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Sample records for factors investigated included

  1. Investigating students’ attitude towards the importance of factors included in the teaching evaluation forms of School of Public Health of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2010-2011

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    M. H Dehghani Tafti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: students’ attitudes about teaching methodology have been widely recognised as a valid tool of evaluating teaching activities of faculty members. This study aims to determine the importance of the factors included in the teaching evaluation, from the students’ point of view. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Using a random cluster sampling, 332 students of the school of public health of Shahid Sadoughi University were selected .To collect data, a questionnaire containing three partswere used. These were demographic items, teachers’ evaluation (14 items and self-evaluation (4 items. Results: The students (80% scoredpersonal characteristics more. Among different fields of study, those studying occupational health scored the factorsless than others, and those studying at masters level scored them more than others.   The results indicated that there are significant correlation between age, marital status, and employment status of the students and the total average score.   The students scored the self-evaluation items more than 60%, There was a significant correlation between the average scores of evaluation and self-evaluation items. The students at bachelor level scored the factor more than masters students. Conclusion: The students’ focus on personal characteristics of teachers was remarkable. There is a need to revise the process of academics’ recruitment based on these findings. There is also a need to review the items included in evaluation forms of the school.

  2. To investigate the mechanism about the pathogenic factors including Hhcy, in coronary artery coronary endothelial cell damage mechanism%Hhcy对冠脉内皮细胞损伤机制的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆成; 张向峰; 韩晓丹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism about the pathogenic factors including Hhcy, etc in coronary artery coronary endothelial cell damage mechanism.Methods In this paper, according to coronary angiography examination,select 121 cases of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. According to the clinical symptom of coronary heart disease group, heartache group 71 cases, acute myocardial infarction group 50 cases. 95 cases of normal healthy subjects were selected as control group. The Hcy, EC, ET, niacin and vitamin B12 were measured.Results In patients with coronary artery stenosis groups of Hcy, EC, ET, niacin, vitamin B12 indicators along with the change of coronary artery stenosis degree change, the more the degree of stenosis serious Hcy, EC, ET, etc indicators increased, the more obvious, in severe stenosis group (P<0.01). Hcy, EC, ET in CHD group significantly increased than the normal control group. The study also found that the level of serum Hcy and EC, Hcy and ET, Hcy and niacin had a positive correlation (r=0.61, r=0.55, r=0.62). Hcy had niacin, Hcy had vitamin B12 had a negative correlation (r=-0.62, r=-0.58).Conclusions The level of Hcy, EC, ET increasing and the level of niacin, vitamin B12 reducing has important significance in coronary artery intimal injury, plaque formation, leading to coronary artery stenosis.%目的:探讨Hhcy等致病因素在冠脉冠脉内皮细胞损伤的机制。方法:本文选择冠心病(CHD)患者121例,根据冠心病临床症状分组,心痛组71例,急性心肌梗塞组50例,选取95例冠状动脉造影等检查为正常健康者作为正常对照组。测定所有受试者同型半胱氨酸(Hcy),内皮细胞(EC),内皮素(ET),烟酸,维生素B12等指标。结果:冠脉狭窄患者各组Hcy,EC,ET、烟酸,维生素B12等指标随冠脉狭窄程度的改变而改变,狭窄程度愈严重Hcy,EC,ET等指标增高越明显(P<0.01)。CHD组Hcy,EC,ET等指标较正

  3. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

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    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  4. Risk factors for breast cancer, including occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-03-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  5. Perinatal risk factors including malformation; Perinatale Risikofaktoren einschliesslich Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project `Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria` is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG). [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Ueberblick ueber die haeufigsten in der Literatur beschriebenen Faktoren, die einen unguenstigen Einfluss auf den Schwangerschaftsverlauf ausueben koennen, gegeben. Ein Hauptgewicht liegt dabei auf der Beschreibung von solchen Faktoren, die mit der Induktion von Fehlbildungen in Zusammenhang gebracht werden koennen, so unter anderem auch der praenatalen Strahlenexposition. Diese Arbeit, die im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens `Strahlenbiologisches Umweltmonitoring Bayern` angefertigt wurde, bildet die Grundlage einer im Sinne einer umweltbezogenen Gesundheitsberichterstattung retro- bzw. prospektiv angelegten Auswertung der Saeuglingssterblichkeit, des Perinatalgeschehens und der Fehlbildungshaeufigkeit in Bayern, wobei neben der ionisierenden Strahlung als Risikofaktor auch andere im Rahmen einer oekologischen Studie erfassbare Risiken, wie beispielsweise Industrieansiedlungen, Muellverbrennungsanlagen und -deponien oder Urbanitaet beruecksichtigt werden sollen. (orig./MG).

  6. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

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    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  7. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

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    Naser Azad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

  8. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

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    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  9. 77 FR 24514 - Certain Consumer Electronics, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Institution of Investigation... consumer electronics, including mobile phones and tablets, by reason of infringement of certain claims of U... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain consumer electronics,...

  10. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

  11. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

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    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  12. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

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    Rodrigues AN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity

  13. Investigating RNA editing factors from trypanosome mitochondria

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    Aphasizheva, Inna; Zhang, Liye; Aphasizhev, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial U-insertion/deletion mRNA editing is carried out by two principal multiprotein assemblies, enzymatic RNA editing core (RECC) and RNA editing substrate binding (RESC) complexes, and a plethora of auxiliary factors. An integral part of mitochondrial gene expression, editing receives inputs from primary mRNA and gRNA precursor processing pathways, and generates substrates for mRNA polyadenylation and translation. Although nearly all RECC-embedded enzymes have been implicated in specific editing reactions, the majority of proteins that populate the RESC are also essential for generating edited mRNAs. However, lack of recognizable motifs in RESC subunits limits the prowess of bioinformatics in guiding biochemical experiments and elucidating their specific biological functions. In this chapter, we describe a generic workflow for investigating mitochondrial mRNA editing in Trypanosoma brucei and focus on several methods that proved instrumental is assigning definitive functions to editing factors lacking known signature sequences. PMID:27020893

  14. Impact of Outliers Arising from Unintended and Unknowingly Included Subpopulations on the Decisions about the Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

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    Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the effects of outliers on the decisions about the number of factors to retain in an exploratory factor analysis, especially for outliers arising from unintended and unknowingly included subpopulations. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how outliers from an unintended and unknowingly included…

  15. Investigation of patients with atypical or severe hyperandrogenaemia including androgen-secreting ovarian teratoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dennedy, Michael Conall

    2012-02-01

    Approximately 7% of women of reproductive age manifest polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and <0.5% have other causes of hyperandrogenism including congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), androgen-secreting tumour of an ovary or an adrenal gland, Cushing\\'s syndrome or hyperthecosis. The presence of features atypical of PCOS should prompt more extensive evaluation than that usually undertaken. Features atypical of PCOS include the onset of symptoms outside the decade of 15-25 years, rapid progression of symptoms, the development of virilization and a serum testosterone concentration in excess of twice the upper limit of the reference range. Ethnic background, family history and specific clinical findings, e.g. Cushingoid appearance, may inform a focused investigation. Otherwise, patients should have measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) under basal conditions ideally in the early morning, and if abnormal, they should have measurement of 17-OHP one hour after the administration of synthetic ACTH, 250 microg i.v., to screen for CAH, which is present in approximately 2% of hyperandrogenic patients. The overnight cortisol suppression test employing 1 mg dexamethasone at midnight is a sensitive test for Cushing\\'s syndrome. Coronal tomographic (CT) scanning of the adrenals and transvaginal ultrasonography of the ovaries are the investigations of choice when screening for tumours in these organs. Less frequently required is catheterization and sampling from both adrenal and ovarian veins, which is a technically demanding procedure with potential complications which may provide definitive diagnostic information not available from other investigations. Illustrative case reports highlight some complexities in the investigation of hyperandrogenic patients presenting with features atypical of PCOS and include only the ninth case report of an androgen-secreting ovarian teratoma.

  16. Analytical model for investigation of interior noise characteristics in aircraft with multiple propellers including synchrophasing

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    Fuller, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    A simplified analytical model of transmission of noise into the interior of propeller-driven aircraft has been developed. The analysis includes directivity and relative phase effects of the propeller noise sources, and leads to a closed form solution for the coupled motion between the interior and exterior fields via the shell (fuselage) vibrational response. Various situations commonly encountered in considering sound transmission into aircraft fuselages are investigated analytically and the results obtained are compared to measurements in real aircraft. In general the model has proved successful in identifying basic mechanisms behind noise transmission phenomena.

  17. Resource and environmental factors should be included in economic analytical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碚

    2009-01-01

    In the economic analysis framework,natural resources and environmental factors are included in the category of capital or land.Hence,the explanatory variables of the production function only include capital,labor and the residue term technology.Such framework may be designed for methodological reasons,but it is determined

  18. Investigation of the effectiveness of source control sanitation concepts including pre-treatment with Rottebehaelter.

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    Gajurel, D R; Li, Z; Otterpohl, R

    2003-01-01

    High levels of nutrients recovery can be achieved with source control sanitation--technologies are already available. Separation toilets for example separate urine that can be used in agriculture with some crop restrictions as a fertiliser after about 6 months of storage. The grey water has very low loads of nitrogen and can be treated in different combinations of biological and physical treatment and reused. Faecal matter with flush water from the separation toilet can be discharged into Rottebehaelter (an underground pre-composting tank) that retains solid material and drains liquid to a certain extent. Investigation of Rottebehaelter in the different sites and laboratory experiments showed that retained faecal material still contained a high percentage of water. However, odour was not noticed in those Rottebehaelters that have been examined. One of the major advantages of this system over other forms of pre-treatment as the septic tanks is that it does not deprive agriculture of the valuable nutrients and soil conditioner from human excreta. It has to be stated that maintenance is a crucial factor. As an intermediate result of the intensive research of Rottebehaelter it seems that these systems are rather a way of solids retaining, de-watering and long-term storage before the contents are further treated.

  19. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell Wilson, Brenda

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming experience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible predictive factors for success in the computer science course. Subjects included 105 students enrolled in an introductory computer science course. The study revealed three predictive factors in the following order of importance: comfort level (with a positive influence), math background (with a positive influence), and attribution to luck (with a negative influence). No significant gender differences were found in these three factors. The study also revealed that both a formal class in programming (which had a positive correlation) and game playing (which had a negative correlation) were predictive of success. The study revealed a significant gender difference in game playing with males reporting more experience with playing games on the computer than females reported.

  20. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α INHIBITORS IN THE TREATMENT OF AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS, INCLUDING ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

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    S. A. Lapshina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides guidelines for the use of tumor necrosis factor-α  (TNF-α inhibitors in the treatment of patients with axial spondyloarthritis  (axSpA, including ankylosing spondylitis. It gives data on the efficacy of TNF-α inhibitors in patients with non-radiographic axSpA. By using international and Russian guidelines, the authors lay down indications for this therapy and criteria for evaluation of its efficiency and safety.

  1. 75 FR 20860 - Certain Display Devices, Including Digital Televisions and Monitors; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... investigation and, after the investigation, issue an exclusion order and cease and desist orders. ADDRESSES: The...) Co., Ltd., 10F, No. 230, Liancheng Road, Zhounghe City, Taipei County, Taiwan. TPV International (USA...., Unique No. 11 of Zhuankou Development, District of Economic Technological, Development Zone, Wuhan City...

  2. Z' factor including siRNA design quality parameter in RNAi screening experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Sławomir; Kozak, Karol

    2012-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) high-content screening (HCS) enables massive parallel gene silencing and is increasingly being used to reveal novel connections between genes and disease-relevant phenotypes. The application of genome-scale RNAi relies on the development of high quality HCS assays. The Z' factor statistic provides a way to evaluate whether or not screening run conditions (reagents, protocols, instrumentation, kinetics, and other conditions not directly related to the test compounds) are optimized. Z' factor, introduced by Zhang et al., ( 1) is a dimensionless value that represents both the variability and the dynamic range between two sets of sample control data. This paper describe a new extension of the Z' factor, which integrates bioinformatics RNAi non-target compounds for screening quality assessment. Currently presented Z' factor is based on positive and negative control, which may not be sufficient for RNAi experiments including oligonucleotides (oligo) with lack of knock-down. This paper proposes an algorithm which extends existing algorithm by using additional controls generetaed from on-target analysis.

  3. An empirical investigation on factors influencing export of herbal supplements

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    Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts who are professional in the area of production and distribution of herbal supplements and using factor analysis, the study detects eight factors including supportive laws and regulations, organizational atmosphere, marketing structure, knowledge oriented, feasibility study, research and development, competitive strategy and partnership strategies.

  4. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  5. Investigation of Techno-Stress Levels of Teachers Who Were Included in Technology Integration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Efilti, Erkan; Sahin, Yusef Levent; Akçay, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Techno-stress is defined as a modern adaptation disorder resulting from the failure in coping with new technologies in a healthy way. Techno-stress affects many occupational groups, including teachers. FATIH project and many other previous studies conducted in Turkey in recent years have necessitated the use of technology for teachers. The present…

  6. Investigations on LED illumination for micro-PIV including a novel front-lit configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagsäter, Melker; Bruus, Henrik; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we provide a general investigation on micro-PIV with LED illumination. A number of improvements over previous LED-based systems are suggested, in particular, we present a novel front-lit configuration. As a demonstration of its versatility we have used this front-lit configuration...... to perform micro-PIV measurements around a 50 mu m squared pillar in a micro-channel with rectangular cross section, in both fluorescent mode and scattered mode. A comparison between the two modes is supplied, showing very good agreement between the respective velocity field results....

  7. Investigation of Helical Cross-Flow Axis Hydrokinetic Turbines, Including Effects of Waves and Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachant, Peter; Wosnik, Martin

    2011-11-01

    A new test bed for hydrokinetic turbines was used to evaluate different cross-flow axis turbines, and investigate effects of waves and turbulence. Turbine thrust (drag) and mechanical power were measured in a tow tank with cross section 3.7 x 2.4m at speeds of 0.6-1.5 m/s for a Gorlov Helical Turbine (GHT) and a Lucid spherical helical turbine (LST). GHT performance was also measured in progressive waves of various periods, grid turbulence, and in a cylinder wake. Overall, the GHT performs with higher power and thrust coefficients than the LST. A 2nd law, or kinetic exergy efficiency, defined as the fraction of kinetic energy removed from the flow that is converted to usable shaft work, was measured. The distribution of energy into shaft work and turbulent kinetic energy in the wake can affect environmental transport processes and performance of turbines arrays. Progressive waves generally enhance performance of the GHT, but can lead to stall at higher tip speed ratios compared to the steady case. Grid turbulence delays dynamic stall and enables operation at lower tip speed ratios, while not decreasing maximum power coefficient. Performance in a cylinder wake is highly dependent on the cylinder's cross-stream location, ranging from benign to detrimental. The experimental observations provide insight into the physical principles of operation of cross-flow axis turbines.

  8. Prognostic factors of infantile spasms: role of treatment options including a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeehun; Lee, Jun Hwa; Yu, Hee Jun; Lee, Munhyang

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide additional evidences on prognostic factors for infantile spasms and the possible role of a ketogenic diet. A retrospective analysis was performed for patients with infantile spasms who had been followed up for more than 6months between January 2000 and July 2012 at Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). We analyzed the association between possible prognostic factors and seizure/developmental outcomes. Sixty-nine patients were included in this study and their mean follow-up duration was 52.5 (9-147) months. In the patients who had been followed up for more than 2years, 53.6% (n=30/57) remained seizure-free at the last visit. Sixty patients (86.9%) showed developmental delay at last follow-up. Forty-two patients (60.9%) became spasm-free with one or two antiepileptic drugs, one patient with epilepsy surgery for a tumor, and seven patients with a ketogenic diet after the failure of two or more antiepileptic drugs. The etiology and age of seizure onset were the significant prognostic factors. In this study, about 60% of the patients became spasm-free with vigabatrin and topiramate. Ketogenic diet increased the rate by 10% in the remaining antiepileptic drug resistant patients. However, 86.9% of the patients showed developmental delay, mostly a severe degree. Early diagnosis and prompt application of treatment options such as antiepileptic drugs, a ketogenic diet or epilepsy surgery can improve outcomes in patients with infantile spasms. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  10. Computational Investigation and Validation of Twin-Tail Buffet Response Including Dynamics and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.

    1998-01-01

    Multidisciplinary tools for prediction of single rectangular-tail buffet are extended to single swept-back-tail buffet in transonic-speed flow, and multidisciplinary tools for prediction and control of twin-tail buffet are developed and presented. The configuration model consists of a sharp-edged delta wing with single or twin tails that are oriented normal to the wing surface. The tails are treated as cantilevered beams fixed at the root and allowed to oscillate in both bending and torsion. This complex multidisciplinary problem is solved sequentially using three sets of equations on a dynamic single or multi-block grid structure. The first set is the unsteady, compressible, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations which are used for obtaining the flow field vector and the aerodynamic loads on the tails. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved accurately in time using the implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite volume scheme. The second set is the coupled bending and torsion aeroelastic equations of cantilevered beams which are used for obtaining the bending and torsion deflections of the tails. The aeroelastic equations'are solved accurately in time using, a fifth-order-accurate Runge-Kutta scheme. The third set is the grid-displacement equations and the rigid-body dynamics equations, which are used for updating the grid coordinates due to the tail deflections and rigid-body motions. The tail-buffet phenomenon is predicted for highly-swept, single vertical tail placed at the plane of geometric symmetry, and for highly-swept, vertical twin tails placed at three different spanwise separation distances. The investigation demonstrates the effects of structural inertial coupling and uncoupling of the bending and torsion modes of vibration, spanwise positions of the twin-tail, angle of attack, and pitching and rolling dynamic motions of the configuration model on the tail buffet loading and response. The fundamental issue of twin-tail buffet alleviation is

  11. Etiopathophysiological Assessment of Cases with Chronic Daily Headache: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Included Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Hashemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic daily headache (CDH has gained little attention in functional neuro-imaging. When no structural abnormality is found in CDH, defining functional correlates between activated brain regions during headache bouts may provide unique insights towards understanding the pathophysiology of this type of headache.METHODS: We recruited four CDH cases for comprehensive assessments, including history taking, physical examinations and neuropsychological evaluations (The Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Evaluation, Beck’s Anxiety and Depression Inventories, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Visual analogue scale (VAS was used to self-rate the intensity of headache. Patients then underwent electroencephalography (EEG, transcranial Doppler (TCD and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI evaluations during maximal (VAS = 8-10/10 and off-headache (VAS = 0-3/10 conditions. Data were used to compare in both conditions. We also used BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent -group level activation map fMRI to possibly locate headache-related activated brain regions.RESULTS: General and neurological examinations as well as conventional MRIs were unremarkable. Neuropsychological assessments showed moderate anxiety and depression in one patient and minimal in others. Unlike three patients, maximal and off-headache TCD evaluation in one revealed increased middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity, at the maximal pain area. Although with no seizure history, the same patient’s EEG showed paroxysmal epileptic discharges during maximal headache intensity, respectively. Group level activation map fMRI showed activated classical pain matrix regions upon headache bouts (periaqueductal grey, substantia nigra and raphe nucleus, and markedly bilateral occipital lobes activation.CONCLUSION: The EEG changes were of note. Furthermore, the increased BOLD signals in areas outside the classical pain matrix (i.e. occipital lobes during maximal

  12. Experimental Investigation of Cross-Flow Axis Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines, Including Effects of Waves and Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.

