaining variations in the utilisation of physician services among the 50+ in ten European countries. The importance of the latter was investigated, distinguishing between organisational (explicit) and cultural (implicit) institutional factors, by analysing the influence of supply side factors, such as physician density and physician reimbursement, and demand side factors, such as co-payment and gate-keeping, while controlling for a number of individual characteristics, using cross-national individual-level data from SHARE. Individual differences in health status accounted for about 50% of the between-country variation in physician visits, while the organisational and cultural factors considered each accounted for about 15% of the variation. The organisational variables showed the expected signs, with higher physician density being associated with more visits and higher co-payment, gate-keeping, and salary reimbursement being associated with less visits. When analysing specialist visits separately, however, organisational and cultural factors played a greater role, each accounting for about 30% of the between-country variation, whereas individual health differences only accounted for 11% of the variation.
Surveys most important intellectual abilities for physics students. Found four factors: visualization; mathematics; logic; and problem solving. Explores the variations between respondent classification (researcher, teacher) and student goal (physicist, scientifically aware layman) on the ratings. (Author/YP)
Barbur, Laura; Shuman, Cindy; Sanderson, Michael W; Grauer, Gregory F
The purpose of the present study was (1) to determine if students from one veterinary school who participated in a mentoring/employment program with clinical faculty were more likely to pursue internship training than their peers and (2) to determine factors via survey that were influential to veterinary interns in making their decision to pursue post-graduate clinical training. Our hypothesis was that a mentoring relationship with clinical faculty was an important influence on the decision to participate in an internship. From 2006 to 2010, graduating students who participated in a mentoring/employment program with a clinical faculty member were 6.3 times more likely than non-participating students to pursue an internship. The majority of the participating students (90%) were initially hired/mentored as first- or second-year veterinary students. In the survey, interns ranked clinical faculty as having a greater influence than basic science faculty, private practice veterinarians, or house officers on their decision to pursue an internship; 82.8% reported that clinical faculty were most responsible for encouraging them to apply for an internship. Employment by their veterinary teaching hospital (41.5%) or directly by clinical faculty (26.2%) was commonly reported. Most interns (37%) decided to pursue an internship during their fourth year of veterinary school, 29.2% decided during their first year, and 15.3% decided in their second year. These results suggest that clinical faculty play a key role in a student's decision to pursue an internship and that it might be valuable to inform students about internships early in the veterinary curriculum.
Mellough, Carla B; Collin, Joseph; Khazim, Mahmoud; White, Kathryn; Sernagor, Evelyne; Steel, David H W; Lako, Majlinda
We and others have previously demonstrated that retinal cells can be derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells under defined culture conditions. While both cell types can give rise to retinal derivatives in the absence of inductive cues, this requires extended culture periods and gives lower overall yield. Further understanding of this innate differentiation ability, the identification of key factors that drive the differentiation process, and the development of clinically compatible culture conditions to reproducibly generate functional neural retina is an important goal for clinical cell based therapies. We now report that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) can orchestrate the formation of three-dimensional ocular-like structures from hESCs which, in addition to retinal pigmented epithelium and neural retina, also contain primitive lens and corneal-like structures. Inhibition of IGF-1 receptor signaling significantly reduces the formation of optic vesicle and optic cups, while exogenous IGF-1 treatment enhances the formation of correctly laminated retinal tissue composed of multiple retinal phenotypes that is reminiscent of the developing vertebrate retina. Most importantly, hESC-derived photoreceptors exhibit advanced maturation features such as the presence of primitive rod- and cone-like photoreceptor inner and outer segments and phototransduction-related functional responses as early as 6.5 weeks of differentiation, making these derivatives promising candidates for cell replacement studies and in vitro disease modeling.
Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Bettonvil, B.; Persson, F.
Screening in simulation experiments to find the most important factors, from a very large number of factors, is discussed. The method of sequential bifurcation in the presence of random noise is described and is demonstrated through a case study from the mobile telecommunications industry. The case
Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Bettonvil, B.; Persson, F.
Screening in simulation experiments to find the most important factors, from a very large number of factors, is discussed. The method of sequential bifurcation in the presence of random noise is described and is demonstrated through a case study from the mobile telecommunications industry. The case
Mutasem Sh. Alkhasawneh
Full Text Available Landslide is one of the natural disasters that occur in Malaysia. Topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, general curvature, plan curvature, and profile curvature are considered as the main causes of landslides. In order to determine the dominant topographic factors in landslide mapping analysis, a study was conducted and presented in this paper. There are three main stages involved in this study. The first stage is the extraction of extra topographic factors. Previous landslide studies had identified mainly six topographic factors. Seven new additional factors have been proposed in this study. They are longitude curvature, tangential curvature, cross section curvature, surface area, diagonal line length, surface roughness, and rugosity. The second stage is the specification of the weight of each factor using two methods. The methods are multilayer perceptron (MLP network classification accuracy and Zhou's algorithm. At the third stage, the factors with higher weights were used to improve the MLP performance. Out of the thirteen factors, eight factors were considered as important factors, which are surface area, longitude curvature, diagonal length, slope angle, elevation, slope aspect, rugosity, and profile curvature. The classification accuracy of multilayer perceptron neural network has increased by 3% after the elimination of five less important factors.
Alkhasawneh, Mutasem Sh; Ngah, Umi Kalthum; Tay, Lea Tien; Mat Isa, Nor Ashidi; Al-batah, Mohammad Subhi
Landslide is one of the natural disasters that occur in Malaysia. Topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, general curvature, plan curvature, and profile curvature are considered as the main causes of landslides. In order to determine the dominant topographic factors in landslide mapping analysis, a study was conducted and presented in this paper. There are three main stages involved in this study. The first stage is the extraction of extra topographic factors. Previous landslide studies had identified mainly six topographic factors. Seven new additional factors have been proposed in this study. They are longitude curvature, tangential curvature, cross section curvature, surface area, diagonal line length, surface roughness, and rugosity. The second stage is the specification of the weight of each factor using two methods. The methods are multilayer perceptron (MLP) network classification accuracy and Zhou's algorithm. At the third stage, the factors with higher weights were used to improve the MLP performance. Out of the thirteen factors, eight factors were considered as important factors, which are surface area, longitude curvature, diagonal length, slope angle, elevation, slope aspect, rugosity, and profile curvature. The classification accuracy of multilayer perceptron neural network has increased by 3% after the elimination of five less important factors.
Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel
, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty......, the aesthetics of play through action; political play -- from Maradona's goal against England in the 1986 World Cup to the hactivist activities of Anonymous; the political, aesthetic, and moral activity of game design; and why play and computers get along so well....
Jiang, Zhi; Hu, Shuijun; Hua, Dong; Ni, Jianlong; Xu, Lan; Ge, Yan; Zhou, Yinghui; Cheng, Zhihong; Wu, Shiliang
Aberrant carbohydration by related glycosyl-transferases plays an important role in the progression of cancer. This study focused on the ablity of β-1,3-N-acetyl-glucosaminyltransferase-8 (β3GnT8) to regulate MMP-2 expression through regulation of the CD147 signal transduction pathway in cancer cells. β3GnT8 catalyzes and then extends a polylactosamine chain specifically on β1-6-branched tetraantennary N-glycans. CD147 is a major carrier of β1-6-branched polylactosamine sugars on tumor cells, and the high glycoform of CD147 (HG-CD147) induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production. In the present study, we analyzed β3GnT8 mRNA expression in 6 cancer cell lines (MCF-7, M231, LN229, U87, SGC-7901 and U251). We found that β3GnT8 expression in the LN229, SGC-7901 and U251 cell lines was higher than that in the other cell lines. Therefore, we established β3GnT8-knockdown cell lines derived from the LN229 and SGC-7901 cell lines to examine the level of polylactosamine and CD147 N-glycosylation. In addition, tunicamycin is widely used as an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation. Hence, various concentrations of tunicamycin were used to treat the cells in order to study its influence on CD147 N-glycosylation and MMP-2 expression. In conclusion, we found that β3GnT8 regulated the level of N-glycans on CD147 and that N-glycosylation of CD147 has an important effect on MMP-2 expression. Our findings suggest that β3GnT8 affects the signal transduction pathway of MMP-2 by altering the N-glycan structure of CD147.
Xu, Wenzhong; Dai, Wentao; Yan, Huili; Li, Sheng; Shen, Hongling; Chen, Yanshan; Xu, Hua; Sun, Yangyang; He, Zhenyan; Ma, Mi
In Arabidopsis, the nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily of aquaporin proteins consists of nine members, five of which (NIP1;1, NIP1;2, NIP5;1, NIP6;1, and NIP7;1) were previously identified to be permeable to arsenite. However, the roles of NIPs in the root-to-shoot translocation of arsenite in plants remain poorly understood. In this study, using reverse genetic strategies, Arabidopsis NIP3;1 was identified to play an important role in both the arsenic uptake and root-to-shoot distribution under arsenite stress conditions. The nip3;1 loss-of-function mutants displayed obvious improvements in arsenite tolerance for aboveground growth and accumulated less arsenic in shoots than those of the wild-type plants, whereas the nip3;1 nip1;1 double mutant showed strong arsenite tolerance and improved growth of both roots and shoots under arsenite stress conditions. A promoter-β-glucuronidase analysis revealed that NIP3;1 was expressed almost exclusively in roots (with the exception of the root tips), and heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrated that NIP3;1 was able to mediate arsenite transport. Taken together, our results suggest that NIP3;1 is involved in arsenite uptake and root-to-shoot translocation in Arabidopsis, probably as a passive and bidirectional arsenite transporter.
Full Text Available Plants usually experience dynamic fluctuations of light intensities under natural conditions. However, the responses of mesophyll conductance, CO2 assimilation, and photorespiration to light fluctuation are not well understood. To address this question, we measured photosynthetic parameters of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in tobacco leaves at 2-min intervals while irradiance levels alternated between 100 and 1200 μmol photons m-2 s-1. Compared with leaves exposed to a constant light of 1200 μmol photons m-2 s-1, both stomatal and mesophyll conductances were significantly restricted in leaves treated with fluctuating light condition. Meanwhile, CO2 assimilation rate and electron flow devoted to RuBP carboxylation at 1200 μmol photons m-2 s-1 under fluctuating light were limited by the low chloroplast CO2 concentration. Analysis based on the C3 photosynthesis model indicated that, at 1200 μmol photons m-2 s-1 under fluctuating light, the CO2 assimilation rate was limited by RuBP carboxylation. Electron flow devoted to RuBP oxygenation at 1200 μmol photons m-2 s-1 under fluctuating light remained at nearly the maximum level throughout the experimental period. We conclude that fluctuating light restricts CO2 assimilation by decreasing both stomatal and mesophyll conductances. Under such conditions, photorespiration plays an important role in the regulation of photosynthetic electron flow.
Kimura, Louise F; Prezotto-Neto, José Pedro; Távora, Bianca C L F; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L; Pereira, Nicole A; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Jared, Simone G S; Teixeira, Catarina F P; Santoro, Marcelo L; Barbaro, Katia C
This work aimed to investigate mechanisms underlying the inflammatory response caused by Potamotrygon motoro stingray venom (PmV) in mouse paws. Pre-treatment of animals with a mast cell degranulation inhibitor (cromolyn) diminished edema (62% of inhibition) and leukocyte influx into the site of PmV injection. Promethazine (histamine type 1 receptor antagonist) or thioperamide (histamine type 3 and 4 receptor antagonist) also decreased edema (up to 30%) and leukocyte numbers, mainly neutrophils (40-50 %). Cimetidine (histamine type 2 receptor antagonist) had no effect on PmV-induced inflammation. In the RBL-2H3 lineage of mast cells, PmV caused proper cell activation, in a dose-dependent manner, with release of PGD2 and PGE2. In addition, the role of COXs products on PmV inflammatory response was evaluated. Indomethacin (COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor) or etoricoxib (COX-2 inhibitor) partially diminished edema (around 20%) in PmV-injected mice. Indomethacin, but not etoricoxib, modulated neutrophil influx into the site of venom injection. In conclusion, mast cell degranulation and histamine, besides COXs products, play an important role in PmV-induced reaction. Since PmV mechanism of action remains unknown, hindering accurate treatment, clinical studies can be performed to validate the prescription of antihistaminic drugs, besides NSAIDs, to patients injured by freshwater stingrays.
Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a variety of hosts, causing significant diseases in livestock and humans. The invasive forms of the parasites invade their host cells by gliding motility, an active process driven by parasite adhesion proteins and molecular motors. A crucial point during host cell invasion is the formation of a ring-shaped area of intimate contact between the parasite and the host known as a tight junction. As the invasive zoite propels itself into the host-cell, the junction moves down the length of the parasite. This process must be tightly regulated and signalling is likely to play a role in this event. One crucial protein for tight-junction formation is the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1. Here we have investigated the phosphorylation status of this key player in the invasion process in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We show that the cytoplasmic tail of P. falciparum AMA1 is phosphorylated at serine 610. We provide evidence that the enzyme responsible for serine 610 phosphorylation is the cAMP regulated protein kinase A (PfPKA. Importantly, mutation of AMA1 serine 610 to alanine abrogates phosphorylation of AMA1 in vivo and dramatically impedes invasion. In addition to shedding unexpected new light on AMA1 function, this work represents the first time PKA has been implicated in merozoite invasion.
Lee, Yih-Shiunn; Chen, Shu-Wen; Chen, Shih-Hao; Chen, Wen-Chiao; Lau, Ming-Jye; Hsu, Tzu-Liang
Ninety-eight pilon fractures associated with ipsilateral distal fibular fracture were included in this study. The pilon fractures were treated by open reduction and plating. The 98 fractures were divided into three groups based on the treatment method of fractured fibula. Group A was composed of 50 fibular fractures treated by open reduction and plate fixation. Group B was composed of 23 fibular fractures treated by open reduction and pin fixation. Group C was composed of 25 fibular fractures treated conservatively by closed reduction. The radiographs were reviewed for adequacy of fracture reduction and posttraumatic arthrosis. At the end of follow-up, the clinical outcomes were evaluated using a rating scale. The three groups were similar in respect to Ruedi type, open fracture grade, and demographics (all p values >0.25). Group A showed a decreasing trend of malunion and ankle arthrosis compared to group C (p = 0.091 and p = 0.099, respectively). Group A had a better clinical outcome than group C (p = 0.008). In addition, group A showed an increasing trend of satisfactory outcome compared to group B (p = 0.096). In conclusion, for pilon fractures associated with ipsilateral fibular fractures, stabilisation of the fractured fibula plays an important role in the decrease of distal tibial malunion and post-traumatic ankle arthrosis as well as improvement of clinical outcomes.
Full Text Available Cyt2Aa2 is a mosquito larvicidal and cytolytic toxin producedby Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis. The toxin becomesinactive when isoleucine at position 150 was replacedby alanine. To investigate the functional role of this position,Ile150 was substituted with Leu, Phe, Glu and Lys. All mutantproteins were produced at high level, solubilized in carbonatebuffer and yielded protease activated product similar to thoseof the wild type. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra analysis suggestedthat these mutants retain similar folding to the wildtype. However, mosquito larvicidal and hemolytic activitiesdramatically decreased for the I150K and were completelyabolished for I150A and I150F mutants. Membrane bindingand oligomerization assays demonstrated that only I150E andI150L could bind and form oligomers on lipid membrane similarto that of the wild type. Our results suggest that amino acidat position 150 plays an important role during membranebinding and oligomerization of Cyt2Aa2 toxin. [BMB Reports2013; 46(3: 175-180
Kawano, Toshiaki; Hirano, Takashi; Kodama, Satoru; Mitsui, Marcelo Takahiro; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Nishizono, Akira; Suzuki, Masashi
Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative aerobic diplococcus that is currently the third most frequent cause of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM) in children. In this study, we developed an experimental murine AOM model by inoculating M. catarrhalis in the middle ear bulla and studied the local response to this inoculation, and modulation of its course by the pili of M. catarrhalis. The pili-positive and pili-negative M. catarrhalis showed differences in bacterial clearance and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the middle ear. Pili-negative M. catarrhalis induced a more delayed and prolonged immune response in the middle ear than that of pili-positive M. catarrhalis. TLR2, -4, -5 and -9 mRNA expression was upregulated in neutrophils that infiltrated the middle ear cavity during AOM caused by both pili-positive and pili-negative bacteria. TLR5 mRNA expression and TLR5 protein in the neutrophils were induced more robustly by pili-positive M. catarrhalis. This immune response is likely to be related to neutrophil function such as toll-like 5-dependent phagocytosis. Our results show that mice may provide a useful AOM model for studying the role of M. catarrhalis. Furthermore, we show that pili play an important role in enhancing M. catarrhalis clearance from the middle ear that is probably mediated through neutrophil-dependent TLR5 signaling.
Ebrahimi, Shima; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas A; Akhavan, Maziar M
The beneficial effects of physical activity and exercise on brain functions such as improvement in learning and memory are well documented. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the beta-adrenergic system in voluntary exercise-induced enhancement of learning and memory in rat. In order to block the beta-adrenergic receptors, the animals were received propranolol (a beta-blocker), or nadolol (a peripherally acting beta-blocker) before each night of five consecutive nights of exercise. Then their learning and memory were tested on the water maze task using a two-trials-per-day for 5 consecutive days. A probe trial was performed 2 days after the last training day. Our results showed that propranolol, but not nadolol reversed the exercise-induced improvement in learning and memory in rat. Our findings indicate that central beta-adrenergic receptors play an important role in mediating the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on learning and memory.
Huang, Wei; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao
Plants usually experience dynamic fluctuations of light intensities under natural conditions. However, the responses of mesophyll conductance, CO2 assimilation, and photorespiration to light fluctuation are not well understood. To address this question, we measured photosynthetic parameters of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in tobacco leaves at 2-min intervals while irradiance levels alternated between 100 and 1200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). Compared with leaves exposed to a constant light of 1200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), both stomatal and mesophyll conductances were significantly restricted in leaves treated with fluctuating light condition. Meanwhile, CO2 assimilation rate and electron flow devoted to RuBP carboxylation at 1200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) under fluctuating light were limited by the low chloroplast CO2 concentration. Analysis based on the C3 photosynthesis model indicated that, at 1200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) under fluctuating light, the CO2 assimilation rate was limited by RuBP carboxylation. Electron flow devoted to RuBP oxygenation at 1200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) under fluctuating light remained at nearly the maximum level throughout the experimental period. We conclude that fluctuating light restricts CO2 assimilation by decreasing both stomatal and mesophyll conductances. Under such conditions, photorespiration plays an important role in the regulation of photosynthetic electron flow.
Eloy, Ygor R G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Barreto, Ana L H; Freire-Filho, Francisco R; Oliveira, Jose T A
Plant-fungus interactions usually generate H(2)O(2) in the infected plant tissue. H(2)O(2) has a direct antimicrobial effect and is involved in the cross-linking of cell walls, signaling, induction of gene expression, hypersensitive cell death and induced systemic acquired resistance. This has raised the hypothesis that H(2)O(2) manipulation by pharmacological compounds could alter the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with the BR-3-Tracuateua cowpea genotype. The primary leaves of cowpea were excised, infiltrated with salicylic acid (SA), glucose oxidase + glucose (GO/G), catalase (CAT) or diphenyliodonium chloride (DPI), followed by spore inoculation on the adaxial leaf surface. SA or GO/G-treated plantlets showed increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and lipid peroxidation. The fungus used a subcuticular, intramural necrotrophic strategy, and developed secondary hyphae associated with the quick spread and rapid killing of host cells. However, CAT or DPI-treated leaves exhibited decreased H(2)O(2) concentration and lipid peroxidation and the fungus developed intracellular hemibiotrophic infection with vesicles, in addition to primary and secondary hyphal formation. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) plays an important role in the cowpea (C. gloeosporioides) pathosystem given that it affected fungal lifestyle during interaction.
Full Text Available Brand loyalty is one of the most important factors influencing on the success of retail stores. Many retail stores in the field of sport shoes in city of Tehran, Iran are facing tight competition and there seems to be that only stores with loyal customers could survive. In this paper, we present an exploration study to find out important factors influencing retail stores selling one of well-known sport shows such as Adidas, Nike, etc. in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes among 265 regular customers of these stores and analyze them using factor analysis. The results indicate that there were four important factors influencing customer loyalty including brand identification, brand promotion, brand loyalty and characterization of stores.
As part of a longitudinal study, infant/toddler pretend play development and maternal play modelling were investigated in dyadic context. A total of 21 children were videotaped in monthly play sessions with their mothers, from age 8 to 17 months. Child and mother pretend play frequencies and levels were measured using Brown's Pretend Play…
As part of a longitudinal study, infant/toddler pretend play development and maternal play modelling were investigated in dyadic context. A total of 21 children were videotaped in monthly play sessions with their mothers, from age 8 to 17 months. Child and mother pretend play frequencies and levels were measured using Brown's Pretend Play…
Thome-Souza, Sigride; Kuczynski, Evelyn; Assumpção, Francisco; Rzezak, Patricia; Fuentes, Daniel; Fiore, Lia; Valente, Kette D
Physicians have become aware of the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders (PDs) in children and adolescents with epilepsy; however, there are many controversies as to which factors may have an important role in the different types of PD. This study was designed to assess the main PD; verify the age of onset compared with the age of diagnosis of the PD; and determine which factors may be correlated with the type of PD described. For this purpose, a multidisciplinary team evaluated children and adolescents (4-18 years) with epilepsy and analyzed patient-related factors such as age (grouped according to Piaget's cognitive scale: 13 years), sex, family history of PDs, and cognitive status. With respect to epilepsy features, we considered age of onset, duration, seizure control at the time of psychiatric evaluation, refractoriness, antiepileptic drugs (mono- vs polytherapy), seizure type (generalized vs focal), and epilepsy type (idiopathic vs symptomatic/probably symptomatic). Depression occurred in 36.4% and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 29.1%, these being the most frequent PDs in this series. Focal epilepsy was significantly more frequent in children and adolescents with PDs. As to the type of PD, age was an important factor, with a predominance of ADHD in children and depression in adolescents (P<0.0001). Family history was contributory for depression, but not for others PDs (P<0.0001). Depression remained underdiagnosed and untreated for a longer period. Impact of early diagnosis and treatment remains unknown.
Megan A Carter
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between local environmental factors with child weight status in a longitudinal study, using a semi-parametric, group-based method, while also considering social and early life factors. METHODS: Standardized, directly measured BMI from 4-10 y of age, and group-based trajectory modeling (PROC TRAJ were used to estimate developmental trajectories of weight change in a Québec birth cohort (n = 1,566. Associations between the weight trajectories and living location, social cohesion, disorder, and material and social deprivation were estimated after controlling for social and early life factors. RESULTS: FOUR WEIGHT TRAJECTORY GROUPS WERE ESTIMATED: low-increasing (9.7%; low-medium, accelerating (36.2%; medium-high, increasing (43.0%; and high-stable (11.1%. In the low-increasing and medium-high trajectory groups, living in a semi-urban area was inversely related to weight, while living in a rural area was positively related to weight in the high-stable group. Disorder was inversely related to weight in the low-increasing group only. Other important risk factors for high-stable weight included obesity status of the mother, smoking during pregnancy, and overeating behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, associations between local environment factors and weight differed by trajectory group. Early life factors appear to play a more consistent role in weight status. Further work is needed to determine the influence of place on child weight.
Full Text Available One of the most important issues in increasing customers' needs is to increase the quality of services through providing better quality services. Customer satisfaction is one of the primary requirements to meet people's needs and to have an efficient customer relationship management (CRM we need to detect the most important factors influencing efficiency and effectiveness in banking industry. In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect these factors in one of private banks in Iran. The proposed study of this paper tries to reach three objectives. We first detect important factors, which build customers' perception towards CRM, then we detect all influencing factors, which impact CRM, and finally, we evaluate the impact of CRM towards brand equity. The proposed study first designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 386 customers. Using structural equation modeling and certified factor analysis, we analyze the results. The results indicate that three factors including information, employee job behavior and suggestions and other factor have meaningful impact on customer brand equity. However, the impact of equipment on customer brand equity was not meaningful.
Zhi-Qiang Liu; Peng-Yuan Zheng; Ping-Chang Yang
AIM:To determine whether efflux systems contribute to multidrug resistance of H pylori.METHODS:A chloramphenicol-induced multidrug resistance model of six susceptible H pylori strains(5 isolates and H pylori NCTC11637)was developed.Multidrug-resistant(MDR)strains were selected and the minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC)of erythromycin,metronidazole,penicillin G,tetracycline,and ciprofloxacin in multidrug resistant strains and their parent strains was determined by agar dilution tests.The level of mRNA expression of hefA was assessed by fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR.A H pylori LZ1026 knockout mutant(△H pylori LZ1026)for(putative)efflux protein was constructed by inserting the kanamycin resistance cassette from pEGFP-N2 into hefA,and its susceptibility profiles to 10 antibiotics were evaluated.RESULTS:The MIC of six multidrug-resistant strains(including 5 clinical isolates and H pylori NaCTC11637)increased significantly(≥4-fold)compared with their parent strains.The expression level of herA gene was significantly higher in the MDR strains than in their parent strains(P=0.033).A H pylori LZ1026 mutant was successfully constructed and the △H pylori LZ1026 was more susceptible to four of the 10 antibiotics.All the 20 strains displayed transcripts for hefA that con-firmed the in vitro expression of these genes.CONCLUSION:The efflux pump gene hefA plays an important role in multidrug resistance of H pylori.(C)2008 The WJG Press.All rights reserved.
Raisinghani, Manish; Faingold, Carl L
Previous studies showed that neuronal network nuclei for behaviorally different forms of audiogenic seizure (AGS) exhibit similarities and important differences. The amygdala is involved differentially in tonic AGS as compared to clonic AGS networks. The role of the lateral amygdala (LAMG) undergoes major changes after AGS repetition (AGS kindling) in tonic forms of AGS. The present study examined the role of LAMG in a clonic form of AGS [genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPR-3s)] before and after AGS kindling using bilateral microinjection and chronic neuronal recordings. AGS kindling in GEPR-3s results in facial and forelimb (F&F) clonus, and this behavior could be blocked following bilateral microinjection of a NMDA antagonist (2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate) without affecting generalized clonus. Higher AP7 doses blocked both generalized clonus and F&F clonus. LAMG neurons in GEPR-3s exhibited only onset type neuronal responses both before and after AGS kindling, unlike LAMG neurons in normal rats and a tonic form of AGS. A significantly greater LAMG neuronal firing rate occurred after AGS kindling at high acoustic intensities. The latency of LAMG neuronal firing increased significantly after AGS kindling. Burst firing occurred during wild running and generalized clonic behaviors before and after AGS kindling. Burst firing also occurred during F&F clonus after AGS kindling. These findings indicate that LAMG neurons play a critical role in the neuronal network for generalized clonus as well as F&F clonus in GEPR-3s, both before and after AGS kindling, which contrasts markedly with the role of LAMG in tonic AGS.
Full Text Available Cognitive flexibility is a critical ability for adapting to an ever-changing environment in humans and animals. Deficits in cognitive flexibility are observed in most schizophrenia patients. Previous studies reported that the medial prefrontal cortex-to-ventral striatum and orbital frontal cortex-to-dorsal striatum circuits play important roles in extra- and intra-dimensional strategy switching, respectively. However, the precise function of striatal subregions in flexible behaviors is still unclear. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs are major glutamate receptors in the striatum that receive glutamatergic projections from the frontal cortex. The membrane insertion of Ca2+-permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptors (AMPARs depends on NMDAR activation and is required in learning and memory processes. In the present study, we measured set-shifting and reversal learning performance in operant chambers in rats and assessed the effects of blocking NMDARs and Ca2+-permeable AMPARs in striatal subregions on behavioral flexibility. The blockade of NMDARs in the nucleus accumbens (NAc core by AP5 impaired set-shifting ability by causing a failure to modify prior learning. The suppression of NMDAR-mediated transmission in the NAc shell induced a deficit in set-shifting by disrupting the learning and maintenance of novel strategies. During reversal learning, infusions of AP5 into the NAc shell and core impaired the ability to learn and maintain new strategies. However, behavioral flexibility was not significantly affected by blocking NMDARs in the dorsal striatum. We also found that the blockade of Ca2+-permeable AMPARs by NASPM in any subregion of the striatum did not affect strategy switching. These findings suggest that NMDAR-mediated glutamate transmission in the NAc contributes more to cognitive execution compared with the dorsal striatum.
Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important pathogen causing food-borne disease worldwide. An 80-kb pathogenicity island (Vp-PAI, which contains two tdh (thermostable direct hemolysin genes and a set of genes for the type III secretion system (T3SS2, is closely related to the pathogenicity of this bacterium. However, the regulatory mechanisms of Vp-PAI's gene expression are poorly understood. Here we report that two novel ToxR-like transcriptional regulatory proteins (VtrA and VtrB regulate the expression of the genes encoded within the Vp-PAI region, including those for TDH and T3SS2-related proteins. Expression of vtrB was under control of the VtrA, as vector-expressed vtrB was able to recover a functional protein secretory capacity for T3SS2, independent of VtrA. Moreover, these regulatory proteins were essential for T3SS2-dependent biological activities, such as in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo enterotoxicity. Enterotoxic activities of vtrA and/or vtrB deletion strains derived from the wild-type strain were almost absent, showing fluid accumulation similar to non-infected control. Whole genome transcriptional profiling of vtrA or vtrB deletion strains revealed that the expression levels of over 60 genes were downregulated significantly in these deletion mutant strains and that such genes were almost exclusively located in the Vp-PAI region. These results strongly suggest that VtrA and VtrB are master regulators for virulence gene expression in the Vp-PAI and play critical roles in the pathogenicity of this bacterium.
Schneider, Ralph; Lauschke, Joerg; Tischer, Tina; Schneider, Cindy; Voss, Wolfgang; Moehlenkamp, Felix; Glass, Aenne; Diedrich, Doreen; Bänsch, Dietmar
The incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after ablation of a cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter (AFL) is high. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that AFL and AF may be initiated by pulmonary vein triggers. This prospective randomized trial tested the efficacy of a standalone pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in patients with AFL but without AF. Patients with AFL but without documented AF were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: (1) antiarrhythmic drugs (AAD), (2) CTI ablation, or (3) circumferential PVI. The primary end-point was defined as any recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmia and the secondary end-point as recurrence of AFL. In case of tachyarrhythmia recurrence in the PVI group, a second PVI was performed to close gaps in the ablation lines. Of the 60 patients, 17 were randomized to AAD, 23 to CTI ablation, and 20 to PVI. During follow-up of 1.42 ± 0.83 years, 14 of 17 patients (82.4%) in the AAD group, 14 of 23 patients (60.9%) in the CTI group, and 2 of 20 patients (10%) in the PVI group reached the primary end-point (P PVI procedures per patient. AFL reoccurred in 9 patients (52.9.%) in the AAD group, in 2 patients (8.7%) in the CTI group, and after a single PVI in 3 patients (15%) in the PVI group (P = .003). After closure of gaps, 1 patient (5%) in the PVI group presented with recurrent AFL. Pulmonary vein triggers play an important role in AFL. PVI can prevent the recurrence of AFL, even without CTI ablation. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Min; Zhang, Bangyue; Jia, Jianheng; Yan, Chunxia; Habaike, Ayijiang; Han, Yuzhen
In prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, the 3'-5'-exonucleolytic decay and processing of RNAs are essential for RNA metabolism. However, the understanding of the mechanism of 3'-5'-exonucleolytic decay in plants is very limited. Here, we report the characterization of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transfer DNA insertional mutant that shows severe growth defects in early seedling growth, including delayed germination and cotyledon expansion, thinner yellow/pale-green leaves, and a slower growth rate. High-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the insertional locus was in the sixth exon of AT4G27490, encoding a predicted 3'-5'-exonuclease, that contained a conserved RNase phosphorolytic domain with high similarity to RRP41, designated RRP41L. Interestingly, we detected highly accumulated messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that encode seed storage protein and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signaling pathway-related protein during the early growth stage in rrp41l mutants. The mRNA decay kinetics analysis for seed storage proteins, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases, and ABA INSENSITIVEs revealed that RRP41L catalyzed the decay of these mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Consistent with these results, the rrp41l mutant was more sensitive to ABA in germination and root growth than wild-type plants, whereas overexpression lines of RRP41L were more resistant to ABA in germination and root growth than wild-type plants. RRP41L was localized to both the cytoplasm and nucleus, and RRP41L was preferentially expressed in seedlings. Altogether, our results showed that RRP41L plays an important role in seed germination and early seedling growth by mediating specific cytoplasmic mRNA decay in Arabidopsis.
Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea
Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... RPGs, with the first being of greater importance to digital games and the latter to the tabletop version....
A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…
Syphard, Alexandra D.; Brennan, Teresa J.; Keeley, Jon E.
Structure loss to wildfire is a serious problem in wildland-urban interface areas across the world. Laboratory experiments suggest that fire-resistant building construction and design could be important for reducing structure destruction, but these need to be evaluated under real wildfire conditions, especially relative to other factors. Using empirical data from destroyed and surviving structures from large wildfires in southern California, we evaluated the relative importance of building construction and structure age compared to other local and landscape-scale variables associated with structure survival. The local-scale analysis showed that window preparation was especially important but, in general, creating defensible space adjacent to the home was as important as building construction. At the landscape scale, structure density and structure age were the two most important factors affecting structure survival, but there was a significant interaction between them. That is, young structure age was most important in higher-density areas where structure survival overall was more likely. On the other hand, newer-construction structures were less likely to survive wildfires at lower density. Here, appropriate defensible space near the structure and accessibility to major roads were important factors. In conclusion, community safety is a multivariate problem that will require a comprehensive solution involving land use planning, fire-safe construction, and property maintenance.
Barastegui, D; Seijas, R; Alvarez-Diaz, P; Rivera, E; Alentorn-Geli, E; Steinbacher, G; Cuscó, X; Cugat, R
Groin pain is the third most common disease in football players and has often been associated with hip pathology such as femoroacetabular impingement and labral lesions. Hip arthroscopy offers possibilities of function restoration via minimally invasive procedures. The aim of this study is to evaluate professional football player's injuries and their return to play after hip arthroscopy for FAI and labral injuries. Patients that underwent hip arthroscopy between 2009 and 2014 were selected retrospectively. From this population, only professional soccer players competing at national level were included (Tegner 10). Arthroscopic surgery was proposed in patients with persistent pain. All patients were assessed for VAS score preoperatively and at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months post-op. HOS (sport and DLA) and mHHS tests were performed at the same time periods. All patients were men with a mean age of 26.5 ± 7.1 years old. Preoperative VAS (7.4 ± 1.3), HOS ADL (67.7 ± 5.5), HOS sport (37.6 ± 18.7) and mHHS (72.5 ± 8.8) showed improved scores during long-term follow-up. Time to return to play was 10.8 months (SD ± 4.3), with range between 4 and 20 months. Mean follow-up was 45.4 ± 15.6 months (range from 26 to 72 months). No differences were observed between non-active and active patients at final follow-up with respect to chondral lesions, but significant differences were observed with reference to management of the labrum (p = 0.031), where a higher rate of labrectomies existed among inactive patients and a higher rate of suture among active patients. Hip arthroscopy is a safe procedure with very good return to play results, but for optimized return to football one should consider patient age at the time of surgery, the condition of the labrum and low scores on the Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and HOS (sport version) as predictive factors for poor prognosis. Level of evidence IV.
Full Text Available In this short summary, we investigate the importance of learners’ emotional involvement in self-directed learning. We begin by briefly examining the literature related to affective factors in self-access language learning. We then describe two examples of institutions with self-access centres that place particular importance on affective factors in courses of self-directed study. The first example is in a university in Japan, where affective strategies are introduced through self-directed learning modules. The second example is in a university in Mexico, where educators are investigating how feelings about self-access language learning can change over time.
Lombao, Alba; Barreiro, Ana; Martín, Ángela; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat
Microorganisms play an important role in forest ecosystems, especially after fire when vegetation is destroyed and soil is bared. Fire severity and recurrence might be one of main factors controlling the microbial response after a wildfire but information about this topic is scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of fire regimen (recurrence and severity) on soil microbial community structure by means of the analysis of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA). The study was performed with unburned and burned samples collected from the top layer of a soil affected by a high severity fire (Laza, NW Spain) heated under laboratory conditions at different temperatures (50°C, 75°C, 100°C, 125°C, 150°C, 175°C, 200°C, 300°C) to simulate different fire intensities; the process was repeated after further soil recovery (1 month incubation) to simulate fire recurrence. The soil temperature was measured with thermocouples and used to calculate the degree-hours as estimation of the amount of heat supplied to the samples (fire severity). The PLFA analysis was used to estimate total biomass and the biomass of specific groups (bacteria, fungi, gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria) as well as microbial community structure (PLFA pattern) and PLFA data were analyzed by means of principal component analysis (PCA) in order to identify main factors determining microbial community structure. The results of PCA, performed with the whole PLFA data set, showed that first component explained 35% of variation and clearly allow us to differentiate unburned samples from the corresponding burned samples, while the second component, explaining 16% of variation, separated samples according the heating temperature. A marked impact of fire regimen on soil microorganisms was detected; the microbial community response varied depending on previous history of soil heating and the magnitude of changes in the PLFA pattern was related to the amount of heat supplied to the
Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the relations between student teachers' strategies for coping with stressful situations, cognitive interference factors and successfulness of presentation of student teachers' seminar work. There were 135 student teachers participating in the study. At the beginning of the semester they filled in the Way of Coping Questionnaire (Folkman & Lazarus, 1988. After their presentation of seminar theme they reported about the cognitive interference factors during the presentation (distractive factors and intrusive thoughts. Different aspects of their performance were also evaluated by the teacher according to the well-known criteria. The analysis of the results showed significant correlations between certain ways of coping, cognitive interference factors and success of performance. Further statistical analysis showed significant differences in experiencing distractive factors and intrusive thoughts during presentation between students with low, medium and high performance success. The importance of successful strategies for coping with verbal presentation and the implications for student teacher education are discussed.
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find out important factors influencing future research, training and employment in Iranian scientific environment. The proposed model of this paper prepares a questionnaire consists of various questions and distributes it among some experts and analyze them using DEMATEL model. The model divides the 7 factors into two groups of cause and effect. On the cause side, there are four factors including preventing future unemployment crises, detecting future skills, finding future profitable/unprofitable job opportunities and prevention on having open position with no volunteer to work. On the effect factors, there are three factors influencing the future research including detecting the present risk associated with jobs, detecting necessary standards for future works and creating a balance between demand and supply.
Di Liberto, Giovanni; Ceotto, Michele
This paper deals with the critical issue of approximating the pre-exponential factor in semiclassical molecular dynamics. The pre-exponential factor is important because it accounts for the quantum contribution to the semiclassical propagator of the classical Feynman path fluctuations. Pre-exponential factor approximations are necessary when chaotic or complex systems are simulated. We introduced pre-exponential factor approximations based either on analytical considerations or numerical regularization. The approximations are tested for power spectrum calculations of more and more chaotic model systems and on several molecules, for which exact quantum mechanical values are available. The results show that the pre-exponential factor approximations introduced are accurate enough to be safely employed for semiclassical simulations of complex systems.
Perdomo, Juan A.; Capó-Bauçà, Sebastià; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Galmés, Jeroni
To understand the effect of heat and drought on three major cereal crops, the physiological and biochemical (i.e., metabolic) factors affecting photosynthesis were examined in rice, wheat, and maize plants grown under long-term water deficit (WD), high temperature (HT) and the combination of both stresses (HT-WD). Diffusional limitations to photosynthesis prevailed under WD for the C3 species, rice and wheat. Conversely, biochemical limitations prevailed under WD for the C4 species, maize, under HT for all three species, and under HT-WD in rice and maize. These biochemical limitations to photosynthesis were associated with Rubisco activity that was highly impaired at HT and under HT-WD in the three species. Decreases in Rubisco activation were unrelated to the amount of Rubisco and Rubisco activase (Rca), but were probably caused by inhibition of Rca activity, as suggested by the mutual decrease and positive correlation between Rubisco activation state and the rate of electron transport. Decreased Rubisco activation at HT was associated with biochemical limitation of net CO2 assimilation rate (AN). Overall, the results highlight the importance of Rubisco as a target for improving the photosynthetic performance of these C3 (wheat and rice) and C4 (maize) cereal crops under increasingly variable and warmer climates. PMID:28450871
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3 is one of the seven mammalian sirtuins, which are homologs of the yeast Sir2 gene. SIRT3 is the only sirtuin with a reported association with the human life span. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha plays important roles in adaptive thermogenesis, gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. PGC-1alpha induces several key reactive oxygen species (ROS-detoxifying enzymes, but the molecular mechanism underlying this is not well understood. RESULTS: Here we show that PGC-1alpha strongly stimulated mouse Sirt3 gene expression in muscle cells and hepatocytes. Knockdown of PGC-1alpha led to decreased Sirt3 gene expression. PGC-1alpha activated the mouse SIRT3 promoter, which was mediated by an estrogen-related receptor (ERR binding element (ERRE (-407/-399 mapped to the promoter region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that ERRalpha bound to the identified ERRE and PGC-1alpha co-localized with ERRalpha in the mSirt3 promoter. Knockdown of ERRalpha reduced the induction of Sirt3 by PGC-1alpha in C(2C(12 myotubes. Furthermore, Sirt3 was essential for PGC-1alpha-dependent induction of ROS-detoxifying enzymes and several components of the respiratory chain, including glutathione peroxidase-1, superoxide dismutase 2, ATP synthase 5c, and cytochrome c. Overexpression of SIRT3 or PGC-1alpha in C(2C(12 myotubes decreased basal ROS level. In contrast, knockdown of mSIRT3 increased basal ROS level and blocked the inhibitory effect of PGC-1alpha on cellular ROS production. Finally, SIRT3 stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis, and SIRT3 knockdown decreased the stimulatory effect of PGC-1alpha on mitochondrial biogenesis in C(2C(12 myotubes. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that Sirt3 functions as a downstream target gene of PGC-1alpha and mediates the PGC-1alpha effects on cellular ROS production and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus
, and TGF-β. The MMPs agonist also significantly increased expression of VEGF, IGF-1, and TGF-β. Meanwhile, SB-3CT treatment significantly suppressed hair growth. Conclusion: All these data suggest that the type IV collagenases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, play important roles in hair cycle, and this could be mediated by induced expression of VEGF, IGF-1, and TGF-β. Keywords: MMP-2, MMP-9, SB-3CT, telogen
Full Text Available Arylsulfatase A (ARSA is a lysosomal enzyme that plays an important role in catalysis of degradation of cerebrosidesulphate. The deficiency of this lysosomal enzyme causes an autosomal recessive disorder, called metachromatic leucodystrophy. However, a low ARSA activity can be observed in clinically healthy people, called ARSA pseudodeficiency. In our study we investigated the possible linkage between ARSA activity and sulfatide deficiency causing characteristic aspects of degenerative diseases, such as end stage kidney disease, type 2 Diabetes mellitus, Parkinson syndrome, prostate cancer and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. We used a spectrophotometric method to determine the activity of ARSA. This method of enzyme dosage is based on a 4 hour long hydrolysis of the ARSA enzyme on 4-nitrocatechol sulfate (p-NCS substrate. The unit of this measurement is nmol/ml/4h. Our findings show significant values in type 2 diabetes, Parkinson syndrome and chronic kidney disease. The importance of sulfatide in these diseases is well-known, thus presumably the variation of the ARSA’s activity might play an important role in the pathophysiology of these diseases, involving a vicious cycle between sulfatide degradation andthese diseases.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM are the most aggressive class of cancer of central nervous system with hallmark characteristics that include rampant proliferation, necrosis, and endothelial proliferation. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR has been implicated as the primary contributor to glioblastoma initiation and succession. The present study was designed to evaluate EGFR protein expression in GBM as predictor of response to therapy and survival. Materials and Methods: Epidermal growth factor receptor was assessed by immunohistochemistry as a percentage of positive tumor cells in hot spots (10 high-power fields. The study group comprised of 35 cases of GBM. All cases underwent surgical resection and subsequently underwent radiotherapy (n = 17 or radiotherapy with adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (n = 18. Immediate response to therapy was assessed at 3 months using World Health Organization response evaluation criteria in solid tumors criteria and cases followed up for survival. Results: Twenty-four cases (68.6% expressed EGFR while 11/35 (31.4% cases were negative. Response to therapy was evident in 21/35 cases (60.0% and 14/35 were (40.0% nonresponders. Mean EGFR protein expression in responders was 37.23 ± 33.70 and in nonresponders was 59.5 ± 39.46 (P = 0.542. The percentage of responders which were EGFR negative was 72.7% and while response in EGFR positive cases was observed in 54.2%. Mean survival in EGFR positive and negative GBM was 394.37 ± 189.11 and 420.54 ± 191.23 days, respectively. Conclusion: The EGFR negative cases appear to respond better to therapy, however, the difference is not statistically significant (P = 0.298. Further, EGFR protein expression does not play a definitive role in predicting survival. This is an original study evaluating EGFR in terms of therapeutic response.
Jensen, A S; Johansson, P I; Idorn, L;
BACKGROUND: Patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease(CCHD) have haemostatic abnormalities, which result in an increased risk of bleeding. The cause is unknown, but recent studies have indicated that an elevated haematocrit, which is present in cyanotic patients, could be an important factor...
Ancona, Veronica; Lee, Jae Hoon; Zhao, Youfu
The GacS/GacA two-component system (also called GrrS/GrrA) is a global regulatory system which is highly conserved among gamma-proteobacteria. This system positively regulates non-coding small regulatory RNA csrB, which in turn binds to the RNA-binding protein CsrA. However, how GacS/GacA-Csr system regulates virulence traits in E. amylovora remains unknown. Results from mutant characterization showed that the csrB mutant was hypermotile, produced higher amount of exopolysaccharide amylovoran, and had increased expression of type III secretion (T3SS) genes in vitro. In contrast, the csrA mutant exhibited complete opposite phenotypes, including non-motile, reduced amylovoran production and expression of T3SS genes. Furthermore, the csrA mutant did not induce hypersensitive response on tobacco or cause disease on immature pear fruits, indicating that CsrA is a positive regulator of virulence factors. These findings demonstrated that CsrA plays a critical role in E. amylovora virulence and suggested that negative regulation of virulence by GacS/GacA acts through csrB sRNA, which binds to CsrA and neutralizes its positive effect on T3SS gene expression, flagellar formation and amylovoran production. Future research will be focused on determining the molecular mechanism underlying the positive regulation of virulence traits by CsrA.
Ancona, Veronica; Lee, Jae Hoon; Zhao, Youfu
The GacS/GacA two-component system (also called GrrS/GrrA) is a global regulatory system which is highly conserved among gamma-proteobacteria. This system positively regulates non-coding small regulatory RNA csrB, which in turn binds to the RNA-binding protein CsrA. However, how GacS/GacA-Csr system regulates virulence traits in E. amylovora remains unknown. Results from mutant characterization showed that the csrB mutant was hypermotile, produced higher amount of exopolysaccharide amylovoran, and had increased expression of type III secretion (T3SS) genes in vitro. In contrast, the csrA mutant exhibited complete opposite phenotypes, including non-motile, reduced amylovoran production and expression of T3SS genes. Furthermore, the csrA mutant did not induce hypersensitive response on tobacco or cause disease on immature pear fruits, indicating that CsrA is a positive regulator of virulence factors. These findings demonstrated that CsrA plays a critical role in E. amylovora virulence and suggested that negative regulation of virulence by GacS/GacA acts through csrB sRNA, which binds to CsrA and neutralizes its positive effect on T3SS gene expression, flagellar formation and amylovoran production. Future research will be focused on determining the molecular mechanism underlying the positive regulation of virulence traits by CsrA. PMID:27845410
Aziz, Nazrina; Zain, Zakiyah; Mafuzi, Raja Muhammad Zahid Raja; Mustapa, Aini Mastura; Najib, Nur Hasibah Mohd; Lah, Nik Fatihah Nik
Procrastination is the action of delaying or postponing something such as making a decision or starting or completing some tasks or activities. According to previous studies, students who have a strong tendency to procrastinate get low scores in their tests, resulting in poorer academic performance compared to those who do not procrastinate. This study aims to identify the procrastination factors in completing assignments among three groups of undergraduate students. The relative importance of procrastination factors was quantified by the relative importance index (RII) method prior to ranking. A multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the sample. The findings revealed that `too many works in one time' is one of the top three factors contributing to procrastination in all groups.
Full Text Available Supplying car accessory is one of the most important growing industries in the world. Every year, millions of cars are produced and people need to have the access to necessary car accessory. In this paper, we present an exploration study to detect important factors influencing car accessory market. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 16 questions, distributes it among 200 experts and analyses it using factor analysis. Cronbach alpha and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy are calculated as 0.823 and 0.863, which validate the overall questionnaire. The results indicate that there are three influencing factors including brand capability, brand characteristics and consumers’ believe.
Gosden, P E; MacGowan, A P; Bannister, G C
Small numbers of organisms can cause orthopaedic implant infections, which give rise to a considerable degree of morbidity and also mortality. The periprosthetic infection rates have been shown to correlate with the number of airborne bacteria within 30 cm of the wound. This is influenced by factors such as the number of operating theatre personnel, their clothing and the type of ventilation system used. Guidance on routine bacteriological monitoring of ultraclean air theatres, based on the Department of Health document Health Technical Memorandum 2025, is discussed. Factors important in minimizing the number of postoperative implant infections such as the use of ultraclean air, ultraviolet radiation, different types of surgical clothing, prophylactic antibiotics and host-related factors are also discussed. The importance of proper scientific investigation into the effectiveness of practical preventative measures in the operating room is emphasized.
Full Text Available Customers are considered as essential assets in any organizations including mobile services. During the past few years, mobile industry is growing rapidly and the competitions among business owners increases steadily. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing customer relationship management. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 253 customers in mobile industry in city of Tehran, Iran. All questions are designed in Likert scale and Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.816, which is relatively reliable value. There were 28 questions in this survey and the proposed study extracts five important factors including economic factors, communication skills, organizational resources, service capabilities and flexible market.
Heinze, Georg; Schemper, Michael
Two SAS macro programs are presented that evaluate the relative importance of prognostic factors in the proportional hazards regression model and in the logistic regression model. The importance of a prognostic factor is quantified by the proportion of variation in the outcome attributable to this factor. For proportional hazards regression, the program %RELIMPCR uses the recently proposed measure V to calculate the proportion of explained variation (PEV). For the logistic model, the R(2) measure based on squared raw residuals is used by the program %RELIMPLR. Both programs are able to compute marginal and partial PEV, to compare PEVs of factors, of groups of factors, and even to compare PEVs of different models. The programs use a bootstrap resampling scheme to test differences of the PEVs of different factors. Confidence limits for P-values are provided. The programs further allow to base the computation of PEV on models with shrinked or bias-corrected parameter estimates. The SAS macros are freely available at www.akh-wien.ac.at/imc/biometrie/relimp
Bang, Jytte Susanne
to the children’s complex life-worlds. Further, this leads to an analysis of music-play activities as play with an art-form (music), which includes aesthetic dimensions and gives the music-play activities its character of being aesthetic play. Following Lev Vygotsky’s insight that art is a way of building life...
Previous research examining the social psychology of video-gaming has tended to focus on Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG) environments, such as World of Warcraft. Although many online group processes have been examined using this game, this genre does not enforce cooperative play and studies tend to be based on very large groups. Newer genres are being developed and played which have so far not been studied. The genre known as Multiplayer Online Battle Arenas (MOBAs) ar...
Kim, Eun Yu; Park, Ki Youl; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek
Lipid droplets (LDs) act as repositories for fatty acids and sterols, which are used for various cellular processes such as energy production and membrane and hormone synthesis. LD-associated proteins play important roles in seed development and germination, but their functions in postgermination growth are not well understood. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three SRP homologs (SRP1, SRP2, and SRP3) that share sequence identities with small rubber particle proteins of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In this report, the possible cellular roles of SRPs in postgermination growth and the drought tolerance response were investigated. Arabidopsis SRPs appeared to be LD-associated proteins and displayed polymerization properties in vivo and in vitro. SRP-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:SRP1, 35S:SRP2, and 35S:SRP3) exhibited higher vegetative and reproductive growth and markedly better tolerance to drought stress than wild-type Arabidopsis. In addition, constitutive over-expression of SRPs resulted in increased numbers of large LDs in postgermination seedlings. In contrast, single (srp1, 35S:SRP2-RNAi, and srp3) and triple (35S:SRP2-RNAi/srp1srp3) loss-of-function mutant lines exhibited the opposite phenotypes. Our results suggest that Arabidopsis SRPs play dual roles as positive factors in postgermination growth and the drought stress tolerance response. The possible relationships between LD-associated proteins and the drought stress response are discussed. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.
Marek’s disease virus encoded oncoprotein, Meq, has been shown to play a major role in transformation of T-lymphocytes. We have earlier shown that replacement of the meq gene in the very virulent strain Md5 with that of vaccine strain CVI988/Rispens resulted in virus attenuation in chickens. To dete...
Goodwin, A. Lin; Low, Ee Ling; Ng, Pak Tee; Yeung, Alexander S.; Cai, Li
In today's world, teaching and learning processes inevitably involve the application of information and communication technology (ICT). It seems reasonable to expect personal attributes such as cognitive playfulness to be associated with consistent application of ICT. Using survey responses from Singapore students in a teacher education programme…
Full Text Available Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. However Iran is one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world because of it`s rising population and recent growth in GDP. This paper presents an analysis of cointegration test between rice import and it`s economic factors over the period 1990-2011, employing Engle-Granger model. At first, Dickey-Fuller test shows that all variables are non-stationary at data level, so their first difference (that are stationary series are used. Secondly, Engle-Granger testing presents existence of a long-run relationship between rice import and it`s economic factors including per capita GDP, foreign exchange rate and domestic price. At last, rice import model was estimated using OLS method which proves that all independent variables are significant at high level and the sign of coefficients are consistent with theoretical expectations So that import of rice positively correlates with Per capita GDP, domestic price and negatively correlates with foreigh exchange rate. With respect to increasing demand for rice, government should keep domestic policies for the rise of rice production so that the need for import falls in the long-run.
Lim, Ming Y; McCarthy, Timothy; Chen, Sheh-Li; Rollins-Raval, Marian A; Ma, Alice D
Up to 14% of individuals with systemic AL amyloidosis develop acquired factor X deficiency, which occurs due to adsorption of factor X onto amyloid fibrils. Although baseline factor X levels are not predictive of bleeding risk in these patients, serious hemorrhagic complications can occur, particularly during invasive procedures. Optimal management strategies to attenuate bleeding risk in these patients are unknown. We describe our experience in the management of acquired factor X deficiency, secondary to systemic AL amyloidosis, in a case series of three patients who received prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) for treatment and prevention of bleeding events. We performed a retrospective review extracting information on baseline demographics, laboratory data, pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, and clinically documented bleeding events. Our case series demonstrates that individuals with acquired factor X deficiency secondary to amyloidosis have variable laboratory and clinical responses to PCCs. This is likely due to distinct amyloid loads and fibril sequences, leading to different binding avidities for factor X. Our data emphasize the importance of performing PK testing prior to any invasive procedures to determine the dose and frequency interval to achieve adequate factor X levels for hemostasis, given the variable response between individuals.
Full Text Available This research examines the career motivation factors among Slovene teachers. They go hand in hand with two other processes: the psycho-social development of individuals and their family life. We present the results of the empirical research that was carried out on a sample of 360 professionals from primary and secondary schools. We established a scale for determining the importance of motivation factors by asking the professionals to grade their level of agreement with the statements considering the following motivational factors: the legislation and the organization of files in the context of school, the organisational climate and culture at schools, the school management, schools as learning organisations, the need of individuals for career development. We were interested if there exist any differences in the opinions of professionals in primary and secondary schools regarding the importance of individual motivation factors. We were also interested if there exists an interdependence between the final results and the individual variables. The findings are important for professionals and school management in schools that encourage career development. It would be sensible to take these findings into consideration when planning, as well as monitoring career development of school professionals.
