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  1. Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the development of coronary heart disease dependent on important environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C; Chang, Z; Magnusson, P K E; Ingelsson, E; Pedersen, N L

    2014-01-01

    Astract Song C, Chang Z, Magnusson PKE, Ingelsson E, Pedersen NL (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Uppsala University, Uppsala; Sweden). Genetic factors may play a prominent role in the developmentofcoronary heart diseasedependenton important environmental factors. J InternMed2014; 275: 631–639. Objective The aim of the study was to examine whether various lifestyle factors modify genetic influences on coronary heart disease (CHD). Design The effect of lifestyle factors [including smoking, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol intake and body mass index (BMI)] on risk of CHD was evaluated via Cox regression models in a twin study of gene–environment interaction. Using structure equation modelling, we estimated genetic variance of CHD dependent on lifestyle factors. Subjects In total, 51 065 same-sex twins from 25 715 twin pairs born before 1958 and registered in the Swedish Twin Registry were eligible for this study. During the 40-year follow-up, 7264 incident CHD events were recorded. Results Smoking, sedentary lifestyle and above average BMI were significantly associated with increased CHD incidence. The heritability of CHD decreased with increasing age, as well as with increasing levels of BMI, in both men and women. Conclusions The difference in the genetic component of CHD as a function of BMI suggests that genetic factors may play a more prominent role for disease development in the absence of important environmental factors. Increased knowledge of gene–environment interactions will be important for a full understanding of the aetiology of CHD. PMID:24330166

  2. Play's Importance in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette; Heden, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute knowledge on and gain an understanding of elementary school teachers' perspectives on the function of play in children's learning processes. The study is qualitative with a hermeneutical approach and has George Herbert Mead as a theoretical frame of reference. Interviews have been carried out with seven…

  3. PhOBF1, a petunia ocs element binding factor, plays an important role in antiviral RNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daoyang; Li, Shaohua; Niu, Lixin; Reid, Michael S; Zhang, Yanlong; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2017-02-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a common reverse genetics strategy for characterizing the function of genes in plants. The detailed mechanism governing RNA silencing efficiency triggered by viruses is largely unclear. Here, we reveal that a petunia (Petunia hybrida) ocs element binding factor, PhOBF1, one of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors, was up-regulated by Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) infection. Simultaneous silencing of PhOBF1 and a reporter gene, phytoene desaturase (PDS) or chalcone synthase (CHS), by TRV-based VIGS led to a failure of the development of leaf photobleaching or the white-corollas phenotype. PhOBF1 silencing caused down-regulation of RNA silencing-related genes, including RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs), Dicer-like RNase III enzymes (DCLs), and Argonautes (AGOs). After inoculation with the TRV-PhPDS, PhOBF1-RNAi lines exhibited a substantially impaired PDS silencing efficiency, whereas overexpression of PhOBF1 resulted in a recovery of the silencing phenotype (photobleaching) in systemic leaves. A compromised resistance to TRV and Tobacco mosaic virus was found in PhOBF1-RNAi lines, while PhOBF1-overexpressing lines displayed an enhanced resistance to their infections. Compared with wild-type plants, PhOBF1-silenced plants accumulated lower levels of free salicylic acid (SA), salicylic acid glucoside, and phenylalanine, contrarily to higher levels of those in plants overexpressing PhOBF1. Furthermore, transcripts of a number of genes associated with the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways were decreased or increased in PhOBF1-RNAi or PhOBF1-overexpressing lines, respectively. Taken together, the data suggest that PhOBF1 regulates TRV-induced RNA silencing efficiency through modulation of RDRs, DCLs, and AGOs mediated by the SA biosynthesis pathway. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. A petunia ethylene-responsive element binding factor, PhERF2, plays an important role in antiviral RNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daoyang; Nandety, Raja Sekhar; Zhang, Yanlong; Reid, Michael S; Niu, Lixin; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Virus-induced RNA silencing is involved in plant antiviral defense and requires key enzyme components, including RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs), Dicer-like RNase III enzymes (DCLs), and Argonaute proteins (AGOs). However, the transcriptional regulation of these critical components is largely unknown. In petunia (Petunia hybrida), an ethylene-responsive element binding factor, PhERF2, is induced by Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) infection. Inclusion of a PhERF2 fragment in a TRV silencing construct containing reporter fragments of phytoene desaturase (PDS) or chalcone synthase (CHS) substantially impaired silencing efficiency of both the PDS and CHS reporters. Silencing was also impaired in PhERF2- RNAi lines, where TRV-PhPDS infection did not show the expected silencing phenotype (photobleaching). In contrast, photobleaching in response to infiltration with the TRV-PhPDS construct was enhanced in plants overexpressing PhERF2 Transcript abundance of the RNA silencing-related genes RDR2, RDR6, DCL2, and AGO2 was lower in PhERF2-silenced plants but higher in PhERF2-overexpressing plants. Moreover, PhERF2-silenced lines showed higher susceptibility to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) than wild-type (WT) plants, while plants overexpressing PhERF2 exhibited increased resistance. Interestingly, growth and development of PhERF2-RNAi lines were substantially slower, whereas the overexpressing lines were more vigorous than the controls. Taken together, our results indicate that PhERF2 functions as a positive regulator in antiviral RNA silencing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Chirality plays important roles in radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yumei

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces the basic concept of chirality, target specific selectivity and their relationship in radiopharmaceuticals. If the ligands labeled by radionuclides have chiral center, the enantiomers must be separated, or the target specific selectivity will not be good. Chirality is one of the most important factors which must be considered in the study of the structure-activity relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  6. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

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    Su Zhen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants.

  7. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants. PMID:21718548

  8. Factor XII (Hageman factor) is a missing link between stress and hypercoagulability and plays an important role in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Arnold E

    2006-01-01

    A new hypothesis is presented on the function of factor XII, which is postulated to be a "missing link" between acute stress and transient hypercoagulability. The implications of this idea are developed to show how chronic stress, which involves activation of hypertension and migraine as well as hypercoagulability, can cause of cerebrovascular disease. "Acute stress" is defined as "the normal short-term physiological response to the perception of major threats or demands". "Chronic stress" is "the abnormal ongoing physiological response to the continuing perception of unresolvable major threats or demands". The factor XII hypothesis is as follows: Acute stress includes release of epinephrine by the adrenal medulla. Epinephrine activates platelets by binding to alpha-2A adrenergic receptors. Activated platelets convert pre-bound factor XII to its active form, which then initiates the intrinsic coagulation cascade. This can be called the "activated platelet initiation pathway" for coagulation. Neither tissue factor nor pre-formed thrombin is required. Thrombosis proceeds to completion, but only a minute amount of thrombin is formed, and the process normally stops at this point. In people who lapse into a state of chronic stress, essential hypertension, which is also a manifestation of stress, synergizes with hypercoagulability: there is both a baseline rise in blood pressure and systemic platelet activation as well as superimposed labile rises of both. Upregulation of these two stress parameters is atherogenic: epinephrine-activated platelets stimulating thrombin formation interact with endothelial cells activated by angiotensin II to cause, first, smooth muscle cell proliferation, which is a histological hallmark of atherosclerosis, and, lastly, a symptomatic thrombotic occlusion-the stroke. The migraine symptoms which often accompany this process are a marker of chronic stress and ongoing pathophysiologic damage. Therapeutic predictions are made regarding novel

  9. Complement Factor B is the Downstream Effector of Toll-Like Receptors and Plays an Important Role in a Mouse Model of Severe Sepsis¶

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lin; Feng, Yan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Chan; Cai, Jiayan; Gong, Yu; Wang, Larry; Thurman, Joshua M.; Wu, Xiaobo; Atkinson, John P.; Chao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Severe sepsis involves massive activation of the innate immune system and leads to high mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that various types of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate a systemic inflammatory response and contribute to organ injury and mortality in animal models of severe sepsis. However, the downstream mechanisms responsible for TLR-mediated septic injury are poorly understood. Here, we show that activation of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 markedly enhanced complement factor B (cfB) synthesis and release by macrophages and cardiac cells. Polymicrobial sepsis, created by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in a mouse model, augmented cfB levels in the serum, peritoneal cavity and major organs including the kidney and heart. CLP also led to the alternative pathway (AP) activation, C3 fragment deposition in the kidney and heart, and cfB-dependent C3dg elevation. Bacteria isolated from septic mice activated the serum AP via a factor D-dependent manner. MyD88 deletion attenuated cfB/C3 up-regulation as well as cleavage induced by polymicrobial infection. Importantly, during sepsis, absence of cfB conferred a protective effect with improved survival and cardiac function, and markedly attenuated acute kidney injury. cfB deletion also led to increased neutrophil migratory function during the early phase of sepsis, decreased local and systemic bacterial load, attenuated cytokine production and reduced neutrophil reactive oxygen species production. Together, our data indicate that cfB acts as a downstream effector of TLR signaling and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of severe bacterial sepsis. PMID:24154627

  10. Transcription factor σB plays an important role in the production of extracellular membrane-derived vesicles in Listeria monocytogenes.

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    Jung Hwa Lee

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria produce extracellular outer membrane vesicles (OMVs that interact with host cells. Unlike Gram-negative bacteria, less is known about the production and role of extracellular membrane vesicles (MVs in Gram-positive bacteria. The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes can survive under extreme environmental and energy stress conditions and the transcription factor σ(B is involved in this survival ability. Here, we first determined the production of MVs from L. monocytogenes and evaluated whether general stress transcription factor σ(B affected production of MVs in L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes secreted MVs during in vitro broth culture. The wild-type strain actively produced MVs approximately nine times more and also produced more intact shapes of MVs than those of the isogenic ΔsigB mutant. A proteomic analysis showed that 130 and 89 MV proteins were identified in the wild-type and ΔsigB mutant strains, respectively. Wild-type strain-derived MVs contained proteins regulated by σ(B such as transporters (OpuCA and OpuCC, stress response (Kat, metabolism (LacD, translation (InfC, and cell division protein (FtsZ. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis showed that wild-type-derived MV proteins corresponded to several GO terms, including response to stress (heat, acid, and bile resistance and extracellular polysaccharide biosynthetic process, but not the ΔsigB mutant. Internalin B (InlB was almost three times more contained in MVs derived from the wild-type strain than in MVs derived from the ΔsigB mutant. Taken together, these results suggest that σ(B plays a pivotal role in the production of MVs and protein profiles contained in MVs. L. monocytogenes MVs may contribute to host infection and survival ability under various stressful conditions.

  11. Teachers and Children Playing with Factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    adventure game and a logic puzzle game. The game design was informed by the results obtained in a 1 year field study exploring and assessing techniques for transposing dynamic and complex domain-specific knowledge into games. Empirical results suggest that children may prefer different forms of play, mainly...... two were individuated: a competitive form of play, which was mapped into the 2D adventure game, and a designerly-creative play, which was mapped into a puzzle game (Valente and Marchetti 2011). This paper presents empirical results of a qualitative test, conducted with Danish primary school students......Teachers and children playing with factorization: putting Prime Slaughter to the test. Last year the prime slaughter game was designed and implemented, to enable primary and early secondary school students to play with prime numbers and factorization, within two different game contexts: a 2D...

  12. The Importance of play During Childhood: The Lesson for care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of knowledge on the importance of play for children has ledparents, care givers and pre-school teachers deny children their rights to play,instead they have placed more emphasis on reading and arithmetic. This paper isbased on literature review, and presents the developmental stages of childhood anddiscusses the ...

  13. THE IMPORTANCE OF PLAY DURING HOSPITALIZATION OF CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukourikos, Konstantinos; Tzeha, Laila; Pantelidou, Parthenopi; Tsaloglidou, Areti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Play constitutes an essential parameter of the normal psychosomatic development of children, as well as their statutory right. It is also an important means of communication in childhood. Objective: To review, detect and highlight all data cited regarding the role of play during the hospitalization of children. Methodology: Literature review was achieved by searching the databases Scopus, PubMed, Cinhal in English, using the following key words: therapeutic play, play therapy, hospitalized child, therapist. Results: During hospitalization, play either in the form of therapeutic play, or as in the form of play therapy, is proven to be of high therapeutic value for ill children, thus contributing to both their physical and emotional well-being and to their recovery. It helps to investigate issues related to the child’s experiences in the hospital and reduce the intensity of negative feelings accompanying a child’s admission to hospital and hospitalization. Play is widely used in pre-operative preparation and invasive procedures, while its use among children hospitalized for cancer is beneficial. Conclusion: The use of play in hospital may become a tool in the hands of healthcare professionals, in order to provide substantial assistance to hospitalized children, as long as they have appropriate training, patience, and will to apply it during hospitalization. PMID:26889107

  14. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

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    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  15. DREAM plays an important role in platelet activation and thrombogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungho; Tseng, Alan; Barazia, Andrew; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a transcriptional repressor, is known to modulate pain responses. However, it is unknown whether DREAM is expressed in anucleate platelets and plays a role in thrombogenesis. By using intravital microscopy with DREAM-null mice and their bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell DREAMs are required for platelet thrombus formation following laser-induced arteriolar injury. In a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, we found that compared with wild-type (WT) control and nonhematopoietic DREAM knockout (KO) mice, DREAM KO control and hematopoietic DREAM KO mice showed a significant delay in time to occlusion. Tail bleeding time was prolonged in DREAM KO control mice, but not in WT or DREAM bone marrow chimeric mice. In vivo adoptive transfer experiments further indicated the importance of platelet DREAM in thrombogenesis. We found that DREAM deletion does not alter the ultrastructural features of platelets but significantly impairs platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate secretion induced by numerous agonists (collagen-related peptide, adenosine 5′-diphosphate, A23187, thrombin, or U46619). Biochemical studies revealed that platelet DREAM positively regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity during platelet activation. Using DREAM-null platelets and PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors, we observed that platelet DREAM is important for α-granule secretion, Ca2+ mobilization, and aggregation through PI3K class Iβ (PI3K-Iβ). Genetic and pharmacological studies in human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells showed that DREAM is important for A23187-induced Ca2+ mobilization and its regulatory function requires Ca2+ binding and PI3K-Iβ activation. These results suggest that platelet DREAM regulates PI3K-Iβ activity and plays an important role during thrombus formation. PMID:27903531

  16. NHE8 plays important roles in gastric mucosal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Li, Jing; Chen, Huacong; Wang, Chunhui

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 8 is an apically expressed membrane protein in the intestinal epithelial cells. It plays important roles in sodium absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine. Although NHE8 mRNA has been detected in the stomach, the precise location and physiological role of NHE8 in the gastric glands remain unclear. In the current study, we successfully detected the expression of NHE8 in the glandular region of the stomach by Western blotting and located NHE8 protein at the apical membrane in the surface mucous cells by a confocal microscopic method. We also identified the expression of downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) in the surface mucous cells in the stomach. Using NHE8−/− mice, we found that NHE8 plays little or no role in basal gastric acid production, yet NHE8−/− mice have reduced gastric mucosal surface pH and higher incidence of developing gastric ulcer. DRA expression was reduced significantly in the stomach in NHE8−/− mice. The propensity for gastric ulcer, reduced mucosal surface pH, and low DRA expression suggest that NHE8 is indirectly involved in gastric bicarbonate secretion and gastric mucosal protection. PMID:23220221

  17. Copy number variation plays an important role in clinical epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Heather; Shen, Yiping; Avallone, Jennifer; Sheidley, Beth R.; Pinsky, Rebecca; Bergin, Ann M.; Berry, Gerard T.; Duffy, Frank H.; Eksioglu, Yaman; Harris, David J.; Hisama, Fuki M.; Ho, Eugenia; Irons, Mira; Jacobsen, Christina M.; James, Philip; Kothare, Sanjeev; Khwaja, Omar; Lipton, Jonathan; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Markowitz, Jennifer; Maski, Kiran; Megerian, J. Thomas; Neilan, Edward; Raffalli, Peter C.; Robbins, Michael; Roberts, Amy; Roe, Eugene; Rollins, Caitlin; Sahin, Mustafa; Sarco, Dean; Schonwald, Alison; Smith, Sharon E.; Soul, Janet; Stoler, Joan M.; Takeoka, Masanori; Tan, Wen-Han; Torres, Alcy R.; Tsai, Peter; Urion, David K.; Weissman, Laura; Wolff, Robert; Wu, Bai-Lin; Miller, David T.; Poduri, Annapurna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of copy number abnormalities detectable by chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing in patients with epilepsy at a tertiary care center. Methods We identified patients with ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures and clinical CMA testing performed between October 2006 and February 2011 at Boston Children’s Hospital. We reviewed medical records and included patients meeting criteria for epilepsy. We phenotypically characterized patients with epilepsy-associated abnormalities on CMA. Results Of 973 patients who had CMA and ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures, 805 patients satisfied criteria for epilepsy. We observed 437 copy number variants (CNVs) in 323 patients (1–4 per patient), including 185 (42%) deletions and 252 (58%) duplications. Forty (9%) were confirmed de novo, 186 (43%) were inherited, and parental data were unavailable for 211 (48%). Excluding full chromosome trisomies, CNV size ranged from 18 kb to 142 Mb, and 34% were over 500 kb. In at least 40 cases (5%), the epilepsy phenotype was explained by a CNV, including 29 patients with epilepsy-associated syndromes and 11 with likely disease-associated CNVs involving epilepsy genes or “hotspots.” We observed numerous recurrent CNVs including 10 involving loss or gain of Xp22.31, a region described in patients with and without epilepsy. Interpretation Copy number abnormalities play an important role in patients with epilepsy. Given that the diagnostic yield of CMA for epilepsy patients is similar to the yield in autism spectrum disorders and in prenatal diagnosis, for which published guidelines recommend testing with CMA, we recommend the implementation of CMA in the evaluation of unexplained epilepsy. PMID:24811917

  18. Coal still plays an important role in Europe's energy business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.; Beer, G.

    2004-01-01

    European energy mix would be unimaginable without the coal as it is used to produce about 25 percent of the EU electricity and its importance will even increase after the enlargement. In many of the accession countries coal represents the main source of electricity. Reviews of electricity production in dependence of source, coal mining and share of brown coal on electricity production in European Union are presented

  19. Parent participation plays an important part in promoting physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Lindqvist

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although physical activity (PA is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based.

  20. Characterization of juvenile play in rats: importance of sex of self and sex of partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Kathryn J; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile social play is observed in many mammalian species, and its disruption in several neuropsychiatric disorders has greatly increased interest in understanding the origins and sources of variability in this behavior. We quantified social play behavior in juvenile rats and investigated the impact of sex and familiarity of the play partner. Sex differences in play behavior were investigated by comparing males and females from either same- or mixed-sex pairs with data pooled over 12 days of analysis. Whether play was altered based on the sex of the play partner was assessed using a paired analysis to compare play with a same- or opposite-sex play partner for both males and females. Additionally, a repeated measures design was utilized to determine whether play changed with increasing age. On postnatal day 33, a novel play partner was introduced. We used a repeated measures analysis to compare postnatal day 33 with the previous day. These approaches were used to assess the effects of age, sex, sex of partner, and familiarity of partner on total social play behavior as well as how play was broken down into components, such as pouncing, pinning, chasing, and boxing. There were sex differences in total frequency of play, and specific parameters of play behavior, such as chasing, pouncing, pinning, and boxing. Additionally, males significantly altered their play behavior in response to the sex of their play partner, whereas females were more sensitive to the familiarity of the play partner. This study provides critical groundwork for uncovering factors that regulate social play behavior and can be used to guide future mechanistic based work.

  1. Young Mothers' Play with Their Toddlers: Individual Variability as a Function of Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Joan Riley; Easterbrooks, M. Ann

    2007-01-01

    There is no one style of parenting which characterizes young mothers as a group. In addition, life circumstances play an important role in shaping maternal behaviour. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of maternal play behaviour and contextual (social and personal) factors associated with these different patterns. In this study, 107…

  2. Identifying the important factors in simulation models with many factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettonvil, B.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1994-01-01

    Simulation models may have many parameters and input variables (together called factors), while only a few factors are really important (parsimony principle). For such models this paper presents an effective and efficient screening technique to identify and estimate those important factors. The

  3. Video game playing as a risk factor in adolescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Lysý, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Diploma thesis "Video game playing as a risk factor in adolescence?" deals with actuality of risks for children and youth linked to video games. This topic is currently intensively disscused because of cases of high school shootings. There are concerns that violence in video games is connected to rising of children and youth violence. Another risks refered to video games are addiction and obesity. This diploma thesis deals with these risk too. Goal of this thesis is find out if these risks ar...

  4. Optimization of importance factors in inverse planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, L.

    1999-01-01

    Inverse treatment planning starts with a treatment objective and obtains the solution by optimizing an objective function. The clinical objectives are usually multifaceted and potentially incompatible with one another. A set of importance factors is often incorporated in the objective function to parametrize trade-off strategies and to prioritize the dose conformality in different anatomical structures. Whereas the general formalism remains the same, different sets of importance factors characterize plans of obviously different flavour and thus critically determine the final plan. Up to now, the determination of these parameters has been a 'guessing' game based on empirical knowledge because the final dose distribution depends on the parameters in a complex and implicit way. The influence of these parameters is not known until the plan optimization is completed. In order to compromise properly the conflicting requirements of the target and sensitive structures, the parameters are usually adjusted through a trial-and-error process. In this paper, a method to estimate these parameters computationally is proposed and an iterative computer algorithm is described to determine these parameters numerically. The treatment plan selection is done in two steps. First, a set of importance factors are chosen and the corresponding beam parameters (e.g. beam profiles) are optimized under the guidance of a quadratic objective function using an iterative algorithm reported earlier. The 'optimal' plan is then evaluated by an additional scoring function. The importance factors in the objective function are accordingly adjusted to improve the ranking of the plan. For every change in the importance factors, the beam parameters need to be re-optimized. This process continues in an iterative fashion until the scoring function is saturated. The algorithm was applied to two clinical cases and the results demonstrated that it has the potential to improve significantly the existing method of

  5. Evaluation of factors important to enhance productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity as a measure for output is important to industry and academia. In this research, factors to enhance productivity have been identified from the literature by reviewing various international and national sources to explore this evergreen field of research that is “productivity,” which has always been an increasingly interesting area of research for researchers over decades or perhaps over centuries. In total, 15 number of factors have been identified to enhance productivity. Analytic hierarchy process approach has been appropriately chosen to rank these factors because of its simplicity and effectiveness. The tool has been used by taking perception of experts from the Indian manufacturing industry. Positive attitude and involvement of management, proactive employees, and good working conditions have been ranked as top three factors as per the experts’ opinion. The ranking of factors to enhance productivity, categorization of the factors into four perspectives, and hierarchy of perspective and action plan as a final outcome of the paper may help academia and operations managers toward effective management of “operations and production activities of firms/supply chains.”

  6. MiR-378 Plays an Important Role in the Differentiation of Bovine Preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Lian-Jiang; Chen, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Qian; Chai, Meng-Long; Li, Qing-Ying; Jiang, Hao; Yuan, Bao; Dai, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Jia-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte, the main cellular component of white adipose tissue, plays a vital role in energy balance in higher eukaryotes. In recent years, adipocytes have also been identified as a major endocrine organ involved in immunological responses, vascular diseases, and appetite regulation. In farm animals, fat content and categories are closely correlated with meat quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, participate in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through regulating the transcription or translation of target mRNAs. MiR-378 plays an important role in a number of biological processes, including cell growth, cell differentiation, tumor cell survival and angiogenesis. In the present study, bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were used to identify and validate the target genes of miR-378. In vitro cell transfection, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis, Oil Red O staining, and triglyceride content measurement were conducted to analyze the effects of miR-378 on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. MiR-378 was induced during adipocyte differentiation. In the differentiated adipocytes overexpressing miR- 378, the volume of lipid droplets was enlarged, and the triglyceride content was increased. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), were significantly elevated in the differentiated, mature adipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1) was markedly reduced. E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2) and Ras-related nuclear (RAN)-binding protein 10 (RANBP10) were the two target genes of miR-378. The mRNA expression levels of E2F2 and RANBP10 did not significantly change in bovine preadipocytes overexpressing miR-378. However, the

  7. MiR-378 Plays an Important Role in the Differentiation of Bovine Preadipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adipocyte, the main cellular component of white adipose tissue, plays a vital role in energy balance in higher eukaryotes. In recent years, adipocytes have also been identified as a major endocrine organ involved in immunological responses, vascular diseases, and appetite regulation. In farm animals, fat content and categories are closely correlated with meat quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, participate in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through regulating the transcription or translation of target mRNAs. MiR-378 plays an important role in a number of biological processes, including cell growth, cell differentiation, tumor cell survival and angiogenesis. Methods: In the present study, bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were used to identify and validate the target genes of miR-378. In vitro cell transfection, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, Oil Red O staining, and triglyceride content measurement were conducted to analyze the effects of miR-378 on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. Results: MiR-378 was induced during adipocyte differentiation. In the differentiated adipocytes overexpressing miR-378, the volume of lipid droplets was enlarged, and the triglyceride content was increased. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the adipocyte differentiation marker genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP, were significantly elevated in the differentiated, mature adipocytes. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1 was markedly reduced. E2F transcription factor 2 (E2F2 and Ras-related nuclear (RAN-binding protein 10 (RANBP10 were the two target genes of miR-378. The mRNA expression levels of E2F2 and RANBP10 did not significantly change in bovine preadipocytes

  8. The Importance of Free Play in the Early Childhood Classroom: Perspectives from a Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Teaching is hard. It's the most rewarding, fulfilling job in the world, but it's also frustrating, infuriating, and really, really hard. In this article, the author reflects on the importance of free play in early childhood classrooms. If teachers want to create happy children who love learning, forcing them to sit at desks or tables through early…

  9. An Na+/H+ antiporter gene from wheat plays an important role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    might play an important role in salt and osmotic stress tolerance in plant cells. [Yu J N, Huang J, ..... of TaNHX2 might be related to salt tolerance in wheat. TaNHX2 might also ... This work was supported by National Basic Research Project.

  10. MOTHER-CHILD AND FATHER-CHILD PLAY INTERACTION: THE IMPORTANCE OF PARENTAL PLAYFULNESS AS A MODERATOR OF THE LINKS BETWEEN PARENTAL BEHAVIOR AND CHILD NEGATIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe-Grinberg, Atara; Atzaba-Poria, Naama

    2017-11-01

    Based on the premise that father-child play is an important context for children's development and that fathers "specialize" in play, similarities and differences in the role of playfulness in the father-child and mother-child relationship were examined. Participants in this study included 111 families (children's age: 1-3 years). Father-child and mother-child play interactions were videotaped and coded for parental playfulness, sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness as well as child negativity. Results indicated that mothers and fathers did not differ in playfulness and that mothers and fathers who were higher in playfulness had children with lower levels of negativity. However, playfulness differently moderated the links between parents' and children's behaviors for mothers and fathers. A double-risk pattern was found for mothers, such that the links between child negativity and maternal sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness were significant only for the subgroup of mothers with low levels of playfulness. When mothers had high levels of playfulness, these effects were negligible. For fathers, a double-buffer pattern was revealed, indicating that the links between child negativity and paternal sensitivity and structuring were significant only for fathers with high levels of playfulness. When fathers had low levels of playfulness, these effects were negligible. These findings demonstrate the important role that parental playfulness has on parent-child interaction as well as the need to examine moderation patterns separately for fathers and mothers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Setting a good example: Regenerative energies play an important role in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rave, K.

    1995-01-01

    In Schleswig-Holstein the use of regenerative energies is supported more than in any other Land of Germany. Due to the fact that large regions of the Land are situated in strong breeze zones, wind power plays the most important role. Almost 50% of the overall German wind current is gained in Schleswig-Holstein. Furthermore solar energy and water power are also used directly. (orig.) [de

  12. The Play Factor: Effect of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on Adolescent African-American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earls, Melissa K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…

  13. LKR/SDH plays important roles throughout the tick life cycle including a long starvation period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banzragch Battur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH is a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the first two steps of lysine catabolism in plants and mammals. However, to date, the properties of the lysine degradation pathway and biological functions of LKR/SDH have been very little described in arthropods such as ticks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated and characterized the gene encoding lysine-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR, EC 1.5.1.8 and saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH, EC 1.5.1.9 from a tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, cDNA library that encodes a bifunctional polypeptide bearing domains similar to the plant and mammalian LKR/SDH enzymes. Expression of LKR/SDH was detected in all developmental stages, indicating an important role throughout the tick life cycle, including a long period of starvation after detachment from the host. The LKR/SDH mRNA transcripts were more abundant in unfed and starved ticks than in fed and engorged ticks, suggesting that tick LKR/SDH are important for the starved tick. Gene silencing of LKR/SDH by RNAi indicated that the tick LKR/SDH plays an integral role in the osmotic regulation of water balance and development of eggs in ovary of engorged females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transcription analysis and gene silencing of LKR/SDH indicated that tick LKR/SDH enzyme plays not only important roles in egg production, reproduction and development of the tick, but also in carbon, nitrogen and water balance, crucial physiological processes for the survival of ticks. This is the first report on the role of LKR/SDH in osmotic regulation in animals including vertebrate and arthropods.

  14. Play Experience as Individual Ability and a Factor of Individual Resistance to Psychosomatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serikov A.V.,

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the constructs of ‘play experience’ and ‘play experiencing ability’ from the perspective of cultural-historical psychology. The paper stresses the importance of education, play, art, wealth and cultural diversity in the formation of healthy and independent personality. The role of play experience as a healthful factor that allows an individual to acquire resistance to psychosomatic disorders is supported both theoretically and empirically. It is argued that the individual capable of play experience can transform the meaning of a situation (within his/her play experience and therefore eliminate its psychotraumatic effect which contributes to the development of psychosomatic disorders. The paper provides outcomes of an empirical research with 73 participants (40 female, 33 male; aged 18—45, with the average age of 25 years. The statistical analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation between the level of the individual’s play experiencing ability and the level of his/her somatization (rs = -0,435; p ≤ 0,01, which confirms the research hypothesis.

  15. IRBIT plays an important role in NHE3-mediated pHi regulation in HSG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tien Manh; Park, Moon-Yong; Lee, Jiyeon; Bae, Jun-Seok; Hwang, Sung-Min; Choi, Se-Young; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Park, Kyungpyo

    2013-07-19

    Expression of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor-binding protein (IRBIT) has been reported in epithelial cells. However, its role in pHi regulation is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the role of IRBIT in pHi regulation, mediated by Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs), in salivary glands. We measured pHi recovery from cell acidification in BCECF-loaded salivary HSG cells. Western blot and co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP) assays were also performed, showing that NHE1, 2 and 3 are expressed, and IRBIT binds to NHE3. HOE642, a specific NHE1 blocker, inhibited pHi recovery, but 40% pH(i) recovery was still observed even at the highest concentration of HOE642. Furthermore, pretreatment of the cells with siIRBIT significantly inhibited pHi recovery, indicating that NHE3 potentially plays a role in pHi recovery as well. The amount of membrane-localized NHE3 and its interaction with IRBIT are also significantly increased by cell acidification. In addition, we found that Ste20p-related proline alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) reverses the effect of IRBIT on membrane NHE3 translocation. Taken together, we conclude that IRBIT plays an important role in pHi regulation, mediated by NHE3, and further regulated by SPAK. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbial functional diversity plays an important role in the degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Samrat; Tribedi, Prosun

    2018-03-01

    Towards bioremediation of recalcitrant materials like synthetic polymer, soil has been recognized as a traditional site for disposal and subsequent degradation as some microorganisms in soil can degrade the polymer in a non-toxic, cost-effective, and environment friendly way. Microbial functional diversity is a constituent of biodiversity that includes wide range of metabolic activities that can influence numerous aspects of ecosystem functioning like ecosystem stability, nutrient availability, ecosystem dynamics, etc. Thus, in the current study, we assumed that microbial functional diversity could play an important role in polymer degradation in soil. To verify this hypothesis, we isolated soil from five different sites of landfill and examined several microbiological parameters wherein we observed a significant variation in heterotrophic microbial count as well as microbial activities among the soil microcosms tested. Multivariate analysis (principle component analysis) based on the carbon sources utilization pattern revealed that soil microcosms showed different metabolic patterns suggesting the variable distribution of microorganisms among the soil microcosms tested. Since microbial functional diversity depends on both microbial richness and evenness, Shannon diversity index was determined to measure microbial richness and Gini coefficient was determined to measure microbial evenness. The tested soil microcosms exhibited variation in both microbial richness and evenness suggesting the considerable difference in microbial functional diversity among the tested microcosms. We then measured polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) degradation in soil microcosms after desired period of incubation of PHB in soil wherein we found that soil microcosms having higher functional diversity showed enhanced PHB degradation and soil microcosms having lower functional diversity showed reduced PHB degradation. We also noticed that all the tested soil microcosms showed similar pattern in both

  17. The European Commission: nuclear power has an important role to play

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The European Commission (E.C.) thinks that nuclear power has an important role to play: first to reduce CO 2 emissions and secondly to reinforce energy self-reliance of the member states. The decision to introduce nuclear power in their energy mix belongs to every state but the E.C. has also highlighted that if adequate investment are quickly made 2 thirds of the electricity produced in the European Union in 2010 could by from low-carbon-emitting sources. Today with 148 reactors operating in 15 member countries nuclear power contributes to 1 third of the electricity produced. Another issue that is looming is the security of electricity supplying. A study has shown that the security level is worsening (particularly in winter) because of the greater part of wind energy in the energy mix as wind energy is not necessarily available when energy demand is peaking. The E.C. has proposed a new directive drawing a common standard frame for nuclear safety requirements concerning design, site selection, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Each member state will have the choice to implement stiffer regulations. The European Union must reduce its dependency on Russian gas by increasing its storing capacities, by easing gas exchanges between member states and by importing more liquefied natural gas. European member states will have to invert 1000*10 9 euros in gas and electrical power infrastructures in the next 25 years. (A.C.)

  18. Urease plays an important role in the chemotactic motility of Helicobacter pylori in a viscous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Yoshiyama, H; Takeuchi, H; Mizote, T; Okita, K; Nakazawa, T

    1998-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori exhibits chemotactic responses to urea, flurofamide, acetohydroxamic acid, and sodium bicarbonate. In buffer, the chemotactic activities of a urease-positive strain were higher than those of the isogenic urease-negative strain. Moreover, the chemotactic activities of the urease-positive strain were increased in a viscous solution containing 3% polyvinylpyrrolidone, whereas those of the urease-negative mutant were not. These results are in accordance with the fact that the mutant strain did not show swarming in motility agar regardless of having flagella. Incubation of the wild-type strain with flurofamide resulted in partial inhibition of the chemotactic activities in the viscous solution. In addition, incubation with acetohydroxamic acid, a low-molecular-weight, diffusible urease inhibitor, resulted in complete loss of chemotactic activity in the viscous solution. The inhibition of the chemotactic activity by urease inhibitors paralleled the inhibition of urease. The chemotactic activity of H. pylori was also inhibited by the proton carrier carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, showing that H. pylori utilizes proton motive force for motility. These results indicate that cytoplasmic urease plays an important role in the chemotactic motility of H. pylori under a condition that mimics the ecological niche of the bacterium, the gastric mucous layer.

  19. Biotransformation effect of Bombyx Mori L. may play an important role in treating diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, La; Li, Yin; Guo, Xin-Feng; Liu, Xu-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Compared with herbal drugs, medicine processed from animals (animal medicine) was thought to have more bioactive substances and higher activities. Biotransformation effect often plays an important role in their effect. However, researches about effect of animal medicine on diabetic nephropathy and applying animal medicine as natural bio-transformer were seldom reported. The purpose of this paper was to reveal the use of Bombyx Mori L. on diabetic nephropathy from ancient to modern times. The classical literature indicated that Saosi Decoction (), which contains Bombyx Mori L. or silkworm cocoon, was applied to treat disorders congruent with modern disease diabetic nephropathy from the Ming to Qing Dynasty in ancient China. Modern studies showed that Bombyx Mori L. contains four main active constituents. Among these, 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) and quercetin showed promising potential to be new agents in diabetic nephropathy treatment. The concentrations of 1-DNJ and the activities of quercetin in Bombyx Mori L. are higher than in mulberry leaves, because of the biotransformation in the Bombyx Mori L. body. However, these specifific components need further human and mechanistic studies to determine their therapeutic potential for this challenging condition.

  20. Anxiety and perceived psychological stress play an important role in the immune response after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason P; Walsh, Neil P; Diment, Philip C; Roberts, Ross

    2018-01-01

    There are common pathways by which psychological stress and exercise stress alter immunity. However, it remains unknown whether psychological stress plays a role in the in vivo immune response to exercise. We examined the relationship between anxiety and perceived psychological stress reported before exercise and in vivo immunity after exercise using skin sensitisation with Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). In a randomised design, sixty four, thoroughly familiarised, males completed widely used psychological instruments to assess state-anxiety and perceived psychological stress before exercise, and ran either 30 minutes at 60% (30MI) or 80% (30HI) V . O2peak, 120 minutes at 60% (120MI) V . O2peak or rested (CON) before DPCP sensitisation. Cutaneous recall to DPCP was measured as the dermal thickening response to a low-dose series DPCP challenge 4-weeks after sensitisation. After accounting for exercise (R2 = 0.20; P stress (ΔR2 = 0.13; P stress on in vivo immunity after exercise. Moreover, correlations were of comparable strength for the relationship between physiological stress (heart rate training impulse) and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = -0.37; 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.62; P = 0.01), and state-anxiety and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.63; P stress levels before exercise play animportant role in determining the strength of the in vivo immune response after exercise. These findings indicate a similar strength relationship for the level of state-anxiety prior to exercise and the level of physiological stress during exercise with the in vivo immune response after exercise. Future research is required to investigate exercise-immune responses in athletes, military personnel and others in physically demanding occupations experiencing higher levels of psychological stress than those reported in this study e.g. related to important competition, military operations and major life events. Nevertheless, the present findings support the

  1. Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

  2. Gravity Plays an Important Role in Muscle Development and the Differentiation of Contractile Protein Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gregory A.; Haddad, Fadia; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    2003-01-01

    Several muscles in the body exist mainly to work against gravity. Whether gravity is important in the development of these muscles is not known. By examining the basic proteins that compose muscle, questions about the role of gravity in muscle development can be answered. Myosin heavy chains (MHCs) are a family of proteins critically important for muscle contraction. Several types of MHCs exist (e.g., neonatal, slow, fast), and each type is produced by a particular gene. Neonatal MHCs are produced early in life. Slow MHCs are important in antigravity muscles, and fast MHCs are found in fast-twitch power muscles. The gene that is turned on or expressed will determine which MHC is produced. Early in development, antigravity skeletal muscles (muscles that work against gravity) normally produce a combination of the neonatal/embryonic MHCs. The expression of these primitive MHCs is repressed early in development; and the adult slow and fast MHC genes become fully expressed. We tested the hypothesis that weightbearing activity is critical for inducing the normal expression of the slow MHC gene typically expressed in adult antigravity muscles. Also, we hypothesized that thyroid hormone, but not opposition to gravity, is necessary for expressing the adult fast IIb MHC gene essential for high-intensity muscle performance. Groups of normal thyroid and thyroid-deficient neonatal rats were studied after their return from the 16-day Neurolab mission and compared to matched controls. The results suggest: (1) Weightlessness impaired body and limb skeletal muscle growth in both normal and thyroid-deficient animals. Antigravity muscles were impaired more than those used primarily for locomotion andor nonweightbearing activity. (2) Systemic and muscle expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), an important body and tissue growth factor, was depressed in flight animals. (3) Normal slow, type I MHC gene expression was markedly repressed in the normal thyroid flight group. (4

  3. The right thalamus may play an important role in anesthesia-awakening regulation in frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhu Fan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies have shown that the mammalian thalamus is a key structure for anesthesia-induced unconsciousness and anesthesia-awakening regulation. However, both the dynamic characteristics and probable lateralization of thalamic functioning during anesthesia-awakening regulation are not fully understood, and little is known of the evolutionary basis of the role of the thalamus in anesthesia-awakening regulation. Methods An amphibian species, the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis was used in the present study. The frogs were immersed in triciane methanesulfonate (MS-222 for general anesthesia. Electroencephalogram (EEG signals were recorded continuously from both sides of the telencephalon, diencephalon (thalamus and mesencephalon during the pre-anesthesia stage, administration stage, recovery stage and post-anesthesia stage. EEG data was analyzed including calculation of approximate entropy (ApEn and permutation entropy (PE. Results Both ApEn and PE values differed significantly between anesthesia stages, with the highest values occurring during the awakening period and the lowest values during the anesthesia period. There was a significant correlation between the stage durations and ApEn or PE values during anesthesia-awakening cycle primarily for the right diencephalon (right thalamus. ApEn and PE values for females were significantly higher than those for males. Discussion ApEn and PE measurements are suitable for estimating depth of anesthesia and complexity of amphibian brain activity. The right thalamus appears physiologically positioned to play an important role in anesthesia-awakening regulation in frogs indicating an early evolutionary origin of the role of the thalamus in arousal and consciousness in land vertebrates. Sex differences exist in the neural regulation of general anesthesia in frogs.

  4. Playing in childhood: importance and singularities for children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Mara Zancanaro Pieczkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated what kind of playing and how visually impaired children play in the family and educational contexts, aiming at understanding playing and the role of toys in these children‟s development. The study was based on the historical-cultural perspective, mainly considering Vygotsky‟s studies. Empirical material was collected from five families with blind or short-sighted children and from the specialized institution these children attend. We adopted semi-structured interviews with parents and educators and observation of the relevant contexts. The data collected was categorized and theorized through content analysis. We concluded that the mediation of another person during playing enables the visually impaired child to develop confidence to explore the physical space, objects and to elaborate concepts.

  5. A Petunia Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper Protein, PhHD-Zip, Plays an Important Role in Flower Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S.; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence. PMID:24551088

  6. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  7. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Chang

    Full Text Available Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO, and ABA (NCED biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29 was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold. Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  8. Soil water content plays an important role in soil-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhigang; Behrendt, Thomas; Bunk, Rüdiger; Wu, Dianming; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is a quite stable gas in the troposphere and is transported up to the stratosphere, where it contributes to the sulfate aerosol layer (Crutzen 1976). The tropospheric concentration seems to be quite constant, indicating a balance between sinks and sources. Recent work by Sandoval-Soto et al. (2005) demonstrated the enormous strength of the vegetation sink and the urgent needs to understand the sinks and sources. The role of soils is a matter of discussion (Kesselmeier et al., 1999; Van Diest and Kesselmeier, 2008; Maseyk et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2015). To better understand the influence of soil water content and OCS mixing ratio on OCS fluxes, we used an OCS analyzer (LGR COS/CO Analyzer 907-0028, Los Gatos, CA, USA) coupled with automated soil chamber system (Behrendt et al., 2014) to measure the OCS fluxes with a slow drying of four different types of soil (arable wheat soil in Mainz, blueberry soil in Waldstein, spruce soil in Waldstein and needle forest soil in Finland). Results showed that OCS fluxes as well as the optimum soil water content for OCS uptake varied significantly for different soils. The net production rates changed significantly with the soil drying out from 100% to about 5% water holding capacity (WHC), implying that soil water content play an important role in the uptake processes. The production and uptake processes were distinguished by the regression of OCS fluxes under different OCS mixing ratios. OCS compensation points (CP) were found to differ significantly for different soil types and water content, with the lowest CP at about 20% WHC, implying that when estimating the global budgets of OCS, especially for soils fluxes, soil water content should be taken into serious consideration. References Crutzen, P. J. 1976, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3, 73-76. Sandoval-Soto, L. et al., 2005, Biogeosciences, 2, 125-132. Kesselmeier, J. et al., 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11577-11584. Van Diest, H. and Kesselmeier, J. 2008

  9. 78 FR 77771 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Love and Play: A Pair of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8571] Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Love and Play: A Pair of Paintings by Fragonard-- Toledo Museum of Art and Thyssen-Bornemisza... the exhibition ``Love and Play: A Pair of Paintings by Fragonard--Toledo Museum of Art and Thyssen...

  10. Central dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in thermoregulation and performance during endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been widely investigated for its potential role in determining exercise performance. It was originally thought that DA's ergogenic effect was by mediating psychological responses. Recently, some studies have also suggested that DA may regulate physiological responses, such as thermoregulation. Hyperthermia has been demonstrated as an important limiting factor during endurance exercise. DA is prominent in the thermoregulatory centre, and changes in DA concentration have been shown to affect core temperature regulation during exercise. Some studies have proposed that DA or DA/noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitors can improve exercise performance, despite hyperthermia during exercise in the heat. DA/NA reuptake inhibitors also increase catecholamine release in the thermoregulatory centre. Intracerebroventricularly injected DA has been shown to improve exercise performance through inhibiting hyperthermia-induced fatigue, even at normal ambient temperatures. Further, caffeine has been reported to increase DA release in the thermoregulatory centre and improves endurance exercise performance despite increased core body temperature. Taken together, DA has been shown to have ergogenic effects and increase heat storage and hyperthermia tolerance. The mechanisms underlying these effects seem to involve limiting/overriding the inhibitory signals from the central nervous system that result in cessation of exercise due to hyperthermia.

  11. Matrix Metallopeptidase 14 Plays an Important Role in Regulating Tumorigenic Gene Expression and Invasion Ability of HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Hui; Wang, Juan-Juan; Li, Min; Zheng, Han-Xi; Xu, Lan; Chen, You-Guo

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the functional effect of matrix metallopeptidase 14 (MMP14) on cell invasion in cervical cancer cells (HeLa line) and to study the underlying molecular mechanisms. Expression vector of short hairpin RNA targeting MMP14 was treated in HeLa cells, and then, transfection efficiency was verified by a florescence microscope. Transwell assay was used to investigate cell invasion ability in HeLa cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis were used to detect the expression of MMP14 and relative factors in messenger RNA and protein levels, respectively. Matrix metallopeptidase 14 short hairpin RNA expression vector transfection obviously decreased MMP14 expression in messenger RNA and protein levels. Down-regulation of MMP14 suppressed invasion ability of HeLa cells and reduced transforming growth factor β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor B expressions. Furthermore, MMP14 knockdown decreased bone sialoprotein and enhanced forkhead box protein L2 expression in both RNA and protein levels. Matrix metallopeptidase 14 plays an important role in regulating invasion of HeLa cells. Matrix metallopeptidase 14 knockdown contributes to attenuating the malignant phenotype of cervical cancer cell.

  12. Importance of Night Dreams in Ibsen's Plays A Psychoanalytic study of The Vikings of Helgeland and Little Eyolf

    OpenAIRE

    Bardzimashvili, Nino

    2014-01-01

    The topic for my thesis is the importance of night dreams in Henrik Ibsen's plays. My study of the subject is based on two plays, The Vikings of Helgeland and Little Eyolf. The first one is a historical play written in 1857 and is usually discussed in relationship with nationalism and the political events in 19th century Norway. The second one is known as a "family romance" and was written in 1894. These two plays represent different periods of Henrik Ibsen's writing and hence it is...

  13. First impression at stroke onset plays an important role in early hospital arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Wada, Kuniyasu; Shibazaki, Kensaku; Inoue, Takeshi; Ueno, Yuji; Yamashita, Shinji; Kimura, Kazumi

    2006-01-01

    Treatment for acute ischemic stroke should be administered as soon as possible after symptom onset. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not the patient's and bystander's first impression at stroke onset was associated with hospital arrival time. To investigate the factors influencing the prehospital delay, we prospectively interviewed consecutive stroke patients and bystanders about their first impression at the stroke onset and assessed the methods of transportation, and clinical characteristics. Early arrival was defined as a hospital arrival of within 2 h from stroke onset. One hundred thirty patients were enrolled: 82% were ischemic stroke and 18% were cerebral hemorrhage. The median interval between symptom onset and the hospital arrival was 7.5 h and 30% of patients presented within 2 h of stroke onset. First impression of stroke (odds ratios [OR] 4.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.54-13.5, p=0.006), presence of consciousness disturbance (OR 4.29, CI 1.39-13.3, p=0.011), arrival through other facilities (OR 0.25, CI 0.08-0.76, p=0.015), a history of diabetes (OR 0.23, CI 0.06-0.80, p=0.028) and nocturnal onset (OR 0.19, CI 0.04-0.88, p=0.042) independently contributed to the early arrival. The first impression of patients and bystanders at stroke onset is important in order to reach hospital earlier in Japan. Public educational systems such as those, which advertise stroke warning signs, are necessary.

  14. The importance and possibilities of role playing on children surgery classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goremykin I.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the first experience in the implementation into the pedagogical process of one of the methods of active training — role playing. The need for intensification of medical education process is linked primarily to the rapid increase in the volume required to provide students with information and the lack of training time. The analysis showed that the game significantly increases the level of students' knowledge, but require substantial modernization of the educational process.

  15. Affective temperaments play an important role in the relationship between child abuse and the diagnosis of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanichi, Masaaki; Saito, Taku; Nakagawa, Shin; Masuya, Jiro; Tanabe, Hajime; Yoshino, Aihide; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2018-04-01

    In previous studies, various components such as environmental and genetic factors have been shown to contribute to the development of bipolar disorder (BD). This study investigated how multiple factors, including child abuse, adult life events, and affective temperaments, are interrelated and how they affect the diagnosis of BD. A total of 170 healthy controls and 75 BD patients completed the following self-administered questionnaires: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 evaluating the severity of depressive symptoms; the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS) evaluating child abuse; the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) evaluating affective temperaments; and the Life Experiences Survey (LES) evaluating negative and positive adult life events. The data were subjected to univariate analysis, multivariable analysis, and structural equation modeling. The structural equation modeling showed that the diagnosis of BD was indirectly predicted by the neglect and sexual abuse scores of the CATS through four affective temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious) of the TEMPS-A and directly predicted by these four affective temperaments. This study suggested that affective temperament plays an important role as a mediator in the influence of child abuse on BD diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ranking important factors on information technology in development free zone markets: An AHP implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Rostamnya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT plays a vital role on developing different markets. In this paper, we study the impact of IT on developing businesses located mainly on free zones or in the borders of countries using analytical hierarchy process. The proposed study of this paper gathered the relative importance of five important factors influencing IT implementation. There are 12 experts and we use pairwise comparison to gather their insight and using Expert Choice we implement AHP for ranking the factors. The results indicate that management is the most important factor, followed by cultural and social items. The other factors including technical, investment and organization items are in lower degree of importance.

  17. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing insurance firms

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Soleimani; Fattaneh Alizadeh Meshkani; Abdullah Naami

    2013-01-01

    The recent trend on competition among insurance firms has increased motivation to look for important factors influencing this industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors shaping this industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and, using principal component analysis, detects important factors on the success of this industry. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.849, and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test are calculated as ...

  18. FIP1 Plays an Important Role in Nitrate Signaling and Regulates CIPK8 and CIPK23 Expression in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Unraveling the molecular mechanisms of nitrate regulation and deciphering the underlying genetic network is vital for elucidating nitrate uptake and utilization in plants. Such knowledge could lead to the improvement of nitrogen-use efficiency in agriculture. Here, we report that the FIP1 gene (factor interacting with poly(A polymerase 1 plays an important role in nitrate signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. FIP1 encodes a putative core component of the polyadenylation factor complex. We found that FIP1 interacts with the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30-L (CPSF30-L, which is also an essential player in nitrate signaling. The induction of nitrate-responsive genes following nitrate treatment was inhibited in the fip1 mutant. The nitrate content was also reduced in fip1 seedlings due to their decreased nitrate uptake activity. Furthermore, the nitrate content was higher in the roots but lower in the roots of fip1, which may result from the downregulation of NRT1.8 and the upregulation of the nitrate assimilation genes. In addition, qPCR analyses revealed that FIP1 negatively regulated the expression of CIPK8 and CIPK23, two protein kinases involved in nitrate signaling. In the fip1 mutant, the increased expression of CIPK23 may affect nitrate uptake, resulting in its lower nitrate content. Genetic and molecular evidence suggests that FIP1 and CPSF30-L function in the same nitrate-signaling pathway, with FIP1 mediating signaling through its interaction with CPSF30-L and its regulation of CIPK8 and CIPK23. Analysis of the 3′-UTR of NRT1.1 showed that the pattern of polyadenylation sites was altered in the fip1 mutant. These findings add a novel component to the nitrate regulation network and enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms for nitrate signaling.

  19. A thioredoxin-dependent peroxiredoxin Q from Corynebacterium glutamicum plays an important role in defense against oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Su

    Full Text Available Peroxiredoxin Q (PrxQ that belonged to the cysteine-based peroxidases has long been identified in numerous bacteria, but the information on the physiological and biochemical functions of PrxQ remain largely lacking in Corynebacterium glutamicum. To better systematically understand PrxQ, we reported that PrxQ from model and important industrial organism C. glutamicum, encoded by the gene ncgl2403 annotated as a putative PrxQ, played important roles in adverse stress resistance. The lack of C. glutamicum prxQ gene resulted in enhanced cell sensitivity, increased ROS accumulation, and elevated protein carbonylation levels under adverse stress conditions. Accordingly, PrxQ-mediated resistance to adverse stresses mainly relied on the degradation of ROS. The physiological roles of PrxQ in resistance to adverse stresses were corroborated by its induced expression under adverse stresses, regulated directly by the stress-responsive ECF-sigma factor SigH. Through catalytical kinetic activity, heterodimer formation, and bacterial two-hybrid analysis, we proved that C. glutamicum PrxQ catalytically eliminated peroxides by exclusively receiving electrons from thioredoxin (Trx/thioredoxin reductase (TrxR system and had a broad range of oxidizing substrates, but a better efficiency for peroxynitrite and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the conserved Cys49 and Cys54 are the peroxide oxidation site and the resolving Cys residue, respectively. It was also discovered that C. glutamicum PrxQ mainly existed in monomer whether under its native state or functional state. Based on these results, a catalytic model of PrxQ is being proposed. Moreover, our result that C. glutamicum PrxQ can prevent the damaging effects of adverse stresses by acting as thioredoxin-dependent monomeric peroxidase could be further applied to improve the survival ability and robustness of the important bacterium during fermentation process.

  20. Did large animals play an important role in global biogeochemical cycling in the past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, C.

    2014-12-01

    In the late Pleistocene (~50-10,000 years ago), ninety-seven genera of large animals (>44kg) (megafauna) went extinct, concentrated in the Americas and Australia. The loss of megafauna had major effects on ecosystem structure, seed dispersal and land surface albedo. However, the impact of this dramatic extinction on ecosystem nutrient biogeochemistry, through the lateral transport of dung and bodies, has never been explored. Here we explore these nutrient impacts using a novel mathematical framework that analyses this lateral transport as a diffusion-like process and demonstrates that large animals play a disproportionately large role in the horizontal transfer of nutrients across landscapes. For example, we estimate that the extinction of the Amazonian megafauna led to a >98% reduction in the lateral transfer flux of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P) with similar, though less extreme, decreases in all continents outside of Africa. This resulted in strong decreases in phosphorus availability in Eastern Amazonia away from fertile floodplains, a decline which may still be ongoing, and current P limitation in the Amazon basin may be partially a relic of an ecosystem without the functional connectedness it once had. More broadly, the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions resulted in major and ongoing disruptions to terrestrial biogeochemical cycling at continental scales and increased nutrient heterogeneity globally.

  1. Proteins Play Important Role in Intercellular Adhesion Affecting on Fruit Textural Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahadur Adhikari, Khem; Shomer, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA strength......Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA...... strengthening was exempli ed in Medjoul date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit, as a model. Fruit mesocarp sensitively responded to culture environment which was assayed in vitro at pH 3.5( pKa) in presence of organic acid molecules. The max penetration force, as a measure of ICA strength, of p...

  2. Exosomes play an important role in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Xu, Chengfeng; Hua, Yitong; Sun, Leitao; Cheng, Kai; Jia, Zhongming; Han, Yong; Dong, Jianli; Cui, Yuzhen; Yang, Zhenlin

    2016-12-01

    Release of exosomes have been shown to play critical roles in drug resistance by delivering cargo. Targeting the transfer of exosomes from resistant cells to sensitive cells may be an approach to overcome some cases of drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the potential role of exosomes in the process of psoralen reverse multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells. Exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugation of culture media from MCF-7/ADR cells (ADR/exo) and MCF-7 parental cells (S/exo). Exosomes were characterized by morphology, exosomal markers and size distribution. The ability of ADR/exo to transfer multidrug resistance was assessed by MTT and real-time quantitative PCR. The different formation and secretion of exosomes were detected by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Then we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis using RNA-Seq technology and real-time quantitative PCR to better understand the gene expression regulation in exosmes formation and release after psoralen treatment. Our data showed that exosomes derived from MCF-7/ADR cells were able to promote active sequestration of drugs and could induce a drug resistance phenotype by transferring drug-resistance-related gene MDR-1 and P-glycoprotein protein. Psoralen could reduce the formation and secretion of exosomes to overcome drug resistance. There were 21 differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology (GO) pathway analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the most significantly expressed genes were linked to PPAR and P53 signaling pathways which were related to exosomes formation, secretion and cargo sorting. Psoralen can affect the exosomes and induce the reduction of resistance transmission via exosomes might through PPAR and P53 signaling pathways, which might provide a novel strategy for breast cancer resistance to chemotherapy in the future.

  3. Peptidoglycan crosslinking relaxation plays an important role in Staphylococcus aureus WalKR-dependent cell viability.

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    Aurelia Delaune

    Full Text Available The WalKR two-component system is essential for viability of Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen. We have shown that WalKR acts as the master controller of peptidoglycan metabolism, yet none of the identified regulon genes explain its requirement for cell viability. Transmission electron micrographs revealed cell wall thickening and aberrant division septa in the absence of WalKR, suggesting its requirement may be linked to its role in coordinating cell wall metabolism and cell division. We therefore tested whether uncoupling autolysin gene expression from WalKR-dependent regulation could compensate for its essential nature. Uncoupled expression of genes encoding lytic transglycosylases or amidases did not restore growth to a WalKR-depleted strain. We identified only two WalKR-regulon genes whose expression restored cell viability in the absence of WalKR: lytM and ssaA. Neither of these two genes are essential under our conditions and a ΔlytM ΔssaA mutant does not present any growth defect. LytM is a glycyl-glycyl endopeptidase, hydrolyzing the pentaglycine interpeptide crossbridge, and SsaA belongs to the CHAP amidase family, members of which such as LysK and LytA have been shown to have D-alanyl-glycyl endopeptidase activity, cleaving between the crossbridge and the stem peptide. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that peptidoglycan crosslinking relaxation through crossbridge hydrolysis plays a crucial role in the essential requirement of the WalKR system for cell viability.