    2011-12-01

    A new test bed for Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines at the Center for Ocean Renewable Energy at the University of New Hampshire (UNH-CORE) was used to evaluate the performance of different cross-flow axis hydrokinetic turbines, and investigate the effects of waves and turbulence on these devices. The test bed was designed and built to operate in the UNH tow and wave tank, which has a cross section of 3.67m (width) x 2.44m (depth). In the present configuration, tow speeds of up to 3 m/s can be achieved for smaller turbine models, and up to 1.5 m/s for large turbine models with low gear ratio. It features a flap style wave maker at one end that is capable of producing waves with 1-5 s periods up to 0.4 m wave height. Turbine thrust (drag) and mechanical power output (torque, angular velocity) were measured at tow speeds of 0.6-1.5 m/s for two cross-flow axis MHK turbines: a Gorlov Helical Turbine (GHT) and a Lucid spherical turbine (LST). Both were provided by Lucid Energy Technologies, LLP, and have frontal areas of 1.3 (GHT) and 1.0 (LST) square meters, respectively. GHT performance was also measured in progressive waves of various periods, grid turbulence, and in the wake of a cylinder, installed upstream at various cross-stream locations. Overall, the GHT performs with higher power and thrust (drag) coefficients than the LST. A 2nd law efficiency, or kinetic exergy efficiency, was defined to calculate what fraction of the kinetic energy removed from the flow is converted to usable shaft work by each turbine. The exergy efficiency varies with tip speed ratio but approaches 90% for the optimum operating conditions for each turbine. The fraction of kinetic energy removed from the fluid that is not converted to shaft work is redistributed into turbulent kinetic energy in the wake. Quantifying the kinetic energy flowing out of the turbine is important for modeling of environmental transport processes and for predicting performance when turbines are used in arrays

  13. Fever in trauma patients: evaluation of risk factors, including traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Talari, Goutham; Rubin, David; Albaeni, Aiham; Ciubotaru, Ronald L; Berger, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The role of fever in trauma patients remains unclear. Fever occurs as a response to release of cytokines and prostaglandins by white blood cells. Many factors, including trauma, can trigger release of these factors. To determine whether (1) fever in the first 48 hours is related to a favorable outcome in trauma patients and (2) fever is more common in patients with head trauma. Retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 2 days. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Of 162 patients studied, 40% had fever during the first 48 hours. Febrile patients had higher mortality rates than did afebrile patients. When adjusted for severity of injuries, fever did not correlate with mortality. Neither the incidence of fever in the first 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit nor the number of days febrile in the unit differed between patients with and patients without head trauma (traumatic brain injury). About 70% of febrile patients did not have a source found for their fever. Febrile patients without an identified source of infection had lower peak white blood cell counts, lower maximum body temperature, and higher minimum platelet counts than did febrile patients who had an infectious source identified. The most common infection was pneumonia. No relationship was found between the presence of fever during the first 48 hours and mortality. Patients with traumatic brain injury did not have a higher incidence of fever than did patients without traumatic brain injury. About 30% of febrile patients had an identifiable source of infection. Further studies are needed to understand the origin and role of fever in trauma patients. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  14. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaishi, Kanna; Mizue, Yuka; Chikenji, Takako; Otani, Miho; Nakano, Masako; Konari, Naoto; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Both therapies showed approximately equivalent curative effects, as each inhibited the exacerbation of albuminuria. They also suppressed the excessive infiltration of BMDCs into the kidney by regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., TNF-α) and fibrosis in tubular interstitium were inhibited. TGF-β1 expression was down-regulated and tight junction protein expression (e.g., ZO-1) was maintained, which sequentially suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Exosomes purified from MSC-CM exerted an anti-apoptotic effect and protected tight junction structure in TECs. The increase of glomerular mesangium substrate was inhibited in HFD-diabetic mice. MSC therapy is a promising tool to prevent DN via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes due to its multifactorial action. PMID:27721418

  16. The development of a theoretical model to investigate factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of a theoretical model to investigate factors associated with ... major household appliance market: An integrative conceptual approach. ... disadvantaged consumers gain spending power and access to electricity supply.

  17. Factorization of Radiative Leptonic Decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ Mesons Including the Soft Photon Region

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ji-Chong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the radiative leptonic decays of $B^-$ and $D^-$ mesons using factorization approach. Factorization is proved to be valid explicitly at 1-loop level at any order of $O(\\Lambda _{\\rm QCD}\\left/m_Q\\right.)$. We consider the contribution in the soft photon region that $E_{\\gamma} \\sim \\left. \\Lambda^2 _{\\rm QCD} /\\right. m_Q$. The numerical results shows that, the soft photon region is very important for both the $B$ and $D$ mesons. The branching ratios of $B\\to \\gamma e\

  18. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of th

  19. Latina Resilience in Higher Education: Contributing Factors Including Seasonal Farmworker Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; McCain, Terrence; Gomez-Vilchis, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Many Latina students overcome multiple obstacles to earn university degrees. Five married Latina women with children and seasonal farmworker backgrounds are the focus of this study which is analyzed through resiliency theory to understand factors contributing to their academic resilience. Variables connected to academic success are explored and…

  20. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Four Components including Acetaminophen by Taget Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    UV Spectrophotometric Target Factor Analysis (TFA) was used for the simultaneous determination of four components (acetaminophen, guuaifenesin, caffeine, Chlorphenamine maleate) in cough syrup. The computer program of TFA is based on VC++ language. The difficulty of overlapping of absorption spectra of four compounds was overcome by this procedure. The experimental results show that the average recovery of each component is all in the range from 98.9% to 106.8% and each component obtains satisfactory results without any pre-separation.

  1. The N(H2/I(CO Conversion Factor: A Treatment that Includes Radiative Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Wall

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento que explica mejor el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO y que incluye la transferencia radiativa. A primera vista, incluir la transferencia radiativa parece superfluo para una línea óptimamente gruesa como CO J = 1 0. No obstante, dado que el medio interestelar es inhomogéneo, los fragmentos de gas (es decir, grumos todavía pueden ser óptimamente delgadas hacia sus bordes y en las alas de los pérfiles de la línea. El tratamiento estadístico de Martin et al. (1984 de la transferencia radiativa a través una nube molecular con grumos se usa para derivar una expresión para el factor de conversión que su- pera los defectos de las explicaciones más tradicionales basadas en Dickman et al. (1986. Por un lado, el tratamiento presentado aquí posiblemente representa un avance importante al entender el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO pero, por otro lado, tiene sus propios defectos, que son discutidos aquí brevemente.

  2. Preoperative Serum Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Prognostic Factor for Colorectal Cancer, including Stage II Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the prognostic significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 in colorectal cancer (CRC. Patients and Methods. Preoperative serum IL-6 was measured in 233 CRC patients and 13 healthy controls. Relationships between IL-6 and various clinicopathological factors were evaluated, and the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates according to IL-6 status were calculated for all patients and according to disease stage. Results. The mean IL-6 level was 6.6 pg/mL in CRC patients and 2.6 pg/mL in healthy controls. Using a cutoff of 6.3 pg/mL, obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 57 patients had a high IL-6 level. The mean value was higher for stage II disease than for stage III disease. IL-6 status correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, obstruction, and pT4 disease. The OS differed according to the IL-6 status for all patients, whereas the DFS differed for all patients and for those with stage II disease. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that pT4 disease was an independent risk factor for recurrence in all CRC patients; IL-6, CRP, and pT4 were significant risk factors in stage II patients. Conclusions. The preoperative IL-6 level influences the risk of CRC recurrence.

  3. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle.

  4. Investigation of factors impacting mobility and gait in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofoletti, Gustavo; McNeely, Marie E; Campbell, Meghan C; Duncan, Ryan P; Earhart, Gammon M

    2016-10-01

    Mobility and gait limitations are major issues for people with Parkinson disease (PD). Identification of factors that contribute to these impairments may inform treatment and intervention strategies. In this study we investigated factors that predict mobility and gait impairment in PD. Participants with mild to moderate PD and without dementia (n=114) were tested in one session 'off' medication. Mobility measures included the 6-Minute Walk test and Timed-Up-and-Go. Gait velocity was collected in four conditions: forward preferred speed, forward dual task, forward fast as possible and backward walking. The predictors analyzed were age, gender, disease severity, balance, balance confidence, fall history, self-reported physical activity, and executive function. Multiple regression models were used to assess the relationships between predictors and outcomes. The predictors, in different combinations for each outcome measure, explained 55.7% to 66.9% of variability for mobility and 39.5% to 52.8% for gait velocity. Balance was the most relevant factor (explaining up to 54.1% of variance in mobility and up to 45.6% in gait velocity). Balance confidence contributed to a lesser extent (2.0% to 8.2% of variance) in all models. Age explained a small percentage of variance in mobility and gait velocity (up to 2.9%). Executive function explained 3.0% of variance during forward walking only. The strong predictive relationships between balance deficits and mobility and gait impairment suggest targeting balance deficits may be particularly important for improving mobility and gait in people with PD, regardless of an individual's age, disease severity, fall history, or other demographic features.

  5. Nuclear monopole charge form factor calculation for relativistic models including center-of-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avancini, S.S.; Marinelli, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Florianopolis, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Relativistic models for finite nuclei contain spurious center-of-mass motion in most applications for the nuclear many-body problem, where the nuclear wave function is taken as a single Slater determinant within a space-fixed frame description. We use the Peierls-Yoccoz projection method, previously developed for relativistic approaches together with a reparametrization of the coupling constants that fits binding energies and charge radius and apply our results to calculate elastic electron scattering monopole charge form factors for light nuclei. (orig.)

  6. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  7. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    explosion, and the Mont Blanc Tunnel Fire, such an approach may have helped to maintain the integrity of the designed provisions against major deviations resulting in these disasters. In order to make this paradigm operational, safety management and in particular risk assessment tools need to be refined....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...... Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS, see Salvi et al 2006). ARAMIS employs the bow-tie approach to modelling hazardous scenarios, and it suggests the outcome of auditing safety management to be connected to a semi-quantitative assessment of the quality of safety barriers. ARAMIS discriminates a number...

  8. Contribution of Environmental Risk Factors Including Lifestyle to Inequalities Noncommunicable (Chronic Diseases such as Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Grochowska Niedworok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health inequalities: differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups. Some health inequalities are attributable to biological variations or free choice and others are attributable to the external environment and conditions mainly outside the control of the individuals concerned. 347 million people worldwide have diabetes. In 2012 an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. More than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. WHO projects that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. Healthy diet, regular physical activity and maintaining a normal body weight can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Risk factors: 1. Age- the prevalence of diabetes rises steeply with age: *one in twenty people over the age of 65 have diabetes, *and this rises to one in five people over the age of 85 years. The diagnosis of diabetes may be delayed in older people, with symptoms of diabetes being wrongly attributed to ageing. 2. Ethnic: type 2 diabetes is up to six times more common in people of South Asian descent and up to three times more common in those of African and African-Caribbean descent then in the white population. It is also more common in people of Chinese descent and other non-Caucasian groups. 3. Gender: the frequency of diabetes usually is higher in men than in women. This may be because gender compounds other aspects of inequality- women often bear the brunt of poverty, and socio-economic differences in the prevalence of diabetes are more marked for women, probably because of differences in smoking rates, food choices and the prevalence of obesity. 4. Overweight/Obesity: every 1 kg/m2 more causes increase risk: cardiovascular diseases 2%, coronary artery disease- 3% , myocardial infarction- 5% , heart failure- 5% , peripheral vascular disease- 5%. Health inqualities important in diabetes -- modifiable:  social

  9. Clinical characteristics of Pneumocystis pneumonia in non-HIV patients and prognostic factors including microbiological genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Yutaka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of patients with non-HIV Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We investigated the clinical characteristics of non-HIV PCP and its association with microbiological genotypes. Methods Between January 2005 and March 2010, all patients in 2 university hospitals who had been diagnosed with PCP by PCR were enrolled in this study. Retrospective chart review of patients, microbiological genotypes, and association with 30-day mortality were examined. Results Of the 82 adult patients investigated, 50 patients (61% had inflammatory diseases, 17 (21% had solid malignancies, 12 (15% had hematological malignancies, and 6 (7% had received transplantations. All patients received immunosuppressive agents or antitumor chemotherapeutic drugs. Plasma (1→3 β-D-glucan levels were elevated in 80% of patients, and were significantly reduced after treatment in both survivors and non-survivors. However, β-D-glucan increased in 18% of survivors and was normal in only 33% after treatment. Concomitant invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was detected in 5 patients. Fifty-six respiratory samples were stored for genotyping. A dihydropteroate synthase mutation associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was found in only 1 of the 53 patients. The most prevalent genotype of mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA was genotype 1, followed by genotype 4. The most prevalent genotype of internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear rRNA operon was Eb, followed by Eg and Bi. Thirty-day mortality was 24%, in which logistic regression analysis revealed association with serum albumin and mechanical ventilation, but no association with genotypes. Conclusions In non-HIV PCP, poorer general and respiratory conditions at diagnosis were independent predictors of mortality. β-D-glucan may not be useful for monitoring the response to treatment, and genotypes were not associated with mortality.

  10. Investigations to environmental factors on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althoff, H.; Wehr, K.; Michels, S.; Prajsnar, D.; Einbrodt, H.J.

    1987-05-01

    The discussions on noxious environmental factors concerning SIDS was a motive for systematically postmortal chemical-toxicological investigations on 54 SIDS-cases and 2 controlcases of the same age. Tissue levels of arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury and pentachlorphenol as well as other organic noxes were measured in several organs. Furthermore COHb-concentrations were determined. Inspite of the wide scattering values the measured extreme levels as well as the arithmetic mean- and the median averages of As, Pb, Cd, Hg, PCP and COHb ranged in concentration sizes which - according to present knowledge - can't be supposed of toxic effects. It was observed that infants from an urban environment didn't show a higher degree of the examined noxes than infants from rural regions. Also there were neither differences between SIDS-cases and controls, nor correlations between often morphologically detected infections of the respiratory system, including laryngitis - and superior concentrations of these noxes in the organs of SIDS-cases.

  11. A new prognostic model for cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy including pretreatment thrombocytosis and standard pathological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todenhöfer, Tilman; Renninger, Markus; Schwentner, Christian; Stenzl, Arnulf; Gakis, Georgios

    2012-12-01

    Study Type - Prognosis (cohort series) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Preoperative thrombocytosis has been identified as a predictor of poor outcome in various cancer types. However, the prognostic role of platelet count in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy is unknown. The present study demonstrates that preoperative thrombocytosis is an independent risk factor for decreased cancer-specific survival after radical treatment of invasive bladder cancer. We developed a new prognostic scoring model for cancer-specific outcomes after radical cystectomy including platelet count and established pathological risk factors. Consideration of platelet count in the final model increased its predictive accuracy significantly. Thrombocytosis may be a useful parameter to include within established international bladder cancer nomograms. •  To investigate the oncological significance of preoperative thrombocytosis in patients with invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy, as it has been reported as a marker for aggressive tumour biology in a variety of solid tumours. •  The series comprised 258 patients undergoing radical cystectomy between 1999 and 2010 in whom different clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed. •  Elevated platelet count was defined as >450 × 10(9) /L. •  Based on regression estimates of significant parameters in multivariable analysis a new weighted scoring model was developed to predict cancer-specific outcomes. •  The median follow-up was 30 months (6-116). •  Of the 258 patients, 26 (10.1%) had elevated and 232 (89.9%) had normal platelet count. The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with normal and elevated platelet count was 61.5% and 32.7%, respectively (P thrombocytosis (2.68, 1.26-5.14; P= 0.011). •  The 3-year cancer-specific survival in patients with a score 0 (low risk), 1-2 (intermediate risk) and 3

  12. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  13. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in producti

  14. Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ghane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. The study also provides several suggestions for marketers seeking to use viral marketing to position brands or to change a brand’s image, to encourage new product trials and to increase product uptake rates. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use product on virtual marketing. In addition, the study considers internal factors such as inclusion (the need to be part of a group, the need to be different and affection on viral marketing. The survey has been accomplished among 140 Iranian people, who were familiar with virtual marketing and they are selected, randomly. Using Pearson correlation as well as regression analysis, the study provides some evidences that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between some internal/external factors and virtual marketing.

  15. Investigating the influence of social desirability on personality factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, J E; Smith, D B; Sackett, P R

    2001-02-01

    This study provides a comprehensive investigation into whether social desirability alters the factor structure of personality measures. The study brought together 4 large data sets wherein different organizational samples responded to different personality measures. This facilitated conducting 4 separate yet parallel investigations. Within each data set, individuals identified through a social desirability scale as responding in an honest manner were grouped together, and individuals identified as responding in a highly socially desirable manner were grouped together. Using various analyses, the fit of higher order factor structure models was compared across the 2 groups. Results were the same for each data set. Social desirability had little influence on the higher order factor structures that characterized the relationships among the scales of the personality measures.

  16. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we developed. The…

  17. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we developed. The…

  18. Using Multilevel Factor Analysis with Clustered Data: Investigating the Factor Structure of the Positive Values Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Francis L.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in multilevel modeling techniques now make it possible to investigate the psychometric properties of instruments using clustered data. Factor models that overlook the clustering effect can lead to underestimated standard errors, incorrect parameter estimates, and model fit indices. In addition, factor structures may differ depending on…

  19. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Azad; Seyed Mohsen Seyed Aliakbar; Seyed Foad Zarifi; Somayeh Hozouri

    2013-01-01

    Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies us...

  20. Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra *

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qing; Li, Ying-Hua; Lü, Xiu-yang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra, confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course, and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method, the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisandra under different heating temperature, decocting time, soaking time, processing methods and treatment with different solvents before decocting the Schisandra were measured by RP-HPLC method. The ...

  1. Investigating the effect of different factors on profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hamidian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on profitability of shares of petrochemical industry. The study gathers the information of three firms whose stock prices were listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2012. Using different regression analysis, the study has determined that while stock price, currency rate and material influence on profitability of these firms, energy price, liquidity and gold price had no impact on profitability in petrochemical industry.

  2. Pyrometry temperature studies of shocked tin including investigations exploring surface defects, anvil diameter and the integration with emissivity diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton-Taylor, Caroline; de'Ath, James; Ota, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Accurate temperature measurement of shock-loaded systems continues to present experimental challenges. With short measurable time durations diagnostic methods are almost exclusively restricted to optical techniques. By preventing full sample pressure unloading, through the use of an anvil, partial release temperature measurements can be deduced from multiple wavelength optical pyrometry. This paper presents our recent studies of tin shocked to 28GPa including investigations exploring surface defects, anvil dimensions and the integration with emissivity diagnostics. The results indicate that a ring groove, 5mm across and with a nominal machined depth of 50 microns, acts to enhance the measured temperature by approximately 150K. Additionally on reducing the LiF anvil diameter from 20mm to 15mm, comparable partial release temperatures were observed. With the anticipated development of multiple anvil target designs, the smaller anvil diameter is desirable. British Crown Copyright 2009/MOD.