Full Text Available Economic science has long recognized labour productivity as an important factor of economic growth. In the uncertain conditions of increasingly fierce and complex competition, it becomes one of the key prerequisites for an adequate response to global challenges. The development of labour productivity has to be observed as a multi-dimensional process including numerous interconnected quantitative and qualitative factors, in particular human factors and technological advancement realized through investments in research and development (innovations. The analysis of labour productivity in the manufacturing industry of the selected countries, Germany and China, is performed in the context of an important influential factor – innovations, and interdependently with the economic growth of the selected countries. The research results and the conducted regression analyses indicate a superiority of German labour productivity in the manufacturing industry, which is strongly affected by considerable investments in research and development. However, the technological convergence of China as the upcoming power is increasingly important, which shows that the gap in labour productivity is decreasing, making developed countries face new challenges posed by globalization. The analysis of the interdependence of economic growth (GDP and labour productivity in the manufacturing industry points to a positive link and the conclusion that the elasticity of the GDP to changes in labour productivity is greater in China than in Germany.
Mason, Sharon E; Almond, Glen W; Riviere, Jim E; Baynes, Ronald E
To model the plasma tetracycline concentrations in swine (Sus scrofa domestica) treated with medication administered in water and determine the factors that contribute to the most accurate predictions of measured plasma drug concentrations. Plasma tetracycline concentrations measured in blood samples from 3 populations of swine. Data from previous studies provided plasma tetracycline concentrations that were measured in blood samples collected from 1 swine population at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, 80, 96, and 104 hours and from 2 swine populations at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours hours during administration of tetracycline hydrochloride dissolved in water. A 1-compartment pharmacostatistical model was used to analyze 5 potential covariate schemes and determine factors most important in predicting the plasma concentrations of tetracycline in swine. 2 models most accurately predicted the tetracycline plasma concentrations in the 3 populations of swine. Factors of importance were body weight or age of pig, ambient temperature, concentration of tetracycline in water, and water use per unit of time. The factors found to be of importance, combined with knowledge of the individual pharmacokinetic and chemical properties of medications currently approved for administration in water, may be useful in more prudent administration of approved medications administered to swine. Factors found to be important in pharmacostatistical models may allow prediction of plasma concentrations of tetracycline or other commonly used medications administered in water. The ability to predict in vivo concentrations of medication in a population of food animals can be combined with bacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations to decrease the risk of developing antimicrobial resistance.
This article examines the level of empowerment and autonomy children can create in their play experiences. It examines the play discourses that children build and maintain and considers the importance of play contexts in supporting children's emotional and social development. These aspects of play are often unseen or misunderstood by the adult…
Rasmusson, Maria; Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
Data from a Swedish PISA-sample were used (1) to identify a digital reading factor, (2) to investigate gender differences in this factor (if found), and (3) to explore how computer game playing might relate to digital reading performance and gender. The analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling techniques. In addition to an overall…
Brown, Jeremy M; Lemmon, Alan R
As larger, more complex data sets are being used to infer phylogenies, accuracy of these phylogenies increasingly requires models of evolution that accommodate heterogeneity in the processes of molecular evolution. We investigated the effect of improper data partitioning on phylogenetic accuracy, as well as the type I error rate and sensitivity of Bayes factors, a commonly used method for choosing among different partitioning strategies in Bayesian analyses. We also used Bayes factors to test empirical data for the need to divide data in a manner that has no expected biological meaning. Posterior probability estimates are misleading when an incorrect partitioning strategy is assumed. The error was greatest when the assumed model was underpartitioned. These results suggest that model partitioning is important for large data sets. Bayes factors performed well, giving a 5% type I error rate, which is remarkably consistent with standard frequentist hypothesis tests. The sensitivity of Bayes factors was found to be quite high when the across-class model heterogeneity reflected that of empirical data. These results suggest that Bayes factors represent a robust method of choosing among partitioning strategies. Lastly, results of tests for the inclusion of unexpected divisions in empirical data mirrored the simulation results, although the outcome of such tests is highly dependent on accounting for rate variation among classes. We conclude by discussing other approaches for partitioning data, as well as other applications of Bayes factors.
In 1955, Garfield suggested that the number of references could be used to measure the "impact" of a journal, but the term "impact factor" was introduced in 1963 by Garfield and Sher. The primary goal of impact factor analysis was to improve the management of library journal collections. Single-parameter measurements of the quality of a journal article have become increasingly popular as a substitute for scientific quality. The simplicity of its counting system and convenience of its use are significant benefits. Probably for these reasons, funding bodies, academic authorities, and some governments began using the impact factor to guide decisions about allocating grants, awarding appointments and academic degrees, and defining scientific policy. The journal impact factor, which is often recognized as a symbol of scientific prestige and relevance, can be, however, greatly influenced by the type of medical article (review vs original work), clinical specialty, and research. The true value and implications of the journal impact factor (JIF) are important to understand. It is critical to remember that JIF can be used only to evaluate journals. All comparisons should include only journals and never individuals or departments. Only similar journals (particularly those dedicated to the same scientific specialty) must be compared, because the value of the impact factor varies greatly by discipline.
Boieiro, Mário; Carvalho, José C.; Cardoso, Pedro; Aguiar, Carlos A. S.; Rego, Carla; de Faria e Silva, Israel; Amorim, Isabel R.; Pereira, Fernando; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Serrano, Artur R. M.
The development in recent years of new beta diversity analytical approaches highlighted valuable information on the different processes structuring ecological communities. A crucial development for the understanding of beta diversity patterns was also its differentiation in two components: species turnover and richness differences. In this study, we evaluate beta diversity patterns of ground beetles from 26 sites in Madeira Island distributed throughout Laurisilva – a relict forest restricted to the Macaronesian archipelagos. We assess how the two components of ground beetle beta diversity (βrepl – species turnover and βrich - species richness differences) relate with differences in climate, geography, landscape composition matrix, woody plant species richness and soil characteristics and the relative importance of the effects of these variables at different spatial scales. We sampled 1025 specimens from 31 species, most of which are endemic to Madeira Island. A spatially explicit analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of pure environmental, pure spatial and environmental spatially structured effects on variation in ground beetle species richness and composition. Variation partitioning showed that 31.9% of species turnover (βrepl) and 40.7% of species richness variation (βrich) could be explained by the environmental and spatial variables. However, different environmental variables controlled the two types of beta diversity: βrepl was influenced by climate, disturbance and soil organic matter content whilst βrich was controlled by altitude and slope. Furthermore, spatial variables, represented through Moran’s eigenvector maps, played a significant role in explaining both βrepl and βrich, suggesting that both dispersal ability and Madeira Island complex orography are crucial for the understanding of beta diversity patterns in this group of beetles. PMID:23724065
Full Text Available Cleft lip with or without cleft palate is the most occurring craniofacial anomaly in human, resulting from a complex etiology involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. The defect carries lifelong morbidity and economic burden. Children with clefts will require continuous medical interventions for at least the first 18 years of life, affecting many aspects of their lives. The extent and complexity of clefts vary infinitely, later determining individual management and outcome. Identification and classification play significant roles in initial assessment of these unique cleft cases, which affect options for following correctional attempts. Some classifications even allow measurement of progress after anatomical repositioning, and success rate after surgical repairs. The challenge of developing one such widely inclusive classification is discussed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 226-39Keywords: Cleft lip, cleft palate, congenital anomaly, cleft classfications
Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were che...
Introduction: Neck and back pain common health problems causing economic burden and individual suffering worldwide. Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to increase understanding of naprapathic manual therapy and other factors of potential importance for the prognosis of back and neck pain. Specific aims: Study I: 1) to assess and compare the sex-specific recovery from spinal pain and psychological distress as single and comorbid conditions, 2) to describe the interrelationships bet...
Vural, Fisun; AYDIN, Ayşe; FİL, Şükran; Torun, Sebahat; Vural, Birol
The measurement of patient satisfaction in health care services is an important measure of quality service provision. The aim of this study was to determine hospitalized patient satisfaction in a public hospital and the related factors affecting satisfaction. Patient satisfaction survey was applied to 120 hospitalized patients during face to face interviews. The major components of healthcare satisfaction were analysed separately as: the personal characteristics of patients, healthcare staffs...
DENG Yunhua(邓云华); CHEN Xingping(陈兴平); ZHOU Liyi(周礼义); CHEN Yinling(陈映玲); WAN Mufen(万沐芬)
Summary: Risk factors for genitourinary Chlamydiatrachomatis (Ct) infection were investigated using an STDrelative risk factor questionnaire among 176 patients and theirregular sexual partners. Twenty-four independent variableswere selected for analysis, nine of which were confirmed asfactors associated with C. trachomatis. Four of the nine factorswere significantly correlated to infection using a multifactorialunconditional logistic regression model which included: levelof education ( odds ratios [ORs]: 2.144 for below junior middleschool ), number of sexual partners ( ORs: 4.503 for ≥5 ),number of regular partner's sexual partner ( ORs: 16.333 for≥5 ), STD history of regular partner ( ORs: 18.417 for theirSTD history ). These data demonstrate that regular partner'ssexual behaviors are also an important risk factor for Ctinfection among STD clinic clients.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to increase understanding of the relative importance of the input of geographic and local environmental factors on richness and composition of epigaeic steppe beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Tenebrionidae along a geographic (longitudinal/precipitation gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Specifically, we evaluate the associations of environmental variables representing climate and environmental heterogeneity with beetle assemblages. Beetles were sampled using pitfall traps at 25 sites scattered across the full geographic extent of the study biome in 2011-2012. We used variance partitioning techniques and multi-model selection based on the Akaike information criterion to assess the relative importance of the spatial and environmental variables on beetle assemblages. Species richness and abundance showed unimodal patterns along the geographic gradient. Together with space, climate variables associated with precipitation, water-energy balance and harshness of climate had strong explanatory power in richness pattern. Abundance pattern showed strongest association with variation in temperature and environmental heterogeneity. Climatic factors associated with temperature and precipitation variables and the interaction between climate with space were able to explain a substantial amount of variation in community structure. In addition, the turnover of species increased significantly as geographic distances increased. We confirmed that spatial and local environmental factors worked together to shape epigaeic beetle communities along the geographic gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Moreover, the climate features, especially precipitation, water-energy balance and temperature, and the interaction between climate with space and environmental heterogeneity appeared to play important roles on controlling richness and abundance, and species compositions of epigaeic beetles.
Plant seed development and germination are under strict temporal and spatial regulation, and tran-scription factors play important roles in this regulation. In the present study we identified an EST ex-pressed specifically in the developing soybean seeds. The full length of the gene was obtained through further RACE analysis and the gene was named GmSGR. Sequence analysis revealed that this gene belonged to the AP2/ERF transcription factor family. Its AP2 domain had the highest similarity with that of the A-3 member AtABI4 of DREB subgroup in the AP2/ERF family in Arabidopsis. GmSGR did not exhibit transcriptional activation activity in the yeast assay system. GmSGR was overexpressed in Arabidopsis and the germination rates of the transgenic seeds were significantly higher than that of the wild type seeds under higher concentrations of ABA and glucose respectively. However, the germina-tion rates of the transgenic seeds were lower than that of control under salt stress. The expression of AtEm6 and AtRD29B was higher in the seedlings of the transgenic plants than that in the wild-type seedlings. These results suggest that GmSGR may confer reduced ABA sensitivity and enhanced salt sensitivity to the transgenic seeds through regulating the expression of AtEm6 and AtRD29B genes.
Bang, Jytte Susanne
The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activities...... to the children’s complex life-worlds. Further, this leads to an analysis of music-play activities as play with an art-form (music), which includes aesthetic dimensions and gives the music-play activities its character of being aesthetic play. Following Lev Vygotsky’s insight that art is a way of building life...
Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk
This article studies the implications of current attempts by organizations to adapt to a world of constant change by introducing the notion of playful organizational membership. To this end we conduct a brief semantic history of organizational play and argue that when organizations play, employees...... are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...... desire to reach out - not just to the future - but to futures beyond the future presently imaginable. The article concludes that playful membership is membership through which employees are expected to develop a surplus of potential identities and continuously cross boundaries between real and virtual...
Koorosh Kohyari Haghighat
Full Text Available Hotel industry plays important role on developing tourism industry and having better services in this industry always help increase market share. The proposed study of this paper considers the effects of four variables including collaboration with staff, collaboration with customers, collaboration with partners and business owners and finally mechanism of integration of knowledge on innovation on service. The population of this survey includes 259 hotels where we send our questionnaire to 179 and manage to collect 170 ones. Cronbach alpha for four variables including collaboration with staff, collaboration with customers, collaboration with partners and business owners and finally mechanism of integration of knowledge were calculated as 0.78, 0.865, 0.743 and 0.890, respectively. The proposed study uses structural equation modeling to study the relationship between independent variables and dependent variable and the effects of four variables are confirmed when the level of significance is five percent.
Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung
The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were checked. Respondents' importance and satisfaction of street food hygiene and selection attributes were also measured. In order to test for the difference between groups, χ(2)-test and t-test were performed. ISA was also performed to analyze importance and satisfaction. Results showed that the importance of sanitation was significantly higher than satisfaction on all items in both Korea and Taiwan, and the satisfaction with sanitation was higher in Taiwan than in Korea. According to ISA results with street food sanitation, satisfaction was low while importance was high in both Korea and Taiwan. In terms of street food choice factor, importance scores were significantly higher than satisfaction scores on all items. In addition, satisfaction scores on all items except 'taste' were significantly higher in Taiwan than in Korea. A manual on sanitation management of street foods should be developed to change the knowledge and attitude toward sanitation by putting into practice a regularly conducted education. Considering the popularity of street foods and its potential as a tourism resource to easily publicize our food culture, thorough management measures should be prepared on sanitation so that safe street food culture should be created.
Ranelli, Sonia; Straker, Leon; Smith, Anne
Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians, and risk factors include gender, music exposure, and particularly instrument type. Emerging evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP, both symptoms and disorders, and PRMP location in children and adolescents as well as the associations with gender, age, and music exposure factors such as type and number of instruments and playing time. This study surveyed 731 children (460 females), aged 7 to 17 years, studying instrumental music in government schools in Perth, Australia. Lifetime and monthly symptoms, monthly disorders (inability to play an instrument as usual), and PRMP location were examined. Chi-squared analyses were used to evaluate associations between gender, age, music exposure, and PRMP outcomes. Logistic regression evaluated the independent association of these potential risk factors with PRMP prevalence and location. RESULTS) Sixty-seven percent of students reported PRMP symptoms at some point, 56% reported them within the last month, and 30% reported an inability to play as usual within the last month. After adjustment for gender and age, the type of instrument played (upper and lower strings, woodwind, and brass) was significantly associated with all PRMP (pmusic exposure are associated with PRMP risk and need to be addressed to ensure musicians' personal well-being and musical longevity.
Sakamoto, Toshiro; Endo, Shogo
Previous studies have shown that deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN)-lesioned mice develop conditioned responses (CR) on delay eyeblink conditioning when a salient tone conditioned stimulus (CS) is used, which suggests that the cerebellum potentially plays a role in more complicated cognitive functions. In the present study, we examined the role of DCN in tone frequency discrimination in the delay eyeblink-conditioning paradigm. In the first experiment, DCN-lesioned and sham-operated mice were subjected to standard simple eyeblink conditioning under low-frequency tone CS (LCS: 1 kHz, 80 dB) or high-frequency tone CS (HCS: 10 kHz, 70 dB) conditions. DCN-lesioned mice developed CR in both CS conditions as well as sham-operated mice. In the second experiment, DCN-lesioned and sham-operated mice were subjected to two-tone discrimination tasks, with LCS+ (or HCS+) paired with unconditioned stimulus (US), and HCS- (or LCS-) without US. CR% in sham-operated mice increased in LCS+ (or HCS+) trials, regardless of tone frequency of CS, but not in HCS- (or LCS-) trials. The results indicate that sham-operated mice can discriminate between LCS+ and HCS- (or HCS+ and LCS-). In contrast, DCN-lesioned mice showed high CR% in not only LCS+ (or HCS+) trials but also HCS- (or LCS-) trials. The results indicate that DCN lesions impair the discrimination between tone frequency in eyeblink conditioning. Our results suggest that the cerebellum plays a pivotal role in the discrimination of tone frequency.
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN-lesioned mice develop conditioned responses (CR on delay eyeblink conditioning when a salient tone conditioned stimulus (CS is used, which suggests that the cerebellum potentially plays a role in more complicated cognitive functions. In the present study, we examined the role of DCN in tone frequency discrimination in the delay eyeblink-conditioning paradigm. In the first experiment, DCN-lesioned and sham-operated mice were subjected to standard simple eyeblink conditioning under low-frequency tone CS (LCS: 1 kHz, 80 dB or high-frequency tone CS (HCS: 10 kHz, 70 dB conditions. DCN-lesioned mice developed CR in both CS conditions as well as sham-operated mice. In the second experiment, DCN-lesioned and sham-operated mice were subjected to two-tone discrimination tasks, with LCS+ (or HCS+ paired with unconditioned stimulus (US, and HCS- (or LCS- without US. CR% in sham-operated mice increased in LCS+ (or HCS+ trials, regardless of tone frequency of CS, but not in HCS- (or LCS- trials. The results indicate that sham-operated mice can discriminate between LCS+ and HCS- (or HCS+ and LCS-. In contrast, DCN-lesioned mice showed high CR% in not only LCS+ (or HCS+ trials but also HCS- (or LCS- trials. The results indicate that DCN lesions impair the discrimination between tone frequency in eyeblink conditioning. Our results suggest that the cerebellum plays a pivotal role in the discrimination of tone frequency.
Choi, Dongseong; Kim, Jinwoo
As people increasingly play online games, numerous new features have been proposed to increase players' log-on time at online gaming sites. However, few studies have investigated why people continue to play certain online games or which design features are most closely related to the amount of time spent by players at particular online gaming sites. This study proposes a theoretical model using the concepts of customer loyalty, flow, personal interaction, and social interaction to explain why people continue to play online network games. The study then conducts a large-scale survey to validate the model. Finally, it analyzes current online games to identify design features that are closely related to the theoretical concepts. The results indicate that people continue to play online games if they have optimal experiences while playing the games. This optimal experience can be attained if the player has effective personal interaction with the system or pleasant social interactions with other people connected to the Internet. Personal interaction can be facilitated by providing appropriate goals, operators and feedback; social interaction can be facilitated through appropriate communication places and tools. This paper ends with the implications of applying the study results to other domains such as e-commerce and cyber communities.
these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....
Weinmann, S; Gühne, U; Kösters, M; Gaebel, W; Becker, T
The German Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN) guidelines on psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental illness appraise the transferability of results of trials evaluating community-based mental health services to the German situation. This assessment has to draw on research results on factors determining effectiveness. This must be seen against the background of a lack of high-quality trials in Germany. The article discusses system, context and setting factors related to the transfer of evidence on community-based service models from other countries. These issues are discussed on the basis of evidence concerning the models of case management, assertive community treatment and community mental health teams. International differences in study findings are highlighted and the importance of treatment-as-usual in influencing study results is emphasized. The more control services including elements of community-based care there are and the less the pressure to reduce inpatient treatment (threshold to inpatient care admission), the smaller the relative effect sizes of innovative care models will be.In the absence of direct evidence, careful examination of transferability is required before introducing health care models. Research has revealed solid evidence for several factors influencing the effects of innovative community mental health care. Among key factors in the care of people with severe mental illness, home visits and joint team responsibility for both psychiatric and social care were identified. This evidence can facilitate the adaptation of successful mental health care models in Germany.
Full Text Available Arcanobacterium pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen, a causative agent of suppurative infections of organs and tissues in economically important livestock species. Most frequently this bacteria is isolated from inflamed lung lesions in pigs and cattle, in samples of uterine mucus of cows with endometritis and milk from cows with clinical mastitis. A. pyogenes possesses a number of virulence factors: cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (pyolysin, two neuraminidases, several proteases, extracellular matrix-binding proteins, DNases, fimbriae. The virulence factors are well studied in laboratory conditions, but the role of these factors in the pathogenesis of A. pyogenes infections remains to be elucidated. Lately, the ability of A. pyogenes to form biofilm in vivo has also been implicated as a virulence factor and a possible cause of therapeutic failure. Despite the fact that A. pyogenes milk isolates in cows with mastitis in vitro are very sensitive to β-lactam drugs and tetracycline, experience has shown that therapy is usually ineffective, prognosis is poor and the affected quarter is lost for milk production.
The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...
Johansen, Stine Liv
Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts....... In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....
Schnohr, Peter; Marott, Jacob L; Kristensen, Tage S.
.001] and systolic blood pressure (≥160 mmHg or blood pressure medication vs. high vs. low; HR 2.07; 95% CI, 1......-statistics and net reclassification improvement. During the follow-up, 1731 non-fatal and fatal coronary events were registered. In men, the highest ranking risk factors for coronary heart disease were vital exhaustion [high vs. low; hazard ratio (HR) 2.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.70-3.26; P ...AIMS: To rank psychosocial and traditional risk factors by importance for coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective cardiovascular population study randomly selected in 1976. The third examination was carried out from 1991 to 1994, and 8882 men...
Full Text Available Enterprise resource planning (ERP has become a necessary in many organizations and many business units have been trying to emerge into an integrated system. There are many advantages on having an efficient ERP but many corporations fail to reach a full operational ERP for many reasons. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing ERP implementation in one of the biggest Iranian automakers named Iran Khodro. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 46 questions, distributes it among some managers in this firm. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.788 and 1677.307, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived eight factors including intelligence information, customer comfort, structure oriented, resource management, process oriented, customer oriented, flexible structure and knowledge management.
Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation to find out important factors influencing electronic customer relationship management on reducing customer complaints. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 19 questions, distributes it among some Iranian experts in banking industry and analyzes it based on principal component analysis. During the survey, the number questions are reduced to 16 because of skewness of three questions. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.82 and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.746 and 1993, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived four factors including knowledge management, customer retention, customer oriented strategy and structure oriented.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify the most important criteria about working condition for students who are going to graduate and looking for a job. Gaining knowledge of attractive factors of current graduating students for working condition will allow company to attract talented candidates and to keep them from competitors. The results of this research show potential attractive factors of the working conditions which can be formed into advertising logo to print on recruitment ads for recruiting university graduating students. Survey questions have been formed, which are relating to students’ future career preferences about the working conditions. The results of interviewing were grouped by specialties of the students. The analysis of the research results allows formulating recommendations for companies’ human resources departments to make a recruitment process more successful and efficient.
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing market penetration in truck industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 51 questions, distributes it among 300 people who worked for different truck industry related units and collects 262 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.89. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.845 and 3067.443, respectively. The study has implemented principal component analysis and the results have indicated that there were eight factors influencing entering truck making industry including adaptation strategies, new ideas, cost competitiveness, product capabilities, market characteristics, competition threats from external market environment and export accelerators.
Full Text Available Building an appropriate brand always makes it possible to reach better market share in competitive market. This paper presents a study to find important factors influencing the authenticity of brand. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 21 questions, distributes it among 400 people who purchase regularly from chain stores in city of Tehran, Iran and collects 388 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.712. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.748 and 1718.212, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived five factors including brand identification, brand registration, brand position, perception image from the brand and trust to brand.
Amir Ghafurian Shagerdi
Full Text Available Home appliances are among basic requirements of anyone in the world and it is always important to find out about factors influencing this industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive model to detect major factors influencing on consumer purchasing intention. For this purpose, the proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 customers who have some experiences on purchasing home appliances in city of Tehran, Iran, recently. Cronbach alpha was calculated for all components of the survey and they were all well above the minimum acceptable level. We analyzed the data using structural equation modeling via LISREL and the results of this survey show that brand familiarity, brand trust, and perceived value have significant positive effects on consumers purchase intention.
Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg
The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...
Fang, Liping; Xu, Cuihong; Li, Ji
detrimental effects on humans and aquatic organisms. This work provides a critical review of recent studies on the adsorption, desorption, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of BTs that can notably influence the distribution of BTs in the environment. Influence of environmental factors (e.g., pH and salinity......Butyltins (BTs) are considered as a group of the most important organometallic compounds in industry and agriculture. Due to their widespread use, large amounts of BTs including tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) have entered into the environment, and subsequently causing...
Homnick, Douglas N; DeJong, Sandra R
Parent surveys seem to provide sufficient information for asthma case selection. In this study, elementary school children were identified for an asthma education program through a screening questionnaire, followed by a comprehensive family survey. The data were analyzed by groups according to those with parent-reported physician diagnosis or no physician diagnosis. Those with an asthma diagnosis had less nighttime symptoms, less family stress, and more asthma follow-up visits, and were prescribed appropriate medications and peak flow meters more often than those students without a physician diagnosis of asthma. A physician commitment to or recognition of an asthma diagnosis is an important factor in subsequent asthma care.
Scholderer, Joachim; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Brunsø, Karen
to dominate when the target behaviour is performed rarely and in unstable contexts. In the food choice area, only little research exists that would allow a similar assessment. As part of the SEAFOODplus project, representative surveys were conducted in Belgium, Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands, and Poland......), 0.18 (Denmark), 0.10 (Spain), 0.16 (Netherlands), 0.00 (Poland). Although no general answer may exist to the question whether habitual or deliberative factors are more important in food consumer behaviour, habits appear to dominate behaviour in the domain of seafood consumption....
Recently, constructive neutral evolution has been touted as an important concept for the understanding of the emergence of cellular complexity. It has been invoked to help explain the development and retention of, amongst others, RNA splicing, RNA editing and ribosomal and mitochondrial respiratory
Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers,one of the most important natural raw materials for the textile industry,are highly elongated trichomes from epidermal cells of cotton ovules.Among the longest plant cells ever characterized,cotton fiber is an ideal system for studying plant cell elongation.
Virender Sardana; ZHANG Guo-ping
Barley has been in use as food and fodder for thousands of years, and also used currently as themost important raw material in malting and brewing. The quality of malt barley is not much satisfied with therequirement by malting and brewing industry worldwide, although the great effort has been devoted to its im-provement through breeding and agronomy. The quality of malt barley is involved in many physical and chemi-cal traits, including hydrolytic enzymes. Of them, kernel protein content, beta-amylase activity, beta-glucancontent and kernel plumpness have dramatic influence on malting or brewing quality. The expression of thesequality parameters varies greatly in genotypes and is easily changed by diverse environments and agronomicpractices. This paper reviewed the important role of various parameters influencing the quality of malt barleyand the effect of different factors on them.
Sajithlal, Gangadharan; Huttunen, Henri; Rauvala, Heikki; Munch, Gerald
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is known to interact with amphoterin. This interaction has been proposed to play a role in neurite outgrowth and process elongation during neurodifferentiation. However, there is as yet no direct evidence of the relevance of this pathway to neurodifferentiation under physiological conditions. In this study we have investigated a possible role of RAGE and amphoterin in the retinoic acid-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. The functional inactivation of RAGE by dominant negative and antisense strategies showed that RAGE is not required for process outgrowth or differentiation, although overexpression of RAGE accelerates the elongation of neuritic processes. Using the antisense strategy, amphoterin was shown to be essential for process outgrowth and differentiation, suggesting that amphoterin may interact with other molecules to exert its effect in this context. Interestingly, the survival of the neuroblastoma cells treated with retinoic acid was partly dependent on the expression of RAGE, and inhibition of RAGE function partially blocked the increase in anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 following retinoic acid treatment. Based on these results we propose that a combination therapy using RAGE blockers and retinoic acid may prove as a useful approach for chemotherapy for the treatment of neuroblastoma.
Xiao-Chuan Li; Jun Zhu; Jun Yang; Guo-RuiZhang; Wei-Feng Xing; Sen Zhang; Zhong-NanYang
Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) mediates the initial synthetic step for the formation of glycerolipids,which act as the major components of biological membranes and the principal stored forms of energy.GPAT6 is a member of the Arabidopsis GPAT family,which is crucial for cutin biosynthesis in sepals and petals.In this work,a functional analysis of GPAT6 in anther development and plant fertility was performed.GPAT6 was highly expressed in the tapetum and microspores during anther development.The knockout mutant,gpat6,caused a massive reduction in seed production.This report shows that the ablation of GPAT6 caused defective tapetum development with reduced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) profiles in the tapetum,which largely led to the abortion of pollen grains and defective pollen wall formation.In addition,pollen germination and pollen tube elongation were affected in the mutant plants.Furthermore,the double mutant analysis showed that GPAT6 and GPAT1 make joint effects on the release of microspores from tetrads and stamen filament elongation.This work shows that GPAT6 plays multiple roles in stamen development and fertility in Arabidopsis.