  4. Contributing Factors on Malaysia Preschool Teachers' Belief, Attitude and Competence in Using Play Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, Hafsah Binti; Bin Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Yahya, Fauziah Hj; Saleh, Halimatussadiah Binti; Ong, Mohd Hanafi Bin Azman

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on preschool teachers' belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in using play in Malaysia. Its purpose is to find out indicators significantly contribute to belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in play of preschool teachers in Malaysia. The method used was factor analysis in order to confirm indicators in each variable…

  5. The kidneys play an important role in the clearance of rFVIIa in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Appa, Rupa S.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    study was to evaluate the importance of the kidneys in the clearance process of rFVIIa after iv administration to rats using a nephrectomy model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nephrectomized rat model was established and validated using inulin, a compound primarily cleared by the kidneys, as a test substance...... of mixed effects methods, where a pharmacokinetic model was used to simultaneously model all data from healthy, sham operated, and nephrectomized rats. RESULTS: Nephrectomized animals showed stable rectal temperature, SpO2 and pulse and as expected, clearance of inulin was essentially abolished compared...

  6. Memory, not just perception, plays an important role in terrestrial mammalian migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracis, Chloe; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-05-31

    One of the key questions regarding the underlying mechanisms of mammalian land migrations is how animals select where to go. Most studies assume perception of resources as the navigational mechanism. The possible role of memory that would allow forecasting conditions at distant locations and times based on information about environmental conditions from previous years has been little studied. We study migrating zebra in Botswana using an individual-based simulation model, where perceptually guided individuals use currently sensed resources at different perceptual ranges, while memory-guided individuals use long-term averages of past resources to forecast future conditions. We compare simulated individuals guided by perception or memory on resource landscapes of remotely sensed vegetation data to trajectories of GPS-tagged zebras. Our results show that memory provides a clear signal that best directs migrants to their destination compared to perception at even the largest perceptual ranges. Zebras modelled with memory arrived two to four times, or up to 100 km, closer to the migration destination than those using perception. We suggest that memory in addition to perception is important for directing ungulate migration. Furthermore, our findings are important for the conservation of migratory mammals, as memory informing direction suggests migration routes could be relatively inflexible. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. High-throughput deep sequencing reveals that microRNAs play important roles in salt tolerance of euhalophyte Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Wang, Jinhui; Fan, Pengxiang; Jia, Weitao; Nie, Lingling; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Xianyang; Lv, Sulian; Wan, Lichuan; Chang, Sandra; Li, Shizhong; Li, Yinxin

    2015-02-26

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in plant development processes and play pivotal roles in plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Salicornia europaea, a salt mash euhalophyte, is a suitable model plant to study salt adaptation mechanisms. S. europaea is also a vegetable, forage, and oilseed that can be used for saline land reclamation and biofuel precursor production on marginal lands. Despite its importance, no miRNA has been identified from S. europaea thus far. Deep sequencing was performed to investigate small RNA transcriptome of S. europaea. Two hundred and ten conserved miRNAs comprising 51 families and 31 novel miRNAs (including seven miRNA star sequences) belonging to 30 families were identified. About half (13 out of 31) of the novel miRNAs were only detected in salt-treated samples. The expression of 43 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs significantly changed in response to salinity. In addition, 53 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between the shoots and roots. Furthermore, 306 and 195 S. europaea unigenes were predicted to be targets of 41 conserved and 29 novel miRNA families, respectively. These targets encoded a wide range of proteins, and genes involved in transcription regulation constituted the largest category. Four of these genes encoding laccase, F-box family protein, SAC3/GANP family protein, and NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase were validated using 5'-RACE. Our results indicate that specific miRNAs are tightly regulated by salinity in the shoots and/or roots of S. europaea, which may play important roles in salt tolerance of this euhalophyte. The S. europaea salt-responsive miRNAs and miRNAs that target transcription factors, nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat proteins and enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis as well as carbon and nitrogen metabolism may be applied in genetic engineering of crops with high stress tolerance, and genetic modification of biofuel crops with high biomass and regulatable

  8. Flavonoid Accumulation Plays an Important Role in the Rust Resistance of Malus Plant Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfen Lu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cedar-apple rust (Gymnosporangium yamadai Miyabe is a fungal disease that causes substantial injury to apple trees and results in fruit with reduced size and quality and a lower commercial value. The molecular mechanisms underlying the primary and secondary metabolic effects of rust spots on the leaves of Malus apple cultivars are poorly understood. Using HPLC, we found that the contents of flavonoid compounds, especially anthocyanin and catechin, were significantly increased in rust-infected symptomatic tissue (RIT. The expression levels of structural genes and MYB transcription factors related to flavonoid biosynthesis were one- to seven-fold higher in the RIT. Among these genes, CHS, DFR, ANS, FLS and MYB10 showed more than a 10-fold increase, suggesting that these genes were expressed at significantly higher levels in the RIT. Hormone concentration assays showed that the levels of abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene (ETH, jasmonate (JA and salicylic acid (SA were higher in the RIT and were consistent with the expression levels of McNCED, McACS, McLOX and McNPR1, respectively. Our study explored the complicated crosstalk of the signal transduction pathways of ABA, ETH, JA and SA; the primary metabolism of glucose, sucrose, fructose and sorbitol; and the secondary metabolism of flavonoids involved in the rust resistance of Malus crabapple leaves.

  9. The pH of chemistry assays plays an important role in monoclonal immunoglobulin interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Michael O; Drake, Thomas A; Song, Lu

    2015-12-01

    Immunoglobulin paraproteins can interfere with multiple chemistry assays. We want to investigate the mechanisms of immunoglobulin interference. Serum samples containing paraproteins from the index patient and eight additional patients were used to investigate the interference with the creatinine and total protein assays on the Beckman Coulter AU5400/2700 analyzer, and to determine the effects of pH and ionic strength on the precipitation of different immunoglobulins in these patient samples. The paraprotein interference with the creatinine and total protein assays was caused by the precipitation of IgM paraprotein in the index patient's samples under alkaline assay conditions. At extremely high pH (12-13) and extremely low pH (1-2) and low ionic strength, paraprotein formed large aggregates in samples from the index patient but not from other patients. The pH and ionic strength are the key factors that contribute to protein aggregation and precipitation which interfere with the creatinine and total protein measurements on AU5400/2700. The different amino acid sequence of each monoclonal paraprotein will determine the pH and ionic strength at which the paraprotein will precipitate.

  10. Socio-economic status plays important roles in childhood cancer treatment outcome in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Saskia; Gunawan, Stefanus; Wolters, Emma; van de Ven, Peter; Sitaresmi, Mei; Dongen, Josephine van; Veerman, Anjo; Mantik, Max; Kaspers, Gertjan

    2012-01-01

    The influence of parental socio-economic status on childhood cancer treatment outcome in low-income countries has not been sufficiently investigated. Our study examined this influence and explored parental experiences during cancer treatment of their children in an Indonesian academic hospital. Medical charts of 145 children diagnosed with cancer between 1999 and 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. From October 2011 until January 2012, 40 caretakers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Of all patients, 48% abandoned treatment, 34% experienced death, 9% had progressive/ relapsed disease, and 9% overall event-free survival. Prosperous patients had better treatment outcome than poor patients (Pfate or God (55%). Causes of cancer were thought to be destiny (35%) or God's punishment (23%). Alternative treatment could (18%) or might (50%) cure cancer. Most parents (95%) would like more information about cancer and treatment. More contact with doctors was desired (98%). Income decreased during treatment (55%). Parents lost employment (48% fathers, 10% mothers), most of whom stated this loss was caused by their child's cancer (84% fathers, 100% mothers). Loss of income led to financial difficulties (63%) and debts (55%). Treatment abandonment was most important reason for treatment failure. Treatment outcome was determined by parental socio-economic status. Childhood cancer survival could improve if financial constraints and provision of information and guidance are better addressed.

  11. Intracellularly Induced Cyclophilins Play an Important Role in Stress Adaptation and Virulence of Brucella abortus

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Lucía; DelVecchio, Vito G.; Briones, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Brucella is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes the worldwide zoonotic disease brucellosis. Brucella virulence relies on its ability to transition to an intracellular lifestyle within host cells. Thus, this pathogen must sense its intracellular localization and then reprogram gene expression for survival within the host cell. A comparative proteomic investigation was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins potentially relevant for Brucella intracellular adaptation. Two proteins identified as cyclophilins (CypA and CypB) were overexpressed in the intracellular environment of the host cell in comparison to laboratory-grown Brucella. To define the potential role of cyclophilins in Brucella virulence, a double-deletion mutant was constructed and its resulting phenotype was characterized. The Brucella abortus ΔcypAB mutant displayed increased sensitivity to environmental stressors, such as oxidative stress, pH, and detergents. In addition, the B. abortus ΔcypAB mutant strain had a reduced growth rate at lower temperature, a phenotype associated with defective expression of cyclophilins in other microorganisms. The B. abortus ΔcypAB mutant also displays reduced virulence in BALB/c mice and defective intracellular survival in HeLa cells. These findings suggest that cyclophilins are important for Brucella virulence and survival in the host cells. PMID:23230297

  12. On play and playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Dusko

    2013-12-01

    The paper offers a review of the development of the concept of play and playing. The true beginnings of the development of the theories of play are set as late as in the 19th century. It is difficult to define play as such; it may much more easily be defined through its antipode--work. In the beginning, play used to be connected with education; it was not before Freud's theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget's developmental psychology that the importance of play in a child's development began to be explained in more detail. The paper further tackles the role of play in the adult age. Detailed attention is paid to psychodynamic and psychoanalytic authors, in particular D. W. Winnicott and his understanding of playing in the intermediary (transitional) empirical or experiential space. In other words, playing occupies a space and time of its own. The neuroscientific concept of playing is also tackled, in the connection with development as well.

  13. Using Factor Analysis Tool to Analyze the Important Packaging Elements that Impact Consumer Buying Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vjollca Visoka Hasani; Jusuf Zeqiri

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the elements that play an important role on consumer’s buying behavior. The purpose of this research is to find out the main important factors related with the packaging effect. Companies in order to create the right packaging for their products, they must understand the consumer buying process and understand the role and the impact of packaging elements as variables that can influence the purchase decision. So, by understanding what factors influen...

  14. Investigating important factors on empowering human resources: A case study of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Molaee Ghara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, human resources are considered as the most precious assets for any organization and it is important to empower them as much as possible to create competitive advantage and to cope with rapid changes in organizations. In this paper, we present an empirical study on one of food industries in province of Qom, Iran to determine important factors influencing empowering human resources. The proposed study uses factor analysis by choosing a sample of 380 people. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.88, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.7 and validates the overall questionnaire. Based on the results of this survey, there are three important factors including job related, personal related and organizational related issues. The study also uses Pearson correlation as well as Freedman tests to rank the factors and the results demonstrate that organizational factor plays the most important role in empowering human resources followed by job related factors and personal factors.

  15. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing insurance firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Soleimani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent trend on competition among insurance firms has increased motivation to look for important factors influencing this industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors shaping this industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and, using principal component analysis, detects important factors on the success of this industry. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.849, and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test are calculated as 0.873 and 12744 with (Sig. =0.000, respectively. The study has detected four important factors including quality of service casualties, sales improvement and advertisement, quality of issuance of insurance policies and quality of work force.

  16. Importance of clinical examination in diagnostics of Osgood-Schlatter Disease in boys playing soccer or basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amela Halilbasic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osgood–Schlatter disease is an irritation of the patellar tendon at the tibial tubercle. Sports with jumps, running, and repeated contractions of knee extension apparatus are considered to be importantexternal risk-factors which could cause Osgood–Schlatter disease.Objectives of the study are to draw attention to the importance of clinical examination in diagnostics of Osgood–Schlatter disease in boys playing soccer or basketball.Methods: The research included data obtained from 120 boys, average age of 14 years. Examinees were split into two groups, one with young athletes which regularly have soccer or basketball trainings and thesecond one with boys who do not participating in sports. We performed anthropological measurements and clinical examinations of both knees and hips for both groups. For the statistical analysis we used pointbiserialcorrelation coefficient.Results: Based on clinical examination, Osgood–Schlatter disease was diagnosed in 51 examinees (42.5%. In “athletic group” Osgood–Schlatter disease had 31 boys or 52%, comparing with “non-athletic group” wherewe found 20 adolescents with disease (33%. Number of boys with Osgood–Schlatter disease was higher for 19% in “athletic group” comparing with “non-athletic group”. Comparing incidence rate for boys in both groups with diagnosed II and III level of Osgood–Schlatter disease we found that rate is higher in “athletic group” 2.25 times comparing with “non-athletic group”.Conclusions: Clinical examination is critical method in the process of diagnosing Osgood–Schlatter disease especially for identifying II and III level of this disease.

  17. Central neuropeptide Y plays an important role in mediating the adaptation mechanism against chronic stress in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Babygirija, Reji; Zheng, Jun; Shi, Bei; Sun, Weinan; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Fan; Cao, Yu

    2018-02-07

    Exposure to continuous life stress often causes gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Studies have shown that neuropeptide Y (NPY) counteracts the biological actions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), and is involved in the termination of the stress response. However, in chronic repeated restraint stress (CRS) conditions, the actions of NPY on GI motility remain controversial. To evaluate the role of NPY in mediation of the adaptation mechanism and GI motility in CRS conditions, a CRS rat model was set up. Central CRF and NPY expression levels were analyzed, serum corticosterone and NPY concentrations were measured, and GI motor function was evaluated. The NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP-3226 was centrally administered before stress loading, and on days, 1-5, of repeated stress, the central CRF and the serum corticosterone concentrations were measured. In addition, gastric and colonic motor functions were evaluated. The elevated central CRF expression and corticosterone concentration caused by acute stress began to fall after 3 days of stress loading, while central NPY expression and serum NPY began to increase. GI dysmotility also returned to a normal level. Pretreatment with BIBP-3226 abolished the adaptation mechanism, and significantly increased CRF expression and the corticosterone concentration, which resulted in delayed gastric emptying and accelerated fecal pellet output. Inhibited gastric motility and enhanced distal colonic motility were also recorded. CRS-produced adaptation, over-expressed central CRF, and GI dysmotility observed in acute restraint stress were restored to normal levels. Central NPY via the Y1 receptor plays an important role in mediating the adaptation mechanism against chronic stress. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  18. Rating and Importance of Non-financial Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Gonsorčík, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    The dissertation deals with rating and non-financial factors that form its important part. Rating described in the thesis shall be understood as credit rating, i.e. as an instrument that helps to asses creditworthiness of a company and its future prospects. Typical credit rating is based on an assessment of financial and non-financial factors of a company. Whereas financial factors are widely accepted as inputs of the assessment, the role of non-financial factors remains ambiguous. We have th...

  19. Analysis of soybean production and import trends and its import factors in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningrum, I. H.; Irianto, H.; Riptanti, E. W.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to analyze the factors affecting soybean imports in Indonesia and to know the trend and projection of Indonesian soybean production as well as the import in 2016-2020. The basic method used in this research is the description analysis method. The data used are secondary data in the form of time series data from 1979-2015. Methods of data analysis using simultaneous equations model with 2SLS (Two Stage Least Square) method and Trend analysis. The results showed that the factors affecting soybean imports in Indonesia are consumption and production. Consumption has positive effect while production is negatively affected. The percentage changed in soybean imports is greater than the percentage change in consumption and production of soybeans. Consumption is positively influenced by imports and production, while production is influenced positively by consumption and negative by imports. The production trend of soybean in 2016-2020 has a tendency to increase with a percentage of 11.18% per year. Production in 2016 is projected at 1.110.537 tons while in 2020 it will increase to 1,721,350 tons. The import trend in 2016-2020 has a tendency to increase with an average percentage of 4.13% per year. Import in 2016 is projected at 2.224.188 tons while in 2020 it will increase to 2.611.270 tons.

  20. Autophagy plays an important role in protecting Pacific oysters from OsHV-1 and Vibrio aestuarianus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Pierrick; Moreau, Kevin; Segarra, Amélie; Tourbiez, Delphine; Travers, Marie-Agnès; Rubinsztein, David C; Renault, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Recent mass mortality outbreaks around the world in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, have seriously affected the aquaculture economy. Although the causes for these mortality outbreaks appear complex, infectious agents are involved. Two pathogens are associated with mass mortality outbreaks, the virus ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) and the bacterium Vibrio aestuarianus. Here we describe the interactions between these 2 pathogens and autophagy, a conserved intracellular pathway playing a key role in innate immunity. We show for the first time that autophagy pathway is present and functional in Pacific oysters and plays an important role to protect animals from infections. This study contributes to better understand the innate immune system of Pacific oysters.

  1. Importance of human factors on nuclear installations safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Actually, installations safety and, in particular the nuclear installations infer a strong incidence in human factors related to the design and operation of such installations. In general, the experience aims to that the most important accidents have happened as result of the components' failures combination and human failures in the operation of safety systems. Human factors in the nuclear installations may be divided into two areas: economy and human reliability. Human factors treatments for the safety evaluation of the nuclear installations allow to diagnose the weak points of man-machine interaction. (Author) [es

  2. The Relative Importance of Job Factors: A New Measurement Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Stanley M.

    This paper reports on a new two-phase measurement technique that permits a direct comparison of the perceived relative importance of economic vs. non-economic factors in a job situation in accounting for personnel retention, the willingness to produce, and job satisfaction. The paired comparison method was used to measure the preferences of 91…

  3. Amoebapore is an important virulence factor of Entamoeba histolytica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... ap-a genes. The silenced transfectant was not virulent at all. These results demonstrate that important factors need to be expressed at the correct cellular location and that the parasite has additional internal control mechanisms such as transcriptional gene silencing which can prevent excess amounts of gene expression.

  4. On the Importance of Cultural Factors in Oral English Studying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Juan

    2016-01-01

    Language communication, in some way, is cultural communication, in order to have a better ability of communicating, students have to know and understand enough culture knowledge. This paper will analyze the relationship between language and culture, emphasize the importance of cultural factors in oral English studying.

  5. On the importance of uncertain factors in seismic fragility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovo, E.; Zentner, I.; Pellegri, A.; Tarantola, S.; Rocquigny, E. de

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the definition of importance measures for helping the modeller to detect the factors on which to focus modelling activity and data collection in seismic fragility analysis. We study sensitivity measures consistent with the decision-support criteria of interest, namely, the (mean) fragility curve and the “High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure” (HCLPF) value. The importance measures are obtained analytically for the EPRI safety factor method, which is nowadays used worldwide for seismic risk assessment of nuclear plants. We illustrate and discuss the use of both variance-based and CDF-based importance measures in the application to two case studies, the first analytical and based on the EPRI method, the second numerical.

  6. The most important "factor" in producing clubhead speed in golf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Substantial experiential research into x-factor, and to a lesser extent crunch-factor has been undertaken with the aim of increasing clubhead speed. However, a direct comparison of the golf swing kinematics associated with each 'factor' has not, and possible differences when using a driver compared to an iron. Fifteen low handicap male golfers who displayed a modern swing had their golf swing kinematic data measured when hitting their own driver and five-iron, using a 10-camera motion analysis system operating at 250Hz. Clubhead speed was collected using a validated launch monitor. No between-club differences in x-factor and crunch-factor existed. Correlation analyses revealed within-club segment (trunk and lower trunk) interaction was different for the driver, compared to the five-iron, and that a greater number of kinematic variables associated with x-factor, compared to crunch-factor were shown to be correlated with faster clubhead speeds. This was further explained in the five-iron regression model, where a significant amount of variance in clubhead speed was associated with increased lower trunk x-factor stretch, and reduced trunk lateral bending. Given that greens in regulation was shown to be the strongest correlated variable with PGA Tour earnings (1990-2004), the findings suggests a link to player performance for approach shots. These findings support other empiric research into the importance of x-factor as well as anecdotal evidence on how crunch-factor can negatively affect clubhead speed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Important factors influencing the return to work after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Chih; Kapellusch, Jay; Garg, Arun

    2014-01-01

    As the field of rehabilitation shifts its focus towards improving functional capacity instead of managing disability, return to work (RTW) and return to the community emerge as key goals in a person's recovery from major disabling illness such as stroke. To compile important factors believed to influence RTW after a stroke. Based on a comprehensive literature review, we clustered similar factors and organized these factors based on the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) framework: body functions or structure, activity participation, environmental factors and personal and psychosocial factors. Overall, stroke severity, as assessed by the degree of residual disability such as weakness, neurological deficit or impairments (speech, cognition, apraxia, agnosia), has been shown to be the most consistent negative predictor of RTW. Many factors such as the number of working years remaining until retirement, depression, medical history, and occupation need to be taken into consideration for stroke survivors, as they can influence RTW decision making. Stroke survivors who are flexible and realistic in their vocational goal and emotionally accept their disability appear more likely to return to work. There are many barriers to employment for stroke survivors ranging from physical and cognitive impairments to psychosocial and environmental factors.

  8. Organisational factors important to the safe operation of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischknecht, Albert; Baumont, Genevieve

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the achievements of a group of human factor specialists known as Expanded Task Force on Human Factors (ETF). ETF is part of the Principal Working Group No.1 (PWG1) on 'Operating Experience and Human Factors' of the Committee on Nuclear Safety Installations (CSNI) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Today, as shown by incident analysis, technology is so far developed that human behaviour and organisational deficiencies can contribute to a major part of the root causes of incidents in nuclear power plants. The influence of the organisation on the safe behaviour and performance of individuals is recognised as a relevant issue for the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The need for an up-to-date basis of knowledge in this area was recognised by CSNI and therefore the ETF organised a workshop, in Switzerland, in 1998, on Organisational Factors. During the workshop, different aspects of organisational influences on the safe operation of NPPs were discussed and twelve important organisational factors concerning safety related activities in a NPP were identified. The result of the workshop is summarised in a state-of-the-art Report (SOAR) 'Identification and Assessment of Organisational Factors Related to the Safety of NPPs' issued by the OECD/NEA. The present paper gives an overview on the main findings of the workshop and conclusions concerning the evaluation of organisational factors. (author)

  9. Identifying important motivational factors for professionals in Greek hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Paleologou, Victoria; Niakas, Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify important motivational factors according to the views of health-care professionals in Greek hospitals and particularly to determine if these might differ in the public and private sectors. Methods A previously developed -and validated- instrument addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements) was used. Three categories of health care professionals, doctors (N = 354), nurses (N = 581) and office workers (N = 418), working in public and private hospitals, participated and motivation was compared across socio-demographic and occupational variables. Results The range of reported motivational factors was mixed and Maslow's conclusions that lower level motivational factors must be met before ascending to the next level were not confirmed. The highest ranked motivator for the entire sample, and by professional subgroup, was achievements (P motivators were similar, and only one significant difference was observed, namely between doctors and nurses in respect to co-workers (P motivated by all factors significantly more than their public-hospital counterparts. Conclusion The results are in agreement with the literature which focuses attention to management approaches employing both monetary and non-monetary incentives to motivate health care workers. This study showed that intrinsic factors are particularly important and should become a target for effective employee motivation. PMID:19754968

  10. An empirical study to find important factors on building national brand: An Iranian tourism case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Hakimipour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Building national brand plays an important role on today's economy to attract interested tourists in visiting various countries. There are different factors impacting national brand such as advertisement, natural attraction, etc. In this paper, we perform an empirical investigation to find the impact of ten most important factors on building brand. The study designs and distributes a questionnaire among 384 international tourists who visited Iran during the year of 2010 and it uses factor analysis to group important factors. The results extract four groups; the first factor includes three most important components including satellite advertisement programs, public awareness on economical power and public awareness on specialized symposium and conferences. The second factor includes three other important factors, which are public awareness on human right, advertisement programs through distribution brushers and internet advertisement. The third factor includes two variables, which are public awareness on education and access to educational services and introducing cultural heritage. Finally, the last factor includes introducing natural attraction and advertisement programs through distribution brushers.

  11. Most important etiologic factors in the development of genital prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of genital prolapse depends on numerous factors. The contribution of race, gender and genetic factors is significant. However, additional factors of initiation, promotion and decomposition are necessary if a person with the genetic predisposition to genital prolapse begins to suffer from it. At least 50% of parous women are believed to suffer from genital prolapse of various degrees. Moreover, the prevalence of genital prolapse increases with age. The prevalence of genital prolapse is expected to be even higher in the future due to the extension of the lifespan of women worldwide. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the most common etiologic factors in the development of genital prolapse in the population of Serbia. Methods The study was conducted as prospective and included 50 women who underwent surgical treatment due to the problems caused by genital prolapse. Results Mean age of the women was 58.74 years. Twenty percent of the women had the menstrual cycle, while 80% were in menopause. Mean menopause period was 8.88 years. None of the women used hormone replacement therapy. Mean BMI was 27.395 kg/m2. Twenty-eight percent of the women were of normal weight, while 72% of the women were obese (42% were obese and 30% were severely obese. Ninety-eight percent of the women were parous, and mean parity was 2.08. Mean birth weight of neonates was 3682.77 g. Sixty-four percent of the women did physical labour and lifted heavy objects. Conclusion Vaginal childbirth is one of the most important initiating factors. The most significant promoting factor is obesity and heavy labour. Ageing and entering menopause are the most important factors of decomposition as well as the occurrence of clinical manifestations of the pelvic floor dysfunction. .

  12. Investigating important factors influencing electronic banking for export development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Abbas Zadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Export is one of the most important indicators of a growing economy and it is the primary source of reaching sustainable growth on the market. This paper presents an empirical study to determine important factors influencing electronic banking in export development of Iranian organizations. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some regular customers who do internet banking with Parsian bank in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.82, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.71 and 1955 with Sig. = 0.000, respectively. Using principal component analysis, the study has detected six factors including customer’s information, building trust, secure internet access, having good internet infrastructure and internet users.

  13. Big Hitters: Important Factors Characterizing Team Effectiveness in Professional Cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie V. Webster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively. Although, the narratives endorsed the value of many of the deductively derived factors, other constructs more prominent in organizational psychology (e.g., trust and intra-group conflict appeared to be more important than traditional sport psychology group factors. The results revealed six broad themes; culture and environment, values, communication, understanding, leadership, and unique individuals, with some gender differences apparent throughout. Based on our elite sample's construal of team effectiveness, we propose a new model representing a practical, parsimonious, and novel conceptualization of the most important attributes of team effectiveness in cricket, with conceivable transferability to other team sports.

  14. The Impact of Speed of Play in Gambling on Psychological and Behavioural Factors: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-06-01

    Conceptually, there is a common association between gambling games with fast speeds of play and problem gambling. This relationship however, is largely correlational in nature, which comes at the expense of carefully controlled empirical investigation. Research that does exist aimed towards investigating the impact of gambling speeds on psychological and behavioural factors, is in its relative infancy, and the research possesses disparate methodologies and variables of interest. The aims of the current review is therefore to evaluate and summarise the existing body of evidence relating to speed of play in gambling, as well as discuss how this evidence can be used to inform harm minimisation approaches aimed at facilitating self-control during gambling. Eleven studies were selected for review based on the inclusion criteria, comprising nine experimental and two qualitative studies (one self-report focus group study and one observational study). There was a consistent finding across studies that games with faster speeds of play were preferred and rated as more exciting for all gamblers, ranging from non-problem to problem gamblers. Of concern, was the repeated finding that fast games are particularly appealing to those suffering with a gambling problem. Behavioural results were more inconsistent across studies, though the general trend supports the notion that games with faster speeds of play encourage more wagers, longer game play, and caused players, particularly problem gamblers, to experience difficulty in ceasing gambling. The implications of these findings for gambling policy, harm minimisation approaches, and future research are discussed.

  15. The European Commission: nuclear power has an important role to play; Commission Europeenne: le nucleaire a un role important a jouer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-11-15

    The European Commission (E.C.) thinks that nuclear power has an important role to play: first to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and secondly to reinforce energy self-reliance of the member states. The decision to introduce nuclear power in their energy mix belongs to every state but the E.C. has also highlighted that if adequate investment are quickly made 2 thirds of the electricity produced in the European Union in 2010 could by from low-carbon-emitting sources. Today with 148 reactors operating in 15 member countries nuclear power contributes to 1 third of the electricity produced. Another issue that is looming is the security of electricity supplying. A study has shown that the security level is worsening (particularly in winter) because of the greater part of wind energy in the energy mix as wind energy is not necessarily available when energy demand is peaking. The E.C. has proposed a new directive drawing a common standard frame for nuclear safety requirements concerning design, site selection, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Each member state will have the choice to implement stiffer regulations. The European Union must reduce its dependency on Russian gas by increasing its storing capacities, by easing gas exchanges between member states and by importing more liquefied natural gas. European member states will have to invert 1000*10{sup 9} euros in gas and electrical power infrastructures in the next 25 years. (A.C.)

  16. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Fengxia; Zhang, Minjie; Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun; Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang; Xu, Ye; Price, Brendan; Sun, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ATM phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. • The PETPVFRLT box of ATM plays a key role in its dimer dissociation in DNA repair. • The dephosphorylation of ATM is critical for dimer re-formation after DNA repair. - Abstract: The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair

  17. Biosphere dose conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-01-01

    This report presents importance and sensitivity analysis for the environmental radiation model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN). ERMYN is a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis concerns the output of the model, biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater, and the volcanic ash exposure scenarios. It identifies important processes and parameters that influence the BDCF values and distributions, enhances understanding of the relative importance of the physical and environmental processes on the outcome of the biosphere model, includes a detailed pathway analysis for key radionuclides, and evaluates the appropriateness of selected parameter values that are not site-specific or have large uncertainty

  18. Doing what comes naturally: a special workforce plays an important role in a new on-site remediation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsters, S.

    1999-01-01

    A bioremediation system developed by Calgary-based Unique Oilfield Technology Services (UNOTEC) that uses naturally occurring bacteria and fungi to decompose oilfield waste is described. In essence, UNOTEC creates a suitable work environment for microorganisms by mixing drilling residue with organic oil absorbent and bulking agent, and the micro-organisms do the rest. The key ingredient in the mix is canola meal which has been shown to have the ability to immobilize oil and prevent leaching in the containment mixtures following land treatment, due to its oleophilic qualities, which are a function of its origin as an oil seed. Canola meal contains large amounts of protein, hence it is an important source of nitrogen. Since nitrogen is considered essential for stimulating growth in microorganisms, the meal plays a critical role as a catalyst for microbial activity in the containment mix. Details of applying the technology, and on-going experiments demonstrating its efficiency are described. 10 photos

  19. Factors associated with playing football after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in female football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fältström, A; Hägglund, M; Kvist, J

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated whether player-related factors (demographic, personality, or psychological factors) or the characteristics of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury were associated with the return to playing football in females after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). We also compared current knee function, knee related quality of life and readiness to return to sport between females who returned to football and those who had not returned. Females who sustained a primary ACL rupture while playing football and underwent ACLR 6-36 months ago were eligible. Of the 460 contacted, 274 (60%) completed a battery of questionnaires, and 182 were included a median of 18 months (IQR 13) after ACLR. Of these, 94 (52%) returned to football and were currently playing, and 88 (48%) had not returned. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified two factors associated with returning to football: short time between injury and ACLR (0-3 months, OR 5.6; 3-12 months OR 4.7 vs reference group > 12 months) and high motivation. Current players showed higher ratings for current knee function, knee-related quality of life, and psychological readiness to return to sport (P football after ACLR. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Phosphorylation of CaMKII in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Su-Ying; Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Xue-Qiong; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Huang, Yuan-Li; Cao, Qing; Xu, Ya-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Ge; Yang, Guang; Song, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Hui; Wang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Yong-He

    2016-02-01

    The Ca(2+) modulation in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation. Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is an important signal-transducing molecule that is activated by Ca(2+) . This study investigated the effects of intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the DRN on sleep-wake states in rats. Maximum and minimum CaMKII phosphorylation was detected at Zeitgeber time 21 (ZT 21; wakefulness state) and ZT 3 (sleep state), respectively, across the light-dark rhythm in the DRN in rats. Six-hour sleep deprivation significantly reduced CaMKII phosphorylation in the DRN. Microinjection of the CAMKII activation inhibitor KN-93 (5 or 10 nmol) into the DRN suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS). Application of a high dose of KN-93 (10 nmol) increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) time, SWS bouts, the mean duration of SWS, the percentage of SWS relative to total sleep, and delta power density during NREMS. Microinjection of CaCl2 (50 nmol) in the DRN increased CaMKII phosphorylation and decreased NREMS, SWS, and REMS. KN-93 abolished the inhibitory effects of CaCl2 on NREMS, SWS, and REMS. These data indicate a novel wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role for the Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling pathway in DRN neurons. We propose that the intracellular Ca(2+) /CaMKII signaling in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) plays wake-promoting and sleep-suppressing role in rats. Intra-DRN application of KN-93 (CaMKII activation inhibitor) suppressed wakefulness and enhanced rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS). Intra-DRN application of CaCl2 attenuated REMS and NREMS. We think these findings should provide a novel cellular and molecular mechanism of sleep-wake regulation. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. The importance of neuronal growth factors in the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiter, S; Fisch, B; Sabbah, B; Ao, A; Abir, R

    2016-01-01

    The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and neurotrophin 4/5 (NT4/5), in addition to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the neuronal growth factors, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and vasointestinal peptide (VIP). Although there are a few literature reviews, mainly of animal studies, on the importance of neurotrophins in the ovary, we aimed to provide a complete review of neurotrophins as well as neuronal growth factors and their important roles in normal and pathological processes in the ovary. Follicular assembly is probably stimulated by complementary effects of NGF, NT4/5 and BDNF and their receptors. The neurotrophins, GDNF and VIP and their receptors have all been identified in preantral and antral follicles of mammalian species, including humans. Transgenic mice with mutations in the genes encoding for Ngf, Nt4/5 and Bdnf and their tropomyosin-related kinase β receptor showed a reduction in preantral follicles and an abnormal ovarian morphology, whereas NGF, NT3, GDNF and VIP increased the in vitro activation of primordial follicles in rats and goats. Additionally, NGF, NT3 and GDNF promoted follicular cell proliferation; NGF, BDNF and VIP were shown to be involved in ovulation; VIP inhibited follicular apoptosis; NT4/5, BDNF and GDNF promoted oocyte maturation and NGF, NT3 and VIP stimulated steroidogenesis. NGF may also exert a stimulatory effect in ovarian cancer and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Low levels of NGF and BDNF in follicular fluid may be associated with diminished ovarian reserve and high levels with endometriosis. More knowledge of the roles of neuronal growth factors in the ovary has important implications for the development of new therapeutic drugs (such as anti-NGF agents) for ovarian cancer and PCOS as well as various infertility problems, warranting further research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society

  2. Prognosis of Preschool Eczema and Factors of Importance for Remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Emma Kristin; Bergström, Anna; Kull, Inger; Lind, Tomas; Söderhäll, Cilla; Melén, Erik; Asad, Samina; Bradley, Maria; Liedén, Agne; Ballardini, Natalia; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik

    2018-03-02

    Information on factors of importance for remission of eczema is scarce. This study explored factors related to the remission and course of preschool eczema (eczema at 1, 2 and/or 4 years of age) to 16 years of age (n = 889) in a Swedish cohort. Half of the children were in complete remission by school age. In multivariate prognostic models, persistent preschool eczema (eczema at 1, 2 and 4 years of age) (odds ratio 0.27 (95% confidence interval 0.18-0.41)), preschool eczema with sleep disturbance (due to itch at least once a week at 1, 2 and/or 4 years of age) (0.59 (0.43-0.81)), parental allergy (0.73 (0.55-0.96)), parental smoking at child's birth (0.70 (0.50-0.99)) and filaggrin mutation (R501X, R2447X, 2282del4) (0.47 (0.26-0.85)) were inversely associated with complete remission by school age. Male sex (1.37 (1.03-1.82)) and exclusive breastfeeding ≥4 months (1.44 (1.01-2.05)) were positively associated with complete remission by school age. In conclusion, half of the children with preschool eczema were in complete remission by school age. The most important prognostic factors were persistent preschool eczema and preschool eczema with sleep disturbance due to itch.

  3. A formal anthropological view of motivation models of problematic MMO play: achievement, social, and immersion factors in the context of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Dengah, H J Francois; Lacy, Michael G; Fagan, Jesse

    2013-04-01

    Yee (2006) found three motivational factors-achievement, social, and immersion-underlying play in massively multiplayer online role-playing games ("MMORPGs" or "MMOs" for short). Subsequent work has suggested that these factors foster problematic or addictive forms of play in online worlds. In the current study, we used an online survey of respondents (N = 252), constructed and also interpreted in reference to ethnography and interviews, to examine problematic play in the World of Warcraft (WoW; Blizzard Entertainment, 2004-2013). We relied on tools from psychological anthropology to reconceptualize each of Yee's three motivational factors in order to test for the possible role of culture in problematic MMO play: (a) For achievement, we examined how "cultural consonance" with normative understandings of success might structure problematic forms of play; (b) for social, we analyzed the possibility that developing overvalued virtual relationships that are cutoff from offline social interactions might further exacerbate problematic play; and (c) in relation to immersion, we examined how "dissociative" blurring of actual- and virtual-world identities and experiences might contribute to problematic patterns. Our results confirmed that compared to Yee's original motivational factors, these culturally sensitive measures better predict problematic forms of play, pointing to the important role of sociocultural factors in structuring online play.

  4. Effect of Play Group and Biopsychosocial Factors on the Independence Development of Preschool Children in Surakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Iin Tri Marlinawati; Harsono Salimo; Bhisma Murti

    2017-01-01

    Background: The development of children's independence is important for their future competitiveness in the rapidly increasing social changes. Disturbance in the development of children's independence may have a negative future impact in adult life and children become dependent individuals. Efforts are needed to help children develop optimally. Some play groups have been introduced to meet this need in Surakarta, but no studies have been carried out to evaluate its effectiveness. This study a...

  5. Congenital heart disease screening: which referral factors are most important

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, A.; Ahmed, W.

    2013-01-01

    To identify the referral factors for fetal echocardiography which are associated with congenital cardiac defects in the fetus. Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Radiology Department, CMH, Rawalpindi, from January 2007 to November 2010. Methodology: All patients referred for fetal echocardiography with one or more risk factors for the development of congenital heart disease, and those patients with incidental discovery of congenital heart disease on antenatal ultrasound were evaluated. Patients with no risk factors who were found to have normal fetal echocardiography were excluded from the study. Univariate logistic regression analysis was carried out for each variable. The variables with statistical significance of less than 0.05 were subjected to multivariate logistic regression. Fetal echocardiographic diagnosis was taken as the dependent variable and all other variables were the independent variables. Results: Two hundred and sixty four patients were evaluated by fetal echocardiography for congenital heart disease. The statistically significant factor was detection of congenital heart disease on routine ultrasound examination. Conclusion: A routine obstetric scan should include evaluation of the heart with four-chamber and base-of-heart views to exclude cardiac anomalies. A cardiac anomaly picked up on routine ultrasound scan is the most important indication for referral for fetal echocardiography. Fetal arrhythmias and echogenic focus in the left ventricle do not have a significant association with structural cardiac malformation. (author)

  6. Hepcidin is directly regulated by insulin and plays an important role in iron overload in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heyang; Li, Hongxia; Jiang, Xin; Shi, Wencai; Shen, Zhilei; Li, Min

    2014-05-01

    Iron overload is frequently observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesize that hepcidin may be directly regulated by insulin and play an important role in iron overload in DM2. We therefore examined the hepatic iron content, serum iron parameters, intestinal iron absorption, and liver hepcidin expression in rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ), which was given alone or after insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet. The direct effect of insulin on hepcidin and its molecular mechanisms were furthermore determined in vitro in HepG2 cells. STZ administration caused a significant reduction in liver hepcidin level and a marked increase in intestinal iron absorption and serum and hepatic iron content. Insulin obviously upregulated hepcidin expression in HepG2 cells and enhanced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein synthesis and DNA binding activity. The effect of insulin on hepcidin disappeared when the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway was blocked and could be partially inhibited by U0126. In conclusion, the current study suggests that hepcidin can be directly regulated by insulin, and the suppressed liver hepcidin synthesis may be an important reason for the iron overload in DM2.

  7. Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Turktas

    Full Text Available The olive tree (Olea europaea L. is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.

  8. Nutrition Metabolism Plays an Important Role in the Alternate Bearing of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between ”on year” and “off year” leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

  9. Parental Involvement as a Important Factor for Successful Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Đurišić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To comply with the system of integrated support for their students’, schools need to build partnership with parents and develop mutual responsibility for childrens’ success in the educational system. In this way, parental involement are increased, parents’ effort to support schools are encouraged, and they are directly making a positive impact to a successful educational system. Considering the importance of parents’ participation and involvement in school activities, in this paper, we will analyse the positive effects of parental involvement, summarize leading principles for the successful partnership of parents and school and present six factors (Parenting, Communicating, Volunteering, Learning at home, Decision-making and Collaborating with the community and six models (Protective Model, Expert Model, Transmission Model, Curriculum-Enrichment Model, Consumer Model and Partnership Model of parental involvement. In addition, we will draw conclusions and make recommendations that are important for planning programs that are focused on the improvement of parent involvement.

  10. Ruminal Prevotella spp. may play an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into human health beneficial antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L B Schogor

    Full Text Available Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, the most abundant lignan in flaxseed, is metabolized by the ruminal microbiota into enterolignans, which are strong antioxidants. Enterolactone (EL, the main mammalian enterolignan produced in the rumen, is transferred into physiological fluids, with potentially human health benefits with respect to menopausal symptoms, hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and diabetes. However, no information exists to our knowledge on bacterial taxa that play a role in converting plant lignans into EL in ruminants. In order to investigate this, eight rumen cannulated cows were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed with four treatments: control with no flax meal (FM, or 5%, 10% and 15% FM (on a dry matter basis. Concentration of EL in the rumen increased linearly with increasing FM inclusion. Total rumen bacterial 16S rRNA concentration obtained using Q-PCR did not differ among treatments. PCR-T-RFLP based dendrograms revealed no global clustering based on diet indicating between animal variation. PCR-DGGE showed a clustering by diet effect within four cows that had similar basal ruminal microbiota. DNA extracted from bands present following feeding 15% FM and absent with no FM supplementation were sequenced and it showed that many genera, in particular Prevotella spp., contributed to the metabolism of lignans. A subsequent in vitro study using selected pure cultures of ruminal bacteria incubated with SDG indicated that 11 ruminal bacteria were able to convert SDG into secoisolariciresinol (SECO, with Prevotella spp. being the main converters. These data suggest that Prevotella spp. is one genus playing an important role in the conversion of plant lignans to human health beneficial antioxidants in the rumen.

  11. Importance of high triglycerides levels between novel coronary risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmore Bermúdez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The analysis of new cardiovascular risk factors is under an extensive debate in the cardiology and metabolic research fields. Objective: To determine the main factors that contribute to the classification of individuals with higher coronary risk in the adult population from Maracaibo, Venezuela. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study with multistage random sampling in 1379 individuals belonging to the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study (MMSPS was performed. They were classified according to the coronary risk by Framingham-Wilson equation adapted to our population. The association between various risk factors was evaluated by ordinal logistic regression models. Results: 1,379 subjects (females 55.9%; n = 771 were evaluated, 66.2% (n = 913 were classified with low coronary risk. In univariate (χ2 = 112.35; p < 0.00001 and multivariate analysis [OR: 3.98 (2.39-6.63; p < 0.01], the main factors associated to be classified as the highest risk category were hypertriglyceridemia. Conclusion: There are several factors that should be included in predictive models use worldwide. The most important in our population were dyslipidemia such as hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipoproteinemia (a and insulin resistance. Resumen: Introducción: El análisis de nuevos factores de riesgo cardiovascular constituye un tema de amplio debate en la investigación cardio-metabólica. Objetivo: Determinar los principales factores que contribuyen a la clasificación de sujetos en las categorías de mayor riesgo coronario en individuos adultos de la ciudad de Maracaibo, Venezuela. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, trasversal con muestreo aleatorio multietapas en 1.379 individuos pertenecientes al Estudio de Prevalencia de Síndrome Metabólico de la Ciudad de Maracaibo (EPSMM. Estos fueron clasificaron de acuerdo con el riesgo coronario mediante la fórmula Framingham-Wilson adaptada para

  12. EVALUATING THE IMPORTANCE OF FACTORS IN ANY GIVEN ORDER OF FACTORING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, L G; Tucker, L R; Dachler, P

    1970-04-01

    A methodology has been described and illustrated for obtaining an evaluation of the importance of the factors in a particular order of factoring that does not require faotoring beyond that order. For example, one can estimate the intercorrelations of the original measures with the perturbations of the first-order factor held constant or, the reverse, estimate the contribution to the intercorrelations of the originral measures from the first-order factors alone. Similar operations are possible at higher orders.

  13. Does the magnetic expansion factor (fs) play a role in solar wind acceleration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Samantha; Arge, Charles N.; Pihlstrom, Ylva

    2017-08-01

    For the past 25 years, magnetic expansion factor (fs) has been a key parameter used in the calculation of terminal solar wind speed (vsw) in both the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model and its predecessor the Wang-Sheeley (WS) model. Since the discovery of an inverse relationship between fs and vsw, the physical role that magnetic expansion factor plays in the acceleration of the solar wind has been explored and debated. In this study, we investigate whether magnetic expansion factor plays a causal role in determining the terminal speed of the solar wind or merely serves as proxy. To do so, we explore how fs, as determined by WSA, relates to vsw for two different scenarios: 1) extended periods where the fast solar wind emerges from the centers of large coronal holes, and 2) periods where the solar wind emerges from pseudostreamers. For these same scenarios, we will also consider an alternative empirical relationship between solar wind speed and the minimum angular distance at the photosphere of a solar wind source to the nearest coronal hole boundary (i.e., DCHB, θb). We then compare these two different prediction techniques directly with heliospheric observations (i.e., ACE, STEREO-A & B, Ulysses) of solar wind speed to determine whether one clearly out performs the other.

  14. Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Du, Baoying; Zhou, Hao; Shen, Fengxian; Li, Juan; Xie, Zhenwei

    2017-01-01

    To explore the expression level of Nrf2 in adenomyosis and study the mechanism of abnormal expression of Nrf2 in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. Western blot, immunohistochemistry(IHC) and real time PCR were used to measure Nrf2 expression levels in tissue and cell samples. Knockdown and overexpression of Nrf2 were used to investigate the variation of migration ability of endometrial glandular cells as well as the regulatory mechanism. Nrf2 protein levels were significantly higher in the eutopic and ectopic endometrial glands when compared with control cases using IHC and western blot methods. (pendometrial glandular cells. With increased expression of Nrf2, cell scratch assay showed that the agonist-treated group migrated significantly faster than the control group, with MMP9 protein level markedly elevated. In contrast, Nrf2 siRNA-treated group migrated slower than the control group, with decreased expression of MMP9 protein. All of the scratching healing spaces and protein levels between the treated and control groups were statistically significant (p< 0.05). Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis. Specified reduction of Nrf2 expression could prove to be a new therapeutic target in the clinical treatment of adenomyosis.

  15. Macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in the induction of type 2 immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghan Yang

    Full Text Available Type 2 immunity is essential for host protection against nematode infection but is detrimental in allergic inflammation or asthma. There is a major research focus on the effector molecules and specific cell types involved in the initiation of type 2 immunity. Recent work has implicated an important role of epithelial-derived cytokines, IL-25 and IL-33, acting on innate immune cells that are believed to be the initial sources of type 2 cytokines IL-4/IL-5/IL-13. The identities of the cell types that mediate the effects of IL-25/IL-33, however, remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that macrophages as IL-25/IL-33-responsive cells play an important role in inducing type 2 immunity using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Macrophages produced type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in response to the stimulation of IL-25/IL-33 in vitro, or were the IL-13-producing cells in mice administrated with exogenous IL-33 or infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri. In addition, IL-33 induced alternative activation of macrophages primarily through autocrine IL-13 activating the IL-4Rα-STAT6 pathway. Moreover, depletion of macrophages attenuated the IL-25/IL-33-induced type 2 immunity in mice, while adoptive transfer of IL-33-activated macrophages into mice with a chronic Heligmosomoides bakeri infection induced worm expulsion accompanied by a potent type 2 protective immune response. Thus, macrophages represent a unique population of the innate immune cells pivotal to type 2 immunity and a potential therapeutic target in controlling type 2 immunity-mediated inflammatory pathologies.

  16. Wood energy as an important factor in the tourist industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapf, V.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the role of wood energy in so-called eco-tourism and the fact that tourism has an essential interest in keeping our environment intact. The growing importance of the tourism industry and sustainable tourism in particular is stressed. Efforts being made by tour operators and regional authorities to market eco-tourism are examined, including awards and labels for sustainable tourist facilities. The role of wood energy and other renewable forms of energy as a marketing factor for those establishments that make use of them is commented on. Also, a project that links wood energy facilities to form a 'Wood Energy Way' in the Jura mountains is described that is already proving to be an international tourist attraction

  17. Risk factors in adolescence: the case of gambling, videogame playing, and the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M; Wood, R T

    2000-01-01

    It has been noted that adolescents may be more susceptible to pathological gambling. Not only is it usually illegal, but it appears to be related to high levels of problem gambling and other delinquent activities such as illicit drug taking and alcohol abuse. This paper examines risk factors not only in adolescent gambling but also in videogame playing (which shares many similarities with gambling). There appear to be three main forms of adolescent gambling that have been widely researched. Adolescent gambling activities and general risk factors in adolescent gambling are provided. As well, the influence of technology on adolescents in the form of both videogames and the Internet are examined. It is argued that technologically advanced forms of gambling may be highly appealing to adolescents.

  18. Hypoalbuminemia is an important risk factor of hypotension during hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Hidetomo; Honda, Nobuko; Mimura, Taku; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2006-10-01

    Hypotension during hemodialysis (HD) is an important problem in patients on HD. To investigate the risk factors that contribute to the hypotension during HD, we compared background factors of hypotensive (HP) patients during HD. Among 58 patients undergoing HD in Tamura Memorial Hospital, 12 patients could not continue full HD because of hypotension. We compared the data of ultrafiltration volume, cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), total protein (TP), serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, total cholesterol (TC), hemoglobin (Hb), blood glucose (BS), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and cardiac function between HP patients (HP group; n=12) and sex- and age-matched control patients (NP group; n=12). There were no significant differences of age, sex, and duration of HD between the 2 groups. Cardiothoracic ratio is bigger and BNP is higher in the HP group compared with the NP group (CTR: HP 55.8+/-2.9% vs. NP 47.7+/-1.1%, p=0.0165; BNP: HP 602+/-171 vs. NP 147+/-38, p=0.0167). Serum albumin in the HP group is significantly lower compared with the NP group (HP 3.2+/-0.1 g/dL vs. NP 3.5+/-0.1 g/dL, p=0.0130). However, there were no significant differences of ultrafiltration rate (UFR), BS, TC, Hb, and cardiac function between the 2 groups. There is a significant negative correlation between changes of systolic blood pressure (delta systolic blood pressure) and serum albumin in these patients (r=-0.598, p=0.0016). From these data, we conclude that hypoalbuminemia is a major risk factor of hypotension during HD.

  19. Autophagy plays an important role in Sunitinib-mediated cell death in H9c2 cardiac muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yuqin; Xue Tao; Yang Xiaochun; Zhu Hong; Ding Xiaofei; Lou Liming; Lu Wei; Yang Bo; He Qiaojun

    2010-01-01

    Sunitinib, which is a multitargeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, exhibits antiangiogenic and antitumor activity, and extends survival of patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). This molecule has also been reported to be associated with cardiotoxicity at a high frequency, but the mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, we observed that Sunitinib showed high anti-proliferative effect on H9c2 cardiac muscle cells measured by PI staining and the MTT assay. But apoptotic markers (PARP cleavage, caspase 3 cleavage and chromatin condensation) were uniformly negative in H9c2 cells after Sunitinib treatment for 48 h, indicating that another cell death pathway may be involved in Sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity. Here we found Sunitinib dramatically increased autophagic flux in H9c2 cells. Acidic vesicle fluorescence and high expression of LC3-II in H9c2 cells identified autophagy as a Sunitinib-induced process that might be associated with cytotoxicity. Furthermore, knocking down Beclin 1 by RNA-interference to block autophagy in H9c2 cells revealed that the death rate was decreased when treated with Sunitinib in comparison to control cells. These results confirmed that autophagy plays an important role in Sunitinib-mediated H9c2 cells cytotoxicity. Taken together, the data presented here strongly suggest that autophagy is associated with Sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity, and that inhibition of autophagy constitutes a viable strategy for reducing Sunitinib-induced cardiomyocyte death thereby alleviating Sunitinib cardiotoxicity.

  20. Orexin receptor-1 in the locus coeruleus plays an important role in cue-dependent fear memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soya, Shingo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hasegawa, Emi; Hondo, Mari; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Mieda, Michihiro; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2013-09-04

    The noradrenergic (NA) projections arising from the locus ceruleus (LC) to the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis have been implicated in the formation of emotional memory. Since NA neurons in the LC (LC-NA neurons) abundantly express orexin receptor-1 (OX1R) and receive prominent innervation by orexin-producing neurons, we hypothesized that an OX1R-mediated pathway is involved in the physiological fear learning process via regulation of LC-NA neurons. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined the phenotype of Ox1r(-/-) mice in the classic cued and contextual fear-conditioning test. We found that Ox1r(-/-) mice showed impaired freezing responses in both cued and contextual fear-conditioning paradigms. In contrast, Ox2r(-/-) mice showed normal freezing behavior in the cued fear-conditioning test, while they exhibited shorter freezing time in the contextual fear-conditioning test. Double immunolabeling of Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase showed that double-positive LC-NA neurons after test sessions of both cued and contextual stimuli were significantly fewer in Ox1r(-/-) mice. AAV-mediated expression of OX1R in LC-NA neurons in Ox1r(-/-) mice restored the freezing behavior to the auditory cue to a comparable level to that in wild-type mice in the test session. Decreased freezing time during the contextual fear test was not affected by restoring OX1R expression in LC-NA neurons. These observations support the hypothesis that the orexin system modulates the formation and expression of fear memory via OX1R in multiple pathways. Especially, OX1R in LC-NA neurons plays an important role in cue-dependent fear memory formation and/or retrieval.

  1. The novel zinc cluster regulator Tog1 plays important roles in oleate utilization and oxidative stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thepnok, Piyasuda; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Soontorngun, Nitnipa, E-mail: nitnipa.soo@kmutt.ac.th

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • TOG1 deletion results in defective growth on non-fermentable carbon sources. • Removal of TOG1 sensitizes cells to oxidative stress. • Tog1 directly binds and activates expression of oleate utilizing genes. • The Δtog1 cells display reduced peroxisomal content in oleate culture. • S. cerevisiae zinc cluster Tog1 is a novel activator of oleate utilization. - Abstract: Many zinc cluster proteins have been shown to play a role in the transcriptional regulation of glucose-repressible genes during glucose exhaustion and diauxic shift. Here, we studied an additional member of this family called Yer184c (herein called Tog1) for transcriptional regulator of oleate. Our results showed that a Δtog1 strain displays impaired growth with several non-fermentable carbons. Tog1 is also implicated in oxidative stress tolerance. Importantly, during the glucose–oleate shift, combined results from quantitative real time-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments showed that Tog1 acts as a direct activator of oleate utilizing genes, encoded key enzymes in β-Oxidation and NADPH regeneration (POX1, FOX2, POT1 and IDP2), the glyoxylate shunt (MLS1 and ICL1), and gluconeogenesis (PCK1 and FBP1). A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the Δtog1 strain assayed with oleate also revealed a substantial decrease in peroxisome abundance that is vital for fatty acid oxidation. Overall, our results clearly demonstrated that Tog1 is a newly characterized zinc cluster regulator that functions in the complex network of non-fermentable carbon metabolism in Saccharomycescerevisiae.

  2. Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chen

    Full Text Available To explore the expression level of Nrf2 in adenomyosis and study the mechanism of abnormal expression of Nrf2 in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis.Western blot, immunohistochemistry(IHC and real time PCR were used to measure Nrf2 expression levels in tissue and cell samples. Knockdown and overexpression of Nrf2 were used to investigate the variation of migration ability of endometrial glandular cells as well as the regulatory mechanism.Nrf2 protein levels were significantly higher in the eutopic and ectopic endometrial glands when compared with control cases using IHC and western blot methods. (p< 0.05. However, there was no statistical difference in Nrf2 mRNA expression levels between the adenomyosis and control groups. Using an agonist and Nrf2 siRNA, we regulated the Nrf2 protein levels of primary cultured endometrial glandular cells. With increased expression of Nrf2, cell scratch assay showed that the agonist-treated group migrated significantly faster than the control group, with MMP9 protein level markedly elevated. In contrast, Nrf2 siRNA-treated group migrated slower than the control group, with decreased expression of MMP9 protein. All of the scratching healing spaces and protein levels between the treated and control groups were statistically significant (p< 0.05.Abnormal expression of Nrf2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of adenomyosis. Specified reduction of Nrf2 expression could prove to be a new therapeutic target in the clinical treatment of adenomyosis.