  3. Investigation of Various Essential Factors for Optimum Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    OKADA, Keiji; TAKEMURA, Kei; SATO, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated various essential factors for optimum infrared thermography for cattle clinics. The effect of various factors on the detection of surface temperature was investigated in an experimental room with a fixed ambient temperature using a square positioned on a wall. Various factors of animal objects were examined using cattle to determine the relationships among presence of hair, body surface temperature, surface temperature of the eyeball, the highest temperature of the eye circle, rectum temperature and ambient temperature. Also, the surface temperature of the flank at different time points after eating was examined. The best conditions of thermography for cattle clinics were determined and were as follows: (1) The distance between a thermal camera and an object should be fixed, and the camera should be set within a 45-degree angle with respect to the objects using the optimum focal length. (2) Factors that affect the camera temperature, such as extreme cold or heat, direct sunshine, high humidity and wind, should be avoided. (3) For the comparison of thermographs, imaging should be performed under identical conditions. If this is not achievable, hairless parts should be used. PMID:23759714

  4. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE POSSIBILITIES OF MONITORING COASTAL CHANGES INCLUDING SHALLOW UNDER WATER AREAS WITH UAS PHOTO BATHMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Grenzdörffer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available UAS become a very valuable tool for coastal morphology. Not only for mapping but also for change detection and a better understanding of processes along and across the shore. This contribution investigates the possibilities of UAS to determine the water depth in clear shallow waters by means of the so called "photo bathymetry". From the results of several test flights it became clear that three factors influence the ability and the accuracy of bathymetric sea floor measurements. Firstly, weather conditions. Sunny weather is not always good. Due to the high image resolution the sunlight gets focussed even in very small waves causing moving patterns on shallow grounds with high reflection properties, such as sand. This effect invisible under overcast weather conditions. Waves, may also introduce problems and mismatches. Secondly the quality and the accuracy of the georeferencing with SFM algorithms. As multi image key point matching will not work over water, the proposed approach will only work for projects closely to the coastline with enough control on the land. Thirdly the software used and the intensity of post processing and filtering. Refraction correction and the final interpolation of the point cloud into a DTM are the last steps. If everything is done appropriately, accuracies in the bathymetry in the range of 10 – 50 cm, depending on the water depth are possible.

  5. Investigations on the Possibilities of Monitoring Coastal Changes Including Shallow Under Water Areas with Uas Photo Bathmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenzdörffer, G. J.; Naumann, M.

    2016-06-01

    UAS become a very valuable tool for coastal morphology. Not only for mapping but also for change detection and a better understanding of processes along and across the shore. This contribution investigates the possibilities of UAS to determine the water depth in clear shallow waters by means of the so called "photo bathymetry". From the results of several test flights it became clear that three factors influence the ability and the accuracy of bathymetric sea floor measurements. Firstly, weather conditions. Sunny weather is not always good. Due to the high image resolution the sunlight gets focussed even in very small waves causing moving patterns on shallow grounds with high reflection properties, such as sand. This effect invisible under overcast weather conditions. Waves, may also introduce problems and mismatches. Secondly the quality and the accuracy of the georeferencing with SFM algorithms. As multi image key point matching will not work over water, the proposed approach will only work for projects closely to the coastline with enough control on the land. Thirdly the software used and the intensity of post processing and filtering. Refraction correction and the final interpolation of the point cloud into a DTM are the last steps. If everything is done appropriately, accuracies in the bathymetry in the range of 10 - 50 cm, depending on the water depth are possible.

  6. An empirical investigation on factors influencing sales force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In today's competitive business environment, consumers are exposed to make their choice from different alternatives. Customer loyalty has never been an easy task and many business owners may lose their customer as soon as new products appear on the market. This paper presents a study to find important factors influencing on sales force using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire and distributed among 180 customers of a well-known food chain named Shahrvand in different regions in city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 156 filled ones. The questionnaire consists of 68 questions Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.847, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of our survey indicate that five major factors including.

  7. Factors Influencing Self-Directed Career Management: An Integrative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongho

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the relationship between the protean career and other variables, including organizational learning climate, individual calling work orientation, and demographic variables. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were obtained from a sample consisting of 292 employees of two South Korean manufacturing…

  8. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.

    2014-05-01

    The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

  9. Investigating the Reliability and Factor Structure of Kalichman's "Survey 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Søren; Hofmann, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    A precondition for reducing scientific misconduct is evidence about scientists' attitudes. We need reliable survey instruments, and this study investigates the reliability of Kalichman's "Survey 2: research misconduct" questionnaire. The study is a post hoc analysis of data from three surveys among...... biomedical doctoral students in Scandinavia (2010-2015). We perform reliability analysis, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using a split-sample design as a partial validation. The results indicate that a reliable 13-item scale can be formed (Cronbach's α = .705), and factor analysis indicates...... that there are four reliable subscales each tapping a different construct: (a) general attitude to misconduct (α = .768), (b) attitude to personal misconduct (α = .784), (c) attitude to whistleblowing (α = .841), and (d) attitude to blameworthiness/punishment (α = .877). A full validation of the questionnaire...

  10. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  11. Cosmic X-ray Physics: Sounding rocket investigations of the diffuse X-ray background, including instrument development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, Dan

    We propose an investigation to improve our understanding of the Galactic diffuse X-ray background. The ultimate purpose of this is to determine the role of hot phases of the interstellar medium in mediating stellar feedback in star formation, in transport of metals, and in determining the structure and evolution of the Galaxy. It directly addresses SMD's astrophysics goal No. 2, to explore the origin and evolution of the galaxies, stars and planets that make up our universe. This work will involve a flight of an existing payload with small modifications in Woomera, South Australia, to observe the Galactic soft X-ray bulge and attempt to determine its nature and emission mechanisms. This flight should also either confirm or put strict upper limits on the "sterile neutrino" model for the 3.5 keV signal observed near the Galactic Center by XMM-Newton. Our investigation includes the development of thermal detectors with superconducting transition edge thermometers capable of 1-2 eV FWHM energy resolution in the 100-400 eV range with the intent of obtaining a scientifically useful spectrum on a sounding rocket flight of the emission from one million degree gas in this energy range. This will require a total area of 1-2 square centimeters for the detector array. To enable routine testing of such detectors in the lab and for necessary in-flight gain and resolution monitoring, we are trying to develop a pulsed-UV laser calibration source. In collaboration with Goddard Space Flight Center, we are investigating the practicality of waveguide-below-cutoff filters to provide the necessary attenuation of infrared radiation for these detectors while still allowing good x-ray transmission below 150 eV. The detectors, calibration source, filters, optimal high-rate pulse analysis and flight experience with the detector readouts are all relevant to future NASA major missions. The detectors we're working on for a low-energy sounding rocket flight would be an excellent match to what is

  12. An Investigation of Psychological Factors Inluencing Investment Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin Hue Chang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This  study  applies  a  second-order  conirmatory  factor  analysis  (CFA  approach  to investigate  psychological  factors  inluencing  individuals'  investment  decision-making.  A second-order  CFA  approach  consists  of  ive  irst-order  psychological  factors  in  terms  of mental  accounting,  regret  avoidance,  self-control,  heuristic  and  overconidence,  and  one second-order factor in terms of investment decision-making. Quantitative data was yielded by the questionnaire, and an effective sample of 752 responses was used to execute the estimation procedure.  The  results  reveal  that  there  exist  statistically  signiicant  relationships  between ive psychological factors and investment decision-making. Investors are likely to consider a product with different functions as one with different mental accounts (gains. Thus, inancial institutions  are  advised  to  provide  their  potential  customers  with  multi-function  products. Since self-control is  a  signiicant self-imposed mechanism  for  investment decision-making, inancial institutions can merchandise products that can help their customers to execute the self-imposed rules of thumb. ";} // -->activate javascript

  13. INVESTIGATING FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ LEARNING IN A TEAM TEACHING SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Team teaching factors, including mission clarity, affiliation, innovativeness, and fairness, are examined to determine how they influence student learning in a team-taught course. The study involved 184 college students enrolled in an Introduction to Computers course delivered in a team-taught format in a large university located in the United States. The collaborative teaching design followed a traditional team teaching approach with an instructor team teaching the same course collaboratively. Students enrolled in the team-taught course filled out an online survey targeted at identifying key factors that influence student-based outcomes (satisfaction and competency in the course. Results showed that instructor team mission clarity, affiliation, and fairness are significantly related to students’ satisfaction while instructor team mission clarity and fairness are significantly related to students’ competency.

  14. Investigating the effects of different factors on development of open source enterprise resources planning software packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghorbaninia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of different factors on development of open source enterprise resources planning software packages. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 210 experts in the field of open source software package development. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. Using Pearson correlation as well as stepwise regression analysis, the study determines three most important factors including fundamental issues, during and after implementation of open source software development. The study also determines a positive and strong relationship between fundamental factors and after implementation factors (r=0.9006, Sig. = 0.000.

  15. Psychological factors, including alexithymia, in the prediction of cardiovascular risk in HIV infected patients: results of a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino Parruti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological factors are known predictors of cardiovascular disease in many clinical settings, but data are lacking for HIV infection. We carried out a prospective cohort study to evaluate potential psychological predictors of preclinical and clinical vascular disease in HIV patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled. Demographics, viral and immune parameters and traditional cardiovascular predictors were considered; Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT, continuous measure and Carotid Plaques (CPs, focal thickening ≥1.5 mm were investigated by B-mode ultrasonography; depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Type D personality (Distressed Personality or Type D by the DS14, alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Vascular outcomes included transient ischemic attacks or stroke, acute coronary syndrome, myocardial or other organ infarction. We enrolled 232 HIV subjects, 73.9% males, aged 44.5±9.9 y, 38.2% with AIDS diagnosis, 18.3% untreated. Mean Nadir CD4 T-cell counts were 237.5±186.2/mmc. Of them, 224 (96.5% attended IMT measurements; 201 (86.6% attended both IMT assessment and psychological profiling. Mean follow-up was 782±308 days. Fifty-nine patients (29.4% had CPs at baseline. Nineteen patients (9.5% had ≥1 vascular event; 12 (6.0% died due to such events (n = 4 or any cause. At baseline cross-sectional multivariate analysis, increasing age, total cholesterol, current smoking and Alexithymia score≥50 were significantly associated with both increased cIMT (linear regression and CPs (logistic regression. At follow-up analysis, log-rank tests and Cox's regression revealed that only older age (p = 0.001, current smoking (p = 0.019 and alexithymia score≥50 (p = 0.013 were independently associated with vascular events. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In HIV-infected subjects, the Alexithymic trait emerges as a strong predictor of increased IMT, presence of CPs

  16. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on electronic banking for developing export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing economy needs appropriate infrastructure in different areas including electronic banking. This paper presents an empirical investigation on important factors influencing electronic banking for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 regular customers who use banking services of various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.752 and there are five factors including internet infrastructure, advanced services, usability and information design. The most important sub-criteria include building required culture, customer awareness, the role of government, internet knowledge and compatibility with internet technology.

  17. Hydrogeomorphic Classification of Wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Including Hydrologic Susceptibility Factors for Wetlands in Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classification system for wetlands greater than 0.4 hectares (ha) on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, and applied this classification using map-scale data to more than 1,200 mapped wetland units on the island. In addition, two hydrologic susceptibility factors were defined for a subset of these wetlands, using 11 variables derived from landscape-scale characteristics of the catchment areas of these wetlands. The hydrologic susceptibility factors, one related to the potential hydrologic pathways for contaminants and the other to the susceptibility of wetlands to disruptions in water supply from projected future changes in climate, were used to indicate which wetlands (greater than 1 ha) in Acadia National Park (ANP) may warrant further investigation or monitoring. The HGM classification system consists of 13 categories: Riverine-Upper Perennial, Riverine-Nonperennial, Riverine- Tidal, Depressional-Closed, Depressional-Semiclosed, Depressional-Open, Depressional-No Ground-Water Input, Mineral Soil Flat, Organic Soil Flat, Tidal Fringe, Lacustrine Fringe, Slope, and Hilltop/Upper Hillslope. A dichotomous key was developed to aid in the classification of wetlands. The National Wetland Inventory maps produced by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided the wetland mapping units used for this classification. On the basis of topographic map information and geographic information system (GIS) layers at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger, 1,202 wetland units were assigned a preliminary HGM classification. Two of the 13 HGM classes (Riverine-Tidal and Depressional-No Ground-Water Input) were not assigned to any wetlands because criteria for determining those classes are not available at that map scale, and must be determined by more site-specific information. Of the 1,202 wetland polygons classified, which cover 1,830 ha in ANP, 327 were classified as Slope, 258 were

  18. An Investigation into Factors Contributing to Iranian Secondary School English Teachers' Job Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodmand Afshar, Hassan; Doosti, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored factors contributing to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction of male and female Iranian secondary school English teachers. A Likert-scale 58-item questionnaire was developed which was completed by 210 participants. The questionnaire also included three open-ended questions which investigated participants' motivation and…

  19. Anti-dumping Investigation on the Three Chinese Products Including Motorcycle Rubber Inner Tubes by Thailand Started

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    At the beginning of this July, the Ministry of Commerce of Thailand has received three anti-dumping investigation applica- tions involved in Chinese export put forward by the relevant Thailand enterprises, respectively the anti-dumping investigation applications on the aluminum-zinc coated steel from Chinese mainland, Taiwan and Korea, the aluminum-zinc plated (coated) steel from Chinese mainland, Taiwan and Korea and motorcycle inner tubes from China,

  20. Analysis of Factors That Affects the Capital Structure within Companies Included In the Index of LQ45 During 2011 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominica Rufina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors of ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size affecting Capital Structure. The population in this study is the companies included in the Index LQ45 Indonesia Stock Exchange from the period 2011 to 2013, the data of a total of 270 listed companies in LQ45 during that period, only 90 corporate data that successively included in the index LQ45. The data used in this study uses secondary data from the Indonesia Stock Exchange website www.idx.co.id. In the process of data analysis and testing the assumptions of classical hypothesis testing using multiple linear regression analysis using SPSS v20.00. The results showed that partially variable ROA, Asset Structure, and Firm Size has a significant influence on the Capital Structure, Growth Sales whereas variable has no influence on the Capital Structure. Simultaneously ROA, Asset Structure, Sales Growth, and Firm Size effect on Capital Structure.

  1. An Investigation of Work Culture and Social Factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Ahmadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research examines work culture and social factors influencing it among employees of Islamic Azad University, the largest private organization in Iran. First, it has been tried to determine a rate for work culture and then relationships between work culture and participatory management, organizational justice, job satisfaction, and demographic variables have been examined. Research method is cross-sectional survey; research population is all personnel of the Islamic Azad Universities in three provinces: Fars, Boushehr and Kohkiloye-Boyerahmad. Overall, 481 subjects were selected by means of simple random sampling. Measurement tool is questionnaire, which includes four scales. Construct validity was obtained through factor analysis; Reliability test was also performed by means of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Research findings indicate that work culture is on average among subjects. Also, there are significant relationships between work culture and participatory management, organizational justice, job satisfaction, age and years of employment. Using regression analysis, it appears that of all independent variables, job satisfaction and years of employment are strongest predictors of work culture. Taken together, they explain 18% of the variance of work culture.

  2. In-suit investigation of DC characteristics degradation in SiGe HBT included by halogen lamp irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yabin; Fu, Jun; Wang, Yudong; Zhou, Wei; Li, Xiaojin; Shi, Yanling

    2016-10-01

    In present work, the direct current (DC) characteristics degradation of SiGe HBT under halogen lamp radiation were systematically investigated. Characteristics such as forward Gummel, reverse Gummel, junction leakage current, neutral base recombination and avalanche multiplication were measured in-suit and used to quantify the irradiation tolerance. A considerable increase in collector current and substrate current were found when the transistors were exposed to irradiation. The radiation-generated electron-hole pairs in space charge region of reversed collector-substrate junction are strongly responded. Because of the additional irradiation-induce excess carriers in neutral base region and space charge region of reversed base-collector junction, the neutral base recombination and avalanche multiplication increase for the irradiated transistors. The underlying physical mechanisms are analyzed and investigated in detail.

  3. A comprehensive investigation on iron cycling in a freshwater seep including microscopy, cultivation and molecular community analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anne-Mette; Finster, Kai; Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur Pall

    2010-01-01

    Iron reduction and oxidation, as well as the microbial community involved in these processes, were investigated in a small pond that is continuously fed by slightly acidic, hypoxic, iron rich ground water. The seep area is located in a beech forest in central Jutland (Denmark), and beech litter...... is the dominant source of organic matter, carbon and energy for the microbial community. The pond is 30 to 50 cm deep with a water column depth ranging from 15 to 20 cm. Oxygen could only be detected down to 7 cm depth of the water column. Fe(II) concentrations increased with depth from about 30 μM close...

  4. Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qing; LI Ying-hua; L(U) Xiu-yang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra,confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course,and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method,the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisandra under different heating temperature,decocting time,soaking time,processing methods and treatment with different solvents before decocting the Schisandra were measured by RP-HPLC method.The results showed that there is great difference of 5-HMF level in decoctions from differently processed Schisandra and unprocessed Schisandra;decocting time of 60 min has some effects on 5-HMF level in decoctions and there is certain quantity 5-HMF in processed Schisandra itself and very little 5-HMF in unprocessed Schisandra.Heating time,heating temperature and treating solvents all have effect on 5-HMF level in decoction of Schisandra.5-HMF in Schisandra was mainly from processing course.Both long heating time and high heating temperature can increase 5-HMF level in Schisandra.The production of 5-HMF in Schisandra may have some relationships with some polar components,which can dissolve in water,ethanol and acetone,especially in ethanol.To control processing temperature,processing time and treatment with some solvent is very important for controlling 5-HMF level in Schisandra.

  5. Infant siblings and the investigation of autism risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newschaffer Craig J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infant sibling studies have been at the vanguard of autism spectrum disorders (ASD research over the past decade, providing important new knowledge about the earliest emerging signs of ASD and expanding our understanding of the developmental course of this complex disorder. Studies focused on siblings of children with ASD also have unrealized potential for contributing to ASD etiologic research. Moving targeted time of enrollment back from infancy toward conception creates tremendous opportunities for optimally studying risk factors and risk biomarkers during the pre-, peri- and neonatal periods. By doing so, a traditional sibling study, which already incorporates close developmental follow-up of at-risk infants through the third year of life, is essentially reconfigured as an enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study. This review considers the enriched-risk pregnancy cohort approach of studying infant siblings in the context of current thinking on ASD etiologic mechanisms. It then discusses the key features of this approach and provides a description of the design and implementation strategy of one major ASD enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study: the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI.

  6. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on insurance issued by export guarantee funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on insurance issued by export guarantee funds. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire in Likert scale. The study has determined four factors including risk management, customer oriented, quality management and trade management. The first factor is associated with risk management and it includes four sub-factors. The factors include being responsive, reliability, service quality and customer detection and reliability plays the most important factor. The second factor is associated with being customer oriented where the factor includes four components including cost recognition, access, marketing knowledge and the level of management training. The third factor is associated with quality management, which includes four variables including responsiveness, reliability, quality of services and customer recognition. Finally, the last factor is associated with trade management, which includes three variables including trade risk, insurance premium and currency.