Asensio, Irene; Muñoz, María Jesús; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Carballo, Matilde
We analyzed six apiaries in several natural environments with a Mediterranean ecosystem in Madrid, central Spain, in order to understand how landscape and management characteristics may influence apiary health and bee production in the long term. We focused on five criteria (habitat quality, landscape heterogeneity, climate, management and health), as well as 30 subcriteria, and we used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to rank them according to relevance. Habitat quality proved to have the highest relevance, followed by beehive management. Within habitat quality, the following subcriteria proved to be most relevant: orographic diversity, elevation range and important plant species located 1.5 km from the apiary. The most important subcriteria under beehive management were honey production, movement of the apiary to a location with a higher altitude and wax renewal. Temperature was the most important subcriterion under climate, while pathogen and Varroa loads were the most significant under health. Two of the six apiaries showed the best values in the AHP analysis and showed annual honey production of 70 and 28 kg/colony. This high productivity was due primarily to high elevation range and high orographic diversity, which favored high habitat quality. In addition, one of these apiaries showed the best value for beehive management, while the other showed the best value for health, reflected in the low pathogen load and low average number of viruses. These results highlight the importance of environmental factors and good sanitary practices to maximize apiary health and honey productivity. PMID:27727312
Bjørk, Anders Anker; Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup
As the Greenland Ice Sheet and Greenland's glaciers are continuing to loss mass at high rates, knowledge of their past response to climatic changes is ever important. By harvesting the archives for images, both terrestrial and airborne, we are able to expand the record of glacier observation...... by several decades, thus supplying crucial knowledge on glacier behavior to important climatic transitions such as the end of the Little Ice Age and the early 20th Century warming. Here we show how a large collection of historical aerial images portray the glacial response to the Little Ice Age deglaciation...... in Greenland and document frontal change throughout the 20th Century. A detailed story of the LIA-deglaciation is told by supplementing with terrestrial photos that capture the onset of retreat and high resolution aerial images that portray geomorphological evidence of the Little Ice Age maximum extent...
Malek, Natalia; Pajak, Agnieszka; Kolosowska, Natalia; Kucharczyk, Mateusz; Starowicz, Katarzyna
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), classically associated with transduction of high-temperature and low-pH pain, underlies pain hypersensitivity in neuropathic pain. The molecular regulation of TRPV1 channel activity is not yet fully understood. Therefore, we investigated factors regulating sensitisation of this receptor during development of neuropathic pain in a rat model of chronic construction injury (CCI) in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). In the rat CCI model, elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6) in DRG corresponded to development of neuropathic pain. We assessed the expression of known kinases influencing TRPV1 sensitisation at the mRNA and/or protein level. Protein kinase C ε (PKCε) showed the strongest upregulation at the mRNA and protein levels among all tested kinases. Co-expression of PKCε and TRPV1 in L5 DRG of CCI animals was high during the development of neuropathic pain. The number of neurons expressing PKCε increased throughout the experiment. We provide complex data on the expression of a variety of factors involved in TRPV1 sensitisation in a CCI model of neuropathic pain. Our study supports evidence for involvement of TRPV1 in the development of neuropathic pain, by showing increased expression of interleukins and kinases responsible for the channel sensitisation. TNFα and NGF seem to play a role in the transition from acute to neuropathic pain, while PKCε in its maintenance. Further studies might confirm their significance as novel targets for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gutierrez-Murgas, Yenis M; Skar, Gwenn; Ramirez, Danielle; Beaver, Matthew; Snowden, Jessica N
Shunt infection is a frequent and serious complication in the surgical treatment in hydrocephalus. Previous studies have shown an attenuated immune response to these biofilm-mediated infections. We proposed that IL-10 reduces the inflammatory response to Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) CNS catheter infection. In this study, a murine model of catheter-associated S. epidermidis biofilm infection in the CNS was generated based on a well-established similar model for S. aureus. The catheters were pre-coated with a clinically derived biofilm-forming strain of S. epidermidis (strain 1457) which were then stereotactically implanted into the lateral left ventricle of 8-week-old C57BL/6 and IL-10 knockout (IL-10 knockout) mice. Bacterial titers as well as cytokine and chemokine levels were measured at days 3, 5, 7, and 10 in mice implanted with sterile and S. epidermidis-coated catheters. Cultures demonstrated a catheter-associated and parenchymal infection that persisted through 10 days following infection. Cytokine analysis of the tissue surrounding the catheters revealed greater levels of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, in the infected group compared to the sterile. In IL-10 KO mice, we noted no change in bacterial burdens, showing that IL-10 is not needed to control the infection in a CNS catheter infection model. However, IL-10 KO mice had increased levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in the tissues immediately adjacent to the infected catheter, as well as an increase in weight loss. Together our results indicate that IL-10 plays a key role in regulating the inflammatory response to CNS catheter infection but not in control of bacterial burdens. Therefore, IL-10 may be a useful therapeutic target for immune modulation in CNS catheter infection but this should be used in conjunction with antibiotic therapy for bacterial eradication.
E, Ling-Ling; Xu, Lu-Lu; Wu, Xia; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Lv, Yan; Wang, Jia-Zhu; Liu, Hong-Chen
Cells, scaffolds, and growth factors are the three main factors for creating a stem-cell-based tissue-engineered construct, but the interactions between three factors are not very clear. We hereby explored the interactions between rat-adipose-derived stromal cells (rASCs), recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) to provide evidence for their application in bone tissue engineering by evaluating the protein adsorption of beta-TCP, the cell attachment, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity/protein, osteocalcin (OCN) content, mineral formation, calcium content, phosphonium content, cell vitality, gene expression, and implantation in the backs of severe combined immunodeficient mice of rhBMP-2 preinducing rASCs seeded onto beta-TCP. The results showed that beta-TCP could adsorb the proteins from the media. The attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic properties of rASCs were supported by beta-TCP, as revealed using scanning electron microscopy. Compared with rASCs cultured on the culture plate, rASCs cultured on beta-TCP had significantly higher ALP activity/protein, OCN content, and mineral formation. These values for rASCs cultured on beta-TCP with rhBMP-2 increased most significantly. The rhBMP-2 significantly increased the calcium content, phosphonium content, and ALP, type I collagen, and OCN mRNA levels of rASCs cultured on beta-TCP. The methylthiazol tetrazolium method revealed that the vitality of rASCs cultured on beta-TCP with or without rhBMP-2 for 4, 7, and 28 days in vitro was insignificantly different. After 8 and 12 weeks of implantation, each group displayed increased bone formation over the 12-week period. The percentage of the new bone formed areas for beta-TCP/rhBMP-2 and beta-TCP was not significantly different. This value for rASCs/beta-TCP construct was significantly higher than that for beta-TCP group, but the maximal and robust bone formation was presented in rASCs/beta-TCP with rhBMP-2
Full Text Available After initiation of transcription, a number of proteins participate during elongation and termination modifying the properties of the RNA polymerase (RNAP. Gre factors are one such group conserved across bacteria. They regulate transcription by projecting their N-terminal coiled-coil domain into the active center of RNAP through the secondary channel and stimulating hydrolysis of the newly synthesized RNA in backtracked elongation complexes. Rv1080c is a putative gre factor (MtbGre in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The protein enhanced the efficiency of promoter clearance by lowering abortive transcription and also rescued arrested and paused elongation complexes on the GC rich mycobacterial template. Although MtbGre is similar in domain organization and shares key residues for catalysis and RNAP interaction with the Gre factors of Escherichia coli, it could not complement an E. coli gre deficient strain. Moreover, MtbGre failed to rescue E. coli RNAP stalled elongation complexes, indicating the importance of specific protein-protein interactions for transcript cleavage. Decrease in the level of MtbGre reduced the bacterial survival by several fold indicating its essential role in mycobacteria. Another Gre homolog, Rv3788 was not functional in transcript cleavage activity indicating that a single Gre is sufficient for efficient transcription of the M. tuberculosis genome.
Objective To investigate the role of coronary artery spasm in the etiology of chest pain lacking significant coronary stenosis and to identify the clinical risk factors related to coronary artery spasm. Methods Two hundred and seventy five patients with chest pain, but without significant coronary artery stenosis underwent the intracoronary acetylcholine test. Coronary artery spasm was diagnosed while coronary artery stenosis increased to 90% and was accompanied by the usual chest pain with or without ischemic changes on electrocardiogram. Logistic regression was employed to investigate the relationships between coronary artery spasm and sex, age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hyperlipidemia and results of electrocardiographic treadmill stress test. Left ventricular ejection fraction and end diastolic pressure were compared between spasm group and non-spasm group. Results Coronary artery spasm was detected in 103 out of 271 patients, a rate of 38%. Logistic regression analysis showed that smoking and hyperlipidemia increased the relative risk of coronary artery spasm 4.2 times and 2.3 times, respectively. There was a significantly negative relationship between diabetes mellitus and coronary artery spasm. Furthermore, there was no coronary artery spasm detected in left ventricular ejection fraction and end diastolic pressure. Conclusions Coronary artery spasm was one of the important etiological factors for patients with chest pain but no coronary artery stenosis. Smoking and hyperlipidemia were the main clinical risk factors for coronary artery spasm.
Full Text Available Background: Activated protein C (APC inactivates factor V (FV by cleavage of its heavy chain at Arg306, Arg506, Arg679, and Lys994. Mutational changes, which abolish APC cleavage sites, may predispose thrombosis by altering the inactivation process of FV. FV Leiden (FVL (Arg506Glu has been demonstrated as a strong risk factor for thrombosis. In the current study, we have studied whether mutations in the cleavage sites of FV for APC, not due to FVL, would have a role in presenting APC resistance (APCR and initiation of a cerebral thrombotic event.Methods: A group of 22 patients with a history of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT, who were not carriers of FVL enrolled in the study. The patients who had conditions associated with acquired APCR were excluded from the study. APCR test was performed on the remaining 16 patients, which showed APCR in 4 plasma samples. DNA sequencing was performed on four exons of FV of APCR patients, encoding Arg306, Arg506, Arg679, and Lys994.Results: Mutations were not found within nucleotides encoding the cleavage sites; neither was found within their close upstream and downstream sequences.Conclusion: Our results show that polymorphisms affecting cleavage sites of FV other than Arg506Glu it would be less likely to be the basis for APCR and its increased thrombosis susceptibility. In addition, it emphasizes on the importance of screening for APCR in the patients diagnosed with CVT.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Numerous studies have provided clear and convincing evidence that psychosocial factors contribute to the pathogenesis and expression of coronary heart disease (CHD. These factors have been related to the following psychosocial domains: personality factors and character traits, depression, anxiety, social isolation and chronic life stress. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of personality traits and psychosocial risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease. Methods. The investigation was conducted as observational cross-sectional (case-control study. Based on medical records all subjects were divided into two groups: the group of patients with CHD (61 participants, and the control group of 41 healthy participants. All participants fulfilled the Eysenck Inventory Questionnaire, Paykel stress scale and Bortner scale of A-B self-estimation. Results. The participants with CHD were shown to have lower education than healthy participants, but were comparable by gender, age and place of residence. According to the Bortner scale, most participants with CHD expressed type A personality, whereas most healthy participants expressed types B and AB. The patients with CHD achieved higher scores on the Paykel stress scale of life events, and they had the higher level of neurotic and psychotic tendencies, as well as the lower level of extroversion compared to the healthy participants. Multivariate logistic regression model identified chronic stress (odds ratio 1.018; 95% confidence interval 1.007−1.028 as an important predictor for the occurrence of coronary heart disease, when adjusted for age, gender, nourishment and blood pressure. On the other side, the lower risk for the occurrence of CHD was observed among the participants who had the higher level of extroversion (odds ratio 0.859; 95% confidence interval 0.636−0.902. Conclusion. Chronic stress and introversion can be considered important risk factors for
Children's play and the playfulness of adolescents and adults are important indicators of personal growth and development. When a child is not able to play, or an adolescent/adult is not able to be playful with thoughts and ideas, psychotherapy can help to find a more playful and creative stance. Elaborating Winnicott's (1968, p. 591) statement that "psychotherapy has to do with two people playing together," three perspectives on play in psychotherapy are discussed. In the first point of view, the child gets in touch with and can work through aspects of his or her inner world, while playing in the presence of the therapist. The power of play is then rooted in the playful communication with the self In a second perspective, in play the child is communicating aspects of his or her inner world to the therapist as a significant other. In a third view, in "playing together" child and therapist are coconstructing new meanings. These three perspectives on play are valid at different moments of a therapy process or for different children, depending on the complex vicissitudes of the child's constitution, life experiences, development, and psychic structure. Concerning these three perspectives, a parallel can be drawn between the therapist's attitude toward the child's play and the way the therapist responds to the verbal play of an adolescent or adult. We illustrate this with the case of Jacob, a late adolescent hardly able to play with ideas.
... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Toddlers: Learning by Playing KidsHealth > For Parents > Toddlers: Learning by Playing Print A A A What's in ... child's play, but toddlers are hard at work learning important physical skills as they gain muscle control, ...
The paper first outlines a differentiation of play/game-motivations that include "negative" attitudes against the play/game itself like cheating or spoilsporting. This problem is of particular importance in concern of learning games because they are not "played" for themselves--at least in the first place--but due to an…
Sun, Yong; Yi, Xiaoping; Peng, Ming; Zeng, Huicai; Wang, Dan; Li, Bo; Tong, Zheng; Chang, Lili; Jin, Xiang; Wang, Xuchu
Banana Fusarium wilt is a soil-spread fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. In China, the main virulence fungi in banana are F. oxysporum race 1 (F1, weak virulence) and race 4 (F4, strong virulence). To date, no proteomic analyses have compared the two races, but the difference in virulence between F1 and F4 might result from their differentially expressed proteins. Here we report the first comparative proteomics of F1 and F4 cultured under various conditions, and finally identify 99 protein species, which represent 59 unique proteins. These proteins are mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, post-translational modification, energy production, and inorganic ion transport. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that among the 46 proteins identified from F4 were several enzymes that might be important for virulence. Reverse transcription PCR analysis of the genes for 15 of the 56 proteins revealed that their transcriptional patterns were similar to their protein expression patterns. Taken together, these data suggest that proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport may be important in the pathogenesis of banana Fusarium wilt. Some enzymes such as catalase-peroxidase, galactosidase and chitinase might contribute to the strong virulence of F4. Overexpression or knockout of the genes for the F4-specific proteins will help us to further understand the molecular mechanism of Fusarium-induced banana wilt.
Bao, Aili; Zhao, Zhuqing; Ding, Guangda; Shi, Lei; Xu, Fangsen; Cai, Hongmei
Glutamine synthetase 2 (GS2) is a key enzyme involved in the ammonium metabolism in plant leaves. In our previous study, we obtained GS2-cosuppressed plants, which displayed a normal growth phenotype at the seedling stage, while at the tillering stage they showed a chlorosis phenotype. In this study, to investigate the chlorosis mechanism, we systematically analyzed the plant growth, carbon-nitrogen metabolism and gene expressions between the GS2-cosuppressed rice and wild-type plants. The results revealed that the GS2-cosuppressed plants exhibited a poor plant growth phenotype and a poor nitrogen transport ability, which led to nitrogen accumulation and a decline in the carbon/nitrogen ratio in the stems. Interestingly, there was a higher concentration of soluble proteins and a lower concentration of carbohydrates in the GS2-cosuppressed plants at the seedling stage, while a contrasting result was displayed at the tillering stage. The analysis of the metabolic profile showed a significant increase of sugars and organic acids. Additionally, gene expression patterns were different in root and leaf of GS2-cosuppressed plants between the seedling and tillering stage. These results indicated the important role of a stable level of GS2 transcription during normal rice development and the importance of the carbon-nitrogen metabolic balance in rice growth.
Argy, Nicolas; Kendjo, Eric; Augé-Courtoi, Claire; Cojean, Sandrine; Clain, Jérôme; Houzé, Pascal; Thellier, Marc; Hubert, Veronique; Deloron, Philippe; Houzé, Sandrine
Imported malaria in France is characterized by various clinical manifestations observed in a heterogeneous population of patients such as travelers/expatriates and African migrants. In this population, host factors and parasite biomass associated with severe imported malaria are poorly known. From data collected by the Centre National de Référence du Paludisme, we identified epidemiological, demographic and biological features including parasite biomass and anti-plasmodial antibody levels (negative, positive and strongly positive serology) associated with different disease severity groups (very severe, moderately severe, and uncomplicated malaria) in 3 epidemiological groups (travelers/expatriates, first- and second-generation migrants). Age, ethnicity, absence of prior infection with P. falciparum, antibody levels, plasma PfHRP2 levels, total and circulating parasite biomass were related to severe malaria onset. Sequestered parasite biomass tended to be increased in very severe malaria, and was strongly correlated to the antibody level of the host. Prior exposure to P. falciparum is associated with high anti-plasmodial antibody levels which influence clinical presentation of imported malaria and its correlated circulating and sequestered parasite burden.
Song, Kyoung-Ju; Song, Kyung-Hui; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Lee, Yang-Jin; Park, Chang-Eun; Shin, Ho-Joon
To evaluate the role of heat shock 70 protein (HSP70) in free-living amoeba, a constitutive and inducible heat shock 70 gene of pathogenic Naegleria fowleri has previously been cloned, characterized, and named as Nf-cHSP70. The Nf-cHSP70 is localized in the cytoplasm, pseudopodia, and phagocytic food-cups. To investigate the role of Nf-cHSP70 in the pathogenicity of N. fowleri, the synthesis of N. fowleri HSP70 was first inhibited with benzylidene lactam compound (KNK437), and Nf-cHSP70 gene was knock-downed with antisense oligomers, which were designed with a start region-specific antisense oligonucleotides (24 oligomers) and modified with phosphorothioate. KNK437 inhibited the induction of N. fowleri HSP70 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, 300 muM KNK437 reduced the proliferation of N. fowleri to 79.4% of untreated control (100%). Nf-cHSP70 knock-downed N. fowleri with antisense oligomers showed 68.5% reduction of proliferation in comparison with untreated control (100%). The cytotoxicity of N. fowleri against CHO target cells was reduced to 42.1% by KNK437 and 68.6% by antisense oligomers. These results suggest that the cloned Nf-cHSP70 plays an important role in the proliferation and cytotoxicity of pathogenic N. fowleri.
Recently, constructive neutral evolution has been touted as an important concept for the understanding of the emergence of cellular complexity. It has been invoked to help explain the development and retention of, amongst others, RNA splicing, RNA editing and ribosomal and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexity. The theory originated as a welcome explanation of isolated small scale cellular idiosyncrasies and as a reaction to 'overselectionism'. Here I contend, that in its extended form, it has major conceptual problems, can not explain observed patterns of complex processes, is too easily dismissive of alternative selectionist models, underestimates the creative force of complexity as such, and--if seen as a major evolutionary mechanism for all organisms--could stifle further thought regarding the evolution of highly complex biological processes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.
Lasaro, Melissa A; Salinger, Nina; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yantao; Zhong, Zhengtao; Goulian, Mark; Zhu, Jun
Bacterial biofilm formation is thought to enhance survival in natural environments and during interaction with hosts. A robust colonizer of the human gastrointestinal tract, Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, is widely employed in probiotic therapy. In this study, we performed a genetic screen to identify genes that are involved in Nissle biofilm formation. We found that F1C fimbriae are required for biofilm formation on an inert surface. In addition, these structures are also important for adherence to epithelial cells and persistence in infant mouse colonization. The data suggest a possible connection between Nissle biofilm formation and the survival of this commensal within the host. Further study of the requirements for robust biofilm formation may improve the therapeutic efficacy of Nissle 1917.
Lasaro, Melissa A.; Salinger, Nina; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yantao; Zhong, Zhengtao; Goulian, Mark; Zhu, Jun
Bacterial biofilm formation is thought to enhance survival in natural environments and during interaction with hosts. A robust colonizer of the human gastrointestinal tract, Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, is widely employed in probiotic therapy. In this study, we performed a genetic screen to identify genes that are involved in Nissle biofilm formation. We found that F1C fimbriae are required for biofilm formation on an inert surface. In addition, these structures are also important for adherence to epithelial cells and persistence in infant mouse colonization. The data suggest a possible connection between Nissle biofilm formation and the survival of this commensal within the host. Further study of the requirements for robust biofilm formation may improve the therapeutic efficacy of Nissle 1917. PMID:18997018
Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels
and undecidability. With an empirical point of departure in Danish public school policy and two concrete examples of games utilised in school development, the article analyses how play is a way for organisations to simultaneously decide and also avoid making a decision, thus keeping flexibility and possibilities...... intact. In its final sections, the article discusses what happens to conditions of decision-making when organisations do not just see undecidability as a given condition, but as a limited resource indispensable for change and renewal. The article advances discussions of organisational play by exploring......This article explores how organisational play becomes a managerial tool to increase and benefit from undecidability. The article draws on Niklas Luhmann's concept of decision and on Gregory Bateson's theory of play to create a conceptual framework for analysing the relation between decision...
Strömgren, Marcus; Eriksson, Andrea; Ahlstrom, Linda; Bergman, David Kristofer; Dellve, Lotta
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between leadership and social capital and what qualities of leadership are important for social capital among employees in hospital settings over time. Design/methodology/approach A cohort of employees in hospitals answered a questionnaire at three occasions. Five small (approx. 100-bed) or mid-sized (approx. 500-bed) hospitals were included. The response rate was 54 percent at baseline ( n=865), 59 percent at one-year follow-up ( n=908) and 67 percent at two-year follow-up ( n=632). Findings Repeated measures over time showed differences between groups in levels of social capital with respect to levels of leadership quality. Relation-oriented leadership had the strongest association with social capital. There was evidence that leadership was associated with social capital over time and that different kinds of leadership qualities were associated with social capital. Research limitations/implications This study conducted and analyzed quantitative data, and therefore, there is no knowledge of managers' or employees' own perceptions in this study. However, it would be interesting to compare managers' decreased and increased leadership quality and how such differences affect social capital over time. Practical implications The findings feature the possibility for healthcare leaders to build high quality leadership as an important resource for social capital, by using different leadership orientations under different circumstances. Originality/value The paper showed that leadership was an important factor for building social capital and that different leadership qualities have different importance with respect to certain circumstances.
Qu, Yang; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Chenge; Wang, Qiang; Guo, Wenchao; Han, Zhaojun; Jiang, Weihua
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ACh-gated ion channels. It is believed that nAChRs composed of different subunits may vary in their function and toxicological characteristics. Neonicotinoids are activators of nAChRs and important insecticides that are extensively used for crop protection and resistance has been developed by some pests. They are also major insecticides for the control of Leptinotarsa decemlineata, which is a destructive defoliator pest that invaded the Xinjiang region of China in the 1990s. However, little is known about the constitution or subunits of the target in this pest. In this study, the full-length cDNAs encoding four new nAChR subunits (named Ldα3, Ldα6, Ldα10, and Ldβ1) were cloned from L. decemlineata. These genes encode 822-, 753-, 672-, and 759-amino acid proteins, respectively, which share typical features of insect nAChRs subunits and closely resemble the corresponding subunits of the nAChRs from Tribolium castaneum. Temporal and spatial expression analyses showed that these genes, as well as the previously identified Ldα1, Ldα2, and Ldα8 genes, are widely expressed in all developmental stages, including eggs, larvae of various instars, pupae, and adults. All genes monitored were expressed at higher levels in the head than in the thorax and abdomen, except for Ldα10. Dietary ingestion of double-stranded RNA bacterially expressed for Ldα1 (dsLdα1) significantly reduced the mRNA level of Ldα1 in treated larvae and adults by 48.0% and 78.6%, respectively. Among the non-target genes, Ldα3, Ldα9, and Ldβ1 were significantly up-regulated in larvae. A toxicity bioassay showed that dsLdα1 treatment greatly decreased the sensitivity to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in adults. The larval susceptibility to thiamethoxam but not to imidacloprid was also reduced because of the lower down-regulation of Ldα1. Thus, our results suggest that Ldα1 encodes a subunit of a functional nAChR that mediates the
FitzGerald, Jamie A.; Allen, Eoin; Wall, David M.; Jackson, Stephen A.; Murphy, Jerry D.; Dobson, Alan D. W.
Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1) and strongest (R6) performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA) showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation. PMID:26555136
Jamie A FitzGerald
Full Text Available Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1 and strongest (R6 performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Episodic cessation of airflow during sleep in patients with sleep apnea syndrome results in intermittent hypoxia (IH. Our aim was to investigate the effects of IH on cerebellar granule cells and to identify the mechanism of IH-induced cell death. Methods Cerebellar granule cells were freshly prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. IH was created by culturing the cerebellar granule cells in the incubators with oscillating O2 concentration at 20% and 5% every 30 min for 1-4 days. The results of this study are based on image analysis using a confocal microscope and associated software. Cellular oxidative stress increased with increase in IH. In addition, the occurrence of cell death (apoptosis and necrosis increased as the duration of IH increased, but decreased in the presence of an iron chelator (phenanthroline or poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors [3-aminobenzamide (3-AB and DPQ]. The fluorescence of caspase-3 remained the same regardless of the duration of IH, and Western blots did not detect activation of caspase-3. However, IH increased the ratio of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF translocation to the nucleus, while PARP inhibitors (3-AB reduced this ratio. Results According to our findings, IH increased oxidative stress and subsequently leading to cell death. This effect was at least partially mediated by PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, calpain activation leading to AIF translocation to the nucleus. Conclusions We suggest that IH induces cell death in rat primary cerebellar granule cells by stimulating oxidative stress PARP-mediated calpain and AIF activation.
Sheng, Xiumei; Zhang, Hong; Xia, Qiufeng; Xu, Shungao; Xu, Huaxi; Huang, Xinxiang
mig-14 is a horizontally acquired host-induced virulence gene in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The molecular function of mig-14 is still unknown; sequence analysis showed that mig-14 shared homology with the helix-loop-helix motif of the AraC family of transcriptional regulatory proteins. In our previous microarray-based studies, mig-14 was upregulated at the early stage of high osmotic stress, indicating a potential role under this condition. Therefore, we compared growth and the global transcriptional difference between wild-type and mig-14 mutant strains to identify the role of Mig-14. The results showed that growth of mig-14 mutant strain was clearly slower than that of the wild-type strain, and 148 genes showed significant differences in expression between these two strains under upshift high osmotic treatment for 30 min. In total, 77 genes and 71 genes in the mig-14 mutant strain were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Genes involved in invasion, virulence, flagellation, motility and chemotaxis of Salmonella were downregulated. Thus, cell invasion abilities of these two strains were further analyzed. The results confirmed that activities of mig-14 were important for cell invasion.
Prioste, Ana; Fonseca, Helena; Sousa, Pedro; Gaspar, Pedro; Machado, Maria do Céu
This study aimed to investigate the psychosocial gains perceived by overweight adolescents attending a 12-week weight management programme and to analyse gender-specific differences. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 70 overweight adolescents aged between 12 and 18 (52.9% girls), evaluated at baseline and at week 12 using anthropometric measurements and self-reported questionnaires. We analysed gender-specific differences related to body self-esteem, social life, relationships with their family, physical comfort, health responsibility, perceived benefits of the intervention, self-efficacy and adherence. We further investigated whether the variables at week 12 would predict changes in their body mass index. While weight had a greater impact on the body self-esteem of girls, both at baseline and week 12, boys reported higher self-efficacy and adherence as well as a greater perception of the benefits of the intervention at week 12. The body mass index change was positively associated with body self-esteem, relationships within the family and self-efficacy and adherence. Gender specifics and the role of psychosocial variables must be taken into account during weight management programmes for adolescents, and it is important to include the family throughout the entire process. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wang, Qingqing; Ao, Yiran; Yang, Kai; Tang, Hong; Chen, Dan
Previous studies have shown that the aberrant expression of period circadian clock 2 (Per2) is closely related to the occurrence and development of cancers, but the specific mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we used shRNA to downregulate Per2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) Tca8113 cells, and then detected the alterations in cell cycle, cell proliferation and apoptosis by flow cytometric analysis and mRNA expression alterations in all the important genes in the cyclin/cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK)/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) cell cycle network by RT-qPCR. We found that in the Tca8113 cells, after Per2 downregulation, the mRNA expression levels of cyclin A2, B1 and D1, CDK4, CDK6 and E2F1 were significantly increased (Pcycle progression and the balance of cell proliferation and apoptosis by regulation of the cyclin/CDK/CKI cell cycle network. Further research on Per2 may provide a new effective molecular target for cancer treatments.