  3. C1 metabolism plays an important role during formaldehyde metabolism and detoxification in petunia under liquid HCHO stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Lijuan; Sun, Huiqun; Han, Shuang; Wang, Xinjia; Zhou, Shengen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2014-10-01

    Petunia hybrida is a model ornamental plant grown worldwide. To understand the HCHO-uptake efficiency and metabolic mechanism of petunia, the aseptic petunia plants were treated in HCHO solutions. An analysis of HCHO-uptake showed that petunia plants effectively removed HCHO from 2, 4 and 6 mM HCHO solutions. The (13)C NMR analyses indicated that H(13)CHO was primarily used to synthesize [5-(13)C]methionine (Met) via C1 metabolism in petunia plants treated with 2 mM H(13)CHO. Pretreatment with cyclosporin A (CSA) or l-carnitine (LC), the inhibitors of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, did not affect the synthesis of [5-(13)C]Met in petunia plants under 2 mM H(13)CHO stress, indicating that the Met-generated pathway may function in the cytoplasm. Under 4 or 6 mM liquid H(13)CHO stress, H(13)CHO metabolism in petunia plants produced considerable amount of H(13)COOH and [2-(13)C]glycine (Gly) through C1 metabolism and a small amount of [U-(13)C]Gluc via the Calvin Cycle. Pretreatment with CSA or LC significantly inhibited the production of [2-(13)C]Gly in 6 mM H(13)CHO-treated petunia plants, which suggests that chloroplasts and peroxisomes might be involved in the generation of [2-(13)C]Gly. These results revealed that the C1 metabolism played an important role, whereas the Calvin Cycle had only a small contribution during HCHO metabolism and detoxification in petunia under liquid HCHO stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Can Brazil play a more important role in global tuberculosis drug production? An assessment of current capacity and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemal, Andre; Keravec, Joel; Menezes, Alexandre; Trajman, Anete

    2013-03-27

    Despite the existence of effective treatment, tuberculosis is still a global public health issue. The World Health Organization recommends a six-month four-drug regimen in fixed-dose combination formulation to treat drug sensitive tuberculosis, and long course regimens with several second-line drugs to treat multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. To achieve the projected tuberculosis elimination goal by 2050, it will be essential to ensure a non-interrupted supply of quality-assured tuberculosis drugs. However, quality and affordable tuberculosis drug supply is still a significant challenge for National Tuberculosis Programs. Quality drug production requires a combination of complex steps. The first challenge is to guarantee the quality of tuberculosis active pharmaceutical ingredients, then ensure an adequate manufacturing process, according to international standards, to guarantee final product's safety, efficacy and quality. Good practices for storage, transport, distribution and quality control procedures must follow. In contrast to other high-burden countries, Brazil produces tuberculosis drugs through a strong network of public sector drug manufacturers regulated by a World Health Organization-certified national sanitary authority. The installed capacity for production surpasses the 71,000 needed treatments in the country. However, in order to be prepared to act as a global supplier, important bottlenecks are to be overcome. This article presents an in-depth analysis of the current status of production of tuberculosis drugs in Brazil and the bottlenecks and opportunities for the country to sustain national demand and play a role as a potential global supplier. Raw material and drug production, quality control, international certification and pre-qualification, political commitment and regulatory aspects are discussed, as well recommendations for tackling these bottlenecks. This discussion becomes more important as new drugs and regimens to treat tuberculosis are

  5. Nod-Like Receptor Protein-3 Inflammasome Plays an Important Role during Early Stages of Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M.; Mirza, Rita E.; Koh, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome/IL-1β pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases, but its biological role in wound healing remains to be elucidated. Since inflammation is typically thought to impede healing, we hypothesized that loss of NLRP-3 activity would result in a downregulated inflammatory response and accelerated wound healing. NLRP-3 null mice, caspase-1 null mice and C57Bl/6 wild type control mice (WT) received four 8 mm excisional cutaneous wounds; inflammation and healing were assessed during the early stage of wound healing. Consistent with our hypothesis, wounds from NLRP-3 null and caspase-1 null mice contained lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α compared to WT mice and had reduced neutrophil and macrophage accumulation. Contrary to our hypothesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and angiogenesis were delayed in NLRP-3 null mice and caspase-1 null mice compared to WT mice, indicating that NLRP-3 signaling is important for early events in wound healing. Topical treatment of excisional wounds with recombinant IL-1β partially restored granulation tissue formation in wounds of NLRP-3 null mice, confirming the importance of NLRP-3-dependent IL-1β production during early wound healing. Despite the improvement in healing, angiogenesis and levels of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF were further reduced in IL-1β treated wounds, suggesting that IL-1β has a negative effect on angiogenesis and that NLRP-3 promotes angiogenesis in an IL-1β-independent manner. These findings indicate that the NLRP-3 inflammasome contributes to the early inflammatory phase following skin wounding and is important for efficient healing. PMID:25793779

  6. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing internet marketing: A case study of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadan Vahabzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet marketing plays an important role on profitability of organizations, it can build a bridge between customers and business owners and anyone could purchase products and services through internet. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing internet marketing on Iranian food industry, named Shahrvand. The proposed study selects 280 out of 1040 managers who were involved in this industry during the year of 2012. Structural equation modeling has been performed to detect important factors including internal/external factors, ease of use and electronic marketing. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for these four items were mostly above 0.80, which validated the overall questionnaire of the survey. The results indicate that among internal factors, knowledge management, organizational culture and resources influence on acceptance of internet marketing, while these factors do not show any meaningful impact on ease of use. In addition, external factors including trend on market growth, competition and infrastructure influence on ease of use and acceptance of internet marketing but infrastructure and competition do not impact on ease of internet marketing.

  7. Safety culture management: The importance of organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.; Jacobs, R.; Hofmann, D.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of safety culture has been used extensively to explain the underlying causes of performance based events, both positive and negative, across the nuclear industry. The work described in this paper represents several years of effort to identify, define and assess the organizational factors important to safe performance in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The research discussed in this paper is primarily conducted in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) efforts in understanding the impact of organizational performance on safety. As a result of a series of research activities undertaken by numerous NRC contractors, a collection of organizational dimensions has been identified and defined. These dimensions represent what is believed to be a comprehensive taxonomy of organizational elements that relate to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Techniques were also developed by which to measure these organizational dimensions, and include structured interview protocols, behavioral checklists, and behavioral anchored rating scales (BARS). Recent efforts have focused on devising a methodology for the extraction of information related to the identified organizational dimensions from existing NRC documentation. This type of effort would assess the applicability of the organizational dimensions to existing NRC inspection and evaluation reports, refine the organizational dimensions previously developed so they are more relevant to the task of retrospective analysis, and attempt to rate plants based on the review of existing NRC documentation using the techniques previously developed for the assessment of organizational dimensions

  8. The transcription factor NFATp plays a key role in susceptibility to TB in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Via

    Full Text Available In T cells, the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells p (NFATp is a key regulator of the cytokine genes tumor necrosis factor (TNF and interferon-γ (IFN-γ. Here, we show that NFATp-deficient (NFATp(-/- mice have a dramatic and highly significant increase in mortality after Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb infection as compared to mortality of control animals after MTb infection. Animals deficient in NFATp have significantly impaired levels of TNF and IFN-γ transcription and protein expression in naïve or total CD4(+ T cells, but display wild-type levels of TNF mRNA or protein from MTb-stimulated dendritic cells (DC. The rapid mortality and disease severity observed in MTb-infected NFATp(-/- mice is associated with dysregulated production of TNF and IFN-γ in the lungs, as well as with increased levels of TNF, in their serum. Furthermore, global blocking of TNF production by injection of a TNF neutralizaing agent at 6 weeks, but not 12 weeks, post-MTb-infection further decreased the survival rate of both wild-type and NFATp(-/- mice, indicating an early role for TNF derived from cells from the monocyte lineage in containment of infection. These results thus demonstrate that NFATp plays a critical role in immune containment of TB disease in vivo, through the NFATp-dependent expression of TNF and IFN-γ in T cells.

  9. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on expert systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management plays an important role in modern management systems since many existing systems move towards learning organizations. Expert systems, on the other hand, are considered as the most popular techniques for adapting recent developments on knowledge management. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing adaptation of expert systems. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 25 questions, distributes it among 258 people who have recently graduated from computer science and they are familiar with implementation of expert systems. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.730 and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.748 and 1377.397, respectively. The study has implemented principal component analysis and the results have indicated that there were four factors influencing expert systems including systems management, intelligence systems, system analysis and specialized analysis.

  10. Large deletions play a minor but essential role in congenital coagulation factor VII and X deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, M; Najm, J; Sirb, H; Kentouche, K; Dufke, A; Pauli, S; Hackmann, K; Liehr, T; Hübner, C A; Felbor, U

    2015-01-01

    Congenital factor VII (FVII) and factor X (FX) deficiencies belong to the group of rare bleeding disorders which may occur in separate or combined forms since both the F7 and F10 genes are located in close proximity on the distal long arm of chromosome 13 (13q34). We here present data of 192 consecutive index cases with FVII and/or FX deficiency. 10 novel and 53 recurrent sequence alterations were identified in the F7 gene and 5 novel as well as 11 recurrent in the F10 gene including one homozygous 4.35 kb deletion within F7 (c.64+430_131-6delinsTCGTAA) and three large heterozygous deletions involving both the F7 and F10 genes. One of the latter proved to be cytogenetically visible as a chromosome 13q34 deletion and associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum and psychomotor retardation. Large deletions play a minor but essential role in the mutational spectrum of the F7 and F10 genes. Copy number analyses (e. g. MLPA) should be considered if sequencing cannot clarify the underlying reason of an observed coagulopathy. Of note, in cases of combined FVII/FX deficiency, a deletion of the two contiguous genes might be part of a larger chromosomal rearrangement.

  11. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Brazilian Violin Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochem, Frederico B; Silva, Julio G

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD) and associated factors among violinists from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This cross-sectional study included 106 violinists from eight cities in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Sociodemographic and musical characteristic data, pain symptoms, and upper-limb functionality were collected using the DASH and the Standardized Nordic Questionnaires. The associations between musculoskeletal complaints and possible predictors were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Of the 106 surveyed violin players, 86.8% reported at least one painful area in the last 12 months and 77.4% in the last week. These symptoms were responsible for the temporary interruption of musical activity in 8.1% of musicians. More than 50% of violinists showed dysfunctional upper limbs according to the DASH optional module. Women were more likely to develop musculoskeletal disorders (OR 4.4, CI 1.9-10.0, p<0.001). In addition, older musicians were more likely to report pain in the last 7 days (OR 3.3, CI 5.1-10.97; p=0.04) and also had higher scores on the DASH (OR 1.8, CI 1.1-3.1; p=0.01). Other factors associated with the development of PRMD were body mass index, practice hours per week, and final DASH score. Violinists living and working in the state of Rio de Janeiro have a high prevalence of PRMD, especially women and older musicians.

  12. Two MYB-related transcription factors play opposite roles in sugar signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Shih; Chao, Yi-Chi; Tseng, Tzu-Wei; Huang, Chun-Kai; Lo, Pei-Ching; Lu, Chung-An

    2017-02-01

    Sugar regulation of gene expression has profound effects at all stages of the plant life cycle. Although regulation at the transcriptional level is one of the most prominent mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated, only a few transcription factors have been identified and demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of sugar-regulated gene expression. OsMYBS1, an R1/2-type MYB transcription factor, has been demonstrated to be involved in sugar- and hormone-regulated α-amylase gene expression in rice. Arabidopsis contains two OsMYBS1 homologs. In the present study, we investigate MYBS1 and MYBS2 in sugar signaling in Arabidopsis. Our results indicate that MYBS1 and MYBS2 play opposite roles in regulating glucose and ABA signaling in Arabidopsis during seed germination and early seedling development. MYB proteins have been classified into four subfamilies: R2R3-MYB, R1/2-MYB, 3R-MYB, and 4R-MYB. An R1/2-type MYB transcription factor, OsMYBS1, has been demonstrated to be involved in sugar- and hormone-regulated α-amylase genes expression in rice. In this study, two genes homologous to OsMYBS1, MYBS1 and MYBS2, were investigated in Arabidopsis. Subcellular localization analysis showed that MYBS1 and MYBS2 were localized in the nucleus. Rice embryo transient expression assays indicated that both MYBS1 and MYBS2 could recognize the sugar response element, TA-box, in the promoter and induced promoter activity. mybs1 mutant exhibited hypersensitivity to glucose, whereas mybs2 seedlings were hyposensitive to it. MYBS1 and MYBS2 are involved in the control of glucose-responsive gene expression, as the mybs1 mutant displayed increased expression of a hexokinase gene (HXK1), chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene (CAB1), ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (APL3), and chalcone synthase gene (CHS), whereas the mybs2 mutant exhibited decreased expression of these genes. mybs1 also showed an enhanced response to abscisic acid (ABA) in the seed germination and seedling

  13. The Importance of Structure in Incomplete Factorization Preconditioners

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scott, J.; Tůma, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2011), s. 385-404 ISSN 0006-3835 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : sparse symmetric linear systems * incomplete factorizations * preconditioners * level-based approach Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.724, year: 2011

  14. Prognostic importance of vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression and vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms in epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smerdel, Maja; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Brandslund, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) play a central role in angiogenesis and consequently, in various steps of ovarian carcinogenesis. Gene polymorphisms within the VEGF system have revealed a correlation with prognosis in some malignancies. The aim of the present study...... was to examine the possible importance of 2 VEGF polymorphisms and VEGF-A expression in ovarian cancer. METHODS: We investigated 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms VEGF +405G/C and VEGF -460C/T by polymerase chain reaction and also analyzed VEGF-A expression by immunohistochemistry in 159 women with ovarian...... cancer. RESULTS: Vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression revealed a significant correlation with survival in a Cox proportional hazards regression model (P = 0.012). Germline polymorphisms were not correlated with clinicopathological parameters such as stage, type, and histology. Heterozygous...

  15. Genetic variation in insulin-like growth factor 2 may play a role in ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Doherty, Jennifer A; Van Den Berg, David J

    2011-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling axis plays an important role in cancer biology. We hypothesized that genetic variation in this pathway may influence risk of ovarian cancer. A three-center study of non-Hispanic whites including 1880 control women, 1135 women with invasive epithelial...... disease, whereas five tSNPs in IGF2 were associated with risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer at Pcases and 5382 additional controls and were able to independently replicate our initial...... findings. In the combined set of studies, rs4320932 was associated with a 13% decreased risk of ovarian cancer per copy of the minor allele carried (95% confidence interval 0.81–0.93, P-trend=7.4 × 10-5). No heterogeneity of effect across study centers was observed (phet=0.25). IGF2 is emerging...

  16. An implementation of TPB method for learning important factors influencing knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Karampour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management incorporates the systematic management of vital knowledge resources and the associated processes of creating, organizing, gathering, utilizing, diffusion and exploiting data. A key challenge emerging is learn to encourage knowledge sharing (KS within firms because knowledge is an organization’s intellectual capital and plays an important role in gaining a competitive advantage. Isolated initiatives for promoting KS and team collaboration without taking into consideration the limitations and constraints of KS can halt any further development in the KM culture of an operation. In this paper, in addition to individual and social factors, an effect of individual perception, which is an important factor for any behavior, is studied. We first identify effective factors in KS behavior through the theory of planned behavior, six factors of trust, knowledge power, organizational motivation, organizational culture, IT and Communities of Practice (COP as effective factors in three categories of behavioral beliefs, subjective norms and perceived behaviors are analyzed for an Iranian research center. The results of this research helps develop KS behavior and enhance performance and creativity of research in this center.

  17. Do family environment factors play a role in adolescents' involvement in organized activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badura, Petr; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sigmund, Erik; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-08-01

    The study assessed the association of family environment factors with adolescents' participation in organized leisure-time activities (OLTA). We used data on 10,472 Czech adolescents aged 11-15 years (49.2% boys) from the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The associations of family support, the presence of parental screen-time rules and joint family activities with participation in at least one OLTA were assessed using logistic regression. High family support and the presence of parental screen-time rules were associated with higher odds of OLTA participation. Moreover, adolescents playing sports, indoor games and going for walks with their families at least weekly were more likely to participate in OLTA. Conversely, those spending time in joint family TV/video watching on most days were less likely to do so. A supportive family environment and direct parental involvement in their adolescent children's leisure are associated with OLTA participation in early to middle adolescence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Arabidopsis MYB96 transcription factor plays a role in seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Gil; Lee, Kyounghee; Seo, Pil Joon

    2015-03-01

    Seed dormancy facilitates to endure environmental disadvantages by confining embryonic growth until the seeds encounter favorable environmental conditions for germination. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) play a pivotal role in the determination of the seed dormancy state. ABA establishes seed dormancy, while GA triggers seed germination. Here, we demonstrate that MYB96 contributes to the fine-tuning of seed dormancy regulation through the coordination of ABA and GA metabolism. The MYB96-deficient myb96-1 seeds germinated earlier than wild-type seeds, whereas delayed germination was observed in the activation-tagging myb96-1D seeds. The differences in germination rate disappeared after stratification or after-ripening. The MYB96 transcription factor positively regulates ABA biosynthesis genes 9-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE 2 (NCED2), NCED5, NCED6, and NCED9, and also affects GA biosynthetic genes GA3ox1 and GA20ox1. Notably, MYB96 directly binds to the promoters of NCED2 and NCED6, primarily modulating ABA biosynthesis, which subsequently influences GA metabolism. In agreement with this, hyperdormancy of myb96-1D seeds was recovered by an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, while hypodormancy of myb96-1 seeds was suppressed by a GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC). Taken together, the metabolic balance of ABA and GA underlies MYB96 control of primary seed dormancy.

  19. Repetitive sequences and epigenetic modification: inseparable partners play important roles in the evolution of plant sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2016-05-01

    The present review discusses the roles of repetitive sequences played in plant sex chromosome evolution, and highlights epigenetic modification as potential mechanism of repetitive sequences involved in sex chromosome evolution. Sex determination in plants is mostly based on sex chromosomes. Classic theory proposes that sex chromosomes evolve from a specific pair of autosomes with emergence of a sex-determining gene(s). Subsequently, the newly formed sex chromosomes stop recombination in a small region around the sex-determining locus, and over time, the non-recombining region expands to almost all parts of the sex chromosomes. Accumulation of repetitive sequences, mostly transposable elements and tandem repeats, is a conspicuous feature of the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome, even in primitive one. Repetitive sequences may play multiple roles in sex chromosome evolution, such as triggering heterochromatization and causing recombination suppression, leading to structural and morphological differentiation of sex chromosomes, and promoting Y chromosome degeneration and X chromosome dosage compensation. In this article, we review the current status of this field, and based on preliminary evidence, we posit that repetitive sequences are involved in sex chromosome evolution probably via epigenetic modification, such as DNA and histone methylation, with small interfering RNAs as the mediator.

  20. Maturity of hospital information systems: Most important influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Carvalho, João; Rocha, Álvaro; Abreu, António

    2017-07-01

    Maturity models facilitate organizational management, including information systems management, with hospital organizations no exception. This article puts forth a study carried out with a group of experts in the field of hospital information systems management with a view to identifying the main influencing factors to be included in an encompassing maturity model for hospital information systems management. This study is based on the results of a literature review, which identified maturity models in the health field and relevant influencing factors. The development of this model is justified to the extent that the available maturity models for the hospital information systems management field reveal multiple limitations, including lack of detail, absence of tools to determine their maturity and lack of characterization for stages of maturity structured by different influencing factors.

  1. Prognostic Importance of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Myocardial Infarction Patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monhart, Z.; Grünfeldová, H.; Zvárová, Jana; Janský, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 2 (2010), e253 ISSN 0009-7322. [World Congress of Cardiology . 16.06.2010-19.06.2010, Beijing] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : cardiology * risk factors * myocardioal infarction Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  2. Psychopathy and Violence: The Importance of Factor Level Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Zach; Kosson, David S.

    2008-01-01

    The power of scales based on the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL; R. D. Hare, 1980) for prediction of violent behavior is well established. Although evidence suggests that this relationship is chiefly due to the impulsive and antisocial lifestyle component (Factor 2), the predictive power of psychopathy for violence may also reflect the multiplicative…

  3. Important biological factors for utilizing native plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren E. Wiesner

    1999-01-01

    Native plant species are valuable resources for revegetation of disturbed ecosystems. The success of these plantings is dependent on the native species selected, quality of seed used, condition of the soil, environmental conditions before and after planting, planting equipment used, time of planting, and other factors. Most native species contain dormant seed. Dormancy...

  4. Playing a Musical Instrument as a Protective Factor against Dementia and Cognitive Impairment: A Population-Based Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbag, M Alison; Pedersen, Nancy L; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports that playing a musical instrument may benefit cognitive development and health at young ages. Whether playing an instrument provides protection against dementia has not been established. In a population-based cotwin control study, we examined the association between playing a musical instrument and whether or not the twins developed dementia or cognitive impairment. Participation in playing an instrument was taken from informant-based reports of twins' leisure activities. Dementia diagnoses were based on a complete clinical workup using standard diagnostic criteria. Among 157 twin pairs discordant for dementia and cognitive impairment, 27 pairs were discordant for playing an instrument. Controlling for sex, education, and physical activity, playing a musical instrument was significantly associated with less likelihood of dementia and cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36 [95% confidence interval 0.13-0.99]). These findings support further consideration of music as a modifiable protective factor against dementia and cognitive impairment.

  5. Importance of genetic factors in the occurrence of epilepsy syndrome type: a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corey, Linda A; Pellock, John M; Kjeldsen, Marianne J

    2011-01-01

    not appear to play an important role in determining risk for frontal, occipital or temporal lobe epilepsy. These results suggest that, while genetic factors contribute to risk for major syndrome types, determined when possible, their contribution to risk for localization-related syndrome sub......Although there is strong evidence that genetic factors contribute to risk for epilepsy, their role in the determination of syndrome type is less clear. This study was undertaken to address this question. Information related to epilepsy was obtained from twins included in 455 monozygotic and 868...... dizygotic pairs ascertained from population-based twin registries in Denmark, Norway and the United States. Syndrome type was determined based on medical record information and detailed clinical interviews and classified using the International Classification Systems for the Epilepsies and Epileptic...

  6. Cell-wall polysaccharides play an important role in decay resistance of Sphagnum and actively depressed decomposition in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Tomáš; Ballance, S.; Limpens, J.; Zijlstra, M.; Verhoeven, J. T. A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 103, 1-3 (2011), 45-57 ISSN 0168-2563 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600050503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : litter chemistry * lichens * peatlands Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.069, year: 2011

  7. Perioxidases play important roles in abscisic acid (ABA)-simulating photosystem II (PSII) thermostabilty of apple tree rootstock leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brestic, M.; Shao, H. B.; Ferus, P.; Malbeck, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 71 (2011), s. 15891-15900 ISSN 1684-5315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Photosystem II thermostability * antioxidant activity * phytohormones Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.573, year: 2010

  8. Continued Importance of Family Factors in Youth Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S.; Khoury, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Although it is known that levels of family factors (FF) such as parental monitoring and parent–adolescent connectedness vary during adolescence, it is unknown which factors remain protective, preventing smoking initiation, in youth of differing racial/ethnic groups. Using a longitudinal, nationally representative sample, we examined which FF protect against smoking initiation in White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Methods: A total of 3,473 parent-nonsmoking youth dyads from Round 1 (T1) of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were followed to Round 3 (T2). Youth smoking status at T2 was assessed as the primary outcome. We examined changes in FF (T2 – T1) and the protection afforded by these factors at T1 and T2 for smoking initiation, both by race/ethnicity and overall. Results: There were statistically significant decreases in levels of protective FF from T1 to T2 across all racial/ethnic groups; however, FF levels were higher in never-smokers compared with smoking initiators at both T1 and T2 (p parental monitoring in Black and Hispanic youth. Overall, higher parental monitoring at T1 was associated with decreased odds of smoking initiation (33%); decreased parental monitoring and perceived punishment from T1 to T2 were associated with increased odds of smoking initiation (55% and 17%, respectively). Conclusions: Smoking prevention interventions should encourage parents to both enforce consistent consequences of smoking behavior, and continue monitoring, especially in minority groups. PMID:22454285

  9. Playful Interventions Increase Knowledge about Healthy Habits and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children: The CARDIOKIDS Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima H. Cecchetto

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Childhood obesity is an important health problem worldwide. In this context, there is a need for the development and evaluation of innovative educational interventions targeting prevention and formation of health habits. Objectives: To ascertain the impact of ludic workshops on children’s knowledge, self-care, and body weight. Methods: This was a randomized, clinical study with 79 students aged 7-11 years, conducted from March to November 2012. Anthropometric measurements were collected and two questionnaires (Typical Day of Physical Activities and Food Intake, in Portuguese, and the CARDIOKIDS, a questionnaire of knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors were applied at baseline, at the end of intervention, and three months thereafter. The intervention consisted of eight playful workshops, which involved the presentation of a play. Results: Seventy-nine students were randomized to the intervention (n = 40 or the control group (n = 39. Mean age was 10.0 ± 1.1 years. After eight weeks, the intervention group showed significant improvement in the knowledge score (p < 0.001. There was an increase in physical activity scores in both groups, but with no difference between the groups at the end of intervention (p = 0.209. A reduction in the BMI percentile was observed in the intervention group, but there was no significant statistical difference between the two groups after the intervention. Conclusions: Playful interventions may improve knowledge and physical activity levels in children and, when combined with other strategies, may be beneficial to prevent child obesity and improve self-care.

  10. The membrane may be an important factor in browning of fresh-cut pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenghong; Zhang, Yuxing; Ge, Huibo

    2017-09-01

    Surface browning is an important cause of deterioration of fresh-cut fruit during postharvest handling. In this paper, four pear cultivars with different extents of natural browning were selected to analyse the factors involved in browning. The main results are as follows: the lipoxygenase (LOX) activity of 'Mantianhong' and 'Yali' pears was higher accompanied by a stronger degree of browning, while the LOX activity in 'Xueqing' and 'Xinli 7' pears was lower, with less browning. A higher unsaturated fatty acid ratio of pear resulted in reduced browning. The cell membranes disappeared 30min after being cut in 'Mantianhong' pear, which browns easily; however, the cell membranes were still intact 30min after being cut in 'Xueqing' pear, which does not brown easily. Therefore, it can be assumed that the stability of the cell membrane plays an important role in inhibiting browning of fresh-cut pears. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Platelet activating factor receptor binding plays a critical role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Gerardo; Kazimi, Nasser; Nghiem, Dat X.; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P.; Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2004-01-01

    Applying military jet fuel (JP-8) or commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) to the skin of mice suppresses the immune response in a dose-dependant manner. The release of biological response modifiers, particularly prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), is a critical step in activating immune suppression. Previous studies have shown that injecting selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors into jet fuel-treated mice blocks immune suppression. Because the inflammatory phospholipid mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF), up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 production and PGE 2 synthesis by keratinocytes, we tested the hypothesis that PAF-receptor binding plays a role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression. Treating keratinocyte cultures with PAF and/or jet fuel (JP-8 and Jet-A) stimulates PGE 2 secretion. Jet fuel-induced PGE 2 production was suppressed by treating the keratinocytes with specific PAF-receptor antagonists. Injecting mice with PAF, or treating the skin of the mice with JP-8, or Jet-A, induced immune suppression. Jet fuel-induced immune suppression was blocked when the jet fuel-treated mice were injected with PAF-receptor antagonists before treatment. Jet fuel treatment has been reported to activate oxidative stress and treating the mice with anti-oxidants (Vitamins C, or E or beta-hydroxy toluene), before jet fuel application, interfered with immune suppression. These findings confirm previous studies showing that PAF-receptor binding can modulate immune function. Furthermore, they suggest that PAF-receptor binding may be an early event in the induction of immune suppression by immunotoxic environmental agents that target the skin

  12. FoxO1 Plays an Important Role in Regulating ?-Cell Compensation for Insulin Resistance in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ting; Kim, Dae Hyun; Xiao, Xiangwei; Lee, Sojin; Gong, Zhenwei; Muzumdar, Radhika; Calabuig-Navarro, Virtu; Yamauchi, Jun; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Wang, Rennian; Bottino, Rita; Alvarez-Perez, Juan Carlos; Garcia-Oca?a, Adolfo; Gittes, George; Dong, H. Henry

    2016-01-01

    ?-Cell compensation is an essential mechanism by which ?-cells increase insulin secretion for overcoming insulin resistance to maintain euglycemia in obesity. Failure of ?-cells to compensate for insulin resistance contributes to insulin insufficiency and overt diabetes. To understand the mechanism of ?-cell compensation, we characterized the role of forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) in ?-cell compensation in mice under physiological and pathological conditions. FoxO1 is a key transcription factor that...

  13. Continued importance of family factors in youth smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabee-Gittens, E Melinda; Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S; Khoury, Jane C

    2012-12-01

    Although it is known that levels of family factors (FF) such as parental monitoring and parent-adolescent connectedness vary during adolescence, it is unknown which factors remain protective, preventing smoking initiation, in youth of differing racial/ethnic groups. Using a longitudinal, nationally representative sample, we examined which FF protect against smoking initiation in White, Black, and Hispanic youth. A total of 3,473 parent-nonsmoking youth dyads from Round 1 (T1) of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were followed to Round 3 (T2). Youth smoking status at T2 was assessed as the primary outcome. We examined changes in FF (T2 - T1) and the protection afforded by these factors at T1 and T2 for smoking initiation, both by race/ethnicity and overall. There were statistically significant decreases in levels of protective FF from T1 to T2 across all racial/ethnic groups; however, FF levels were higher in never-smokers compared with smoking initiators at both T1 and T2 (p < .05). Separate models by race/ethnicity showed the protective effect of increased perceived punishment in all racial/ethnic groups and protection against initiation by increased parental monitoring in Black and Hispanic youth. Overall, higher parental monitoring at T1 was associated with decreased odds of smoking initiation (33%); decreased parental monitoring and perceived punishment from T1 to T2 were associated with increased odds of smoking initiation (55% and 17%, respectively). Smoking prevention interventions should encourage parents to both enforce consistent consequences of smoking behavior, and continue monitoring, especially in minority groups.

  14. The Factors of Design on Playing Equipment in Young Children Schools by Viewpoint of Young Children Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chuen-tzay

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the care-givers of preschool education institutions whose cognition on playing equipment functions, conditions of both setting and using, and the main factors which should beware of design. Besides, not only constructed the factors of design, but also provided suggestions about setting and designing of…

  15. Factors of importance for a successful delivery system for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Weert, Marco; Jorgensen, Lene; Horn Moeller, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Protein pharmaceuticals have matured into an important class of drugs, now comprising one in three novel drugs introduced on the market. However, significant gains are still to be made in reducing the costs of production, ensuring proper pharmacokinetics and efficacy, increasing patient compliance...... and convenience, and reducing side effects such as immunogenicity. This review summarises these issues and provides recent examples of methods to reduce costs, alter pharmacokinetics and increase patient compliance. It also discusses the increasing interest in understanding immunogenicity in order to prevent...

  16. Induction of C-Mip by IL-17 Plays an Important Role in Adriamycin-Induced Podocyte Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although the disturbance of T lymphocyte and glomerular podocyte exerts a crucial function in the pathogenesis of proteinuria, the potential link is still unclear. Methods: The balance of Treg and Th17 cells, and the expression of IL-17/IL-17R and c-mip were investigated in adrimycin-induced nephropathy (AN mice. The effect and mechanism of IL-17 on podocyte were explored in cultured podocytes. Results: The proportion of Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the amount of IL-17 in serum and kidney cortical homogenates, and the expression of IL-17R and c-mip in glomerular podocyte were increased obviously in AN mice. In cultured podocytes, recombinant IL-17 led to an induction of apoptosis and cytoskeletal disorganization, an overproduction of c-mip while down-regulation of phosphor-nephrin, and an increased binding of c-mip to NF-κB/RelA. Silence of c-mip prevented podocyte apoptosis and reduction of phosphor-nephrin by prompting nuclear translocation of NF-κB/RelA in IL-17 treated cells. Persistent activation of NF-κB up-regulated pro-survival protein Bcl-2 and decreased podocyte apoptosis, but had no effect on phosphor-nephrin level. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that induction of IL-17 released by Th17 cells plays a key role in podocytopathy most likely through down-regulation of phosphor-nephrin and Bcl-2 level via overproduction of c-mip.

  17. The comER Gene Plays an Important Role in Biofilm Formation and Sporulation in both Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Yu, Yiyang; Wang, Luyao; Luo, Yuming; Guo, Jian-Hua; Chai, Yunrong

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria adopt alternative cell fates during development. In Bacillus subtilis, the transition from planktonic growth to biofilm formation and sporulation is controlled by a complex regulatory circuit, in which the most important event is activation of Spo0A, a transcription factor and a master regulator for genes involved in both biofilm formation and sporulation. In B. cereus, the regulatory pathway controlling biofilm formation and cell differentiation is much less clear. In this study, we show that a novel gene, comER, plays a significant role in biofilm formation as well as sporulation in both B. subtilis and B. cereus. Mutations in the comER gene result in defects in biofilm formation and a delay in spore formation in the two Bacillus species. Our evidence supports the idea that comER may be part of the regulatory circuit that controls Spo0A activation. comER likely acts upstream of sda, a gene encoding a small checkpoint protein for both sporulation and biofilm formation, by blocking the phosphor-relay and thereby Spo0A activation. In summary, our studies outlined a conserved, positive role for comER, a gene whose function was previously uncharacterized, in the regulation of biofilm formation and sporulation in the two Bacillus species.

  18. TmCactin plays an important role in Gram-negative and -positive bacterial infection by regulating expression of 7 AMP genes in Tenebrio molitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Hun; Jung Kim, Yu; Beom Park, Ki; Hwan Seong, Jeong; Gon Kim, Soo; Park, Soyi; Young Noh, Mi; Seok Lee, Yong; Soo Han, Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Cactin was originally identified as an interactor of the Drosophila IκB factor Cactus and shown to play a role in controlling embryonic polarity and regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. While subsequent studies have identified the roles for Cactin in the mammalian immune response, the immune function of Cactin in insects has not been described yet. Here, we identified a Cactin gene from the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (TmCactin) and characterized its functional role in innate immunity. TmCactin was highly expressed in prepupa to last instar stages, and its expression was high in the integument and Malpighian tubules of last instar larvae and adults. TmCactin was induced in larvae after infection with different pathogens and detectable within 3 hours of infection. The highest levels of TmCactin expression were detected at 9 hours post infection. TmCactin RNAi significantly decreased the survival rates of larvae after challenge with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, but had no significant effect after challenge with Candida albicans. Furthermore, TmCactin RNAi significantly reduced the expression of seven antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs) after bacterial challenge. Our results suggest that TmCactin may serve as an important regulator of innate immunity, mediating AMP responses against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in T. molitor. PMID:28418029

  19. The comER Gene Plays an Important Role in Biofilm Formation and Sporulation in both Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Yu, Yiyang; Wang, Luyao; Luo, Yuming; Guo, Jian-hua; Chai, Yunrong

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria adopt alternative cell fates during development. In Bacillus subtilis, the transition from planktonic growth to biofilm formation and sporulation is controlled by a complex regulatory circuit, in which the most important event is activation of Spo0A, a transcription factor and a master regulator for genes involved in both biofilm formation and sporulation. In B. cereus, the regulatory pathway controlling biofilm formation and cell differentiation is much less clear. In this study, we show that a novel gene, comER, plays a significant role in biofilm formation as well as sporulation in both B. subtilis and B. cereus. Mutations in the comER gene result in defects in biofilm formation and a delay in spore formation in the two Bacillus species. Our evidence supports the idea that comER may be part of the regulatory circuit that controls Spo0A activation. comER likely acts upstream of sda, a gene encoding a small checkpoint protein for both sporulation and biofilm formation, by blocking the phosphor-relay and thereby Spo0A activation. In summary, our studies outlined a conserved, positive role for comER, a gene whose function was previously uncharacterized, in the regulation of biofilm formation and sporulation in the two Bacillus species. PMID:27446060

  20. Investigating important factors influencing on strategic marketing planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Salmani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important methods for building good marketing strategy is to learn more about existing competitors, suppliers, etc. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between wholesalers, bargaining pricing, new rivals and pricing strategy on preparing appropriate marketing strategy in meat market in city of shiraz, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 200 experts in this market. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 97.3%, which validates the overall survey. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation ratio indicate that there were some positive and meaningful relationships between all components of the survey with marketing strategy.

  1. Personality disorders are important risk factors for disability pensioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østby, Kristian Amundsen; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Ystrom, Eivind; Gjerde, Line C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Ørstavik, Ragnhild E; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether personality disorders (PDs) are associated with increased risk of disability pensioning in young adults, independent of other common mental disorders. 2,770 young adults from the general population were assessed for PDs by the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality, and for common mental disorders by the Composite of International Diagnostic Interview. These data were linked to the Norwegian National Insurance Administration's recordings of disability benefits for a 10-year period. Logistic regression analyses were applied to investigate the association between PDs and disability pensioning. The analyses were conducted for three types of PD measures: categorical diagnoses (any PD), dimensional scores of individual PDs and higher order components retrieved by principal component analyses. Having any PD was strongly associated with disability pensioning, regardless of disability diagnosis. The estimated odds ratio (OR) was substantially higher for PDs [OR 4.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-8.5)] than for mood disorders [OR 1.3 (CI 0.7-2.3)] and anxiety disorders [OR 2.3 (CI 1.3-4.3)]. Measured dimensionally, all PD traits except antisocial traits were significantly associated with disability pensioning. After adjusting for co-occurring traits of other PDs, only schizoid, dependent and borderline PD traits showed a significant positive association with disability pension, while antisocial traits showed a significant negative association. The principal component analyses showed that negative affectivity, psychoticism, and detachment was associated with an increased risk of disability pensioning, while antagonism/disinhibition and obsessivity were not. PDs are strongly associated with disability pensioning in young adults, and might be more important predictors of work disability than anxiety and depressive disorders. Certain aspects of pathologic personalities are particularly important predictors of disability.

  2. Diabetes mellitus: an important risk factor for reactivation of tuberculosis

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    Ernesto Solá

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus was identified as a risk factor for developing tuberculosis (TB infection, and relapse after therapy. The risk of acquiring TB is described as comparable to that of HIV population. The fact that diabetics are 3× times more prone to develop pulmonary TB than nondiabetics cannot be overlooked. With DM recognized as global epidemic, and TB affecting one-third of the world population, physicians must remain vigilant. We present a 45-year-old woman born in Dominican Republic (DR, with 10-year history of T2DM treated with metformin, arrived to our Urgency Room complaining of dry cough for the past 3months. Interview unveiled unintentional 15lbs weight loss, night sweats, occasional unquantified fever, and general malaise but denied bloody sputum. She traveled to DR 2years before, with no known ill exposure. Physical examination showed a thin body habitus, otherwise well appearing woman with stable vital signs, presenting solely right middle lung field ronchi. LDH, ESR, hsCRP and Hg A1C were elevated. Imaging revealed a right middle lobe cavitation. Sputum for AFB disclosed active pulmonary TB. Our case portrays that the consideration of TB as differential diagnosis in diabetics should be exercised with the same strength, as it is undertaken during the evaluation of HIV patients with lung cavitation. Inability to recognize TB will endanger the patient, hospital dwellers and staff, and perpetuate this global public health menace.

  3. The importance of socioeconomic factors in symptoms of heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Rodríguez, F; Chaves, R C M; Dib, R A; Navarro-Rodríguez, T

    2011-01-01

    Patients' socioeconomic status is rarely assessed during medical consultations. To correlate patients' socioeconomic conditions with symptoms of heartburn. 1184 patients who answered a questionnaire in three cities on the coast of the State of Sä Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated prospectively. Socioeconomic status was assessed using several criteria: number of bathrooms, consumer goods present at home, health conditions at home, comfort (cars and/or home helps), monthly family income and head of household's educational level. 583 patients (49.2%) reported occurrences of heartburn over the 30 days preceding the consultation, with frequencies ranging from five to thirty episodes over this period. Among patients from the city of Guarujá (low socioeconomic condition), 9.7% had never felt heartburn, while 65.7% reported occurrences, reaching statistical significance in relation to patients of medium socioeconomic condition (city of Sä Vicente) (p = 0.012). There was no difference between patients from medium socioeconomic condition and patients from Santos (high socioeconomic condition) (p = 0.997). There was a statistically significant difference in occurrence of heartburn between the patients with high socioeconomic condition and those of low socioeconomic condition (p = 0.002). The least favored socioeconomic status patients, as confirmed according to a variety of socioeconomic factors, presented greater incidence of heartburn than did the most favored social class.

  4. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand identification

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    Naser Azad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Building a famous brand often makes it possible to have sustainable growth in competitive market. A good brand name plays an important role on increasing word of mouth advertisement, the number of loyal customers and repurchase habits. However, in order to build a good brand, we need to create sustainable brand identification and to do this we need to determine influential factors. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing brand identification. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 23 questions, distributes it among 400 people who purchase regularly from hyperstar and collects 400 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.735. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.784 and 2300.022, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived five factors including sense of brand, brand community, trust to brand, value of brand and personality of brand.

  5. Preservatives as important etiologic factors of allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kręcisz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preservatives present in cosmetics and other industrial products can cause allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of allergy to selected preservatives in consecutive patients examined due to contact dermatitis in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and to establish whether individuals sensitized to formaldehyde react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers. Material and Methods: A group of 405 patients (308 females and 97 males was examined in 2011–2013. In all participants patch tests with a series of 13 preservatives (paraben mix, formaldehyde, Quaternium 15, chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone mix, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, benzalkonium chloride, sodium metabisulfite, produced by Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden were performed. Results: Of the 405 patients 74 (including 52 females showed positive results of patch tests. Contact allergy to at least 1 preservative was noted in 47 (11.6% patients, including 34 (11% females and 13 (13.4% males. Methylisothiazolinone proved to be the most frequent sensitizer – 4.7% (5.2% females, 3.1% males while parabens, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and imidazolidinyl urea (0.2% were found to be the least frequent. Fourteen (3.4% participants, 10 women and 4 men, were allergic to formaldehyde and/or formaldehyde releasers. In 11 (78.6% of them monovalent hypersensitivity was observed. In 13 (3.2% of the examined group patients allergy to preservatives might have been of occupational origin. Conclusions: Preservatives, particularly isothiazolinones, are significant causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis, including occupational cases. Individuals sensitized to formaldehyde may react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers, however, such reactions are relatively rare. Med Pr 2015;66(3:327–332

  6. The heat shock response plays an important role in TDP-43 clearance: evidence for dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Jou; Mitchell, Jacqueline C; Novoselov, Sergey; Miller, Jack; Nishimura, Agnes L; Scotter, Emma L; Vance, Caroline A; Cheetham, Michael E; Shaw, Christopher E

    2016-05-01

    Detergent-resistant, ubiquitinated and hyperphosphorylated Tar DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions are the pathological hallmark in ∼95% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and ∼60% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration cases. We sought to explore the role for the heat shock response in the clearance of insoluble TDP-43 in a cellular model of disease and to validate our findings in transgenic mice and human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis tissues. The heat shock response is a stress-responsive protective mechanism regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which increases the expression of chaperones that refold damaged misfolded proteins or facilitate their degradation. Here we show that manipulation of the heat shock response by expression of dominant active HSF1 results in a dramatic reduction of insoluble and hyperphosphorylated TDP-43 that enhances cell survival, whereas expression of dominant negative HSF1 leads to enhanced TDP-43 aggregation and hyperphosphorylation. To determine which chaperones were mediating TDP-43 clearance we over-expressed a range of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and identified DNAJB2a (encoded by DNAJB2, and also known as HSJ1a) as a potent anti-aggregation chaperone for TDP-43. DNAJB2a has a J domain, allowing it to interact with HSP70, and ubiquitin interacting motifs, which enable it to engage the degradation of its client proteins. Using functionally deleted DNAJB2a constructs we demonstrated that TDP-43 clearance was J domain-dependent and was not affected by ubiquitin interacting motif deletion or proteasome inhibition. This indicates that TDP-43 is maintained in a soluble state by DNAJB2a, leaving the total levels of TDP-43 unchanged. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the levels of HSF1 and heat shock proteins are significantly reduced in affected neuronal tissues from a TDP-43 transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and patients with

  7. Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Virus Infection in Human Fetuses: Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis

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    Thong Van Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.

  8. Cartilage link protein 1 (Crtl1), an extracellular matrix component playing an important role in heart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirrig, Elaine E; Snarr, Brian S; Chintalapudi, Mastan R; O'neal, Jessica L; Phelps, Aimee L; Barth, Jeremy L; Fresco, Victor M; Kern, Christine B; Mjaatvedt, Corey H; Toole, Bryan P; Hoffman, Stanley; Trusk, Thomas C; Argraves, W Scott; Wessels, Andy

    2007-10-15

    To expand our insight into cardiac development, a comparative DNA microarray analysis was performed using tissues from the atrioventricular junction (AVJ) and ventricular chambers of mouse hearts at embryonic day (ED) 10.5-11.0. This comparison revealed differential expression of approximately 200 genes, including cartilage link protein 1 (Crtl1). Crtl1 stabilizes the interaction between hyaluronan (HA) and versican, two extracellular matrix components essential for cardiac development. Immunohistochemical studies showed that, initially, Crtl1, versican, and HA are co-expressed in the endocardial lining of the heart, and in the endocardially derived mesenchyme of the AVJ and outflow tract (OFT). At later stages, this co-expression becomes restricted to discrete populations of endocardially derived mesenchyme. Histological analysis of the Crtl1-deficient mouse revealed a spectrum of cardiac malformations, including AV septal and myocardial defects, while expression studies showed a significant reduction in versican levels. Subsequent analysis of the hdf mouse, which carries an insertional mutation in the versican gene (CSPG2), demonstrated that haploinsufficient versican mice display septal defects resembling those seen in Crtl1(-/-) embryos, suggesting that reduced versican expression may contribute to a subset of the cardiac abnormalities observed in the Crtl1(-/-) mouse. Combined, these findings establish an important role for Crtl1 in heart development.

  9. Alternatively Activated Macrophages Play an Important Role in Vascular Remodeling and Hemorrhaging in Patients with Brain Arteriovenous Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukihiko; Sugita, Yasuo; Nakashima, Shinji; Okada, Yousuke; Yoshitomi, Munetake; Kimura, Yoshizou; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Morioka, Motohiro; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    Angiogenic and immunoactive lesions in brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) contribute to hemorrhagic events and the growth of BAVMs. However, the detailed mechanism is unclear. Our objective is to clarify the relationship between hemorrhagic events of BAVM and alternatively activated macrophages in the perinidal dilated capillary network (PDCN). We examined microsurgical specimens of BVMs (n = 29) and focused on the PDCN area. Ten autopsied brains without intracranial disease were the controls. We performed immunostaining of the inflammatory and endothelial cell markers, macrophage markers (CD163 and CD68), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). We evaluated each cell's density and the vessel density in the PDCN and analyzed the relationship to hemorrhagic events of BAVM. The PDCN was involved in all the resected arteriovenous malformations, and these vessels showed a high rate of CD105 expression (72.0 ± 10.64%), indicating newly proliferating vessels. Alternatively activated macrophages were found, with a high rate (85.6%) for all macrophages (controls, 56.6%). In the hemorrhagic cases, the cell density was significantly higher than that in the nonhemorrhagic cases and controls (hemorrhagic group, 290 ± 44 cells/mm(2); nonhemorrhagic group, 180 ± 59 cells/mm(2); and control, 19 ± 8 cells/mm(2)). The cell density of alternatively activated macrophages showed a positive correlation with the vessel density of the PDCN. Double immunostaining showed that VEGF-A was secreted by alternatively activated macrophages. Our data suggest that alternatively activated macrophages may have some relationships with angiogenesis of PDCN and hemorrhagic event of BAVM. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 plays an important role in neuroblastoma cell survival independent of its histone methyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate-Eya, Laurel T; Gierman, Hinco J; Ebus, Marli E; Koster, Jan; Caron, Huib N; Versteeg, Rogier; Dolman, M Emmy M; Molenaar, Jan J

    2017-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is predominantly characterised by chromosomal rearrangements. Next to V-Myc Avian Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Neuroblastoma Derived Homolog (MYCN) amplification, chromosome 7 and 17q gains are frequently observed. We identified a neuroblastoma patient with a regional 7q36 gain, encompassing the enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) gene. EZH2 is the histone methyltransferase of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) that forms the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2. H3K27me3 is commonly associated with the silencing of genes involved in cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation and cancer. High EZH2 expression correlated with poor prognosis and overall survival independent of MYCN amplification status. Unexpectedly, treatment of 3 EZH2-high expressing neuroblastoma cell lines (IMR32, CHP134 and NMB), with EZH2-specific inhibitors (GSK126 and EPZ6438) resulted in only a slight G1 arrest, despite maximum histone methyltransferase activity inhibition. Furthermore, colony formation in cell lines treated with the inhibitors was reduced only at concentrations much higher than necessary for complete inhibition of EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity. Knockdown of the complete protein with three independent shRNAs resulted in a strong apoptotic response and decreased cyclin D1 levels. This apoptotic response could be rescued by overexpressing EZH2ΔSET, a truncated form of wild-type EZH2 lacking the SET transactivation domain necessary for histone methyltransferase activity. Our findings suggest that high EZH2 expression, at least in neuroblastoma, has a survival function independent of its methyltransferase activity. This important finding highlights the need for studies on EZH2 beyond its methyltransferase function and the requirement for compounds that will target EZH2 as a complete protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cadmium stress assessment based on the electrocardiogram characteristics of zebra fish (Danio rerio): QRS complex could play an important role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Na; Ji, Lizhen; Song, Jie; Ma, Jingchun; Li, Shangge; Ren, Zongming; Xu, Fei; Zhu, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) of zebra fish (Danio rerio) expresses cardiac features that are similar to humans. Here we use sharp microelectrode measurements to obtain ECG characteristics in adult zebra fish and analyze the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) on the heart. We observe the overall changes of ECG parameters in different treatments (0.1 TU, 0.5 TU and 1.0 TU CdCl 2 ), including P wave, Q wave, R wave, S wave, T wave, PR interval (atrial contraction), QRS complex (ventricular depolarization), ST segment, and QT interval (ventricular repolarization). The trends of the ECG parameters showed some responses to the concentration and exposure time of CdCl 2 , but it was difficult to obtain more information about the useful indicators in water quality assessment depending on tendency analysis alone. A self-organizing map (SOM) showed that P values, R values, and T values were similar; R wave and T wave amplitude were similar; and most important, QRS value was similar to the CdCl 2 stress according to the classified data patterns including CdCl 2 stress (E) and ECG components based on the Ward linkage. It suggested that the duration of QRS complex was related to environmental stress E directly. The specification and evaluation of ECG parameters in Cd 2+ pollution suggested that there is a markedly significant correlation between QRS complex and CdCl 2 stress with the highest r (0.729) and the smallest p (0.002) among all ECG characteristics. In this case, it is concluded that QRS complex can be used as an indicator in the CdCl 2 stress assessment due to the lowest AIC data abased on the linear regression model between the CdCl 2 stress and ECG parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Unit cost of healthcare services at 200-bed public hospitals in Myanmar: what plays an important role of hospital budgeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Thet Mon; Saw, Yu Mon; Khaing, Moe; Win, Ei Mon; Cho, Su Myat; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Eiko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-19

    Cost information is important for efficient allocation of healthcare expenditure, estimating future budget allocation, and setting user fees to start new financing systems. Myanmar is in political transition, and trying to achieve universal health coverage by 2030. This study assessed the unit cost of healthcare services at two public hospitals in the country from the provider perspective. The study also analyzed the cost structure of the hospitals to allocate and manage the budgets appropriately. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at 200-bed Magway Teaching Hospital (MTH) and Pyinmanar General Hospital (PMN GH), in Myanmar, for the financial year 2015-2016. The step-down costing method was applied to calculate unit cost per inpatient day and per outpatient visit. The costs were calculated by using Microsoft Excel 2010. The unit costs per inpatient day varied largely from unit to unit in both hospitals. At PMN GH, unit cost per inpatient day was 28,374 Kyats (27.60 USD) for pediatric unit and 1,961,806 Kyats (1908.37 USD) for ear, nose, and throat unit. At MTH, the unit costs per inpatient day were 19,704 Kyats (19.17 USD) for medicine unit and 168,835 Kyats (164.24 USD) for eye unit. The unit cost of outpatient visit was 14,882 Kyats (14.48 USD) at PMN GH, while 23,059 Kyats (22.43 USD) at MTH. Regarding cost structure, medicines and medical supplies was the largest component at MTH, and the equipment was the largest component at PMN GH. The surgery unit of MTH and the eye unit of PMN GH consumed most of the total cost of the hospitals. The unit costs were influenced by the utilization of hospital services by the patients, the efficiency of available resources, type of medical services provided, and medical practice of the physicians. The cost structures variation was also found between MTH and PMN GH. The findings provided the basic information regarding the healthcare cost of public hospitals which can apply the efficient utilization of the

  13. IMPORTANCE OF THE HUMAN FACTOR IN THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela BRETCU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the paradigmatic changes of the current economic situation, in the context of post-modernism and its challenges, which reconsiders human society according to new criteria. One of the characteristics of post-modernism is the development of information and communication techniques, which allowed the occurrence of the „knowledge-based society” whose consequence is the effervescence of fast barrier-free knowledge, absolute freedom of debates, equality of opportunities before the virtual space, but also the relativisation of information, the increases of the danger of manipulation, misleading, or even falsification of the truth. New challenges occur thus in social life, and especially in the economic one, where the human factor becomes increasingly important for the evolution of society. In this context, education seems to play the decisive part, but an education focused on real values, where the truth and the ethics prevail before efficiency and performance.  

  14. A study on important factors influencing on the success of human resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mahouti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of three factors of courtesy, generosity and responsibility on human resources development (HRM in one of Iranian auto industries based on Yoon method [Yoon, C. (2009. The effects of organizational citizenship behaviors on ERP system success. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(2, 421-428.]. The study considers whether having a good sense of responsibility improves the quality of information in HRM. It also investigates whether having good courtesy as well as excellence improve HRM and finally the study investigates the effect of excellence on improving innovation in the area of information technology. Using structural equation modeling, the study confirms all hypotheses of the survey and the implementation of Freedman test confirms that courtesy plays the most important effect followed by having a good generosity and responsibility.

  15. Factors Related to Play Therapists' Social Justice Advocacy Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sejal B.; Ceballos, Peggy; Post, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    The authors used a correlational research design to examine how belief in a just world, political ideology, socioeconomic status of family of origin, and percentage of racial minority clients were related to social justice advocacy attitudes among play therapists. A multiple regression was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that belief in…

  16. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bond: focus on children in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milteer, Regina M; Ginsburg, Kenneth R

    2012-01-01

    Play is essential to the social, emotional, cognitive, and physical well-being of children beginning in early childhood. It is a natural tool for children to develop resiliency as they learn to cooperate, overcome challenges, and negotiate with others. Play also allows children to be creative. It provides time for parents to be fully engaged with their children, to bond with their children, and to see the world from the perspective of their child. However, children who live in poverty often face socioeconomic obstacles that impede their rights to have playtime, thus affecting their healthy social-emotional development. For children who are underresourced to reach their highest potential, it is essential that parents, educators, and pediatricians recognize the importance of lifelong benefits that children gain from play.

  17. Structured Parent-Child Observations Predict Development of Conduct Problems: the Importance of Parental Negative Attention in Child-Directed Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; King, Kevin M

    2017-04-01

    Structured observations of parent-child interactions are commonly used in research and clinical settings, but require additional empirical support. The current study examined the capacity of child-directed play, parent-directed play, and parent-directed chore interaction analogs to uniquely predict the development of conduct problems across a 6-year follow-up period. Parent-child observations were collected from 338 families from high-risk neighborhoods during the summer following the child's first-grade year. Participating children were 49.2 % female, 54.4 % white, and 45.6 % black, and had an average age of 7.52 years at the first assessment. Conduct problems were assessed via parent report and teacher report at five assessment points between first grade and seventh grade. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze predictors of conduct problem trajectory across this 6-year follow-up period. When race, sex, socioeconomic status, and maternal depressive symptoms were controlled, parental negative attention during child-directed play predicted higher levels of parent-reported conduct problems concurrently and after a 6-year follow-up period. Parental negative attention during child-directed play also predicted higher teacher-reported conduct problems 6 years later. Findings support the use of child-directed play and parent-directed chore analogs in predicting longitudinal development of conduct problems. The presence of parental negative attention during child-directed play appears to be an especially important predictor of greater conduct problems over time and across multiple domains. Additionally, the potential importance of task-incongruent behavior is proposed for further study.

  18. Playing a Musical Instrument as a Protective Factor against Dementia and Cognitive Impairment: A Population-Based Twin Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alison Balbag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports that playing a musical instrument may benefit cognitive development and health at young ages. Whether playing an instrument provides protection against dementia has not been established. In a population-based cotwin control study, we examined the association between playing a musical instrument and whether or not the twins developed dementia or cognitive impairment. Participation in playing an instrument was taken from informant-based reports of twins’ leisure activities. Dementia diagnoses were based on a complete clinical workup using standard diagnostic criteria. Among 157 twin pairs discordant for dementia and cognitive impairment, 27 pairs were discordant for playing an instrument. Controlling for sex, education, and physical activity, playing a musical instrument was significantly associated with less likelihood of dementia and cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36 [95% confidence interval 0.13–0.99]. These findings support further consideration of music as a modifiable protective factor against dementia and cognitive impairment.

  19. I Wanna Play Too: Factors Related to Changes in Social Behavior for Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder after Implementation of a Structured Outdoor Play Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrier, Michael J.; Ziegler, Sonja M. T.

    2018-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties interacting with same-aged peers during unstructured play (e.g., on the playground). Thirty-five toddler and preschool children with and without ASD participated in a structured 15-min outdoor play curriculum. The intervention, "the Buddy Game," used familiar songs, movement,…

  20. Factors influencing the degree and pattern of parental involvement in play therapy for sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Although much has been written about the role of therapists in children's recovery from child sexual abuse, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of nonoffending parents. This study investigated the work of a team of therapists who sometimes included such parents in therapy sessions with children. The study sought to understand what factors were influencing the degree and pattern of parental involvement and to understand what effect these patterns of parental involvement were having on the process and outcomes of therapy. The study successfully identified a range of factors influencing the patterns of parental involvement, but more research will be needed to understand the effect on outcomes.

  1. Important prognostic factors for the long-term survival of lung cancer subjects in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Tai-An; Chen, Ping-Ho; Wu, Pei-Fen; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Chang, Po-Ya; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2008-01-01

    This study used a large-scale cancer database in determination of prognostic factors for the survival of lung cancer subjects in Taiwan. Total of 24,910 subjects diagnosed with lung cancer was analysed. Survival estimates by Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional-hazards model estimated the death risk (hazard ratio (HR)) for various prognostic factors. The prognostic indicators associated with a higher risk of lung cancer deaths are male gender (males versus females; HR = 1.07, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.03–1.11), males diagnosed in later periods (shown in 1991–1994 versus 1987–1990; HR = 1.13), older age at diagnosis, large cell carcinoma (LCC)/small cell carcinoma (SCC), and supportive care therapy over chemotherapy. The overall 5-year survival rate for lung cancer death was significantly poorer for males (21.3%) than females (23.6%). Subjects with squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) and treatment by surgical resection alone had better prognosis. We find surgical resections to markedly increase 5-year survival rate from LCC, decreased risk of death from LCC, and no improved survival from SCC. Gender and clinical characteristics (i.e. diagnostic period, diagnostic age, histological type and treatment modality) play important roles in determining lung cancer survival

  2. Do family environment factors play a role in adolescents' involvement in organized activities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badura, Petr; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sigmund, Erik; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    The study assessed the association of family environment factors with adolescents' participation in organized leisure-time activities (OLTA). We used data on 10,472 Czech adolescents aged 11-15 years (49.2% boys) from the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The associations of

  3. Does epidermal growth factor play a role in the action of sucralfate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a mitogenic peptide synthesized in the submandibular glands and released in saliva. EGF is able to prevent the development of gastrointestinal ulcers in the rat and to accelerate their healing. The present work was undertaken to examine whether Sucralfate acts via...