  7. Car Sales: Investigation into Factors Determining Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelija Samoškienė

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines customer behaviour in general and discusses factors determining customer behaviour in car industry. The paper describes a concept of consumer behaviour and the importance of factors influencing the situation. Empirical study about factors determining car industry in consumer-made decisions is carried out. In addition, statistical factor analysis is performed. The key sets of factors helping the user with choosing a new car are iden­tified and analysed at the level of the groups of factors (factor. The conducted analysis shows that car price, ergonomics, image, dynamic and user-friendliness as well as environmental groups are the main points that assist in buying a new car.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Investigating different factors influencing on return of private banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Motamedi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Return of Investment has always been an interesting area of research among academics as well as investors. Although capital asset pricing model (CAPM is capable of estimating risk of investment, many people argue that CAPM is not able to predict long-term return, properly. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effects of different financial figures including systematic risk (Beta, size of firm, ratio of book value to market share, volume of trade and the ratio of price/earnings (P/E on return of private banks in Iran. The study gathers the necessary information over the period 2005-2011 from private banks in Iran. The study uses multiple regression technique to find the effects of mentioned variables on return of private banks. The results indicate that there are some meaningful and positive relationship between return of banks and systematic risk (Beta, size, volume of trade and P/E. The study also finds some meaningful and reverse relationship between bank return and book value on market value.

  9. Factors influencing post-traumatic stress in Korean forensic science investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang-Sook; Cho, Ok-Hee; Cha, Kyeong-Sook; Boo, Yun-Jeong

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to understand factors that influence post-traumatic stress (PTS) in Korean forensic science investigators. A total of 111 forensic science investigators were recruited in Korea. PTS was measured using the tool modified by Choi (2001) from the original developed by Foa, Riggs, Dancu, and Rothbaum (1993) based on DSM-IV. Factors influencing PTS included demographic and job-related characteristics, emotional intelligence, and death anxiety. PTS scores were positively correlated with personality type, fatigue from work, and death anxiety. PTS scores were negatively correlated with length of career as a forensic science investigator and emotional intelligence. The factors that had the greatest influence on PTS were death anxiety, years spent as a forensic science investigator, personality type, emotional intelligence, fatigue, and homicide experience. The explanatory power of these six factors was 44.0%. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly evaluate the mental health of those who are vulnerable to PTS. Based on these results, various interventions could be implemented for promoting overall health of the forensic science investigators. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. [A STUDY INVESTIGATING THE FACTORS OF INTERNET ADDICTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puharić, Zrinka; Stašević, Ina; Ropac, Darko; Petričević, Nina; Jurišić, Irena

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the characteristics of Internet use among elementary school eighth-graders in the Bjelo- var-Bilogora County, to evaluate gender and sociodemographic differences, and to examine predictors for Internet addiction. The study included 437 (female 51%) eighth-graders, mean age 13.8 ± 0.5 years. An anonymous questionnaire was used to measure the participants' Internet use, the functions for which they used Internet, their parents' attitude towards the child's Internet use, and their signs of Internet addiction. Logistic regression was conducted to evaluate predictors for Internet addiction. The majority of children (71.5%) reported using Internet every day. Considering important risk factors of Internet addiction development, we found that 32% of children almost always stayed on-line longer than intended, 13% of boys and 4% of girls almost always neglected chores to spend more time on-line and 51.7% of children thought their life would be boring and uninteresting without the Internet. There was no significant difference between urban and rural students. In terms of the function for which they used the Internet, they were mostly engaged in on-line community/chat websites (70%), to listen to music and watch movies (81 %), and boys in gaming websites. Most of the students (43.4%) spent 1-2 hours daily on-line, 26.2% of students spent 3-4 hours on-line, and 9% spent more than 5 hours daily on-line. In conclusion, more public health preventive measures should be conducted to raise public awareness and concern about the negative effect of Internet use and Internet addiction, especially in the young population.

  11. A patient with refractory shock induced by several factors, including obstruction because of a posterior mediastinal hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Mariko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Osaka, Hiromichi; Mishima, Kentaro; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Yanagawa, Youichi

    2015-06-01

    A 44-year-old man who drove a motorcycle experienced a collision with the side of another motorcycle. Because he had sustained a high-energy injury to the spinal cord, he was transferred to our hospital. His circulation was unstable, and received tracheal intubation in addition to thoracostomy for the hemothorax. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple fractures, right hemopneumothorax with pulmonary contusion, and minor liver injury. After infusing 5000 mL of lactated Ringer's solution and 10 units of blood, his circulation remained unstable. On a repeat CT examination, the left atrium was found to be compressed by a posterior mediastinal hematoma induced by the fracture of the thoracic spine, and a diagnosis of shock induced by multiple factors, including hemorrhagic, neurogenic, and obstructive mechanisms, was made. After obtaining stable circulation and respirations, internal fixation of the extremities and extubation were performed on the 12th hospital day. Chest CT performed on the 27th day showed the disappearance of compression of the left atrium by the hematoma.

  12. An Investigation of Social Factors Affecting on Personnel Job Satisfaction of Remedial Service Insurance Department

    OpenAIRE

    Sayyed Yaser Ebrahimian Jolodar

    2012-01-01

    Because of the paramount importance of job satisfaction and due to its main consequences such as reduction of work absence and resignation, personnel promotion and society‟s health, and more importantly, its role in achievement of organization goals, this study aimed at investigating the effects of six social factors including personnel‟s belief, salary and benefits, participation in organizational decision-making, sense of job security, interaction with colleagues and meeting the basic needs...

  13. Investigation for the quality factors on the tablets containing medicated pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Tan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustained and controlled pellets are considered as one of the ideal dosage forms. Due to the large coverage area of pellets, loaded drugs can be absorbed completely in the body and bioavailability is improved correspondingly. Coated pellets-containing tablet is a special oral formulation consisting of various pellets with different release rate. Desired rate of drug release rate can be achieved by adjusting the proportion of pellets. However, this formulation faces strict requirements in the process of preparation. Several factors will influence release behavior of tablets, including pellet cores, coating, and tabletting. Therefore, these factors will be investigated sufficiently in this review to provide valuable information for manufacturing process.

  14. An exploratory investigation into the role of extrinsic factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seugnet

    extrinsic factors in consumer decision-making for interior soft ... buy, in a passive manner, what retailers have to offer. Instead, they .... one's self-concept: the consumption of interior prod- .... important influencing variable in consumer decision-.

  15. Clinical investigation of risk factors in ectopic pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-yun HU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To discuss the relative and independent risk factors in ectopic pregnancy. Methods  The clinical data of 870 patients with ectopic pregnancy, admitted from 2005 to 2012, were retrospectively analyzed, with 800 cases of normal pregnancy serving as control. Monofactorial correlation analysis was used to analyze the related risk factor, and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the independent risk factor. Results  Pelvic adhesion, previous operation, cesarean section delivery, number of pregnancy, artificial abortion, medical abortion, in vitrofertilization and embryo replacement (IVF-ER, and placement of intrauterine device (IUD are the risk factors of ectopic pregnancy, pelvic adhesion, artificial abortion, operation, number of pregnancies and IUD are the independent risk factors, and pelvic adhesion is the major risk factor. Conclusion  Avoidance of unexpected pregnancy as possible, reduction of the number of artificial abortion, prevention and treatment of genital duct inflammation, and standardization of pelvic operation may reduce the incidence of ectopic pregnancy.

  16. Investigation of Factors Affecting Microdialysis Probe Delivery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African. Index Medicus ... Microdialysis is a dynamic technique for .... Solubility in the third .... Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Investigate Regional.

  17. Investigating Factors Affecting Group Processes in Virtual Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Sunil; Thompson, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread popularity of distance learning, there is a need to investigate elements of online courses that continue to pose significant challenges for educators. One of the challenges relates to creating and managing group projects. This study investigated business students' perceptions of group work in online classes. The constructs of…

  18. Improving risk assessment in schizophrenia: epidemiological investigation of criminal history factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Katrina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena

    2015-05-01

    Violence risk assessment in schizophrenia relies heavily on criminal history factors. To investigate which criminal history factors are most strongly associated with violent crime in schizophrenia. A total of 13 806 individuals (8891 men and 4915 women) with two or more hospital admissions for schizophrenia were followed up for violent convictions. Multivariate hazard ratios for 15 criminal history factors included in different risk assessment tools were calculated. The incremental predictive validity of these factors was estimated using tests of discrimination, calibration and reclassification. Over a mean follow-up of 12.0 years, 17.3% of men (n = 1535) and 5.7% of women (n = 281) were convicted of a violent offence. Criminal history factors most strongly associated with subsequent violence for both men and women were a previous conviction for a violent offence; for assault, illegal threats and/or intimidation; and imprisonment. However, only a previous conviction for a violent offence was associated with incremental predictive validity in both genders following adjustment for young age and comorbid substance use disorder. Clinical and actuarial approaches to assess violence risk can be improved if included risk factors are tested using multiple measures of performance. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  19. Investigating the factors affecting knowledge management application in new ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Shahidifar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is extensively used in large, medium and small firms. However, the larger the scale, the more knowledge management practices might be used in organizations. Unfortunately, application of knowledge management in new ventures is not sufficiently discussed in the extant literature. Thus this paper attempts to concentrate on this issue. Therefore, environmental, organizational and individual factors are enumerated and their effect on application of knowledge management in new ventures is examined. Findings revealed that all these factors significantly affect knowledge management application is new ventures.

  20. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Gas Law Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.; Tang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate students were asked to complete gas law questions using a Web-based tool as a first step in our understanding of the role of cognitive load in chemistry word questions and in helping us assess student problem-solving. Each question contained five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by the tool so that a…

  1. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  2. Investigation of high duty factor ISR RFQ-1000

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Y R; Fang, J X; Gao, S L; Guo, J F; Guo, Z Y; Li, D S; Li, W G; Pan, O J; Ren, X T; Wu, Y; Yan, X Q; Yu Jin Xiang; Yu, M L; Ratzinger, U; Deitinghoff, H; Klein, H; Schempp, A

    2003-01-01

    Two Integral Split Ring (ISR) RFQs with high duty factor of 16.7% have been designed for the application of heavy ion implantation and built in the past several years at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics (IHIP) in Peking University. Two kinds of PIG ion sources with permanent magnets and LEBT were installed and optimized for the injection into these two RFQs. The positive O**+ and negative O**- ions were extracted and accelerated separately as well as simultaneously. The output macro pulse O**- beam current reached 660muA at a transmission efficiency of more than 82%. The N**+ beam was also accelerated with similar transmission efficiency, but the output current intensity for positive ions were lower than the negative ions because of the extracted current limitation of ion sources. The improvements, especially for high duty factor and experimental results with the 1MeV ISR RFQ will be presented in this paper.

  3. Theoretical Investigation on Skin Effect Factor of Conductor in Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kanaoka, Mamoru

    This paper describes a newly-derived theoretical equation on the skin effect factor of power cables, and its application to large-size OF and XLPE cables with segmental conductors, including insulated wires. The skin effect factors calculated with the new equation were fit very well to measurements in wide range conductor sizes. In the new equation, the important factor which characterizes the skin effect of segmental conductors is the `equivalent conductivity ratio' ν defined by the ratio of longitudinal conductivity in axial direction of conductor to conductivity of conductor wires. Since the obtained ratio ν in XLPE cable was three times greater than that in OF cable, the larger longitudinal eddy current passing from a wire to another increased the eddy current loss in conductor, which increased the conductor loss of XLPE cable. The new equation enables us to investigate quantitatively the dominant loss component affecting the skin effect factor. Then, the skin effect factors and coefficients for OF and XLPE cables were investigated with the new equation. It was revealed that the best number of separation, in which the skin effect became minimum, existed in OF and XLPE cables with segmental conductors. In addition, it was confirmed that the skin effect coefficients ks1 calculated with the new equation were consistent well with those used in JCS.

  4. Critical Success Factors for Malaysian Construction Projects: An Investigative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Cheong Yong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects play an important role in the advancement of a nation through infrastructure development that leads to economic growth. They are planned carefully to accomplish certain goals. However, not all the projects achieved the goals as per planned. Many factors contribute to the successes and failures, and it becomes an interesting arena for research. The primary objective of this paper is to outline the development trend of project success measurement globally and locally. The research method employed was to make selected reviews on critical success factors' (CSFs literature and to compare international standards and progress in incorporating human behavioural aspects of project management to the situation in Malaysia. A somewhat similar pattern can be observed in Malaysia where the studies have departed from the usual criteria of time, cost and quality, to define project success in a more holistic way. However, the domestic industry has failed to respond to the emerging trend globally as there has yet been any widely published research on the importance of human-related factors towards project success. A consolidated framework of CSFs has therefore, been proposed in responding to the findings. This paper fulfils an identified need as there has been a dearth of research on the subject matter locally.

  5. INVESTIGATING THE FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE BLOG ATTITUDE SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra SHAHSAVAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the wide application of advanced technology in education, many attitude scales have been developed to evaluate learners’ attitudes toward educational tools. However, with the rapid development of emerging technologies, using blogs as one of the Web 2.0 tools is still in its infancy and few blog attitude scales have been developed yet. In view of this need, a lot of researchers like to design a new scale based on their conceptual and theoretical framework of their own study rather than using available scales. The present study reports the design and development of a blog attitude scale (BAS. The researchers developed a pool of items to capture the complexity of the blog attitude trait, selected 29 items in the content analysis, and assigned the scale comprising 29 items to 216 undergraduate students to explore the underlying structure of the BAS. In exploratory factor analysis, three factors were discovered: blog anxiety, blog desirability, and blog self-efficacy; 14 items were excluded. The extracted items were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis which lent further support to the BAS underpinning structure.

  6. Investigating the Effective Factors on Entering into International Markets by Presenting the Local Islamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mohammad Ali Alamolhodaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of small and medium size businesses is regarded as one of the most leading general policies in many of the world’s countries. The reason is that it is often the small and medium size companies which have a vital role in industrial innovation and gain profit for their societies through economic development. This research has investigated and identified the effective factors (organizational factors and business etiquette in Islam on entering into international markets by presenting local Islamic model in the companies of incubator of Science and Technology Park. The statistical population of the research includes the existing companies of Incubator of Mashhad Science and Technology Park. The statistical sample was investigated through simple random sampling from managers of active companies in export in Science and Technology Park. AMOS and SPSS software were applied for data analysis to identify the effects among variables survey research methodology and questionnaire tools were used.

  7. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on work stress: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Davoudzadeh Moghaddam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An individual with a career faced with various career challenges may experience work-related stress. Work related stress is a factor that threatens employees’ health. The most common negative consequences of stress are particularly the deterioration of performance and efficiency, decrease in productivity and quality of customer’s services, which results in health problems. Work-related stress is a global issue, and banks are no exception. This paper presents a survey to investigate the influencing factors on work stress in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 randomly selected bank department managers in city of Tehran, Iran. Using principle component analysis, the study has detected five factors including organizational characteristics, external environment, work content, personal characteristics and top management.

  8. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-06-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

  9. Investigating risk and protective factors to mainstream safety and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activities Theory (RAT) to further explain crime, criminal victimisation and other intentional injuries. ... including mass shootings, sexual assault, stalking, hazing, racial- and .... example, the Potchefstroom College of Agriculture reported various critical fire ... and visible live wires from missing electrical covers (Jackson, 2010).

  10. An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Houshmand Neghabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials. We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique study different hypotheses. All t-student values are statistically meaningful when the level of significance is ten percent and some of the parameters are even meaningful when the level of significance is five percent. The results indicate that the rate of bank deposit is negatively associated with commodity market growth rate (-.001995, US dollar exchange rate (-0.004167, banking industry growth rate (-0.278826 and moving average (-0.940418. In addition, dependent variable is positively associated with Euro exchange growth rate (0.005676.

  11. Investigating important factors influencing on strategic marketing planning

    OpenAIRE

    Davood Salmani; Mohammad Reza Daraei; Ali Bayazdi

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important methods for building good marketing strategy is to learn more about existing competitors, suppliers, etc. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between wholesalers, bargaining pricing, new rivals and pricing strategy on preparing appropriate marketing strategy in meat market in city of shiraz, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 200 experts in this market. Cronbach alpha has been...

  12. A STUDY OF CHINESE YUAN (RMB APPRECIATION ACCOMPANYING WITH OTHERS FACTORS INCLUDING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI AND THEIR EFFECT ON CHINA ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-fu (Brian LAI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Yuan (RMB has been on the trend of appreciation over the last decade, and such a trend will likely be continuing for some years over the next decade. According to some scholars in their published literatures, the appreciation of RMB, the influx of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI has been ongoing accompanying the sustained growing economy in mainland China over the past decade. It is believed that the China economy has an implication from some significant factors including appreciation of RMB, interest rate of RMB, inflation and continuous increase of FDI for the next several years. The present study aims to provide an emphasis on investigation into effect on China economy as a result of appreciation of RMB and FDI together with some other factors, and to provide an outlook on the economy in China for the coming decades. First, a review was carried on relevant background information and development history of RMB and FDI. There are many reasons and factors behind leading to the sustained growth in the economy in China in the last decade and such effects were in coverage in the literature review. An overview of the development of RMB exchange mechanism, and other variables including (1 RMB exchange rate, (2 China interest rate, (3 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, (4 Trade Balance of China, (5 Annual Inflation rate in China, (6 Energy Consumption in China, (7 Foreign Exchange Reserve in China, (8 China wages, (9 China External Debt and (10 China Consumer Price Index, which may have effect on the growth of the economy in China is covered in the literature review conducted in Chapter 2.

  13. Deduction of bond length changes of symmetric molecules from experimental vibrational progressions, including a topological mass factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Wei, Fan; Schwarz, W H E; Li, Jun

    2012-12-20

    The change ΔR(x) of bond length R(x) for atom X in a molecule upon electronic transition can be derived from the intensities I(i) of the vibrational stretching progression v = 0 → i of the electronic absorption or emission spectrum. In many cases, a simple model is sufficient for a reasonable estimate of ΔR(x). For symmetric molecules, however, conceptual problems in the literature of many decades are evident. The breathing modes of various types of symmetric molecules X(n) and AX(n) (A at the center) are here discussed. In the simplest case of a harmonic vibration of the same mode in the initial and final electronic states, we obtain ΔR(x) ≈ [2S/(ωm(x))](1/2)/w(1/2) (all quantities in atomic units). ω and S are respectively the observed vibrational quanta and the Huang-Rhys factor (corresponding, e.g., to the vibrational intensity ratio I(1)/I(0) ≈ S), m(x) is the mass of vibrating atom X, and w is a topological factor for molecule X(n) or AX(n). The factor 1/w(1/2) in the expression for ΔR(x) must not be neglected. The spectra and bond length changes of several symmetric molecules AX(n) and X(n) are discussed. The experimental bond length changes correctly derived with factor 1/w(1/2) are verified by reliable quantum chemical calculations.