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing earning adjustment on firms selected on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2011. There are four independent variables associated with the proposed study of this paper including Proportion of shares owned by institutional investors, Return on assets, Profit change and Market value to book value. In addition, Investment restructuring is considered as control variable. The results of the implementation of regression analysis indicate that there was a reverse relationship between earning forecasted adjustment and two independent variables including size of firm as well as the ratio of market value to book value. However, Net profit has a direct and positive relationship with earning forecast adjustment.
Deza Durand, Karla Michelle
The minimally processed vegetable industry has been increasing rapidly due to change in lifestyle. Both women and men work outside home and have less time to cook and need more convenience and time saving products, which also present fresh and healthy characteristics. Iceberg lettuce (Lactuca...... important for the shelf-life of minimally processed iceberg lettuce and to propose a new methodology to measure browning in cut lettuce. Browning has been pointed out as the main factor limitating shelf-life in cut lettuce. The problem becomes complex because browning of cut lettuce is difficult to measure...... compounds, physicochemical constituents, PPO activity and browning were assessed at 1, 5, 8 and 11 days of storage in packaged lettuce, whereas in air stored samples only at 1 and 5 days of storage. Additionally, respiration rate was only assessed in air stored samples and GC-O analysis was undertaken after...
Costa, Cátia; Santos, Beatriz; Severino, Davide; Cabanelas, Nuno; Peres, Marisa; Monteiro, Isabel; Leal, Margarida
The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a clinical entity characterized by recurring episodes of apnea and/or hypopnea during sleep, due to a total or partial collapse, respectively, of the upper airway. This collapse originates a set of pathophysiological changes that determine the appearance of several cardiovascular complications. OSA contributes for the development of hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias and coronary heart disease. Nowadays it is recognized to be an important public health problem, taking into account not just its repercussions but also its prevalence, since the main risk factor for the disease is obesity, a growing problem worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about OSA, as regards its definition, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, cardiovascular effects and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
This article discusses the role of wood energy in so-called eco-tourism and the fact that tourism has an essential interest in keeping our environment intact. The growing importance of the tourism industry and sustainable tourism in particular is stressed. Efforts being made by tour operators and regional authorities to market eco-tourism are examined, including awards and labels for sustainable tourist facilities. The role of wood energy and other renewable forms of energy as a marketing factor for those establishments that make use of them is commented on. Also, a project that links wood energy facilities to form a 'Wood Energy Way' in the Jura mountains is described that is already proving to be an international tourist attraction.
Zhuo Lin Deng; Yun Ma; Ling Yuan; Pin Kie Teng
AIM To examine hepatitis C in hepatocellular carcinoma in most endemic area, Guangxi, China.METHODS Immunochemistry was performed on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections. A total202 specimens were analysed from the high, intermediate and low HCC prevalent regions of Guangxi.RESULTS The distribution of positive hepatitis C cases from high, intermediate and low regions wasrespectively 24/63 (38%), 23/62 (37%) and 30/77 (39%), with a total of 77/202 (38.12%).CONCLUSION Hepatitis C virus is an important risk factor in the development of hepatocellularcarcinoma, but the regional difference in prevalence of this cancer is more likely influenced by hepatitis Bviral infection and aflatoxin B1 exposure. In Guangxi, infection of hepatitis B and C virus in thedevelopment of hepatocellular carcinoma may be greatly enhanced by exposure to aflatoxin.
Full Text Available It is shown the role of water-game activities to enhance the efficiency of teaching and training process for athletes 10-16 years in the preparatory period and their effects on young athletes. It is proposed a set of exercises and games in the water for a sprinter. The basis of systems put different games, relay races, dynamic and static exercises, exercises on the recovery. Proved that the water-play classes young athletes develop harmoniously reinforce the emotional and physiological quality, improve health and increase the intellectual level.
Hasim, Sahar; Hussin, Nur Ahmad; Alomar, Fadhel; Bidasee, Keshore R; Nickerson, Kenneth W; Wilson, Mark A
Methylglyoxal is a cytotoxic reactive carbonyl compound produced by central metabolism. Dedicated glyoxalases convert methylglyoxal to d-lactate using multiple catalytic strategies. In this study, the DJ-1 superfamily member ORF 19.251/GLX3 from Candida albicans is shown to possess glyoxalase activity, making this the first demonstrated glutathione-independent glyoxalase in fungi. The crystal structure of Glx3p indicates that the protein is a monomer containing the catalytic triad Cys(136)-His(137)-Glu(168). Purified Glx3p has an in vitro methylglyoxalase activity (Km = 5.5 mM and kcat = 7.8 s(-1)) that is significantly greater than that of more distantly related members of the DJ-1 superfamily. A close Glx3p homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YDR533C/Hsp31) also has glyoxalase activity, suggesting that fungal members of the Hsp31 clade of the DJ-1 superfamily are all probable glutathione-independent glyoxalases. A homozygous glx3 null mutant in C. albicans strain SC5314 displays greater sensitivity to millimolar levels of exogenous methylglyoxal, elevated levels of intracellular methylglyoxal, and carbon source-dependent growth defects, especially when grown on glycerol. These phenotypic defects are complemented by restoration of the wild-type GLX3 locus. The growth defect of Glx3-deficient cells in glycerol is also partially complemented by added inorganic phosphate, which is not observed for wild-type or glucose-grown cells. Therefore, C. albicans Glx3 and its fungal homologs are physiologically relevant glutathione-independent glyoxalases that are not redundant with the previously characterized glutathione-dependent GLO1/GLO2 system. In addition to its role in detoxifying glyoxals, Glx3 and its close homologs may have other important roles in stress response.
Xiao, Ying; Ji, Qian; Gao, Shouhong; Tan, Hexin; Chen, Ruibing; Li, Qing; Chen, Junfeng; Yang, Yingbo; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Zhengtao; Chen, Wansheng; Hu, Zhibi
A lignan, lariciresinol, is an important efficacious compound for the antiviral effect of Isatis indigotica, a widely used herb for the treatment of colds, fever, and influenza. Although some rate-limiting steps of the lariciresinol biosynthetic pathway are well known, the specific roles of gene family members in I. indigotica in regulating lariciresinol production are poorly understood. In the present study, a correlation analysis between the RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) expression profile and lignan content by using I. indigotica hairy roots treated with methyl jamonate (0.5 μM) at different time points as a source implicated that I. indigotica pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase 1 (IiPLR1), but not IiPLR2 or IiPLR3, contributed greatly to lariciresinol accumulation. Gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) demonstrated that IiPLR1 indeed influenced lariciresinol biosynthesis, whereas suppression of IiPLR2 or IiPLR3 did not change lariciresinol abundance significantly. IiPLR1 was thus further characterized; IiPLR1 was constitutively expressed in roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of I. indigotica, with the highest expression in roots, and it responds to different stress treatments to various degrees. Recombinant IiPLR1 reduces both (±)-pinoresinol and (±)-lariciresinol efficiently, with comparative K cat/K m values. Furthermore, overexpression of IiPLR1 significantly enhanced lariciresinol accumulation in I. indigotica hairy roots, and the best line (ovx-2) produced 353.9 μg g(-1) lariciresinol, which was ~6.3-fold more than the wild type. This study sheds light on how to increase desired metabolites effectively by more accurate or appropriate genetic engineering strategies, and also provides an effective approach for the large-scale commercial production of pharmaceutically valuable lariciresinol by using hairy root culture systems as bioreactors.
Feng, Dongmei; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Zhiwen; Zhang, Chunlu; He, Kanglai; Guo, Shuyuan
The insecticidal IE648 toxin is a truncated Cry1Ie protein with increased toxicity against Asian corn borer (ACB). Cry toxins are pore-forming toxins that disrupt insect midgut cells to kill the larvae. However, the peritrophic membrane (PM) is an important barrier that Cry toxins must cross before binding to midgut cells. Previously, it was shown that Cry toxins are able to bind and accumulate in the PM of several lepidopteran insects. Binding of IE648 toxin to PM of ACB was previously reported and the goal of the current work was the identification of the binding region between Cry1Ie and the PM of ACB. Homologous competition binding assays showed that this interaction was specific. Heterologous competition binding assays performed with different fragments corresponding to domain I, domain II and domain III allowed us to identify that domain III participates in the interaction of IE648 with the PM. Specifically, peptide D3-L8 (corresponding to Cry1Ie toxin residues 607 to 616), located in an exposed loop region of domain III is probably involved in this interaction. Ligand blot assays show that IE648 interact with chitin and PM proteins with sizes of 30, 32 and 80 kDa. The fact that domain III interacts with proteins of similar molecular masses supports that this region of the toxin might be involved in PM interaction. These data provide for the first time the identification of domain III as a putative binding region between PM and 3D-Cry toxin. PMID:26295704
Full Text Available The insecticidal IE648 toxin is a truncated Cry1Ie protein with increased toxicity against Asian corn borer (ACB. Cry toxins are pore-forming toxins that disrupt insect midgut cells to kill the larvae. However, the peritrophic membrane (PM is an important barrier that Cry toxins must cross before binding to midgut cells. Previously, it was shown that Cry toxins are able to bind and accumulate in the PM of several lepidopteran insects. Binding of IE648 toxin to PM of ACB was previously reported and the goal of the current work was the identification of the binding region between Cry1Ie and the PM of ACB. Homologous competition binding assays showed that this interaction was specific. Heterologous competition binding assays performed with different fragments corresponding to domain I, domain II and domain III allowed us to identify that domain III participates in the interaction of IE648 with the PM. Specifically, peptide D3-L8 (corresponding to Cry1Ie toxin residues 607 to 616, located in an exposed loop region of domain III is probably involved in this interaction. Ligand blot assays show that IE648 interact with chitin and PM proteins with sizes of 30, 32 and 80 kDa. The fact that domain III interacts with proteins of similar molecular masses supports that this region of the toxin might be involved in PM interaction. These data provide for the first time the identification of domain III as a putative binding region between PM and 3D-Cry toxin.
Li Yang; Huang Qiming; Shi Xuehui; Jin Xiang; Shen Li; Xu Xiaolin; Wei Wenbin
Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to tumorigenesis by acting as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes.In this study,we investigated the role of miR-145 in the pathogenesis of uveal melanoma.Methods Expression profiles of miRNAs in uveal melanoma were performed using Agilent miRNA array.Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to screen the expression levels of miR-145 in normal uveal tissue,uveal melanoma tissue,and uveal melanoma cell lines.Lenti-virus expression system was used to construct MUM-2B and OCM-1 cell lines with stable overexpression of miR-145.Cell proliferation,cell cycle,and cell apoptosis of these miR-145 overexpression cell lines were examined by MTT assay and flow cytometry respectively.The target genes of miR-145 were predicted by bioinformatics and confirmed using a luciferase reporter assay.The expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R),insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) proteins was determined by Western blotting analysis.IRS-1 was knocked down in OCM-1 cells.TUNEL,BrdU,and flow cytometry assay were performed in IRS-1 knocked down OCM-1 cell lines to analyze its function.Results Forty-seven miRNAs were up regulated in uveal melanoma and 61 were down regulated.miR-145 expression was significantly lower in uveal melanoma sample and the cell lines were compared with normal uveal sample.Overexpression of miR-145 suppressed cell proliferation by blocking the G1 phase entering S phase in uveal melanoma cells,and promoted uveal melanoma cell apoptosis.IRS-1 was identified as a potential target of miR-145 by dual luciferase reporter assay.Knocking down of IRS-1 had similar effect as overexpression of miR-145.Conclusion miR-145 might act as a tumor suppressor in uveal melanoma,and downregulation of the target IRS-1 might be a potential mechanism.
Crespo, Isaac; Del Sol, Antonio
Transcription factor cross-repression is an important concept in cellular differentiation. A bistable toggle switch constitutes a molecular mechanism that determines cellular commitment and provides stability to transcriptional programs of binary cell fate choices. Experiments support that perturbations of these toggle switches can interconvert these binary cell fate choices, suggesting potential reprogramming strategies. However, more complex types of cellular transitions could involve perturbations of combinations of different types of multistable motifs. Here, we introduce a method that generalizes the concept of transcription factor cross-repression to systematically predict sets of genes, whose perturbations induce cellular transitions between any given pair of cell types. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first method that systematically makes these predictions without prior knowledge of potential candidate genes and pathways involved, providing guidance on systems where little is known. Given the increasing interest of cellular reprogramming in medicine and basic research, our method represents a useful computational methodology to assist researchers in the field in designing experimental strategies.
Serrano, João; Shahidian, Shakib; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno
The aim of this study was to identify the importance assigned by futsal coaches with different education levels to the sports performance factors (technical, tactical, physical and psychological) and to the training contents. The sample was divided into three groups (novice: n=35, intermediate: n=42; and elite coaches: n=15) depending on the degree of specific education, coaching experience and the level of the teams trained. To achieve this goal, the coaches answered a questionnaire previously validated by specialists in sport sciences. The results showed significant differences between the novice and elite group in small-sided games, inferiority games, opposition and execution timing of the training and drill items. The analyses also showed significant differences between the novice and intermediate group in inferiority games and opposition of the training and drill items. Although, no differences were identified between groups for the remaining performance factors and training and drill items considered, the identified trends provide a baseline related to the knowledge that contributes to the development of expertise of futsal coaches.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective:Dental caries is perhaps the most common bacterial infections in humans and Streptococcus Mutans is one of the most important factors in dental caries. Research has shown that some kind foods have an inhibitory effect on cariogenic factors of Mutans streptococci. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of date extract on growth of Streptococcus Mutans. Methods & Materials: This experimental study was down at faculty of medicine, Yasuj university of medical sciences with collaborative of microbiology department of Shiraz university of medical sciences in 2005. In an In-vitro study, effect of date extract on growth of Mutans Streptococci was surveyed .After collecting of Streptococcus Mutans from dental caries those were cultured in different medium of date fruit, extract of date fruit and syrup of date with different concentrations. Results: Following 24 hours, Streptococcus mutans was grown in less concentration of date mediums and its grown was inhibited in more concentrations. Conclusion: With respect of inhibitory effect of date extract on growth of Streptococcus mutans,it might be introduced that date as a source of food has a preventive effect on dental caries.
The aim of this study was to explore and understand the complexity of ageing in relation to factors of importance for extending working life. Discourse analysis of documents was used in an integrative review including 128 articles. Four different conceptualisation of ageing are shown to affect older workers' ability to extend their working life: (a) biological ageing people's health in relation to their physical and mental work environment, their pace of work and recuperation needs; (b) chronological ageing statutory retirement age and policies and economic incentives devised for older workers by society, unions and organisations/enterprises; (c) social ageing inclusion in different social groups, the attitude of managers, organisations and family members, the leisure activities and surrounding environment; and (d) mental/cognitive ageing self-crediting, motivating and meaningful activities, competence and skills in working life. CONCLUSIONS SOCIETIES TODAY FOCUS MOSTLY ON CHRONOLOGICAL AGEING AND ARE LOOKING TO INCREASE THE RETIREMENT AGE WITH REGARD TO STATUTORY PENSION SYSTEMS, EG BEYOND 65 YEARS OF AGE THE INTER-RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CHRONOLOGICAL, MENTAL, BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL AGEING AND THE NINE AREAS IDENTIFIED AS BEING IMPORTANT TO OLDER WORKERS IN THESE RESPECTS NEED TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN AIMING TO PROVIDE A SUSTAINABLE WORKING LIFE FOR THE INCREASING NUMBERS OF OLDER WORKERS IN MODERN SOCIETY THE THEORETICAL MODEL DEVELOPED IS A CONTRIBUTION TO THE CRITICAL DEBATE THAT CAN BE APPLIED BY SOCIETIES, EMPLOYERS AND MANAGERS IN ORDER TO PROVIDE OLDER WORKERS WITH AN INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE EXTENDED WORKING LIFE. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea
of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Burden of disease estimates for South Africa have highlighted the particularly high rates of injuries related to interpersonal violence compared with other regions of the world, but these figures tell only part of the story. In addition to direct physical injury, violence survivors are at an increased risk of a wide range of psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to comprehensively quantify the excess disease burden attributable to exposure to interpersonal violence as a risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa. Methods The World Health Organization framework of interpersonal violence was adapted. Physical injury mortality and disability were categorically attributed to interpersonal violence. In addition, exposure to child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence, subcategories of interpersonal violence, were treated as risk factors for disease and injury using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made to account for the combined exposure state of having experienced both child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. Results Of the 17 risk factors included in the South African Comparative Risk Assessment study, interpersonal violence was the second leading cause of healthy years of life lost, after unsafe sex, accounting for 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs or 10.5% of all DALYs (95% uncertainty interval: 8.5%-12.5% in 2000. In women, intimate partner violence accounted for 50% and child sexual abuse for 32% of the total attributable DALYs. Conclusions The implications of our findings are that estimates that include only the direct injury burden seriously underrepresent the full health impact of interpersonal violence. Violence is an important direct and indirect cause of health loss and should be recognized as a priority health problem as well as a human rights and social issue. This study highlights the difficulties in measuring
This paper aims to identify an understanding of digital games in virtual environments by using Don Ihde’s (1990) postphenomenological approach to how technology mediates the world to human beings in conjunction with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s (1993) notion of play . Through this tentatively proposed...... amalgamation of theories I point towards an alternative understanding of the relationship between play and game as not only dialectic, but also as socially and ethically relevant qua the design and implementation of the game as technology....
Stankevicius, Deividas; Jady, Hawraa Amira; Drachen, Anders;
experience, motivation and enjoyment, yet difficult to measure. These concepts were conceptualized into different factors and thereby it was identified which of them are re-lated. This resulted in a synthesized model that was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior model. This model takes into account...
Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana
This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…
Full Text Available The transcription factor Broad Complex (BR-C is an early ecdysone response gene in insects and contains two types of domains: two zinc finger domains for the activation of gene transcription and a Bric-a-brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex (BTB domain for protein-protein interaction. Although the mechanism of zinc finger-mediated gene transcription is well studied, the partners interacting with the BTB domain of BR-C has not been elucidated until now. Here, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using the BTB domain of silkworm BR-C as bait and identified the receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1, a scaffolding/anchoring protein, as the novel partner capable of interacting with BR-C. The interaction between BR-C and RACK1 was further confirmed by far-western blotting and pull-down assays. Importantly, the disruption of this interaction, via RNAi against the endogenous RACK1 gene or deletion of the BTB domain, abolished the nuclear import of BR-C in BmN4 cells. In addition, RNAi against the endogenous PKC gene as well as phosphorylation-deficient mutation of the predicted PKC phosphorylation sites at either Ser373 or Thr406 in BR-C phenocopied RACK1 RNAi and altered the nuclear localization of BR-C. However, when BTB domain was deleted, phosphorylation mimics of either Ser373 or Thr406 had no effect on the nuclear import of BR-C. Moreover, mutating the PKC phosphorylation sites at Ser373 and Thr406 or deleting the BTB domain significantly decreased the transcriptional activation of a BR-C target gene. Given that RACK1 is necessary for recruiting PKC to close and phosphorylate target proteins, we suggest that the PKC-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear import of BR-C is determined by its interaction with RACK1. This novel finding will be helpful for further deciphering the mechanism underlying the role of BR-C proteins during insect development.
Objective To evaluate the impact of extracapsular spread (ECS) in ipsilateral neck metastasis on prognosis and its related factors in laryngeal cancer.Methods The study included 184 patients who underwent laryngectomy and simultaneous radical or modified radical neck dissection between January 1994 and December 1997 for laryngeal cancer. All of them had a complete 5-year follow-up. We used transparent lymph node detection and continuous slicing method on all neck dissection specimens.Kaplan-Meier model was used for survival analysis and the log-rank test was used to assess significance.Results We found pathological neck metastases in 80 patients. Among them, 26 cases (32.5%) had ECS in ipsilateral neck. ECS incidence increased with advanced pathological N (pN) stages (pN1 3.7%, pN2a 25.0%, pN2b 50. 0%, and pN2c 55.6%; P=0.001). ECS incidence also increased with number of positive nodes ( 1 positive node 8.6%, 2 positive nodes 33.3%, 3 and more positive nodes 66. 7%; P＜0.001). Incidences of contralateral neck metastases and ipsilateral neck recurrence in patients with ECS were higher than those in patients without ECS (46.2%vs.24. 1%, P=0 046; 34. 6% vs. 7.4%, P =0. 002). The 5-year survival rate of patients with ECS was significantly lower than that of patients without ECS (23.1% vs. 57.4%,P=0.013).Conclusion ECS is an important prognostic factor in laryngeal cancer. Patients with ECS have a higher incidence of contralateral neck metastasis, so bilateral neck dissection should be selected.
Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, it has become apparent that smoking has a negative impact on renal function, being one of the most important remediable renal risk factors. It has been clearly shown that the risk for high-normal urinary albumin excretion and microalbuminuria is increased in smoking compared to non-smoking subjects of the general population. Data from the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT indicate that at least in males, smoking increases the risk to reach end-stage renal failure. Smoking is particularly "nephrotoxic" in older subjects, subjects with essential hypertension and patients with preexisting renal disease. Of interest, the magnitude of the adverse renal effect of smoking seems to be independent of the underlying renal disease. Death-censored renal graft survival is decreased in smokers, indicating that smoking also damages the renal transplant. Cessation of smoking has been show to reduce the rate of progression of renal failure both in patients with renal disease or a renal transplant. The mechanisms of smoking-induced renal damage are only partly understood and comprise acute hemodynamic (e.g., increase in blood pressure and presumably intraglomerular pressure and chronic effects (e.g., endothelial cell dysfunction. Renal failure per se leads to an increased cardiovascular risk. The latter is further aggravated by smoking. Particularly survival of smokers with diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis is abysmal. In the present review article the current state of knowledge about the renal risks of smoking is reviewed. It is the aim of the article to point out that smoking not only increases the risk of renal cell carcinoma or uroepithelial cell carcinoma, but also the risk of a faster decline of renal function. The latter is a relatively new negative aspect which has not been widely recognized.
Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Rosas, Lucia E.; David, John R; Bojalil, Rafael; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Terrazas, Luis I.
To determine the role of endogenous migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in regulation of immune response during murine cysticercosis caused by the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps, we analyzed the course of T. crassiceps infection in MIF−/− BALB/c mice. MIF−/− mice were highly susceptible to T. crassiceps and developed significantly higher parasite loads compared to similarly infected MIF+/+ mice. Throughout the course of infection, Taenia crassiceps soluble antigen-stimulated spleen cells f...
Y. Huang (Yao); M. Buscop-Van Kempen (Marjon); A. de Munck (Anne); S.M.A. Swagemakers (Sigrid); M.J.F. Driegen (Siska); P. Mahavadi (Poornima); D.N. Meijer (Dies); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); A. Günther (Andreas); D. Tibboel (Dick); R.J. Rottier (Robbert)
textabstractAlveolarization of the developing lung is an important step toward the switch from intrauterine life to breathing oxygen-rich air after birth. The distal airways structurally change to minimize the gas exchange path, and Type II pneumocytes increase the production of surfactants, which a
Lim, Ratana; Tran, Ha Thi; Liong, Stella; Barker, Gillian; Lappas, Martha
Preterm birth is the largest single cause of neonatal death and morbidity. By activating cytokine- and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-signaling pathways, infection and/or inflammation are strongly associated with preterm delivery. Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) is an important regulator of the inflammatory response. The aims of this study were to establish the effect of 1) labor on IRF1 expression in human fetal membranes and myometrium, 2) prolabor mediators on IRF1 expression and activity, and 3) IRF1 small interfering RNA on the expression of prolabor mediators. IRF1 expression was higher in fetal membranes and myometrium after spontaneous term labor and in preterm fetal membranes with infection. The proinflammatory cytokine IL1B, the bacterial product fsl-1, and viral analog polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly [I:C]) significantly increased IRF1 mRNA expression and transcriptional activity in human primary myometrial cells. In addition, IL1B increased IRF1 activity in primary amnion cells. IRF1 silencing in myometrial cells decreased IL1B-, fsl-1-, and poly (I:C)-induced cytokine (IL6, TNF, IL1B) and chemokine (CXCL8, CCL2) mRNA expression and IL6, CXCL8, and CCL2 release. IL1B-, fsl-1-, and poly (I:C)-induced PTGS2 mRNA expression and IL1B-induced prostaglandin release was also decreased by IRF1 silencing. In conclusion, IRF1 upregulation in fetal membranes and myometrium after term labor indicates a proinflammatory role for IRF1 in human parturition. IRF1 is involved in TLR- and cytokine-mediated signaling in human myometrium. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms associated with inflammation- and infection-associated preterm birth. IRF1 inhibitors as therapeutics for the management of spontaneous preterm birth warrants further investigation. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.
Pasalic, Daria; Marinkovic, Natalija; Feher-Turkovic, Lana
With considering serum concentration of the uric acid in humans we are observing hyperuricemia and possible gout development. Many epidemiological studies have shown the relationship between the uric acid and different disorders such are obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension and coronary artery disease. Clinicians and investigators recognized serum uric acid concentration as very important diagnostic and prognostic factor of many multifactorial disorders. This review presented few clinical conditions which are not directly related to uric acid, but the concentrations of uric acid might have a great impact in observing, monitoring, prognosis and therapy of such disorders. Uric acid is recognized as a marker of oxidative stress. Production of the uric acid includes enzyme xanthine oxidase which is involved in producing of radical-oxigen species (ROS). As by-products ROS have a significant role in the increased vascular oxidative stress and might be involved in atherogenesis. Uric acid may inhibit endothelial function by inhibition of nitric oxide-function under conditions of oxidative stress. Down regulation of nitric oxide and induction of endothelial dysfunction might also be involved in pathogenesis of hypertension. The most important and well evidenced is possible predictive role of uric acid in predicting short-term outcome (mortality) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and stroke. Nephrolithiasis of uric acid origin is significantly more common among patients with the metabolic syndrome and obesity. On contrary to this, uric acid also acts is an “antioxidant”, a free radical scavenger and a chelator of transitional metal ions which are converted to poorly reactive forms. PMID:22384520
Schwenk, Charles; Cosier, Richard
A "devil's advocacy" approach is proposed for the management of higher education conflict and ultimate improvement in the quality of decisions. Research supporting the value of active questioning of a preferred plan or strategy is summarized and its application is described. (DB)
Kint, Nicolas; Janoir, Claire; Monot, Marc; Hoys, Sandra; Soutourina, Olga; Dupuy, Bruno; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle
Clostridium difficile is a major cause of diarrhoea associated with antibiotherapy. Exposed to stresses in the gut, C. difficile can survive by inducing protection, detoxification and repair systems. In several firmicutes, most of these systems are controlled by the general stress response involving σ(B) . In this work, we studied the role of σ(B) in the physiopathology of C. difficile. We showed that the survival of the sigB mutant during the stationary phase was reduced. Using a transcriptome analysis, we showed that σ(B) controls the expression of ∼25% of genes including genes involved in sporulation, metabolism, cell surface biogenesis and the management of stresses. By contrast, σ(B) does not control toxin gene expression. In agreement with the up-regulation of sporulation genes, the sporulation efficiency is higher in the sigB mutant than in the wild-type strain. sigB inactivation also led to increased sensitivity to acidification, cationic antimicrobial peptides, nitric oxide and ROS. In addition, we showed for the first time that σ(B) also plays a crucial role in oxygen tolerance in this strict anaerobe. Finally, we demonstrated that the fitness of colonisation by the sigB mutant is greatly affected in a dixenic mouse model of colonisation when compared to the wild-type strain.