  4. Does epidermal growth factor play a role in the action of sucralfate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a mitogenic peptide synthesized in the submandibular glands and released in saliva. EGF is able to prevent the development of gastrointestinal ulcers in the rat and to accelerate their healing. The present work was undertaken to examine whether Sucralfate acts via...... the effector system of EGF. We conclude that Sucralfate does not change the binding of EGF to its receptor, but it is able to bind EGF in a pH dependent manner and at pH below 4.5 virtually all EGF is bound to Sucralfate. In vivo studies in rats with acid-induced gastric ulcers show that sucralfate carries EGF...... to the ulcer, and that EGF is available for a longer period of time (3 hours) when EGF and Sucralfate are is given together than when EGF is given alone....

  5. Importance of development factors in company dealing with cataphoresis coating method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klimecka-Tatar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of presented in this paper results is analysis of the most important factors in the company activity. The questionnaire test were carried among persons employed by the company, which mainstream is method of cataphoresis anti-corrosion coating. In the paper also validity of the Toyota roof elements were defined. Based on research as the most important factors of the company mission, indicated the quality factor.

  6. The "Learning Through Play" project. Importance of interdisciplinary work among children born prematurely and their family groups in an area of high socio-environmental risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Flor L; Lencina, Manuel J

    2017-12-01

    Several socio-environmental risk factors causea large number of children born prematurely, and without neurological disorders, to have low scores in their development, particularly in the cognitive and socio-emotional skills areas, thus evidencing a potential future risk. Strengthening bonds with the family and caregivers is critical for their adequate development. This article reports on the experience of an interdisciplinary team from Hospital Eva Perón de Tucumán, who designed a program called "Learning Through Play"for the promotion of child development and aimed at parents of preterm infants seen at the Follow-up Outpatient Clinic and the Department of Social Services, with the collaboration of the Department of Nutrition. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  7. A Factor-Based Exploration of Player´s Continuation Desire in Free-to-Play Mobile Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankevicius, Deividas; Jady, Hawraa Amira; Drachen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    experience, motivation and enjoyment, yet difficult to measure. These concepts were conceptualized into different factors and thereby it was identified which of them are re-lated. This resulted in a synthesized model that was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior model. This model takes into account......This paper explores the concept of Continuation Desire fur-ther by investigating the behavioral intent of players’ desire to keep playing. User experience is a complex, multifaceted topic, which is commonly studied through different aspects namely engagement, continuation desire, immersion, flow...

  8. A nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein harboring a single CRM domain plays an important role in the Arabidopsis growth and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwanuk; Lee, Hwa Jung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeon, Young; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-04-16

    Although several chloroplast RNA splicing and ribosome maturation (CRM) domain-containing proteins have been characterized for intron splicing and rRNA processing during chloroplast gene expression, the functional role of a majority of CRM domain proteins in plant growth and development as well as chloroplast RNA metabolism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized the developmental and stress response roles of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein harboring a single CRM domain (At4g39040), designated CFM4, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of CFM4-GFP fusion proteins revealed that CFM4 is localized to chloroplasts. The loss-of-function T-DNA insertion mutants for CFM4 (cfm4) displayed retarded growth and delayed senescence, suggesting that CFM4 plays a role in growth and development of plants under normal growth conditions. In addition, cfm4 mutants showed retarded seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. No alteration in the splicing patterns of intron-containing chloroplast genes was observed in the mutant plants, but the processing of 16S and 4.5S rRNAs was abnormal in the mutant plants. Importantly, CFM4 was determined to possess RNA chaperone activity. These results suggest that the chloroplast-targeted CFM4, one of two Arabidopsis genes encoding a single CRM domain-containing protein, harbors RNA chaperone activity and plays a role in the Arabidopsis growth and stress response by affecting rRNA processing in chloroplasts.

  9. The Importance of Play in Early Childhood Education: A Critical Perspective on Current Policies and Practices in Germany and Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Faas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect international reform movements in a system- and culture-comparative perspective, the following article investigates the early childhood education systems in Germany and in Hong Kong, with reference to the respective social and educational roots, pedagogical development lines, and basic educational approaches. In addition, current developments, policies, and practices are described. The basic structural requirements of the respective systems will be presented, and the different reviews and implementation of international developments in Germany and Hong Kong will be explained. Special emphasis is placed on the importance of play in early childhood education. In this context, a current qualitative study of the authors is presented, which examines different perspectives on learning at play. The results of this exploratory study show that the interpretations and discussions of international reform approaches in different cultural settings are sometimes very different. The statements of the German and Chinese participants indicate that international developments are assessed primarily in the context of national educational traditions and structures. Against this backdrop, it is assumed that international reform movements—despite some assimilations—will have different effects in national education systems.

  10. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  11. Synergistic nuclear import of NeuroD1 and its partner transcription factor, E47, via heterodimerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, Rashid; Yasuhara, Noriko; Oe, Souichi; Nagai, Masahiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    The transition from undifferentiated pluripotent cells to terminally differentiated neurons is coordinated by a repertoire of transcription factors. NeuroD1 is a type II basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor that plays critical roles in neuronal differentiation and maintenance in the central nervous system. Its dimerization with E47, a type I bHLH transcription factor, leads to the transcriptional regulation of target genes. Mounting evidence suggests that regulating the localization of transcription factors contributes to the regulation of their activity during development as defects in their localization underlie a variety of developmental disorders. In this study, we attempted to understand the nuclear import mannerisms of NeuroD1 and E47. We found that the nuclear import of NeuroD1 and E47 is energy-dependent and involves the Ran-mediated pathway. Herein, we demonstrate that NeuroD1 and E47 can dimerize inside the cytoplasm before their nuclear import. Moreover, this dimerization promotes nuclear import as the nuclear accumulation of NeuroD1 was enhanced in the presence of E47 in an in vitro nuclear import assay, and NLS-deficient NeuroD1 was successfully imported into the nucleus upon E47 overexpression. NeuroD1 also had a similar effect on the nuclear accumulation of NLS-deficient E47. These findings suggest a novel role for dimerization that may promote, at least partially, the nuclear import of transcription factors allowing them to function efficiently in the nucleus.

  12. A study on important factors influencing customers’ impulsive buying behavior: A case study of Shahrvand food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Asgari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Customer purchasing behavior plays an essential role on marketing planning in today’s competitive environment. Immediate purchasing behavior is one of the most important components of purchasing behavior. In this paper, we use factor analysis to extract important factors influencing immediate purchasing behavior.The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire including 35 questions and through basic investigation, the questions are reduced to 21 ones. The questionnaire is distributed among 200 regular customers and 149 questionnaires have been collected. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.804, which is well above the minimum desirable level of 0.7. The survey is conducted among regular customers who normally make purchases from Shahrvand food chains in city of Tehran, Iran. The results of factor analysis reveals four major factors including intelligence pricing strategy, involvement, promotion margin and consumer behavior. The proposed study of this paper considers “intelligence pricing strategy” for the first time as an important factor in consumer’s purchasing behavior.

  13. Calmodulin-dependent nuclear import of HMG-box family nuclear factors: importance of the role of SRY in sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Delluc-Clavieres, Aurelie; Poon, Ivan K H; Forwood, Jade K; Glover, Dominic J; Jans, David A

    2010-08-15

    The HMG (high-mobility group)-box-containing chromatin-remodelling factor SRY (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) plays a key role in sex determination. Its role in the nucleus is critically dependent on two NLSs (nuclear localization signals) that flank its HMG domain: the C-terminally located 'beta-NLS' that mediates nuclear transport through Impbeta1 (importin beta1) and the N-terminally located 'CaM-NLS' which is known to recognize the calcium-binding protein CaM (calmodulin). In the present study, we examined a number of missense mutations in the SRY CaM-NLS from human XY sex-reversed females for the first time, showing that they result in significantly reduced nuclear localization of GFP (green fluorescent protein)-SRY fusion proteins in transfected cells compared with wild-type. The CaM antagonist CDZ (calmidazolium chloride) was found to significantly reduce wild-type SRY nuclear accumulation, indicating dependence of SRY nuclear import on CaM. Intriguingly, the CaM-NLS mutants were all resistant to CDZ's effects, implying a loss of interaction with CaM, which was confirmed by direct binding experiments. CaM-binding/resultant nuclear accumulation was the only property of SRY found to be impaired by two of the CaM-NLS mutations, implying that inhibition of CaM-dependent nuclear import is the basis of sex reversal in these cases. Importantly, the CaM-NLS is conserved in other HMG-box-domain-containing proteins such as SOX-2, -9, -10 and HMGN1, all of which were found for the first time to rely on CaM for optimal nuclear localization. CaM-dependent nuclear translocation is thus a common mechanism for this family of important transcription factors.

  14. Social cure, what social cure? The propensity to underestimate the importance of social factors for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander; McMahon, Charlotte; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda; Steffens, Niklas K

    2018-02-01

    Recent meta-analytic research indicates that social support and social integration are highly protective against mortality, and that their importance is comparable to, or exceeds, that of many established behavioural risks such as smoking, high alcohol consumption, lack of exercise, and obesity that are the traditional focus of medical research (Holt-Lunstad et al., 2010). The present study examines perceptions of the contribution of these various factors to life expectancy within the community at large. American and British community respondents (N = 502) completed an on-line survey assessing the perceived importance of social and behavioural risk factors for mortality. As hypothesized, while respondents' perceptions of the importance of established behavioural risks was positively and highly correlated with their actual importance, social factors were seen to be far less important for health than they actually are. As a result, overall, there was a small but significant negative correlation between the perceived benefits and the actual benefits of different social and behavioural factors. Men, younger participants, and participants with a lower level of education were more likely to underestimate the importance of social factors for health. There was also evidence that underestimation was predicted by a cluster of ideological factors, the most significant of which was respondents' respect for prevailing convention and authorities as captured by Right-Wing Authoritarianism. Findings suggest that while people generally underestimate the importance of social factors for health this also varies as a function of demographic and ideological factors. They point to a range of challenges confronting those who seek to promote greater awareness of the importance of social factors for health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Statistically derived factors of varied importance to audiologists when making a hearing aid brand preference decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Earl E; Mueller, H Gustav; Ricketts, Todd A

    2009-01-01

    To determine the amount of importance audiologists place on various items related to their selection of a preferred hearing aid brand manufacturer. Three hundred forty-three hearing aid-dispensing audiologists rated a total of 32 randomized items by survey methodology. Principle component analysis identified seven orthogonal statistical factors of importance. In rank order, these factors were Aptitude of the Brand, Image, Cost, Sales and Speed of Delivery, Exposure, Colleague Recommendations, and Contracts and Incentives. While it was hypothesized that differences among audiologists in the importance ratings of these factors would dictate their preference for a given brand, that was not our finding. Specifically, mean ratings for the six most important factors did not differ among audiologists preferring different brands. A statistically significant difference among audiologists preferring different brands was present, however, for one factor: Contracts and Incentives. Its assigned importance, though, was always lower than that for the other six factors. Although most audiologists have a preferred hearing aid brand, differences in the perceived importance of common factors attributed to brands do not largely determine preference for a particular brand.

  16. The relative importance of factors that determine log-hauling costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin; A. Jeff Martin

    1971-01-01

    Hauling costs are a major expense to lumbermen, but little is known about which factors affect hauling costs the most. A recent Forest Service study of hauling costs on 34 logging operations sheds light on whmich factors of cost are important and which might require less attention. These results should help lumbermen adopt a cost accounting procedure and help them with...

  17. What are the most important factors for work participation in the young disabled? An expert view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, Thea J.; Wind, Haije; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To define the most important factors for the work participation of the young disabled according to experts. Method: A Delphi study was conducted with internet questionnaires. Health-related, personal and environmental factors known from literature were presented to insurance physicians and

  18. An Update on the Epidemiology of Schizophrenia with a Special Reference to Clinically Important Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Missiry, Ahmed; Aboraya, Ahmed Sayed; Manseur, Hader; Manchester, Johnna; France, Cheryl; Border, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness which poses a tremendous burden on the families, caregivers and the society. The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated review of the epidemiology of schizophrenia with a special attention to the clinically important risk factors such as drug abuse, hormonal factors and the new advances in genetic…

  19. Determination of Important Topographic Factors for Landslide Mapping Analysis Using MLP Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutasem Sh. Alkhasawneh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is one of the natural disasters that occur in Malaysia. Topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, general curvature, plan curvature, and profile curvature are considered as the main causes of landslides. In order to determine the dominant topographic factors in landslide mapping analysis, a study was conducted and presented in this paper. There are three main stages involved in this study. The first stage is the extraction of extra topographic factors. Previous landslide studies had identified mainly six topographic factors. Seven new additional factors have been proposed in this study. They are longitude curvature, tangential curvature, cross section curvature, surface area, diagonal line length, surface roughness, and rugosity. The second stage is the specification of the weight of each factor using two methods. The methods are multilayer perceptron (MLP network classification accuracy and Zhou's algorithm. At the third stage, the factors with higher weights were used to improve the MLP performance. Out of the thirteen factors, eight factors were considered as important factors, which are surface area, longitude curvature, diagonal length, slope angle, elevation, slope aspect, rugosity, and profile curvature. The classification accuracy of multilayer perceptron neural network has increased by 3% after the elimination of five less important factors.

  20. Success rates in smoking cessation: Psychological preparation plays a critical role and interacts with other factors such as psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Bertrand; Perriot, Jean; d'Athis, Philippe; Chazard, Emmanuel; Brousse, Georges; Quantin, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the results of smoking cessation attempts. Data were collected in Clermont-Ferrand from a smoking cessation clinic between 1999 and 2009 (1,361 patients). Smoking cessation was considered a success when patients were abstinent 6 months after the beginning of cessation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the association between abstinence and different factors. The significant factors were a history of depression (ORadjusted = 0.57, p = 0.003), state of depression at the initial consultation (ORa = 0.64, p = 0.005), other psychoactive substances (ORa = 0.52, psuccess was four times higher). A high score in the Richmond test had a greater impact on success with increasing age (significant interaction: p = 0.01). In exclusive smokers, the contemplation level in the Prochaska algorithm was enough to obtain a satisfactory abstinence rate (65.5%) whereas among consumers of other psychoactive substances, it was necessary to reach the preparation level in the Prochaska algorithm to achieve a success rate greater than 50% (significant interaction: p = 0.02). The psychological preparation of the smoker plays a critical role. The management of smoking cessation must be personalized, especially for consumers of other psychoactive substances and/or smokers with a history of depression.

  1. Imaging-Based Screen Identifies Laminin 411 as a Physiologically Relevant Niche Factor with Importance for i-Hep Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Use of hepatocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (i-Heps is limited by their functional differences in comparison with primary cells. Extracellular niche factors likely play a critical role in bridging this gap. Using image-based characterization (high content analysis; HCA of freshly isolated hepatocytes from 17 human donors, we devised and validated an algorithm (Hepatocyte Likeness Index; HLI for comparing the hepatic properties of cells against a physiological gold standard. The HLI was then applied in a targeted screen of extracellular niche factors to identify substrates driving i-Heps closer to the standard. Laminin 411, the top hit, was validated in two additional induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines, primary tissue, and an in vitro model of α1-antitrypsin deficiency. Cumulatively, these data provide a reference method to control and screen for i-Hep differentiation, identify Laminin 411 as a key niche protein, and underscore the importance of combining substrates, soluble factors, and HCA when developing iPSC applications. : Rashid and colleagues demonstrate the utility of a high-throughput imaging platform for identification of physiologically relevant extracellular niche factors to advance i-Heps closer to their primary tissue counterparts. The extracellular matrix (ECM protein screen identified Laminin 411 as an important niche factor facilitating i-Hep-based disease modeling in vitro. Keywords: iPS hepatocytes, extracellular niche, image-based screening, disease modeling, laminin

  2. The relative importance of wife abuse as a risk factor for violence against children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, E A

    2000-11-01

    To investigate the relative importance of wife abuse as a risk factor for physical child abuse, physical punishment, and verbal child abuse. The study explored the importance of wife abuse relative to blocks of parent, child, and family characteristics and also relative to specific risk factors. This study re-analyzed a sub-sample (N = 2,733) of data from the 1985 National Family Violence Survey. Hierarchical logistic regressions were conducted, using five different criterion variables measuring physical child abuse, physical punishment, and verbal abuse separately and in combination. Blocks of parent, child, and family characteristics were more important predictors of violence towards children than was wife abuse, though the presence of wife abuse in the home was a consistently significant specific risk factor for all forms of violence against children. Of specific risk factors, a respondent's history of having been hit as an adolescent was a larger risk factor for physical child abuse than was wife abuse. Wife abuse was an important predictor of physical punishment. Non-violent marital discord was a greater factor in predicting likelihood of verbal child abuse than was wife abuse. Though this study confirms the association between wife abuse and violence towards children, it cautions us not to overlook the contribution of other factors in our attempts to understand the increased risk attributed to wife abuse.

  3. An exploration study on detecting important factors influencing brand loyalty in retail stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brand loyalty is one of the most important factors influencing on the success of retail stores. Many retail stores in the field of sport shoes in city of Tehran, Iran are facing tight competition and there seems to be that only stores with loyal customers could survive. In this paper, we present an exploration study to find out important factors influencing retail stores selling one of well-known sport shows such as Adidas, Nike, etc. in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes among 265 regular customers of these stores and analyze them using factor analysis. The results indicate that there were four important factors influencing customer loyalty including brand identification, brand promotion, brand loyalty and characterization of stores.

  4. Which factors play a role in Dutch health promotion professionals' decision to recruit actively primary schools to use a web-based smoking prevention programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Henricus-Paul; Oenema, Anke; Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2013-12-03

    Municipal Health Promotion Organisations (MHPOs) play an important role in promoting and disseminating prevention programmes, such as smoking prevention programmes, in schools. This study identifies factors that may facilitate or hinder MHPOs' willingness to recruit actively primary schools to use a smoking prevention programme. In 2011, 31 Dutch MHPOs were invited to recruit schools to use a smoking prevention programme. All MHPO employees involved in smoking prevention activities (n = 68) were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing psychological factors and characteristics of their organisation that might affect their decision to be involved in active recruitment of schools. T-tests and multivariate analysis of variance assessed potential differences in psychological and organisational factors between active and non-active recruiters. A total of 45 professionals returned the questionnaire (66.2%). Active recruiters (n = 12) had more positive attitudes (p = 0.02), higher self-efficacy expectations (p primary schools, compared with non-active recruiters. Organisational factors did not discriminate between active and non-active recruiters. Primarily psychological factors seem to be associated with MHPOs' decision to recruit schools actively. This indicates that creating more positive attitude, self-efficacy beliefs and formation of plans may help in getting more MHPOs involved in active recruitment procedures.

  5. Tyrosine411 and Arginine410 of Human Serum Albumin Play an Important Role in the Binding of Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate to Site II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokida, Taisuke; Yamasaki, Keishi; Okamoto, Yuko; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Ishiguro, Takako; Maruyama, Toru; Seo, Hakaru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) has many pharmacological activities; therefore extending its clinical use to the treatment of a wider variety of diseases would be desirable. However, our knowledge of the binding of PB to plasma proteins is not extensive. To address this issue in more detail, we characterized the protein binding of PB. Binding experiments showed that PB mainly binds to human serum albumin (HSA) in plasma. PB was also found to bind to a single site on HSA, which was identified as site II by fluorescent probe displacement experiment. Furthermore, an appropriate alkyl chain length and a carboxylic group in the PB structure were required for PB binding to HSA, suggesting that hydrophobic (and van der Waals) and electrostatic interactions are involved as binding modes. The contributions of hydrogen bonding and/or van der Waals interactions were also indicated by thermodynamic analyses. Tyrosine411 and arginine410 were identified as being involved in the binding of PB to site II, based on binding experiments using chemically modified- and mutant-HSA preparations. In conclusion, the available evidence indicates that PB binds to site II of HSA with assistance by multiple forces and that tyrosine411 and arginine410 both play important roles in this phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The long-term effect of zinc soil contamination on selected free amino acids playing an important role in plant adaptation to stress and senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, Daniela; Zemanová, Veronika; Procházková, Dagmar; Pavlík, Milan; Száková, Jiřina; Wilhelmová, Naďa

    2014-02-01

    Increased endogenous plant cytokinin (CK) content through transformation with an isopentyl transferase (ipt) gene has been associated with improved plant stress tolerance. The objective of this study is to determine amino acid changes associated with elevated CK production in ipt transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. Wisconsin 38). Nontransformed (WT) and transformed tobacco plants with ipt gene controlled by senescence-activated promoter (SAG) were exposed to zinc soil contamination (tested levels Zn1=250, Zn2=500, Zn3=750 mg kg(-1) soil). The Zn effect on plant stress metabolism resulted in changes in levels of selected free amino acids playing an important role in adaptation to stress and plant senescence (alanine, leucine, proline, methionine and γ-aminobutyrate) and differed for transformed and nontransformed tobacco plants. Analyses of amino acids confirmed that SAG tobacco plants had improved zinc tolerance compared with the WT plants. The enhanced Zn tolerance of SAG plants was associated with the maintenance of accumulation of proline, methionine and γ-aminobutyrate. The concentrations of leucine and alanine did not show significant differences between plant lines. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Combined Transcriptomic Analysis Revealed AKR1B10 Played an Important Role in Psoriasis through the Dysregulated Lipid Pathway and Overproliferation of Keratinocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlu Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA-seq has enabled in-depth analysis of the pathogenesis of psoriasis on the transcriptomic level, and many biomarkers have been discovered to be related to the immune response, lipid metabolism, and keratinocyte proliferation. However, few studies have combined analysis from various datasets. In this study, we integrated different psoriasis RNA-seq datasets to reveal the pathogenesis of psoriasis through the analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs, pathway analysis, and functional annotation. The revealed biomarkers were further validated through proliferation phenotypes. The results showed that DEGs were functionally related to lipid metabolism and keratinocyte differentiation dysregulation. The results also showed new biomarkers, such as AKR1B10 and PLA2G gene families, as well as pathways that include the PPAR signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, alpha-linoleic acid metabolism, and glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. Using siRNA knockdown assays, we further validated the role that the AKR1B10 gene plays in proliferation. Our study demonstrated not only the dysfunction of the AKR1B10 gene in lipid metabolizing but also its important role in the overproliferation and migration of keratinocyte, which provided evidence for further therapeutic uses for psoriasis.

  8. Protein kinase a dependent phosphorylation of apical membrane antigen 1 plays an important role in erythrocyte invasion by the malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Leykauf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a variety of hosts, causing significant diseases in livestock and humans. The invasive forms of the parasites invade their host cells by gliding motility, an active process driven by parasite adhesion proteins and molecular motors. A crucial point during host cell invasion is the formation of a ring-shaped area of intimate contact between the parasite and the host known as a tight junction. As the invasive zoite propels itself into the host-cell, the junction moves down the length of the parasite. This process must be tightly regulated and signalling is likely to play a role in this event. One crucial protein for tight-junction formation is the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1. Here we have investigated the phosphorylation status of this key player in the invasion process in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We show that the cytoplasmic tail of P. falciparum AMA1 is phosphorylated at serine 610. We provide evidence that the enzyme responsible for serine 610 phosphorylation is the cAMP regulated protein kinase A (PfPKA. Importantly, mutation of AMA1 serine 610 to alanine abrogates phosphorylation of AMA1 in vivo and dramatically impedes invasion. In addition to shedding unexpected new light on AMA1 function, this work represents the first time PKA has been implicated in merozoite invasion.

  9. H2O2 plays an important role in the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Ygor R G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Barreto, Ana L H; Freire-Filho, Francisco R; Oliveira, Jose T A

    2015-08-01

    Plant-fungus interactions usually generate H(2)O(2) in the infected plant tissue. H(2)O(2) has a direct antimicrobial effect and is involved in the cross-linking of cell walls, signaling, induction of gene expression, hypersensitive cell death and induced systemic acquired resistance. This has raised the hypothesis that H(2)O(2) manipulation by pharmacological compounds could alter the lifestyle of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with the BR-3-Tracuateua cowpea genotype. The primary leaves of cowpea were excised, infiltrated with salicylic acid (SA), glucose oxidase + glucose (GO/G), catalase (CAT) or diphenyliodonium chloride (DPI), followed by spore inoculation on the adaxial leaf surface. SA or GO/G-treated plantlets showed increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and lipid peroxidation. The fungus used a subcuticular, intramural necrotrophic strategy, and developed secondary hyphae associated with the quick spread and rapid killing of host cells. However, CAT or DPI-treated leaves exhibited decreased H(2)O(2) concentration and lipid peroxidation and the fungus developed intracellular hemibiotrophic infection with vesicles, in addition to primary and secondary hyphal formation. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) plays an important role in the cowpea (C. gloeosporioides) pathosystem given that it affected fungal lifestyle during interaction. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A conserved neuronal DAF-16/FoxO plays an important role in conveying pheromone signals to elicit repulsion behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donha; Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Saeram; Ha, Go; Chang, Gyeong-Eon; Jeong, Haelim; Kim, Heekyeong; Kim, Sunhee; Cheong, Eunji; Paik, Young-Ki

    2017-08-03

    Animals use pheromones as a conspecific chemical language to respond appropriately to environmental changes. The soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans secretes ascaroside pheromones throughout the lifecycle, which influences entry into dauer phase in early larvae, in addition to sexual attraction and aggregation. In adult hermaphrodites, pheromone sensory signals perceived by worms usually elicit repulsion as an initial behavioral signature. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal pheromone sensory process from perception to repulsion in adult hermaphrodites remain poorly understood. Here, we show that pheromone signals perceived by GPA-3 is conveyed through glutamatergic neurotransmission in which neuronal DAF-16/FoxO plays an important modulatory role by controlling glutaminase gene expression. We further provide evidence that this modulatory role for DAF-16/FoxO seems to be conserved evolutionarily by electro-physiological study in mouse primary hippocampal neurons that are responsible for glutamatergic neurotransmission. These findings provide the basis for understanding the nematode pheromone signaling, which seems crucial for adaptation of adult hermaphrodites to changes in environmental condition for survival.

  11. Chondroitin 4-O-Sulfotransferase Is Indispensable for Sulfation of Chondroitin and Plays an Important Role in Maintaining Normal Life Span and Oxidative Stress Responses in Nematodes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumikawa, Tomomi; Dejima, Katsufumi; Watamoto, Yukiko; Nomura, Kazuko H.; Kanaki, Nanako; Rikitake, Marika; Tou, Mai; Murata, Daisuke; Yanagita, Eri; Kano, Ai; Mitani, Shohei; Nomura, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS)/chondroitin (Chn) chains are indispensable for embryonic cell division and cytokinesis in the early developmental stages in Caenorhabditis elegans and mice, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for axon guidance during nervous system development. These data indicate that the fundamental functions of CS and HS are conserved from worms to mammals and that the function of CS/Chn differs from that of HS. Although previous studies have shown that C. elegans produces HS and non-sulfated Chn, whether the organism produces CS remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that C. elegans produces a small amount of 4-O-sulfated Chn and report the identification of C41C4.1, an orthologue of the human chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase gene. Loss of C41C4.1 in C. elegans resulted in a decline in 4-O-sulfation of CS and an increase in the number of sulfated units in HS. C41C4.1 deletion mutants exhibited reduced survival rates after synchronization with sodium hypochlorite. Collectively, these results show for the first time that CS glycans are present in C. elegans and that the Chn 4-O-sulfotransferase responsible for the sulfation plays an important role in protecting nematodes from oxidative stress. PMID:27645998

  12. Chondroitin 4-O-Sulfotransferase Is Indispensable for Sulfation of Chondroitin and Plays an Important Role in Maintaining Normal Life Span and Oxidative Stress Responses in Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumikawa, Tomomi; Dejima, Katsufumi; Watamoto, Yukiko; Nomura, Kazuko H; Kanaki, Nanako; Rikitake, Marika; Tou, Mai; Murata, Daisuke; Yanagita, Eri; Kano, Ai; Mitani, Shohei; Nomura, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-10-28

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS)/chondroitin (Chn) chains are indispensable for embryonic cell division and cytokinesis in the early developmental stages in Caenorhabditis elegans and mice, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) is essential for axon guidance during nervous system development. These data indicate that the fundamental functions of CS and HS are conserved from worms to mammals and that the function of CS/Chn differs from that of HS. Although previous studies have shown that C. elegans produces HS and non-sulfated Chn, whether the organism produces CS remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that C. elegans produces a small amount of 4-O-sulfated Chn and report the identification of C41C4.1, an orthologue of the human chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase gene. Loss of C41C4.1 in C. elegans resulted in a decline in 4-O-sulfation of CS and an increase in the number of sulfated units in HS. C41C4.1 deletion mutants exhibited reduced survival rates after synchronization with sodium hypochlorite. Collectively, these results show for the first time that CS glycans are present in C. elegans and that the Chn 4-O-sulfotransferase responsible for the sulfation plays an important role in protecting nematodes from oxidative stress. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Trajectories of childhood weight gain: the relative importance of local environment versus individual social and early life factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A Carter

    Full Text Available To determine the association between local environmental factors with child weight status in a longitudinal study, using a semi-parametric, group-based method, while also considering social and early life factors.Standardized, directly measured BMI from 4-10 y of age, and group-based trajectory modeling (PROC TRAJ were used to estimate developmental trajectories of weight change in a Québec birth cohort (n = 1,566. Associations between the weight trajectories and living location, social cohesion, disorder, and material and social deprivation were estimated after controlling for social and early life factors.FOUR WEIGHT TRAJECTORY GROUPS WERE ESTIMATED: low-increasing (9.7%; low-medium, accelerating (36.2%; medium-high, increasing (43.0%; and high-stable (11.1%. In the low-increasing and medium-high trajectory groups, living in a semi-urban area was inversely related to weight, while living in a rural area was positively related to weight in the high-stable group. Disorder was inversely related to weight in the low-increasing group only. Other important risk factors for high-stable weight included obesity status of the mother, smoking during pregnancy, and overeating behaviors.In this study, associations between local environment factors and weight differed by trajectory group. Early life factors appear to play a more consistent role in weight status. Further work is needed to determine the influence of place on child weight.

  14. Relative importance of natural and anthropogenic factors influencing karst rocky desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Erqi; Zhang, Hongqi

    2017-04-01

    As the most severe ecological issue in southwest China, karst rocky desertification (KRD) has both threatened and constrained regional sustainable development. Comprehensively understanding the relationship between the evolution of KRD and relevant driving data would provide more information to combat KRD in such complex karst environments. Past studies have been limited in quantifying the relative importance of driving factors influencing fine-scale KRD evolution, and have also lacked insight into their interactive impacts. To address these issues, we have used geographical information system techniques and a geographical detector model to explore the spatial consistency of driving factors and their interactions in relation to the evolution of KRD. Changshun County in China was selected as a representative area for the study. Nine relevant driving factors, including both natural and anthropogenic factors, were studied in regard to their relationships with KRD transformation between 2000 and 2010. Our results demonstrate the relative importance of driving data in influencing the improvement and deterioration of KRD. Lithology, soil type and road influence are identified as the leading factors. Interestingly, to our study at least, there is no significant difference between the impacts of natural and anthropogenic factors influencing KRD improvement, and even natural factors have a higher impact on KRD deterioration. Factors were found to enhance the influence of each other for KRD transformation. In particular, the results show a non-linearly enhanced effect between driving factors, which significantly aggravates KRD. New information found in our study helps to effectively control and restore areas afflicted by KRD.

  15. The role of play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Play is seen as an activity that is fun, voluntary, offers escape, and is fundamentally exciting. Play is however, more than that; it is a working model of flexibility! There is a vital link between play, psychological development and learning. Moreover, the importance of play has gained importance

  16. The PSA of safety-critical digital I and C system: the determination of important factors and sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H. G.; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Jeong, H. S.; Park, J. K.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K.

    2002-01-01

    This report is prepared to suggest a practical Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methodology of safety-critical digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. Even though conventional probabilistic safety assessment methods are immature for applying to microprocessor-based digital systems, practical needs force to apply it because the result of probabilistic safety assessment plays very important role in proving the safety of a designed system. Microprocessors and software technologies make the digital system very complex and hard to analyze the safety of their applications. The aim of this is: (1) To summarize the factors which should be represented by the model for probabilistic safety assessment and to propose a standpoint of evaluation for digital systems. (2) To quantitatively presents the results of a mathematical case study which examines the analysis framework of the safety of digital systems in the context of the PSA. (3) To show the results of a sensitivity study for some critical factors

  17. A survey on important factors influencing brand equity: A case study of banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sehhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in increasing customers' needs is to increase the quality of services through providing better quality services. Customer satisfaction is one of the primary requirements to meet people's needs and to have an efficient customer relationship management (CRM we need to detect the most important factors influencing efficiency and effectiveness in banking industry. In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect these factors in one of private banks in Iran. The proposed study of this paper tries to reach three objectives. We first detect important factors, which build customers' perception towards CRM, then we detect all influencing factors, which impact CRM, and finally, we evaluate the impact of CRM towards brand equity. The proposed study first designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 386 customers. Using structural equation modeling and certified factor analysis, we analyze the results. The results indicate that three factors including information, employee job behavior and suggestions and other factor have meaningful impact on customer brand equity. However, the impact of equipment on customer brand equity was not meaningful.

  18. TLR9 played a more important role than TLR2 in the combination of maltose-binding protein and BCG-induced Th1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Weihua; Wang, Fang; Liu, Guomu; Zhang, Nannan; Yuan, Hongyan; Jie, Jing; Tai, Guixiang

    2016-11-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that maltose-binding protein (MBP) combined with BCG induced synergistic mouse Th1 activation in vivo. Here, to explore the mechanism of MBP combined with BCG on Th1 activation, mouse purified CD4 + T cells were stimulated with MBP and BCG in vitro. The results showed that MBP combined with BCG synergistically increased IFN-γ production, accompanied with the upregulation of TLR2/9 expressions, suggesting that TLR2/9 were involved in the combination-induced Th1 activation. Next, TLR2 antibodies and TLR9 inhibitor were used to further analyze the effects of TLRs in Th1 activation. Results showed TLR2 antibody partly decreased MBP combined with BCG-induced IFN-γ production, MyD88 expression and IκB phosphorylation, indicating that TLR2-mediated MyD88-dependent pathway was involved in the MBP combined with BCG-induced Th1 activation. Moreover, MBP combined with BCG-induced Th1 activation was completely abrogated by TLR9 inhibitor, suggesting that TLR9-mediated MyD88-dependent pathway played a more important role than TLR2 in the combination-induced Th1 activation. Further study showed that TLR9 inhibitor downregulated TLR2 expression, suggesting that TLR9 signaling regulated TLR2 activation to favor Th1 resonse induced by MBP combined with BCG. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time that the cross-talk of TLR2 and TLR9 triggered Th1 activation collaboratively and our findings provided valuable information about designing more effective adjuvant for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lung fibroblasts may play an important role in clearing apoptotic bodies of bronchial epithelial cells generated by exposure to PHMG-P-containing solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Park, Sung-Jin; Kim, Sanghwa; Lee, Kyuhong; Chang, Jaerak

    2018-04-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) has been widely used in the industry owing to its excellent biocidal, anti-corrosive, and anti-biofouling properties. In Korea, consumers exposed to PHMG-phosphate (PHMG-P)-containing humidifier disinfectant have begun to suffer from fibrotic lung injury-related symptoms for unknown reasons. However, no appropriate treatment has yet been found because the detail toxic mechanism has not been identified. Herein, we first studied the toxic mechanism of PHMG-P-containing solution using human normal bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells). When exposed for 24 h, PHMG-P-containing solution rapidly decreased cell viability from around 6 h after exposure and significantly increased of the phosphatidylserine exposure and the LDH release. At 6 h of exposure, the material contained in the solution was found to be bound to the cell membrane and the inner wall of vacuoles, and damaged the cell membrane and organelles. In addition, a significant increase of IFN-γ was observed among cytokines, the expression of apoptosis-, autophagy-, and membrane and DNA damage-related proteins was also enhanced. Meanwhile, the level of intracellular ROS and the secretion of IL-8 and CXCL-1, which are chemokines for professional phagocytes, decreased. Thus, we treated dead BEAS-2B cells to lung fibroblasts (HFL-1), non-professional phagocytes, and then we observed that the dead cells rapidly attached to HFL-1 cells and were taken up. Additionally, increased secretion of IL-8 and CXCL-1 was observed in the cells. Based on these results, we suggest that pulmonary exposure to PHMG-P induces apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts might play an important role in the clearance of the apoptotic debris. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Surface Layer Homology Domain-Containing Proteins of Alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 Play an Important Role in Alkaline Adaptation via Peptidoglycan Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinami, Shun; Ito, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that the Na + cycle and the cell wall are essential for alkaline adaptation of Na + -dependent alkaliphilic Bacillus species. In Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4, surface layer protein A (SlpA), the most abundant protein in the surface layer (S-layer) of the cell wall, is involved in alkaline adaptation, especially under low Na + concentrations. The presence of a large number of genes that encode S-layer homology (SLH) domain-containing proteins has been suggested from the genome sequence of B. pseudofirmus OF4. However, other than SlpA, the functions of SLH domain-containing proteins are not well known. Therefore, a deletion mutant of the csaB gene, required for the retention of SLH domain-containing proteins on the cell wall, was constructed to investigate its physiological properties. The csaB mutant strain of B. pseudofirmus OF4 had a chained morphology and alkaline sensitivity even under a 230 mM Na + concentration at which there is no growth difference between the parental strain and the slpA mutant strain. Ultra-thin section transmission electron microscopy showed that a csaB mutant strain lacked an S-layer part, and its peptidoglycan (PG) layer was disturbed. The slpA mutant strain also lacked an S-layer part, although its PG layer was not disturbed. These results suggested that the surface layer homology domain-containing proteins of B. pseudofirmus OF4 play an important role in alkaline adaptation via peptidoglycan synthesis.

  1. The importance of building construction materials relative to other factors affecting structure survival during wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Brennan, Teresa J.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Structure loss to wildfire is a serious problem in wildland-urban interface areas across the world. Laboratory experiments suggest that fire-resistant building construction and design could be important for reducing structure destruction, but these need to be evaluated under real wildfire conditions, especially relative to other factors. Using empirical data from destroyed and surviving structures from large wildfires in southern California, we evaluated the relative importance of building construction and structure age compared to other local and landscape-scale variables associated with structure survival. The local-scale analysis showed that window preparation was especially important but, in general, creating defensible space adjacent to the home was as important as building construction. At the landscape scale, structure density and structure age were the two most important factors affecting structure survival, but there was a significant interaction between them. That is, young structure age was most important in higher-density areas where structure survival overall was more likely. On the other hand, newer-construction structures were less likely to survive wildfires at lower density. Here, appropriate defensible space near the structure and accessibility to major roads were important factors. In conclusion, community safety is a multivariate problem that will require a comprehensive solution involving land use planning, fire-safe construction, and property maintenance.

  2. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on multi-dimensional organizational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing multi-dimensional organizational culture. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 21 questions, distributes it among 300 people who worked for different business units and collects 283 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.799. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.821 and 1395.74, respectively. The study has implemented principal component analysis and the results have indicated that there were four factors influencing organizational culture including, diversity in culture, connection based culture, integrated culture and structure of culture. In terms of diversity in culture, sensitivity to quality data and cultural flexibility are the most influential sub-factors while connection based marketing and relational satisfaction are two important sub-factors associated with diversity in culture. The study discusses other issues.

  3. Cellular Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein Is an Important Dengue Virus Restriction Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannoni, Federico; Damonte, Elsa B.; Garc?a, Cybele C.

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic antiviral defense is based on cellular restriction factors that are constitutively expressed and, thus, active even before a pathogen enters the cell. The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) are discrete nuclear foci that contain several cellular proteins involved in intrinsic antiviral responses against a number of viruses. Accumulating reports have shown the importance of PML as a DNA virus restriction factor and how these pathogens evade this antiviral activity....

  4. 15-lipoxygenase metabolites play an important role in the development of a T-helper type 1 allergic inflammation induced by double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, S G; Moon, H-G; Kim, Y-S; Choi, J-P; Shin, T-S; Hong, S-W; Tae, Y-M; Kim, S-H; Zhu, Z; Gho, Y S; Kim, Y-K

    2009-06-01

    We recently demonstrated that the T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune response plays an important role in the development of non-eosinophilic inflammation induced by airway exposure of an allergen plus double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). However, the role of lipoxygenase (LO) metabolites in the development of Th1 inflammation is poorly understood. To evaluate the role of LO metabolites in the development of Th1 inflammation induced by sensitization with an allergen plus dsRNA. A Th2-allergic inflammation mouse model was created by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide-depleted ovalbumin (OVA, 75 microg) and alum (2 mg) twice, and the Th1 model was created by intranasal application of OVA (75 microg) and synthetic dsRNA [10 microg of poly(I : C)] four times, followed by an intranasal challenge with 50 microg of OVA four times. The role of LO metabolites was evaluated using two approaches: a transgenic approach using 5-LO(-/-) and 15-LO(-/-) mice, and a pharmacological approach using inhibitors of cysteinyl leucotriene receptor-1 (cysLTR1), LTB4 receptor (BLT1), and 15-LO. We found that the Th1-allergic inflammation induced by OVA+dsRNA sensitization was similar between 5-LO(-/-) and wild-type (WT) control mice, although Th2 inflammation induced by sensitization with OVA+alum was reduced in the former group. In addition, dsRNA-induced Th1 allergic inflammation, which is associated with down-regulation of 15-hydroxyeicosateraenoic acids production, was not affected by treatment with cysLTR1 or BLT1 inhibitors, whereas it was significantly lower in 12/15-LO(-/-) mice compared with WT control mice. Moreover, dsRNA-induced allergic inflammation and the recruitment of T cells following an allergen challenge were significantly inhibited by treatment with a specific 15-LO inhibitor (PD146176). 15-LO metabolites appear to be important mediators in the development of Th1-allergic inflammation induced by sensitization with an allergen plus dsRNA. Our findings suggest that the

  5. Coping with stress and cognitive interference in student teachers performance as important factors influencing their achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Peklaj

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the relations between student teachers' strategies for coping with stressful situations, cognitive interference factors and successfulness of presentation of student teachers' seminar work. There were 135 student teachers participating in the study. At the beginning of the semester they filled in the Way of Coping Questionnaire (Folkman & Lazarus, 1988. After their presentation of seminar theme they reported about the cognitive interference factors during the presentation (distractive factors and intrusive thoughts. Different aspects of their performance were also evaluated by the teacher according to the well-known criteria. The analysis of the results showed significant correlations between certain ways of coping, cognitive interference factors and success of performance. Further statistical analysis showed significant differences in experiencing distractive factors and intrusive thoughts during presentation between students with low, medium and high performance success. The importance of successful strategies for coping with verbal presentation and the implications for student teacher education are discussed.

  6. Plasmodium falciparum malaria importation from Africa to China and its mortality: an analysis of driving factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shengjie; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Huang, Zhuojie; Bosco, Claudio; Sun, Junling; Bird, Tomas; Wesolowski, Amy; Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Qian; Zheng, Canjun; Li, Zhongjie; Tatem, Andrew J.; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-12-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria importation from Africa to China is rising with increasing Chinese overseas investment and international travel. Identifying networks and drivers of this phenomenon as well as the contributors to high case-fatality rate is a growing public health concern to enable efficient response. From 2011-2015, 8653 P. falciparum cases leading to 98 deaths (11.3 per 1000 cases) were imported from 41 sub-Saharan countries into China, with most cases (91.3%) occurring in labour-related Chinese travellers. Four strongly connected groupings of origin African countries with destination Chinese provinces were identified, and the number of imported cases was significantly associated with the volume of air passengers to China (P = 0.006), parasite prevalence in Africa (P investment in resource extraction having the strongest relationship with parasite importation. Risk factors for deaths from imported cases were related to the capacity of malaria diagnosis and diverse socioeconomic factors. The spatial heterogeneity uncovered, principal drivers explored, and risk factors for mortality found in the rising rates of P. falciparum malaria importation to China can serve to refine malaria elimination strategies and the management of cases, and high risk groups and regions should be targeted.

  7. Playing for a Virtual Audience: The Impact of a Social Factor on Gestures, Sounds and Expressive Intents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schaerlaeken

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Can we measure the impact of the presence of an audience on musicians’ performances? By exploring both acoustic and motion features for performances in Immersive Virtual Environments (IVEs, this study highlights the impact of the presence of a virtual audience on both the performance and the perception of authenticity and emotional intensity by listeners. Gestures and sounds produced were impacted differently when musicians performed at different expressive intents. The social factor made features converge towards values related to a habitual way of playing regardless of the expressive intent. This could be due to musicians’ habits to perform in a certain way in front of a crowd. On the listeners’ side, when comparing different expressive conditions, only one congruent condition (projected expressive intent in front of an audience boosted the participants’ ratings for both authenticity and emotional intensity. At different values for kinetic energy and metrical centroid, stimuli recorded with an audience showed a different distribution of ratings, challenging the ecological validity of artificially created expressive intents. Finally, this study highlights the use of IVEs as a research tool and a training assistant for musicians who are eager to learn how to cope with their anxiety in front of an audience.

  8. Do environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of carcinoma in situ testis and the testicular dysgenesis syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, S B; Hoei-Hansen, C E; Fisher, J S; Leffers, H; Rajpert-de Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis of the Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome (TDS), first suggested in 2001, propose that several disorders of the male reproductive system such as infertility, hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer are all symptoms of TDS, which is most likely initiated during early foetal development, and may be provoked by external factors such as endocrine disruptors in addition to genetic predisposition. Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), considered the most severe symptom of TDS, have increased in incidence during the last 60 years, to become the most common malignancy in young Caucasian men aged 17-45 years. TGCTs of young men originate from carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells. In the last few years, progress has been made identifying candidate genes involved in the neoplastic development of CIS, which may elucidate the timing of the initiation of CIS, currently thought to originate in foetal life from primordial germ cells or early gonocytes. Histological dysgenetic features are frequently seen in testes affected with the TDS components testis cancer or cryptorchidism. A TDS-like phenotype can be induced in male rats by in utero exposure to high concentrations of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) suggesting that ubiquitously present environmental endocrine disruptors may play a role in the aetiology of human TDS. So far, no animal model has been able to mimick all the symptoms of TDS including TGCTs although CIS-like cells have been found in a spontaneous testicular neoplasm in a rabbit.

  9. Dairy farm demographics and management factors that played a role in the re-emergence of brucellosis on dairy cattle farms in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Gummow, B

    2017-08-01

    Little is published on risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in Pacific island communities. The 2009 re-emergence of bovine brucellosis in Fiji enabled us to do an interview-based questionnaire survey of 81 farms in the Wainivesi locality of the Tailevu province on the main island of Fiji to investigate what risk factors could have played a role in the re-emergence of the disease. The survey was conducted on 68 farms that had no positive cases of bovine brucellosis and on 13 farms in the same area where cattle had returned a positive result to the Brucella Rose Bengal test. Descriptive statistical methods were used to describe the demographic data while univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between the selected risk factors and the presence of brucellosis on the farms at the time of the outbreak. The demographics of Fijian dairy farms are presented in the article and the biosecurity implications of those farming systems are discussed. Two risk factors were strongly associated with farms having brucellosis, and these were history of reactor cattle to brucellosis and or bovine tuberculosis on the farm (OR = 29, P ≤ 0.01) and farms that practised sharing of water sources for cattle within and with outside farms (OR = 39, P ≤ 0.01). Possible reasons why these were risk factors are also discussed. The potential risks for human health was also high as the use of personal protective equipment was low (15%). A high proportion of farmers (62%) could not recognise brucellosis thus contributing to the low frequency of disease reports (44%) made. The article also highlights other important risk factors which could be attributed to farming practices in the region and which could contribute to public health risks and the re-emergence of diseases.

  10. Refresher training as an important factor affecting safety of atomic energy utilization facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapralov, E.

    2005-01-01

    Refresher training appears to be one of the most important factors, affecting safety of atomic energy utilization facilities. To provide up-to-date refresher training programs and courses TC NRS implements best training practice based on the actual and perspective Russian national and international norms, regulations, standards and recommendations. (author)

  11. What Factors Are Important in Smoking Cessation Amongst Deprived Communities?: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Hazel J.; Memon, Anjum; Lawson, Kate; Jacobs, Barbara; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitative study. Setting: A deprived…

  12. Which factors are important for effectiveness of sport- and health-related apps?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, Joan; Janssen, Mark; van der Werf, Jet; Vos, Steven; Deutekom-Baart de la Faille, Marije

    2017-01-01

    Which factors are important for effectiveness of sport- and health-related apps? Results of focus groups with experts. Dallinga, J, van der Werf, J , Janssen, M, Vos, S, Deutekom-Baart de la Faille, M. A huge amount of sport- and health-related smartphone applications (apps) is available in the app

  13. The influence of the importance of event factors on meeting planner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of the importance of event factors on meeting planner satisfaction: A case study of a theme park event business. ... future business. This was done by sending an online survey to 25 regularly visiting meeting planners. This survey ...

  14. Sirtuin 3, a new target of PGC-1alpha, plays an important role in the suppression of ROS and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Kong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3 is one of the seven mammalian sirtuins, which are homologs of the yeast Sir2 gene. SIRT3 is the only sirtuin with a reported association with the human life span. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha plays important roles in adaptive thermogenesis, gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. PGC-1alpha induces several key reactive oxygen species (ROS-detoxifying enzymes, but the molecular mechanism underlying this is not well understood.Here we show that PGC-1alpha strongly stimulated mouse Sirt3 gene expression in muscle cells and hepatocytes. Knockdown of PGC-1alpha led to decreased Sirt3 gene expression. PGC-1alpha activated the mouse SIRT3 promoter, which was mediated by an estrogen-related receptor (ERR binding element (ERRE (-407/-399 mapped to the promoter region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that ERRalpha bound to the identified ERRE and PGC-1alpha co-localized with ERRalpha in the mSirt3 promoter. Knockdown of ERRalpha reduced the induction of Sirt3 by PGC-1alpha in C(2C(12 myotubes. Furthermore, Sirt3 was essential for PGC-1alpha-dependent induction of ROS-detoxifying enzymes and several components of the respiratory chain, including glutathione peroxidase-1, superoxide dismutase 2, ATP synthase 5c, and cytochrome c. Overexpression of SIRT3 or PGC-1alpha in C(2C(12 myotubes decreased basal ROS level. In contrast, knockdown of mSIRT3 increased basal ROS level and blocked the inhibitory effect of PGC-1alpha on cellular ROS production. Finally, SIRT3 stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis, and SIRT3 knockdown decreased the stimulatory effect of PGC-1alpha on mitochondrial biogenesis in C(2C(12 myotubes.Our results indicate that Sirt3 functions as a downstream target gene of PGC-1alpha and mediates the PGC-1alpha effects on cellular ROS production and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, SIRT3 integrates cellular energy

  15. Designing Out the Play: Accessibility and Playfulness in Inclusive Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Raymond; Beckett, Angharad

    2017-01-01

    Play is an important part of child development, yet disabled children are often excluded from the opportunity to play, either due to lack of accessible toys and games, or social pressures. This paper presents a case study reflecting on the development of Button Bash: a switch accessible game intended to encourage inclusive play between disabled and non-disabled children. In particular, the paper focuses on how changes intended to make the game more accessible tended to make it less playful, and reflects on the relationship between playfulness and accessibility.

  16. A study on important factors influencing customer relationship management: A case study of Mobile service provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Customers are considered as essential assets in any organizations including mobile services. During the past few years, mobile industry is growing rapidly and the competitions among business owners increases steadily. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing customer relationship management. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 253 customers in mobile industry in city of Tehran, Iran. All questions are designed in Likert scale and Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.816, which is relatively reliable value. There were 28 questions in this survey and the proposed study extracts five important factors including economic factors, communication skills, organizational resources, service capabilities and flexible market.

  17. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in car accessory market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplying car accessory is one of the most important growing industries in the world. Every year, millions of cars are produced and people need to have the access to necessary car accessory. In this paper, we present an exploration study to detect important factors influencing car accessory market. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 16 questions, distributes it among 200 experts and analyses it using factor analysis. Cronbach alpha and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy are calculated as 0.823 and 0.863, which validate the overall questionnaire. The results indicate that there are three influencing factors including brand capability, brand characteristics and consumers’ believe.

  18. Relative importance index (RII) in ranking of procrastination factors among university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Nazrina; Zain, Zakiyah; Mafuzi, Raja Muhammad Zahid Raja; Mustapa, Aini Mastura; Najib, Nur Hasibah Mohd; Lah, Nik Fatihah Nik

    2016-08-01

    Procrastination is the action of delaying or postponing something such as making a decision or starting or completing some tasks or activities. According to previous studies, students who have a strong tendency to procrastinate get low scores in their tests, resulting in poorer academic performance compared to those who do not procrastinate. This study aims to identify the procrastination factors in completing assignments among three groups of undergraduate students. The relative importance of procrastination factors was quantified by the relative importance index (RII) method prior to ranking. A multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the sample. The findings revealed that `too many works in one time' is one of the top three factors contributing to procrastination in all groups.

  19. A new detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis: Assessing the important meteorological factors affecting API

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen-Hua, E-mail: shenandchen01@163.com [College of Geographical Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource, Nanjing 210046 (China); Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment of Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2015-12-04

    To analyze the unique contribution of meteorological factors to the air pollution index (API), a new method, the detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis (DSPCCA), is proposed. Based on both a detrended cross-correlation analysis and a DFA-based multivariate-linear-regression (DMLR), this method is improved by including a semipartial correlation technique, which is used to indicate the unique contribution of an explanatory variable to multiple correlation coefficients. The advantages of this method in handling nonstationary time series are illustrated by numerical tests. To further demonstrate the utility of this method in environmental systems, new evidence of the primary contribution of meteorological factors to API is provided through DMLR. Results show that the most important meteorological factors affecting API are wind speed and diurnal temperature range, and the explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales. The results suggest that DSPCCA is a useful method for addressing environmental systems. - Highlights: • A detrended multiple linear regression is shown. • A detrended semipartial cross correlation analysis is proposed. • The important meteorological factors affecting API are assessed. • The explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales.

  20. A new detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis: Assessing the important meteorological factors affecting API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Chen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the unique contribution of meteorological factors to the air pollution index (API), a new method, the detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis (DSPCCA), is proposed. Based on both a detrended cross-correlation analysis and a DFA-based multivariate-linear-regression (DMLR), this method is improved by including a semipartial correlation technique, which is used to indicate the unique contribution of an explanatory variable to multiple correlation coefficients. The advantages of this method in handling nonstationary time series are illustrated by numerical tests. To further demonstrate the utility of this method in environmental systems, new evidence of the primary contribution of meteorological factors to API is provided through DMLR. Results show that the most important meteorological factors affecting API are wind speed and diurnal temperature range, and the explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales. The results suggest that DSPCCA is a useful method for addressing environmental systems. - Highlights: • A detrended multiple linear regression is shown. • A detrended semipartial cross correlation analysis is proposed. • The important meteorological factors affecting API are assessed. • The explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales.

  1. The integration of expert-defined importance factors to enrich Bayesian Fault Tree Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, Molham; Almouahed, Shaban; Lamotte, Florent de

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an analysis of a hybrid Bayesian-Importance model for system designers to improve the quality of services related to Active Assisted Living Systems. The proposed model is based on two factors: failure probability measure of different service components and, an expert defined degree of importance that each component holds for the success of the corresponding service. The proposed approach advocates the integration of expert-defined importance factors to enrich the Bayesian Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) approach. The evaluation of the proposed approach is conducted using the Fault Tree Analysis formalism where the undesired state of a system is analyzed using Boolean logic mechanisms to combine a series of lower-level events.

  2. Vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in cardiac disease and affects patient outcome: Still a myth or a fact that needs exploration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Fanari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that a low vitamin D status may be an important and hitherto neglected factor of cardiovascular disease. This review is an overview of the current body of literature, and presents evidence of the mechanisms through which vitamin D deficiency affects the cardiovascular system in general and the heart in particular. Available data indicate that the majority of congestive heart failure patients have 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, the low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level has a higher impact on hypertension, coronary artery disease an on the occurrence of relevant cardiac events. A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level below 75 nmol/l (30 ng/l is generally regarded as vitamin D insufficiency in both adults and children, while a level below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/l is considered deficiency. Levels below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/l are linked independently to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  3. The relative importance of habitual and deliberative factors in food consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Brunsø, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Rational-choice approaches to consumer behaviour neglect the influence of habitual factors. Previous research outside the food choice area has found that habitual factors tend to dominate when the target behaviour is performed often and in stable contexts, whilst deliberative factors tend......), 0.18 (Denmark), 0.10 (Spain), 0.16 (Netherlands), 0.00 (Poland). Although no general answer may exist to the question whether habitual or deliberative factors are more important in food consumer behaviour, habits appear to dominate behaviour in the domain of seafood consumption....... to dominate when the target behaviour is performed rarely and in unstable contexts. In the food choice area, only little research exists that would allow a similar assessment. As part of the SEAFOODplus project, representative surveys were conducted in Belgium, Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands, and Poland...

  4. The relative importance of habitual and deliberative factors in food consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Brunsø, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Rational-choice approaches to consumer behaviour neglect the influence of habitual factors. Previous research outside the food choice area has found that habitual factors tend to dominate when the target behaviour is performed often and in stable contexts, whilst deliberative factors tend...... to dominate when the target behaviour is performed rarely and in unstable contexts. In the food choice area, only little research exists that would allow a similar assessment. As part of the SEAFOODplus project, representative surveys were conducted in Belgium, Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands, and Poland......), 0.18 (Denmark), 0.10 (Spain), 0.16 (Netherlands), 0.00 (Poland). Although no general answer may exist to the question whether habitual or deliberative factors are more important in food consumer behaviour, habits appear to dominate behaviour in the domain of seafood consumption....