  14. Catchment process affecting drinking water quality, including the significance of rainfall events, using factor analysis and event mean concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, Kathy; Jayasuriya, Niranjali

    2010-12-01

    To ensure the protection of drinking water an understanding of the catchment processes which can affect water quality is important as it enables targeted catchment management actions to be implemented. In this study factor analysis (FA) and comparing event mean concentrations (EMCs) with baseline values were techniques used to asses the relationships between water quality parameters and linking those parameters to processes within an agricultural drinking water catchment. FA found that 55% of the variance in the water quality data could be explained by the first factor, which was dominated by parameters usually associated with erosion. Inclusion of pathogenic indicators in an additional FA showed that Enterococcus and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) were also related to the erosion factor. Analysis of the EMCs found that most parameters were significantly higher during periods of rainfall runoff. This study shows that the most dominant processes in an agricultural catchment are surface runoff and erosion. It also shows that it is these processes which mobilise pathogenic indicators and are therefore most likely to influence the transport of pathogens. Catchment management efforts need to focus on reducing the effect of these processes on water quality.

  15. Investigation of Framingham Risk Factors in Turkish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Şanlı Ökmen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine 10-year risk for development of cardiovascular diseases usingFramingham risk scoring as a tool for the estimationof coronary risk and renew the blood lipid levels.Materials and methods: Samples from fasting 3169healthy donors declaring as having no cardiovasculardisease and diabetes (1800 women, mean age 46.8±9.2years and 1369 men, mean age 46.03±8.4 years weretested and scored according to risk factors in both genders.Results: When average values were considered, totalcholesterol level was higher (204±42 mg/dL accordingto reactive insert reference values. High total kolesteroland low HDL-C levels were seen in 20% and 19.5% ofmen and 32.6% and 1.1% of women, respectively. Thenumber of participants having systolic blood pressure≥130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85 mmHgwere 775 (24.5% and the distribution of those valueswas 10.6 % in men and 13.9% in women. The mean 10-year cardiovascular disease risks were 9.4 % in men and4.6% in women among 3169 participants.Conclusion: A 10-year risk of coronary disease, in Turkishmales was 2-fold higher than in Turkish females. Useof Framingham study in clinical assessments maintains tobe a valid method in preventive approaches for developmentof cardiovascular diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(1: 42-49

  16. Investigation of risk factors and characteristics of dance injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoy, Fernanda Assen Soares; Coelho, Lara Raquel de Oliveira; Bastos, Fabio Nascimento; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for the occurrence of sport injuries in dancers related to anthropometric variables, training, and specific dance characteristics. One-year, retrospective, cross-sectional study. 26th Dance Festival of Joinville (Brazil), 2008. Five hundred dancers (409 women and 91 men) with a mean age of 18.26 ± 4.55 years. Dancers participating in the 26th Dance Festival of Joinville (Brazil) were interviewed using the Reported Condition Inquiry, which was previously validated and modified for dance. This questionnaire contains questions addressing the anthropometric data of the volunteers and characteristics of injuries that occurred in the past 12 months. The data were collected through interviews addressing the occurrence of injuries and respective characteristics. Injury was considered any pain or musculoskeletal condition resulting from training and competition sufficient to alter the normal training routine in terms of form, duration, intensity, or frequency. A total of 377 injuries (75.40%) of the interviewees reported injuries in the past 12 months. The most affected anatomic segments were the ankle/foot (92 injuries; 28.75%) and thigh/leg (88 injuries; 27.50%) in classical ballet, the thigh/leg (43 injuries; 27.92%) in jazz/contemporary dance, and the knee (22 injuries; 43.14%) in tap/folk dance. The most reported causal mechanisms were dynamic overload and excessive use. Age and body weight were associated with injury in jazz/contemporary dance. Height was associated with injury in classical ballet and tap/folk dance. Duration of practice was associated with injury in classical ballet and jazz/contemporary dance.

  17. Investigation on influence factors of dual laterologs curve form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomin FAN; Lei LU

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the influences of caliper, formation thickness and invaded zone on the form of dual laterologs, forward modeling technique were applied to calculate the dual laterologs for different cases. The result shows that the resistivity logs become smoother and lower as the borehole diameter increases, the increase of the contrast between mud resistivity and formation resistivity induce the logs to be more pointed. When the formation thickness is less than 1m, the two-peak on the logs for resistive invasion vanished, and for thickness between 1 m and 4 m, the form of logs does not vary significantly. If the formation thickness is greater than 4 m, a platform appears on the logs at the middle of the formation. The thinner the invaded zone is, the more obvious the invasion feature on the laterologs is. For thick invaded zone the form of logs tend to be that of an uninvaded resistive formation. The form and amplitude of logs depend on the resistivity contrast between invaded zone, uninvaded formation and adjacentlayers.

  18. Postnatal visual deprivation in rats regulates several retinal genes and proteins, including differentiation-associated fibroblast growth factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch-Willing, Verena; Meyer zu Hoerste, Melissa; Mertsch, Sonja; Stupp, Tobias; Thanos, Solon

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the retinal cellular basis of amblyopia, which is a developmental disease characterized by impaired visual acuity. This study examined the retinal transcripts associated with experimentally induced unilateral amblyopia in rats. Surgical tarsorrhaphy of the eyelids on one side was performed in pups prior to eye opening at postnatal day 14, thereby preventing any visual experience. This condition was maintained for over 2 months, after which electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded, the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) arrangement and number were determined using neuroanatomical tracing, the retinal transcripts were studied using microarray analysis, regulated mRNAs were confirmed with quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, and proteins were stained using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. An attenuated ERG was found in eyes that were deprived of visual experience. Retrograde neuroanatomical staining disclosed a larger number of RGCs within the retina on the visually deprived side compared to the non-deprived, control side, and a multilayered distribution of RGCs. At the retinomic level, several transcripts associated with retinal differentiation, such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), were either up- or downregulated. Most of the transcripts could be verified at the mRNA level. To unravel the role of a differentiation-associated protein, we tested FGF-2 in dissociated postnatal retinal cell cultures and found that FGF-2 is a potent factor triggering ganglion cell differentiation. The data suggest that visual experience shapes the postnatal retinal differentiation, whereas visual deprivation induces changes at the functional, cellular and molecular levels within the retina.

  19. Generating induced pluripotent stem cells from common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) fetal liver cells using defined factors, including Lin28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Ikuo; Maeda, Takuji; Shimada, Hiroko; Kawai, Kenji; Okada, Yohei; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Oiwa, Ryo; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Aoki, Mikio; Kimura, Toru; Shiozawa, Seiji; Shinohara, Haruka; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    Although embryonic stem (ES) cell-like induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have potential therapeutic applications in humans, they are also useful for creating genetically modified human disease models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we generated common marmoset iPS cells from fetal liver cells via the retrovirus-mediated introduction of six human transcription factors: Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28. Four to five weeks after introduction, several colonies resembling marmoset ES cells were observed and picked for further expansion in ES cell medium. Eight cell lines were established, and validation analyses of the marmoset iPS cells followed. We detected the expression of ES cell-specific surface markers. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that these iPS cells expressed endogenous Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28 genes, whereas all of the transgenes were silenced. Karyotype analysis showed that two of three iPS cell lines retained a normal karyotype after a 2-month culture. Both embryoid body and teratoma formation showed that marmoset iPS cells had the developmental potential to give rise to differentiated derivatives of all three primary germ layers. In summary, we generated marmoset iPS cells via the transduction of six transcription factors; this provides a powerful preclinical model for studies in regenerative medicine.

  20. Broadening the etiological discourse on Alzheimer's disease to include trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder as psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Burnette, Denise

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical perspectives have long dominated research on the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD); yet these approaches do not solely explain observed variations in individual AD trajectories. More robust biopsychosocial models regard the course of AD as a dialectical interplay of neuropathological and psychosocial influences. Drawing on this broader conceptualization, we conducted an extensive review of empirical and theoretical literature on the associations of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and AD to develop a working model that conceptualizes the role of psychosocial stressors and physiological mechanisms in the onset and course of AD. The proposed model suggests two pathways. In the first, previous life trauma acts as a risk factor for later-life onset of AD, either directly or mediated by PTSD or PTSD correlates. In the second, de novo AD experiential trauma is associated with accelerated cognitive decline, either directly or mediated through PTSD or PTSD correlates. Evidence synthesized in this paper indicates that previous life trauma and PTSD are strong candidates as psychosocial risk factors for AD and warrant further empirical scrutiny. Psychosocial and neurological-based intervention implications are discussed. A biopsychosocial approach has the capacity to enhance understanding of individual AD trajectories, moving the field toward 'person-centered' models of care.

  1. An empirical investigation on factors influencing customer selection of ADSL services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical investigation on various factors affecting ADSL service selection in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed model of this paper uses a standard questionnaire and distributes it among randomly selected customers who have some experiences on internet based ADSL products. The study implements factor analysis as well as weighted regression technique to perform the study. There are eight hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper, which indicates the effects of product marketing, place and time of marketing mix, process-marketing mix, productivity and quality of marketing mix, people, promotion and education and physical evidence on customer choice. The results of factor analysis have confirmed the impacts of the first four factors but the effects of the other factor were not confirmed. In other words, the results of the survey have indicated that product marketing, place and time of marketing mix, process-marketing mix and productivity and quality of marketing mix influence customer choice. However, the other four components including people, promotion, price and physical evidence do not play essential role on customer choice.

  2. Gray cases of child abuse: Investigating factors associated with uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyachati, Barbara H; Asnes, Andrea G; Moles, Rebecca L; Schaeffer, Paula; Leventhal, John M

    2016-01-01

    Research in child abuse pediatrics has advanced clinicians' abilities to discriminate abusive from accidental injuries. Less attention, however, has been paid to cases with uncertain diagnoses. These uncertain cases - the "gray" cases between decisions of abuse and not abuse - represent a meaningful challenge in the practice of child abuse pediatricians. In this study, we describe a series of gray cases, representing 17% of 134 consecutive children who were hospitalized at a single pediatric hospital and referred to a child abuse pediatrician for concerns of possible abuse. Gray cases were defined by scores of 3, 4, or 5 on a 7-point clinical judgment scale of the likelihood of abuse. We evaluated details of the case presentation, including incident history, patient medical and developmental histories, family social histories, medical studies, and injuries from the medical record and sought to identify unique and shared characteristics compared with abuse and accidental cases. Overall, the gray cases had incident histories that were ambiguous, medical and social histories that were more similar to abuse cases, and injuries that were similar to accidental injuries. Thus, the lack of clarity in these cases was not attributable to any single element of the incident, history, or injury. Gray cases represent a clinical challenge in child abuse pediatrics and deserve continued attention in research.

  3. Complex analysis of Askaryan radiation: A fully analytic treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jordan C.; Connolly, Amy L.

    2017-05-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from high-energy cascades in dense media with a collective charge. We present an analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the cascade, and quantum mechanical cascade elongation via the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect. These calculations, and the associated open-source code, allow the user to avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo cascade simulations. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan-based detectors benefit from computational speed, because scans of Askaryan parameter-space are required to match neutrino signals. The Askaryan field is derived from cascade equations verified with Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, instructive cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for correlations with event candidates.

  4. Complex Analysis of Askaryan Radiation: A Fully Analytic Treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Jordan C

    2016-01-01

    The Askaryan effect describes coherent electromagnetic radiation from the collective charge within high-energy cascades in dense media. We present the first fully analytic model of Askaryan radiation that accounts simultaneously for the three-dimensional form factor of the electromagnetic cascade and the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect. Analytic calculations avoid computationally intensive Monte Carlo simulations of the cascades. Searches for cosmogenic neutrinos in Askaryan- based detectors benefit from computational speed, because neutrino event parameters affect the shape of the electromagnetic field, requiring scans of parameter space. The Askaryan field is derived and verified against Geant4 simulations, and compared with prior numerical and semi-analytic calculations. Finally, two special cases of the model are transformed from the Fourier domain to the time-domain, analytically. Next-generation in situ detectors like ARA and ARIANNA can use analytic time-domain signal models to search for phase ...

  5. An Investigation of Social Factors Affecting on Personnel Job Satisfaction of Remedial Service Insurance Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Yaser Ebrahimian Jolodar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the paramount importance of job satisfaction and due to its main consequences such as reduction of work absence and resignation, personnel promotion and society‟s health, and more importantly, its role in achievement of organization goals, this study aimed at investigating the effects of six social factors including personnel‟s belief, salary and benefits, participation in organizational decision-making, sense of job security, interaction with colleagues and meeting the basic needs of personnel on job satisfaction. The statistical population of this study was the personnel of Remedial Service Insurance Department in Sari and the questionnaire was distributed among them. The results showed that there is a significant and positive correlation among all these factors and they have meaningful effects on personnel job satisfaction based on multiple regression analysis. Furthermore, findings revealed that personnel‟s belief about their job has the most effects on job satisfaction.

  6. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background

  7. Spatial Dependence and Heterogeneity in Bayesian Factor Analysis : A Cross-National Investigation of Schwartz Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stakhovych, Stanislav; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Wedel, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a Bayesian spatial factor analysis model. We extend previous work on confirmatory factor analysis by including geographically distributed latent variables and accounting for heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation. The simulation study shows excellent recovery of the

  8. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pyoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  9. An investigation on important factors influencing on forecasted earnings adjustment: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Babakhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing earning adjustment on firms selected on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2011. There are four independent variables associated with the proposed study of this paper including Proportion of shares owned by institutional investors, Return on assets, Profit change and Market value to book value. In addition, Investment restructuring is considered as control variable. The results of the implementation of regression analysis indicate that there was a reverse relationship between earning forecasted adjustment and two independent variables including size of firm as well as the ratio of market value to book value. However, Net profit has a direct and positive relationship with earning forecast adjustment.

  10. Lifestyle modification induced weight loss and changes of cardiometabolic risk factors including lowering of inflammatory response in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motykova, Eva; Zlatohlavek, Lukáš; Prusikova, Martina; Lanska, Vera; Ceska, Richard; Vasickova, Ludmila; Vrablik, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased inflammation which represents a link to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent marker of inflammation and atherosclerosis risk. To assess the impact of weight loss on metabolic markers of atherosclerosis including Lp-PLA2 we examined a group of Czech non-diabetic obese/overweight children exposed to a lifestyle intervention. Fourty unrelated overweight/obese non-diabetic Czech children (13.7 ± 2.1 years, average BMI at baseline 29.8 ± 2.6 kg/m2) underwent 4 weeks of lifestyle modification (reduction of energy intake to age matched optimum and supervised physical activity). Anthropometrical and biochemical variables were determined at baseline and after the intervention. Lp-PLA2 mass concentration was assessed using the ELISA kit. Wilcocson's rank test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. A significant decrease of BMI and waist circumference was associated with significant changes of plasma lipoprotein and glycaemia levels. Mass concentration of Lp-PLA2 at the baseline was 402 ± 94 μg/ml, after the intervention 368 ± 105 μg/ml (p=0.008). Change in Lp-PLA2 was associated with triglyceride level decrease (p=0.009). Intensive lifestyle modification leading to body weight decrease results in significant changes of plasma lipoprotein levels and, also, a drop of Lp-PLA2 levels in paediatric obese patients. However, even after the intervention Lp-PLA2 concentrations in this patient group remain elevated suggesting possible increased atherosclerosis risk in later life. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations

  12. Investigation of functional gastrointestinal disorders and their related factors in rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ying WANG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs in the rural population. Methods A questionnaire survey was carried out in six villages of Lankao county in Henan Province, using the Rome Ⅲ criteria, to assess the prevalence of FGIDs, and to analyze the FGID-related risk factors, using self-rating anxiety scale (SAS and self-rating depression scale (SDS to assess their risk factors. Results A total of 3032 residents (male 1531, female 1501 were investigated with mean age of 42.5±16.8 years. Among the residents surveyed, 282(9.30% were diagnosed with FGIDs. The prevalence of the complaints showed that functional heartburn (1.99%, functional dyspepsia (1.85%, non-specific functional gastrointestinal disorders (1.76% and irritable bowel syndrome (1.58% ranked the highest in above order. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of FGIDs between female (10.26% and male (8.36%, P>0.05. The prevalence rate of FGID increased with the increase of age, and reached the peak in the people with age over 60 years (18.58%, P<0.001. Statistical analysis indicated that smoking might be associated with FGIDs, accounting 12.76% in smoking people and 8.79% in non-smoking people (P < 0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that FGIDs might involve the following risk factors, including advanced age, irregular eating habit, with a preference of eating raw or cold foods, cold drinking, anxiety and depression (P < 0.05. Conclusions The prevalence rate of FGIDs in these areas is lower than that reported elsewhere. Age and unhealthy life style might be the risk factors of FGIDs. The psychologic disorders such as anxiety and depression were also associated with people suffering from FGIDs.

  13. An Investigation of Factors Influencing Design Team Attributes in Green Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Elforgani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Buildings contribute significantly global environmental problems. Better design can minimize these impacts. Design Green Building (DGB aims to reduce buildings' impact on the environment. However, the green design performance depends on design team attributes. In addition, the Governance System (GS and Client Quality (CQ as external factors have influence on Design Team Attributes (DTA of green building. Approach: To identify mentioned factors questionnaire survey was conducted to collect dada required. A sample of 277 respondents has been covered under the study, including architects and engineers practicing design and consultancy building sectors. Analysis data includes descriptive and quantitative analysis by using SSPS software version 16 was carried out. A correlation and regression models was established to explore the relationship between identified factors. Results: Architect is most involved one during the design process of green buildings with mean 4.82 followed by mechanical and electrical engineers with mean 4.52 and 4.44 respectively, while structural and civil engineers, interior designers and quantity survivors were 3.71, 3.29 and 2.88 respectively. The most design team attributes were investigated have a significance degree of influence except design team reputation. On the other hand, the other hand, the Governance system and client quality have major influence on these attributes. Conclusion: Involvement and participation of a ll project stakeholders are required. Design team attributes are the key factors to improve green design performance. Governance system and client quality play major role to enhance design team attributes. Therefore, effective regulations and policies may increase performance of the green Effective design team management device should be applied to implement Design team attributes effectively in order to improve green design team performance.

  14. An investigation on factors influencing electronic banking adoption in private banks versus public banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alikhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The movement of industrial societies towards implementation of information technology has begun and it has gained moment since early 90th and presently the speed of this movement is well obvious in less developed countries, including Iran. Internet Banking is one of the most tangible trends in today’s electronic commerce. It has direct relationship with the perception of the service qualities not only because of unique absorption of the internet, but also because of e-commerce, acceptance of internet services of banks by clients and the tendency for using such services. This paper investigates different factors influencing on acceptance of electronic banking in private banks versus public banks in a case study of two Iranian banks namely; Eqtesade Novin and Sepah using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. Correlation test reveals that there was a positive and significant relationship between clients of private and public bank on five factors associated with TAM. In addition, structural equation method was used for investigation of relationships in offered model. In conclusion, all primary and secondary hypotheses for clients of private and public bank were confirmed.