Sidhu, Kaveri; Kumar, Vijay
In metazoans, DNA replication is a highly regulated and ordered process that occurs during the S phase of cell cycle. It begins with the licensing of origins of replication usually found in close proximity of actively transcribing genes owing perhaps to a profound influence of transcription factors on the epigenetic signatures and architecture of chromatin. Here we show that ETS transcription factors are novel regulators of MCM4 origin, whose binding sites are localized between two divergently transcribing MCM4 and PRKDC genes. c-ETS1 and c-ETS2 were recruited to the MCM4 origin respectively during the S and G1 phases of cell cycle. c-ETS2 binding was facilitated by an active chromatin distinguished by acetylated histone H3 orchestrated by histone acetyl transferase GCN5 and followed by HBO1 mediated histone H4 acetylation. Interestingly, c-ETS2 overexpression led to increased BrdU incorporation in the S phase cells while its down-regulation by RNA interference compromised the loading of pre-replicative complex at the origin. Conversely, the recruitment of c-ETS1 at the origin coincided with histone H3 methylation signature characteristic of closed chromatin conformation. As expected, enforced expression of c-ETS1 severely compromised DNA replication whereas its down-regulation enhanced DNA replication as evident from increased BrdU incorporation. Thus, c-ETS transcription factors appear to be key regulators of MCM4 origin where c-ETS2 seems to promote DNA replication whereas c-ETS1 functions as a negative regulator. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Leonard, M; Graham, S; Bonacum, D
Effective communication and teamwork is essential for the delivery of high quality, safe patient care. Communication failures are an extremely common cause of inadvertent patient harm. The complexity of medical care, coupled with the inherent limitations of human performance, make it critically important that clinicians have standardised communication tools, create an environment in which individuals can speak up and express concerns, and share common "critical language" to alert team members to unsafe situations. All too frequently, effective communication is situation or personality dependent. Other high reliability domains, such as commercial aviation, have shown that the adoption of standardised tools and behaviours is a very effective strategy in enhancing teamwork and reducing risk. We describe our ongoing patient safety implementation using this approach within Kaiser Permanente, a non-profit American healthcare system providing care for 8.3 million patients. We describe specific clinical experience in the application of surgical briefings, properties of high reliability perinatal care, the value of critical event training and simulation, and benefits of a standardised communication process in the care of patients transferred from hospitals to skilled nursing facilities. Additionally, lessons learned as to effective techniques in achieving cultural change, evidence of improving the quality of the work environment, practice transfer strategies, critical success factors, and the evolving methods of demonstrating the benefit of such work are described.
Prasad, G V Ramesh; Ananth, Sailesh; Palepu, Sneha; Huang, Michael; Nash, Michelle M; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S
Transplant tourism, a form of transplant commercialization, has resulted in serious short-term adverse outcomes that explain reduced short-term kidney allograft survival. However, the nature of longer-term outcomes in commercial kidney transplant recipients is less clear. To study this further, we identified 69 Canadian commercial transplant recipients of 72 kidney allografts transplanted during 1998 to 2013 who reported to our transplant center for follow-up care. Their outcomes to 8 years post-transplant were compared with 702 domestic living donor and 827 deceased donor transplant recipients during this period using Kaplan-Meier survival plots and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Among many complications, notable specific events included hepatitis B or C seroconversion (7 patients), active hepatitis and/or fulminant hepatic failure (4 patients), pulmonary tuberculosis (2 patients), and a type A dissecting aortic aneurysm. Commercial transplantation was independently associated with significantly reduced death-censored kidney allograft survival (hazard ratio 3.69, 95% confidence interval 1.88-7.25) along with significantly delayed graft function and eGFR 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or less at 3 months post-transplant. Thus, commercial transplantation represents an important risk factor for long-term kidney allograft loss. Concerted arguments and efforts using adverse recipient outcomes among the main premises are still required in order to eradicate transplant commercialization.
Boumans, Christien E; Egger, Jos I M; Bouts, Richard A; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M
Variation in seclusion rates between psychiatric facilities cannot be adequately explained by patient characteristics alone and there is a growing awareness of the influence of 'cultural' and staff factors on the use of seclusion. In this study, staff variables as well as seclusion parameters were investigated during the implementation of an innovation project, against the background of an institutional program to reduce the use of coercive measures. The results demonstrate the impact of confidence within the team, staffing level and communication with the patient on nurses' decisions on seclusion. The importance of the organizational context is further illustrated by the negative effects of organizational instability on nurses' attitudes and decision making with respect to seclusion, and on seclusion rates. A reduction in the use of seclusion was achieved after the implementation of the innovation project; however, during a period of organizational turmoil, the work engagement scores of staff decreased and the use of seclusion increased. The results of this study show the vulnerability of innovations within the continuously changing organizational context of mental health care.
Fang, Hsin-Yu; Hughes, Russell; Murdoch, Craig; Coffelt, Seth; Biswas, Subhra K.; Harris, Adrian L.; Johnson, Randall S.; Imityaz, Hongxia Z.; Simon, M. Celeste; Fredlund, Erik; Greten, Florian; Rius, Jordi; Lewis, Claire E.
Ischemia exists in many diseased tissues including arthritic joints, atherosclerotic plaques and malignant tumors. Macrophages accumulate in these sites and upregulate hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) 1 and 2 in response to the hypoxia present. Here we show that the gene expression profile in primary human and murine macrophages changes markedly when they are exposed to hypoxia for 18h. For example, they were seen to upregulate the cell surface receptors, CXCR4 and GLUT1, and the potent, tumor-promoting cytokines, VEGFA, interleukins 1β and 8, adrenomedullin, CXCR4 and angiopoietin-2. Hypoxia also stimulated their expression and/or phosphorylation of various proteins in the NF-κB signalling pathway. We then used both genetic and pharmacological methods to manipulate the levels of HIFs 1α and 2α or NF-κB in primary macrophages in order to elucidate their role in the hypoxic induction of many of these key genes. These studies showed that both HIFs 1 and 2, but not NF-κB, are important transcriptional effectors regulating the responses of macrophages to such a period of hypoxia. Further studies using experimental mouse models are now warranted to investigate the role of such macrophage responses in the progression of various diseased tissues like malignant tumors. PMID:19454749
Miyazaki, Takuro; Sakai, Tetsuya; Yamasaki, Naoya; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Tagawa, Tsutomu; Hatachi, Go; Tomoshige, Koichi; Mine, Mariko; Nagayasu, Takeshi
Chest tube insertion seems to be one important factor leading to intercostal nerve impairment. The purpose of this prospective study was to objectively evaluate intercostal nerve damage using current perception threshold testing in association with chest tube insertion. Sixteen patients were enrolled in this study. Intercostal nerve function was assessed with a series of 2000-Hz (Aβ fiber), 250-Hz (Aδ fiber), and 5-Hz (C fiber) stimuli using current perception threshold testing (Neurometer CPT/C(®)). Current perception threshold values at chest tube insertion were measured before surgery, during chest tube insertion and after removal of the chest tube. Intensities of ongoing pain were also assessed using a numeric rating scale (0-10). Current perception thresholds at each frequency after surgery were significantly higher than before surgery. Numeric rating scale scores for pain were significantly reduced from 3.3 to 1.9 after removal of the chest tube (p = 0.004). The correlation between current perception threshold value at 2000 Hz and intensity of ongoing pain was marginally significant (p = 0.058). This is the first study to objectively evaluate intercostal nerve damage at chest tube insertion. The results confirmed that chest tube insertion has clearly deleterious effects on intercostal nerve function.
José Antonio da Silva
Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa seeds have high protein content. The nutritional value of quinoa is superior compared with traditional cereals. Its essential amino acid composition is considered next to the ideal, and its quality matches that of milk proteins. In this study, the seed storage proteins from Chenopodium quinoa were extracted, fractionated, partially purified, and characterized. The structural characterization was performed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis, and it confirmed the presence of proteins of molecular weight of 30 and 7kDa, probably corresponding to lectins and trypsin inhibitors, respectively. The functional characterization of these proteins evidenced their activity as antinutritional factors due to their in vitro digestibility. Quinoa proteins have an excellent amino acid composition with many essential amino acids. In vitro digestibility evaluation indicated that heat-treated samples showed a more complete digestion than the native state samples. Quinoa seeds can be an important cereal in human diet after adequate heat treatment.
Seong, Ki-Hyeon; Maekawa, Toshio; Ishii, Shunsuke
Data on the inheritance-of-stress effect have been accumulating and some mechanistic insights, such as epigenetic regulation, have also been suggested. In particular, the modern view of Lamarckian inheritance appears to be affected by the finding that stress-induced epigenetic changes can be inherited. This review summarizes the current data on the inheritance of stress effect and possible mechanisms involved in this process. In particular, we focus on the stress-induced epigenetic changes mediated by the ATF-2 family of transcription factors. PMID:22380515
Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thickened carotid intima media thickness (CIMT in a Sri Lankan cohort of lupus nephritis (LN patients and to identify associations between traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD and LN-related risk factors with increased CIMT. Consecutive patients with biopsy-proven LN were evaluated for conventional CVD risk factors, renal parameters and extent of organ involvement in this cross-sectional study. Current disease activity and damage were assessed by the British Isles Lupus Activity Group (BILAG score and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR damage index, respectively. CIMT was assessed by B Mode grey scale ultrasonography. Increased CIMT was defined as CIMT more than the 75th percentile based on cutoffs from the "Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study." Forty patients (98% female, with a mean age of 38 years (age range of 20-50 and of South Asian descent, were evaluated. The mean duration of disease of 6.15 years (SD = 4.66. The overall prevalence of cardiovascular events was low and included previous acute coronary syndromes in 7.5%, stable angina in 5%, cerebrovascular accidents in 7.5% and transient ischemic attacks in 2.5% of the patients; 72.5% had hypertension (HTN [mean blood pressure (BP 140/80 mm Hg]; 32.5% had dyslipidemias (mean serum cholesterol 5.9; SD = 5.6 and 25% had diabetes (mean blood sugar 103.7; SD = 15.6. Forty percent were obese and 20% were overweight (Asian cutoffs. Increased CIMT (57.5% and atherosclerotic plaques (15.36% indicated a high CVD risk in this cohort. Diabetes (P = 0.016, HTN (P = 0.002, dyslipidemia (P = 0.002 and obesity (P = 0.048 were associated with thickened CIMT. The only LN-related risk factor associated with thickened CIMT (P <0.05 was the SLICC/ACR damage index. The independent predictors of thickened CIMT determined by logistic regression analysis were HTN and dyslipidemia.
Ostrowska, L; Czapska, D; Karczewski, J K
The power of correlation was assessed between chosen risk factors of cholelithiasis in order to establish the ranking of these factors in Podlasie inhabitants. The study involved 169 patients hospitalized due for cholelithiasis (study group) and 202 patients without cholelithiasis (control group). Previous exposure of patients of both groups to the chosen risk factors of cholelithiasis was evaluated (based on a history questionnaire designed by the authors of the study). Two models of logistic regression were prepared (for men and women) for multivariate analysis. The ranking of the risk factors of cholelithiasis was established by analysing multiple correlation coefficients for the two models of logistic regression and their significance was determined with Wald's test. The significant risk factors for women included: overweight and obesity, age, diabetes, use of contraceptive pills, while for men these were: age, serum triglycerol level, obesity. The knowledge of risk factors of cholelithiasis in our population is the essence of health promoting actions. Obesity is the major risk factor in women and statistically significant in men. Promotion of appropriate eating habits can result in body mass reduction and may thus indirectly decrease other risk factors of cholelithiasis (incidence of type II diabetes and serum triglycerol level).
Vlasiuk Taras O.
Full Text Available The article considers the issues of ensuring the state foreign trade safety by using the tools of import policy. The analysis of the current condition of Ukraine import and import policy was carried out, the individual tools of the import policy were analyzed, a list of problems with the import that threaten separate industries of Ukraine was given, the measures, which implementation will positively affect the level of foreign trade safety of the state, were proposed.
Full Text Available Our society is drenched in the catastrophe; where the growth of financial crisis, environmental cataclysm and militarization represents its gaudiest and mortifying phenomena. Humans struggle with depression, sense of impotence, anguish towards a future considered a threat. A possibility to keep us alive can be represented by the enhancement of our ability in ‘playing Possum’, an exercise of desisting and renitence: to firmly say ‘no’. To say no to a world that proposes just one way of being and living free, that imposes as the only unavoidable possible destiny.
Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva
In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...
Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva
in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new......In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...
Weisent, J; Seaver, W; Odoi, A; Rohrbach, B
Incidence of Campylobacter infection exhibits a strong seasonal component and regional variations in temperate climate zones. Forecasting the risk of infection regionally may provide clues to identify sources of transmission affected by temperature and precipitation. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess temporal patterns and differences in campylobacteriosis risk among nine climatic divisions of Georgia, USA, (2) compare univariate forecasting models that analyze campylobacteriosis risk over time with those that incorporate temperature and/or precipitation, and (3) investigate alternatives to supposedly random walk series and non-random occurrences that could be outliers. Temporal patterns of campylobacteriosis risk in Georgia were visually and statistically assessed. Univariate and multivariable forecasting models were used to predict the risk of campylobacteriosis and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) was used for evaluating training (1999-2007) and holdout (2008) samples. Statistical control charting and rolling holdout periods were investigated to better understand the effect of outliers and improve forecasts. State and division level campylobacteriosis risk exhibited seasonal patterns with peaks occurring between June and August, and there were significant associations between campylobacteriosis risk, precipitation, and temperature. State and combined division forecasts were better than divisions alone, and models that included climate variables were comparable to univariate models. While rolling holdout techniques did not improve predictive ability, control charting identified high-risk time periods that require further investigation. These findings are important in (1) determining how climatic factors affect environmental sources and reservoirs of Campylobacter spp. and (2) identifying regional spikes in the risk of human Campylobacter infection and their underlying causes.
Raquel Prudente de Carvalho Baldacara
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of the profile of allergen sensitization among children is important for planning preventive measures. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and profile of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food among children and adolescents in an outpatient population in the city of Palmas. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. METHODS: Ninety-four patients aged 1-15 years who were attending two pediatric outpatient clinics were selected between September and November 2008. All of the subjects underwent clinical interviews and skin prick tests. RESULTS: A positive skin prick test was observed in 76.6% of the participants (72.3% for inhalants and 28.9% for food allergens. The most frequent allergens were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (34%, cat epithelium (28.7%, dog epithelium (21.3%, Dermatophagoides farinae (19.1%, Blomia tropicalis (18.1%, cow's milk (9.6% and grasses (9.6%. A positive skin prick test correlated with a history of atopic disease (odds ratio, OR = 5.833; P = 0.002, a family history of atopic disease (OR = 8.400; P < 0.001, maternal asthma (OR = 8.077; P = 0.048, pet exposure (OR = 3.600; P = 0.012 and cesarean delivery (OR = 3.367; P = 0.019. CONCLUSION: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the most frequent aeroallergen and cow’s milk was the most prevalent food allergen. There was a positive correlation between a positive skin prick test and several factors, such as a family history of atopic disease, maternal asthma, pet exposure and cesarean delivery.
Jargosch, M; Kröger, S; Gralinska, E; Klotz, U; Fang, Z; Chen, W; Leser, U; Selbig, J; Groth, D; Baumgrass, R
Data integration has become a useful strategy for uncovering new insights into complex biological networks. We studied whether this approach can help to delineate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6)-mediated transcriptional network driving T helper (Th) 2 cell fate decisions. To this end, we performed an integrative analysis of publicly available RNA-seq data of Stat6-knockout mouse studies together with STAT6 ChIP-seq data and our own gene expression time series data during Th2 cell differentiation. We focused on transcription factors (TFs), cytokines, and cytokine receptors and delineated 59 positively and 41 negatively STAT6-regulated genes, which were used to construct a transcriptional network around STAT6. The network illustrates that important and well-known TFs for Th2 cell differentiation are positively regulated by STAT6 and act either as activators for Th2 cells (e.g., Gata3, Atf3, Satb1, Nfil3, Maf, and Pparg) or as suppressors for other Th cell subpopulations such as Th1 (e.g., Ar), Th17 (e.g., Etv6), or iTreg (e.g., Stat3 and Hif1a) cells. Moreover, our approach reveals 11 TFs (e.g., Atf5, Creb3l2, and Asb2) with unknown functions in Th cell differentiation. This fact together with the observed enrichment of asthma risk genes among those regulated by STAT6 underlines the potential value of the data integration strategy used here. Thus, our results clearly support the opinion that data integration is a useful tool to delineate complex physiological processes.
Schnier, Spencer; Cai, Ximing; Cao, Yong
The dominant environmental determinants of aquatic communities have been a persistent topic for many years. Interactions between natural and anthropogenic characteristics within the aquatic environment influence fish communities in complex ways that make the effect of a single characteristic difficult to ascertain. Researchers are faced with the question of how to deal with a large number of variables and complex interrelationships. This study utilized multiple approaches to identify key environmental variables to fish communities of the Fox River Basin in Illinois: Pearson and Spearman correlations, an algorithm based on information theory called mutual information, and a measure of variable importance built into the machine learning algorithm Random Forest. The results are based on a dataset developed for this study, which uses a fish index of biological integrity (IBI) and its ten component metrics as response variables and a range of environmental variables describing geomorphology, stream flow statistics, climate, and both reach-scale and watershed-scale land use as independent variables. Agricultural land use and the magnitude and duration of low flow events were ranked by the algorithms as key factors for the study area. Reach-scale characteristics were dominant for native sunfish, and stream flow metrics were rated highly for native suckers. Regression tree analyses of environmental variables on fish IBI identified breakpoints in percent agricultural land in the watershed (~64 %), duration of low flow pulses (~12 days), and 90-day minimum flow (~0.13 cms). The findings should be useful for building predictive models and design of more effective monitoring systems and restoration plans.
Full Text Available Abstract: Background: To investigate factors related to prevention of self-immolation in west of Iran. Methods: In a case-control study, 30 consecutive cases of deliberate self-inflicted burns admitted to the regional burn center (Imam Khomeini hospital in Kermanshah province, Iran were compared with controls selected from the community and matched by sex, age,district-county of residence, and rural vs urban living environment. The following characteristics relevant to preventing self immolation were collected from all cases and controls: main domestic fuel used in the household, awareness about complications of burn injuries, and use of counseling services. Results: Descriptive analyses revealed that kerosene was the main domestic fuel in the household for 83% of cases. Not surprisingly, the main means of self-immolation in 93% of the patients was kerosene, with other fuels such as petrol and domestic gas used in remaining cases. The majority of cases and controls were aware of the potential complications of burn injuries. Use of counseling services was more common in controls. Conclusions: All three aspects of preventing self-immolation – having kerosene and other fuels in the home, being aware of the complications of burn injuries, and using counseling services were present in both the cases and controls. This suggests a large portion of residents in rural Iran are potential self-immolation victims. Increasing preventive strategies may reduce risk of suicide by self-immolation.
He, Z; Wang, P; Shi, H; Si, F; Hao, Y; Chen, B
Insect immune responses are precisely regulated to maintain immune balance. In this study, the Fas-associated factor 1 (FAF1) gene of Locusta migratoria manilensis, a homologue of the caspar gene that functions as a specific negative regulator in the antibacterial immunity pathway, was cloned. Gene expression analysis showed that FAF1 was expressed throughout the developmental stages and in all tested tissues, but its transcription levels varied significantly. Thus, FAF1 appears to be tightly regulated and is probably involved in multiple physiological processes. In addition, the antimicrobial peptide gene prolixicin was cloned and characterized. After bacterial challenge, prolixicin was rapidly up-regulated, whereas FAF1 was markedly down-regulated. This result was consistent with the observation that prolixicin was hyperactivated when FAF1 was suppressed by RNA interference. Moreover, after bacterial infection, the survival rate of FAF1-knockdown locusts was much higher than that of the wild-type. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that FAF1 shares a similar function as caspar in Drosophila and may be involved in the negative regulation of antibacterial immunity in locusts.
Bogahawatte, C.; Herath, Janaranjana
Import shares of liquid milk, powdered milk, condensed milk and other milk products were estimated to determine their relative competitiveness. The change of import shares with changes of exchange rate and world price of milk. The analysis based on yearly data between 1975-2006 showed that relative CIF prices and incomes were important factors influencing the market shares of milk and milk products. The results also showed that imported milk powder is price inelastic and a weak substitute for...
Mrs. Zahia Marzouk, vice-president of the Alexandria Family Planning Association and a living legend of Egyptian family planning, does not believe in talking about problems. She is far too busy learning from people and teaching them. Her latest brainstorm is a set of playing cards designed to help girls and women to read and learn about family planning at the same time. The 5 packs of cards, representing familiar words and sounds, and each with a family planning joker, took Mrs. Marzouk 6 months to design and paint by hand. They have now been printed, packed into packets provided by UNICEF, and distributed to some 2000 literacy groups in factories and family planning clinics. Each woman who succeeds in learning to read is encouraged to teach 4 others. They then go to the family planning clinic to be examined and gain a certificate. For the teacher who has made them proficient there is a special prize. Girls at El Brinth village outside Alexandria are pictured playing cards at the family planning center where they are learning various skills including how to read.
Henricks, Thomas S.
The author investigates what he believes one of the more important aspects of play--the experience it generates in its participants. He considers the quality of this experience in relation to five ways of viewing play--as action, interaction, activity, disposition, and within a context. He treats broadly the different forms of affect, including…
Karlsson, Malin Lohela
The overall aim of the thesis was to investigate one aspect of healthy workplaces; namely, how psychosocial work factors affect employees general health and organizational production. The aim of Study I was to identify psychosocial factors at work that promote positive changes in employee health and factors that prevent negative changes in employee health. Specifically, we wanted to see if certain changes in the work environment would have a positive or negative impact on c...
Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS
Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.
Pesquisa qualitativa em Educação Matemática a distância: aspectos importantes do uso do Role Playing Game como procedimento metodológico de pesquisa Qualitative research in distance Mathematics Education: important aspects of the Role Playing Game as research methodological procedure
Full Text Available Este artigo evidencia aspectos do Role Playing Game (RPG, jogo de representação de personagens, que o tornam um importante procedimento de investigação em termos de Pesquisa Qualitativa em Educação (no caso, Educação Matemática a Distância. Esse jogo foi adotado em uma pesquisa (ROSA, 2008 que estudou as relações estabelecidas entre a construção de identidades online e o ensino e a aprendizagem do conceito de Integral Definida (conceito do Cálculo Diferencial e Integral em um curso a distância. Assim, a partir dessa investigação que utilizou o RPG jogado a distância, via chat, como procedimento de coleta de dados, discutimos a inserção desse jogo como procedimento metodológico de pesquisa em Educação Matemática a Distância e caracterizamos como esse processo liga-se a questões referentes à Pesquisa Qualitativa nesse novo cenário: o ciberespaço. Logo, assumimos que adotar o RPG como procedimento de pesquisa favorece tanto o pesquisador, quanto os sujeitos investigados, em termos de mostrarem-se como "diferentes" mesmo sendo "os mesmos" (ROSA, 2008 e isso potencializa a produção do conhecimento matemático, bem como a análise das ações e possibilidades educacionais vislumbradas pelo ser online que se apresenta no ambiente natural apresentado. Também apontamos a adoção do RPG como fator que impele e amplia a concepção pós-estruturalista de Educação que, em ambientes virtuais, cada vez mais, vem destacando e estabelecendo uma amplitude de investigação que transforma esse espaço imaginativo e surpreendente em um ambiente natural de pesquisa.This article highlights aspects of the Role Playing Game (RPG, which make an important procedure in terms of research on Qualitative Research in Distance Education (in this case, Mathematics Education. This game was used in a research (ROSA, 2008 that studied the relations between the construction of online identities and teaching and learning of the concept of
Wind, A. de; Geuskens, G.A.; Ybema, J.F.; Blatter, B.M.; Burdorf, A.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the relative contribution of health, job characteristics, skills and knowledge, social factors, and financial factors to the transition from work to early retirement. Methods Employees aged 59–63 years (N=2317) were selected from the Study on Trans
Ferrer, Assumpta; Formiga, Francesc; Sanz, Héctor; Almeda, Jesús; Padrós, Glòria
Background The population is aging and multimorbidity is becoming a common problem in the elderly. Objective To explore the effect of multimorbidity patterns on mortality for all causes at 3- and 5-year follow-up periods. Materials and methods A prospective community-based cohort (2009–2014) embedded within a randomized clinical trial was conducted in seven primary health care centers, including 328 subjects aged 85 years at baseline. Sociodemographic variables, sensory status, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidity, and geriatric tests were analyzed. Multimorbidity patterns were defined as combinations of two or three of 16 specific chronic conditions in the same individual. Results Of the total sample, the median and interquartile range value of conditions was 4 (3–5). The individual morbidities significantly associated with death were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; hazard ratio [HR]: 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3; 4.7), atrial fibrillation (AF; HR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.3; 4.3), and malignancy (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0; 3.6) at 3-year follow-up; whereas dementia (HR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.3; 3.2), malignancy (HR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.2; 2.8), and COPD (HR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.1; 2.8) were the most associated with mortality at 5-year follow-up, after adjusting using Barthel functional index (BI). The two multimorbidity patterns most associated with death were AF, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and visual impairment (HR: 4.19; 95% CI: 2.2; 8.2) at 3-year follow-up as well as hypertension, CKD, and malignancy (HR: 3.24; 95% CI: 1.8; 5.8) at 5 years, after adjusting using BI. Conclusion Multimorbidity as specific combinations of chronic conditions showed an effect on mortality, which would be higher than the risk attributable to individual morbidities. The most important predicting pattern for mortality was the combination of AF, CKD, and visual impairment after 3 years. These findings suggest that a new approach is required to target multimorbidity in
Li Nian Shuang
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a Gram-negative microaerophilic, curved bacillus that specifically colonizes the gastric mucosa. The interaction between virulence factors, host genetic factors and environmental factors contributes to the pathogenesis of H. pylori, such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Infection with H. pylori has recently been recognized as the strongest risk factor for gastric cancer. As a pleiotropic cytokine, transforming growth factor (TGF-β regulates various biological processes, ranging from cell cycle, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis. Recent studies have shed new light on the involvement of TGF-β signaling in the pathogenesis of H. pylori. This review focuses on the potential etiologic role of TGF-β in H. pylori-mediated gastric pathogenesis.
Gu, Danan; Yin, Yin; Zhou, Junshan; Sautter, Jessica; Qiu, Li
Homeownership is a key element to maintain social welfare and stability in an aging society. Yet, the existing literature on homeownership does not adequately address non-Western cultures and institutional factors. We used two nationwide surveys in 2006 and 2010 to investigate how institutional factors are associated with homeownership among older adults in China. Institutional factors were measured by proxy measures of job seniority, political status, type of work units, and hierarchy of cities. After controlling for demographics, resources, health needs, neighborhood characteristics, and cultural factors, we found that homeownership was strongly associated with these institutional factors among the current cohorts of older adults in China. Older adults who were more senior or who were from public sectors tended to have a higher odds of homeownership. Older adults in the top or bottom of the city hierarchy tended to have a lower odds of homeownership than those in other types of cities. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Children's play and culture have changed over the recent years, and it is possible to understand the changes as a result of a more general change in society. We witness a large degree of changes connected to demographical aspects of children's lives. First of all it is a fact that large groups....... They are changing play arenas in order to find the identity, which suits them. In order to play children must know and be conscious of the cultural heritage, which contains knowledge of the way to organize in the playing session, the aesthetics, the techniques of playing, and this is something that is handed down...... from one generation to the next. Because older children are no longer present as younger children grow up, the traditional "cultural leaders" are gone. They have taken with them much of the inspiration for play as well as important knowledge about how to organise a game. In that sense we can say...
Until recently, the role of human factors in maintenance operations was not adequately addressed. That is changing, because it is clear that human error in aircraft maintenance can have a serious impact on flight safety.
Zhang, M.; Lin, Y.
Understanding of the relationships between bird species and environment facilitates protecting avian biodiversity and maintaining nature sustaining. However, the effects of many climatic factors on bird richness have not been fully grasped. To fill this gap, this study investigated the relationships between the richness of three typical North American breeding bird species and three climatic factors at the monthly scale. Based on the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data during 1967-2014, the relationships between the numbers of Carolina wren, Cerulean warbler, and Red-bellied woodpecker and the three climatic factors of precipitation, vapor pressure, and potential evapotranspiration were examined using the method of Pearson linear regression analysis. The results indicated that the three climatic factors have correlations with the richness of the breeding bird species but in different modes, e.g., strong correlations for the non-migratory species but weak correlations for the migratory species.