  5. Importance of pharmacokinetic studies in the management of acquired factor X deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ming Y; McCarthy, Timothy; Chen, Sheh-Li; Rollins-Raval, Marian A; Ma, Alice D

    2016-01-01

    Up to 14% of individuals with systemic AL amyloidosis develop acquired factor X deficiency, which occurs due to adsorption of factor X onto amyloid fibrils. Although baseline factor X levels are not predictive of bleeding risk in these patients, serious hemorrhagic complications can occur, particularly during invasive procedures. Optimal management strategies to attenuate bleeding risk in these patients are unknown. We describe our experience in the management of acquired factor X deficiency, secondary to systemic AL amyloidosis, in a case series of three patients who received prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) for treatment and prevention of bleeding events. We performed a retrospective review extracting information on baseline demographics, laboratory data, pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, and clinically documented bleeding events. Our case series demonstrates that individuals with acquired factor X deficiency secondary to amyloidosis have variable laboratory and clinical responses to PCCs. This is likely due to distinct amyloid loads and fibril sequences, leading to different binding avidities for factor X. Our data emphasize the importance of performing PK testing prior to any invasive procedures to determine the dose and frequency interval to achieve adequate factor X levels for hemostasis, given the variable response between individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The importance of motivation factors in career development of primary and secondary school professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Stepišnik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the career motivation factors among Slovene teachers. They go hand in hand with two other processes: the psycho-social development of individuals and their family life. We present the results of the empirical research that was carried out on a sample of 360 professionals from primary and secondary schools. We established a scale for determining the importance of motivation factors by asking the professionals to grade their level of agreement with the statements considering the following motivational factors: the legislation and the organization of files in the context of school, the organisational climate and culture at schools, the school management, schools as learning organisations, the need of individuals for career development. We were interested if there exist any differences in the opinions of professionals in primary and secondary schools regarding the importance of individual motivation factors. We were also interested if there exists an interdependence between the final results and the individual variables. The findings are important for professionals and school management in schools that encourage career development. It would be sensible to take these findings into consideration when planning, as well as monitoring career development of school professionals.

  7. The Priority Importance of Economic Motivation Factors Against Risks for Green Building Development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ghazali Farid Ezanee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green building development is an emerging paradigm for the construction industry practice all around the world. The establishement of Green Building rating tool helps to assess the whole life cycle process in planning to operation in a building. The Malaysian construction industry recognizes buildings that have been assessed using established green building tool such Green Building Index, Green RE or My CREST. Eventhough these rating tools provide motivation factors in its criteria and sub-criteria to promote sustainability in Malaysia buildings, there is still a major doubt to developers in terms of risks that may hinder their investments in green buildings. This paper highlights the priority importance of economic motivation factors against risks in the green building development in Malaysia. The data presented in this paper have been mainly derived from responses received through questionnaires completed by building stakeholders involved in green building developments. In order to determine the priority importance of economic motivation factors and risks identified for green building development, the questionnaire outcomes have been thoroughly assessed using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method. As a result, lack of government incentive and high capital cost, which classified under green building risks, are the two key factors with highest priority importance that influenced most of the decision making for green building development in Malaysia. The results show green buildings have proliferated as governmental support and incentives with more exampler of higher profit return of investment in enhancing developers preference for green building development.

  8. INNOVATIONS AS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR INFLUENCING LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bušelić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic science has long recognized labour productivity as an important factor of economic growth. In the uncertain conditions of increasingly fierce and complex competition, it becomes one of the key prerequisites for an adequate response to global challenges. The development of labour productivity has to be observed as a multi-dimensional process including numerous interconnected quantitative and qualitative factors, in particular human factors and technological advancement realized through investments in research and development (innovations. The analysis of labour productivity in the manufacturing industry of the selected countries, Germany and China, is performed in the context of an important influential factor – innovations, and interdependently with the economic growth of the selected countries. The research results and the conducted regression analyses indicate a superiority of German labour productivity in the manufacturing industry, which is strongly affected by considerable investments in research and development. However, the technological convergence of China as the upcoming power is increasingly important, which shows that the gap in labour productivity is decreasing, making developed countries face new challenges posed by globalization. The analysis of the interdependence of economic growth (GDP and labour productivity in the manufacturing industry points to a positive link and the conclusion that the elasticity of the GDP to changes in labour productivity is greater in China than in Germany.

  9. Patients’ experience of important factors in the healthcare environment in oncology care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Wijk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective. The aim of this study was to describe what factors of the healthcare environment are perceived as being important to patients in oncology care. Design. A qualitative design was adopted using focus group interviews. Setting and participants. The sample was 11 patients with different cancer diagnoses in an oncology ward at a university hospital in west Sweden. Results. Analysis of the patients’ perceptions of the environment indicated a complex entity comprising several aspects. These came together in a structure consisting of three main categories: safety, partnership with the staff, and physical space. The care environment is perceived as a complex entity, made up of several physical and psychosocial aspects, where the physical factors are subordinated by the psychosocial factors. It is clearly demonstrated that the patients’ primary desire was a psychosocial environment where they were seen as a unique person; the patients wanted opportunities for good encounters with staff, fellow patients, and family members, supported by a good physical environment; and the patients valued highly a place to withdraw and rest. Conclusions. This study presents those attributes that are valued by cancer patients as crucial and important for the support of their well-being and functioning. The results show that physical aspects were subordinate to psychosocial factors, which emerged strongly as being the most important in a caring environment.

  10. Enhancing Playful Teachers' Perception of the Importance of ICT Use in the Classroom: The Role of Risk Taking as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, A. Lin; Low, Ee Ling; Ng, Pak Tee; Yeung, Alexander S.; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    In today's world, teaching and learning processes inevitably involve the application of information and communication technology (ICT). It seems reasonable to expect personal attributes such as cognitive playfulness to be associated with consistent application of ICT. Using survey responses from Singapore students in a teacher education programme…

  11. Relative importance and interrelations between psychosocial factors and individualized quality of life of hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovbin, David; Gidron, Yori; Jean, Tzipora; Granovsky, Ricardo; Schnieder, Alla

    2003-09-01

    Since quality of life (QOL) of hemodialysis (HD) patients is low and frequently difficult to improve by medical therapy, it is important to identify psychosocial correlates and life-domains important for HD patients' QOL. Our hypothesis was that psychosocial factors reflecting appraisal, external and internal resources/impediments correlate with QOL and compensate for adverse effects of disease-related variables on QOL. Forty-eight chronic HD-patients identified and rank-ordered life-domains important for QOL and rated their level of satisfaction with those domains. This was performed using a slightly modified version of the Self-Evaluated Individualized QOL (SEiQOL) Scale. Psychosocial factors included perceived-control (PC), social-support and hostility. Demographic and disease-related factors included age, gender, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, hematocrit, albumin and C-reactive protein. QOL was significantly correlated with PC (r = 0.65) and social-support (r = 0.38), and inversely correlated with hostility (r = -0.31), diabetes and hypoalbuminemia (all at least p < 0.05). PC mediated effects of certain variables (e.g., albumin, gender, hostility) and moderated effects of little social-support and hypoalbuminemia on QOL. Patients' most important QOL domains were health, with which satisfaction was lowest, followed by family, with which satisfaction was highest. Pending replication with larger samples, assessment and enhancement of PC may improve HD patients' QOL.

  12. [Are risk factors in prenatal and perinatal period important for develompent of schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroz, P; Janoutová, J; Machaczka, O; Kovaľová, M; Pohlídalová, A; Vařechová, K; Košta, O; Tomášková, H; Šerý, O; Hosák, L; Janout, V

    Schizophrenia is an important psychical disease of multifactorial origin and not yet clear etiology. In prenatal and perinatal period some potential risk factors for schizophrenia are taken into consideration. Case-control study of 815 subjects, 407 cases and 408 controls was performed in 2013 to 2015. In this study environmental and genetic risk factors were evaluated including potential risk factors of prenatal and perinatal period. Statistically important difference was found in child-birth done by cesarean section (p = 0.009) and in patients with schizophrenia were 15.7% complications in the course of childbirth (p < 0.001). Hypoxia, passed umbilical cord were the most frequent complications. In prenatal period premature childbirth, injury and psychical complications were the most frequent. On the other hand difference in weight and length of newborns, breast feeding and infection during pregnancy were found not statistically important. In this study statistically important diference were found in way of carrying childbirth and in some complications during pregnancy and delivery. Influence of infection during pregnancy and influence of weight and length of newborn were not demonstrated.

  13. The importance of the impact of political risk factors in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Essel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Political risk factors often impact negatively on the financial results of an enterprise, industry, geographical region or an entire country. In severe cases they may even lead to financial disasters. Previous research (by Essel identified 10 specific political risk factors which are common to emerging market economies. As South Africa is a developing country with an emerging market economy, these 10 political risk factors should also be present in this country. This paper focuses on the importance of the impact of political risk factors on an agent’s total annual claims amount when underwriting political risk insurance in South Africa. The objective of this research paper embodies the improvement of financial decision-making by a particular enterprise, industry, geographical region or country operating in an emerging market economy, pertaining to the importance of the impact of political risk factors. A literature study as well as an empirical survey was done to achieve the study’s objective. The conclusions of this research should also be valuable to other enterprises, industries, geographical regions or countries which operate in an emerging market economy.

  14. The importance of geomorphic and hydrologic factors in shaping the sensitivity of alpine/subalpine lake volumes to shifts in climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J.; Liefert, D. T.; Shuman, B. N.; Befus, K. M.; Williams, D. G.; Kraushaar, B.

    2017-12-01

    Alpine and subalpine lakes are important components of the hydrologic cycle in mountain ecosystems. These lakes are also highly sensitive to small shifts in temperature and precipitation. Mountain lake volumes and their contributions to mountain hydrology may change in response to even minor declines in snowpack or increases in temperature. However, it is still not clear to what degree non-climatic factors, such as geomorphic setting and lake geometry, play in shaping the sensitivity of high elevation lakes to climate change. We investigated the importance of lake geometry and groundwater connectivity to mountain lakes in the Snowy Range, Wyoming using a combination of hydrophysical and hydrochemical methods, including stable water isotopes, to better understand the role these factors play in controlling lake volume. Water isotope values in open lakes were less sensitive to evaporation compared to those in closed basin lakes. Lake geometry played an important role, with wider, shallower lakes being more sensitive to evaporation over time. Groundwater contributions appear to play only a minor role in buffering volumetric changes to lakes over the growing season. These results confirm that mountain lakes are sensitive to climate factors, but also highlight a significant amount of variability in that sensitivity. This research has implications for water resource managers concerned with downstream water quantity and quality from mountain ecosystems, biologists interested in maintaining aquatic biodiversity, and paleoclimatologists interested in using lake sedimentary information to infer past climate regimes.

  15. Does Performance in Digital Reading Relate to Computer Game Playing? A Study of Factor Structure and Gender Patterns in 15-Year-Olds' Reading Literacy Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmusson, Maria; Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Data from a Swedish PISA-sample were used (1) to identify a digital reading factor, (2) to investigate gender differences in this factor (if found), and (3) to explore how computer game playing might relate to digital reading performance and gender. The analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling techniques. In addition to an overall…

  16. Decreased importance of environmental risk factors for childhood asthma from 1996 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerg, A; Hedman, L; Perzanowski, M; Wennergren, G; Lundbäck, B; Rönmark, E

    2015-01-01

    The large increase in asthma prevalence continues in several, but not all areas. Despite the individual risk factors that have been identified, the reasons for the observed trends in prevalence are largely unknown. This study sought to characterize what trends in risk factors accompanied trends in asthma prevalence. Two population-based cohorts of 7- to 8-year-old children from the same Swedish study areas examined by expanded International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood questionnaires were compared 10 years apart. In 1996 and 2006, 3430 (97% participation) and 2585 (96% participation) questionnaires were completed, respectively. A subset was skin-prick-tested: in 1996 and 2006, 2148 (88% participation) and 1700 (90% participation) children, respectively. The adjusted population-attributable fraction (aPAF) was calculated using the prevalence and multivariate odds ratio of each risk factor. The prevalence of current asthma and wheeze was similar in 1996 and 2006. Allergic sensitization, however, increased from 21% to 30%. The prevalence of parental asthma increased from 17% to 24%, while respiratory infections and maternal smoking decreased (60% to 29% and 32% to 16%, respectively). The aPAFs of non-environmental risk factors for current asthma increased in 1996-2006: allergic sensitization from 35% to 41%, parental asthma from 27% to 45% and male sex from 20% to 25%. Conversely, the aPAFs of environmental risk factors decreased: respiratory infections from 36% to 32% and damp home and maternal smoking from 14% and 19%, respectively, to near zero in 2006. From 1996 to 2006, the non-environmental risk factors parental asthma, allergic sensitization and male sex had an increasing or constant importance for current asthma in 7- to 8-year-old children. The importance of the environmental exposures damp home, respiratory infections and maternal smoking decreased. This counterbalancing in risk factors may explain the level of prevalence of current asthma.

  17. Cleft lip and palate review: Epidemiology, risk factors, quality of life, and importance of classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureen Supit

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip with or without cleft palate is the most occurring craniofacial anomaly in human, resulting from a complex etiology involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. The defect carries lifelong morbidity and economic burden. Children with clefts will require continuous medical interventions for at least the first 18 years of life, affecting many aspects of their lives. The extent and complexity of clefts vary infinitely, later determining individual management and outcome. Identification and classification play significant roles in initial assessment of these unique cleft cases, which affect options for following correctional attempts. Some classifications even allow measurement of progress after anatomical repositioning, and success rate after surgical repairs. The challenge of developing one such widely inclusive classification is discussed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 226-39Keywords: Cleft lip, cleft palate, congenital anomaly, cleft  classfications

  18. Playful Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the implications of current attempts by organizations to adapt to a world of constant change by introducing the notion of playful organizational membership. To this end we conduct a brief semantic history of organizational play and argue that when organizations play, employees...... are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...

  19. Spatial Factors Play a Major Role as Determinants of Endemic Ground Beetle Beta Diversity of Madeira Island Laurisilva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boieiro, Mário; Carvalho, José C.; Cardoso, Pedro; Aguiar, Carlos A. S.; Rego, Carla; de Faria e Silva, Israel; Amorim, Isabel R.; Pereira, Fernando; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Serrano, Artur R. M.

    2013-01-01

    The development in recent years of new beta diversity analytical approaches highlighted valuable information on the different processes structuring ecological communities. A crucial development for the understanding of beta diversity patterns was also its differentiation in two components: species turnover and richness differences. In this study, we evaluate beta diversity patterns of ground beetles from 26 sites in Madeira Island distributed throughout Laurisilva – a relict forest restricted to the Macaronesian archipelagos. We assess how the two components of ground beetle beta diversity (βrepl – species turnover and βrich - species richness differences) relate with differences in climate, geography, landscape composition matrix, woody plant species richness and soil characteristics and the relative importance of the effects of these variables at different spatial scales. We sampled 1025 specimens from 31 species, most of which are endemic to Madeira Island. A spatially explicit analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of pure environmental, pure spatial and environmental spatially structured effects on variation in ground beetle species richness and composition. Variation partitioning showed that 31.9% of species turnover (βrepl) and 40.7% of species richness variation (βrich) could be explained by the environmental and spatial variables. However, different environmental variables controlled the two types of beta diversity: βrepl was influenced by climate, disturbance and soil organic matter content whilst βrich was controlled by altitude and slope. Furthermore, spatial variables, represented through Moran’s eigenvector maps, played a significant role in explaining both βrepl and βrich, suggesting that both dispersal ability and Madeira Island complex orography are crucial for the understanding of beta diversity patterns in this group of beetles. PMID:23724065

  20. Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play, as defined by biologists and psychologists, is probably heterogeneous. On the other hand, playfulness may be a unitary motivational state. Playful play as opposed to activities that merge into aggression is characterized by positive mood, intrinsic motivation, occurring in a protected context and easily disrupted by stress. Playful play is a good measure of positive welfare. It can occupy a substantial part of the waking-life of a young mammal or bird. Numerous functions for play have been proposed and they are by no means mutually exclusive, but some evidence indicates that those individual animals that play most are most likely to survive and reproduce. The link of playful play to creativity and hence to innovation in humans is strong. Considerable evidence suggests that coming up with new ideas requires a different mindset from usefully implementing a new idea.

  1. Identify the Important Decision Factors of Online Shopping Adoption in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lailatul HIJRAH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify factors encouraging a consumer to engage in online shopping activities. The expected contribution of this study is for online entrepreneurs, in order to develop the most suitable business strategy, so that it will be clearly identified and sorted out which factors are the most important and the main motivation of Indonesian consumers to shop via online by using responses from respondents who usually shop online and offline in 3 cities in Indonesia, Jakarta, Surabaya and Samarinda. The research instruments were developed by conducting FGDs on relevant groups, either academics, online shopping activists, suppliers and courier businessmen in Jakarta, Surabaya and Samarinda Cities in effort to extract any information that encourages consumers to online shopping. After conducting FGD, the researcher produced 48 items proposed for factor analysis and after extracted to form eleven constructs, some items were removed because they had less loading factors. The eleven constructs or dimensions are trust, risk, consumer factors, website factors, price, service quality, convenience, subjective norm, product guarantee, variety of products and lifestyle. The implications of this study provide valuable insights about consumer decisions to online shopping or not online shopping.

  2. Hypoxia inducible factorplays a critical role in alveolarization and distal epithelial cell differentiation during mouse lung development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadi Huang

    Full Text Available Lung development occurs under relative hypoxia and the most important oxygen-sensitive response pathway is driven by Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIF. HIFs are heterodimeric transcription factors of an oxygen-sensitive subunit, HIFα, and a constitutively expressed subunit, HIF1β. HIF1α and HIF2α, encoded by two separate genes, contribute to the activation of hypoxia inducible genes. A third HIFα gene, HIF3α, is subject to alternative promoter usage and splicing, leading to three major isoforms, HIF3α, NEPAS and IPAS. HIF3α gene products add to the complexity of the hypoxia response as they function as dominant negative inhibitors (IPAS or weak transcriptional activators (HIF3α/NEPAS. Previously, we and others have shown the importance of the Hif1α and Hif2α factors in lung development, and here we investigated the role of Hif3α during pulmonary development. Therefore, HIF3α was conditionally expressed in airway epithelial cells during gestation and although HIF3α transgenic mice were born alive and appeared normal, their lungs showed clear abnormalities, including a post-pseudoglandular branching defect and a decreased number of alveoli. The HIF3α expressing lungs displayed reduced numbers of Clara cells, alveolar epithelial type I and type II cells. As a result of HIF3α expression, the level of Hif2α was reduced, but that of Hif1α was not affected. Two regulatory genes, Rarβ, involved in alveologenesis, and Foxp2, a transcriptional repressor of the Clara cell specific Ccsp gene, were significantly upregulated in the HIF3α expressing lungs. In addition, aberrant basal cells were observed distally as determined by the expression of Sox2 and p63. We show that Hif3α binds a conserved HRE site in the Sox2 promoter and weakly transactivated a reporter construct containing the Sox2 promoter region. Moreover, Hif3α affected the expression of genes not typically involved in the hypoxia response, providing evidence for a novel

  3. [Importance of age and other risk factors in NSAID-induced gastropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hang Lak; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Jin Bae; Kim, Jong Pyo; Jeon, Yong Chul; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Hahm, Joon Soo

    2004-11-01

    It is clinically important to analyze the risk factors of NSAID-induced gastropathy because there could be no symptoms. Age is the most important risk factor according to previous reports. The aim of this study was to find risk factors of NSAID-induced gastropathy and to confirm the association between NSAID-induced gastropathy and age. We retrospectively assessed 300 patients who conducted an upper gastroscopy during the course of chronic NSAID treatment. Median age of patients group is 51.4 +/- 12.2 years. In multivariate analysis, age and ulcer history are two significant risk factors. Median age is 46.7 +/- 10.7 years for the patients with nonspecific gastroscopic finding, 53.0 +/- 12.5 for those with erosion, 57.6 +/- 10.0 for those with ulcer, and 63.2 +/- 8.9 for those with hemorrhage. The proportion of ulcer patients is as follows: 6% in the patients of under 40 years old, 14.9% in patients of the 40s, 20% in patients of the 50s, 30.9% in patients of the 60s, 33.3% in patients over 70 years. The proportion of nonspecific findings is 62.2% in patients of the 40s, 37.8% in patients of the 50s, and 29% in patients over 60 years. Age is the most important risk factor of the NSAID-induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury. A larger randomized prospective control study will be required in the future for more conclusive results.

  4. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were che...

  5. Factors Important to the Efficiency of Artificial Insemination in Single-Ovulating and Superovulated Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Joseph C.

    1999-01-01

    To identify factors important to the efficiency of artificial insemination in cattle, four studies were conducted. In the first study, the addition of cream to the inseminate was used in an attempt to increase accessory sperm number. On d 6 after insemination, 60 embryos were evaluated. The addition of cream to the inseminate had no effect on accessory sperm number. In the second study, cryopreserved semen of a marked bull (spermatozoa exhibiting a semi-flattened anterior head) was matched wi...

  6. Importance of bio-medical and socio-economic factors for increase of life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Biljana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the connection between life expectancy according to sex and numerous factors on which its level depends on. Statistical analysis understood application of correlation and regression analysis for determining the connection strength of life expectancy and researched factors separately and then all factors together, as well as separately groups of health-medical and socio-economic factors. The analysis was carried out for a group of developed countries, medium developed, mixed group and Yugoslavia (now SCG on available data for the second half of the 20th century. Analysis results for Yugoslavia showed that the greatest influence on life expectancy of all factors together were setting aside funds for social security (p<0.05. If only health-medical factors are observed, then child mortality up to 5 years and tumor mortality are in question. With women, the greatest influence is with child mortality up to five years old among all factors (factor was statistically significant. In the mixed sample, the strongest connection with men was with gross national income per capita (p<0.01, and with women with child mortality up to five years old (p=0.017. Therefore on the basis of the determined statistical importance of certain factors analysis showed that the influence of socio-economic factors on life expectancy was very strong in present conditions of mortality, not only in positive, but in negative direction as well, and that their influence in that second half of the 20th century was greater than the influence of health

  7. Serum albumin is an important prognostic factor for carotid blowout syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hsuehju; Chen Kuowei; Chen Minghuang; Tzeng Chenghwai; Chang Peter Muhsin; Yang Muhhwa; Chu Penyuan; Tai Shyhkuan

    2013-01-01

    Carotid blowout syndrome is a severe complication of head and neck cancer. High mortality and major neurologic morbidity are associated with carotid blowout syndrome with massive bleeding. Prediction of outcomes for carotid blowout syndrome patients is important for clinicians, especially for patients with the risk of massive bleeding. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2011, 103 patients with carotid blowout syndrome were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into groups with and without massive bleeding. Prognostic factors were analysed with proportional hazard (Cox) regressions for carotid blowout syndrome-related prognoses. Survival analyses were based on the time from diagnosis of carotid blowout syndrome to massive bleeding and death. Patients with massive bleeding were more likely to have hypoalbuminemia (albumin 1000 cells/μl, P=0.041) and hypoalbuminemia (P=0.010) were important to prognosis. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (P=0.007), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (>250 U/l; P=0.050), local recurrence (P=0.022) and hypoalbuminemia (P=0.038) were related to poor prognosis in carotid blowout syndrome-related death. In multivariate analysis, best supportive care and hypoalbuminemia were independent factors for both carotid blowout syndrome-related massive bleeding (P=0.000) and carotid blowout syndrome-related death (P=0.013), respectively. Best supportive care and serum albumin are important prognostic factors in carotid blowout syndrome. It helps clinicians to evaluate and provide better supportive care for these patients. (author)

  8. Importance of Motivational Factors among Future Business Persons: Further Evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kwame Kuutol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Businesses design motivation systems to persuade employees to perform in the most effective way but also to attract potential candidates. The key to create the efficient motivation system is an answer to the question what actually motivate employees. The rationale of this paper is to find which of the motivation factors are seen as the most important by students considered as future business persons either by gender or job possession as set out in the questionnaire. The study was based on the questionnaire distributed to the sample of 462 respondents from Presbyterian University college of Ghana. Respondents were asked to rank thirteen motivation factors in the order of their importance. The findings showed that Good wages and job security were the most important factors for all students as well as good working conditions.   The research recommended the creation of motivation systems for freshly graduated potential employees and freshly graduated employees to me their expectations as well as for planning recruitment strategies focused on future job seekers.

  9. A study on important factors influencing innovation in service: A case study of hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koorosh Kohyari Haghighat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hotel industry plays important role on developing tourism industry and having better services in this industry always help increase market share. The proposed study of this paper considers the effects of four variables including collaboration with staff, collaboration with customers, collaboration with partners and business owners and finally mechanism of integration of knowledge on innovation on service. The population of this survey includes 259 hotels where we send our questionnaire to 179 and manage to collect 170 ones. Cronbach alpha for four variables including collaboration with staff, collaboration with customers, collaboration with partners and business owners and finally mechanism of integration of knowledge were calculated as 0.78, 0.865, 0.743 and 0.890, respectively. The proposed study uses structural equation modeling to study the relationship between independent variables and dependent variable and the effects of four variables are confirmed when the level of significance is five percent.

  10. The Relative Importance of Spatial and Local Environmental Factors in Determining Beetle Assemblages in the Inner Mongolia Grassland.

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    Xiao-Dong Yu

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to increase understanding of the relative importance of the input of geographic and local environmental factors on richness and composition of epigaeic steppe beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Tenebrionidae along a geographic (longitudinal/precipitation gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Specifically, we evaluate the associations of environmental variables representing climate and environmental heterogeneity with beetle assemblages. Beetles were sampled using pitfall traps at 25 sites scattered across the full geographic extent of the study biome in 2011-2012. We used variance partitioning techniques and multi-model selection based on the Akaike information criterion to assess the relative importance of the spatial and environmental variables on beetle assemblages. Species richness and abundance showed unimodal patterns along the geographic gradient. Together with space, climate variables associated with precipitation, water-energy balance and harshness of climate had strong explanatory power in richness pattern. Abundance pattern showed strongest association with variation in temperature and environmental heterogeneity. Climatic factors associated with temperature and precipitation variables and the interaction between climate with space were able to explain a substantial amount of variation in community structure. In addition, the turnover of species increased significantly as geographic distances increased. We confirmed that spatial and local environmental factors worked together to shape epigaeic beetle communities along the geographic gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Moreover, the climate features, especially precipitation, water-energy balance and temperature, and the interaction between climate with space and environmental heterogeneity appeared to play important roles on controlling richness and abundance, and species compositions of epigaeic beetles.

  11. The Correlation between Early Stages of Life Exposed to Chinese Famine and Cognitive Decline in Adulthood: Nutrition of Adulthood Plays an Important Role in the Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Hongguo; Xi, Yuandi; An, Yu; Tao, Lingwei; Zhang, Xiaona; Yu, Huiyan; Wang, Ying; Qin, Zhongsheng; Xiao, Rong

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether people exposed to the Chinese Famine in fetal period or in multiple stages of childhood are associated with cognitive decline in adulthood. Furthermore, the nutritional environment of adulthood was explored as an important factor in this correlation. Methods: 1162 adults born between 1952 and 1964 were recruited. They were divided into five groups which were non-exposed group, fetal-exposed group, early childhood-exposed group, mid childhood-exposed group and late childhood-exposed group. Cognitive function was measured by using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery test, including Montreal cognitive assessment-Beijing version, mini-mental state examination, auditory verbal learning test, digit span forward, digit span backward, trail making test, and digit symbol test. Semi-quantified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the dietary nutrition in their adulthood. The dietary nutrient consumption pattern was identified by Two-step and K-means cluster analysis. Results: The significant differences in cognitive function were manifested in different groups. Compared with non-exposed group, subjects in fetal-exposed group had a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (OR 1.51 95% CI 1.02–2.23, P = 0.039) and global cognitive decline (OR 1.68 59% CI 1.02–2.77, P = 0.044). The similar result was also observed in subjects of early childhood-exposed group. Otherwise, subjects who were classified in high nutrient consumption pattern had higher risk of cognitive decline. Moreover, the higher consumption of several nutrients such as fat, carbohydrate and manganese were associated with worse performance on digit span forward, digit span backward, trail making test A, trail making test B and digit symbol. Conclusion: Early stages of life exposed to the Chinese Famine were associated with higher risk of cognitive decline in adulthood. The stronger associations were manifested in the

  12. The Correlation between Early Stages of Life Exposed to Chinese Famine and Cognitive Decline in Adulthood: Nutrition of Adulthood Plays an Important Role in the Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguo Rong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether people exposed to the Chinese Famine in fetal period or in multiple stages of childhood are associated with cognitive decline in adulthood. Furthermore, the nutritional environment of adulthood was explored as an important factor in this correlation.Methods: 1162 adults born between 1952 and 1964 were recruited. They were divided into five groups which were non-exposed group, fetal-exposed group, early childhood-exposed group, mid childhood-exposed group and late childhood-exposed group. Cognitive function was measured by using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery test, including Montreal cognitive assessment-Beijing version, mini-mental state examination, auditory verbal learning test, digit span forward, digit span backward, trail making test, and digit symbol test. Semi-quantified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was used to assess the dietary nutrition in their adulthood. The dietary nutrient consumption pattern was identified by Two-step and K-means cluster analysis.Results: The significant differences in cognitive function were manifested in different groups. Compared with non-exposed group, subjects in fetal-exposed group had a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI (OR 1.51 95% CI 1.02–2.23, P = 0.039 and global cognitive decline (OR 1.68 59% CI 1.02–2.77, P = 0.044. The similar result was also observed in subjects of early childhood-exposed group. Otherwise, subjects who were classified in high nutrient consumption pattern had higher risk of cognitive decline. Moreover, the higher consumption of several nutrients such as fat, carbohydrate and manganese were associated with worse performance on digit span forward, digit span backward, trail making test A, trail making test B and digit symbol.Conclusion: Early stages of life exposed to the Chinese Famine were associated with higher risk of cognitive decline in adulthood. The stronger associations were manifested

  13. The importance of continuing surveillance of risk factors for prevention of cardiovascular diseases

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    Gaetano Lanza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available After peaking in the 1960s’, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs have shown a consistent decline in western countries in recent decades [1].Despite this,CVDs remain the major cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialized populations, with relevant associated socio-economical issues, while their incidence is increasing in developing countries. Several factors have likely contributed to the reduced incidence of CVDs in industrialized societies, including an increase in education and attention to health issues, lifestyle changes and improvement in diagnostic facilities and therapeutic tools. Epidemiologic studies have played an outstanding role in the decline of CVDs. Indeed, they have allowed for the identification of habits and conditions which expose healthy subjects to an increased risk of development of atherosclerosis and its complications They have also led to the implementation of appropriate programs and campaigns aimed at fighting the identified risk factors by means of changes in diet and lifestyle and the use of specific drug treatments. In particular, tight control and prevention of hypertension, smoking and hypercholesterolemia has largely contributed to the reduction of CVDs, accounting for more than 50% of the reduction of mortality from the 1960s’ to the 1990s’ [2].This approach was also crucial in improving the clinical outcomes of secondary prevention for CVDs.

  14. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were checked. Respondents' importance and satisfaction of street food hygiene and selection attributes were also measured. In order to test for the difference between groups, χ2-test and t-test were performed. ISA was also performed to analyze importance and satisfaction. RESULTS Results showed that the importance of sanitation was significantly higher than satisfaction on all items in both Korea and Taiwan, and the satisfaction with sanitation was higher in Taiwan than in Korea. According to ISA results with street food sanitation, satisfaction was low while importance was high in both Korea and Taiwan. In terms of street food choice factor, importance scores were significantly higher than satisfaction scores on all items. In addition, satisfaction scores on all items except 'taste' were significantly higher in Taiwan than in Korea. CONCLUSIONS A manual on sanitation management of street foods should be developed to change the knowledge and attitude toward sanitation by putting into practice a regularly conducted education. Considering the popularity of street foods and its potential as a tourism resource to easily publicize our food culture, thorough management measures should be prepared on sanitation so that safe street food culture should be created. PMID:26060542

  16. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were checked. Respondents' importance and satisfaction of street food hygiene and selection attributes were also measured. In order to test for the difference between groups, χ(2)-test and t-test were performed. ISA was also performed to analyze importance and satisfaction. Results showed that the importance of sanitation was significantly higher than satisfaction on all items in both Korea and Taiwan, and the satisfaction with sanitation was higher in Taiwan than in Korea. According to ISA results with street food sanitation, satisfaction was low while importance was high in both Korea and Taiwan. In terms of street food choice factor, importance scores were significantly higher than satisfaction scores on all items. In addition, satisfaction scores on all items except 'taste' were significantly higher in Taiwan than in Korea. A manual on sanitation management of street foods should be developed to change the knowledge and attitude toward sanitation by putting into practice a regularly conducted education. Considering the popularity of street foods and its potential as a tourism resource to easily publicize our food culture, thorough management measures should be prepared on sanitation so that safe street food culture should be created.

  17. [The role of playful interactions in the development of the early mother-child relationship--factors of risk and protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigner, Bernadett

    2015-01-01

    The early mother-child relationship is taking shape and evolving during the series of their everyday interactions. The main aim of the research that focus on the risks at the beginning, and the future mother infant interactions are factors that have influence on the quality of the early mother-child relationship, and the exploration of the jeopardy and vulnerability of the early relationship disorders. I examined fifty mothers who have their first child. I researched the motherly, child- and interactional factors in the days right after the birth and then when the kids were one month old, and again at the age of four and a half month. I assessed the parental stress by the longer version of the PSI (Parenting Stress Index), and the mother anxiety with the help of the STAI-Y (State and feature anxiety value Index), and the features of the depression were tested by the EPDS scale, the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale. PBQ, the Postpartum Bonding Questionnare--reveals the quality of the motherly emotions and behaviour focusing on the kid. The observation of interactions when the child was four and a half month old happened while a 'face-to-face' free play, and the analyses of that were assessed by an own code system. We found correlations between input risk factors and features of motherly interactional styles. The indexes of the after birth depression (depression right after the birth), and the anxiety also showed correlation to the indexes of the attachment of the mother to her child and the parental stress. The correlations among the playfulness, the risk kotodefactors and the quality of the interactions are obvious, that we found. The interactional style of the mother and the interactional strategies of the baby showed correlated patterns too as we examined those. We found that pre-history of pregnancy and perinatal events have predictive value on the relationship of the four and a half month old baby and his/her mother. These can add important facts to the

  18. The importance of cultural factors in the distribution of medicinal plant knowledge: a case study in four Basque regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tardío, Javier; Salpeteur, Matthieu; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2015-02-23

    Previous research suggests that the use of medicinal plants by a given group is mainly driven by biological variables such as the chemical composition or the ecological distribution of plants. However, other studies highlight the importance of cultural aspects such as the curative meaning given to a plant, beliefs, religion or the historical context. Such aspects could play an important role in the use, diffusion or even in the effectiveness of a plant remedy. Fieldwork consisted of 233 orally consented semi-structured interviews with 178 informants about medicinal uses of plants. Interviews were conducted in four historically and geographycally delimited regions of Alava and Biscay with similar environmental conditions but different sociolinguistic backgrounds: two regions were Basque- and two Spanish-speaking. Data were structured in use-reports. A Between Class Analysis was conducted to assess the intercultural and intracultural variability of medicinal plants knowledge. The results show the existence of four clearly different medicinal ethnofloras. While the four ethnofloras share remedies widely distributed through the territory, each of them also includes remedies that are only shared among closely related communities. The ecological availability and chemical composition of the plants may explain why there are widely used plant remedies. On the contrary, the distribution of the locally shared remedies matches up with the cultural heterogeneity of the territory, so cultural factors, such as, language, social networks or the meaning response of the plants seem to explain the use of many traditional plant remedies. In Addition, we also found that Basque speaking territories show higher knowledge levels than Spanish speaking territories. In this sense, the development and reinforcement of Basque identity by Basque nationalism seems to have contributed to maintain the traditional knowledge in the Basque speaking regions. Despite the fact that pharmacological

  19. Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Timothy; Blankenship, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is a treatment modality in which the therapist engages in play with the child. Its use has been documented in a variety of settings and with a variety of diagnoses. Treating within the context of play brings the therapist and the therapy to the level of the child. By way of an introduction to this approach, a case is presented of a six-year-old boy with oppositional defiant disorder. The presentation focuses on the events and interactions of a typical session with an established patient. The primary issues of the session are aggression, self worth, and self efficacy. These themes manifest themselves through the content of the child’s play and narration of his actions. The therapist then reflects these back to the child while gently encouraging the child toward more positive play. Though the example is one of nondirective play therapy, a wide range of variation exists under the heading of play therapy. PMID:19724720

  20. The relative importance of regional, local, and evolutionary factors structuring cryptobenthic coral-reef assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadia, Gabby N.; Tornabene, Luke; Smith, David J.; Pezold, Frank L.

    2018-03-01

    Factors shaping coral-reef fish species assemblages can operate over a wide range of spatial scales (local versus regional) and across both proximate and evolutionary time. Niche theory and neutral theory provide frameworks for testing assumptions and generating insights about the importance of local versus regional processes. Niche theory postulates that species assemblages are an outcome of evolutionary processes at regional scales followed by local-scale interactions, whereas neutral theory presumes that species assemblages are formed by largely random processes drawing from regional species pools. Indo-Pacific cryptobenthic coral-reef fishes are highly evolved, ecologically diverse, temporally responsive, and situated on a natural longitudinal diversity gradient, making them an ideal group for testing predictions from niche and neutral theories and effects of regional and local processes on species assemblages. Using a combination of ecological metrics (fish density, diversity, assemblage composition) and evolutionary analyses (testing for phylogenetic niche conservatism), we demonstrate that the structure of cryptobenthic fish assemblages can be explained by a mixture of regional factors, such as the size of regional species pools and broad-scale barriers to gene flow/drivers of speciation, coupled with local-scale factors, such as the relative abundance of specific microhabitat types. Furthermore, species of cryptobenthic fishes have distinct microhabitat associations that drive significant differences in assemblage community structure between microhabitat types, and these distinct microhabitat associations are phylogenetically conserved over evolutionary timescales. The implied differential fitness of cryptobenthic fishes across varied microhabitats and the conserved nature of their ecology are consistent with predictions from niche theory. Neutral theory predictions may still hold true for early life-history stages, where stochastic factors may be more

  1. IMPORT SUBSTITUTION IN RUSSIA AS DEVELOPMENT FACTOR IN GLOBAL CHALLENGES PERIOD OF 2017–2019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Komkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: objectives of research: 1 Justification of a new role of import-substituting strategy as factor of large-scale import-substituting industrial revolution in the Russian Federation, an economic development driving force; 2 Confirmation of expediency of complex synergetic innovative tools of state support on decrease in import technology dependence of the Russian Federation, increase in dynamics of industry growth, technological potential and export of technologies; 3 The proof of progressiveness of scaling of import substitution as new key strategy of Russia development taking into account the best international experience, public and private initiatives and risks of import substitution.Methods: the methodology of the work is based on a modeling of scenarios, analysis of open statistical sources, projections and calculations, forecasting methods.Results: on the basis of the analysis of statistics a positive assessment is given to methodologically progressive instruments and mechanisms of realization of strategy of import substitution in the Russian Federation with the proved or potential efficiency taking into account national specifics. New national advantages and benefits of overcoming the degrading consumer market in Russia in 2014–2015 are shown. Processes of transformation and creation of the new national market on the basis of import substitution are described. The forecast of achievement of planned targets for import substitution programs in the Russian Federation on condition of further total economy modernization for import substitution is developed.conclusions and relevance: the statistics of large-scale revolutionary transition of the enterprises of the Russian Federation to a full cycle of production instead of the short technological chains which have taken roots in the last 20 years is collected. The problems and risks which are slowing down progress in import substitution in the Russian Federation are revealed. The role

  2. Why people continue to play online games: in search of critical design factors to increase customer loyalty to online contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongseong; Kim, Jinwoo

    2004-02-01

    As people increasingly play online games, numerous new features have been proposed to increase players' log-on time at online gaming sites. However, few studies have investigated why people continue to play certain online games or which design features are most closely related to the amount of time spent by players at particular online gaming sites. This study proposes a theoretical model using the concepts of customer loyalty, flow, personal interaction, and social interaction to explain why people continue to play online network games. The study then conducts a large-scale survey to validate the model. Finally, it analyzes current online games to identify design features that are closely related to the theoretical concepts. The results indicate that people continue to play online games if they have optimal experiences while playing the games. This optimal experience can be attained if the player has effective personal interaction with the system or pleasant social interactions with other people connected to the Internet. Personal interaction can be facilitated by providing appropriate goals, operators and feedback; social interaction can be facilitated through appropriate communication places and tools. This paper ends with the implications of applying the study results to other domains such as e-commerce and cyber communities.

  3. Important factors of perceiving and memorizing the city during the process of vehicle and pedestrian traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alihodžić, Rifat; Butyrin, Andrey; Makhov, Dmitry

    2017-10-01

    Moving within the city, both by vehicle and pedestrian, is a prerequisite of creating visual sequences. A variety of factors should be taken into consideration when planning cities, not only of functional nature, but also of the aesthetic one. A particular problem lies in complex cities having a compound identification matrix as a consequence of a boisterous development during long period of time. Considering that the city follows the needs of its user, inevitably moving along it, one of the most important factors required is easy orientation in the complex urban area. Some research has been carried out on the condition of easy orientation and moving in the city, and on appearance of urban elements that provide remembering of the city. This work deals with defining important factors effecting perceiving and memorizing, by inhabitants and also of those visiting it for the first time, regardless they are walking or using a vehicle. Physical structures, topography and a climate and a range of other elements are implied to create a clear idea of some urban area. Many elements were considered - not only being of fixed nature (streets, squares, topography and morphology), but also elements that make the essence of the urban image - elements that can also be some specific public transportation means, such as double-deckers in London, bicycles in Amsterdam or Beijing or gondolas in Venice. The purpose of this work is to notice the rules helping the urban planning process and contribute to reading and memorizing the image of the city.

  4. Risk factors for premature birth in French Guiana: the importance of reducing health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leneuve-Dorilas, Malika; Favre, Anne; Carles, Gabriel; Louis, Alphonse; Nacher, Mathieu

    2017-11-27

    French Guiana has the highest birth rate in South America. This French territory also has the highest premature birth rate and perinatal mortality rate of all French territories. The objective was to determine the premature birth rate and to identify the prevalence of risk factors of premature birth in French Guiana. A retrospective study of all births in French Guiana was conducted between January 2013 and December 2014 using the computerized registry compiling all live births over 22 weeks of gestation on the territory. During this period 12 983 live births were reported on the territory. 13.5% of newborns were born before 37 (1755/12 983). The study of the registry revealed that common sociodemographic risk factors of prematurity were present. In addition, past obstetrical history was also important: a scarred uterus increased the risk of prematurity adjusted odds ratio =1.4, 95%CI (1.2-1.6). Similarly, obstetrical surveillance, the absence of preparation for birth or of prenatal interview increased the risk of prematurity by 2.4 and 2.3, the excess fraction in the population was 69% and 72.2%, respectively. Known classical risk factors are important. In the present study excess fractions were calculated in order to prioritize interventions to reduce the prematurity rate.

  5. Explaining use of food parenting practices: the importance of predisposing factors and parental cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus Wm; van Assema, Patricia; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2017-09-01

    The high energy intake from energy-dense foods among children in developed countries is undesirable. Improving food parenting practices has the potential to lower snack intakes among children. To inform the development of interventions, we aimed to predict food parenting practice patterns around snacking (i.e. 'high covert control and rewarding', 'low covert control and non-rewarding', 'high involvement and supportive' and 'low involvement and indulgent'). A cross-sectional survey was conducted. To predict the patterns of food parenting practices, multinomial logistic regression analyses were run with 888 parents. Predictors included predisposing factors (i.e. parents' and children's demographics and BMI, parents' personality, general parenting, and parenting practices used by their own parents) and parents' cognitions (i.e. perceived behaviour of other parents, subjective norms, attitudes, self-efficacy and outcome expectations). The Netherlands (October-November 2014). Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 years old. After backward elimination, nineteen factors had a statistically significant contribution to the model (Nagelkerke R 2=0·63). Overall, self-efficacy and outcome expectations were among the strongest explanatory factors. Considering the predisposing factors only, the general parenting factor nurturance most strongly predicted the food parenting clusters. Nurturance particularly distinguished highly involved parents from parents employing a pattern of low involvement. Parental cognitions and nurturance are important factors to explain the use of food parenting practices around snacking. The results suggest that intervention developers should attempt to increase self-efficacy and educate parents about what constitute effective and ineffective parenting practices. Promoting nurturance might be a prerequisite to achieve prolonged change.

  6. Arcanobacterium pyogenes: Virulence factors, importance in mastitis etiology and therapeutic (impossibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanov Dubravka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arcanobacterium pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen, a causative agent of suppurative infections of organs and tissues in economically important livestock species. Most frequently this bacteria is isolated from inflamed lung lesions in pigs and cattle, in samples of uterine mucus of cows with endometritis and milk from cows with clinical mastitis. A. pyogenes possesses a number of virulence factors: cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (pyolysin, two neuraminidases, several proteases, extracellular matrix-binding proteins, DNases, fimbriae. The virulence factors are well studied in laboratory conditions, but the role of these factors in the pathogenesis of A. pyogenes infections remains to be elucidated. Lately, the ability of A. pyogenes to form biofilm in vivo has also been implicated as a virulence factor and a possible cause of therapeutic failure. Despite the fact that A. pyogenes milk isolates in cows with mastitis in vitro are very sensitive to β-lactam drugs and tetracycline, experience has shown that therapy is usually ineffective, prognosis is poor and the affected quarter is lost for milk production.

  7. Role of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Ovarian Function and Their Importance in Mammalian Female Fertility — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cavallari de Castro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors play an important role during early ovarian development and folliculogenesis, since they regulate the migration of germ cells to the gonadal ridge. They also act on follicle recruitment, proliferation/atresia of granulosa cells and theca, steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, ovulation and luteinization. Among the growth factors, the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 and the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, belong to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β superfamily, have been implicated as essential for follicular development. The GDF9 and BMP15 participate in the evolution of the primordial follicle to primary follicle and play an important role in the later stages of follicular development and maturation, increasing the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression, plasminogen activator and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR. These factors are also involved in the interconnections between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells, where they regulate absorption of amino acids, glycolysis and biosynthesis of cholesterol cumulus cells. Even though the mode of action has not been fully established, in vitro observations indicate that the factors GDF9 and BMP15 stimulate the growth of ovarian follicles and proliferation of cumulus cells through the induction of mitosis in cells and granulosa and theca expression of genes linked to follicular maturation. Thus, seeking greater understanding of the action of these growth factors on the development of oocytes, the role of GDF9 and BMP15 in ovarian function is summarized in this brief review.

  8. The Importance of Business Model Factors for Cloud Computing Adoption: Role of Previous Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogataj Habjan Kristina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Bringing several opportunities for more effective and efficient IT governance and service exploitation, cloud computing is expected to impact the European and global economies significantly. Market data show that despite many advantages and promised benefits the adoption of cloud computing is not as fast and widespread as foreseen. This situation shows the need for further exploration of the potentials of cloud computing and its implementation on the market. The purpose of this research was to identify individual business model factors with the highest impact on cloud computing adoption. In addition, the aim was to identify the differences in opinion regarding the importance of business model factors on cloud computing adoption according to companies’ previous experiences with cloud computing services.

  9. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on authenticity of brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Building an appropriate brand always makes it possible to reach better market share in competitive market. This paper presents a study to find important factors influencing the authenticity of brand. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 21 questions, distributes it among 400 people who purchase regularly from chain stores in city of Tehran, Iran and collects 388 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.712. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.748 and 1718.212, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived five factors including brand identification, brand registration, brand position, perception image from the brand and trust to brand.

  10. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in rubber industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Moshkelati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Building a distinguished brand often makes it possible to have sustainable growth in competitive market. It also helps us sell products with higher price; attract reliable customers for long term relationships. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing rubber industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 20 questions, distributes it among 300 people and collects 265 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.756. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.75 and 1292.573, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived six factors including brand transparency, expected quality, brand promises, brand support and brand sustainability.

  11. An exploration study to find important factors in market entrance: A case study of truck industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheir Khodamoradi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing market penetration in truck industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 51 questions, distributes it among 300 people who worked for different truck industry related units and collects 262 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.89. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.845 and 3067.443, respectively. The study has implemented principal component analysis and the results have indicated that there were eight factors influencing entering truck making industry including adaptation strategies, new ideas, cost competitiveness, product capabilities, market characteristics, competition threats from external market environment and export accelerators.

  12. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on enterprise resource planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise resource planning (ERP has become a necessary in many organizations and many business units have been trying to emerge into an integrated system. There are many advantages on having an efficient ERP but many corporations fail to reach a full operational ERP for many reasons. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing ERP implementation in one of the biggest Iranian automakers named Iran Khodro. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 46 questions, distributes it among some managers in this firm. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.788 and 1677.307, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived eight factors including intelligence information, customer comfort, structure oriented, resource management, process oriented, customer oriented, flexible structure and knowledge management.

  13. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on decision support systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision Support Systems (DSSs are computer-based information systems for providing necessary supports for business or organizational decision-making activities. DSSs often serve the management, operations, and planning levels of all organizations and help to make decisions, which may be rapidly changing and not easily achieved in advance. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing DSSs. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 36 questions, distributes it among 213 employees who work for different offices in municipality of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.872. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.782 and 1014.521, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived three factors including system, analysis and transaction.

  14. A study to detect important factors influencing purchasing product: A case study of home appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ghafurian Shagerdi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Home appliances are among basic requirements of anyone in the world and it is always important to find out about factors influencing this industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive model to detect major factors influencing on consumer purchasing intention. For this purpose, the proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 customers who have some experiences on purchasing home appliances in city of Tehran, Iran, recently. Cronbach alpha was calculated for all components of the survey and they were all well above the minimum acceptable level. We analyzed the data using structural equation modeling via LISREL and the results of this survey show that brand familiarity, brand trust, and perceived value have significant positive effects on consumers purchase intention.

  15. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing customer relationship management on reducing unhappy clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Davand

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation to find out important factors influencing electronic customer relationship management on reducing customer complaints. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 19 questions, distributes it among some Iranian experts in banking industry and analyzes it based on principal component analysis. During the survey, the number questions are reduced to 16 because of skewness of three questions. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.82 and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.746 and 1993, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived four factors including knowledge management, customer retention, customer oriented strategy and structure oriented.

  16. Deep cerebellar nuclei play an important role in two-tone discrimination on delay eyeblink conditioning in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiro Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN-lesioned mice develop conditioned responses (CR on delay eyeblink conditioning when a salient tone conditioned stimulus (CS is used, which suggests that the cerebellum potentially plays a role in more complicated cognitive functions. In the present study, we examined the role of DCN in tone frequency discrimination in the delay eyeblink-conditioning paradigm. In the first experiment, DCN-lesioned and sham-operated mice were subjected to standard simple eyeblink conditioning under low-frequency tone CS (LCS: 1 kHz, 80 dB or high-frequency tone CS (HCS: 10 kHz, 70 dB conditions. DCN-lesioned mice developed CR in both CS conditions as well as sham-operated mice. In the second experiment, DCN-lesioned and sham-operated mice were subjected to two-tone discrimination tasks, with LCS+ (or HCS+ paired with unconditioned stimulus (US, and HCS- (or LCS- without US. CR% in sham-operated mice increased in LCS+ (or HCS+ trials, regardless of tone frequency of CS, but not in HCS- (or LCS- trials. The results indicate that sham-operated mice can discriminate between LCS+ and HCS- (or HCS+ and LCS-. In contrast, DCN-lesioned mice showed high CR% in not only LCS+ (or HCS+ trials but also HCS- (or LCS- trials. The results indicate that DCN lesions impair the discrimination between tone frequency in eyeblink conditioning. Our results suggest that the cerebellum plays a pivotal role in the discrimination of tone frequency.

  17. Playful Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel

    these practices, which compose the taxonomy of tablet play. My contribution lies in identifying and proposing a series of theoretical concepts that complement recent theories related to play and digital literacy studies. The data collected through observations informed some noteworthy aspects, including how...... with tablets’ physical and digital affordances shape children’s digital play. This thesis presents how young children’s current practices when playing with tablets inform digital experiences in Denmark and Japan. Through an interdisciplinary lens and a grounded theory approach, I have identified and mapped...... vocabulary in children’s digital play experiences. These early digital experiences set the rules for the playgrounds and assert digital tablets as twenty-first-century toys, shaping young children’s playful literacy....

  18. Factors Impacting Program Delivery: The Importance of Implementation Research in Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Gagnon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative Extension is in a unique position, given its relationship with research-based, Land-Grant Universities, to advance the scholarship of implementation research. A stronger shift towards evidence-based practice has been occurring, oriented towards the assessment of programs for outcomes. This paper explores core concepts related to program implementation and delves into factors that influence successful implementation of Extension programs and services. The importance of implementation within the Extension Program Development Model is explored, along with emerging issues and trends.

  19. Diversity of dietary habits in the population as important factor of the regional radioecological sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.; Bruk, G.; Shutov, V.

    2001-01-01

    The assessment of the ways and regularities of internal dose formation in the population is impossible without the determination of food consumption habits for the population residing in contaminated areas. Food habits of peoples inhabiting the former Soviet Union differ both due to historical reasons and to religious traditions. Variation of food consumption is an important factor of radio-ecological sensitivity of the population. We try to show this on the example of south-west districts of the Bryansk region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. In these regions, a set of countermeasures has been applied that strongly deformed traditional food consumption. (orig.)

  20. Show Me the Money: Importance of Crowdfunding Factors on Backers’ Decisions to Financially Support Kickstarter Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Colistra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of an online survey and supporting interviews of funders, this study explores which factors are most influential in people’s decisions to financially back Kickstarter projects. Findings suggest that Kickstarter has several distinct benefits for those who support its projects and offers them an experience that traditional production channels cannot. The results also indicate that backers typically feel involved in the process of creating the projects they support, and they are willing to take risks to see projects that are important to them come to fruition. This research helps to improve our understanding of the attitudes that drive Kickstarter funding, and it helps project creators know what aspects of their campaigns prospective supporters find most important.

  1. The long-term effect of zinc soil contamination on selected free amino acids playing an important role in plant adaptation to stress and senescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Zemanová, V.; Procházková, Dagmar; Pavlík, Milan; Száková, J.; Wilhelmová, Naděžda

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 100, FEB 2014 (2014), s. 166-170 ISSN 0147-6513 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1239 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Amino acid * Cytokinins * Senescence Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.762, year: 2014

  2. Large and medium-sized pulmonary artery obstruction does not play a role of primary importance in the etiology of sickle-cell disease-associated pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, Eduard J.; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Mac Gillavry, Melvin R.; van Tuijn, Charlotte F. J.; van Esser, Joost W. J.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Kappers-Klunne, Mies C.; Duits, Ashley J.; Biemond, Bart J.; Schnog, John-John B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) occurs in approximately 30% of adult patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD) and is a risk factor for early death. The potential role of pulmonary artery obstruction, whether due to emboli or in situ thrombosis, in the etiology of SCD-related PHT is unknown.

  3. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  4. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts........ In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  5. The importance of the human factor in a physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.; Rocha, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A complete physical protection system gathers three elements: equipment's, guards and procedures. The integration of these three elements will guarantee the efficiency of the overall PPS in such a way that it can meet the objectives that were defined during its project: clear and precise procedures will rule the relation between the technical factor (equipments/ hardware and software) and the human factor (guards). The technical factor is easily adapted ad upgraded to continue meet the objectives of the PPS; however, the human factor presents some resistance, internal and external, concerning the performance of its function within the overall PPS. The objective of this paper is to show the importance of the human factor as an integrant part of the PPS of a nuclear facility. 1. Good relationship between guards and other employees in a facility; 2. the knowledge and acceptance of rules and procedures; 3. and the awareness of the needing to implement security measures, as well as the cooperation with these measures to avoid unauthorized nuclear material removal from the facility or sabotage with consequent radioactive release will guarantee the success of the human factor within the overall PPS. In countries where there is no recent record of terrorist activities, as in Brazil's case, these three key factors are particularly critical, once the concept of security culture is not present in those people's way of life. The target public of this survey are the employees, including the guards of the security force, of the CNAAA - Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - consisting of Angra 1 and Angra 2 nuclear power plants. The tools used to came up with the conclusions of this work were two different kinds of questionnaires: a) one of the questionnaires was answered by the guards of the security force concerning their feelings or impressions about other employees' knowledge, acceptance and cooperation of/with the security measures applied on site, and their

  6. Play Practices and Play Moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  7. Climate Classification is an Important Factor in ­Assessing Hospital Performance Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. R.; Parhi, P.; Gentine, P.; Tatonetti, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    Context/Purpose: Climate is a known modulator of disease, but its impact on hospital performance metrics remains unstudied. Methods: We assess the relationship between Köppen-Geiger climate classification and hospital performance metrics, specifically 30-day mortality, as reported in Hospital Compare, and collected for the period July 2013 through June 2014 (7/1/2013 - 06/30/2014). A hospital-level multivariate linear regression analysis was performed while controlling for known socioeconomic factors to explore the relationship between all-cause mortality and climate. Hospital performance scores were obtained from 4,524 hospitals belonging to 15 distinct Köppen-Geiger climates and 2,373 unique counties. Results: Model results revealed that hospital performance metrics for mortality showed significant climate dependence (psocioeconomic factors. Interpretation: Currently, hospitals are reimbursed by Governmental agencies using 30-day mortality rates along with 30-day readmission rates. These metrics allow Government agencies to rank hospitals according to their `performance' along these metrics. Various socioeconomic factors are taken into consideration when determining individual hospitals performance. However, no climate-based adjustment is made within the existing framework. Our results indicate that climate-based variability in 30-day mortality rates does exist even after socioeconomic confounder adjustment. Use of standardized high-level climate classification systems (such as Koppen-Geiger) would be useful to incorporate in future metrics. Conclusion: Climate is a significant factor in evaluating hospital 30-day mortality rates. These results demonstrate that climate classification is an important factor when comparing hospital performance across the United States.