  15. INVESTIGATING THE COLLECTIVE ONLINE purchase PHENOMENON: FACTORS AFFECTING THE SHOPPING INTENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Roberto Comin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The collective online shopping is a recent phenomenon in Brazil whose objective is to sell products and services for a minimum number of consumers. This study aims to investigate whether the intensity of collective online shopping is influenced by the aspects consumer interest in online collective shopping, impulse buying and insecurity. The data collection was based on a questionnaire with closed questions with multiple choices and a 5-point Likert scale.The final sample is composed of 143 respondents. Data was analyzed through the following statistic techniques: exploratory data analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, and logistic regression. The results suggest that people more interest in collective shopping are more likely to make collective shopping. People who feel greater insecurity in navigating the website is less likely to make collective shopping. It was observed that there is no a positive relationship between impulse shopping and collective purchasing. Some limitations include the number of constructs and sample characteristics.

  16. Investigating important factors influencing customer relationship management: A case study from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sedigh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation on measuring the effect of different factors on customer relationship management (CRM for different branches of an Iranian banks located in various regions of city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 275 managers and using structural equation modeling examines the effects of five variables including CRM knowledge, employment’s information technology skills, specialty, strategic use, CRM performance on the performance of CRM. Cronbach alpha has been calculated for the questionnaire as 0.881, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The survey has concluded that there were meaningful relationships between all four mentioned variables and performance of CRM. In other words, knowledge and information technology influence on improving employments’ skills, which increase strategic use of CRM components and this would improve CRM performance.

  17. Impact on total population health and societal cost-effectiveness of including tumour necrosis factor- antagonists in management of ankylosing spondylitis: a dynamic population modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tran-Duy (An); A. Boonen (Annelies); M.A.F.J. van de Laar (Martin); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Background: Sequential treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) that includes tumour necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF agents) has been applied in most of the Western countries. Existing cost-effectiveness (CE) models almost exclusively presented the incremental

  18. Epidemiological investigation into the introduction and factors for spread of Peste des Petits Ruminants, southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epaphras A. Muse

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to confirm and identify sources and elucidate factors associated with the introduction of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR in southern Tanzania. This study was conducted in Tandahimba and Newala districts of Mtwara region following suspected outbreak of PPR in the area. Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews of key informants who included goat and sheep owners with suspected cases of PPR and animal health service providers as well as local administrative authority. Additionally, 216 serum samples and 28 swabs were collected for serological and virological laboratory disease confirmation. The results show that PPR was first introduced in Likuna village of Newala district in February 2009 through newly purchased goats from the Pugu livestock market located about 700 km in the outskirts of Dar es Salaam city. Factors which contributed to spread of PPR included communal grazing and the cheap prices of sick animals bought by livestock keepers for slaughtering in other villages. Laboratory findings confirmed presence of PPR in the area by RT-PCR and serological analysis revealed that seroprevalence was 31%. These findings have confirmed, for the first time, introduction of PPR in southern Tanzania. The presence of PPR poses high risk of southward spread of the disease to other southern African countries in the SADC region thus calling for concerted and collaborative efforts in prevention and control of the disease to avoid losses. Further elaborate studies on the spread, prevalence and risk factors associated with the disease should urgently be investigated.

  19. Investigating Impacts of Environmental Factors on the Cycling Behavior of Bicycle-Sharing Users

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    Yeran Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As it is widely accepted, cycling tends to produce health benefits and reduce air pollution. Policymakers encourage people to use bikes by improving cycling facilities as well as developing bicycle-sharing systems (BSS. It is increasingly interesting to investigate how environmental factors influence the cycling behavior of users of bicycle-sharing systems, as users of bicycle-sharing systems tend to be different from regular cyclists. Although earlier studies have examined effects of safety and convenience on the cycling behavior of regular riders, they rarely explored effects of safety and convenience on the cycling behavior of BSS riders. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate how road safety, convenience, and public safety affect the cycling behavior of BSS riders by controlling for other environmental factors. Specifically, in this study, we investigated the impacts of environmental characteristics, including population density, employment density, land use mix, accessibility to point-of-interests (schools, shops, parks and gyms, road infrastructure, public transit accessibility, road safety, convenience, and public safety on the usage of BSS. Additionally, for a more accurate measure of public transit accessibility, road safety, convenience, and public safety, we used spatiotemporally varying measurements instead of spatially varying measurements, which have been widely used in earlier studies. We conducted an empirical investigation in Chicago with cycling data from a BSS called Divvy. In this study, we particularly attempted to answer the following questions: (1 how traffic accidents and congestion influence the usage of BSS; (2 how violent crime influences the usage of BSS; and (3 how public transit accessibility influences the usage of BSS. Moreover, we tried to offer implications for policies aiming to increase the usage of BSS or for the site selection of new docking stations. Empirical results demonstrate that density of

  20. Investigating Factors Influencing Customer Online Buying Satisfaction In Gauteng, South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharon Rudansky-Kloppers

    2014-01-01

    .... With this information, they can convert potential customers into real customers and retain them. This research investigates the factors which influence customer online buying satisfaction in the Gauteng province of South Africa...

  1. Investigating Direct Links between Depression, Emotional Control, and Physical Punishment with Adolescent Drive for Thinness and Bulimic Behaviors, Including Possible Moderation by the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism

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    Vanja Rozenblat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the relationship between psychological and social factors (depression, emotional control, sexual abuse, and parental physical punishment and adolescent drive for Thinness and Bulimic behaviors in a large community sample, and to investigate possible genetic moderation.Method: Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project (ATP, a population-based cohort study that has followed a representative sample of 2443 participants from infancy to adulthood across 16 waves since 1983. A subsample of 650 participants (50.2% female of Caucasian descent who provided DNA were genotyped for a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR. Adolescent disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed using the Bulimia and Drive for Thinness scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (15–16 years. Depression and emotional control were examined at the same age using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and an ATP-devised measure of emotional control. History of sexual abuse and physical punishment were assessed retrospectively (23–24 years in a subsample of 467 of those providing DNA.Results: EDI-2 scores were associated with depression, emotional control, and retrospectively reported parental physical punishment. Although there was statistically significant moderation of the relationship between parental physical punishment and bulimic behaviors by 5-HTTLPR (p = 0.0048, genotypes in this subsample were not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium. No other G×E interactions were significant. Conclusion: Findings from this study affirm the central importance of psychosocial processes in disordered eating patterns in adolescence. Evidence of moderation by 5-HTTLPR was not conclusive; however, genetic moderation observed in a subsample not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium warrants further investigation.

  2. An Investigation of Factors Determining the Study Abroad Destination Choice: A Case Study of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the field of education abroad have mainly focused on the factors influencing the mobility of international students from developing to developed countries and very few have been conducted to investigate the factors influencing the flow of international students to the Asia Pacific region. As a piece of country-specific…

  3. Investigation of Individual Factors Associated with Anxiety in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Ashley H.; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca; Michele Lease, A.

    2015-01-01

    As youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to experience anxiety than youth in the general population, investigation of associated factors is important for diagnosis and treatment. The present study extended prior research by examining factors associated with caregiver-reported anxiety in 2662 youth (mean age = 8.82 years) with…

  4. Investigation of Individual Factors Associated with Anxiety in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Ashley H.; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca; Michele Lease, A.

    2015-01-01

    As youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to experience anxiety than youth in the general population, investigation of associated factors is important for diagnosis and treatment. The present study extended prior research by examining factors associated with caregiver-reported anxiety in 2662 youth (mean age = 8.82 years) with…

  5. An investigation to identify potential risk factors associated with common chronic diseases among the older population in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enemona Emmanuel Adaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and their prevalence has constantly increased over the last decade. Objective: This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with common chronic diseases among people aged 50 years and over in India. Materials and Methods: Data from Wave 1 of the 2007/2008 Indian Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE was used to investigate the association between lifestyle choices and chronic diseases using logistic regression. Result: The fully adjusted model showed that significant independent risk factors for angina included area of residence, being diagnosed with diabetes, chronic lung disease (CLD [highest odds ratio (OR 4.77, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.95-7.70] and arthritis. For arthritis, risk factors included having underlying diabetes, CLD diagnosis, or angina (highest OR 2.32, 95% CI: 1.63-3.31. Risk factors associated with CLD included arthritis, angina (highest OR 4.76, 95% CI: 2.94-7.72, alcohol use, and tobacco use. Risk factors associated with diabetes included level of education, area of residence, socioeconomic status, angina (highest OR 3.59, 95% CI: 2.44-5.29, CLD, arthritis, stroke, and vegetable consumption. Finally, risk factors associated with stroke included diabetes and angina (highest OR 3.34, 95% CI: 1.72-6.50. The presence of any other comorbidity was significantly associated with all five chronic diseases studied. Conclusion: The results show that within the older population, the contribution of lifestyle risk factors to the common chronic diseases investigated in this study was limited. Our findings showed that the major health issue within the study population was multimorbidity.

  6. Gas-phase and Ar-matrix SQM scaling factors for various DFT functionals with basis sets including polarization and diffuse functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábri, Csaba; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Tarczay, György

    2011-05-12

    Scaling factors for Pulay's scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) scheme have been determined for four different widely used DFT functionals (PBE, B3LYP, B3PW91, and M06-2X) and for two basis sets (6-31++G** and aug-cc-pVTZ) by fitting computed results to 347 fundamental experimental vibrational frequencies of 33 molecules. Measurements in the gas phase and in solid argon matrices were used independently in the fitting procedure in order to provide a simple method of estimating matrix shifts. The accuracy of the new scaling factors is demonstrated on test molecules including hydrogen-bonded systems and molecules containing chlorine and sulfur atoms.

  7. Lineages of human T-cell clones, including T helper 17/T helper 1 cells, isolated at different stages of anti–factor VIII immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Ettinger, Ruth A.; James, Eddie A.; Kwok, William W.; Arthur R Thompson; Pratt, Kathleen P.

    2009-01-01

    The development of neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) after factor VIII (FVIII) infusions is a serious complication that affects approximately one-quarter of hemophilia A patients who have access to replacement therapy. To investigate the differentiation of naive T cells into FVIII-specific helper T cells that promote B-cell activation and antibody secretion, HLA-DRA-DRB1*0101-restricted T-cell clones that respond to a specific epitope in FVIII were isolated from a mild hemophilia A subject...

  8. Investigating word-of-mouth (WOM factors influencing patients’ physician choice and satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Argan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to determine the word-of-mouth constructs related to physician choice and to investigate relationships between the constructs and satisfaction. Method: A questionnaire consisted of three parts was conducted on people (n=1193 living in the province of Eskisehir, Turkey. The first part contained sixteen statements related to word-of-mouth messages about choosing a physician. A traditional approach to scale development was utilized. Items in the second part were concerned with satisfaction as the dependent variable. The final part included demographic variables. Results: The results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA revealed four valid WOM constructs (communication skill, expertise, reputation and success, and institutional facilities and structural equation model (SEM indicate that these constructs have both directly and indirectly effect on patient satisfaction. The results also showed that institutional facility mediated relationship between remaining factors and satisfaction. Conclusions: The relationships between physicians and patients have an indirect effect on potential patients. By understanding sources of patients’ satisfaction and dissatisfaction, physicians can develop appropriate relationship strategies to minimize the adverse effects of negative word-of-mouth on costs, quality and patient turnover. The results of the current study provide suggestions for better health care management and further insight into the challenges of improving patient satisfaction.

  9. Investigation of Various Factors Affecting Development of Identity Confusion in Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celale Tangul Ozcan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Various factors may influence on development of identity sense. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of various factors including age, number of siblings, birth order, level of income, parents’ level of education, family types and living in urban or rural on development of identity sense in male adolescents. The sample consisted of 537 male adolescents from a health technician vocational high school. Participants were given a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF. Identity confusion was found in 15.3% of the sample. The mean score of SIAF reached peak level at 17 years old and then gradually decreased. The mean SIAF score of rural-based adolescents was significantly higher when compared with that of urban-based adolescents (p<0.05. The adolescents living in low income families showed significantly higher SIAF scores (p<0.05. The sons of fathers with low education (below 8 yrs had higher mean SIAF score (p<0.05. This study suggests that male adolescents who live in low income families and rural, and have father with low level of education are more likely to have identity confusion. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 131-138

  10. Investigation of Social, Emotional, and Cognitive Factors with Effect on Suicidal Behaviour in Adolescents with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOYLU, Nusret; TANELİ, Yeşim; TANELİ, Suna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Our study aimed at investigating social, emotional, and cognitive factors playing a role in the development of suicidal ideation in depressed adolescents and its turning into a suicide attempt. Method Sixty-three adolescents (48 female, 15 male) aged 12 to 18 years were included in the study. In face-to-face interviews, suicide ideation, suicide plans, and previous suicide attempts were evaluated, sociodemographic data were collected. Additionally, the Children’s Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-I, II), Beck Hopelessness Scale, Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Strengths and the Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) parent forms were applied. SPSS version 13.0 for Windows was used for statistical analysis. Results It has been established that in the last six months, 71.4% of cases (n=45) had suicidal ideation and 27% (n=17) attempted suicide. Factors associated with suicidal ideation in depressed adolescents were: high depression and anxiety levels, hopelessness and low self-esteem (padolescents.

  11. Investigating the Factors Associated with Job Satisfaction of Construction Workers in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reza Hosseini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly, its aim is to ascertain the major aspects of job satisfaction for South Australian construction workers including the main ramifications of job satisfaction in the working environment. Secondly, it investigates the influence of key age-related factors i.e. chronological age, organisational age and length of service on major aspects of job satisfaction. The collected data for this study comprised 72 questionnaires completed by construction practitioners working at operational levels in the South Australian construction industry. Based on the responses from the target group, this study deduced that job dissatisfaction was predominantly related to the adverse impact on personal health and quality of life. In addition, indifference and the perception of dejection in the workplace are the main consequences of low levels of job satisfaction. Inferential analyses revealed that none of the age-related factors could significantly affect the major aspects of job satisfaction of construction workers in the South Australian context. The study concludes with providing practical suggestions for redesigning human resources practices for increasing the level of job satisfaction within the South Australian construction industry.Keywords: Job satisfaction, workers, age, construction industry, South Australia

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0 (includes ROTCs 1, 2, and 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-07-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is included in the Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range) approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-19-002-TAB2, Debris Mound; TA-21-003-TANL, Disposal Trench; TA-21-002-TAAL, Disposal Trench; 09-21-001-TA09, Disposal Trenches; 03-19-001, Waste Disposal Site. This CAU is being investigated because contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment, and waste may have been disposed of with out appropriate controls. Four out of five of these CASs are the result of weapons testing and disposal activities at the TTR, and they are grouped together for site closure based on the similarity of the sites (waste disposal sites and trenches). The fifth CAS, CAS 03-19-001, is a hydrocarbon spill related to activities in the area. This site is grouped with this CAU because of the location (TTR). Based on historical documentation and process know-ledge, vertical and lateral migration routes are possible for all CASs. Migration of contaminants may have occurred through transport by infiltration of precipitation through surface soil which serves as a driving force for downward migration of contaminants. Land-use scenarios limit future use of these CASs to industrial activities. The suspected contaminants of potential concern which have been identified are volatile organic compounds; semivolatile organic compounds; high explosives; radiological constituents including depleted

  13. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Scottish Youth: A Pilot Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Buchan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Approximately 70% of the total ethnic minority population of Scotland is of South Asian ancestry, although relatively little is known about their cardiovascular risk profile. Determining the risk profiles of Scottish youth of South Asian ancestry may inform the creation of interventions to reduce risk and improve the quality of life in this population. Approach: The purpose of this pilot investigation was to examine the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD risk profiles of Scottish youth of South Asian ancestry. A sample of 48 South Asian adolescents (26 females, 22 males, 16±2 years of age resident in the city of Glasgow participated in this study. Stature, mass, waist circumference, physical activity, blood pressure, diet and 10 metabolic markers of CVD risk were recorded. Results: Boys had a significantly (p≤0. 01 greater body mass, stature and were more physically active than girls. The boys also had significantly (p≤0. 05 higher fasting levels of glucose, LDL and C-Reactive Protein (CRP and recorded lower levels of HDL than girls. High fat diets, low physical activity, elevated CRP, glucose and insulin levels and low HDL levels were the risk factors most often identified as being as non-desirable. About 88% of the cohort had between 2 and 6 CVD risk factors while 40% of boys and 20% of girls presented with 5 or more risk factors. Conclusion/Recommendations: Results suggest that preventive measures, including increased physical activity and dietary management may be warranted for the youth of South Asian ancestry."

  14. Spatial Dependence and Heterogeneity in Bayesian Factor Analysis: A Cross-National Investigation of Schwartz Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakhovych, Stanislav; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Wedel, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a Bayesian spatial factor analysis model. We extend previous work on confirmatory factor analysis by including geographically distributed latent variables and accounting for heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation. The simulation study shows excellent recovery of the model parameters and demonstrates the consequences…

  15. Spatial Dependence and Heterogeneity in Bayesian Factor Analysis: A Cross-National Investigation of Schwartz Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakhovych, Stanislav; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Wedel, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a Bayesian spatial factor analysis model. We extend previous work on confirmatory factor analysis by including geographically distributed latent variables and accounting for heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation. The simulation study shows excellent recovery of the model parameters and demonstrates the consequences…

  16. Spatial Dependence and Heterogeneity in Bayesian Factor Analysis : A Cross-National Investigation of Schwartz Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stakhovych, Stanislav; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Wedel, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a Bayesian spatial factor analysis model. We extend previous work on confirmatory factor analysis by including geographically distributed latent variables and accounting for heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation. The simulation study shows excellent recovery of the mo

  17. An Investigation of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in an Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, James; Dennison, Darwin

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyze high school students' self-reports and to determine biomedical cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adolescent population. Factors evaluated included smoking frequency, dietary fat intake, saturated fat intake, and cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio. (JN)

  18. Investigation of affecting factors on the frequency of online shopping by consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alikhani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fast growing information technology and communications is considered as the most important long-term tradition in global trading for business activities these days. The emergence of internet E-commerce has granted an unbelievable marketing opportunity for trading throughout the last decade. Today, internet is accessible not only by PCs but also through TV and cellphones. Moreover, changing life style has directed consumers towards online shopping because it saves time and costs in the shortest time possible. Thus, this research was performed aiming at determining the role played by affecting factors on the frequency of online shopping by consumers of LED LG TVs. For doing so, we will investigate the effect of price promotion, organizational goal, research for information indirectly on the efficiency and the effect of the frequency of using online shopping portfolio directly on the frequency of online shopping. The statistical population of this research contains those LED LG TV consumers who have purchased them online. After data gathered, the questionnaire was provided and then we described the status of gathered data by the aid of descriptive statistic methods including average, standard deviation, tables of frequency distribution, agreed, graph drawing and calculation of indices. In this regard, we used Cronbach’s alpha for reliability and parametric inferential statistic methods for answering four research hypotheses. We analyzed data using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and structural equation modeling (SEM and partial least square (PLS and LISEREL software. Results indicated that efficiency resulting from price promotion has no effects on the frequency of using online shopping portfolio but variables including organizational goal and researches and data exploration directly affects the frequency of using online shopping portfolio and directly on the frequency of online shopping.