There is an extensive literature on different psychological factors that contribute to either facilitating healthy eating or decreasing unhealthy eating, such as inhibitory control (Bartholdy, Dalton, O'Daly, Campbell, & Schmidt, 2016), emotion (Cardi, Esposito, Clarke, Schifano, & Treasure, 2015) a
Stan A. Kuczaj
Full Text Available Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play also provides valuable opportunities for them to learn how to think. The ability to create and control play contexts enables dolphins to create novel experiences for themselves and their playmates under relatively safe conditions. The behavioral variability and individual creativity that characterize dolphin play yield ample opportunities for individual cognitive development as well as social learning, and sometimes result in innovations that are reproduced by other members of the group. Although adults sometimes produce innovative play, calves are the primary source of such innovations. Calves are also more likely to imitate novel play behaviors than are adults, and so calves contribute significantly to both the creation and transmission of novel play behaviors within a group. Not unexpectedly, then, the complexity of dolphin play increases with the involvement of peers. As a result, the opportunity to observe and/or interact with other dolphin calves enhances the effects of play on the acquisition and maintenance of flexible problem solving skills, the emergence and strengthening of social and communicative competencies, and the establishment of social relationships. It seems that play may have evolved to help young dolphins learn to adapt to novel situations in both their physical and social worlds, the beneficial result being a set of abilities that increases the likelihood that an individual survives and reproduces.
Innovations can be seen as chains of non-routine decisions. With each decision, the innovator has to assess how important the various decision attributes are. Because the decisions are non-routine, innovators cannot fall back on judgements of past importance. Most decision support methods elicit imp
Full Text Available Assumpta Ferrer,1 Francesc Formiga,2,3 Héctor Sanz,4 Jesús Almeda,5,6 Glòria Padrós7 On behalf of the Octabaix Study Group 1Primary Healthcare Department, Centre ‘El Plà’, DAP Metropolitana Sud ICS, 2Geriatric Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L´Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, 3Bellvitge Biomedical Research Department Institute, IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, 4ISGlobal, Barcelona Ctr Int Health Res (CRESIB, Hospital Clínic – Barcelona University, 5Support Unit Research for Primary Care, Primary Health Care Department of Costa Ponent, IDIAP, ICS, 6CIBER Department of Epidemiology Service (CIBERESP, 7Clinical Laboratory Department, L´Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain Background: The population is aging and multimorbidity is becoming a common problem in the elderly.Objective: To explore the effect of multimorbidity patterns on mortality for all causes at 3- and 5-year follow-up periods.Materials and methods: A prospective community-based cohort (2009–2014 embedded within a randomized clinical trial was conducted in seven primary health care centers, including 328 subjects aged 85 years at baseline. Sociodemographic variables, sensory status, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidity, and geriatric tests were analyzed. Multimorbidity patterns were defined as combinations of two or three of 16 specific chronic conditions in the same individual.Results: Of the total sample, the median and interquartile range value of conditions was 4 (3–5. The individual morbidities significantly associated with death were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; hazard ratio [HR]: 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3; 4.7, atrial fibrillation (AF; HR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.3; 4.3, and malignancy (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0; 3.6 at 3-year follow-up; whereas dementia (HR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.3; 3.2, malignancy (HR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.2; 2.8, and COPD (HR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.1; 2.8 were the most associated with
Grebenkov, A.; Linkov, I.; Andrizhievski, A.; Lukashevich, A.; Trifonov, A. [Joint Institute of Power and Nuclear Research, IPEP, 220109, Minsk, (Belarus)
Coastal areas adjacent to the Black Sea, particularly in Crimea, have suffered from inappropriate human activities, poorly regulated industry and former naval bases. Industrial and municipal wastewater pollutants draining into the three major European rivers (the Danube, Dniestr, and Dnieper) and dumping in the open sea result in an enormous increase in contamination level of ecosystems of the Black Sea. In spite of this, Crimea and its adjacent waters is still a globally important center of biological diversity, with an enormous and exciting range of habitats within a comparatively small area. The problem now is to evaluate economically feasible remediation and ecologically sustainable cleanup/reuse alternatives for the most contaminated sites of this area. One of the principal methodological components of such evaluation is a risk-based decision protocol that provides support in analysis of ecological value and reuse options for a chosen site. This paper presents the results of development of a spatially explicit risk assessment technique to be implemented as a part of the decision-making process and gives an example of its application to contaminated marine ecosystems. The model is suggested that takes into account several principal assumptions: (i) spatial heterogeneity of contamination of forage is known and mapped within known location of receptor's habitat, and (ii) the receptor movement and timescale are determined by location, volume and attractiveness of local habitat and forage resources. This implies two models: Spatially Explicit Exposure Assessment Model that calculates internal exposure resulting from ingestion of contaminated feeds, and Probabilistic Receptor Migration Model that generates motivation of behaviour of a receptor while feeding. In the first model, time-dependent accumulation of contamination in receptor tissue is defined by the differential balance equation that takes into account forage consumption rate and excretion rate. In the
Sylvaine; Muller; Shalaw; Fawzi-Grancher; Said; Slimani
1 IntroductionLigaments and tendons are bands of parallel fibers, made of dense connective tissue, that play an important role in mediating normal movement and stability of joints. Injury to these structures can cause significant joint instability, which may lead to injury of others tissues and the development of degenerative joint diseases. Tissue engineering offers the potential to improve the reconstruction of tendons and ligaments. The concept is based on the manipulation of cellular and molecular media...
Full Text Available The study performs an empirical study based on the implementation of factor analysis to detect different factors influencing people to have more stress in a hydropower unit located in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study performed the survey among all 81 people who were working for customer service section of this company and consisted of two parts, in the first part; we gather all private information such as age, gender, education, job experience, etc. through seven important questions. In the second part of the survey, there were 66 questions, which included all the relevant factors impacting employees' stress. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.946, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The implementation of factor analysis has detected 16 important groups of factors and each factor is determined by an appropriate name. The results of our factor analysis show that among different factors, difficulty of working condition as well as work pressure are two most important factors increasing stress among employees.
van Servellen, G; Leake, B
This study describes distress symptomatology and levels of job-related exhaustion in a sample of 153 hospital nurses currently caring for AIDS patients. While the level of emotional exhaustion in the sample was not alarmingly high, these nurses did report symptoms of distress. Levels of emotional exhaustion were related to a variety of personal demographic, AIDS-specific, and job-related factors. These factors included: age, income, years of practice on the unit, recent change in shift, type of unit, discomfort caring for AIDS patients, willingness to continue caring for AIDS patients, number of AIDS patients cared for, job tension, job influence, and enthusiasm about returning to work. Regression analysis indicated, however, that six general job-related factors accounted for about 46% of the variation in emotional exhaustion. These results suggest that general job-related factors such as 8-hour shifts, changing shifts, level of job tension, and other factors characterizing all hospital care are particularly worthy of future study.
Full Text Available Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma.We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS, mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated.Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal delivery, C
文章从高职院校教育的特点和辅导员工作的特殊性出发,结合高职教育教学工作要求,提出发挥辅导员在高职教育教学中重要作用的对策。%This article from the characteristic of higher vocational education and the particularity of the counselor work,combined with higher vocational education teaching job requirements,develop the strategy of playing the important role of counselors in the teaching of higher vocational education.
Scholderer, Joachim; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Brunsø, Karen
(total N = 4800). Extended theory of planned behaviour specifications were estimated that included habit as an exogenous variable. The results indicated that habit predicted attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control far better than these could in turn predict intention and behaviour, apparently......Rational-choice approaches to consumer behaviour neglect the influence of habitual factors. Previous research outside the food choice area has found that habitual factors tend to dominate when the target behaviour is performed often and in stable contexts, whilst deliberative factors tend...... to dominate when the target behaviour is performed rarely and in unstable contexts. In the food choice area, only little research exists that would allow a similar assessment. As part of the SEAFOODplus project, representative surveys were conducted in Belgium, Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands, and Poland...
Full Text Available Neutron diffraction has been widely accepted as a versatile tool to investigate magnetic structure of crystalline materials, which contribute significantly to the scientific and technological advances. Starting from a general formulation of the magnetic structure factor, one can often simplify the formulation depending on the crystallographic structure and the magnetic wave propagation vector of the sample. The simplification allows magnetic moment coupling and polarization deduction without the need of the refinement process. This paper elaborates such simplification for MnF2 to provide the determination of the magnetic moment coupling and polarization direction simply based on the reflection condition and polarization factor. The determination of the magnetic structure excluding its magnitude by the reflection condition and polarization factor is much more conclusive than by any magnetic structure refinement. Furthermore, MnF2 illustrates a rare compound that has antiferromagnetic structure with zero magnetic wave propagation vector, i.e.; it has the same antiferromagnetic and crystallographic unit cell.
Lai, Shengjie; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Huang, Zhuojie; Bosco, Claudio; Sun, Junling; Bird, Tomas; Wesolowski, Amy; Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Qian; Zheng, Canjun; Li, Zhongjie; Tatem, Andrew J.; Yu, Hongjie
Plasmodium falciparum malaria importation from Africa to China is rising with increasing Chinese overseas investment and international travel. Identifying networks and drivers of this phenomenon as well as the contributors to high case-fatality rate is a growing public health concern to enable efficient response. From 2011-2015, 8653 P. falciparum cases leading to 98 deaths (11.3 per 1000 cases) were imported from 41 sub-Saharan countries into China, with most cases (91.3%) occurring in labour-related Chinese travellers. Four strongly connected groupings of origin African countries with destination Chinese provinces were identified, and the number of imported cases was significantly associated with the volume of air passengers to China (P = 0.006), parasite prevalence in Africa (P falciparum malaria importation to China can serve to refine malaria elimination strategies and the management of cases, and high risk groups and regions should be targeted.
Kueht, Michael L; Cotton, Ronald T; Galvan, N Thao N; O'Mahony, Christine A; Goss, John A; Rana, Abbas
Careful management of induction and maintenance of immunosuppression is paramount to prevent acute rejection in liver transplantation. A methodical analysis of risk factors for acute cellular rejection may provide a more comprehensive method to profile the immunologic risk of candidates. Using registry data from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN), we identified 42,508 adult recipients who underwent orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) between 2002 and 2013. We excluded recipients with a blank entry for treated rejection. We analyzed this all inclusive cohort in addition to a subset of 27,493 patients with just tacrolimus immunosuppression. Multivariate logistic regression was used on both cohorts and identified independent risk factors for treated acute rejection at one year. Recipient age (reference group was 40 to 60years) was a dominant risk factor for rejection in both cohorts and had a dose response relationship. The strongest risk factors in the inclusive cohort were: age 18-25 (OR 2.20), age 26-29 (OR 2.03), and primary biliary cholangitis (OR 1.55). The most protective factors were age 70 and older (OR 0.68), and age 65-69 (OR 0.70). The rates of rejection had a similar pattern. Although prior studies have suggested age as a risk factor for rejection in liver transplantation, this is the first study of national-level data to demonstrate a robust dose dependent relationship between age and risk for rejection at one year. Clinicians should place significant weight on recipient age when they assess their recipients for the immunologic risk of rejection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Trends in rural-urban migration in Chile during the period 1965-1970 are analyzed, with a focus on the impact of the combination of structural factors and socioeconomic processes in rural areas. Factors of population retention and expulsion are examined in terms of agrarian structure, the process of agrarian reform, urbanization of the countryside, and the availability of basic social services. Rural-urban migration rates in the central and southern areas of the country are compared, and migration rates of males and females are examined.
Lopresti, Adrian L; Hood, Sean D; Drummond, Peter D
Research on major depression has confirmed that it is caused by an array of biopsychosocial and lifestyle factors. Diet, exercise and sleep are three such influences that play a significant mediating role in the development, progression and treatment of this condition. This review summarises animal- and human-based studies on the relationship between these three lifestyle factors and major depressive disorder, and their influence on dysregulated pathways associated with depression: namely neurotransmitter processes, immuno-inflammatory pathways, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbances, oxidative stress and antioxidant defence systems, neuroprogression, and mitochondrial disturbances. Increased attention in future clinical studies on the influence of diet, sleep and exercise on major depressive disorder and investigations of their effect on physiological processes will help to expand our understanding and treatment of major depressive disorder. Mental health interventions, taking into account the bidirectional relationship between these lifestyle factors and major depression are also likely to enhance the efficacy of interventions associated with this disorder.
Chong, Siong Choy
Purpose: This research examines the level of perception and implementation of 11 identified knowledge management (KM) success factors and their differences among the information and communication technology (ICT) companies operating in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The survey data was obtained from a study of 427 middle managers from 194…
Thomsen, Simon F; Ulrik, Charlotte S; Kyvik, Kirsten O;
?" Latent factor models of genetic and environmental influences were fitted to the observed data using maximum likelihood methods. The overall lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis was 7.3%. A cotwin of an affected identical twin had a sevenfold increased risk of atopic dermatitis compared...
Wankel, Leonard M.
Interviews were conducted with participants and dropouts of a male employee fitness program in order to investigate factors affecting involvement. A combination of items pertaining to reactions to the program, initial goals for joining, and social support for the program could effectively discriminate between participants and dropouts. (Author/MT)
L. Timmerman (Lotte); R. Timman (Reinier); M. Laging (Mirjam); W.C. Zuidema (Wilij); D.K. Beck (Denise); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); W. Weimar (Willem); E.K. Massey (Emma)
textabstractObjectives: Living donor kidney transplantation offers advantages to the patient, however involves risks to the donor. To optimize donors' mental health after donation, we studied the influence of psychological factors on this outcome. Potential predictors were based on models of Lazarus
Dziankowska-Bartkowiak, Bozena; Dadoush, Dorota
Acne is one of the most common skin diseases. Up till now a lot of research is being conduced on the pathogenesis of this disease. Diet is regarded as one of the possible, although controversial, co-factors. This work is a review of up-to-date literature on pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.
Manganoni, Ausilia Maria; Zanotti, Federica; Farisoglio, Camillo; Feroldi, Piero; Facchetti, Fabio; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo
One of the most significant risk factors for melanoma is a positive family history of the disease. It is estimated that approximately 10 percent of melanoma cases report a first-or second-degree relative with melanoma. We reported the experience of the Dermato-Oncologic Unit of Brescia, Italy.
Grineva, I M; Khokholeva, A A; Obora, V V; Karagodina, E G; Lazarenko, A N
Socio-psychological and clinical factors and their significance for group psychotherapy were investigated in 62 patients with neuroses. The obtained statistically valid differences of some characteristic aspects between groups of patients with positive and negative directives. This indicates the necessity of differential approach to group psychotherapy and active individual and group work on the creation of positive motivation to this type of treatment.
Full Text Available [english] Background: The rapid progress of psychosomatic research in cardiology and also the increasing impact of psychosocial issues in the clinical daily routine have prompted the Clinical Commission of the German Heart Society (DGK to agree to an update of the first state of the art paper on this issue which was originally released in 2008.Methods: The circle of experts was increased, general aspects were implemented and the state of the art was updated. Particular emphasis was dedicated to coronary heart diseases (CHD, heart rhythm diseases and heart failure because to date the evidence-based clinical knowledge is most advanced in these particular areas. Differences between men and women and over the life span were considered in the recommendations as were influences of cognitive capability and the interactive and synergistic impact of classical somatic risk factors on the affective comorbidity in heart disease patients.Results: A IA recommendation (recommendation grade I and evidence grade A was given for the need to consider psychosocial risk factors in the estimation of coronary risks as etiological and prognostic risk factors. Furthermore, for the recommendation to routinely integrate psychosocial patient management into the care of heart surgery patients because in these patients, comorbid affective disorders (e.g. depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder are highly prevalent and often have a malignant prognosis. A IB recommendation was given for the treatment of psychosocial risk factors aiming to prevent the onset of CHD, particularly if the psychosocial risk factor is harmful in itself (e.g. depression or constrains the treatment of the somatic risk factors. Patients with acute and chronic CHD should be offered anti-depressive medication if these patients suffer from medium to severe states of depression and in this case medication with selective reuptake inhibitors should be given. In the long-term course of treatment
Full Text Available In 2005, the cause for almost 60.0% of the deaths in the world is chronic diseases. In the word each year, due to die 5.1 million people from tobacco use, 3.2 million people from physical inactivity, 2.8 million people from overweight or obesity, and 2.7 million people from inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables. The relationships between environmental, socio-economic, cultural and individual characteristics of the risk factors were multi-dimensional and complex. Today, socio-economic burden of disease and risk factors they bring to society are calculated and determined according to this policy. According to World Health Organization (WHO Global Health Risks report, tobacco use, being overweight or obese, insufficient physical activity, alcohol consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption were responsible one-third of deaths (34.4%, and 19.3% (excluded inadequate e fruits and vegetables consumption of the burden of DALYs in middle-income countries. According to Turkey the National Burden of Disease (NBD and WHO is preparing the Global Burden of Disease 2005, which is fundamental in the prevention of chronic diseases is life style risks that can be prevented, controlled, and changed. According to the NBD 2004 study, 79% of deaths were due to non-communicable diseases in our country. The primary risk factor for DALY is high blood pressure, and following 6 risk factors were related to behavior in our country. Smoking, being overweight or obese, alcohol consumption, insufficient fruits and vegetables consumption, inactive life, and high dietary fat and salt intake which are considered to be significant risk factors for chronic diseases are lifestyle behaviors. When adults visited to health facilities for any reason, their risky behavior can be evaluated. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 735-740
Poch, David S; Ost, David E
Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a category of nosocomial pneumonia defined by the 2005 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) guidelines to include any patient who has been hospitalized in an acute care hospital for 2 or more days within the past 90 days; residents of a nursing home or long-term care facility; recipients of recent intravenous antibiotic therapy, chemotherapy, or wound care within the past 30 days; or patients who have attended a hospital or hemodialysis clinic. In creating this relatively new category the ATS/IDSA acknowledged that these patients are at increased risk for infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms and that initial inadequate antibiotic coverage leads to increased mortality. Risk factors for the development of pneumonia and the development of pneumonia caused by drug-resistant pathogens, primarily methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are not the same among the subgroups of HCAP (i.e., dialysis patients have different risks than nursing home patients). Furthermore there is significant heterogeneity of risk factors for HCAP within the subgroups due to variations in contextual factors such as local microbiology and methods of health care delivery and variations of individual risk factors such as functional status or prior antibiotic exposure. This review examines the evidence for the creation of the category of HCAP, including the risk factors for drug-resistant pneumonia in each of the subgroups that constitute HCAP. This review demonstrates that the guidelines have effectively targeted a population at greater risk for pneumonia caused by drug-resistant pathogens. However, within the broad range of HCAP infections, there is significant heterogeneity in terms of the magnitude of the risk as well as the type of risk (i.e., risk for MRSA, multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB), or both).
Thomsen, Simon F; Ulrik, Charlotte S; Kyvik, Kirsten O;
?" Latent factor models of genetic and environmental influences were fitted to the observed data using maximum likelihood methods. The overall lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis was 7.3%. A cotwin of an affected identical twin had a sevenfold increased risk of atopic dermatitis compared......The susceptibility to develop atopic dermatitis can be attributed both to genetic and environmental causes. We estimated the relative impact of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of atopic dermatitis in a population-based sample of twins. From the birth cohorts of 1953-1982 who were...... enrolled in The Danish Twin Registry, a total of 11,515 twin pairs were identified in a nationwide questionnaire survey. Subjects were classified as atopic dermatitis cases when responding affirmatively to the question, "Do you have, or have you ever had, eczema in the folds of your elbows or knees...
Gantzhorn, Mette Rørbæk; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Thomsen, Line Elnif
. Typhimurium 4/74 and DTU3 were adapted to increasing concentrations of the biocide triclosan by serial passage. High level triclosan resistant isolates (MIC > 1000 μg/ml) were obtained. Strains were genome sequenced, and SNPs in fabI, rpoS and rpoD were found to be associated with high level resistance....... However, work with defined mutants revealed that a SNP in fabI was not sufficient to obtain high level resistance. This required additional mutations in the sigma factors rpoS or rpoD. The adapted strains showed triclosan-dependent increased efflux, increased fabI expression and reduced susceptibility...... towards the antibiotics enrofloxacin and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim. CONCLUSIONS: Medium level triclosan resistance could be obtained by fabI mutations in S. Typhimurium, however, high level resistance was found to require sigma factor mutations in addition to a fabI mutation. Reduced antibiotic...
arrival in theater, the situation had changed and new Tactics, Techniques , and Procedures (TTP) involving the use of lethal force had to be created and...its meaning and significance have changed. This factor is also relevant, especially since the enemy’s Tactics, Techniques , and Procedures (TTPs...Deliberate practice is necessary but not sufficient to explain individual differences in piano sight-reading skill: The role of working memory
The relationship between occlusal factors and the health of the masticatory system has been one of the most controversial areas in dentistry. For many years the dental profession believed that occlusal interferences would lead to TMD. However, this opinion has gradually weakened since there is a lack of convincing evidence supporting this relationship. Several treatments not related to dental occlusion have also proved to be effective in management of TMD. At present, most so-called TMD ex...
BESNIK A. KRASNIQI; Tullumi, Malush
This paper examines perceived Critical Success Factors (CSFs) affecting the success of small firms and their relationship with firm and managerial characteristics. The paper also seeks to investigate the interdependence relationship among the perceived CSFs themselves using data reduction techniques. The study tests the number of CSFs on small firm success using primary data that were collected through a questionnaire survey with 256 business start-ups randomly selected from business register...
Vogt, Edgar J; Meglicki, Maciej; Hartung, Kristina Ilka; Borsuk, Ewa; Behr, Rüdiger
The maternal nucleolus is required for proper activation of the embryonic genome (EGA) and early embryonic development. Nucleologenesis is characterized by the transformation of a nucleolar precursor body (NPB) to a mature nucleolus during preimplantation development. However, the function of NPBs and the involved molecular factors are unknown. We uncover a novel role for the pluripotency factor LIN28, the biological significance of which was previously demonstrated in the reprogramming of human somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here, we show that LIN28 accumulates at the NPB and the mature nucleolus in mouse preimplantation embryos and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), where it colocalizes with the nucleolar marker B23 (nucleophosmin 1). LIN28 has nucleolar localization in non-human primate (NHP) preimplantation embryos, but is cytoplasmic in NHP ESCs. Lin28 transcripts show a striking decline before mouse EGA, whereas LIN28 protein localizes to NPBs at the time of EGA. Following knockdown with a Lin28 morpholino, the majority of embryos arrest between the 2- and 4-cell stages and never develop to morula or blastocyst. Lin28 morpholino-injected embryos arrested at the 2-cell stage were not enriched with nucleophosmin at presumptive NPB sites, indicating that functional NPBs were not assembled. Based on these results, we propose that LIN28 is an essential factor of nucleologenesis during early embryonic development.
Melbye, M; Froebel, K S; Madhok, R; Biggar, R J; Sarin, P S; Stenbjerg, S; Lowe, G D; Forbes, C D; Goedert, J J; Gallo, R C
77 Scottish haemophiliacs and 22 Danish haemophiliacs were serologically tested for antibodies to human T-cell leukaemia virus III (HTLV-III). Since 1979 the Scottish patients had been treated largely with factor VIII concentrate produced in Scotland, whereas all but 2 of the Danish patients had received both locally prepared concentrate and commercial concentrate made from US donor material. 15.6% of Scottish and 59.1% of Danish haemophiliacs were antibody positive (p less than 0.001). None of 11 haemophiliacs not treated in the period 1979-84 was seropositive. 2 (6.7%) of 30 subjects who had been treated with locally produced concentrate only were antibody positive, compared with 23 (39.7%) of 58 subjects who had been treated with commercial concentrate. Among 52 users of both commercially and locally produced factor VIII concentrate, seropositivity was directly correlated with the consumption of commercial concentrate (p less than 0.001) but not locally produced material. These data indicate that European haemophiliacs were exposed to HTLV-III via some factor VIII concentrates obtained from the USA.
Full Text Available Context Inflammatory bowel disease causes physical and psychosocial consequences that can affect the health related quality of life. Objectives To analyze the relationship between clinical and sociodemographic factors and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Methods Ninety two patients with Crohn’s disease and 58 with ulcerative colitis, filled in the inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ-32 and a questionnaire to collect sociodemographic and clinical data. The association between categorical variables and IBDQ-32 scores was determined using Student t test. Factors statistically significant in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate regression model. Results IBDQ-32 scores were significantly lower in female patients (P<0.001, patients with an individual perception of a lower co-workers support (P<0.001 and career fulfillment (P<0.001, patients requiring psychological support (P = 0.010 and pharmacological treatment for anxiety or depression (P = 0.002. A multivariate regression analysis identified as predictors of impaired HRQOL the female gender (P<0.001 and the perception of a lower co-workers support (P = 0.025 and career fulfillment (P = 0.001. Conclusions The decrease in HRQQL was significantly related with female gender and personal perception of disease impact in success and social relations. These factors deserve a special attention, so timely measures can be implemented to improve the quality of life of patients.
Mortenson, W Ben; Sixsmith, Andrew; Kaufman, David
Research on video games' effect on cognition and behaviour has been extensive, yet little research has explored non-digital forms of game playing, especially among older adults. As part of a larger survey on game playing, 886 respondents (≥ age 55) filled out questionnaires about non-digital game play. The study aims were to determine perceived benefits of non-digital game play and to determine socio-demographic factors that might predict perceived benefits. Survey results indicate that non-digital game playing is social in nature and common (73% of respondents) among older adults. Older adults play for fun, but also to help maintain their cognition. Regression analyses indicated various socio-demographic factors - age, education, gender, and race - were independently associated with perceived benefits from game playing. The results thus emphasize the importance of non-digital game playing in this population and suggest that efforts to facilitate game playing may improve social interactions and quality of life.
Mulderij, G.; Nes, van E.H.; Donk, van E.
Submerged aquatic macrophytes are important in shallow aquatic ecosystems because they stabilize the macrophyte-dominated state by increasing water transparency in various ways. One of these is the excretion of allelopathic substances inhibitory to phytoplankton, but it is still controversial whethe
Mulderij, G.; van Nes, E.H.; Van Donk, E.
Abstract Submerged aquatic macrophytes are important in shallow aquatic ecosystems because they stabilize the macrophyte-dominated state by increasing water transparency in various ways. One of these is the excretion of allelopathic substances inhibitory to phytoplankton, but it is still controversi
This study analyzes the relative influences of perceived ethical problems, perceived importance of ethics, idealism, relativism, and gender on ethical intention of students. The potential impacts of grade point average and education level of students were also investigated. The results from a survey of students in marketing classes from two major…
This study analyzes the relative influences of perceived ethical problems, perceived importance of ethics, idealism, relativism, and gender on ethical intention of students. The potential impacts of grade point average and education level of students were also investigated. The results from a survey of students in marketing classes from two major…
Mulderij, G.; van Nes, E.H.; Van Donk, E.
Abstract Submerged aquatic macrophytes are important in shallow aquatic ecosystems because they stabilize the macrophyte-dominated state by increasing water transparency in various ways. One of these is the excretion of allelopathic substances inhibitory to phytoplankton, but it is still
Mulderij, G.; Nes, van E.H.; Donk, van E.
Submerged aquatic macrophytes are important in shallow aquatic ecosystems because they stabilize the macrophyte-dominated state by increasing water transparency in various ways. One of these is the excretion of allelopathic substances inhibitory to phytoplankton, but it is still controversial
An increased blood concentration of triglycerides (TG) has long been recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Through competition from HDL cholesterol and the arrival of statin treatment for high LDL cholesterol the importance of TG as risk factor was largely forgotten. A high concentration of TG indicates high blood levels of TG-rich lipoproteins including cholesterol rich remnant particles. Studies using Mendelian randomizations have demonstrated that a low HDL cholesterol does not carry a direct atherogenic function and that remnant particles do so. New efforts should be exercised in order to diminish residual cardiovascular risk during statin treatment through decreasing TG rich lipoproteins.