  8. Oxidative Stress as an Important Factor in the Pathophysiology of alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanise Gemelli,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been associated to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, which is recognized as the most common form of dementia. In this article, the aim was to review the involvement of oxidative stress on Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is histopathologically characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, the presence of oligomers of amyloid-? peptide and loss of synapses. Moreover, the brain and the nervous system are more prone to oxidative stress and oxidative damage influences the neurodegenerative diseases. However, increased oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of oxidized aggregated proteins, inflammation, and defects in proteins constitute complex intertwined pathologies that lead to neuronal cell death. Mitochondrial mutations on deoxyribonucleic acid and oxidative stress contribute to aging, affecting different cell signaling systems, as well as the connectivity and neuronal cell death may lead to the largest risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease.

  9. Transforming growth factor beta-1 An important biomarker for developing cardiovascular diseases in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, E; Avci, G Alp; Ozcelik, B; Cevher, S Coskun; Suicmez, M

    2017-01-01

    Our study focuses on the determination and evaluation of TGF-β1 levels of patients receiving hemodialysis treatment because of chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure, characterized by irreversible loss of renal function, is a major public health problem in the world. Transforming growth factor-beta is a multifunctional cytokine involved in the cellular growth, differentiation, migration, apoptosis and immune regulation. Among the three TGF-β isoforms, TGF-β1 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. We studied 24 patients who were on regular hemodialysis, with non-diabetic nephropathy. 20 healthy people who proved to be in a good state of health and free from any signs of chronic diseases or disorders were enrolled as a control group. Serum samples were collected both before and after hemodialysis treatment from each patient. TGF-β1 levels were determined by Enzyme Immunoassay method. TGF-β1 levels were found significantly higher in the hemodialysis patients than those of the control groups. Also, the TGF-β1 was significantly reduced after hemodialysis treatment but it was still higher than in control groups. This result indicates that hemodialysis is an effective treatment method to decrease the serum TGF-B1 levels. Nevertheless, this decrease is not enough to reduce existing risks (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 28).

  10. The large first periplasmic loop of SecD and SecF plays an important role in SecDF functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwen, N; Piwowarek, M; Berrelkamp, G; Driessen, AJM

    A remarkable feature of proteins of the SecD and SecF family involved in protein translocation is that they possess a very large first periplasmic domain. Here we report that this large first periplasmic domain is not required for the SecD-SecF interaction but that it is important for catalyzing

  11. Does constructive neutral evolution play an important role in the origin of cellular complexity? Making sense of the origins and uses of biological complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Recently, constructive neutral evolution has been touted as an important concept for the understanding of the emergence of cellular complexity. It has been invoked to help explain the development and retention of, amongst others, RNA splicing, RNA editing and ribosomal and mitochondrial respiratory

  12. Regulation of odd-numbered fatty acid content plays an important part in the metabolism of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea spp. adapted to oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlík, Milan; Zemanová, Veronika; Pavlíková, D.; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Hlavsa, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 208, JAN (2017), s. 94-101 ISSN 0176-1617 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : membrane lipid-composition * amino-acids * gene-expression * salinity stress * leaf senescence * spartina-patens * low-temperature * cadmium stress * plants * tolerance * Environmental stress * Heavy metals * Phylogenetic profiling of fatty acids * Phytoremediation * Senescence * Thlaspi species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  13. The importance of social exchange to nurses and nurse assistants: impact on retention factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybou, Jeroen; De Pourcq, Kaat; Paeshuyse, Michel; Gemmel, Paul

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the norm of reciprocity by examining relationships between perceived organisational support (POS), the quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) and psychological contract breach (PCB) and important nurse retention factors identified in the literature. A major cause of turnover among nurses is related to unsatisfying workplaces. Previous research, mainly outside the nursing setting, found that social exchange affects employees' work-related attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 217 nurses and nursing assistants to test and refine a model linking POS, LMX, PCB with job satisfaction, trust and turnover intentions. Hierarchical multiple linear regression revealed that POS, PCB and LMX explained significant variance in all three retention factors: job satisfaction (adjusted R² = 0.502), trust (adjusted R² = 0.462) and turnover intentions (adjusted R² = 0.196). POS and PCB predicted most strongly job satisfaction (P < 0.001) and trust (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). LMX predicted most strongly intention to leave (P < 0.01). In our study, POS, the quality of LMX and PCB were strongly related to job satisfaction, trust and turnover intentions. Nursing managers and leaders should recognize the importance of social exchange within their organisation to build trust, satisfy and retain scarce nurses and nursing assistants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Playing Shakespeare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashian, Kathleen Ryniker

    1993-01-01

    Describes a yearlong project at 12 Catholic middle schools in the Diocese of Arlington, Virginia, to incorporate the plays of William Shakespeare into the curriculum. Teachers attended university lectures and directed students in performances of the plays. Concludes that Shakespeare can be understood and enjoyed by middle school students. (BCY)

  15. Deposition to forests in Europe: most important factors influencing dry deposition and models used for generalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, Jan Willem; Draaijers, Geert

    2003-01-01

    The influence of forest characteristics on deposition can be modelled reasonably well; forest edge effects and dynamical processes are still uncertain. - Dry deposition of gases and particles to forests is influenced by factors influencing the turbulent transport, such as wind speed, tree height, canopy closure, LAI, etc. as well as by factors influencing surface condition, such as precipitation, relative humidity, global radiation, etc. In this paper, an overview of these factors is given and it is shown which are the most important determining temporal and spatial variation of dry deposition of sodium and sulphur. Furthermore, it is evaluated how well current deposition models are able to describe the temporal and spatial variation in dry deposition. It is concluded that the temporal variation is not modelled well enough, because of limited surface-wetness exchange parameterisations. The influence of forest characteristics are modelled reasonably well, provided enough data describing the forests and the spatial variation in concentration is available. For Europe these data are not available. The means to decrease the atmospheric deposition through forest management is discussed

  16. A transcript cleavage factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis important for its survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab China

    Full Text Available After initiation of transcription, a number of proteins participate during elongation and termination modifying the properties of the RNA polymerase (RNAP. Gre factors are one such group conserved across bacteria. They regulate transcription by projecting their N-terminal coiled-coil domain into the active center of RNAP through the secondary channel and stimulating hydrolysis of the newly synthesized RNA in backtracked elongation complexes. Rv1080c is a putative gre factor (MtbGre in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The protein enhanced the efficiency of promoter clearance by lowering abortive transcription and also rescued arrested and paused elongation complexes on the GC rich mycobacterial template. Although MtbGre is similar in domain organization and shares key residues for catalysis and RNAP interaction with the Gre factors of Escherichia coli, it could not complement an E. coli gre deficient strain. Moreover, MtbGre failed to rescue E. coli RNAP stalled elongation complexes, indicating the importance of specific protein-protein interactions for transcript cleavage. Decrease in the level of MtbGre reduced the bacterial survival by several fold indicating its essential role in mycobacteria. Another Gre homolog, Rv3788 was not functional in transcript cleavage activity indicating that a single Gre is sufficient for efficient transcription of the M. tuberculosis genome.

  17. Importance of genetic factors in the etiology of atopic dermatitis: a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F; Ulrik, Charlotte S; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2007-01-01

    The susceptibility to develop atopic dermatitis can be attributed both to genetic and environmental causes. We estimated the relative impact of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of atopic dermatitis in a population-based sample of twins. From the birth cohorts of 1953-1982 who wer...... dermatitis both in male and female patients (p = 0.98). The estimates were adjusted for age. The susceptibility to develop atopic dermatitis is attributable to mainly genetic differences between people. However, differences in environmental exposures also are of importance......The susceptibility to develop atopic dermatitis can be attributed both to genetic and environmental causes. We estimated the relative impact of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of atopic dermatitis in a population-based sample of twins. From the birth cohorts of 1953-1982 who were...... with a threefold increased risk among cotwins of an affected fraternal twin, relative to the general population. Genes accounted for 82% and nonshared environmental factors accounted for 18% of the individual susceptibility to develop atopic dermatitis. The same genes contributed to the susceptibility to atopic...

  18. The Pedagogy of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Play is important. Environmental educators Sobel and Louv write about the relationship between children and outside play and suggest that early transcendental experiences within nature allow children to develop empathetic orientations towards the natural world. Children who play out-of-doors develop an appreciation for the environment and…

  19. Which factors are important for the successful development and implementation of clinical pathways? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Allegri, Manuela; Schwarzbach, Matthias; Loerbroks, Adrian; Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    Clinical pathways (CPs) are detailed longitudinal care plans delineating measures to be conducted during a patient's treatment. Although positive effects on resource consumption and quality of care have been shown, CPs are still underutilised in many clinical settings because their development and implementation are difficult. Evidence underpinning successful development and implementation is sparse. The authors conducted semistructured face-to-face interviews with key staff members involved in the design and implementation of CPs in a large surgery department. Interviewees were asked to provide opinions on various issues, which were previously identified as potentially important in CP development and implementation. The transcribed text was read and coded independently by two researchers. Respondents highlighted the importance of a multidisciplinary participatory approach for CP design and implementation. There was a strong initial fear of losing individual freedom of treatment, which subsided after people worked with CPs in clinical everyday life. It was appreciated that the project originated from people at different levels of the department's hierarchy. Likewise, it was felt that CP implementation granted more autonomy to lower-level staff. The structured qualitative approach of this study provides information on what issues are considered important by staff members for CP design and implementation. Whereas some concepts such as the importance of a multidisciplinary approach or continuous feedback of results are known from theories, others such as strengthening the authority especially of lower-level health professionals through CPs have not been described so far. Many of the findings point towards strong interactions between factors important for CP implementation and a department's organisational structure.

  20. The Significance of Family, Environment, and College Preparation: A Study of Factors Influencing Graduation and Persistence Rates of African American Males Playing Division I Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Enzley, IV

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify specific external factors including family composition, pre-college environment, and college preparation that contribute to why some African American males playing basketball at the NCAA Division I level graduate and persist while others do not. Despite an aggressive advertising campaign from the NCAA…

  1. The Photographic History of Greenland’s Glaciers – and how the historical data plays an important role in today’s glacier research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Anders Anker; Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    As the Greenland Ice Sheet and Greenland's glaciers are continuing to loss mass at high rates, knowledge of their past response to climatic changes is ever important. By harvesting the archives for images, both terrestrial and airborne, we are able to expand the record of glacier observation...... by several decades, thus supplying crucial knowledge on glacier behavior to important climatic transitions such as the end of the Little Ice Age and the early 20th Century warming. Here we show how a large collection of historical aerial images portray the glacial response to the Little Ice Age deglaciation...... in Greenland and document frontal change throughout the 20th Century. A detailed story of the LIA-deglaciation is told by supplementing with terrestrial photos that capture the onset of retreat and high resolution aerial images that portray geomorphological evidence of the Little Ice Age maximum extent...

  2. Importance of radiation time and dose factors on outcome for childhood medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, M.; Barton, M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of posterior fossa radiation therapy duration (PFRTD) and relapse-free survival (RFS) following adjuvant craniospinal RT for childhood medulloblastoma. A retrospective audit was performed assessing all children aged 180days) pre-RT chemotherapy were excluded. Data were obtained for potential prognostic factors in domains of patient, tumour and treatment factors. Radiation therapy time factors assessed were PFRTD and time interval from surgery to commencement of RT (SRTD). The end-point assessed was RFS and analysis was performed using Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival. One hundred and eighty-nine children were identified from 10 oncology units, with data available from 182 children for analysis. Median follow up was 5.3 years. Seventy-three per cent of children presented with disease confined to the cerebellum; 13% had initial neuraxis disease. Macroscopic resection was described in 54%; 42% received adjuvant chemotherapy. Median RT dose and RT duration to PF was 55 Gy and 45 days, respectively. Seventy-eight relapses occurred with a 10-year actuarial RFS of 58.2% (standard error±4%). On univariate analysis, increasing PF dose (P = 0.002), age >5 years (P 0.006), and more thorough extent of surgical resection (P - 0.043) were associated with improved RFS; PFRTD (P = 0.20) and SRTD (P = 0.51) were not associated with RFS. On multivariate analysis, although both PF dose (P 0.004) and extent of surgery (P = 0.045) remained strongly significant, RT duration was now associated with RFS (P = 0.049). Other factors assessed that did not reach significance were patient age, local tumour extent, presence of internal shunt and use of chemotherapy. The importance of local treatment factors was confirmed in this audit with established prognostic factors such as primary tumour macroscopic resection and adequate PF RT dose being associated with RFS. A treatment time effect is weakly suggested, although less

  3. Important prognostic factors in patients with skull base erosion from nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, T.-X.; Mai, W.-Y.; Teh, Bin S.; Hu, Y.-H.; Lu, Hsin H.; Chiu, J. Kam; Carpenter, L. Steven; Woo, Shiao Y.; Butler, E. Brian

    2001-01-01

    headache after irradiation were found to be independent prognostic factors in this cohort. Conclusions: We present one of the longest follow-ups of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma invading the skull base. Our results demonstrate the importance of cranial nerve involvement, recovery of headache, and cranial nerve palsy. These factors should be carefully evaluated from the history, physical examination, and imaging studies. A subgroup of patients with skull base involvement had long-term survival after RT alone. The findings of this study are important as a yardstick against which more aggressive strategies, such as combined radiochemotherapy and altered fractionation RT can be compared

  4. Leadership quality: a factor important for social capital in healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömgren, Marcus; Eriksson, Andrea; Ahlstrom, Linda; Bergman, David Kristofer; Dellve, Lotta

    2017-04-10

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between leadership and social capital and what qualities of leadership are important for social capital among employees in hospital settings over time. Design/methodology/approach A cohort of employees in hospitals answered a questionnaire at three occasions. Five small (approx. 100-bed) or mid-sized (approx. 500-bed) hospitals were included. The response rate was 54 percent at baseline ( n=865), 59 percent at one-year follow-up ( n=908) and 67 percent at two-year follow-up ( n=632). Findings Repeated measures over time showed differences between groups in levels of social capital with respect to levels of leadership quality. Relation-oriented leadership had the strongest association with social capital. There was evidence that leadership was associated with social capital over time and that different kinds of leadership qualities were associated with social capital. Research limitations/implications This study conducted and analyzed quantitative data, and therefore, there is no knowledge of managers' or employees' own perceptions in this study. However, it would be interesting to compare managers' decreased and increased leadership quality and how such differences affect social capital over time. Practical implications The findings feature the possibility for healthcare leaders to build high quality leadership as an important resource for social capital, by using different leadership orientations under different circumstances. Originality/value The paper showed that leadership was an important factor for building social capital and that different leadership qualities have different importance with respect to certain circumstances.

  5. Proteomics of Fusarium oxysporum race 1 and race 4 reveals enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport that might play important roles in banana Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Yi, Xiaoping; Peng, Ming; Zeng, Huicai; Wang, Dan; Li, Bo; Tong, Zheng; Chang, Lili; Jin, Xiang; Wang, Xuchu

    2014-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt is a soil-spread fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. In China, the main virulence fungi in banana are F. oxysporum race 1 (F1, weak virulence) and race 4 (F4, strong virulence). To date, no proteomic analyses have compared the two races, but the difference in virulence between F1 and F4 might result from their differentially expressed proteins. Here we report the first comparative proteomics of F1 and F4 cultured under various conditions, and finally identify 99 protein species, which represent 59 unique proteins. These proteins are mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, post-translational modification, energy production, and inorganic ion transport. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that among the 46 proteins identified from F4 were several enzymes that might be important for virulence. Reverse transcription PCR analysis of the genes for 15 of the 56 proteins revealed that their transcriptional patterns were similar to their protein expression patterns. Taken together, these data suggest that proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport may be important in the pathogenesis of banana Fusarium wilt. Some enzymes such as catalase-peroxidase, galactosidase and chitinase might contribute to the strong virulence of F4. Overexpression or knockout of the genes for the F4-specific proteins will help us to further understand the molecular mechanism of Fusarium-induced banana wilt.

  6. High mobility group box associated with cell proliferation appears to play an important role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shugo; Takeshita, Kentaro; Asamoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Satoru; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Kazunari; Saito, Fumiyo; Masuko, Kazuo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-31

    To identify genes important in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, especially processes involved in malignant transformation, we focused on differences in gene expression between adenomas and carcinomas by DNA microarray. Eighty-one genes for which expression was specific in carcinomas were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and Gene Ontology, and found to be associated with TP53 and regulators of cell proliferation. In the genes associated with TP53, we selected high mobility group box (HMGB) for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of HMGBs in carcinomas to be significantly higher than in other lesions among both human and rat liver, and a positive correlation between HMGBs and TP53 was detected in rat carcinomas. Knock-down of HMGB 2 expression in a rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by RNAi resulted in inhibition of cell growth, although no effects on invasion were evident in vitro. These results suggest that acquisition of malignant potential in the liver requires specific signaling pathways related to high cell proliferation associated with TP53. In particular, HMGBs appear to have an important role for progression and cell proliferation associated with loss of TP53 function in rat and in human hepatocarcinogenesis.

  7. High mobility group box associated with cell proliferation appears to play an important role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis in rats and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shugo; Takeshita, Kentaro; Asamoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Satoru; Kandori, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Kazunari; Saito, Fumiyo; Masuko, Kazuo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    To identify genes important in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, especially processes involved in malignant transformation, we focused on differences in gene expression between adenomas and carcinomas by DNA microarray. Eighty-one genes for which expression was specific in carcinomas were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and Gene Ontology, and found to be associated with TP53 and regulators of cell proliferation. In the genes associated with TP53, we selected high mobility group box (HMGB) for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of HMGBs in carcinomas to be significantly higher than in other lesions among both human and rat liver, and a positive correlation between HMGBs and TP53 was detected in rat carcinomas. Knock-down of HMGB 2 expression in a rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by RNAi resulted in inhibition of cell growth, although no effects on invasion were evident in vitro. These results suggest that acquisition of malignant potential in the liver requires specific signaling pathways related to high cell proliferation associated with TP53. In particular, HMGBs appear to have an important role for progression and cell proliferation associated with loss of TP53 function in rat and in human hepatocarcinogenesis

  8. IMPORT SUBSTITUTION OF FOOD AS A DISINTEGRATION FACTOR OF THE EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENT OF THE ECONOMY OF MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Litvinova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the gradual strengthening of integration processes in the world trade in food products with Russia’s participation was accompanied by an increase in negative trends in ensuring the country’s food security and determining its role as an economic recipient of the products of foreign agro-industrial complexes. The imposition of embargoes on foreign-made food products imported into Russia in response to sanctions and geopolitical threats acted as a de-integration factor for the existing system of world economic relations in the food trade and played an exceptionally positive role for Russia’s economic development and its acquisition of food nondependence. Accents of import substitution shifted from the ousting of foreign producers from the Russian food market to the revival of highly effective domestic production of food products, able to meet the full needs of the country’s population in quality and safe food. The scale, structure and dynamics of foreign trade turnover of food products and their domestic production for the period from 2000 to 2017, its features in the conditions of the food embargo were analyzed. The conclusion is made about the gradual strengthening of positive trends in the field of food import substitution in Russia in 2015-2017. The problems preventing the increase of efficiency of import substitution in the sphere of food production are revealed, the ways of their solution are suggested. It is substantiated that the weakest point in competitive positions of domestic food products in terms of their import substitution is the low level of safety, science intensity and innovation. To increase the effectiveness of import substitution, it is necessary to systematically solve the problems accompanying it, to develop an effective mechanism for its implementation, as well as to provide resourse and financial support through the adoption of a long-term import substitution strategy in the Russian Federation

  9. The importance of environmental factors and matrices in the adsorption, desorption, and toxicity of butyltins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Liping; Xu, Cuihong; Li, Ji

    2017-01-01

    detrimental effects on humans and aquatic organisms. This work provides a critical review of recent studies on the adsorption, desorption, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of BTs that can notably influence the distribution of BTs in the environment. Influence of environmental factors (e.g., pH and salinity......Butyltins (BTs) are considered as a group of the most important organometallic compounds in industry and agriculture. Due to their widespread use, large amounts of BTs including tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) have entered into the environment, and subsequently causing......) and adsorbents in the matrices (e.g., minerals, organic carbons, and quartz) on the adsorption, desorption, and toxicity of BTs is particularly addressed....

  10. CULTURAL DUE DILIGENCE IN M&A. IMPORTANCE OF SOFT RISKS FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Walter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the corporate world has witnessed a significant rise in the number of cross border mergers and acquisitions (M&As. In cross border M&As, not only different corporate cultures collide, but also different professional and national cultures. The purpose of Cultural Due Diligence (CDD is to get a coherent image of the intercultural challenges of the M&A in order to be aware of the intercultural risks and opportunities. This article aims to reveal the perception of managers involved in the pre-M&A stage on the soft risks factors that need to be investigated during CDD. This study proposes an appraisal of the most important intercultural issues that need to be considered in M&A. Our contribution to the intercultural aspects of M&A literature consists in improving the current understanding of Cultural Due Diligence content.

  11. Important stressful factors for health status of elderly people in the nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacko, A.; Komarek, K.; Kaducakova, H.; Kuberova, H.

    2008-01-01

    Functional status of autonomic nervous system can be assessed by many methods: - psycho-diagnostic methods; - spectral analysis of the heart rate variability; - evaluation of adrenergic innervation of myocardium with 123 I-metyliodbenzylguanidine (MIBG). We have shown an importance of these methods in diagnostics of cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus or students under stress. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the status and changed plasticity of autonomic nervous system in elderly people and its reaction for stressful factors. Examination of the spectral analysis of the heart rate variability revealed cardiac autonomic dysregulation as an asymptomatic change of autonomic nervous system.. Reduction of the plasticity of ANS with an increased age was confirmed. Also was the correlation of examination of the spectral analysis of the heart rate variability and adrenergic innervation of the myocardium confirmed. These finding allow early complex preventive interventions and increase the quality of life in elderly people. (authors)

  12. An investigation on important factors influencing on forecasted earnings adjustment: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Babakhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing earning adjustment on firms selected on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2011. There are four independent variables associated with the proposed study of this paper including Proportion of shares owned by institutional investors, Return on assets, Profit change and Market value to book value. In addition, Investment restructuring is considered as control variable. The results of the implementation of regression analysis indicate that there was a reverse relationship between earning forecasted adjustment and two independent variables including size of firm as well as the ratio of market value to book value. However, Net profit has a direct and positive relationship with earning forecast adjustment.

  13. CULTURAL DUE DILIGENCE IN M&A. IMPORTANCE OF SOFT RISKS FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Warter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the corporate world has witnessed a significant rise in the number of cross border mergers and acquisitions (M&As. In cross border M&As, not only different corporate cultures collide, but also different professional and national cultures. The purpose of Cultural Due Diligence (CDD is to get a coherent image of the intercultural challenges of the M&A in order to be aware of the intercultural risks and opportunities. This article aims to reveal the perception of managers involved in the pre-M&A stage on the soft risks factors that need to be investigated during CDD. This study proposes an appraisal of the most important intercultural issues that need to be considered in M&A. Our contribution to the intercultural aspects of M&A literature consists in improving the current understanding of Cultural Due Diligence content.

  14. Metal toxicity characterization factors for marine ecosystems: considering the importance of the estuary for freshwater emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    The study develops site-dependent characterization factors (CFs) for marine ecotoxicity of metals emitted to freshwater, taking their passage of the estuary into account. To serve life cycle assessment (LCA) studies where emission location is often unknown, site-generic marine CFs were developed...... with an estuary removal process to calculate FF. BF and EF were taken from Dong et al. Environ Sci Technol 50:269–278 (2016). Site-generic marine CFs were derived from site-dependent marine CFs. Different averaging principles were tested, and the approach representing estuary discharge rate was identified...... between both methods. Accounting for estuary removal particularly influences marine ecotoxicity CFs for emission to freshwater of metals that have a strong tendency to complex-bind to particles. It indicates the importance of including estuary in the characterization modelling when dealing with those...

  15. Background ELF magnetic fields in incubators: a factor of importance in cell culture work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild, Kjell Hansson; Wilén, Jonna; Mattsson, Mats-Olof; Simko, Myrtill

    2009-07-01

    Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields in cell culture incubators have been measured. Values of the order of tens of muT were found which is in sharp contrast to the values found in our normal environment (0.05-0.1microT). There are numerous examples of biological effects found after exposure to MF at these levels, such as changes in gene expression, blocked cell differentiation, inhibition of the effect of tamoxifen, effects on chick embryo development, etc. We therefore recommend that people working with cell culture incubators check for the background magnetic field and take this into account in performing their experiments, since this could be an unrecognised factor of importance contributing to the variability in the results from work with cell cultures.

  16. Does constructive neutral evolution play an important role in the origin of cellular complexity? Making sense of the origins and uses of biological complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speijer, Dave

    2011-05-01

    Recently, constructive neutral evolution has been touted as an important concept for the understanding of the emergence of cellular complexity. It has been invoked to help explain the development and retention of, amongst others, RNA splicing, RNA editing and ribosomal and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexity. The theory originated as a welcome explanation of isolated small scale cellular idiosyncrasies and as a reaction to 'overselectionism'. Here I contend, that in its extended form, it has major conceptual problems, can not explain observed patterns of complex processes, is too easily dismissive of alternative selectionist models, underestimates the creative force of complexity as such, and--if seen as a major evolutionary mechanism for all organisms--could stifle further thought regarding the evolution of highly complex biological processes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  17. DNA dynamics play a role as a basal transcription factor in the positioning and regulation of gene transcription initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, Boian S.; Gelev, Vladimir; Yoo, Sang Wook; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Fukuyo, Yayoi; Bishop, Alan R.; Rasmussen, Kim ?.; Usheva, Anny

    2009-01-01

    We assess the role of DNA breathing dynamics as a determinant of promoter strength and transcription start site (TSS) location. We compare DNA Langevin dynamic profiles of representative gene promoters, calculated with the extended non-linear PBD model of DNA with experimental data on transcription factor binding and transcriptional activity. Our results demonstrate that DNA dynamic activity at the TSS can be suppressed by mutations that do not affect basal transcription factor binding–DNA co...

  18. Time to treatment as an important factor for the response to methotrexate in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, H M; Wessels, J A M; van der Straaten, R J H M; Brinkman, D M C; Suijlekom-Smit, L W A; Kamphuis, S S M; Girschick, H J; Wouters, C; Schilham, M W; le Cessie, S; Huizinga, T W J; Ten Cate, R; Guchelaar, H J

    2009-01-15

    Methotrexate (MTX) is the most commonly used disease-modifying antirheumatic drug in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Currently, individual response to MTX cannot be reliably predicted. Identification of clinical and genetic factors that influence the response to MTX could be helpful in realizing the optimal treatment for individual patients. A cohort of 128 JIA patients treated with MTX were studied retrospectively. Eleven clinical parameters and genotypes of 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 5 genes related to the mechanism of action of MTX were compared between MTX responders and nonresponders using a multivariate regression analysis. The time from diagnosis to start of MTX treatment, physician's global assessment at baseline, and the starting dose were significantly associated with the response to MTX at 6 months after initiation. Patients with a shorter time from diagnosis to start of MTX and a higher disease activity according to the physician but with a lower MTX dose showed an increased response. The effect of the starting dose on MTX response seemed to be mainly due to the influence of the systemic JIA subtype. The time from diagnosis to start of MTX treatment and physician's global assessment at baseline were highly correlated. Therefore, the precise effect size of each independent variable could not be determined. In children with JIA, the time from diagnosis to start of MTX appears to be an important factor for MTX response. Our results suggest that an earlier start of MTX treatment will lead to an increased response.

  19. The peritoneum--an important factor for pathogenesis and pain generation in endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena de Arellano, Maria-Luisa; Mechsner, Sylvia

    2014-06-01

    Endometriosis (EM) is an oestrogen-dependent disease affecting 10-15 % of women during reproductive age. It is characterised by the presence of endometrial glands, stromal- and smooth muscle-like cells outside of the uterine cavity. Fifty to sixty per cent of women and teenage girls with pelvic pain suffer from EM. EM causes disability and compromises the quality of life in women and young girls significantly. Pain generation in EM is an intricate interplay of several factors such as the endometriotic lesions themselves and the pain-mediating substances, nerve fibres and cytokine-releasing immune cells such as macrophages. These interactions seem to induce a neurogenic inflammatory process. Recently published data demonstrated an increased peptidergic and decreased noradrenergic nerve fibre density in peritoneal lesions. These data could be substantiated by in vitro analyses demonstrating that the peritoneal fluids of patients suffering from EM induced an enhanced sprouting of sensory neurites from chicken dorsal root ganglia and decreased neurite outgrowth from sympathetic ganglia. These findings might be directly involved in the perpetuation of inflammation and pain. Furthermore, the evidence of EM-associated smooth muscle-like cells seems another important factor in pain generation. The peritoneal endometriotic lesion leads to reactions in the surrounding tissue and, therefore, is larger than generally believed. The identification of EM-associated nerve fibres and smooth muscle-like cells fuel discussions on the mechanisms of pain generation in EM, and may present new targets for innovative treatments.

  20. Effect of Date Extract on Growth of Mutans Streptococci, the Most Important Factor of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sayyedi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective:Dental caries is perhaps the most common bacterial infections in humans and Streptococcus Mutans is one of the most important factors in dental caries. Research has shown that some kind foods have an inhibitory effect on cariogenic factors of Mutans streptococci. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of date extract on growth of Streptococcus Mutans. Methods & Materials: This experimental study was down at faculty of medicine, Yasuj university of medical sciences with collaborative of microbiology department of Shiraz university of medical sciences in 2005. In an In-vitro study, effect of date extract on growth of Mutans Streptococci was surveyed .After collecting of Streptococcus Mutans from dental caries those were cultured in different medium of date fruit, extract of date fruit and syrup of date with different concentrations. Results: Following 24 hours, Streptococcus mutans was grown in less concentration of date mediums and its grown was inhibited in more concentrations. Conclusion: With respect of inhibitory effect of date extract on growth of Streptococcus mutans,it might be introduced that date as a source of food has a preventive effect on dental caries.

  1. Learning Disabilities in Children: Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Importance of Early Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with learning disabilities have significant impairment in reading, writing and mathematics, in spite of normal intelligence and sensory abilities. In reading disability, children will have difficulties in phonemic sensitivity, phonetic decoding, word recognition, word decoding skills and reading comprehension. The lifetime prevalence of learning disability is about 10%. Learning disabilities are more frequently seen in boys compared to girls. There are several risk factors for learning disabilities. Low birth weight, preterm birth, neonatal complications, language delay and epilepsy are important risk factors for learning disabilities in children. Students with learning disabilities have poor scholastic performance, anxiety and significant stress. They have more social, emotional and behavioural problems than those without learning problems. If not remedied at the earliest, learning disabilities will lead to failure in exams and these children may develop stress related disorders. Hence all children with learning problems should be evaluated scientifically at the earliest, for identification of learning disability. By providing scientific guidance and intensive one to one remedial training, learning problems of children can be managed successfully.

  2. The Importance of Sports Performance Factors and Training Contents From the Perspective of Futsal Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, João; Shahidian, Shakib; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the importance assigned by futsal coaches with different education levels to the sports performance factors (technical, tactical, physical and psychological) and to the training contents. The sample was divided into three groups (novice: n=35, intermediate: n=42; and elite coaches: n=15) depending on the degree of specific education, coaching experience and the level of the teams trained. To achieve this goal, the coaches answered a questionnaire previously validated by specialists in sport sciences. The results showed significant differences between the novice and elite group in small-sided games, inferiority games, opposition and execution timing of the training and drill items. The analyses also showed significant differences between the novice and intermediate group in inferiority games and opposition of the training and drill items. Although, no differences were identified between groups for the remaining performance factors and training and drill items considered, the identified trends provide a baseline related to the knowledge that contributes to the development of expertise of futsal coaches. PMID:24235991

  3. CD4 T cells play important roles in maintaining IL-17-producing γδ T-cell subsets in naive animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Jeong-Su; Visperas, Anabelle; O'Brien, Rebecca L; Min, Booki

    2012-04-01

    A proportional balance between αβ and γδ T-cell subsets in the periphery is exceedingly well maintained by a homeostatic mechanism. However, a cellular mechanism underlying the regulation remains undefined. We recently reported that a subset of developing γδ T cells spontaneously acquires interleukin (IL)-17-producing capacity even within naive animals through a transforming growth factor (TGF)β1-dependent mechanism, thus considered 'innate' IL-17-producing cells. Here, we report that γδ T cells generated within αβ T cell (or CD4 T cell)-deficient environments displayed altered cytokine profiles; particularly, 'innate' IL-17 expression was significantly impaired compared with those in wild-type mice. Impaired IL-17 production in γδ T cells was directly related to CD4 T-cell deficiency, because depletion of CD4 T cells in wild-type mice diminished and adoptive CD4 T-cell transfer into T-cell receptor β-/- mice restored IL-17 expression in γδ T cells. CD4 T cell-mediated IL-17 expression required TGFβ1. Moreover, Th17 but not Th1 or Th2 effector CD4 T cells were highly efficient in enhancing γδ T-cell IL-17 expression. Taken together, our results highlight a novel CD4 T cell-dependent mechanism that shapes the generation of IL-17+ γδ T cells in naive settings.

  4. Multiple POU-binding motifs, recognized by tissue-specific nuclear factors, are important for Dll1 gene expression in neural stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Kohzo; Nagase, Kazuko; Tokutake, Yuriko; Koh, Chang-Sung; Hiratochi, Masahiro; Ohkawara, Takeshi; Nakayama, Noriko

    2004-01-01

    We cloned the 5'-flanking region of the mouse homolog of the Delta gene (Dll1) and demonstrated that the sequence between nucleotide position -514 and -484 in the 5'-flanking region of Dll1 played a critical role in the regulation of its tissue-specific expression in neural stem cells (NSCs). Further, we showed that multiple POU-binding motifs, located within this short sequence of 30 bp, were essential for transcriptional activation of Dll1 and also that multiple tissue-specific nuclear factors recognized these POU-binding motifs in various combinations through differentiation of NSCs. Thus, POU-binding factors may play an important role in Dll1 expression in developing NSCs

  5. Conceptualisation of ageing in relation to factors of importance for extending working life - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kerstin

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and understand the complexity of ageing in relation to factors of importance for extending working life. Discourse analysis of documents was used in an integrative review including 128 articles. Four different conceptualisation of ageing are shown to affect older workers' ability to extend their working life: (a) biological ageing people's health in relation to their physical and mental work environment, their pace of work and recuperation needs; (b) chronological ageing statutory retirement age and policies and economic incentives devised for older workers by society, unions and organisations/enterprises; (c) social ageing inclusion in different social groups, the attitude of managers, organisations and family members, the leisure activities and surrounding environment; and (d) mental/cognitive ageing self-crediting, motivating and meaningful activities, competence and skills in working life. CONCLUSIONS SOCIETIES TODAY FOCUS MOSTLY ON CHRONOLOGICAL AGEING AND ARE LOOKING TO INCREASE THE RETIREMENT AGE WITH REGARD TO STATUTORY PENSION SYSTEMS, EG BEYOND 65 YEARS OF AGE THE INTER-RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CHRONOLOGICAL, MENTAL, BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL AGEING AND THE NINE AREAS IDENTIFIED AS BEING IMPORTANT TO OLDER WORKERS IN THESE RESPECTS NEED TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN AIMING TO PROVIDE A SUSTAINABLE WORKING LIFE FOR THE INCREASING NUMBERS OF OLDER WORKERS IN MODERN SOCIETY THE THEORETICAL MODEL DEVELOPED IS A CONTRIBUTION TO THE CRITICAL DEBATE THAT CAN BE APPLIED BY SOCIETIES, EMPLOYERS AND MANAGERS IN ORDER TO PROVIDE OLDER WORKERS WITH AN INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE EXTENDED WORKING LIFE. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  6. Dyssynergic defecation may play an important role in postoperative Hirschsprung's disease patients with severe persistent constipation: analysis of a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinds, Rob J; Eggink, Maura C; Heineman, Erik; Broens, Paul M A

    2014-10-01

    After surgery for Hirschsprung's disease (HD) the majority of patients have satisfactory clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, a substantial number of patients remain who suffer from severe persistent constipation. Current consensus attributes these complaints to the hallmarks of HD. In non-HD patients a cause for severe constipation is dyssynergic defecation. Retrospectively, we reviewed the medical records of ten postoperative HD patients with severe persistent constipation who had undergone extensive anorectal function tests to diagnose the reason for the constipation. We analyzed the results of these tests. During the last three years, ten postoperative HD patients with severe persistent constipation were given extensive anorectal function tests. All ten patients were diagnosed with dyssynergic defecation. The ages at the time of diagnosis ranged from 7 to 19years with a median age of 12years. Signs of an enlarged rectum were seen in all ten patients, with a maximum measured value of 845mL. Patients with HD may also suffer from dyssynergic defecation. It is important to consider this possibility when dealing with severe persistent constipation in postoperative HD patients. Viable options for treating dyssynergic defecation are available that could prevent irreversible long-term complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase plays an important role in intermittent hypoxia-induced cell death in rat cerebellar granule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Sheng-Chun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Episodic cessation of airflow during sleep in patients with sleep apnea syndrome results in intermittent hypoxia (IH. Our aim was to investigate the effects of IH on cerebellar granule cells and to identify the mechanism of IH-induced cell death. Methods Cerebellar granule cells were freshly prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. IH was created by culturing the cerebellar granule cells in the incubators with oscillating O2 concentration at 20% and 5% every 30 min for 1-4 days. The results of this study are based on image analysis using a confocal microscope and associated software. Cellular oxidative stress increased with increase in IH. In addition, the occurrence of cell death (apoptosis and necrosis increased as the duration of IH increased, but decreased in the presence of an iron chelator (phenanthroline or poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors [3-aminobenzamide (3-AB and DPQ]. The fluorescence of caspase-3 remained the same regardless of the duration of IH, and Western blots did not detect activation of caspase-3. However, IH increased the ratio of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF translocation to the nucleus, while PARP inhibitors (3-AB reduced this ratio. Results According to our findings, IH increased oxidative stress and subsequently leading to cell death. This effect was at least partially mediated by PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, calpain activation leading to AIF translocation to the nucleus. Conclusions We suggest that IH induces cell death in rat primary cerebellar granule cells by stimulating oxidative stress PARP-mediated calpain and AIF activation.

  8. Methanosarcina Play an Important Role in Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Seaweed Ulva lactuca: Taxonomy and Predicted Metabolism of Functional Microbial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A FitzGerald

    Full Text Available Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1 and strongest (R6 performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation.

  9. Methanosarcina Play an Important Role in Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Seaweed Ulva lactuca: Taxonomy and Predicted Metabolism of Functional Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Jamie A; Allen, Eoin; Wall, David M; Jackson, Stephen A; Murphy, Jerry D; Dobson, Alan D W

    2015-01-01

    Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1) and strongest (R6) performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA) showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation.

  10. Predicting unprecedented dengue outbreak using imported cases and climatic factors in Guangzhou, 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowei Sang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is endemic in more than 100 countries, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, and the incidence has increased 30-fold in the past 50 years. The situation of dengue in China has become more and more severe, with an unprecedented dengue outbreak hitting south China in 2014. Building a dengue early warning system is therefore urgent and necessary for timely and effective response.In the study we developed a time series Poisson multivariate regression model using imported dengue cases, local minimum temperature and accumulative precipitation to predict the dengue occurrence in four districts of Guangzhou, China. The time series data were decomposed into seasonal, trend and remainder components using a seasonal-trend decomposition procedure based on loess (STL. The time lag of climatic factors included in the model was chosen based on Spearman correlation analysis. Autocorrelation, seasonality and long-term trend were controlled in the model. A best model was selected and validated using Generalized Cross Validation (GCV score and residual test. The data from March 2006 to December 2012 were used to develop the model while the data from January 2013 to September 2014 were employed to validate the model. Time series Poisson model showed that imported cases in the previous month, minimum temperature in the previous month and accumulative precipitation with three month lags could project the dengue outbreaks occurred in 2013 and 2014 after controlling the autocorrelation, seasonality and long-term trend.Together with the sole transmission vector Aedes albopictus, imported cases, monthly minimum temperature and monthly accumulative precipitation may be used to develop a low-cost effective early warning system.

  11. AMP-activated protein kinase plays an important evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in fish skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo J Magnoni

    Full Text Available AMPK, a master metabolic switch, mediates the observed increase of glucose uptake in locomotory muscle of mammals during exercise. AMPK is activated by changes in the intracellular AMP:ATP ratio when ATP consumption is stimulated by contractile activity but also by AICAR and metformin, compounds that increase glucose transport in mammalian muscle cells. However, the possible role of AMPK in the regulation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle has not been investigated in other vertebrates, including fish. In this study, we investigated the effects of AMPK activators on glucose uptake, AMPK activity, cell surface levels of trout GLUT4 and expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 as well as the expression of enzymes regulating glucose disposal and PGC1α in trout myotubes derived from a primary muscle cell culture. We show that AICAR and metformin significantly stimulated glucose uptake (1.6 and 1.3 fold, respectively and that Compound C completely abrogated the stimulatory effects of the AMPK activators on glucose uptake. The combination of insulin and AMPK activators did not result in additive nor synergistic effects on glucose uptake. Moreover, exposure of trout myotubes to AICAR and metformin resulted in an increase in AMPK activity (3.8 and 3 fold, respectively. We also provide evidence suggesting that stimulation of glucose uptake by AMPK activators in trout myotubes may take place, at least in part, by increasing the cell surface and mRNA levels of trout GLUT4. Finally, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of genes involved in glucose disposal (hexokinase, 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and citrate synthase and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and did not affect glycogen content or glycogen synthase mRNA levels in trout myotubes. Therefore, we provide evidence, for the first time in non-mammalian vertebrates, suggesting a potentially important role of AMPK in stimulating glucose uptake and utilization in the skeletal muscle of fish.

  12. Interpersonal violence: an important risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Rosana; Schneider, Michelle; Bradshaw, Debbie; Jewkes, Rachel; Abrahams, Naeemah; Matzopoulos, Richard; Vos, Theo

    2010-12-01

    Burden of disease estimates for South Africa have highlighted the particularly high rates of injuries related to interpersonal violence compared with other regions of the world, but these figures tell only part of the story. In addition to direct physical injury, violence survivors are at an increased risk of a wide range of psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to comprehensively quantify the excess disease burden attributable to exposure to interpersonal violence as a risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa. The World Health Organization framework of interpersonal violence was adapted. Physical injury mortality and disability were categorically attributed to interpersonal violence. In addition, exposure to child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence, subcategories of interpersonal violence, were treated as risk factors for disease and injury using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made to account for the combined exposure state of having experienced both child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. Of the 17 risk factors included in the South African Comparative Risk Assessment study, interpersonal violence was the second leading cause of healthy years of life lost, after unsafe sex, accounting for 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) or 10.5% of all DALYs (95% uncertainty interval: 8.5%-12.5%) in 2000. In women, intimate partner violence accounted for 50% and child sexual abuse for 32% of the total attributable DALYs. The implications of our findings are that estimates that include only the direct injury burden seriously underrepresent the full health impact of interpersonal violence. Violence is an important direct and indirect cause of health loss and should be recognized as a priority health problem as well as a human rights and social issue. This study highlights the difficulties in measuring the disease burden from interpersonal violence as a risk factor

  13. Interpersonal violence: an important risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahams Naeemah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burden of disease estimates for South Africa have highlighted the particularly high rates of injuries related to interpersonal violence compared with other regions of the world, but these figures tell only part of the story. In addition to direct physical injury, violence survivors are at an increased risk of a wide range of psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to comprehensively quantify the excess disease burden attributable to exposure to interpersonal violence as a risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa. Methods The World Health Organization framework of interpersonal violence was adapted. Physical injury mortality and disability were categorically attributed to interpersonal violence. In addition, exposure to child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence, subcategories of interpersonal violence, were treated as risk factors for disease and injury using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made to account for the combined exposure state of having experienced both child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. Results Of the 17 risk factors included in the South African Comparative Risk Assessment study, interpersonal violence was the second leading cause of healthy years of life lost, after unsafe sex, accounting for 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs or 10.5% of all DALYs (95% uncertainty interval: 8.5%-12.5% in 2000. In women, intimate partner violence accounted for 50% and child sexual abuse for 32% of the total attributable DALYs. Conclusions The implications of our findings are that estimates that include only the direct injury burden seriously underrepresent the full health impact of interpersonal violence. Violence is an important direct and indirect cause of health loss and should be recognized as a priority health problem as well as a human rights and social issue. This study highlights the difficulties in measuring

  14. Increasing Risk Factors for Imported and Domestic Gnathostomiasis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a foodborne zoonotic helminthic infection, commonly described in Asia and Latin America, which may follow the consumption of raw fish, eels, amphibians, and reptiles infected with muscle-encysted larvae of Gnathostoma species nematodes. After an inoculum of as little as one infective larva and an incubation period of months to years, most infections are characterized by intermittent migratory swellings due to subdermal larval migration. Less commonly, larval migration to the central nervous system may result in radiculomyelopathy or eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with high fatality rates; or larval migration to the eye with resulting blindness in untreated cases. Since the US now supports a zoonosis of Gnathostoma species with infective larvae encysted in imported and domestic fish and eels that may be consumed raw as exotic ethnic dishes, the objectives of this review were to describe the biology and life cycle of Gnathostoma nematodes and the behavioral risk factors for gnathostomiasis; and to describe the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management, and prevention of human gnathostomiasis. Since the eradication of gnathostomiasis is very unlikely given the global distribution of Gnathostoma nematodes and the increasingly exotic culinary tastes of US residents and travelers to endemic regions, the only effective strategies for gnathostomiasis include: (1) educating citizens in the US and travelers abroad in endemic areas that fish, eels, frogs, snakes, and chicken must be cooked thoroughly first and not eaten raw or marinated; and (2) seeking medical care immediately for evaluation of migratory subcutaneous swellings. The combination of international travel and increased immigration from Asia and Latin America to the US has resulted in greater popularity of exotic ethnic cuisine, especially raw seafood dishes. The ethnic cuisine industry is supported by domestic aquaculture that produces fish-farmed tilapia and trout, and by increased

  15. Nuclear import of transcription factor BR-C is mediated by its interaction with RACK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Daojun; Qian, Wenliang; Wang, Yonghu; Meng, Meng; Wei, Ling; Li, Zhiqing; Kang, Lixia; Peng, Jian; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor Broad Complex (BR-C) is an early ecdysone response gene in insects and contains two types of domains: two zinc finger domains for the activation of gene transcription and a Bric-a-brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex (BTB) domain for protein-protein interaction. Although the mechanism of zinc finger-mediated gene transcription is well studied, the partners interacting with the BTB domain of BR-C has not been elucidated until now. Here, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using the BTB domain of silkworm BR-C as bait and identified the receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1), a scaffolding/anchoring protein, as the novel partner capable of interacting with BR-C. The interaction between BR-C and RACK1 was further confirmed by far-western blotting and pull-down assays. Importantly, the disruption of this interaction, via RNAi against the endogenous RACK1 gene or deletion of the BTB domain, abolished the nuclear import of BR-C in BmN4 cells. In addition, RNAi against the endogenous PKC gene as well as phosphorylation-deficient mutation of the predicted PKC phosphorylation sites at either Ser373 or Thr406 in BR-C phenocopied RACK1 RNAi and altered the nuclear localization of BR-C. However, when BTB domain was deleted, phosphorylation mimics of either Ser373 or Thr406 had no effect on the nuclear import of BR-C. Moreover, mutating the PKC phosphorylation sites at Ser373 and Thr406 or deleting the BTB domain significantly decreased the transcriptional activation of a BR-C target gene. Given that RACK1 is necessary for recruiting PKC to close and phosphorylate target proteins, we suggest that the PKC-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear import of BR-C is determined by its interaction with RACK1. This novel finding will be helpful for further deciphering the mechanism underlying the role of BR-C proteins during insect development.

  16. Nuclear import of transcription factor BR-C is mediated by its interaction with RACK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojun Cheng

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Broad Complex (BR-C is an early ecdysone response gene in insects and contains two types of domains: two zinc finger domains for the activation of gene transcription and a Bric-a-brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex (BTB domain for protein-protein interaction. Although the mechanism of zinc finger-mediated gene transcription is well studied, the partners interacting with the BTB domain of BR-C has not been elucidated until now. Here, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using the BTB domain of silkworm BR-C as bait and identified the receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1, a scaffolding/anchoring protein, as the novel partner capable of interacting with BR-C. The interaction between BR-C and RACK1 was further confirmed by far-western blotting and pull-down assays. Importantly, the disruption of this interaction, via RNAi against the endogenous RACK1 gene or deletion of the BTB domain, abolished the nuclear import of BR-C in BmN4 cells. In addition, RNAi against the endogenous PKC gene as well as phosphorylation-deficient mutation of the predicted PKC phosphorylation sites at either Ser373 or Thr406 in BR-C phenocopied RACK1 RNAi and altered the nuclear localization of BR-C. However, when BTB domain was deleted, phosphorylation mimics of either Ser373 or Thr406 had no effect on the nuclear import of BR-C. Moreover, mutating the PKC phosphorylation sites at Ser373 and Thr406 or deleting the BTB domain significantly decreased the transcriptional activation of a BR-C target gene. Given that RACK1 is necessary for recruiting PKC to close and phosphorylate target proteins, we suggest that the PKC-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear import of BR-C is determined by its interaction with RACK1. This novel finding will be helpful for further deciphering the mechanism underlying the role of BR-C proteins during insect development.

  17. Postphenomenological Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    This paper aims to identify an understanding of digital games in virtual environments by using Don Ihde’s (1990) postphenomenological approach to how technology mediates the world to human beings in conjunction with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s (1993) notion of play . Through this tentatively proposed am...... amalgamation of theories I point towards an alternative understanding of the relationship between play and game as not only dialectic, but also as socially and ethically relevant qua the design and implementation of the game as technology....

  18. Uric acid as one of the important factors in multifactorial disorders – facts and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalic, Daria; Marinkovic, Natalija; Feher-Turkovic, Lana

    2012-01-01

    With considering serum concentration of the uric acid in humans we are observing hyperuricemia and possible gout development. Many epidemiological studies have shown the relationship between the uric acid and different disorders such are obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension and coronary artery disease. Clinicians and investigators recognized serum uric acid concentration as very important diagnostic and prognostic factor of many multifactorial disorders. This review presented few clinical conditions which are not directly related to uric acid, but the concentrations of uric acid might have a great impact in observing, monitoring, prognosis and therapy of such disorders. Uric acid is recognized as a marker of oxidative stress. Production of the uric acid includes enzyme xanthine oxidase which is involved in producing of radical-oxigen species (ROS). As by-products ROS have a significant role in the increased vascular oxidative stress and might be involved in atherogenesis. Uric acid may inhibit endothelial function by inhibition of nitric oxide-function under conditions of oxidative stress. Down regulation of nitric oxide and induction of endothelial dysfunction might also be involved in pathogenesis of hypertension. The most important and well evidenced is possible predictive role of uric acid in predicting short-term outcome (mortality) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and stroke. Nephrolithiasis of uric acid origin is significantly more common among patients with the metabolic syndrome and obesity. On contrary to this, uric acid also acts is an “antioxidant”, a free radical scavenger and a chelator of transitional metal ions which are converted to poorly reactive forms. PMID:22384520

  19. Hypoxia-inducible factorplays a critical role in the formation of alveoli and surfactant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Huang (Yao); M. Buscop-Van Kempen (Marjon); A. de Munck (Anne); S.M.A. Swagemakers (Sigrid); M.J.F. Driegen (Siska); P. Mahavadi (Poornima); D.N. Meijer (Dies); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); A. Günther (Andreas); D. Tibboel (Dick); R.J. Rottier (Robbert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAlveolarization of the developing lung is an important step toward the switch from intrauterine life to breathing oxygen-rich air after birth. The distal airways structurally change to minimize the gas exchange path, and Type II pneumocytes increase the production of surfactants, which

  20. Playful Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    intact. In its final sections, the article discusses what happens to conditions of decision-making when organisations do not just see undecidability as a given condition, but as a limited resource indispensable for change and renewal. The article advances discussions of organisational play by exploring...

  1. Clay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Liz; Steffan, Dana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to use clay as a potential material for young children to explore. As teachers, the authors find that their dialogue about the potential of clay as a learning medium raises many questions: (1) What makes clay so enticing? (2) Why are teachers noticing different play and conversation around the clay table as compared to…

  2. Sweet Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  3. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  4. Playing Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Juan E.

    The acceptance of animation technologies is increasing. Video games, such as Sony PlayStation (SONY, 2002), have become part of the culture for young people from kindergarten through undergraduate school. Animation technologies have been implemented into educational systems in the form of animated pedagogical agents (Johnson, 2000). The research…

  5. Aesthetic Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The present article explores the role of music-related artefacts and technologies in children’s lives. More specifically, it analyzes how four 10- to 11-year old girls use CDs and DVD games in their music-play activities and which developmental themes and potentials may accrue from such activitie...

  6. Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Jane E.; Smith, Brandy A.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old…

  7. Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Classical Piano Students at Tertiary Institutions in Malaysia: Proportion and Associated Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chia-Ying; Loo, Fung-Chiat; Hamedon, Titi R

    2018-06-01

    Musicians are prone to performance injuries due to the nature of musical practice, and classical pianists are among the groups at high risk for playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). With the growing number of classical pianists in Malaysia, this study aimed to investigate the proportion of PRMDs occurring among classical piano students in tertiary institutions in Malaysia. Associations between gender, practice habits, diet, sports involvement, and PRMD were investigated. A survey was conducted among classical piano students (n=192) at tertiary institutions of Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. Results showed that 35.8% (n=68) students reported having PRMD. The shoulder was the most commonly affected body site, followed by the arm, finger, and wrist. Pain, fatigue, and stiffness were the most cited symptoms by those who suffered from a PRMD. Chi-square analysis showed a significant relationship between the occurrence of PRMD and practice hours (p=0.031), the habit of taking breaks during practice (p=0.045), physical cool-down exercises (p=0.037), and special diet (p=0.007). Multivariate logistic regression analyses confirmed the independent correlation between PRMDs and the lack of taking a break during practice, physical cool-down exercises, and special diet. Because PRMDs are reported at various severity levels, this study should increase awareness of PRMD among classical piano students and encourage injury prevention in musicians in the future to ensure long-lasting music careers.

  8. WBSCR16 Is a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Important for Mitochondrial Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorui Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulated inter-mitochondrial fusion/fission is essential for maintaining optimal mitochondrial respiration and control of apoptosis and autophagy. In mammals, mitochondrial fusion is controlled by outer membrane GTPases MFN1 and MFN2 and by inner membrane (IM GTPase OPA1. Disordered mitochondrial fusion/fission contributes to various pathologies, and MFN2 or OPA1 mutations underlie neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we show that the WBSCR16 protein is primarily associated with the outer face of the inner mitochondrial membrane and is important for mitochondrial fusion. We provide evidence of a WBSCR16/OPA1 physical interaction in the intact cell and of a WBSCR16 function as an OPA1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF. Homozygosity for a Wbscr16 mutation causes early embryonic lethality, whereas neurons of mice heterozygous for the mutation have mitochondria with reduced membrane potential and increased susceptibility to fragmentation upon exposure to stress, suggesting roles for WBSCR16 deficits in neuronal pathologies.

  9. Oral hygiene is an important factor for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Par, Matej; Badovinac, Ana; Plancak, Darije

    2014-03-01

    Inadequate oral hygiene in intensive care units (ICUs) has been recognized as a critical issue, for it is an important risk factor for ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP is an aspiration pneumonia that occurs in mechanically ventilated patients, mostly caused by bacteria colonizing the oral cavity and dental plaque. It is the second most common nosocomial infection and the leading cause of complications and death in mechanically ventilated patients. It has been suggested that improvement of oral hygiene in ICU patients could lead to a reduced incidence of VAP. Although diverse oral care measures for ICU patients have been proposed in the literature, there is no evidence that could identify the most efficient ones. Although there are several evidence-based protocols, oral care measures are still performed inconsistently and differ greatly between individual ICUs. This paper lists the oral care measures most commonly performed in ICUs, indicating their advantages and disadvantages. Brushing with regular toothbrush and rinsing with chlorhexidine are considered optimal measures of oral hygiene in critically ill patients. To date, there is no definitive agreement about the most effective oral care protocol, but evidence demonstrates that consistent performance of oral care may lower the incidence of VAP in critically ill patients.

  10. The human factor: the critical importance of effective teamwork and communication in providing safe care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, M; Graham, S; Bonacum, D

    2004-10-01

    Effective communication and teamwork is essential for the delivery of high quality, safe patient care. Communication failures are an extremely common cause of inadvertent patient harm. The complexity of medical care, coupled with the inherent limitations of human performance, make it critically important that clinicians have standardised communication tools, create an environment in which individuals can speak up and express concerns, and share common "critical language" to alert team members to unsafe situations. All too frequently, effective communication is situation or personality dependent. Other high reliability domains, such as commercial aviation, have shown that the adoption of standardised tools and behaviours is a very effective strategy in enhancing teamwork and reducing risk. We describe our ongoing patient safety implementation using this approach within Kaiser Permanente, a non-profit American healthcare system providing care for 8.3 million patients. We describe specific clinical experience in the application of surgical briefings, properties of high reliability perinatal care, the value of critical event training and simulation, and benefits of a standardised communication process in the care of patients transferred from hospitals to skilled nursing facilities. Additionally, lessons learned as to effective techniques in achieving cultural change, evidence of improving the quality of the work environment, practice transfer strategies, critical success factors, and the evolving methods of demonstrating the benefit of such work are described.

  11. Two factors important to the criticality potential of spent fuel in geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, B.F.; Jenquin, U.P.

    1981-02-01

    Two factors important to the criticality potential of spent fuel in geologic repositories are: the residual fissile content of the fuel, and the extent to which geochemical processes might somehow separate and accumulate plutonium from other spent fuel materials. This paper presents the results of two calculational surveys defining conditions required for criticality. In the first, homogeneous spherical mixtures of spent fuel actinide oxides and water with water reflection are analyzed. Graphs of minimum critical mass vs duration of in-reactor exposure are presented. Parametric variations from a base case are explored, including the effects of initial enrichment, post exposure radioactive decay and addition of rock materials to the mixture. In the second study, homogeneous spherical mixtures devoid of water, containing plutonium and a neutronically optimized rock material, with a thick rock neutron reflector are analyzed. Graphs of Pu critical mass are presented as a function of concentration over the range from 2 to 100 g Pu/l. Parametric variations from a base case are explored, including effects of rock composition, 240 Pu content and uranium contamination of the plutonium

  12. The importance of heat against antinutritional factors from Chenopodium quinoa seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa seeds have high protein content. The nutritional value of quinoa is superior compared with traditional cereals. Its essential amino acid composition is considered next to the ideal, and its quality matches that of milk proteins. In this study, the seed storage proteins from Chenopodium quinoa were extracted, fractionated, partially purified, and characterized. The structural characterization was performed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis, and it confirmed the presence of proteins of molecular weight of 30 and 7kDa, probably corresponding to lectins and trypsin inhibitors, respectively. The functional characterization of these proteins evidenced their activity as antinutritional factors due to their in vitro digestibility. Quinoa proteins have an excellent amino acid composition with many essential amino acids. In vitro digestibility evaluation indicated that heat-treated samples showed a more complete digestion than the native state samples. Quinoa seeds can be an important cereal in human diet after adequate heat treatment.