  19. An investigation on important factors influencing consumer purchase: A case study of food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haghighi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effect of five factors on purchasing food product including brand and reputation, being green product producer, quality of packaging, taste of food products and materials used in products. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 20 questions, distributes 440 questionnaires among some consumers who were regular customers of food chains in west part of city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 225 properly filled ones. The study uses binomial test to verify five hypothesis of the survey and it has confirmed the effects of four variables including brand and reputation, quality of packaging, taste of food products and materials used in products. In our survey, there are some positive and meaningful correlations among different pairs of five variables of the survey where the highest correlation is between materials used in products and quality of packaging (r=0.606, Sig. = 0.000 and between Quality of packaging and being green product producer (r=0.545, Sig. =0.000.

  20. Investigating important factors on empowering human resources: A case study of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Molaee Ghara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, human resources are considered as the most precious assets for any organization and it is important to empower them as much as possible to create competitive advantage and to cope with rapid changes in organizations. In this paper, we present an empirical study on one of food industries in province of Qom, Iran to determine important factors influencing empowering human resources. The proposed study uses factor analysis by choosing a sample of 380 people. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.88, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.7 and validates the overall questionnaire. Based on the results of this survey, there are three important factors including job related, personal related and organizational related issues. The study also uses Pearson correlation as well as Freedman tests to rank the factors and the results demonstrate that organizational factor plays the most important role in empowering human resources followed by job related factors and personal factors.

  1. [Structural analysis for psychosocial factors including health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) associated with lifestyle-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Nakamura, H; Nagase, H; Ogino, K; Ooshita, Y; Tsukahara, S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify psychosocial characteristics associated with preventive health behavior for lifestyle-related diseases. The author performed objective health examinations and gave questionnaires to 289 men (39.7 +/- 11.8 years, mean +/- SD) and 80 women (32.8 +/- 10.4 years) engaged in office work. Psychosocial factors included lifestyle and perceived stress, as well as the health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) as newly developed indicators for health behavior. The principal component analysis for men did not extract lifestyle from the psychosocial structures. Multiple regression analysis showed that internal HLC (IHLC), chance HLC (CHLC), professional HLC (PHLC) and stress significantly contributed to SOC. Principal component analysis using psychosocial factors in women showed two psychosocial structures, i.e. the second principal (high SOC, high lifestyle, and low stress) and the 4th principal components (high supernatural HLC, and high PHLC). Both components were negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure. SOC was recognized to be negatively associated with age, stress, and total cholesterol, and positively with IHLC, FHLC, lifestyle, and gamma-GTP using multiple regression analysis for women. These results indicated a distinguishable sex difference regarding the involvement of psychosocial factors including HLC and SOC in objective health. SOC seems likely to be involved not in objective health, but closely with stress, suggesting a direct influence on mental health. Lifestyle should be divided into more detailed categories such as smoking and salt intake. Structural analysis of women suggests that SOC is involved directly or indirectly through lifestyle in objective health, different from men. To further clarify causal relationships between psychosocial factors and risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases, a longitudinal study is necessary based on these results.

  2. Investigating effective factors on multimedia advertising: A case study of travel agencies ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertisement plays an important role on increasing sales and organizations normally spend significant amount of cost in an attempt to increase profitability. A productive advertisement normally involves various factors and we need to determine the most important ones, very carefully. In this paper, we use a questionnaire-based survey to find the most important factors influencing advertisement. In this paper, we focus on gathering information from the advertisement providers to assess each advertisement plan. The proposed study of this paper uses factor analysis to determine 15 most important factors, which include 42 variables.

  3. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  4. Incidence and risk factors for surgically acquired pressure ulcers: a prospective cohort study investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Lister, Carolyn; Corry, Jean; Holland, Michelle; Coleman, Kerrie; Marquart, Louise

    2015-01-01

    To assess the incidence of hospital-acquired, surgery-related pressure injury (ulcers) and identify risk factors for these injuries. We used a prospective cohort study to investigate the research question. The study was conducted at a major metropolitan hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Five hundred thirty-four adult patients booked for any surgical procedure expected to last more than 30 minutes were eligible for inclusion. Patients who provided informed consent for study participation were assessed for pressure ulcers, using the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Guidelines, before entering the operating room and again in the post-anesthetic care unit (PACU). Research nurses and all PACU nurses were trained in skin assessment and in pressure ulcer staging. Patients were not assessed again after their discharge from the PACU. Seven patients (1.3%) had existing pressure injuries (ulcers) and a further 6 (1.3%) developed a surgery-related pressure ulcer. Risk factors associated with surgery-related pressure injuries were similar to non-surgically related risks and included older age, skin condition, and being admitted from a location other than one's own home. Length of surgery was not associated with pressure ulcer development in this cohort. Perioperative nurses play an important role in identifying existing or new pressure injuries. However, many of these nurses are unfamiliar with pressure ulcer classification, so education in this area is essential. Although the incidence of surgically acquired pressure ulcers was low in this cohort, careful skin inspection before and after surgery provides an opportunity for early treatment and may prevent existing lesions progressing to higher stages.

  5. Analytical Investigation on the Power Factor of a Flux-Modulated Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Jinglin;

    2015-01-01

    Flux-modulated permanent-magnet synchronous machine (FM-PMSM) is characterized as a high-torque direct-drive electrical machine, but may suffer from the low power factor. This paper aims to investigate the issue of the low power factor in theory and explore the possibilities for improvement....... An analytical model for the FM-PMSM is developed to obtain the magnetic field distribution, and its accuracy is verified by the finite-element method. On the basis of the developed analytical model, a fast approach is developed to predict the power factor of the FM-PMSM. The analytical results indicate...

  6. Brand Loyalty Factors Affecting the Hotel Elections of Tourists investigation with Respect to the Demographic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tayfun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors affecting hotel guests’s brand loyalty and these factors is to determine whether there is a difference or not according to the demographic variables. Within this purpose, a survey research was conducted on the guests staying in the five star hotels of Ankara, Turkey. The research was carried out in two stages, namely the pilot study and the main study. As a result of study, while the factors affecting brand loyalty differs based on the gender and the age of the participants (p0,05

  7. Investigating Elementary & Intermediate Level Students’ Perspectives towards Demotivating Factors In ESP Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Zoghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, attempts were made to investigate and contrast the demotivating factors in English classes from the viewpoint of ESP students at different proficiency levels. To this end, 134 ESP students were chosen from Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch. Based on the scores obtained from Oxford Placement Test, the sample was divided into two groups, i.e. the intermediate level of proficiency students (n=60 and the elementary level of proficiency students (n=74. The data required for the study were collected by means of a demotivating factors questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using the Minitab statistical package version 16. Results revealed that there were no significant differences among the demotivating factors perceived across the groups. From the viewpoint of both groups, teachers’ attitude and personality, their teaching methods, and the weakness of students in English vocabulary were among the highest frequency mentioned demotivating factors. Keywords: ESP, demotivating factors, proficiency levels

  8. Investigation of effective factors of transient thermal stress of the MONJU-System components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masaaki; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kimitaka; Jinbo, M. [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Transient thermal stress of each system Component in the fast breeder reactor is an uncertain factor on it's structural design. The temperature distribution in a system component changes over a wide range in time and in space. An unified evaluation technique of thermal, hydraulic, and structural analysis, in which includes thermal striping, temperature stratification, transient thermal stress and the integrity of the system components, is required for the optimum design of tho fast reactor plant. Thermal boundary conditions should be set up by both the transient thermal stress analysis and the structural integrity evaluation of each system component. The reasonable thermal boundary conditions for the design of the MONJU and a demonstration fast reactor, are investigated. The temperature distribution analysis models and the thermal boundary conditions on the Y-piece structural parts of each system component, such as reactor vessel, intermediate heat exchanger, primary main circulation pump, steam generator, superheater and upper structure of reactor core, are illustrated in the report. (M. Suetake)

  9. Investigating Sociological Factors Affecting Vandalism (Case study: Ahvaz’s High-school Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam Heydari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is a study on the efficient sociological factors on Vandalism across high school students of district two of Ahvaz. The research data was collected through a survey, and participants were 376 cases out of 17054 high-school students of district two. They were randomly selected by a categorical method. The dependent variable(vandalism was investigated via a questionnaire and its relationship with the independent variables such as gender, educational level, socio-economic status, relationship with vandals, feeling of weakness and abnormality, relative deprivation , and social isolation , which are driven from the theories of various sociologists, including holistic sociologists or the very classics (Durkheim or Merton and, contemporary sociologists (Cloward, Ohlin and Miller, Sutherland ,Seaman and Hirshi was hypothesized and tested. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics via SPSS . Analysis of the findings confirmed the research hypothesis. Results showed that the prediction equation of the trend tendency toward Vandalistic behavior can predict 0/406 percent of the variance of the independent variable. And since the research model could predict 0/406 percent of the variance of the independent variable using seven variables (academic achievement, social-economic status, contact with offenders, feeling of powerlessness, sense of relative deprivation, sense of social isolation, and sense of anomie, it can be said that its predictive power is good.

  10. Investigating the Factors Affecting Residential Consumer Adoption of Broadband in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Manzoor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore in detail the factors that affect the consumer behavioral intention to adopt broadband Internet in a developing country perspective. Various attitudinal, normative, and control constructs were identified and investigated for their possible influence on broadband Internet adoption. The empirical data for this study were collected using a self-administered questionnaire that included items related to various attitudinal, normative, and control constructs. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used to test these constructs for their possible influence on Indian consumers’ adoption of broadband Internet. The findings suggest that perceived ease of use (PE, social outcomes (SO, hedonic outcomes (HO, service quality (SQ, facilitating conditions resources (FCR, and self-efficacy (SE were very significant predictors of Indian consumers’ behavioral intention to adopt broadband Internet. This study has multifold significance. The integrated research framework used in this study is an extension of previous well-established research models (such as Model of Adoption of Technology in Households [MATH], Diffusion of Innovation [DOI], and Theory of Planned Behavior [TPB] and provides an enhanced comprehension of broadband Internet by the Indian household consumers.

  11. Investigating Limiting Factors in Stretchable All-Carbon Transistors for Reliable Stretchable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Zhu, Chenxin; Oh, Jin Young; Yan, Xuzhou; Pochorovski, Igor; To, John W-F; Liu, Nan; Kraft, Ulrike; Murmann, Boris; Bao, Zhenan

    2017-08-22

    Stretchable form factors enable electronic devices to conform to irregular 3D structures, including soft and moving entities. Intrinsically stretchable devices have potential advantages of high surface coverage of active devices, improved durability, and reduced processing costs. This work describes intrinsically stretchable transistors composed of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) electrodes and semiconductors and a dielectric that consists of a nonpolar elastomer. The use of a nonpolar elastomer dielectric enabled hysteresis-free device characteristics. Compared to devices on SiO2 dielectrics, stretchable devices with nonpolar dielectrics showed lower mobility in ambient conditions because of the absence of doping from water. The effect of a SWNT band gap on device characteristics was investigated by using different SWNT sources as the semiconductor. Large-band-gap SWNTs exhibited trap-limited behavior caused by the low capacitance of the dielectric. In contrast, high-current devices based on SWNTs with smaller band gaps were more limited by contact resistance. Of the tested SWNT sources, SWNTs with a maximum diameter of 1.5 nm performed the best, with a mobility of 15.4 cm(2)/Vs and an on/off ratio >10(3) for stretchable transistors. Large-band-gap devices showed increased sensitivity to strain because of a pronounced dependence on the dielectric thickness, whereas contact-limited devices showed substantially less strain dependence.

  12. Adverse psychosocial factors predict poorer prognosis in HIV disease: a meta-analytic review of prospective investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Yoichi; Vedhara, Kavita

    2009-05-01

    There is a growing epidemiological literature focusing on the association between psychosocial stress and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), but inconsistent findings have been published. We aimed to quantify the association between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression. We searched Medline; PsycINFO; Web of Science; PubMed up to 19 January 2009, and included population studies with a prospective design that investigated associations between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression or AIDS. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and estimates of associations. The overall meta-analysis examined 36 articles including 100 psychosocial and disease related relationships. It exhibited a small, but robust positive association between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV progression (correlation coefficient as combined size effect 0.059, 95% confidence interval 0.043-0.074, pHIV disease progression than stress stimuli per se, and that all of the immunological and clinical outcome indicators (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome stage, CD4+ T-cell decline, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome mortality, and human immunodeficiency virus disease or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome symptoms) except for viral load exhibited detrimental effects by adverse psychosocial factors. In conclusion, the current review reveals a robust relationship between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression. Furthermore, there would appear to be some evidence for particular psychosocial factors to be most strongly associated with HIV disease progression.

  13. Association between Cerebral Amyloid Deposition and Clinical Factors Including Cognitive Function in Geriatric Depression: Pilot Study Using Amyloid Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Geum; Kong, Eun-Jung; Cheon, Eun-Jin; Kim, Hae-Won; Koo, Bon-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cerebral amyloid deposition and overall clinical factors including cognitive functions in geriatric depression by using 18F-florbetaben positron emission tomography. Thirteen subjects aged over 60 years who had a history of major depressive disorder and also had subjective memory complaint were included. Of all subjects, 3 subjects judged as amyloid positive, and the others judged as amyloid negative. Their memory, visuospatial functions and attention abilities were negatively correlated with amyloid deposition in specific brain regions, but their language and recognition abilities were not correlated with any region. The amyloid deposition of the whole brain region was significantly negatively correlated with immediate memory. PMID:27776391

  14. Is there a need to include HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the Saudi premarital screening program on the basis of their prevalence and transmission risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswaidi, F M; O'Brien, S J

    2010-11-01

    In January 2008, the Saudi Arabian health authority included mandatory testing for HIV, HBV and HCV viruses in the premarital screening program. Epidemiologically, there were few justifications for their inclusion as disease prevalences and distributions are poorly understood in the population. This study aims to provide information about HBV, HCV and HIV prevalences and risk factors for disease transmission and so produce evidence for informed decision-making on the inclusion of these infectious diseases in the screening program. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study embedded in the existing national premarital screening program for thalassaemia and sickle cell disease to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections (n=74,662 individuals), followed by a case-control study to identify risk factors responsible for infection transmission (n=540). The average HIV prevalence is 0.03%, 1.31% for HBV and 0.33% for HCV. Sharing personal belongings particularly razors, blood transfusions, cuts at barbershops and extramarital relationships showed the highest significant associations with the transmission of these viruses. The prevalences of HIV, HBV and HCV in Saudi Arabia are among the lowest worldwide. However, all the important risk factors associated with transmitting these viruses are significantly present in the Saudi community. Saudi Arabia is financially capable of screening for these infections in the mandatory premarital program and of providing medical care for the discovered cases, but focusing on the health education programs may offset the need to mandatory testing.

  15. Evaluation of the spatial patterns and risk factors, including backyard pigs, for classical swine fever occurrence in Bulgaria using a Bayesian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez-López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.

  16. Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2017-07-31

    This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to 4 key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners' Court of Victoria's (CCOV) Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014. Information relating to the deceased ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. One hundred and thirty-eight unintentional fatal ORU crashes were identified in the CCOV Surveillance Database. Of these fatal ORU crashes, most involved older drivers (44%), followed by older pedestrians (32%), older passengers (17%), older pedal cyclists (4%), older motorcyclists (1%), and older mobility scooter users (1%). The average annual rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-10.2). In terms of the crash characteristics and circumstances, most fatal ORU crashes involved a counterpart (98%), of which the majority were passenger cars (50%) or fixed/stationary objects (25%), including trees (46%) or embankments (23%). In addition, most fatal ORU crashes occurred close to home (73%), on-road (87%), on roads that were paved (94%), on roads with light traffic volume (37%), and during low-risk conditions: between 12 p.m. and 6 p.m. (44%), on weekdays (80%), during daylight (75%), and under dry/clear conditions (81%). Road user (RU) error was identified by the police and/or the coroner for the majority of fatal crashes (55%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORUs deemed to have failed to yield (54%) or misjudged (41%). RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the

  17. An empirical investigation on effective factors for the success of tourism industry in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Abdolvand

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry is one of the most important low carbon industries and it can provide good opportunities for developing countries to take advantage of their natural attractions such as historical monuments, culture, etc. to create value added. However, there are always some barriers in front of developing this industry and a good strategy could help it develop faster. There are different methods for strategic planning and SWOT matrix is one of the most popular one. In this paper, we present an empirical survey to find the most important and strategic items for developing tourism industry in Iran. The proposed study designed a questionnaire and distributed it among 384 tourists who were visiting Iran in a three months period of year 2011. The information gathered were analyzed using factor analysis and structural equation modeling. There are seven important factors involved in developing tourism industry. The first factor, price and having sufficient infrastructures, is the most important factor according to our survey representing 14.623 percents of the changes. The second factor is associated with political and international affairs, which represents 13.926 percents of the changes. The third factor is associated with culture and civilization attractiveness representing 9.342 percent of changes on tourism. The fourth factor is natural attractiveness representing 6.691 percent of the changes. The fifth factor is related to economical factor representing 5.632, the sixth factor, human resources, represents 5.353 percent of the changes and finally the last factor is related to diversity of creatures, which represents 4.749. These factors include 60.3 percent of the success of tourism.

  18. Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing TechniqueIncluding Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerhoff, Darryl; Walker, Iain

    2008-08-01

    The DeltaQ test is a method of estimating the air leakage from forced air duct systems. Developed primarily for residential and small commercial applications it uses the changes in blower door test results due to forced air system operation. Previous studies established the principles behind DeltaQ testing, but raised issues of precision of the test, particularly for leaky homes on windy days. Details of the measurement technique are available in an ASTM Standard (ASTM E1554-2007). In order to ease adoption of the test method, this study answers questions regarding the uncertainty due to changing weather during the test (particularly changes in wind speed) and the applicability to low leakage systems. The first question arises because the building envelope air flows and pressures used in the DeltaQ test are influenced by weather induced pressures. Variability in wind induced pressures rather than temperature difference induced pressures dominates this effect because the wind pressures change rapidly over the time period of a test. The second question needs to answered so that DeltaQ testing can be used in programs requiring or giving credit for tight ducts (e.g., California's Building Energy Code (CEC 2005)). DeltaQ modeling biases have been previously investigated in laboratory studies where there was no weather induced changes in envelope flows and pressures. Laboratory work by Andrews (2002) and Walker et al. (2004) found biases of about 0.5% of forced air system blower flow and individual test uncertainty of about 2% of forced air system blower flow. The laboratory tests were repeated by Walker and Dickerhoff (2006 and 2008) using a new ramping technique that continuously varied envelope pressures and air flows rather than taking data at pre-selected pressure stations (as used in ASTM E1554-2003 and other previous studies). The biases and individual test uncertainties for ramping were found to be very close (less than 0.5% of air handler flow) to those

  19. Study of an investigation on factors influencing human resources productivity in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghasemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing human resources management plays an essential role in the success of the firms. In this study, we investigated different factors influencing human resources productivity of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences staff. Method: The present research was a cross-sectional study. Sample size was calculated 208 individuals. To access information about the human resource productivity, a valid and reliable questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis of the data (p=0.05. Results:The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship (p-value<0.001 between human resources productivity and factors affecting the productivity of human resources (motivational factors, leadership style, creativity and innovation, general and applied education, and competitive spirit. Motivational factors (r =0.89 and general education (r =0.65 had the most and the least effects on human resources productivity. Conclusion: Considering the fact that motivational factors were the most effective factors on human resource productivity, we recommend that managers should care more than before about this factor; also, in order to motivate the employees, they should consider the staff’s individual differences.