Ghossein-Doha, C; van Neer, J; Wissink, B; Breetveld, N M; de Windt, L J; van Dijk, A P J; van der Vlugt, M J; Janssen, M C H; Heidema, W M; Scholten, R R; Spaanderman, M E A
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is associated with both postpartum structural asymptomatic heart disease (i.e. heart failure Stage B (HF-B)) and conventional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. We aimed to evaluate the extent to which PE, adjusted for conventional CV risk factors, is associated independently with asymptomatic cardiac abnormalities postpartum. In this cross-sectional cohort study, 107 formerly pre-eclamptic women and 41 women with uneventful previous pregnancy (controls) were invited for CV risk assessment 4-10 years postpartum. This included cardiac ultrasound, blood pressure (BP) measurement and evaluation of metabolic syndrome determinants. Asymptomatic structural and functional cardiac abnormalities were classified as HF-B, according to the American Heart Association guidelines. Prehypertension was defined as systolic BP of 120-139 mmHg and/or diastolic BP of 80-89 mmHg. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to calculate associations of PE and conventional risk factors with HF-B. The prevalence of asymptomatic HF-B was approximately 3.5-fold higher in the PE group compared with controls (25% vs 7%, P < 0.01); 67% of this group had concentric remodeling and 22% had mildly impaired ejection fraction. After adjustment for postpartum interval, hypertension and high-density lipoprotein, PE was significantly associated with HF-B (adjusted odds ratio, 4.4 (95% CI, 1.0-19.1)). Moreover, in the formerly pre-eclamptic group, prehypertension was associated significantly with HF-B (odds ratio, 4.3 (95% CI, 1.4-12.7)), while metabolic syndrome determinants were not. PE is associated with a four-fold increased female-specific risk of asymptomatic cardiac abnormalities. Prehypertension apparently increases this risk significantly, while metabolic syndrome determinants do not. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Porto Renó, Denis; Melani Rocha, Paula
This article analyzes the relation enters the science of the Journalism in theconception of a curricular grating that contemplates theoretical and practicalstudies with the incentive of research of scientific initiation in the elaboration ofthe works of course conclusion, and searches to show the importance of thework to interdisciplinary during the graduation involving disciplines them specificand practical as well as the scientific methodology. The methodological procedures of this work inv...
Full Text Available Introduction: The main goal of education is learning and change in behavior which has been revolutionized in the 21st century due to the rapid and widespread changes in science. The traditional approach to education does no longer meet the learners’ needs, necessitating new changes in educational curricula. This study was designed to determine the factors influencing learning in the 21st century and find out the students’ viewpoints on this issue. Methods: This is a descriptive study aiming at determining the students’ views on new approaches to learning in the 21st century. To do so, a researcher-made questionnaire was designed. It contained 30 questions in 3 sections including demographic data, background questions and two open questions about their suggestions and criticisms. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire was pilot-tested and measured, which proved to be describable. 150 students participating in university summer schools in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were enrolled. The questionnaires were sent to the students in person and through electronic mails. The students were asked to return the completed questionnaires to the given email address. The data were analyzed in SPSS, version 14, using descriptive statistics of frequency, mean, percentage and standard deviation and t-test. P<0. 05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: 150 questionnaires were appropriately filled out and given to the researchers. The results indicated that, according to the students, 6 factors including the use of computer in teaching, enhancement of virtual learning, the use of mobile in relations, enjoyment of electronic learning contexts, the learning focus on attitudes and the facilitating role of the lectures were the most influential factors in learning. On the other hand, the government’s responsibility and responsiveness, creativity and risk taking, increase in the social relationship among the learners, focus on
Full Text Available Higher Education Commission (HEC of Pakistan has been endeavoring to raise the quality of research in Pakistan and they have selected research journals as a tool to enhance research capabilities. Every year a team of HEC's eminent scholars evaluate and approve list of research journals which meet the HEC criteria for recognition. One criterion for the evaluation of journal is bibliometric indicators. Though different bibliometric indicators are available but HEC uses Institute for Scientific Information (ISIImpact Factor, to evaluate Higher Education Institute (HEI, scientific research, entire journals, and individual articles.
Oliveira, Alexandra; Moutinho, Nuno
O presente trabalho pretende averiguar se o ambiente de negócios é influenciado por factores económicos e sociais. São analisados 183 países, tendo utilizado como base os relatórios do Doing Business do Banco Mundial. Os dados mostram que os países desenvolvidos ou em desenvolvimento são os que possuem melhores condições favoráveis a um melhor ambiente de negócios.
Russ, Sandra W.; Wallace, Claire E.
The authors contend that many cognitive abilities and affective processes important in creativity also occur in pretend play and that pretend play in childhood affects the development of creativity in adulthood. They discuss a variety of theories and observations that attempt to explain the importance of pretend play to creativity. They argue that…
McMurray, Robert; Hosick , Peter; Bugge, Anna
BACKGROUND: The relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF) and aerobic power (VO(2max)) scaled as mL O(2) per kilogram body mass is controversial because mass includes both fat and fat-free mass, and fat mass is independently associated with the CMRF. AIM: To examine common units us......, are more related to CMRF than any scaled units of VO(2max); thus care is needed when relating fitness and health issues.......BACKGROUND: The relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF) and aerobic power (VO(2max)) scaled as mL O(2) per kilogram body mass is controversial because mass includes both fat and fat-free mass, and fat mass is independently associated with the CMRF. AIM: To examine common units used.......0001), especially for MBP, HOMA-IR, HDL and z-score, with lower correlations for TC and TG. After adjusting for ancestry, sex, height and body fat associations were greatly weakened (r physical characteristics of the child, especially body fat...
Shi, Xianzhi; Song, Dazhao; Qian, Ziwei
Coal and gas outbursts are the result of several geological factors related to coal seam gas (coal seam gas pressure P, coal seam sturdiness coefficient f and coal seam gas content W), and these parameters can be used to classify the outburst hazard level of a coal seam. To classify the outburst hazard level of a coal seam by means of statistical methods, this study considered the geological parameters of coal seam gas and statistical data on the amount of material involved in coal outbursts. Through multivariate regression analysis, a multivariate regression equation between the outburst coal quantity and P, f and W was established. Using a significance evaluation of the aforementioned factors, the relative contributions of the gas-related geological parameters to the outburst hazard level of a coal seam were found to follow the order P>f>W. This work provides a scientific basis for evaluating the outburst hazard level of a coal seam and adopting feasible and economical outburst-prevention measures.
Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Hoshi, Yuko; Onodera, Kazue; Mizuno, Shoichi; Sako, Kazuko
The Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 left many evacuees with insufficient food and emergency shelter. However, there is no evidence concerning the factors affecting dietary circumstances in emergency shelters after disasters. To clarify the factors that influenced the provision of meals, we reanalyzed a data set from a dietary survey conducted in emergency shelters one month after the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011). Among the 69 shelters in "city A," 53 (79.1%) had food shortages. The possibility of cooking in the emergency shelter improved the provision of meals to evacuees. When comparing emergency shelters with and without cooking equipment, the shelters with cooking equipment provided more meals, as well as more dishes containing grains and vegetables. When there was a gas supply, the twice per day provision of "balanced" meals (containing grains, vegetables, and meat/fish) was more frequent than when there was no gas supply. Interestingly, neither the water supply nor the electricity supply affected the provision of balanced meals. Further, emergency shelters with larger numbers of evacuees had a lower possibility of cooking and lower availability of gas supply. Our results demonstrate that early improvements to post-disaster meal provision may maintain the health of evacuees. Such improvements could be achieved by 1) the speedy restoration of the gas supply to enable cooking, and 2) limiting the number of evacuees per emergency shelter.
Zimmerman, Sheryl; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Hebel, J Richard; Sloane, Philip D; Magaziner, Jay
turnover and both outcomes underscores the relationship between nursing leadership and quality of care in these settings. The relationship between hospitalization for infection and for-profit ownership and chain affiliation could reflect policies not to treat acute illnesses in house. The link between social factors of care (environmental quality, prioritizing staff satisfaction, resident privacy, and facility visitation) and hospitalization indicates that a nonmedical model of care may not jeopardize, and may in fact benefit, health-related outcomes. All of these facility characteristics may be modifiable, may affect healthcare costs, and may hold promise for other, less-medical, forms of residential long-term care.
Wołkowicz, Tomasz; Januszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Szych, Jolanta
Human organism consists of not only from numerous of eukaryotic cells but also from thousands of microorganisms. The most complicated is the microflora of gastrointestinal tract. Numerous studies indicates that the complex network of interactions between the host organism and its microbiome can have a very significant impact on the health condition of the host. These interactions can affect not only to gastrointestinal tract but can be related to different processes and organs. Disturbance of the homeostasis, e.g. after antibiotic course, can therefore have significant health implications Therefore, very important is the deepest exploring of the network of these interactions and dependencies.
Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is becoming commoner due to a rise in obesity rates among adults. Generally speaking, a person with metabolic syndrome is twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease and five times as likely to develop diabetes as someone without metabolic syndrome. Increasing oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome and Parkinson’s disease is mentioned in the comprehensive articles; however, the system review about clear relation between metabolic syndrome and Parkinson’s disease is deficient. In this review, we will focus on the analysis that the metabolic syndrome may be a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease and the preventions that reduce the incident of Parkinson’s disease by regulating the oxidative stress.
Dong, Yan; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky
CFs for emission to seawater are 1–4 orders of magnitude lower except for Pb. The new site-generic marine CFs for emission to freshwater lie within two orders of magnitude difference from USES-LCA 2.0 CFs. The comparative contribution share analysis shows a poor agreement of metal toxicity ranking......The study develops site-dependent characterization factors (CFs) for marine ecotoxicity of metals emitted to freshwater, taking their passage of the estuary into account. To serve life cycle assessment (LCA) studies where emission location is often unknown, site-generic marine CFs were developed...... for metal emissions to freshwater and coastal seawater, respectively. The new CFs were applied to calculate endpoint impact scores for the same amount of metal emission to each compartment, to compare the relative ecotoxicity damages in freshwater and marine ecosystems in LCA. Site-dependent marine CFs...
Gantzhorn, Mette Rørbæk; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Thomsen, Line Elnif
to disinfectants might lead to decreased susceptibility to antibiotics. The current study aimed to identify genetic changes causing high level triclosan resistance in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and evaluate how these affected antibiotic resistance and efflux pump activity. RESULTS: Wild type strains S....... Typhimurium 4/74 and DTU3 were adapted to increasing concentrations of the biocide triclosan by serial passage. High level triclosan resistant isolates (MIC > 1000 μg/ml) were obtained. Strains were genome sequenced, and SNPs in fabI, rpoS and rpoD were found to be associated with high level resistance....... However, work with defined mutants revealed that a SNP in fabI was not sufficient to obtain high level resistance. This required additional mutations in the sigma factors rpoS or rpoD. The adapted strains showed triclosan-dependent increased efflux, increased fabI expression and reduced susceptibility...
Stephens, T. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gonder, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Z. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gohlke, D. [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)
This report details a study of the potential effects of connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies on vehicle miles traveled (VMT), vehicle fuel efficiency, and consumer costs. Related analyses focused on a range of light-duty CAV technologies in conventional powertrain vehicles -- from partial automation to full automation, with and without ridesharing -- compared to today's base-case scenario. Analysis results revealed widely disparate upper- and lower-bound estimates for fuel use and VMT, ranging from a tripling of fuel use to decreasing light-duty fuel use to below 40% of today's level. This wide range reflects uncertainties in the ways that CAV technologies can influence vehicle efficiency and use through changes in vehicle designs, driving habits, and travel behavior. The report further identifies the most significant potential impacting factors, the largest areas of uncertainty, and where further research is particularly needed.
Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation on measuring the effect of different factors on customer relationship management (CRM for different branches of an Iranian banks located in various regions of city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 275 managers and using structural equation modeling examines the effects of five variables including CRM knowledge, employment’s information technology skills, specialty, strategic use, CRM performance on the performance of CRM. Cronbach alpha has been calculated for the questionnaire as 0.881, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The survey has concluded that there were meaningful relationships between all four mentioned variables and performance of CRM. In other words, knowledge and information technology influence on improving employments’ skills, which increase strategic use of CRM components and this would improve CRM performance.
McMurray, Robert; Hosick , Peter; Bugge, Anna
BACKGROUND: The relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF) and aerobic power (VO(2max)) scaled as mL O(2) per kilogram body mass is controversial because mass includes both fat and fat-free mass, and fat mass is independently associated with the CMRF. AIM: To examine common units used...... to scale VO(2max) and their relationships to mean blood pressure (MBP), total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and cumulative risk score (z-score). SUBJECTS: 1784, 8-18 year-old youths, 938 girls and 886 boys. METHODS: Fasting blood samples were obtained....... VO(2max) was estimated in mL/min from cycle ergometry and scaled to body mass (kg), fat free mass (kg(FFM)), body surface area (m(2)), height (cm) and allometric (mL/kg(0.67)/min). RESULTS: Unadjusted correlations between CMRF and many of the scaled VO(2max) units were significant (p
Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Heuer, Ole Eske; Sørensen, Anna Irene Vedel
of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks. The study was based on a large data set consisting of Campylobacter positive status for nearly 6000 broiler flocks and 43 explanatory variables. Data were obtained from the Danish Campylobacter surveillance programme in poultry and from the responses to a standardized...... of positive flocks/total number of flocks delivered over the 2-year period).The following factors were found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of Campylobacter in the broiler flocks: old broiler houses, late introduction of whole wheat in the feed, relatively high broiler age at slaughter....... The results concerning chimneys may be explained by the easier access that flies have to the broiler houses, which seems in agreement with recent Danish studies on the significance of fly-screens to reduce Campylobacter in broiler flocks. The results of this study may be used in identification of effective...
Bazrafcan, Leila; Haghani, Fariba; Shokrpour, Nasrin
The main goal of education is learning and change in behavior which has been revolutionized in the 21st century due to the rapid and widespread changes in science. The traditional approach to education does no longer meet the learners' needs, necessitating new changes in educational curricula. This study was designed to determine the factors influencing learning in the 21st century and find out the students' viewpoints on this issue. This is a descriptive study aiming at determining the students' views on new approaches to learning in the 21st century. To do so, a researcher-made questionnaire was designed. It contained 30 questions in 3 sections including demographic data, background questions and two open questions about their suggestions and criticisms. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire was pilot-tested and measured, which proved to be describable. 150 students participating in university summer schools in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were enrolled. The questionnaires were sent to the students in person and through electronic mails. The students were asked to return the completed questionnaires to the given email address. The data were analyzed in SPSS, version 14, using descriptive statistics of frequency, mean, percentage and standard deviation and t-test. Prisk taking, increase in the social relationship among the learners, focus on practical skills, and management were considered as the least influential factors in learning in the 21(st) century. It seems that the students philosophically tend to approve constructivism and cooperative learning which is learner-centered as compared to conventional education which is teacher-contended. According to experts, this type of viewpoint is in the same line with new approaches to teaching and education in the present era. Moreover, it impacts the reforms, complementation and expansion of methodology greatly.
Kicklighter, David W. [Ecosystem Center, The; Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Mcclelland, James W [University of Texas; Peterson, Bruce [Marine Biological Laboratory; Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Laboratory
Terrestrial carbon dynamics influence the contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to river networks in addition to controlling carbon fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. In this study, we use a biogeochemical process model to simulate the lateral transfer of DOC from land to the Arctic Ocean via riverine transport. We estimate that the pan-arctic watershed has contributed, on average, 32 Tg C/yr of DOC to the Arctic Ocean over the 20th century with most coming from the extensive area of boreal deciduous needle-leaved forests and forested wetlands in Eurasian watersheds. We also estimate that the rate of terrestrial DOC loading has been increasing by 0.037 Tg C/yr2 over the 20th century primarily as a result of increases in air temperatures and precipitation. These increases have been partially compensated by decreases in terrestrial DOC loading caused by wildfires. Other environmental factors (CO2 fertilization, ozone pollution, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, timber harvest, agriculture) are estimated to have relatively small effects on terrestrial DOC loading to arctic rivers. The effects of the various environmental factors on terrestrial carbon dynamics have both compensated and enhanced concurrent effects on hydrology to influence terrestrial DOC loading. Future increases in riverine DOC concentrations and export may occur from warming-induced increases in terrestrial DOC production associated with enhanced microbial metabolism and the exposure of additional organic matter from permafrost degradation along with decreases in water yield associated with warming-induced increases in evapotranspiration. Improvements in simulating terrestrial DOC loading to pan-arctic rivers in the future will require better information on the spatial distribution of precipitation and its temporal trends, carbon dynamics of larch-dominated ecosystems in eastern Siberia, and the role of industrial organic effluents on carbon budgets of rivers in western
Panigrahi, Rashmi; Adina-Zada, Abdussalam; Whelan, James; Vrielink, Alice
The specific targeting of protein to organelles is achieved by targeting signals being recognised by their cognate receptors. Cytosolic chaperones, bound to precursor proteins, are recognized by specific receptors of the import machinery enabling transport into the specific organelle. The aim of this study was to gain greater insight into the mode of recognition of the C-termini of Hsp70 and Hsp90 chaperones by the Tetratricopeptide Repeat (TPR) domain of the chloroplast import receptor Toc64 from Arabidopsis thaliana (At). The monomeric TPR domain binds with 1∶1 stoichiometry in similar micromolar affinity to both Hsp70 and Hsp90 as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Mutations of the terminal EEVD motif caused a profound decrease in affinity. Additionally, this study considered the contributions of residues upstream as alanine scanning experiments of these residues showed reduced binding affinity. Molecular dynamics simulations of the TPR domain helices upon peptide binding predicted that two helices within the TPR domain move backwards, exposing the cradle surface for interaction with the peptide. Our findings from ITC and molecular dynamics studies suggest that AtToc64_TPR does not discriminate between C-termini peptides of Hsp70 and Hsp90.
Daniele Araujo Pereira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC is the major cause of diarrhea in newborn and weaned pigs. Bacteria adhesion to the host cell is considered a specific phenomenon among fimbrial and non-fimbrial adhesins with their respective receptors on enterocytes. Enteric disorders are related with the fimbriae F4 (K88, F5 (K99, F6 (987P, F41, and F18. In addition to ETEC, another category of E. coli , porcine pathogenic E. coli (PEPEC,can cause diarrhea in pigs; it produces the porcine attaching and effacing-associated (Paa adhesin in, which is capable to cause a typical lesion known as an attaching and effacing (A/E lesion. Immunization of sows with adhesin is important to stimulate the production of antibodies and their subsequent transfer to piglets through colostrum. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the main impacts of enteric diseases caused by E. coli in swine production and to highlight the importance of continuing research on this bacterium to improve disease prevention through vaccination.
Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Helton, J.C.
The robustness of procedures for identifying patterns in scatterplots generated in Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses is investigated. These procedures are based on attempts to detect increasingly complex patterns in the scatterplots under consideration and involve the identification of (1) linear relationships with correlation coefficients, (2) monotonic relationships with rank correlation coefficients, (3) trends in central tendency as defined by means, medians and the Kruskal-Wallis statistic, (4) trends in variability as defined by variances and interquartile ranges, and (5) deviations from randomness as defined by the chi-square statistic. The following two topics related to the robustness of these procedures are considered for a sequence of example analyses with a large model for two-phase fluid flow: the presence of Type I and Type II errors, and the stability of results obtained with independent Latin hypercube samples. Observations from analysis include: (1) Type I errors are unavoidable, (2) Type II errors can occur when inappropriate analysis procedures are used, (3) physical explanations should always be sought for why statistical procedures identify variables as being important, and (4) the identification of important variables tends to be stable for independent Latin hypercube samples.
Kallner, Helena Kopp; Danielsson, Kristina Gemzell
Preservation of fertility and optimizing health before pregnancy is becoming increasingly important in societies where childbirth often is postponed. Research shows that as women postpone childbirth they achieve higher levels of education and higher incomes. This leads to advantages for their children and for society. However, as women postpone childbearing they are at risk for contracting conditions which may affect fertility and/or pregnancies, pregnancy outcome, and the newborn child. Preconception counseling is therefore becoming increasingly important. Women are often unaware of the added health benefits of contraception and have the right to be well informed so they can make decisions to fulfill their reproductive desires. Contraception can reduce the risk of unintended pregnancies, ectopic and molar pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections. In addition, hormonal contraceptives reduce the risk of some types of cancer, dysmenorrhea, heavy menstrual bleeding, and anemia and are a treatment for endometriosis. Contraception should increasingly be looked upon as a means of preserving fertility and optimizing health status before a planned pregnancy. Thus, effective contraception can provide women with a possibility of achieving their long-term reproductive goals, although childbearing is actually postponed. The most effective contraceptive methods are the long-acting reversible contraceptives, which have been shown to be highly effective especially in young women who have difficulties with adherence to user-dependent methods. Therefore, these methods should increasingly be promoted in all age groups.
Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the frequency and severity of nonmotor symptoms and their correlations with a wide range of demographic and clinical factors in a large cohort of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Methods. 268 PD patients were assessed using the validated Movement Disorders Society’s Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39, the Hoehn and Yahr scale (HY, the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living (SE-ADL Scale, and the Minimental State Examination (MMSE. Results. Nonmotor symptoms had a strong positive relationship with depression and lower quality of life. Also, age, duration and severity of PD, cognitive impairment, daily dose, and duration of levodopa treatment correlated with the burden of nonmotor symptoms. Patients with postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD dominance or with the presence of motor complications had higher MDS-UPDRS Part I scores expressing the load of nonmotor features, compared to participants with other disease subtypes or without motor complications. Conclusions. Though the severity of individual nonmotor symptoms was generally rated by PD patients as “mild” or less, we found a significant cumulative effect of nonmotor symptoms on patients’ mood, daily activities, and quality of life.
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effect of five factors on purchasing food product including brand and reputation, being green product producer, quality of packaging, taste of food products and materials used in products. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 20 questions, distributes 440 questionnaires among some consumers who were regular customers of food chains in west part of city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 225 properly filled ones. The study uses binomial test to verify five hypothesis of the survey and it has confirmed the effects of four variables including brand and reputation, quality of packaging, taste of food products and materials used in products. In our survey, there are some positive and meaningful correlations among different pairs of five variables of the survey where the highest correlation is between materials used in products and quality of packaging (r=0.606, Sig. = 0.000 and between Quality of packaging and being green product producer (r=0.545, Sig. =0.000.
Full Text Available “Mucositis” is the clinical term used to describe ulceration and damage of the mucous membranes of the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT following cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy and radiation therapy common symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhoea, vomiting, and constipation resulting in both a significant clinical and financial burden. Chemotherapeutic drugs cause upregulation of stress response genes including NFκB, that in turn upregulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. These proinflammatory cytokines are responsible for initiating inflammation in response to tissue injury. Anti-inflammatory cytokines and specific cytokine inhibitors are also released to limit the sustained or excessive inflammatory reactions. In the past decade, intensive research has determined the role of proinflammatory cytokines in development of mucositis. However, a large gap remains in the knowledge of the role of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the setting of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. This critical paper will highlight current literature available relating to what is known regarding the development of mucositis, including the molecular mechanisms involved in inducing inflammation particularly with respect to the role of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as provide a detailed discussion of why it is essential to consider extensive research in the role of anti-inflammatory cytokines in chemotherapy-induced mucositis so that effective targeted treatment strategies can be developed.
Dinka Pavicic Baldani
Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events.
Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate the relationship between hemodynamic factors and parameters of remodeling of common carotid arteries. 102 patients with essential hypertension of l-ll stage (49 men, 53 women, average age 47,5±11,2 years, duration of hypertension 7,8±1,5 years have been examined. The study has revealed the relation between blood flow velocity in the common carotid artery (CCA and the parameters of vascular remodeling, depending on the degree of hypertension. With the increase in systolic blood pressure dilation of common carotid arteries has been observed, reducing the rate of blood flow and wall thickness of the intima-media complex, accompanied by increased stiffness of the vascular wall. The increase in systolic blood pressure is accompanied by decrease in the rate of blood flow and wall tension on the endothelium, which contributes to thickness of the intima-media complex and increases the rigidity of the vascular wall
Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events. PMID:26124830
Bagchi, Mandrita; Kim, Leo A; Boucher, Jeremie; Walshe, Tony E; Kahn, C Ronald; D'Amore, Patricia A
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is critical for angiogenesis, but also has pleiotropic effects on several nonvascular cells. Our aim was to investigate the role of VEGF in brown adipose tissue (BAT). We show that VEGF expression increases 2.5-fold during differentiation of cultured murine brown adipocytes and that VEGF receptor-2 is phosphorylated, indicating VEGF signaling. VEGF increased proliferation in brown preadipocytes in vitro by 70%, and blockade of VEGF signaling using anti-VEGFR2 antibody DC101 increased brown adipocyte apoptosis, as determined by cell number and activation of caspase 3. Systemic VEGF neutralization in mice, accomplished by adenoviral expression of soluble Flt1, resulted in 7-fold increase in brown adipocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial degeneration, and increased mitophagy compared to control mice expressing a null adenovirus. Absence of the heparan sulfate-binding VEGF isoforms, VEGF164 and VEGF188, resulted in abnormal BAT development in mice at E15.5, with fewer brown adipocytes and lower mitochondrial protein compared to wild-type littermates. These results suggest a role for VEGF in brown adipocytes and preadipocytes to promote survival, proliferation, and normal mitochondria and development.
Liang, Ying; Wang, Lei
The risk of fracture in individuals with Alzheimer's disease had not been fully quantified. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies was performed to estimate the impact of Alzheimer's disease on risk of fractures. Pubmed and Embase were searched for eligible cohort studies assessing the association between Alzheimer's disease and risk of fractures. The overall relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs were calculated using a random-effects model to evaluate the association. Six cohort studies with a total of 137,986 participants were included into the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of a total of six studies showed that Alzheimer's disease was significantly associated with two-fold increased risk of fractures (RR = 2.18, 95 % CI 1.64-2.90, P Alzheimer's disease was significantly associated with 2.5-fold increased risk of hip fracture (RR = 2.52, 95 % CI 2.26-2.81, P Alzheimer's disease is a risk factor of hip fracture.
D'Andrea, William J; Huang, Yongsong; Fritz, Sherilyn C; Anderson, N John
West Greenland has had multiple episodes of human colonization and cultural transitions over the past 4,500 y. However, the explanations for these large-scale human migrations are varied, including climatic factors, resistance to adaptation, economic marginalization, mercantile exploration, and hostile neighborhood interactions. Evaluating the potential role of climate change is complicated by the lack of quantitative paleoclimate reconstructions near settlement areas and by the relative stability of Holocene temperature derived from ice cores atop the Greenland ice sheet. Here we present high-resolution records of temperature over the past 5,600 y based on alkenone unsaturation in sediments of two lakes in West Greenland. We find that major temperature changes in the past 4,500 y occurred abruptly (within decades), and were coeval in timing with the archaeological records of settlement and abandonment of the Saqqaq, Dorset, and Norse cultures, which suggests that abrupt temperature changes profoundly impacted human civilization in the region. Temperature variations in West Greenland display an antiphased relationship to temperature changes in Ireland over centennial to millennial timescales, resembling the interannual to multidecadal temperature seesaw associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation.
Ng, Felicia S L; Schütte, Judith; Ruau, David; Diamanti, Evangelia; Hannah, Rebecca; Kinston, Sarah J; Göttgens, Berthold
Combinatorial transcription factor (TF) binding is essential for cell-type-specific gene regulation. However, much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of TF interactions, including to what extent constrained spacing and orientation of interacting TFs are critical for regulatory element activity. To examine the relative prevalence of the 'enhanceosome' versus the 'TF collective' model of combinatorial TF binding, a comprehensive analysis of TF binding site sequences in large scale datasets is necessary. We developed a motif-pair discovery pipeline to identify motif co-occurrences with preferential distance(s) between motifs in TF-bound regions. Utilizing a compendium of 289 mouse haematopoietic TF ChIP-seq datasets, we demonstrate that haematopoietic-related motif-pairs commonly occur with highly conserved constrained spacing and orientation between motifs. Furthermore, motif clustering revealed specific associations for both heterotypic and homotypic motif-pairs with particular haematopoietic cell types. We also showed that disrupting the spacing between motif-pairs significantly affects transcriptional activity in a well-known motif-pair-E-box and GATA, and in two previously unknown motif-pairs with constrained spacing-Ets and Homeobox as well as Ets and E-box. In this study, we provide evidence for widespread sequence-specific TF pair interaction with DNA that conforms to the 'enhanceosome' model, and furthermore identify associations between specific haematopoietic cell-types and motif-pairs. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.