  13. A DREB-Like Transcription Factor From Maize (Zea mays, ZmDREB4.1, Plays a Negative Role in Plant Growth and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixue Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The DREB (dehydration-responsive element binding-type transcription factors are classified into six subgroups, named A-1 to A-6. The members of DREB A-1 and A-2 subgroups have been reported to be involved in response to various abiotic stresses. However, there were only a few genes belonging to A-3 to A-6 subgroups to be reported. In this study, we cloned a DREB A-4 subgroup gene from maize (Zea mays, ZmDREB4.1, and analyzed its characteristics and functions. ZmDREB4.1 was expressed in roots, stems, and leaves at very low levels. It was not induced by any biotic or abiotic treatment. ZmDREB4.1 was located in the nucleus, could directly bind to the DRE element and functioned as a transcriptional activator. The constitutive expression of ZmDREB4.1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. repressed leaf extension and hypocotyl, petiole and stem elongation. In maize, overexpression of ZmDREB4.1 repressed calli growth and regeneration. Further analysis showed that the smaller leaves of transgenic tobacco resulted from inhibition of cell division. The contents of cytokinin and auxin in transgenic leaves were severely decreased. The shorter hypocotyls, stems and petioles of transgenic tobacco were caused by inhibition of cell elongation. The transgenic hypocotyls, stems and petioles contained reduced gibberellin levels. Application of exogenous GA3 rescued the shorter hypocotyls, stems and petioles, but not the smaller leaves. These results demonstrated that ZmDREB4.1 plays an important role in the negative regulation of plant growth and development.

  14. The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor SigV plays a key role in the original model of lysozyme resistance and virulence of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Le Jeune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis is one of the leading agents of nosocomial infections. To cause diseases, pathogens or opportunistic bacteria have to adapt and survive to the defense systems encountered in the host. One of the most important compounds of the host innate defense response against invading microorganisms is lysozyme. It is found in a wide variety of body fluids, as well as in cells of the innate immune system. Lysozyme could act either as a muramidase and/or as a cationic antimicrobial peptide. Like Staphylococcus aureus, E. faecalis is one of the few bacteria that are completely lysozyme resistant. RESULTS: This study revealed that oatA (O-acetyl transferase and dlt (D-Alanylation of lipoteicoic acids genes contribute only partly to the lysozyme resistance of E. faecalis and that a specific transcriptional regulator, the extracytoplasmic function SigV sigma factor plays a key role in this event. Indeed, the sigV single mutant is as sensitive as the oatA/dltA double mutant, and the sigV/oatA/dltA triple mutant displays the highest level of lysozyme sensitivity suggesting synergistic effects of these genes. In S. aureus, mutation of both oatA and dlt genes abolishes completely the lysozyme resistance, whereas this is not the case in E. faecalis. Interestingly SigV does not control neither oatA nor dlt genes. Moreover, the sigV mutants clearly showed a reduced capacity to colonize host tissues, as they are significantly less recovered than the parental JH2-2 strain from organs of mice subjected to intravenous or urinary tract infections. CONCLUSIONS: This work led to the discovery of an original model of lysozyme resistance mechanism which is obviously more complex than those described for other Gram positive pathogens. Moreover, our data provide evidences for a direct link between lysozyme resistance and virulence of E. faecalis.

  15. Most important factors modelling health status of an individual and the population. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sobieszczańska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Human state of health is determined by so many factors that despite numerous studies conducted in many countries worldwide it is not possible to define them unequivocally. Health and diseases are conditioned in various parts of the world in different ways, both of the total population and the individual. Undoubtedly, these are strong premises to continue studies in the direction of unification of the definitions of health, disease, and disability.  In every country there is a different level of recognition of health problems of the population, their dimensions, causes and consequences, which should constitute knowledge to determine  projects, strengthening and improvement of the quality of health care. Modern actions in the domain of health promotion, prophylaxis, as well as health education, are of primary importance in the modelling of the state of health.  Objective The objective of the study was presentation of widely understood health and social factors, which may effectively influence the improvement of the state of health, both of an individual and the population, as evaluated in the sphere of health behaviours, availability and level of the health services offered, and the state of advancement of epidemiological knowledge while assessing positive and negative health measures.    Description of the state of knowledge The data published in many scientific studies, mainly by the agendas of the World Health Organization,  demonstrate that the factors shaping the level of human health include: incorrect life style, hazards within the physical environment, widely understood geographic factors (natural, climatic, which are specific in some latitudes, and the quality of care provided by health services. Many researchers have no doubt that from each of the large groups of factors it is possible to select smaller groups, the number and quality of which are  characteristic or highly specific to various groups of people

  16. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 plays a role in phosphate-induced vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokas, Sophie; Larivière, Richard; Lamalice, Laurent; Gobeil, Stéphane; Cornfield, David N; Agharazii, Mohsen; Richard, Darren E

    2016-09-01

    Medial vascular calcification is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although elevated inorganic phosphate stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) osteogenic transdifferentiation and calcification, the mechanisms involved in their calcification during CKD are not fully defined. Because hypoxic gene activation is linked to CKD and stimulates bone cell osteogenic differentiation, we used in vivo and in vitro rodent models to define the role of hypoxic signaling during elevated inorganic phosphate-induced VSMC calcification. Cell mineralization studies showed that elevated inorganic phosphate rapidly induced VSMC calcification. Hypoxia strongly enhanced elevated inorganic phosphate-induced VSMC calcification and osteogenic transdifferentiation, as seen by osteogenic marker expression. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), the key hypoxic transcription factor, was essential for enhanced VSMC calcification. Targeting HIF-1 expression in murine VSMC blocked calcification in hypoxia with elevated inorganic phosphate while HIF-1 activators, including clinically used FG-4592/Roxadustat, recreated a procalcifying environment. Elevated inorganic phosphate rapidly activated HIF-1, even in normal oxygenation; an effect mediated by HIF-1α subunit stabilization. Thus, hypoxia synergizes with elevated inorganic phosphate to enhance VSMC osteogenic transdifferentiation. Our work identifies HIF-1 as an early CKD-related pathological event, prospective marker, and potential target against vascular calcification in CKD-relevant conditions. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Playing facilitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Ellen; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    event called InnoEvent, addressed to students in the fields of multimedia and healthcare. Being interested in studying games and role-play as tools to support independent learning in the field of design thinking and team-building, following Dewey’s (1938) theory of learning experience, we ran two...... workshops based on two classic role-play games: The Silent Game (Brandt, 2006) and The Six Thinking Hats (de Bono, 1985). These games were created to support students in learning design thinking in groups and are assigned positive values in literature, hence we expected a smooth process. However, our...... experience was rather characterized by conflictual negotiations with the students. Data from our observations and from interviews with group representatives show that the students took a discontinuous learning path, characterised by a false start, failure, and a thorough reconsideration of their work...

  18. Why directionality is an important light factor for human health to consider in lighting design?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khademagha, P.; Aries, M.B.C.; Rosemann, A.L.P.; van Loenen, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Both image-forming and non-image-forming effects of radiation require proper attention in lighting design that aims at meeting human vision and health requirements. Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) appear to play an essential role in stimulation of the non-image forming

  19. Cardiovascular risk in lupus nephritis: Do renal disease-related and other traditional risk factors play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoshi Atukorala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thickened carotid intima media thickness (CIMT in a Sri Lankan cohort of lupus nephritis (LN patients and to identify associations between traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD and LN-related risk factors with increased CIMT. Consecutive patients with biopsy-proven LN were evaluated for conventional CVD risk factors, renal parameters and extent of organ involvement in this cross-sectional study. Current disease activity and damage were assessed by the British Isles Lupus Activity Group (BILAG score and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR damage index, respectively. CIMT was assessed by B Mode grey scale ultrasonography. Increased CIMT was defined as CIMT more than the 75th percentile based on cutoffs from the "Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study." Forty patients (98% female, with a mean age of 38 years (age range of 20-50 and of South Asian descent, were evaluated. The mean duration of disease of 6.15 years (SD = 4.66. The overall prevalence of cardiovascular events was low and included previous acute coronary syndromes in 7.5%, stable angina in 5%, cerebrovascular accidents in 7.5% and transient ischemic attacks in 2.5% of the patients; 72.5% had hypertension (HTN [mean blood pressure (BP 140/80 mm Hg]; 32.5% had dyslipidemias (mean serum cholesterol 5.9; SD = 5.6 and 25% had diabetes (mean blood sugar 103.7; SD = 15.6. Forty percent were obese and 20% were overweight (Asian cutoffs. Increased CIMT (57.5% and atherosclerotic plaques (15.36% indicated a high CVD risk in this cohort. Diabetes (P = 0.016, HTN (P = 0.002, dyslipidemia (P = 0.002 and obesity (P = 0.048 were associated with thickened CIMT. The only LN-related risk factor associated with thickened CIMT (P <0.05 was the SLICC/ACR damage index. The independent predictors of thickened CIMT determined by logistic regression analysis were HTN and dyslipidemia.

  20. Physician perspectives and compliance with patient advance directives: the role external factors play on physician decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Christopher M; Mueller, Paul S; Swetz, Keith M; Hook, C Christopher; Keegan, Mark T

    2012-11-21

    Following passage of the Patient Self Determination Act in 1990, health care institutions that receive Medicare and Medicaid funding are required to inform patients of their right to make their health care preferences known through execution of a living will and/or to appoint a surrogate-decision maker. We evaluated the impact of external factors and perceived patient preferences on physicians' decisions to honor or forgo previously established advance directives (ADs). In addition, physician views regarding legal risk, patients' ability to comprehend complexities involved with their care, and impact of medical costs related to end-of-life care decisions were explored. Attendees of two Mayo Clinic continuing medical education courses were surveyed. Three scenarios based in part on previously court-litigated matters assessed impact of external factors and perceived patient preferences on physician compliance with patient-articulated wishes regarding resuscitation. General questions measured respondents' perception of legal risk, concerns over patient knowledge of idiosyncrasies involved with their care, and impact medical costs may have on compliance with patient preferences. Responses indicating strength of agreement or disagreement with statements were treated as ordinal data and analyzed using the Cochran Armitage trend test. Three hundred eighty-eight of 951 surveys were completed (41% response rate). Eighty percent reported they were likely to honor a patient's AD despite its 5 year age. Fewer than half (41%) would honor the AD of a patient in ventricular fibrillation who had expressed a desire to "pass away in peace." Few (17%) would forgo an AD following a family's request for continued resuscitative treatment. A majority (52%) considered risk of liability to be lower when maintaining someone alive against their wishes than mistakenly failing to provide resuscitative efforts. A large percentage (74%) disagreed that patients could not appreciate complexities

  1. Physician perspectives and compliance with patient advance directives: the role external factors play on physician decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkle Christopher M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following passage of the Patient Self Determination Act in 1990, health care institutions that receive Medicare and Medicaid funding are required to inform patients of their right to make their health care preferences known through execution of a living will and/or to appoint a surrogate-decision maker. We evaluated the impact of external factors and perceived patient preferences on physicians’ decisions to honor or forgo previously established advance directives (ADs. In addition, physician views regarding legal risk, patients’ ability to comprehend complexities involved with their care, and impact of medical costs related to end-of-life care decisions were explored. Methods Attendees of two Mayo Clinic continuing medical education courses were surveyed. Three scenarios based in part on previously court-litigated matters assessed impact of external factors and perceived patient preferences on physician compliance with patient-articulated wishes regarding resuscitation. General questions measured respondents’ perception of legal risk, concerns over patient knowledge of idiosyncrasies involved with their care, and impact medical costs may have on compliance with patient preferences. Responses indicating strength of agreement or disagreement with statements were treated as ordinal data and analyzed using the Cochran Armitage trend test. Results Three hundred eighty-eight of 951 surveys were completed (41% response rate. Eighty percent reported they were likely to honor a patient’s AD despite its 5 year age. Fewer than half (41% would honor the AD of a patient in ventricular fibrillation who had expressed a desire to “pass away in peace.” Few (17% would forgo an AD following a family’s request for continued resuscitative treatment. A majority (52% considered risk of liability to be lower when maintaining someone alive against their wishes than mistakenly failing to provide resuscitative efforts. A large percentage

  2. Importance of Natural and Anthropogenic Environmental Factors to Fish Communities of the Fox River in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnier, Spencer; Cai, Ximing; Cao, Yong

    2016-02-01

    The dominant environmental determinants of aquatic communities have been a persistent topic for many years. Interactions between natural and anthropogenic characteristics within the aquatic environment influence fish communities in complex ways that make the effect of a single characteristic difficult to ascertain. Researchers are faced with the question of how to deal with a large number of variables and complex interrelationships. This study utilized multiple approaches to identify key environmental variables to fish communities of the Fox River Basin in Illinois: Pearson and Spearman correlations, an algorithm based on information theory called mutual information, and a measure of variable importance built into the machine learning algorithm Random Forest. The results are based on a dataset developed for this study, which uses a fish index of biological integrity (IBI) and its ten component metrics as response variables and a range of environmental variables describing geomorphology, stream flow statistics, climate, and both reach-scale and watershed-scale land use as independent variables. Agricultural land use and the magnitude and duration of low flow events were ranked by the algorithms as key factors for the study area. Reach-scale characteristics were dominant for native sunfish, and stream flow metrics were rated highly for native suckers. Regression tree analyses of environmental variables on fish IBI identified breakpoints in percent agricultural land in the watershed (~64 %), duration of low flow pulses (~12 days), and 90-day minimum flow (~0.13 cms). The findings should be useful for building predictive models and design of more effective monitoring systems and restoration plans.

  3. Age-related macular degeneration: the importance of family history as a risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Humma; Khan, Jane C; Cipriani, Valentina; Sepp, Tiina; Matharu, Baljinder K; Bunce, Catey; Harding, Simon P; Clayton, David G; Moore, Anthony T; Yates, John R W

    2012-03-01

    Family history is considered a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). With the advent of effective therapy for the disease, the importance of family history merits further investigation. This study quantifies the risk associated with family history, first, by a case-control study of reported family history and, second, by examining the siblings of AMD cases. The authors recruited cases with advanced AMD, spouses and siblings. All subjects were carefully phenotyped. Clinical findings in the siblings were compared with spouses. Information about family history was collected. The ORs for reported family history of AMD were calculated. Analyses were adjusted for age, smoking and genotype. 495 AMD cases, 259 spouses and 171 siblings were recruited. The OR for AMD was 27.8 (CI 3.8 to 203.0; p=0.001) with a reported family history of an affected parent and 12.0 (CI 3.7 to 38.6; p<0.0001) with a history of an affected sibling. ORs adjusted for age and smoking were higher. Examination of siblings confirmed their increased risk with 23% affected by AMD and an OR of 10.8 (4.5 to 25.8; p<0.0001). Adjusting for age increased the OR to 16.1 (6.2 to 41.8). The risk of AMD is greatly increased by having an affected first-degree relative. Those at risk need to be made aware of this and AMD patients should advise siblings and children to seek prompt ophthalmological advice if they develop visual symptoms of distortion or reduced vision.

  4. Nerve growth factor induces facial heat hyperalgesia and plays a role in trigeminal neuropathic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Renata C; Kopruszinski, Caroline M; Nones, Carina F M; Chichorro, Juliana G

    2016-09-01

    There is preclinical evidence that nerve growth factor (NGF) contributes toward inflammatory hyperalgesia in the orofacial region, but the mechanisms underlying its hyperalgesic effect as well as its role in trigeminal neuropathic pain require further investigation. This study investigated the ability of NGF to induce facial heat hyperalgesia and the involvement of tyrosine kinase receptor A, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, and mast cells in NGF pronociceptive effects. In addition, the role of NGF in heat hyperalgesia in a model of trigeminal neuropathic pain was evaluated. NGF injection into the upper lip of naive rats induced long-lasting heat hyperalgesia. Pretreatment with an antibody anti-NGF, antagonists of tyrosine kinase receptor A, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors or compound 48/80, to induce mast-cell degranulation, all attenuated NGF-induced hyperalgesia. In a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain, local treatment with anti-NGF significantly reduced heat hyperalgesia. In addition, increased NGF levels were detected in the ipsilateral infraorbital nerve branch at the time point that represents the peak of heat hyperalgesia. The results suggest that NGF is a prominent hyperalgesic mediator in the trigeminal system and it may represent a potential therapeutic target for the management of painful orofacial conditions, including trigeminal neuropathic pain.

  5. What factors play a role in preventing self-immolation?Results from a case-control study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Karim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: To investigate factors related to prevention of self-immolation in west of Iran. Methods: In a case-control study, 30 consecutive cases of deliberate self-inflicted burns admitted to the regional burn center (Imam Khomeini hospital in Kermanshah province, Iran were compared with controls selected from the community and matched by sex, age,district-county of residence, and rural vs urban living environment. The following characteristics relevant to preventing self immolation were collected from all cases and controls: main domestic fuel used in the household, awareness about complications of burn injuries, and use of counseling services. Results: Descriptive analyses revealed that kerosene was the main domestic fuel in the household for 83% of cases. Not surprisingly, the main means of self-immolation in 93% of the patients was kerosene, with other fuels such as petrol and domestic gas used in remaining cases. The majority of cases and controls were aware of the potential complications of burn injuries. Use of counseling services was more common in controls. Conclusions: All three aspects of preventing self-immolation – having kerosene and other fuels in the home, being aware of the complications of burn injuries, and using counseling services were present in both the cases and controls. This suggests a large portion of residents in rural Iran are potential self-immolation victims. Increasing preventive strategies may reduce risk of suicide by self-immolation.

  6. Factors affecting Import Shares of Powdered Milk and other Milk Products and their Implications in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Bogahawatte, C.; Herath, Janaranjana

    2006-01-01

    Import shares of liquid milk, powdered milk, condensed milk and other milk products were estimated to determine their relative competitiveness. The change of import shares with changes of exchange rate and world price of milk. The analysis based on yearly data between 1975-2006 showed that relative CIF prices and incomes were important factors influencing the market shares of milk and milk products. The results also showed that imported milk powder is price inelastic and a weak substitute for...

  7. On the importance of adjusting for distorting factors in benchmarking analysis, as illustrated by a cost comparison of the different forms of implementation of the EU Packaging Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Heinz-Georg; Schuch, Dieter

    2017-12-01

    Benchmarking is a proven and widely used business tool for identifying best practice. To produce robust results, the objects of comparison used in benchmarking analysis need to be structurally comparable and distorting factors need to be eliminated. We focus on a specific example - a benchmark study commissioned by the European Commission's Directorate-General for Environment on the implementation of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) for packaging at the national level - to discuss potential distorting factors and take them into account in the calculation. The cost of compliance per inhabitant and year, which is used as the key cost efficiency indicator in the study, is adjusted to take account of seven factors. The results clearly show that differences in performance may play a role, but the (legal) implementation of EPR - which is highly heterogeneous across countries - is the single most important cost determinant and must be taken into account to avoid misinterpretation and false conclusions.

  8. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC) SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC) system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms) in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC) in Eg...

  9. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  10. Playing Possum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Euli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our society is drenched in the catastrophe; where the growth of financial crisis, environmental cataclysm and militarization represents its gaudiest and mortifying phenomena. Humans struggle with depression, sense of impotence, anguish towards a future considered a threat.  A possibility to keep us alive can be represented by the enhancement of our ability in ‘playing Possum’, an exercise of desisting and renitence: to firmly say ‘no’. To say no to a world that proposes just one way of being and living free, that imposes as the only unavoidable possible destiny.

  11. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  12. Are financial factors more important than health in early retirement? A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, A. de; Geuskens, G.A.; Ybema, J.F.; Blatter, B.M.; Burdorf, A.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the relative contribution of health, job characteristics, skills and knowledge, social factors, and financial factors to the transition from work to early retirement. Methods Employees aged 59–63 years (N=2317) were selected from the Study on

  13. ZNF143 protein is an important regulator of the myeloid transcription factor C/EBP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gonzalez, D.; Luyten, A.; Bartholdy, B.; Zhou, Q.; Kardošová, Miroslava; Ebralidze, A.; Swanson, K.D.; Radomska, H.S.; Zhang, P.; Kobayashi, S.S.; Welner, R.S.; Levantini, E.; Steidl, U.; Chong, G.; Collombet, S.; Choi, M.H.; Friedman, A.D.; Scott, L.M.; Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell; Tenen, D.G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 46 (2017), s. 18924-18936 ISSN 0021-9258 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein * gene regulation * hematopoiesis * promoter * transcription factor * EBPalpha * ZNF143 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 4.125, year: 2016

  14. Late Modern Play Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    and the Danish University of Education (among others) have been working with different kind of products, all referred to as PlAYWARE. Playware combines modern technology and knowledge about play culture in order to produce playful experiences for its players. This paper will exemplify how the concept of play can...... from one generation to the next. Because older children are no longer present as younger children grow up, the traditional "cultural leaders" are gone. They have taken with them much of the inspiration for play as well as important knowledge about how to organise a game. In that sense we can say...

  15. Pesquisa qualitativa em Educação Matemática a distância: aspectos importantes do uso do Role Playing Game como procedimento metodológico de pesquisa Qualitative research in distance Mathematics Education: important aspects of the Role Playing Game as research methodological procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Rosa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo evidencia aspectos do Role Playing Game (RPG, jogo de representação de personagens, que o tornam um importante procedimento de investigação em termos de Pesquisa Qualitativa em Educação (no caso, Educação Matemática a Distância. Esse jogo foi adotado em uma pesquisa (ROSA, 2008 que estudou as relações estabelecidas entre a construção de identidades online e o ensino e a aprendizagem do conceito de Integral Definida (conceito do Cálculo Diferencial e Integral em um curso a distância. Assim, a partir dessa investigação que utilizou o RPG jogado a distância, via chat, como procedimento de coleta de dados, discutimos a inserção desse jogo como procedimento metodológico de pesquisa em Educação Matemática a Distância e caracterizamos como esse processo liga-se a questões referentes à Pesquisa Qualitativa nesse novo cenário: o ciberespaço. Logo, assumimos que adotar o RPG como procedimento de pesquisa favorece tanto o pesquisador, quanto os sujeitos investigados, em termos de mostrarem-se como "diferentes" mesmo sendo "os mesmos" (ROSA, 2008 e isso potencializa a produção do conhecimento matemático, bem como a análise das ações e possibilidades educacionais vislumbradas pelo ser online que se apresenta no ambiente natural apresentado. Também apontamos a adoção do RPG como fator que impele e amplia a concepção pós-estruturalista de Educação que, em ambientes virtuais, cada vez mais, vem destacando e estabelecendo uma amplitude de investigação que transforma esse espaço imaginativo e surpreendente em um ambiente natural de pesquisa.This article highlights aspects of the Role Playing Game (RPG, which make an important procedure in terms of research on Qualitative Research in Distance Education (in this case, Mathematics Education. This game was used in a research (ROSA, 2008 that studied the relations between the construction of online identities and teaching and learning of the concept of

  16. Perceptual Factors Affecting the Tendency to Collaboration in SMEs: Perceived Importance of Collaboration Modes and Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeyong Noh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to explore key factors of SMEs’ external collaboration and identifies the perceived factors affecting propensity for collaboration. Particularly, we focus on two factors – internal strategic activities geared towards open innovation and external collaboration partners, both of which are essential to establishing an external collaboration. We conducted a survey of Korean SMEs regarding their collaboration project experiences, and used logistic regression analysis to analyze the survey data. The research findings are expected to help understanding the complex open innovation mechanism in SMEs and to have meaningful implications for the development of their collaboration model.

  17. Are risk factors in prenatal and perinatal period important for develompent of schizophrenia?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrož, P.; Janoutová, J.; Machaczka, O.; Kovalová, M.; Pohlídalová, A.; Vařechová, K.; Kosta, O.; Tomášková, H.; Šerý, Omar; Hosák, L.; Janout, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 1 (2017), s. 24-27 ISSN 1210-7832 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : schizophrenia * risk factors * pregnancy Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology OBOR OECD: Epidemiology

  18. The importance of residues 195-206 of human blood clotting factor VII in the interaction of factor VII with tissue factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildgoose, P.; Kisiel, W.; Kazim, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that human and bovine factor VII exhibit 71% amino acid sequence identity. In the present study, competition binding experiments revealed that the interaction of human factor VII with cell-surface human tissue factor was not inhibited by 100-fold molar excess of bovine factor VII. This finding indicated that bovine and human factor VII are not structurally homologous in the region(s) where human factor VII interacts with human tissue factor. On this premise, the authors synthesized three peptides corresponding to regions of human factor VII that exhibited marked structural dissimilarity to bovine factor VII; these regions of dissimilarity included residues 195-206, 263-274, and 314-326. Peptide 195-206 inhibited the interaction of factor VII with cell-surface tissue factor and the activation of factor X by a complex of factor VIIa and tissue factor half-maximally at concentrations of 1-2 mM. A structurally rearranged form of peptide 195-206 containing an aspartimide residue inhibited these reactions half-maximally at concentrations of 250-300 μM. In contrast, neither peptide 263-274 nor peptide 314-326, at 2 mM concentration, significantly affected either factor VIIa interaction with tissue factor or factor VIIa-mediated activation of factor X. The data provide presumptive evidence that residues 195-206 of human factor VII are involved in the interaction of human factor VII with the extracellular domain of human tissue factor apoprotein

  19. Why do Dolphins Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan A. Kuczaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Play is an important aspect of dolphin life, perhaps even an essential one. Play provides opportunities for dolphin calves to practice and perfect locomotor skills, including those involved in foraging and mating strategies and behaviors. Play also allows dolphin calves to learn important social skills and acquire information about the characteristics and predispositions of members of their social group, particularly their peers. In addition to helping dolphin calves learn how to behave, play also provides valuable opportunities for them to learn how to think. The ability to create and control play contexts enables dolphins to create novel experiences for themselves and their playmates under relatively safe conditions. The behavioral variability and individual creativity that characterize dolphin play yield ample opportunities for individual cognitive development as well as social learning, and sometimes result in innovations that are reproduced by other members of the group. Although adults sometimes produce innovative play, calves are the primary source of such innovations. Calves are also more likely to imitate novel play behaviors than are adults, and so calves contribute significantly to both the creation and transmission of novel play behaviors within a group. Not unexpectedly, then, the complexity of dolphin play increases with the involvement of peers. As a result, the opportunity to observe and/or interact with other dolphin calves enhances the effects of play on the acquisition and maintenance of flexible problem solving skills, the emergence and strengthening of social and communicative competencies, and the establishment of social relationships. It seems that play may have evolved to help young dolphins learn to adapt to novel situations in both their physical and social worlds, the beneficial result being a set of abilities that increases the likelihood that an individual survives and reproduces.

  20. Importance of spatial factors and temporal scales in environmental risk assessment in marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenkov, A.; Linkov, I.; Andrizhievski, A.; Lukashevich, A.; Trifonov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Coastal areas adjacent to the Black Sea, particularly in Crimea, have suffered from inappropriate human activities, poorly regulated industry and former naval bases. Industrial and municipal wastewater pollutants draining into the three major European rivers (the Danube, Dniestr, and Dnieper) and dumping in the open sea result in an enormous increase in contamination level of ecosystems of the Black Sea. In spite of this, Crimea and its adjacent waters is still a globally important center of biological diversity, with an enormous and exciting range of habitats within a comparatively small area. The problem now is to evaluate economically feasible remediation and ecologically sustainable cleanup/reuse alternatives for the most contaminated sites of this area. One of the principal methodological components of such evaluation is a risk-based decision protocol that provides support in analysis of ecological value and reuse options for a chosen site. This paper presents the results of development of a spatially explicit risk assessment technique to be implemented as a part of the decision-making process and gives an example of its application to contaminated marine ecosystems. The model is suggested that takes into account several principal assumptions: (i) spatial heterogeneity of contamination of forage is known and mapped within known location of receptor's habitat, and (ii) the receptor movement and timescale are determined by location, volume and attractiveness of local habitat and forage resources. This implies two models: Spatially Explicit Exposure Assessment Model that calculates internal exposure resulting from ingestion of contaminated feeds, and Probabilistic Receptor Migration Model that generates motivation of behaviour of a receptor while feeding. In the first model, time-dependent accumulation of contamination in receptor tissue is defined by the differential balance equation that takes into account forage consumption rate and excretion rate. In the

  1. Importance of nuclear station load factor in applied ro energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Daniel de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Load factor is the ration between the energy produced by a station and the energy it would have produced running at maximum power. The factor intends for all types of commercial reactors. Nuclear plants continuously provide over 11% of the world's electricity. The reactors for which data were available generated 618.7 TWh of electricity in 2014. Typical load factor was around 75% in worldwide during the first quarter of 2015. In this manner, it obtained from an average, three-monthly or yearly. The regular load factor of the reactors in operation was around 56% in 1970. While, in 1980's decade, we have an increase to 63%, the same situation occurred in next the decade and suffering increasing to 73%. Currently, the load factor reaches 78%. Accidents are seasonal factors, with the occurrence of reduction of power generation plants. In 2015 in January, there are over 437 operable commercial reactors in 31 countries, with over 377,728 MWe of full capacity. In Brazil, total capacity is 1901 MWe, with around 2.8% of electricity energy consumed. The primary objective of this study was to find a forecast model that express the evolution of the load factor in the next years. In recent years occur an extensive development of pressurized water reactors in Asia. The periodicity of seasonal effects on the performance of nuclear power plants due to aging. However, the impact of plant age depended on new technologies that allow the growth of the performance. The accident of Fukushima was an inflection point for energy policies. The event produced a trend that reduced the load in the world. (author)

  2. Preoperative Short Form Health Survey Score Is Predictive of Return to Play and Minimal Clinically Important Difference at a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Chang, Brenda; Voleti, Pramod B; Berkanish, Patricia; Cohn, Matthew R; Altchek, David W; Allen, Answorth A; Williams, Riley J

    2017-10-01

    There is increased interest in understanding the preoperative determinants of postoperative outcomes. Return to play (RTP) and the patient-reported minimal clinically important difference (MCID) are useful measures of postoperative outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). To define the MCID after ACLR and to investigate the role of preoperative outcome scores for predicting the MCID and RTP after ACLR. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. There were 294 active athletes enrolled as part of an institutional ACL registry with a minimum 2-year follow-up who were eligible for inclusion. A questionnaire was administered to elicit factors associated with RTP. Patient demographic and clinical data as well as patient-reported outcome measures were captured as part of the registry. Outcome measures included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee evaluation form, Lysholm scale, and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS). Preoperative outcome score thresholds predictive of RTP were determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) with area under the curve (AUC) analysis. The MCID was calculated using a distribution-based method. Multivariable logistic models were fitted to identify predictors for achieving the MCID and RTP. At a mean (±SD) follow-up of 3.7 ± 0.7 years, 231 patients were included from a total 294 eligible patients. The mean age and body mass index were 26.7 ± 12.5 years and 23.7 ± 3.2 kg/m 2 , respectively. Of the 231 patients, 201 (87.0%) returned to play at a mean time of 10.1 months. Two-year postoperative scores on all measures were significantly increased from preoperative scores (IKDC: 50.1 ± 15.6 to 87.4 ± 10.7; Lysholm: 61.2 ± 18.1 to 89.5 ± 10.4; SF-12 PCS: 41.5 ± 9.0 to 54.7 ± 4.6; SF-12 MCS: 53.6 ± 8.1 to 55.7 ± 5.7; P predictive of RTP were the following: IKDC, 60.9; Lysholm, 57.0; SF-12 PCS, 42

  3. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingsheng; Feldman, Amy S; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D; Hartert, Tina V

    2016-01-01

    Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal delivery, C

  4. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingsheng Wu

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma.We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS, mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated.Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal delivery, C

  5. The Upside of Videogame Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A

    2012-12-01

    In our research on the relationship between videogame playing and cognitive outcomes we found that children (n=481, 12 year olds) who played videogames more were more creative than those who played them less. Here we summarize these findings and propose new research to identify mediating cognitive factors influenced by videogame playing.

  6. Service experience through the eyes of budget hotel guests : do factors of importance influence performance dimensions?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsin, A.; Lengler, J.F.B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the influence of dimensions of importance (expectations) in hotel services on performance (actual experience) within the context of budget hotels in China. A theoretical model and nine hypotheses are tested to indicate whether the dimensions of importance such as room service, room comfort and reservation process, have any impact on performance dimensions such as in-room dining, front office service, room amenities and hotel access and safety. A final model is...

  7. A social work study using factor analysis on detecting important factors creating stress: A case study of hydro-power employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoul Aminjafari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study performs an empirical study based on the implementation of factor analysis to detect different factors influencing people to have more stress in a hydropower unit located in city of Esfahan, Iran. The study performed the survey among all 81 people who were working for customer service section of this company and consisted of two parts, in the first part; we gather all private information such as age, gender, education, job experience, etc. through seven important questions. In the second part of the survey, there were 66 questions, which included all the relevant factors impacting employees' stress. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.946, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The implementation of factor analysis has detected 16 important groups of factors and each factor is determined by an appropriate name. The results of our factor analysis show that among different factors, difficulty of working condition as well as work pressure are two most important factors increasing stress among employees.

  8. Word Play: Scaffolding Language Development through Child-Directed Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.

    2017-01-01

    Play is an important activity in young children's lives. It is how children explore their world and build knowledge. Although free play, which is play that is totally child directed, contributes to children's learning, self-regulation and motivation, adults' participation in children's play is critical in their development, especially their…

  9. Classification of coal seam outburst hazards and evaluation of the importance of influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Xianzhi; Song Dazhao; Qian Ziwei

    2017-01-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are the result of several geological factors related to coal seam gas (coal seam gas pressure P, coal seam sturdiness coefficient f and coal seam gas content W), and these parameters can be used to classify the outburst hazard level of a coal seam.

  10. Importance of sigma factor mutations in increased triclosan resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gantzhorn, Mette Rørbæk; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Thomsen, Line Elnif

    2015-01-01

    towards the antibiotics enrofloxacin and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim. CONCLUSIONS: Medium level triclosan resistance could be obtained by fabI mutations in S. Typhimurium, however, high level resistance was found to require sigma factor mutations in addition to a fabI mutation. Reduced antibiotic...

  11. Timing of natal nests is an important factor affecting return rates of juvenile Great Reed Warblers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosnovcová, Kateřina; Koleček, Jaroslav; Požgayová, Milica; Jelínek, Václav; Šulc, Michal; Steidlová, Petra; Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 1 (2018), s. 183-190 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * Juvenile condition * Juvenile survival * Local dispersal distances * Natal philopatry Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ornithology Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2016

  12. The importance of man as a risk factor in an industrial universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eysenck, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Two significant psychological contributions for reducing risk in human behavior while operating with technical systems are presented. The ergonomic designing and the diagnostic selection method are explicated. Both hold a good tradition in this field and are successful in improving safety conditions for the so-called human factor in the man-machine-environment-relationship. (DG)

  13. The Relationship between School Achievement and Peer Harassment in Canadian Adolescents: The Importance of Mediating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Tanya N.; Lupart, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between school achievement and peer harassment was examined using individual and peer characteristics as mediating factors. The sample consisted of adolescents age 12-15 years (n = 4,111) drawn from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, which is a stratified random sample of 22,831 households in Canada.…

  14. “You Can’t Play a Sad Song on the Banjo:” Acoustic Factors in the Judgment of Instrument Capacity to Convey Sadness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huron

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forty-four Western-enculturated musicians completed two studies. The first group was asked to judge the relative sadness of forty-four familiar Western instruments. An independent group was asked to assess a number of acoustical properties for those same instruments. Using the estimated acoustical properties as predictor variables in a multiple regression analysis, a significant correlation was found between those properties known to contribute to sad prosody in speech and the judged sadness of the instruments. The best predictor variable was the ability of the instrument to make small pitch movements. Other variables investigated included the darkness of the timbre, the ability to play low pitches, the ability to play quietly, and the capacity of the instrument to "mumble." Four of the acoustical factors were found to exhibit a considerable amount of shared variance, suggesting that they may originate in a common underlying factor. It is suggested that the shared proximal cause of these acoustical features may be low physical energy.

  15. The Importance of Behavioral Risk Factors for Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kilic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the cause for almost 60.0% of the deaths in the world is chronic diseases. In the word each year, due to die 5.1 million people from tobacco use, 3.2 million people from physical inactivity, 2.8 million people from overweight or obesity, and 2.7 million people from inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables. The relationships between environmental, socio-economic, cultural and individual characteristics of the risk factors were multi-dimensional and complex. Today, socio-economic burden of disease and risk factors they bring to society are calculated and determined according to this policy. According to World Health Organization (WHO Global Health Risks report, tobacco use, being overweight or obese, insufficient physical activity, alcohol consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption were responsible one-third of deaths (34.4%, and 19.3% (excluded inadequate e fruits and vegetables consumption of the burden of DALYs in middle-income countries. According to Turkey the National Burden of Disease (NBD and WHO is preparing the Global Burden of Disease 2005, which is fundamental in the prevention of chronic diseases is life style risks that can be prevented, controlled, and changed. According to the NBD 2004 study, 79% of deaths were due to non-communicable diseases in our country. The primary risk factor for DALY is high blood pressure, and following 6 risk factors were related to behavior in our country. Smoking, being overweight or obese, alcohol consumption, insufficient fruits and vegetables consumption, inactive life, and high dietary fat and salt intake which are considered to be significant risk factors for chronic diseases are lifestyle behaviors. When adults visited to health facilities for any reason, their risky behavior can be evaluated. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 735-740

  16. Context matters: the experience of 14 research teams in systematically reporting contextual factors important for practice change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Scammon, Debra L; Waitzman, Norman J; Cronholm, Peter F; Halladay, Jacqueline R; Driscoll, David L; Solberg, Leif I; Hsu, Clarissa; Tai-Seale, Ming; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Shih, Sarah C; Fetters, Michael D; Wise, Christopher G; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Hauser, Diane; McMullen, Carmit K; Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Tirodkar, Manasi A; Schmidt, Laura; Donahue, Katrina E; Parchman, Michael L; Stange, Kurt C

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to advance the internal and external validity of research by sharing our empirical experience and recommendations for systematically reporting contextual factors. Fourteen teams conducting research on primary care practice transformation retrospectively considered contextual factors important to interpreting their findings (internal validity) and transporting or reinventing their findings in other settings/situations (external validity). Each team provided a table or list of important contextual factors and interpretive text included as appendices to the articles in this supplement. Team members identified the most important contextual factors for their studies. We grouped the findings thematically and developed recommendations for reporting context. The most important contextual factors sorted into 5 domains: (1) the practice setting, (2) the larger organization, (3) the external environment, (4) implementation pathway, and (5) the motivation for implementation. To understand context, investigators recommend (1) engaging diverse perspectives and data sources, (2) considering multiple levels, (3) evaluating history and evolution over time, (4) looking at formal and informal systems and culture, and (5) assessing the (often nonlinear) interactions between contextual factors and both the process and outcome of studies. We include a template with tabular and interpretive elements to help study teams engage research participants in reporting relevant context. These findings demonstrate the feasibility and potential utility of identifying and reporting contextual factors. Involving diverse stakeholders in assessing context at multiple stages of the research process, examining their association with outcomes, and consistently reporting critical contextual factors are important challenges for a field interested in improving the internal and external validity and impact of health care research.

  17. Important influencing factors analysis of airport sustainable development capacity: The case of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Cui

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper seeks to define and build the formation mechanism for airport sustainable development capacity.Design/methodology/approach: Structure Equation and System Dynamic Model are used to research the formation mechanism of airport sustainable development capacity.Findings: The most influencing factors are: airport own investment, Gross Domestic Product and power consumption of unit income.Originality/value: Firstly, a new concept to evaluate the dynamic work on sustainable development is proposed, which is defined as airport sustainable development capacity.  Secondly, the formation mechanism of airport sustainable development capacity is studied through Structure Equation Model and System Dynamics model. It fills in the gap of existing research whose main focus is static evaluation of airport sustainable development capacity and influencing factors identification rather than dynamic formation mechanism.

  18. An investigation on important factors influencing customer repurchase: A case study of Airline agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Rahimi Shamsabadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been an increase trend on purchasing via internet, which indicates a steady growth on this internet service. There are different advantages on e-purchase services such as availability of usage, fast and reliable services, etc. The purpose of this survey is to investigate on different influencing factors on customer's fidelity on purchasing air ticket from different agencies located in Tehran, Iran. The Cronbach Alpha validates our results. The proposed conceptual model of this paper is estimated using multi-variable regression model and the results indicate that direct factors influence customer satisfaction, significantly. The results indicate that while customer perception does not have any relationship with repurchase but it has direct relationship with customer's perception and trust.

  19. What are people looking for? : personality traits and importance of work motivation factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bipp, T.

    2008-01-01

    Based on two different work motivation theories, the relationships between personality traits (Big Five, CSE: core self-evaluation) and the importance of various job aspects was investigated. In Study I (N=118), graduates with high scores on Openness to experience and Agreeableness placed emphasis

  20. What Factors are Important to Patients when Assessing Treatment Response: An International Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kobyletzki, Laura B; Thomas, Kim S; Schmitt, Jochen; Chalmers, Joanne R; Deckert, Stefanie; Aoki, Valeria; Weisshaar, Elke; Ojo, Jumoke Ahubelem; Svensson, Åke

    2017-01-04

    This study investigated the perspective of international patients on individual symptoms of atopic dermatitis (eczema) in determining treatment response. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the importance of symptoms from the patient's perspective. Patients were asked: "How important are these features in deciding whether or not a treatment is working?", and rated symptoms on a 5-point Likert scale. Patients were approached via Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) collaborators and self-selected to take part in the on-line survey. Patients from 34 countries (n = 1,111) completed the survey; of these, 423 (38.3%) were parents of children with eczema. Nine items were rated as being "quite important" or "very important" by more than 80% of the respondents: itch, pain/soreness, skin feels hot or inflamed, bleeding, involvement of visible or sensitive body sites, cracks, sleep difficulties, amount of body affected, and weeping/oozing. These results may be of use in determining the face validity of scales from a cross-cultural patients' perspective.

  1. Important Factors Underlying Ethical Intentions of Students: Implications for Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhapakdi, Anusorn

    2004-01-01

    This study analyzes the relative influences of perceived ethical problems, perceived importance of ethics, idealism, relativism, and gender on ethical intention of students. The potential impacts of grade point average and education level of students were also investigated. The results from a survey of students in marketing classes from two major…

  2. Ranking of psychosocial and traditional risk factors by importance for coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Peter; Marott, Jacob L; Kristensen, Tage S.

    2015-01-01

    .001] and systolic blood pressure (≥160 mmHg or blood pressure medication vs. never smoker; HR 1.74; 95% CI, 1.43-2.11; P ...-statistics and net reclassification improvement. During the follow-up, 1731 non-fatal and fatal coronary events were registered. In men, the highest ranking risk factors for coronary heart disease were vital exhaustion [high vs. low; hazard ratio (HR) 2.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.70-3.26; P

  3. Disturbance is an important factor in the evolution and distribution of root-sprouting species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Herben, Tomáš; Martínková, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2017), s. 387-399 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-19245S; GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : disturbance * root-sprouting species * bud bank Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.818, year: 2016

  4. Reactivity to Daily Stressors in Adulthood: The Importance of Stressor Type in Characterizing Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Elizabeth L.; Diehl, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    This study examined daily stressors in adults aged 18 to 89 years (M = 49.6 years) over 30 days. We examined the role of individual factors (i.e., age, self-concept differentiation, perceived control) in physical and psychological reactivity to interpersonal, network, home, and health stressors. Findings were consistent with the perspective that adults were less reactive to stress on days they felt in control and that younger adults and adults with high self-concept differentiation (SCD) were...

  5. Non-Digital Game Playing by Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, W Ben; Sixsmith, Andrew; Kaufman, David

    2017-09-01

    Research on video games' effect on cognition and behaviour has been extensive, yet little research has explored non-digital forms of game playing, especially among older adults. As part of a larger survey on game playing, 886 respondents (≥ age 55) filled out questionnaires about non-digital game play. The study aims were to determine perceived benefits of non-digital game play and to determine socio-demographic factors that might predict perceived benefits. Survey results indicate that non-digital game playing is social in nature and common (73% of respondents) among older adults. Older adults play for fun, but also to help maintain their cognition. Regression analyses indicated various socio-demographic factors - age, education, gender, and race - were independently associated with perceived benefits from game playing. The results thus emphasize the importance of non-digital game playing in this population and suggest that efforts to facilitate game playing may improve social interactions and quality of life.

  6. Importance of the pluripotency factor LIN28 in the mammalian nucleolus during early embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Edgar J; Meglicki, Maciej; Hartung, Kristina Ilka; Borsuk, Ewa; Behr, Rüdiger

    2012-12-01

    The maternal nucleolus is required for proper activation of the embryonic genome (EGA) and early embryonic development. Nucleologenesis is characterized by the transformation of a nucleolar precursor body (NPB) to a mature nucleolus during preimplantation development. However, the function of NPBs and the involved molecular factors are unknown. We uncover a novel role for the pluripotency factor LIN28, the biological significance of which was previously demonstrated in the reprogramming of human somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here, we show that LIN28 accumulates at the NPB and the mature nucleolus in mouse preimplantation embryos and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), where it colocalizes with the nucleolar marker B23 (nucleophosmin 1). LIN28 has nucleolar localization in non-human primate (NHP) preimplantation embryos, but is cytoplasmic in NHP ESCs. Lin28 transcripts show a striking decline before mouse EGA, whereas LIN28 protein localizes to NPBs at the time of EGA. Following knockdown with a Lin28 morpholino, the majority of embryos arrest between the 2- and 4-cell stages and never develop to morula or blastocyst. Lin28 morpholino-injected embryos arrested at the 2-cell stage were not enriched with nucleophosmin at presumptive NPB sites, indicating that functional NPBs were not assembled. Based on these results, we propose that LIN28 is an essential factor of nucleologenesis during early embryonic development.

  7. QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE: importance of clinical, demographic and psychosocial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana MAGALHÃES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Inflammatory bowel disease causes physical and psychosocial consequences that can affect the health related quality of life. Objectives To analyze the relationship between clinical and sociodemographic factors and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Methods Ninety two patients with Crohn’s disease and 58 with ulcerative colitis, filled in the inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ-32 and a questionnaire to collect sociodemographic and clinical data. The association between categorical variables and IBDQ-32 scores was determined using Student t test. Factors statistically significant in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate regression model. Results IBDQ-32 scores were significantly lower in female patients (P<0.001, patients with an individual perception of a lower co-workers support (P<0.001 and career fulfillment (P<0.001, patients requiring psychological support (P = 0.010 and pharmacological treatment for anxiety or depression (P = 0.002. A multivariate regression analysis identified as predictors of impaired HRQOL the female gender (P<0.001 and the perception of a lower co-workers support (P = 0.025 and career fulfillment (P = 0.001. Conclusions The decrease in HRQQL was significantly related with female gender and personal perception of disease impact in success and social relations. These factors deserve a special attention, so timely measures can be implemented to improve the quality of life of patients.

  8. Prevention of unintended pregnancy and use of contraception?important factors for preconception care

    OpenAIRE

    Kallner, Helena Kopp; Danielsson, Kristina Gemzell

    2016-01-01

    Preservation of fertility and optimizing health before pregnancy is becoming increasingly important in societies where childbirth often is postponed. Research shows that as women postpone childbirth they achieve higher levels of education and higher incomes. This leads to advantages for their children and for society. However, as women postpone childbearing they are at risk for contracting conditions which may affect fertility and/or pregnancies, pregnancy outcome, and the newborn child. Prec...

  9. The human factor: the critical importance of effective teamwork and communication in providing safe care

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, M; Graham, S; Bonacum, D

    2004-01-01

    Effective communication and teamwork is essential for the delivery of high quality, safe patient care. Communication failures are an extremely common cause of inadvertent patient harm. The complexity of medical care, coupled with the inherent limitations of human performance, make it critically important that clinicians have standardised communication tools, create an environment in which individuals can speak up and express concerns, and share common "critical language" to alert team members...

  10. Factors Affecting University–Industry R&D Collaboration : The importance of screening and signalling.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto FONTANA; Aldo GEUNA; Mireille MATT

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the determinants of research cooperation between firms and Public Research Organisations (PROs) for a sample of innovating small and mediumsized enterprises. The econometric analysis is based on the results of the KNOW survey carried out in seven EU countries during 2000. In contrast to earlier works that provide information about the importance of PROs’ research, we know how many collaborative projects a firm has had with PROs. This allows us to s...

  11. Urban-rural differences in physical activity in Belgian adults and the importance of psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Delfien Van; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2011-02-01

    Recent research in urban planning and public health has drawn attention to the associations between urban form and physical activity in adults. Because little is known on the urban-rural differences in physical activity, the main aims of the present study were to examine differences in physical activity between urban and rural adults and to investigate the moderating effects of the physical environment on the relationship between psychosocial factors and physical activity. In Flanders, Belgium, five rural and five urban neighborhoods were selected. A sample of 350 adults (20-65 years of age; 35 adults per neighborhood) participated in the study. Participants wore a pedometer for 7 days, and self-reported physical activity and psychosocial data were also collected. Results showed that urban adults took more steps/day and reported more walking and cycling for transport in the neighborhood, more recreational walking in the neighborhood, and more walking for transportation outside the neighborhood than rural adults. Rural adults reported more recreational cycling in the neighborhoods. The physical environment was a significant moderator of the associations between several psychosocial factors (modeling from family, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers) and physical activity. In rural participants, adults with psychosocial scores above average were more physically active, whereas there were no differences in physical activity according to psychosocial factors in urban participants. These results are promising and plead for the development of multidimensional interventions, targeting specific population subgroups. In rural environments, where changing the environment would be a very challenging task, interventions focusing on modifiable psychosocial constructs could possibly be effective.

  12. The summer school students’ viewpoints about important factors in learning, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEILA BAZRAFCAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main goal of education is learning and change in behavior which has been revolutionized in the 21st century due to the rapid and widespread changes in science. The traditional approach to education does no longer meet the learners’ needs, necessitating new changes in educational curricula. This study was designed to determine the factors influencing learning in the 21st century and find out the students’ viewpoints on this issue. Methods: This is a descriptive study aiming at determining the students’ views on new approaches to learning in the 21st century. To do so, a researcher-made questionnaire was designed. It contained 30 questions in 3 sections including demographic data, background questions and two open questions about their suggestions and criticisms. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire was pilot-tested and measured, which proved to be describable. 150 students participating in university summer schools in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were enrolled. The questionnaires were sent to the students in person and through electronic mails. The students were asked to return the completed questionnaires to the given email address. The data were analyzed in SPSS, version 14, using descriptive statistics of frequency, mean, percentage and standard deviation and t-test. P<0. 05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: 150 questionnaires were appropriately filled out and given to the researchers. The results indicated that, according to the students, 6 factors including the use of computer in teaching, enhancement of virtual learning, the use of mobile in relations, enjoyment of electronic learning contexts, the learning focus on attitudes and the facilitating role of the lectures were the most influential factors in learning. On the other hand, the government’s responsibility and responsiveness, creativity and risk taking, increase in the social relationship among the learners, focus on

  13. Analysis of factors important for the occurrence of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Heuer, Ole Eske; Sørensen, Anna Irene Vedel

    2013-01-01

    a multivariate analysis including all 43 variables. A multivariate analysis was conducted using a generalized linear model, and the correlations between the houses from the same farms were accounted for by adding a variance structure to the model. The procedures for analyses included backward elimination...... of positive flocks/total number of flocks delivered over the 2-year period).The following factors were found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of Campylobacter in the broiler flocks: old broiler houses, late introduction of whole wheat in the feed, relatively high broiler age at slaughter...

  14. Familial history, age and smoking are important risk factors for disc degeneration disease in Arabic pedigrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livshits, Gregory; Cohen, Zvi; Higla, Orabi; Yakovenko, Konstantin

    2001-01-01

    The present study used computed tomography imaging to evaluate the extent and pattern of the intergenerational transmission of spinal disc degeneration disease (DDD) in complex pedigrees. Contribution of a number of the potential covariates was also studied using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, as well as two types of complex segregation analysis models. Among 161 individuals studied, DDD was diagnosed in 60 individuals. The number of protruded discs varied from 1 to 4, mostly in lumbar or lumbosacral regions. The average age at onset of the disease was similar for both women (36.0 years) and men (34.8 years). The proportion of the individuals affected by the DDD status of their parents ranged from 10% in families of two healthy parents to 55.5% of two affected parents (p < 0.01). The results of the logistic regression analyses and complex segregation analysis were qualitatively the same: DDD status of parents, age and smoking were the main risk factors for disc herniation in the Arabic families we examined. All analyses showed a predominating role of the family history as a risk factor for DDD in offsprings. It showed, for example, four times higher risk at age 50 for individuals with two affected parents vs. those who have two non-affected parents. However, the results of models-fitting genetic analysis, did not confirm a monogenic Mendelian pattern of inheritance

  15. Hemoglobin as an important prognostic factor in concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, Takashi; Nagai, Yutaka; Moromizato, Hidehiko; Toita, Takafumi; Murayama, Sadayuki; Kanazawa, Koji

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine a possible association of hemoglobin with clinical outcome in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Seventy-five patients with Stage IB to IVA disease who were treated with CCRT were reviewed retrospectively. The mean age was 49.8 years. In the treatment, standard radiotherapy was performed accompanied by concomitant chemotherapy using cisplatin. Pre-treatment hemoglobin was defined as the earliest hemoglobin level prior to the initiation of treatment. Weekly nadir hemoglobin levels throughout treatment were averaged and used as average weekly nadir hemoglobin during treatment (AWNHg). The mean follow-up time was 28.6 months. The mean pre-treatment hemoglobin of 11.6 g/dL was significantly reduced to the mean AWNHg of 9.9 g/dL. The levels of pre-treatment hemoglobin and AWNHg were significantly associated with tumor response to treatment. The 5-year cumulative disease-free survival and overall survival rates for all 75 patients were 67.8% and 75.3%, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that AWNHg (≥9.0 versus <9.0 g/dL) was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (p=0.038), but pre-treatment hemoglobin was not a significant factor. AWNHg was one of the most powerful independent predictors of overall survival in patients undergoing CCRT for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. (author)

  16. Belonging and doing: important factors for satisfaction with sexual relations as perceived by people with persistent mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Mona; Ostman, Margareta

    2010-07-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that satisfaction with sexual relations forms an important aspect of people's lives, but little is known of factors associated with this phenomenon among people with mental illness. This study aimed to investigate how demographic, social, clinical, and health-related factors were related to satisfaction with sexual relations. Patients with persistent mental illness (N = 103), recruited from an outpatient unit, were assessed regarding the target variables. No clinical variable, and only one demographic factor, namely being a cohabitant, was found to be important to satisfaction with sexual relations. Several social factors, pertaining to how everyday occupations were valued and how the social network was perceived, were shown to be of importance. General quality of life, but not self-rated health or interviewer-assessed psychopathology, was also important for satisfaction with sexual relations. A multivariate analysis showed that the most significant factor for satisfaction with sexual relations was how everyday activities were valued, and being a cohabitant explained some additional variation. Previous research indicates that the mental health care services largely neglect sexual problems among people with mental illness, and the findings may provide additional knowledge that may be used in the support of this target group.

  17. Playful Collaboration (Or Not)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Sproedt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how playing games can be used to teach intangible social interaction across boundaries, in particular within open collaborative innovation. We present an exploratory case study of how students learned from playing a board game in a graduate course of the international...... and interdisciplinary Innovation and Business master's program in Denmark. We identify several important themes related to the process of learning through playing and the social dynamics of open collaborative innovation, while we also highlight possible caveats of “playing” and practicing open innovation. Our findings...

  18. Pretend Play and Creative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Sandra W.; Wallace, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors contend that many cognitive abilities and affective processes important in creativity also occur in pretend play and that pretend play in childhood affects the development of creativity in adulthood. They discuss a variety of theories and observations that attempt to explain the importance of pretend play to creativity. They argue that…

  19. Importance of thymus and its humoral factors in radiation syndrome treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrova, J.

    1983-01-01

    The high radiosensitivity is emphasised of lymphoid tissues and of the immunological response of the organism. The red--uced immunity of the irradiated organism even after sublethal doses lasts for a number of months. The thymus is not only an important lymphoid organ but it also secerns hormones having lymph-stimulating effects. The shielding of the thymus during irradiation or the application of thymosine favourably affected in gamma or X-ray irradiated mice not only the regeneration of damaged lymphoid tissues and of immunological response but also the regeneration of blood formation. (A.K.)

  20. Estimated Bounds and Important Factors for Fuel Use and Consumer Costs of Connected and Automated Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gonder, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Z. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gohlke, D. [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report details a study of the potential effects of connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies on vehicle miles traveled (VMT), vehicle fuel efficiency, and consumer costs. Related analyses focused on a range of light-duty CAV technologies in conventional powertrain vehicles -- from partial automation to full automation, with and without ridesharing -- compared to today's base-case scenario. Analysis results revealed widely disparate upper- and lower-bound estimates for fuel use and VMT, ranging from a tripling of fuel use to decreasing light-duty fuel use to below 40% of today's level. This wide range reflects uncertainties in the ways that CAV technologies can influence vehicle efficiency and use through changes in vehicle designs, driving habits, and travel behavior. The report further identifies the most significant potential impacting factors, the largest areas of uncertainty, and where further research is particularly needed.

  1. Important learning factors in high- and low-achieving students in undergraduate biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, ChengTu; Knudson, Duane

    2017-07-21

    The purpose of the present study was to document crucial factors associated with students' learning of biomechanical concepts, particularly between high- and-low achieving students. Students (N = 113) from three introductory biomechanics classes at two public universities volunteered for the study. Two measures of students' learning were obtained, final course grade and improvement on the Biomechanics Concept Inventory version 3 administered before and after the course. Participants also completed a 15-item questionnaire documenting student learning characteristics, effort, and confidence. Partial correlations controlling for all other variables in the study, confirmed previous studies that students' grade point average (p biomechanics, (p biomechanics concepts. Students' confidence when encountering difficult biomechanics concepts was also significantly (p biomechanics and confidence in solving relevant professional problems in order to improve learning for both low- and high-ability students.

  2. Statistical Analyses of Scatterplots to Identify Important Factors in Large-Scale Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Helton, J.C.

    1999-04-01

    The robustness of procedures for identifying patterns in scatterplots generated in Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses is investigated. These procedures are based on attempts to detect increasingly complex patterns in the scatterplots under consideration and involve the identification of (1) linear relationships with correlation coefficients, (2) monotonic relationships with rank correlation coefficients, (3) trends in central tendency as defined by means, medians and the Kruskal-Wallis statistic, (4) trends in variability as defined by variances and interquartile ranges, and (5) deviations from randomness as defined by the chi-square statistic. The following two topics related to the robustness of these procedures are considered for a sequence of example analyses with a large model for two-phase fluid flow: the presence of Type I and Type II errors, and the stability of results obtained with independent Latin hypercube samples. Observations from analysis include: (1) Type I errors are unavoidable, (2) Type II errors can occur when inappropriate analysis procedures are used, (3) physical explanations should always be sought for why statistical procedures identify variables as being important, and (4) the identification of important variables tends to be stable for independent Latin hypercube samples.

  3. Virulence factors of Escherichia coli in relation to the importance of vaccination in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Araujo Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC is the major cause of diarrhea in newborn and weaned pigs. Bacteria adhesion to the host cell is considered a specific phenomenon among fimbrial and non-fimbrial adhesins with their respective receptors on enterocytes. Enteric disorders are related with the fimbriae F4 (K88, F5 (K99, F6 (987P, F41, and F18. In addition to ETEC, another category of E. coli , porcine pathogenic E. coli (PEPEC,can cause diarrhea in pigs; it produces the porcine attaching and effacing-associated (Paa adhesin in, which is capable to cause a typical lesion known as an attaching and effacing (A/E lesion. Immunization of sows with adhesin is important to stimulate the production of antibodies and their subsequent transfer to piglets through colostrum. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the main impacts of enteric diseases caused by E. coli in swine production and to highlight the importance of continuing research on this bacterium to improve disease prevention through vaccination.

  4. The transcription factor Olig2 is important for the biology of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jane L; Muraleedharan, Ranjithmenon; Oatman, Nicole; Klotter, Amanda; Sengupta, Satarupa; Waclaw, Ronald R; Wu, Jianqiang; Drissi, Rachid; Miles, Lili; Raabe, Eric H; Weirauch, Matthew L; Fouladi, Maryam; Chow, Lionel M; Hoffman, Lindsey; DeWire, Mariko; Dasgupta, Biplab

    2017-08-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a high-grade brainstem glioma of children with dismal prognosis. There is no single unifying model about the cell of origin of DIPGs. Proliferating cells in the developing human and mouse pons, the site of DIPGs, express neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC) markers, including Sox2, nestin, vimentin, Olig2, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, in an overlapping and non-overlapping manner, suggesting progenitor cell heterogeneity in the pons. It is thought that during a restricted window of postnatal pons development, a differentiation block caused by genetic/epigenetic changes leads to unrestrained progenitor proliferation and DIPG development. Nearly 80% of DIPGs harbor a mutation in the H3F3A or the related HIST1H3B gene. Supporting the impaired differentiation model, NPCs derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells expressing the H3F3A mutation showed complete differentiation block. However, the mechanisms regulating an altered differentiation program in DIPG are unknown. We established syngeneic serum-dependent and independent primary DIPG lines, performed molecular characterization of DIPG lines in vitro and in an orthotopic xenograft model, and used small hairpin RNA to examine Olig2 function in DIPG. The transcription factor Olig2 is highly expressed in 70%-80% of DIPGs. Here we report that Olig2 expression and DIPG differentiation are mutually exclusive events in vitro, and only DIPG cells that retained Olig2 in vitro formed robust Olig2-positive brainstem glioma with 100% penetrance in a xenograft model. Our results indicate Olig2 as an onco-requisite factor in DIPG and propose investigation of Olig2 target genes as novel candidates in DIPG therapy. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Chylomicronemia risk factors ranked by importance for the individual and community in 108 711 women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. B.; Varbo, A.; Langsted, A.

    2018-01-01

    and community. Methods: A total of 108 711 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study were grouped as unlikely chylomicronemia (nonfasting triglycerides ....4%) and sedentary lifestyle (PAF: 6.0%). Conclusions: Obesity and type 2 diabetes were the most important modifiable chylomicronemia risk factors in women and men, both for the individual and community. This could influence chylomicronemia prevention and help design randomized trials aimed at reducing triglycerides......Background: Hypertriglyceridemia prevalence is increasing as more individuals become obese, and chylomicronemia risk factors for the individual and community have not been described previously. Objective: To describe chylomicronemia risk factors in the general population for individuals...

  6. Multinomial Response Models, for Modeling and Determining Important Factors in Different Contraceptive Methods in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Haji Nejad

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Difference aspects of multinomial statistical modelings and its classifications has been studied so far. In these type of problems Y is the qualitative random variable with T possible states which are considered as classifications. The goal is prediction of Y based on a random Vector X ? IR^m. Many methods for analyzing these problems were considered. One of the modern and general method of classification is Classification and Regression Trees (CART. Another method is recursive partitioning techniques which has a strange relationship with nonparametric regression. Classical discriminant analysis is a standard method for analyzing these type of data. Flexible discriminant analysis method which is a combination of nonparametric regression and discriminant analysis and classification using spline that includes least square regression and additive cubic splines. Neural network is an advanced statistical method for analyzing these types of data. In this paper properties of multinomial logistics regression were investigated and this method was used for modeling effective factors in selecting contraceptive methods in Ghom province for married women age 15-49. The response variable has a tetranomial distibution. The levels of this variable are: nothing, pills, traditional and a collection of other contraceptive methods. A collection of significant independent variables were: place, age of women, education, history of pregnancy and family size. Menstruation age and age at marriage were not statistically significant.

  7. Is Apolipoprotein E4 an Important Risk Factor for Dementia in Persons with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, Troy T; McCarty, Katie L; Love, Julia E; Head, Elizabeth

    2014-12-08

    Down syndrome is one of the most common genetic causes of intellectual disability and is characterized by a number of behavioral as well as cognitive symptoms. Triplication of all or part of human chromosome 21 has been considered as the main cause of Down syndrome. Due to the location of the amyloid precursor protein on chromosome 21, many of the neuropathological features of early-onset Alzheimer's disease including senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are also present in Down syndrome patients who are either demented or nondemented. Significant advances in medical treatment have increased longevity in people with Down syndrome resulting in an increased population that may be subjected to many of the same risk factors as those with Alzheimer's disease. It is well established that harboring one or both apolipoprotein E4 alleles greatly increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease. However, whether apolipoprotein E4 contributes to an earlier onset of dementia or increased mortality in Down syndrome patients is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this mini review is to provide an updated assessment on apolipoprotein E4 status and risk potential of developing dementia and mortality associated with Down syndrome.

  8. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events. PMID:26124830

  9. Transcription factor Afmac1 controls copper import machinery in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuya, Yoko; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Sakai, Kanae; Yaguchi, Takashi; Gonoi, Tohru; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2017-08-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential metal for all living organisms, although it is toxic in excess. Filamentous fungus must acquire copper from its environment for growth. Despite its essentiality for growth, the mechanisms that maintain copper homeostasis are not fully understood in filamentous fungus. To gain insights into copper homeostasis, we investigated the roles of a copper transcription factor Afmac1 in the life-threatening fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, a homolog of the yeast MAC1. We observed that the Afmac1 deletion mutant exhibited not only significantly slower growth, but also incomplete conidiation including a short chain of conidia and defective melanin. Moreover, the expressions of the copper transporters, ctrA1, ctrA2, and ctrC, and metalloreductases, Afu8g01310 and fre7, were repressed in ∆Afmac1 cells, while those expressions were induced under copper depletion conditions in wild-type. The expressions of pksP and wetA, which are, respectively, involved in biosynthesis of conidia-specific melanin and the late stage of conidiogenesis, were decreased in the ∆Afmac1 strain under minimal media condition. Taken together, these results indicate that copper acquisition through AfMac1 functions in growth as well as conidiation.

  10. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Pavicic Baldani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events.

  11. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events.

  12. Technical, institutional and economic factors important for developing a multinational radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Countries planning and implementing nuclear energy programmes should assume responsibility for the safe management and final disposal of radioactive waste from their programmes. However, there are countries whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository, and/or countries which do not have the resources or favorable natural conditions for waste disposal to dedicate to a national repository project. These countries would benefit from multinational co-operation for the disposal. Interest in the concept of a multinational repository for radioactive waste has been expressed by several Member States and the waste management community in the light of the potential benefit to the partner countries from the safety, technical and economic standpoints. However, such an approach involves many political and public acceptance issues and therefore a consensus among countries or regions concerned is a prerequisite. In this context, it was deemed appropriate that the IAEA access the technical, institutional, ethical and economic factors to be taken into account in the process of such consensus building. This report is intended to provide an assessment which can serve as a general basis for establishing a waste management policy and/or further assessing specific issues such as ownership and liability, institutional aspects and problems related to long term commitments. This report is divided into five sections where the first section gives background, objectives, scope and structure of the report. Section 2 discusses multinational repository concept in terms of needs and the role of a multinational repository, interaction between host and partner countries and formulation of a multinational repository. Section 3 identifies basic issues to be considered for establishing a multinational repository, and some specific issues relating to specific waste categories. Section 4 analyses potential benefits and challenges to be addresses in establishing a

  13. Prostaglandin E2 and Transforming Growth FactorPlay a Critical Role in Suppression of Allergic Airway Inflammation by Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Sup Cho

    Full Text Available The role of soluble factors in the suppression of allergic airway inflammation by adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs remains to be elucidated. Moreover, the major soluble factors responsible for the immunomodulatory effects of ASCs in allergic airway diseases have not been well documented. We evaluated the effects of ASCs on allergic inflammation in asthmatic mice treated with a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 inhibitor or transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β neutralizing antibodies.Asthmatic mice were injected intraperitoneally with a PGE2 inhibitor or TGF-β neutralizing antibodies at approximately the same time as ASCs injection and were compared with non-treated controls. In asthmatic mice, ASCs significantly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, the number of total inflammatory cells and eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, eosinophilic inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and serum total and allergen-specific IgE and IgG1. ASCs significantly inhibited Th2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and enhanced the Th1 cytokine (Interferon-γ and regulatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β in the BALF and lung draining lymph nodes (LLNs. ASCs engraftment caused significant increases in the regulatory T cell (Treg and IL-10+ T cell populations in LLNs. However, blocking PGE2 or TGF-β eliminated the immunosuppressive effect of ASCs in allergic airway inflammation.ASCs are capable of secreting PGE2 and TGF-β, which may play a role in inducing Treg expansion. Furthermore, treatment with a PGE2 inhibitor or TGF-β neutralizing antibodies eliminated the beneficial effect of ASCs treatment in asthmatic mice, suggesting that PGE2 and TGF-β are the major soluble factors responsible for suppressing allergic airway inflammation.

  14. Factors Affecting the Perception of Importance and Practice of Patient Safety Management among Hospital Employees in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Sook; Park, MiJeong; Park, Mi-Young; Yoo, Hana; Choi, Jihea

    2013-03-01

    The study was undertaken to identify factors affecting perception of the importance and practice of patient safety management (PSM) among hospital employees in Korea. This study was conducted using a descriptive design and a self-report questionnaire. Two hundred and eighty employees were recruited from three hospitals using a convenience sampling method. Measures were perception of the importance, practice, and characteristics of PSM. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including t test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation analysis, and multiple regression. Factors affecting perception of the importance of PSM were whether hospital employees were in contact with patients while on duty, weekly working hours, education on PSM, and perceived adequacy of PSM system construction. Factors affecting the practice of PSM were perceived adequacy of work load, perceived adequacy of PSM system construction and perception of its importance. The findings of this study indicate a need for developing strategies to improve perception of the importance and practice of PSM among all hospital employees, and provide a reference for future experimental studies. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The Importance of Socio-Economic Versus Environmental Risk Factors for Reported Dengue Cases in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, Siwi P M; Porphyre, Thibaud; Chase-Topping, Margo; Rainey, Stephanie M; McFarlane, Melanie; Schnettler, Esther; Biek, Roman; Kohl, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Dengue is a major mosquito-borne viral disease and an important public health problem. Identifying which factors are important determinants in the risk of dengue infection is critical in supporting and guiding preventive measures. In South-East Asia, half of all reported fatal infections are recorded in Indonesia, yet little is known about the epidemiology of dengue in this country. Hospital-reported dengue cases in Banyumas regency, Central Java were examined to build Bayesian spatial and spatio-temporal models assessing the influence of climatic, demographic and socio-economic factors on the risk of dengue infection. A socio-economic factor linking employment type and economic status was the most influential on the risk of dengue infection in the Regency. Other factors such as access to healthcare facilities and night-time temperature were also found to be associated with higher risk of reported dengue infection but had limited explanatory power. Our data suggest that dengue infections are triggered by indoor transmission events linked to socio-economic factors (employment type, economic status). Preventive measures in this area should therefore target also specific environments such as schools and work areas to attempt and reduce dengue burden in this community. Although our analysis did not account for factors such as variations in immunity which need further investigation, this study can advise preventive measures in areas with similar patterns of reported dengue cases and environment.

  16. [The importance of local and general factors in development of inflammatory periodontal diseases in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishinashvili, T E; Tsagareli, Z G; Khimshiashvili, N B

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of local and general adverse risk factors and their role in the development of inflammatory periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. The study of the dental status among 618 school children, 9 to 15 years of age has been performed. The obtained results revealed an ambiguous influence of general and local risk factors on the development of inflammatory periodontal diseases. Namely, among the general risk factors the main role is given to hormonal functioning state of juvenile age (26.5%) - (arhythmia formation of hormonal activity). Among the local risk factors inducing inflammatory periodontal diseases at young age, the most significant are tooth-jaw anomalies (32.2%), especially - dental occlusion pathology, lips' bridle attachment anomalies, absence of interdental contacts, small vestibule of the mouth and so on. Poor oral hygiene, however, is also a significant factor in all age groups. Definition of the role and importance of general and local risk factors, taking into consideration patient's age, is of great importance in organization of early prevention, giving the possibility to predict disease possible development, choose most appropriate way to treat the specific situation, reduce the need of complex treatment and improve treatment outcomes.

  17. Corporate social responsibility as an important factor of business success in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Perić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is becoming an increasingly important subject of public discussion because application of this concept does not only affect company’s business, but also the narrow and the wider community in which the company operates. The Republic of Croatia is an example of daily exposure of political and economic scandals, and the question arises to what extent the community and society are truly informed about the activities of many companies, and if there are written or unwritten laws and rules that seek to ensure adequate presence of morality in daily operations. The purpose of this study is to research the frequency of application of the concept of corporate social responsibility and code of ethics in companies (both public and private in the Republic of Croatia and their effect. The paper tries to answer two research questions: a how do Croatian companies perceive corporate social responsibility, and b is there a link between corporate social performance of the company and signing the Code of business ethics. The empirical part of the paper is based on an anonymous survey of 95 respondents employed in different companies. The following parameters were investigated: respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics, familiarity with the concept of CSR, application in companies, year of introduction in the company, areas of application, and the effect that the application of corporate social responsibility has on the company. Furthermore, the level of presence of the code of ethics, and its availability and success in preventing non-ethical behaviour in companies were examined. The application of CSR and ethical business practice in Croatia has been rising in the past decade, but in order for the implementation to be fully successful, detailed changes of educational, economic and political systems are necessary.

  18. Postnatal care for newborns in Bangladesh: The importance of health-related factors and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Brodish, Paul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Biswas, Taposh Kumar; Kim, Eunsoo Timothy; Godwin, Christine; Moran, Allisyn

    2017-12-01

    Bangladesh achieved Millennium Development Goal 4, a two thirds reduction in under-five mortality from 1990 to 2015. However neonatal mortality remains high, and neonatal deaths now account for 62% of under-five deaths in Bangladesh. The objective of this paper is to understand which newborns in Bangladesh are receiving postnatal care (PNC), a set of interventions with the potential to reduce neonatal mortality. Using data from the Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Survey (BMMS) 2010 we conducted logistic regression analysis to understand what socio-economic and health-related factors were associated with early postnatal care (PNC) by day 2 and PNC by day 7. Key variables studied were maternal complications (during pregnancy, delivery or after delivery) and contact with the health care system (receipt of any antenatal care, place of delivery and type of delivery attendant). Using data from the BMMS 2010 and an Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (EmONC) 2012 needs assessment, we also presented descriptive maps of PNC coverage overlaid with neonatal mortality rates. There were several significant findings from the regression analysis. Newborns of mothers having a skilled delivery were significantly more likely to receive PNC (Day 7: OR = 2.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.81, 2.58; Day 2: OR = 2.11, 95% 95% CI 1.76). Newborns of mothers who reported a complication were also significantly more likely to receive PNC with odds ratios varying between 1.3 and 1.6 for complications at the different points along the continuum of care. Urban residence and greater wealth were also significantly associated with PNC. The maps provided visual images of wide variation in PNC coverage and indicated that districts with the highest PNC coverage, did not necessarily have the lowest neonatal mortality rates. Newborns of mothers who had a skilled delivery or who experienced a complication were more likely to receive PNC than newborns of mothers with a home delivery or who did

  19. 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS analysis reveal that small GTPase signaling pathways may play an important role in cadmium-induced colon cell malignant transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jian; Zhou, Zhongping; Zheng, Jianzhou; Zhang, Zhuyi; Lu, Rongzhu; Liu, Hanqing; Shi, Haifeng; Tu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal present in the environment and in industrial materials. Cadmium has demonstrated carcinogenic activity that induces cell transformation, but how this occurs is unclear. We used 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS combined with bioinformatics and immunoblotting to investigate the molecular mechanism of cadmium transformation. We found that small GTPases were critical for transformation. Additionally, proteins involved in mitochondrial transcription, DNA repair, and translation also had altered expression patterns in cadmium treated cells. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of small GTPases contributes to cadmium-induced transformation of colon cells. - Highlights: • Colon epithelial cell line is firstly successfully transformed by cadmium. • 2D-DIGE is applied to visualize the differentially expressed proteins. • RhoA plays an important role in cadmium induced malignant transformation. • Bioinformatic and experimental methods are combined to explore new mechanisms.

  20. 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS analysis reveal that small GTPase signaling pathways may play an important role in cadmium-induced colon cell malignant transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jian, E-mail: lujian@ujs.edu.cn [School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhou, Zhongping [School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zheng, Jianzhou [Department of Respiration Medicine, Changzhou No.2 People' s Hospital, Changzhou 213003 (China); Zhang, Zhuyi [School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Lu, Rongzhu [School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Liu, Hanqing [School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Shi, Haifeng [Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Tu, Zhigang, E-mail: tuzg_ujs@ujs.edu.cn [Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal present in the environment and in industrial materials. Cadmium has demonstrated carcinogenic activity that induces cell transformation, but how this occurs is unclear. We used 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF MS combined with bioinformatics and immunoblotting to investigate the molecular mechanism of cadmium transformation. We found that small GTPases were critical for transformation. Additionally, proteins involved in mitochondrial transcription, DNA repair, and translation also had altered expression patterns in cadmium treated cells. Collectively, our results suggest that activation of small GTPases contributes to cadmium-induced transformation of colon cells. - Highlights: • Colon epithelial cell line is firstly successfully transformed by cadmium. • 2D-DIGE is applied to visualize the differentially expressed proteins. • RhoA plays an important role in cadmium induced malignant transformation. • Bioinformatic and experimental methods are combined to explore new mechanisms.

  1. RRM domain of Arabidopsis splicing factor SF1 is important for pre-mRNA splicing of a specific set of genes

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Keh Chien

    2017-04-11

    The RNA recognition motif of Arabidopsis splicing factor SF1 affects the alternative splicing of FLOWERING LOCUS M pre-mRNA and a heat shock transcription factor HsfA2 pre-mRNA. Splicing factor 1 (SF1) plays a crucial role in 3\\' splice site recognition by binding directly to the intron branch point. Although plant SF1 proteins possess an RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain that is absent in its fungal and metazoan counterparts, the role of the RRM domain in SF1 function has not been characterized. Here, we show that the RRM domain differentially affects the full function of the Arabidopsis thaliana AtSF1 protein under different experimental conditions. For example, the deletion of RRM domain influences AtSF1-mediated control of flowering time, but not the abscisic acid sensitivity response during seed germination. The alternative splicing of FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM) pre-mRNA is involved in flowering time control. We found that the RRM domain of AtSF1 protein alters the production of alternatively spliced FLM-β transcripts. We also found that the RRM domain affects the alternative splicing of a heat shock transcription factor HsfA2 pre-mRNA, thereby mediating the heat stress response. Taken together, our results suggest the importance of RRM domain for AtSF1-mediated alternative splicing of a subset of genes involved in the regulation of flowering and adaptation to heat stress.

  2. The importance of partnership factors and individual factors associated with absent or inconsistent condom use in heterosexuals: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, Amy; Heiligenberg, Marlies; Geskus, Ronald; Heijman, Titia; Low, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Decisions to use condoms are made within partnerships. We examined the associations between inconsistent or no condom use and individual and partnership characteristics. We also examined the relative importance of individual versus partnership factors. Methods Cross-sectional study of

  3. Most Important Factors for the Implementation of Shared Decision Making in Sciatica Care: Ranking among Professionals and Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstede, Stefanie N.; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti; Wentink, Manon M.; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L. A.; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P. M.; de Mheen, Perla J. Marang-van

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Due to the increasing specialization of medical professionals, patients are treated by multiple disciplines. To ensure that delivered care is patient-centered, it is crucial that professionals and the patient together decide on treatment (shared decision making (SDM)). However, it is not known how SDM should be integrated in multidisciplinary practice. This study determines the most important factors for SDM implementation in sciatica care, as it is known that a prior inventory of factors is crucial to develop a successful implementation strategy. Methods 246 professionals (general practitioners, physical therapists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons) (30% response) and 155 patients (96% response) responded to an internet-based survey. Respondents ranked barriers and facilitators identified in previous interviews, on their importance using Maximum Difference Scaling. Feeding back the personal top 5 most important factors, each respondent indicated whether these factors were barriers or facilitators. Hierarchical Bayes estimation was used to estimate the relative importance (RI) of each factor. Results Professionals assigned the highest importance to: quality of professional-patient relationship (RI 4.87; CI 4.75–4.99); importance of quick recovery of patient (RI 4.83; CI 4.69–4.97); and knowledge about treatment options (RI 6.64; CI 4.53–4.74), which were reported as barrier and facilitator. Professionals working in primary care had a different ranking than those working in hospital care. Patients assigned the highest importance to: correct diagnosis by professionals (barrier, RI 8.19; CI 7.99–8.38); information provision about treatment options and potential harm and benefits (RI 7.87; CI 7.65–8.08); and explanation of the professional about the care trajectory (RI 7.16; CI 6.94–7.38), which were reported as barrier and facilitator. Conclusions Knowledge, information provision and a good relationship are the most important

  4. Attitude and flexibility are the most important work place factors for working parents' mental wellbeing, stress, and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eek, Frida; Axmon, Anna

    2013-11-01

    The need to combine active employment and parenthood is a reality for many parents today. Knowing more about which work place factors are associated with better or worse health could help employers to form a work environment that provides optimal conditions to maintain or increase health and work engagement in this group. The aim of this study was to explore possible associations between different subjective and objective work factors and benefits, and a range of outcome variables such as stress, symptom report, wellbeing, work-related fatigue, work engagement, and work-family conflict among working mothers and fathers with small children. Cross-sectional analyses of associations between work place factors categorised into three different dimensions; flexibility, benefits, and attitude and the outcome measures were performed, including questionnaire responses from 1562 working parents. The results showed that work place factors related to flexibility and, especially among women, attitude to parenthood appear to have the strongest effect on working parents' subjective stress and wellbeing, while benefits appear to have less impact. Except regarding factors related to attitudes at the work place, most associations were similar among men and women. Most likely, different factors are better suited or more important for some individuals than others depending on their total work, as well as family situation and also depending on individual factors such as personality and priorities. A positive attitude towards parenthood and a flexible work situation seem, however, beneficial for the general wellbeing and work engagement among working parents.

  5. The popularity of toys and play of pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Kump, Janja

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents popularity of play and toys in pre-school period, influence of important factors on a play and selection of toys and differences in duration of the play, depending on children's age and gender. In the theoretical part we defined children's play and its importance, also we detaily described development of children's play and presented the meaning of toys. We classified toys according to the basic function and according to adequacy of toys for certain age group. We focu...

  6. Global importation and population risk factors for measles in New Zealand: a case study for highly immunized populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, D T S; Marshall, J C; French, N P; Carpenter, T E; Roberts, M G; Kiedrzynski, T

    2017-07-01

    As endemic measles is eliminated through immunization, countries must determine the risk factors for the importation of measles into highly immunized populations to target control measures. Despite eliminating endemic measles, New Zealand suffers from outbreaks after introductions from abroad, enabling us to use it as a model for measles introduction risk. We used a generalized linear model to analyze risk factors for 1137 measles cases from 2007 to June 2014, provide estimates of national immunity levels, and model measles importation risk. People of European ethnicity made up the majority of measles cases. Age is a positive risk factor, particularly 0-2-year-olds and 5-17-year-old Europeans, along with increased wealth. Pacific islanders were also at greater risk, but due to 0-2-year-old cases. Despite recent high measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine immunization coverage, overall population immunity against measles remains ~90% and is lower in people born between 1982 and 2005. Greatest measles importation risk is during December, and countries predicted to be sources have historical connections and highest travel rates (Australia and UK), followed by Asian countries with high travel rates and higher measles incidences. Our results suggest measles importation due to travel is seeding measles outbreaks, and immunization levels are insufficient to continue to prevent outbreaks because of heterogeneous immunity in the population, leaving particular age groups at risk.

  7. To play is necessary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Vargas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This work tries to contemplate on playing, leaving of the observations on the children's games accomplished during the apprenticeship and the articulation of those with some theoretical ones that have been dedicating if to the study of the game, of the childhood and of the Infantile Education. It was possible, through the apprenticeship registrations and of the observations to live many moments in that the two groups, 3A and 3B, they played incorporating objects and creating characters in your games. He/she gave way, we sought focar the game of the do-of-bill, contemplating on your importance for the children in the first childhood, and that possibilities she brings us in the amplification of the infantile experiences. Another important aspect in this article is to contemplate on the teacher's practice in the Infantile Education, and, through our observations on playing of the children noticed the teachers' involvement in the children's games.

  8. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for examining healthcare professionals' assessments of risk factors. The relative importance of risk factors for falls in community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchia, L; Bath, P A; Pendleton, N; Bracale, M

    2011-01-01

    A gap exists between evidence-based medicine and clinical-practice. Every day, healthcare professionals (HCPs) combine empirical evidence and subjective experience in order to maximize the effectiveness of interventions. Consequently, it is important to understand how HCPs interpret the research evidence and apply it in everyday practice. We focused on the prevention of falls, a common cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in later life, for which there is a wide range of known risk factors. To use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to investigate the opinions of HCPs in prioritizing risk factors for preventing falls. We used the AHP to develop a hierarchy of risk factors for falls based on the knowledge and experience of experts. We submitted electronic questionnaires via the web, in order to reach a wider number of respondents. With a web service, we pooled the results and weighted the coherence and the experience of respondents. Overall, 232 respondents participated in the study: 32 in the technical pilot study, nine in the scientific pilot study and 191 respondents in the main study. We identified a hierarchy of 35 risk factors, organized in two categories and six sub-categories. The hierarchy of risk factors provides further insights into clinicians' perceptions of risk factors for falls. This hierarchy helps understand the relative importance that clinicians place on risk factors for falls in older people and why evidence-based guidelines are not always followed. This information may be helpful in improving intervention programs and in understanding how clinicians prioritize multiple risk factors in individual patients. The AHP method allows the opinions of HCPs to be investigated, giving appropriate weight to their coherence, background and experience.

  9. Solar UVR instrument inter-comparison focussing on measurement interval recording setting and solar zenith angle as important factors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, GY

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available considerations, to make meaningful deductions from the data. By comparing two solar UVR instruments, namely, a UV biometer and a Davis Vantage Pro2 UVR Detector, we look at an important factor influencing ambient solar UVR, namely SZA, and its impact... Vantage Pro2 UV detector comprises a transducer which is a semiconductor photodiode with a spectral response that matches the McKinley/Diffey Erythemal Action Spectrum. It includes a diffuser which provides good cosine response and multiple hard...

  10. Students' satisfaction with a dental summer programme and importance of influencing factors for choosing dentistry as their career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, R P C; Lai, S M L; Bridges, S; Chu, C H

    2014-05-01

    To study the students' satisfaction with the week-long summer programme and the importance of common influencing factors (IFs) for choosing dentistry as their career. Anonymous questionnaire was given to all 214 participants in July of 2011 and 2012. Demographic information including gender, age and education level was collected. The students were asked about their satisfaction with the programme with separate ratings for learning experiences, including hands-on workshops (HOW); clinic observations (CO); problem-based learning tutorials (PBL); and lectures (L). They also rated the relative importance of the ten common IFs. The Friedman test was used to study the order of their preferences of the programme's activities. The Chi-square test was used to study the influence of their demographic factors on the importance of the IFs. A total of 208 students returned their questionnaires. The majority were below the age of 18 (81%), and 44% were studying in an international school. Most of the students (96%) were satisfied with the programme overall. They liked the HOWs and COs more than the PBL tutorials and Ls. 'Altruism' and 'medical/health care career' were the two most important IFs overall. 'Altruism' and 'past experience with dentist' were considered more important by those aged 18 or above. 'Past experience with dentist' and 'working with hands' were considered more important by the international school students. Most participants were satisfied with the summer programme. They preferred practical, skill-based activities to knowledge-based activities. The importance of some IFs was associated with age and education system. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Children's active play: self-reported motivators, barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Brockman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has important benefits for children's physical health and mental wellbeing, but many children do not meet recommended levels. Research suggests that active play has the potential to make a valuable contribution to children's overall physical activity, whilst providing additional cognitive, social and emotional benefits. However, relatively little is known about the determinants of UK children's active play. Understanding these factors provides the critical first step in developing interventions to increase children's active play, and therefore overall physical activity. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: (i factors which motivate children to take part in active play; (ii factors which limit children's active play and (iii factors which facilitate children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Children were motivated to engage in active play because they perceived it to be enjoyable, to prevent boredom, to have physical and mental health benefits and to provide freedom from adult control, rules and structure. However, children's active play was constrained by a number of factors, including rainy weather and fear of groups of teenagers in their play spaces. Some features of the physical environment facilitated children's active play, including the presence of green spaces and cul-de-sacs in the neighbourhood. Additionally, children's use of mobile phones when playing away from home was reported to help to alleviate parents' safety fears, and therefore assist children's active play. Children express a range of motivational and environmental factors that constrain and facilitate their active play. Consideration of these factors should improve effectiveness of interventions designed to increase active play.

  12. Children's active play: self-reported motivators, barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Rowan; Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R

    2011-06-10

    Physical activity has important benefits for children's physical health and mental wellbeing, but many children do not meet recommended levels. Research suggests that active play has the potential to make a valuable contribution to children's overall physical activity, whilst providing additional cognitive, social and emotional benefits. However, relatively little is known about the determinants of UK children's active play. Understanding these factors provides the critical first step in developing interventions to increase children's active play, and therefore overall physical activity. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: (i) factors which motivate children to take part in active play; (ii) factors which limit children's active play and (iii) factors which facilitate children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Children were motivated to engage in active play because they perceived it to be enjoyable, to prevent boredom, to have physical and mental health benefits and to provide freedom from adult control, rules and structure. However, children's active play was constrained by a number of factors, including rainy weather and fear of groups of teenagers in their play spaces. Some features of the physical environment facilitated children's active play, including the presence of green spaces and cul-de-sacs in the neighbourhood. Additionally, children's use of mobile phones when playing away from home was reported to help to alleviate parents' safety fears, and therefore assist children's active play. Children express a range of motivational and environmental factors that constrain and facilitate their active play. Consideration of these factors should improve effectiveness of interventions designed to increase active play.

  13. Child fitness and father's BMI are important factors in childhood obesity: a school based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Brophy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines obesity and factors associated with obesity in children aged 11-13 years in the UK. METHODS: 1147 children from ten secondary schools participated in a health survey that included blood samples, fitness test and anthropometric measures. Factors associated with obesity were examined using multilevel logistic regression. FINDINGS: Of the children examined (490 male; 657 female a third were overweight, 1 in 6 had elevated blood pressure, more than 1 in 10 had high cholesterol, 58% consumed more fat than recommended, whilst 37% were classified as unfit. Children in deprived areas had a higher proportion of risk factors; for example, they had higher blood pressure (20% (deprived compared to 11% (non-deprived, difference: 9.0% (95%CI: 4.7%-13.4%. Obesity is associated with risk factors for heart disease and diabetes. Maintaining fitness is associated with a reduction in the risk factors for heart disease (high blood pressure and cholesterol but not on risk factors for diabetes (insulin levels. In order of importance, the main risk factors for childhood obesity are being unfit, having an obese father, and being large at birth. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of children with risk factors suggests future interventions need to focus on community and policy change to shift the population norm rather than targeting the behaviour of high risk individuals. Interventions need to focus on mothers' lifestyle in pregnancy, fathers' health, as well as promoting fitness among children. Obesity was not associated with deprivation. Therefore, strategies should be adopted in both deprived and non deprived areas.

  14. Importance of factors determining the low health-related quality of life in people presenting with a diabetic foot ulcer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersma, V; Thorsen, H; Holstein, P E

    2013-01-01

    To identify the factors responsible for the low health-related quality of life associated with foot ulcers and the relative importance of these factors.......To identify the factors responsible for the low health-related quality of life associated with foot ulcers and the relative importance of these factors....

  15. The Theobroma cacao B3 domain transcription factor TcLEC2 plays a duel role in control of embryo development and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Clemens, Adam; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2014-04-24

    The Arabidopsis thaliana LEC2 gene encodes a B3 domain transcription factor, which plays critical roles during both zygotic and somatic embryogenesis. LEC2 exerts significant impacts on determining embryogenic potential and various metabolic processes through a complicated genetic regulatory network. An ortholog of the Arabidopsis Leafy Cotyledon 2 gene (AtLEC2) was characterized in Theobroma cacao (TcLEC2). TcLEC2 encodes a B3 domain transcription factor preferentially expressed during early and late zygotic embryo development. The expression of TcLEC2 was higher in dedifferentiated cells competent for somatic embryogenesis (embryogenic calli), compared to non-embryogenic calli. Transient overexpression of TcLEC2 in immature zygotic embryos resulted in changes in gene expression profiles and fatty acid composition. Ectopic expression of TcLEC2 in cacao leaves changed the expression levels of several seed related genes. The overexpression of TcLEC2 in cacao explants greatly increased the frequency of regeneration of stably transformed somatic embryos. TcLEC2 overexpressing cotyledon explants exhibited a very high level of embryogenic competency and when cultured on hormone free medium, exhibited an iterative embryogenic chain-reaction. Our study revealed essential roles of TcLEC2 during both zygotic and somatic embryo development. Collectively, our evidence supports the conclusion that TcLEC2 is a functional ortholog of AtLEC2 and that it is involved in similar genetic regulatory networks during cacao somatic embryogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of the functional analysis of a LEC2 ortholog in a species other then Arabidopsis. TcLEC2 could potentially be used as a biomarker for the improvement of the SE process and screen for elite varieties in cacao germplasm.

  16. The transcription factors CREB and c-Fos play key roles in NCAM-mediated neuritogenesis in PC12-E2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, U; Novitskaya, V; Pedersen, N

    2001-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) stimulates axonal outgrowth by activation of the Ras-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and by generation of arachidonic acid. We investigated whether the transcription factors, cyclic-AMP response-element binding protein (CREB) and c-Fos play...... roles in this process by estimating NCAM-dependent neurite outgrowth from PC12-E2 cells grown in co-culture with NCAM-negative or NCAM-positive fibroblasts. PC12-E2 cells were transiently transfected with expression plasmids encoding wild-type or dominant negative forms of CREB and c-Fos or an activated...... form of the MAPK kinase, MEK2. Alternatively, PC12-E2 cells were treated with arachidonic acid, the cAMP analogue dBcAMP, or protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors. The negative forms of CREB and c-Fos inhibited neurite outgrowth mediated by NCAM, arachidonic acid, dBcAMP, or MEK2. Neither CREB nor c...

  17. Consumer attitudes about health care acquired infections: a German survey on factors considered important in the choice of a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonberg, Ralf-Peter; Sander, Carsten; Gastmeier, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Most patients are free in their choice of hospital for nonemergency admissions. In a nationwide survey in 1000 German households, we interviewed randomly chosen persons (age 14 and older) by phone about what they consider important when choosing a hospital. A standardized questionnaire was used. Additionally, question order was randomized prior to each interview. Demographic data included age, gender, education, and previous admissions to hospitals. Categories that might influence the choice of hospital included "distance to hospital," "friendly staff," "staff-to-patient ratio," "cleanliness," "nosocomial infection rate," "own experiences," "friend's opinion," and "facility's reputation in public media." General cleanliness, low nosocomial infection rates, and friendly staff proved to be the most important issues in our study. In contrast, the reputation of the health care facility in the public media was much less important. It seems that kindness and basic hygiene measures, both quite inexpensive factors, are key issues for patients.

  18. Health-related quality of life and risk factor control: the importance of educational level in prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ose, Dominik; Rochon, Justine; Campbell, Stephen M; Wensing, Michel; Freund, Tobias; van Lieshout, Jan; Längst, Gerda; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Ludt, Sabine

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to describe and to analyse the importance of educational level for controlled risk factors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This observational study was conducted in nine European countries (5632 patients in 249 practices). We compared patients with a low level of education (up to 9 years) with patients with a high level of education (>9 years), with regard to controlled cardiovascular disease risk factors and HRQoL. A multilevel approach was used for statistical analysis. Patients with a low level of education were older (P education, female gender, living as single, patient group (coronary heart disease patients) and the number of other conditions were negatively associated with HRQoL. A higher sum of controlled risk factors were positively associated with higher HRQoL in the whole sample (r = 0.0086, P educational-level groups (r = 0.0075, P = 0.038 in the low-level group and r = 0.0082, P = 0.001 in the high-level group). Patients with a lower educational level were more often females, singles, had a higher number of other conditions, a higher number of uncontrolled risk factors and a lower HRQoL. However, the higher the control of risk factors was, the higher the HRQoL was overall as well as in both educational-level groups. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. The importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for the associations between job demands, control, support and burnout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Blom

    Full Text Available Within occupational health research, one of the most influential models is the Job Demands-Control-Support model. Numerous studies have applied the model to different domains, with both physical and psychological health outcomes, such as burnout. The twin design provides a unique and powerful research methodology for examining the effects of environmental risk factors on burnout while taking familial factors (genetic and shared environment into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of familial factors on the associations of burnout with job demands, control and support. A total of 14,516 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry, who were born between 1959 and 1986, and who participated in the Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE by responding to a web-based questionnaire in 2005, were included in the analyses. Of these, there were 5108 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs effects and within-pair effects, stratified also by zygosity and sex. The results indicate that familial factors are of importance in the association between support and burnout in both women and men, but not between job demands and burnout. There are also tendencies towards familial factors being involved in the association between control and burnout in men. These results offer increased understanding of the mechanisms involved in the associations between work stress and burnout.

  20. Being at peace as an important factor in acquiring teaching competency by Iranian nurse teachers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamzadeh Ghasemi, Hormat Sadat; Rafii, Forough; Farahani, Mansoureh A; Mohammadi, Nooreddin

    2014-02-24

    It is imperative to understand the factor that influence teaching competency. Therefore, it is necessary to study those that have an impact on the process of acquiring teaching competency. Competent nurse teachers have an important role in the achievement of nursing students and improving the quality of nursing education. However, few researches have focused specifically on the process of acquiring teaching competency in nurse teachers and its related factors. This study as a part of more extensive research aims to explore the factors influencing acquisition of teaching competency by Iranian nurse teachers. Grounded theory was chosen as the method. Eleven teachers from three nursing schools in Tehran were recruited. Data was generated by semi structured interviews during May 2011 to March 2013 and was analyzed through using constant comparison. Three main categories were emerged including "individual characteristics" (spirituality, professional interest, ethical conducts, knowledge expansion and reflective practice), "organizational factors" (management of educational systems, solidarity culture, student characteristics) and "socio-cultural factors" (social situations, and public definition of nursing). Nurse teachers who deal peacefully with the nursing profession and colleagues are responsible and committed to acquiring teaching competency. A suitable organization in nursing educational systems that is structured and ordered also encourages a peaceful approach by nurse teachers.

  1. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  2. Importance of Relativistic Effects and Electron Correlation in Structure Factors and Electron Density of Diphenyl Mercury and Triphenyl Bismuth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bučinský, Lukáš; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Grabowsky, Simon

    2016-08-25

    This study investigates the possibility of detecting relativistic effects and electron correlation in single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments using the examples of diphenyl mercury (HgPh2) and triphenyl bismuth (BiPh3). In detail, the importance of electron correlation (ECORR), relativistic effects (REL) [distinguishing between total, scalar and spin-orbit (SO) coupling relativistic effects] and picture change error (PCE) on the theoretical electron density, its topology and its Laplacian using infinite order two component (IOTC) wave functions is discussed. This is to develop an understanding of the order of magnitude and shape of these different effects as they manifest in the electron density. Subsequently, the same effects are considered for the theoretical structure factors. It becomes clear that SO and PCE are negligible, but ECORR and scalar REL are important in low- and medium-order reflections on absolute and relative scales-not in the high-order region. As a further step, Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) and subsequent X-ray constrained wavefunction (XCW) fitting have been performed for the compound HgPh2 with various relativistic and nonrelativistic wave functions against the experimental structure factors. IOTC calculations of theoretical structure factors and relativistic HAR as well as relativistic XCW fitting are presented for the first time, accounting for both scalar and spin-orbit relativistic effects.

  3. Nuclear Import of the Parsley bZIP Transcription Factor CPRF2 Is Regulated by Phytochrome Photoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Stefan; Wellmer, Frank; Nick, Peter; Rügner, Alexander; Schäfer, Eberhard; Harter, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    In plants, light perception by photoreceptors leads to differential expression of an enormous number of genes. An important step for differential gene expression is the regulation of transcription factor activities. To understand these processes in light signal transduction we analyzed the three well-known members of the common plant regulatory factor (CPRF) family from parsley (Petroselinum crispum). Here, we demonstrate that these CPRFs, which belong to the basic- region leucine-zipper (bZIP) domain-containing transcription factors, are differentially distributed within parsley cells, indicating different regulatory functions within the regulatory networks of the plant cell. In particular, we show by cell fractionation and immunolocalization approaches that CPRF2 is transported from the cytosol into the nucleus upon irradiation due to action of phytochrome photoreceptors. Two NH2-terminal domains responsible for cytoplasmic localization of CPRF2 in the dark were characterized by deletion analysis using a set of CPRF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fusion constructs transiently expressed in parsley protoplasts. We suggest that light-induced nuclear import of CPRF2 is an essential step in phytochrome signal transduction. PMID:9922448

  4. The importance of biological factors affecting trace metal concentration as revealed from accumulation patterns in co-occurring terrestrial invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickx, Frederik; Maelfait, Jean-Pierre; Bogaert, Nicolas; Tojal, Catarina; Du Laing, Gijs; Tack, Filip M.G.; Verloo, Marc G

    2004-02-01

    As physicochemical properties of the soil highly influence the bioavailable fraction of a particular trace metal, measured metal body burdens in a particular species are often assumed to be more reliable estimators of the contamination of the biota. To test this we compared the Cd, Cu and Zn content of three spiders (generalist predators) and two amphipods (detritivores), co-occurring in seven tidal marshes along the river Schelde, between each other and with the total metal concentrations and the concentrations of four sequential extractions of the soils. Correlations were significant in only one case and significant sitexspecies interactions for all metals demonstrate that factors affecting metal concentration were species and site specific and not solely determined by site specific characteristics. These results emphasize that site and species specific biological factors might be of the utmost importance in determining the contamination of the biota, at least for higher trophic levels. A hypothetical example clarifies these findings. - Site and species specific biological factors are important in determining contamination of biota.

  5. Jaundice: an important, poorly recognized risk factor for diminished survival in patients with adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasberg, Steven M; Gao, Feng; Sanford, Dominic; Linehan, David C; Hawkins, William G; Fields, Ryan; Carpenter, Danielle H; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Phillips, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Jaundice impairs cellular immunity, an important defence against the dissemination of cancer. Jaundice is a common mode of presentation in pancreatic head adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between preoperative jaundice and survival in patients who have undergone resection of such tumours. Methods: Thirty possible survival risk factors were evaluated in a database of over 400 resected patients. Univariate analysis was used to determine odds ratio for death. All factors for which a P-value of jaundice, age, positive node status, poor differentiation and lymphatic invasion were significant indicators of poor outcome in multivariate analysis. Absence of jaundice was a highly favourable prognostic factor. Interaction emerged between jaundice and nodal status. The benefit conferred by the absence of jaundice was restricted to patients in whom negative node status was present. Five-year overall survival in this group was 66%. Jaundiced patients who underwent preoperative stenting had a survival advantage. Conclusions: Preoperative jaundice is a negative risk factor in adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Additional studies are required to determine the exact mechanism for this effect. PMID:23600768

  6. Relative importance of local habitat complexity and regional factors for assemblages of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in Sphagnum peat bogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, M A; Ermilov, S G; Philippov, D A; Prokin, A A

    2016-11-01

    We investigated communities of oribatid mites in five peat bogs in the north-west of the East European plain. We aimed to determine the extent to which geographic factors (latitude, separation distance), local environment (Sphagnum moss species, ground water level, biogeochemistry) and local habitat complexity (diversity of vascular plants and bryophytes in the surrounding plant community) influence diversity and community composition of Oribatida. There was a significant north-to-south increase in Oribatida abundance. In the variance partitioning, spatial factors explained 33.1 % of variability in abundance across samples; none of the environmental factors were significant. Across all bogs, Oribatida species richness and community composition were similar in Sphagnum rubellum and Sphagnum magellanicum, but significantly different and less diverse in Sphagnum cuspidatum. Sphagnum microhabitat explained 52.2 % of variability in Oribatida species richness, whereas spatial variables explained only 8.7 %. There was no distance decay in community similarity between bogs with increased geographical distance. The environmental variables explained 34.9 % of the variance in community structure, with vascular plants diversity, bryophytes diversity, and ground water level all contributing significantly; spatial variables explained 15.1 % of the total variance. Overall, only 50 % of the Oribatida community variance was explained by the spatial structure and environmental variables. We discuss relative importance of spatial and local environmental factors, and make general inferences about the formation of fauna in Sphagnum bogs.

  7. "Latte rural": the tangible and intangible factors important in the choice of a rural practice by recent GP graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Caroline O; Williamson, Victoria; Sumner, Karen E; Fleming, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    A large of amount of literature exists on the factors that influence the recruitment and retention of rural general practitioners (GPs) in Australia and other countries. The selection of a rural practice location is known to be influenced by professional, personal and family, community and economic factors. Most of this research has been undertaken on the either the baby boomer generation or their predecessors, and this is likely to have influenced the responses gained. Generation X and Y doctors are known to have a different perception regarding workload, lifestyle and the support required to practise. The aim of this study was to explore, from a Generation X perspective, factors deemed important by general practice graduates in selecting a rural practice at completion of their training. The study also aimed to identify the process general practice graduates use to identify a potential rural practice, and when they commence this process. Semi-structured interviews were held with 15 rural pathway general practice registrars in their final year of training with 2 regional training providers in South Australia. The interview topics included source of information on potential practices, their ideal rural practice and community, the process used to select a practice, and when they commenced this process. Phenomenological hermeneutic thematic analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken to identify themes and sub-themes. For an ideal rural practice, registrars wished to work in a practice with a friendly atmosphere, good business structure, support from senior GPs and in close proximity to a hospital. They also wanted reasonable on-call arrangements, the chance to develop further skills (such as anaesthetics or obstetrics) and the freedom to practise according to their interests. They also emphasised the importance of a good team and an ethical practice. In terms of community, registrars wanted a positive living place, access to amenities such as childcare, good

  8. Tumour burden in early stage Hodgkin's disease: the single most important prognostic factor for outcome after radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Nordentoft, A M; Cold, Søren

    1987-01-01

    One hundred and forty-two patients with Hodgkin's disease PS I or II were treated with total or subtotal nodal irradiation as part of a prospective randomized trial in the Danish National Hodgkin Study during the period 1971-83. They were followed till death or--at the time of this analysis......--from 15 to 146 months after initiation of therapy. The initial tumour burden of each patient was assessed, combining tumour size of each involved region and number of regions involved. Tumour burden thus assessed proved to be the single most important prognostic factor with regard to disease free survival...

  9. Administrative and legal factors of customs clearance for components and spare parts imported for repair of ships in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Едуард Борисович Хачатуров

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is investigated an influence of administrative and legal factors of customs clearance when moving goods across customs borders for repair of marine ships in Ukraine. It is studied the existing regulatory base of legal acts governing order implementation of the customs procedures in the supply completing and spare parts for the shipbuilding industry. It is proposed an application of the customs regime of temporary import for goods to these groups, and, if necessary, use loyalty measures with the aim of ensuring timely production

  10. Complement factor 5a receptor chimeras reveal the importance of lipid-facing residues in transport competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klco, Jeffery M; Sen, Saurabh; Hansen, Jakob L

    2009-01-01

    . Despite relatively conservative substitutions, the lipid-facing chimeras (TM1, TM2, TM4, TM5, TM6 or TM7) were retained in the endoplasmic reticulum/cis-Golgi network. With the exception of the TM7 chimera that did not bind ligand, the lipid-facing chimeras bound ligand with low affinity, but similar...... oligomerization studies demonstrated energy transfer between the wild-type complement factor 5a receptor and the lipid-facing chimeras, suggesting that the lipid-facing residues within a single TM segment are not essential for oligomerization. These studies highlight the importance of the lipid-facing residues...

  11. IMPORT SUBSTITUTION OF FOOD AS A DISINTEGRATION FACTOR OF THE EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENT OF THE ECONOMY OF MODERN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Alla Litvinova

    2018-01-01

    It is shown that the gradual strengthening of integration processes in the world trade in food products with Russia’s participation was accompanied by an increase in negative trends in ensuring the country’s food security and determining its role as an economic recipient of the products of foreign agro-industrial complexes. The imposition of embargoes on foreign-made food products imported into Russia in response to sanctions and geopolitical threats acted as a de-integration factor for the e...

  12. Time of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver resection and alpha-fetoprotein are important prognostic factors for salvage liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghoon; Hyuck David Kwon, Choon; Man Kim, Jong; Joh, Jae-Won; Woon Paik, Seung; Kim, Bong-Wan; Wang, Hee-Jung; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Lee, Suk-Koo

    2014-09-01

    Salvage liver transplantation (LT) is considered a feasible option for the treatment of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We performed this multicenter study to assess the risk factors associated with the recurrence of HCC and patient survival after salvage LT. Between January 2000 and December 2011, 101 patients who had previously undergone liver resection (LR) for HCC underwent LT at 3 transplant centers in Korea. Sixty-nine patients' data were retrospectively reviewed for the analysis. The recurrence of HCC was diagnosed at a median of 10.6 months after the initial LR, and patients underwent salvage LT. Recurrences were within the Milan criteria in 48 cases and were outside the Milan criteria in 21 cases. After salvage LT, 31 patients had HCC recurrence during a median follow-up period of 24.5 months. There were 24 deaths, and 20 were due to HCC recurrence. The 5-year overall survival rate was approximately 54.6%, and the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 49.3%. HCC recurrence within the 8 months after LR [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.124, P = 0.009], an alpha-fetoprotein level higher than 200 ng/mL (HR = 2.609, P = 0.02), and HCC outside the Milan criteria at salvage LT (HR = 2.219, P = 0.03) were independent risk factors for poor recurrence-free survival after salvage LT. In conclusion, the timing and extent of HCC recurrence after primary LR both play significant roles in the outcome of salvage LT. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Creativity and Playfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article explores how student behavior and interactions change when teachers use “producing games” as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing-Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on student and teacher actions and responses, as well as on students' production—observed during f...... fieldwork—this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations....

  14. Donor body mass index is an important factor that affects peripheral blood progenitor cell yield in healthy donors after mobilization with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Burns, Kevin M; Babic, Aleksandar; Carrum, George; Kennedy, Martha; Segura, Francisco J; Garcia, Salvador; Potts, Sandra; Leveque, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The use of hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplantation has rapidly expanded in recent years. Currently, several sources of HPCs are available for transplantation including peripheral blood HPCs (PBPCs), cord blood cells, and marrow cells. Of these, PBPC collection has become the major source of HPCs. An important variable in PBPC collection is the response to PBPC mobilization, which varies significantly and sometime causes mobilization failure. A retrospective study of 69 healthy donors who underwent PBPC donation by leukapheresis was performed. All of these donors received 10 μg/kg/day or more granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for 5 days before PBPC harvest. Donor factors were evaluated and correlated with mobilization responses, as indicated by the precollection CD34 count (pre-CD34). Donors with a pre-CD34 of more than 100 × 10(6) /L had higher body mass index (BMI) compared with donors whose pre-CD34 was 38 × 10(6) to 99 × 10(6) /L or less than 38 × 10(6) /L (32.0 ± 1.04 kg/m(2) vs. 28.7 ± 0.93 kg/m(2) vs. 25.9 ± 1.27 kg/m(2) , respectively; p donors with high BMIs had higher pre-CD34 on a per-kilogram-of-body-weight basis compared with donors with low BMIs. BMI is an important factor that affects donor's response to mobilization and consequently the HPC yield. This effect may be due to a relatively high dose of G-CSF administered to donors with higher BMI or due to the presence of unknown intrinsic factors affecting mobilization that correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in each donor. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Important Factors in the Cognitive Development of Children with Hearing Impairment: Case Studies of Candidates for Cochlear Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasralla, Heloisa Romeiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The factors that affect the development of children with and without hearing disabilities are similar, provided their innate communication abilities are taken into account. Parents need to mourn the loss of the expected normally hearing child, and it is important that parents create bonds of affection with their child. Objective To conduct a postevaluation of the development and cognition of 20 candidates for cochlear implants between 1 and 13 years of age and to observe important factors in their development. Methods The following instruments were used in accordance with their individual merits: interviews with parents; the Vineland Social Maturity Scale; the Columbia Maturity Scale; free drawings; Bender and Pre-Bender testing; and pedagogical tests. Results The results are described. Conclusion Parental acceptance of a child's deafness proved to be the starting point for the child's verbal or gestural communication development, as well as for cognitive, motor, and emotional development. If the association between deafness and fine motor skills (with or without multiple disabilities undermines the development of a child's speech, it does not greatly affect communication when the child interacts with his or her peers and receives maternal stimulation. Overprotection and poor sociability make children less independent, impairs their development, and causes low self-esteem. Further observational studies are warranted to determine how cochlear implants contribute to patient recovery.

  16. Important factors in the cognitive development of children with hearing impairment: case studies of candidates for cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasralla, Heloisa Romeiro; Goffi Gomez, Maria Valéria Schimidt; Magalhaes, Ana Tereza; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Introduction The factors that affect the development of children with and without hearing disabilities are similar, provided their innate communication abilities are taken into account. Parents need to mourn the loss of the expected normally hearing child, and it is important that parents create bonds of affection with their child. Objective To conduct a postevaluation of the development and cognition of 20 candidates for cochlear implants between 1 and 13 years of age and to observe important factors in their development. Methods The following instruments were used in accordance with their individual merits: interviews with parents; the Vineland Social Maturity Scale; the Columbia Maturity Scale; free drawings; Bender and Pre-Bender testing; and pedagogical tests. Results The results are described. Conclusion Parental acceptance of a child's deafness proved to be the starting point for the child's verbal or gestural communication development, as well as for cognitive, motor, and emotional development. If the association between deafness and fine motor skills (with or without multiple disabilities) undermines the development of a child's speech, it does not greatly affect communication when the child interacts with his or her peers and receives maternal stimulation. Overprotection and poor sociability make children less independent, impairs their development, and causes low self-esteem. Further observational studies are warranted to determine how cochlear implants contribute to patient recovery.

  17. Genome-scale study of the importance of binding site context for transcription factor binding and gene regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronne Hans

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of mRNA transcription is controlled by transcription factors that bind to specific DNA motifs in promoter regions upstream of protein coding genes. Recent results indicate that not only the presence of a motif but also motif context (for example the orientation of a motif or its location relative to the coding sequence is important for gene regulation. Results In this study we present ContextFinder, a tool that is specifically aimed at identifying cases where motif context is likely to affect gene regulation. We used ContextFinder to examine the role of motif context in S. cerevisiae both for DNA binding by transcription factors and for effects on gene expression. For DNA binding we found significant patterns of motif location bias, whereas motif orientations did not seem to matter. Motif context appears to affect gene expression even more than it affects DNA binding, as biases in both motif location and orientation were more frequent in promoters of co-expressed genes. We validated our results against data on nucleosome positioning, and found a negative correlation between preferred motif locations and nucleosome occupancy. Conclusion We conclude that the requirement for stable binding of transcription factors to DNA and their subsequent function in gene regulation can impose constraints on motif context.

  18. Risk factors for chronic undernutrition among children in India: Estimating relative importance, population attributable risk and fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Daniel J; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Subramanian, S V

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 40% of the world's stunted children live in India and the prevalence of undernutrition has been persistently high in recent decades. Given numerous available interventions for reducing undernutrition in children, it is not clear of the relative importance of each within a multifactorial framework. We assess the simultaneous contribution of 15 known risk factors for child chronic undernutrition in India. Data are from the 3rd Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2005-2006. The study population consisted of children aged 6-59 months [n = 26,842 (stunting/low height-for-age), n = 27,483 (underweight/low weight-for-age)]. Risk factors examined for their association with undernutrition were: vitamin A supplementation, vaccination, use of iodized salt, household air quality, improved sanitary facilities, safe disposal of stools, improved drinking water, p