  20. Investigating Factors Related to the Effects of Time-Out on Stuttering in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Diane E.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Hennessey, Neville W.; Beilby, Janet M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Response-contingent time-out has been shown to be an effective technique for enhancing fluency in people who stutter. However, the factors that determine individual responsiveness to time-out are not well understood. Aims: The study investigated the effectiveness of using response-contingent time-out to reduce stuttering frequency in…

  1. Factors Affecting Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce Success: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-I Philip

    2010-01-01

    It is generally believed that Business to Business (B2B) e-commerce has a great impact on business performance improvement. Considerable research also shows that another dependent variable, B2B e-commerce success, can be a good overall measure of B2B systems. This paper investigated and examined the impact of several factors, which are either…

  2. An Investigation of the Learning Strategies as Bias Factors in Second Language Cloze Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajideh, Parviz; Yaghoubi-Notash, Massoud; Khalili, Abdolreza

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of the EFL students' learning strategies to the explanation of the variance in their results on language tests. More specifically, it examined the role of these strategies as bias factors in the results of English cloze tests. Based on this aim, first, 158 intermediate EFL learners were selected from…

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Employment Motivation in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Abbye; Rose, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively small numbers of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are engaging in paid employment and those who are tend to be working only part-time. This preliminary study addressed the question of what factors motivate people with ID to work. The issue was investigated in a sample of 10 young work-age adults attending supported learning…

  4. Investigating Factors Related to Virtual Private Network Adoption in Small Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate six factors that may influence adoption of virtual private network (VPN) technologies in small businesses with fewer than 100 employees. Prior research indicated small businesses employing fewer than 100 workers do not adopt VPN technology at the same rate as larger competitors, and the…

  5. Investigation of bandwidth, efficiency, and quality factor for circular patch antennas with magneto-dielectric substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Baqer; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    This article documents an investigation of the effect of a magneto-dielectric substrate on the performance of a circular patch antenna; in particular, the radiation efficiency, the quality factor, and the bandwidth. Both analytical and numerical methods have been used to model the patch antenna. ....... The numerical method is used for lossy substrates, while the analytical method is used for lossless substrates....

  6. Investigation of bandwidth, efficiency, and quality factor for circular patch antennas with magneto-dielectric substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Baqer; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    This article documents an investigation of the effect of a magneto-dielectric substrate on the performance of a circular patch antenna; in particular, the radiation efficiency, the quality factor, and the bandwidth. Both analytical and numerical methods have been used to model the patch antenna...

  7. Investigation of Factors Affecting Students' Science Achievement According to Student Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Erdal; Tüysüz, Cengiz; Tosun, Cemal; Ilhan, Nail

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate the factors affecting students' science achievement according to student science teachers. The survey model which is one of the quantitative research methods was used. The sample was consisted of total 606 student science teachers from four state universities in Turkey. The data were obtained by using the…

  8. Risk factors for tuberculosis in contact investigations in Rotterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Verdier (Jesse Eduard); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); I.D. Kidgell-Koppelaar (Inge); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContact investigations around tuberculosis patients enable early detection of infection and disease, and prevention of secondary tuberculosis cases. We aim to identify risk factors for M. tuberculosis transmission to contacts of tuberculosis patients, based on unique data from routine co

  9. Investigating Factors in the Retention of Students in High School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewyk, Ken R.; Pybus, Colin M.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have reported declining student enrolment rates in optional physical education. This study--incorporating constructs from social cognitive, self-determination, and body image theory--investigated factors that might be influential to this trend. Surveys were administered to 227 tenth-grade students from five schools in one school…

  10. Factors Affecting Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce Success: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-I Philip

    2010-01-01

    It is generally believed that Business to Business (B2B) e-commerce has a great impact on business performance improvement. Considerable research also shows that another dependent variable, B2B e-commerce success, can be a good overall measure of B2B systems. This paper investigated and examined the impact of several factors, which are either…

  11. Risk factors for tuberculosis in contact investigations in Rotterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Verdier (Jesse Eduard); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); I.D. Kidgell-Koppelaar (Inge); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContact investigations around tuberculosis patients enable early detection of infection and disease, and prevention of secondary tuberculosis cases. We aim to identify risk factors for M. tuberculosis transmission to contacts of tuberculosis patients, based on unique data from routine

  12. Investigation of zero-order light suppression methods for digital holograms in various ratio factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jung-Ping; Poon, Ting-Chung; Yang, Tsung-Hsun

    2011-09-01

    Owing to the resolution of the recording device, digital holograms are generally fabricated with in-line configurations. However, holograms obtained in this way are plagued by the annoying problems of zero-order noise and the twin images. Here, we investigate methods to suppress the zero-order noise. We compare the suppression ability of each method with different ratio factors. The ratio factor is defined as the ratio between the reference light amplitude and the object light amplitude. We also introduce a new parameter, the normalized correlation peak value, to evaluate the fidelities of holograms obtained under various ratio factors. Results show that the suppression abilities and the hologram fidelities strongly depend on the ratio factor.

  13. Investigation and calculation of filling factor of SnO2 inverse opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinquan; Wu, Shimin; Ji, Xiaoyuan; Li, Jinpeng; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Ming

    2016-04-01

    In the process of preparing inverse opal, the structure of inverse opal is affected by many factors, and the filling factor of inverse opal is difficult to directly test. In this paper, SnO2 inverse opal was prepared with the sol-gel method by cooperative opal template. The repetition times of the infiltrating precursor into the opal templates were investigated in detail. The band-gap positions of SnO2 inverse opal were tested. In order to prepare perfect inverse opal structure, the filling quantity of the precursor is greater, as the diameter of the PS microsphere of opal is bigger. The filling factor of air in inverse opal can be calculated with a formula derived from Bragg’s law. For inverse opal, the filling factor of air in inverse opal gradually enlarges as the diameter of the void increases.

  14. Investigation of Factors Affecting Students’ Science Achievement According to Student Science Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Tatar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to investigate the factors affecting students’ science achievement according to student science teachers. The survey model which is one of the quantitative research methods was used. The sample was consisted of total 606 student science teachers from four state universities in Turkey. The data were obtained by using the Questionnaire of Factors Affecting Students’ Science Achievement (QFASSA. The data were analyzed by using the descriptive analyzing technique. The factors affecting students’ science achievement were analyzed under five dimensions. The result of the study shows that the most important factors affecting student science achievement according to student science teachers are the items in the dimensions of teacher and curriculum. The results also indicates that the most important predictor of science achievement is ―teaching the topics in a way that may arouse the students’ curiosity‖ in the teacher dimension of QFASSA

  15. Prevalence study and risk factor analysis of selected bacterial, protozoal and viral, including vector-borne, pathogens in cats from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipa, Charalampos; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Sarvani, Elpida; Knowles, Toby G; Mengi, Sena; Morris, David; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine

    2017-03-13

    Feline infectious agent studies are lacking in Cyprus. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for various feline infectious agents, including feline vector-borne pathogens (FVBP), in cats from Cyprus. A cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentre study was performed on 174 feline samples [138 owned and 36 shelter-feral, including both healthy (43) and non-healthy (131), cats] from private veterinary clinics from all six districts of Cyprus. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were used to detect Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (CMhm) and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (CMt). The population was tested for four FVBP including Bartonella henselae and Leishmania spp. using qPCR, while conventional PCR assays were used to detect Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and Hepatozoon spp. Serological assays were performed to detect Leishmania infantum antibodies, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed to test associations and possible risk factors between variables and infectious agents. Ninety-six (55.2%) of the 174 cats were PCR-positive for at least one infectious agent. Forty-six cats (26.4%) were haemoplasma positive, including 13 (7.5%) for Mhf, 36 (20.7%) for CMhm and 12 (6.9%) for CMt. Sixty-six cats (37.9%) were positive for Hepatozoon spp., while 19 (10.9%) were positive for B. henselae, four (2.3%) for Leishmania spp. and one (0.6%) for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. Sequencing revealed the presence of Hepatozoon felis, L. infantum and Anaplasma platys. Of the 164 cats that underwent retroviral serology, 10 (6.1%) were FeLV-positive and 31 (18.9%) were FIV-positive, while L. infantum serology was positive in 7 (4.4%) of the 160 cats tested. Multivariable logistic regression revealed significant associations for various infectious agents including L. infantum with each of Hepatozoon spp. and CMt

  16. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Kepka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13–17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen for male adolescents ages 13–17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes.

  17. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Hawkins, Amy J; Warner, Echo L; Boucher, Kenneth M

    2016-12-01

    Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13-17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) for male adolescents ages 13-17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes.

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-02-26

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 529, Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 529 consists of one Corrective Action Site (25-23-17). For the purpose of this investigation, the Corrective Action Site has been divided into nine parcels based on the separate and distinct releases. A conceptual site model was developed for each parcel to address the translocation of contaminants from each release. The results of this investigation will be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  19. An empirical investigation on ranking financial risk factors using AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper determines and ranks financial risk factors in Iranian corporations, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP. The present research includes one main question and four sub- questions. Its universe population includes managers, production and financial personnel of great corporations activating in Tehran Stock Exchange, who were selected to explain importance and weight of economic risks indices. The source of great corporations recognition is the Companies Registration Organization in Tehran Province, and according to this, there are 120 corporations. The results have indicated that financing risk maintains the highest priority followed by credit risk, liquidity risk, inflation risk and exchange risk. In terms of different risks associated with financing risk, risk of profit per share has been the number one priority followed by the risk of divisional profit per share, the risk of recessionary or boom and the risk of increasing partial pay profit rate. In terms of credit risk, the risk of loan has been number one priority followed by the risk of inability of loan payment and interest payment. Liquidity risk is another risk factor where demand has been the most important factor followed by rules and regulations and inflation risk. In terms of inflation, producers price risk has been the most important factor followed by consumer price risk, gross domestic product and producers price risk. Finally, in terms of different factors influencing exchange risk, export related issues are considered as the most important factors.

  20. Systematic investigation of transcription factors critical in the protection against cerebral ischemia by Danhong injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junying; Zhang, Yanqiong; Jia, Qiang; Liu, Mingwei; Li, Defeng; Zhang, Yi; Song, Lei; Hu, Yanzhen; Xian, Minghua; Yang, Hongjun; Ding, Chen; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Systematic investigations of complex pathological cascades during ischemic brain injury help to elucidate novel therapeutic targets against cerebral ischemia. Although some transcription factors (TFs) involved in cerebral ischemia, systematic surveys of their changes during ischemic brain injury have not been reported. Moreover, some multi-target agents effectively protected against ischemic stroke, but their mechanisms, especially the targets of TFs, are still unclear. Therefore, a comprehensive approach by integrating network pharmacology strategy and a new concatenated tandem array of consensus transcription factor response elements method to systematically investigate the target TFs critical in the protection against cerebral ischemia by a medication was first reported, and then applied to a multi-target drug, Danhong injection (DHI). High-throughput nature and depth of coverage, as well as high quantitative accuracy of the developed approach, make it more suitable for analyzing such multi-target agents. Results indicated that pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 and cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor 1, along with six other TFs, are putative target TFs for DHI-mediated protection against cerebral ischemia. This study provides, for the first time, a systematic investigation of the target TFs critical to DHI-mediated protection against cerebral ischemia, as well as reveals more potential therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke. PMID:27431009

  1. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-04-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Sites Office's (NNSA/NSO's) approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 516 consists of six Corrective Action Sites: 03-59-01, Building 3C-36 Septic System; 03-59-02, Building 3C-45 Septic System; 06-51-01, Sump Piping, 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris; 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping; and 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the NTS, CAU 516 is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls, and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information and process knowledge on the expected nature and extent of contamination of CAU 516 are insufficient to select preferred corrective action alternatives; therefore, additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0 / June 2003), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 536 consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge. The CAU 536 site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of possible contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for CAS 03-44-02. The additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of this field investigation are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3-2004.

  3. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared

  4. Study on the social maturity, self-perception, and associated factors, including motor coordination, of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fumiko; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to identify characteristics of social maturity and self-perception in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to elucidate associated factors, including motor coordination. The subjects were 15 children (14 boys and 1 girl, in elementary school grades 3 to 6). Their characteristics were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), the Japanese version of the Social Maturity Scale-R (S-M scale), and Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children (SPPC). The results of the study suggested that most of the subjects had some degree of motor problem and delay of social maturity. They also suggested an association between social maturity and static-dynamic balance, which was one of the indices of motor coordination.

  5. Risk factors for bloodstream infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: A focus on antimicrobials including cefepime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Teena; Marchaim, Dror; Johnson, Paul C; Chalana, Indu K; Tamam, Zeinab; Mohammed, Mazin; Alkatib, Shatha; Tansek, Ryan; Chaudhry, Khawar; Zhao, Jing J; Pogue, Jason M; Kaye, Keith S

    2015-07-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens represent increasing challenges to physicians because of rising prevalence, high mortality, and challenging treatment. Identifying high risks and early appropriate therapy is critical to favorable outcomes. This is a 5-year retrospective case-case-control study performed at the Detroit Medical Center on adult patients with bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae, each compared with uninfected controls. Data were collected from December 2004-August 2009. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression. Participants included 103 patients with BSI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens and 79 patients with BSI caused by pathogens that did not produce ESBLs. The mean age of patients in the ESBL group was 67 years; of the patients, 51% were men, 77% were black, and 38% (n = 39) died in hospital. The mean age of patients in the non-ESBL group was 58 years; of the patients, 51% were men, 92% were black, and 22% (n = 17) died in hospital. On multivariate analysis, predictors of BSI caused by ESBL-producing pathogens included central venous catheter (odds ratio [OR], 29.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0-288.3), prior β-lactam-/β-lactamase-inhibitor therapy (OR, 28.1; 95% CI, 1.99-396.5), and prior cefepime therapy (OR, 22.7; 95% CI, 2.7-192.4). The only risk factor for BSI caused by non-ESBL-producing pathogens was urinary catheter insertion (OR, 18.2; 95% CI, 3.3-100.3). Prior antimicrobial therapy, particularly with β-lactam, was the strongest unique risk factor for BSI caused by ESBL-producing E coli or K pneumoniae. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Theoretical and experimental investigation into the influence factors for range gated reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Sing Yee; Wang, Xin; Guo, Ningqun; Tan, Ching Seong

    2016-12-01

    Range gated is a laser ranging technique that has been applied in various fields due to its good application prospects. In order to improve the effectiveness of this method, influence factors contributing to the system performance should be well understood. Thus this paper performs theoretical and experimental investigation to comprehend the effects caused by multiple factors on range gated reconstruction. Our study focuses on the distance, target reflection, and acquisition time step parameter where their impacts on the quality of range reconstruction are analyzed. The presented experimental results show the expected trends of range error to support the validity of our theoretical model and discussion which can be used in future improvement works.

  7. An investigation into the factors that encourage learner participation in a large group medical classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moffett J

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Moffett, John Berezowski, Dustine Spencer, Shari Lanning Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, West Farm, St Kitts, West Indies Background: Effective lectures often incorporate activities that encourage learner participation. A challenge for educators is how to facilitate this in the large group lecture setting. This study investigates the individual student characteristics involved in encouraging (or dissuading learners to interact, ask questions, and make comments in class. Methods: Students enrolled in a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine program at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, St Kitts, were invited to complete a questionnaire canvassing their participation in the large group classroom. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed using Excel (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA and the R software environment (http://www.r-project.org/. Results: One hundred and ninety-two students completed the questionnaire (response rate, 85.7%. The results showed statistically significant differences between male and female students when asked to self-report their level of participation (P=0.011 and their confidence to participate (P<0.001 in class. No statistically significant difference was identified between different age groups of students (P=0.594. Student responses reflected that an "aversion to public speaking" acted as the main deterrent to participating during a lecture. Female participants were 3.56 times more likely to report a fear of public speaking than male participants (odds ratio 3.56, 95% confidence interval 1.28–12.33, P=0.01. Students also reported "smaller sizes of class and small group activities" and "other students participating" as factors that made it easier for them to participate during a lecture. Conclusion: In this study, sex likely played a role in learner participation in the large group veterinary classroom. Male students were more likely to participate in class and reported feeling more confident to

  8. An investigation into the factors that encourage learner participation in a large group medical classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Jennifer; Berezowski, John; Spencer, Dustine; Lanning, Shari

    2014-01-01

    Effective lectures often incorporate activities that encourage learner participation. A challenge for educators is how to facilitate this in the large group lecture setting. This study investigates the individual student characteristics involved in encouraging (or dissuading) learners to interact, ask questions, and make comments in class. Students enrolled in a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine program at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, St Kitts, were invited to complete a questionnaire canvassing their participation in the large group classroom. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed using Excel (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA) and the R software environment (http://www.r-project.org/). One hundred and ninety-two students completed the questionnaire (response rate, 85.7%). The results showed statistically significant differences between male and female students when asked to self-report their level of participation (P=0.011) and their confidence to participate (Pspeaking" acted as the main deterrent to participating during a lecture. Female participants were 3.56 times more likely to report a fear of public speaking than male participants (odds ratio 3.56, 95% confidence interval 1.28-12.33, P=0.01). Students also reported "smaller sizes of class and small group activities" and "other students participating" as factors that made it easier for them to participate during a lecture. In this study, sex likely played a role in learner participation in the large group veterinary classroom. Male students were more likely to participate in class and reported feeling more confident to participate than female students. Female students in this study commonly identified aversion to public speaking as a factor which held them back from participating in the large group lecture setting. These are important findings for veterinary and medical educators aiming to improve learner participation in the classroom. Potential ways of addressing this challenge include

  9. A Flight Investigation of the Damping in Roll and Rolling Effectiveness Including Aeroelastic Effects of Rocket Propelled Missile Models Having Cruciform, Triangular, Interdigitated Wings and Tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopko, R. N.

    1951-01-01

    The damping in roll and rolling effectiveness of two models of a missile having cruciform, triangular, interdigitated wings and tails have been determined through a Mach number range of 0.8 to 1.8 by utilizing rocket-propelled test vehicles. Results indicate that the damping in roll was relatively constant over the Mach umber range investigated. The rolling effectiveness was essentially constant at low supersonic speeds and increased with increasing mach numbers in excess of 1.4 over the Mach number range investigated. Aeroelastic effects increase the rolling-effectiveness parameters pb/2V divided by delta and decrease both the rolling-moment coefficient due to wing deflection and the damping-in-roll coefficient.

  10. Investigating the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Benjamin A; Katulak, Nicole A; McKee, Sherry A

    2006-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the proposed two-factor structure of the 10-item Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief) and to provide evidence for the psychometric properties of this questionnaire using the seven-point scoring set from the original QSU study [Tiffany, S.T., Drobes, D.J. (1991). The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 1467-1476.]. The study sample (N=576) was comprised of smokers presenting for treatment. Although an initial exploratory factor analysis appeared to replicate the original factor analytic findings of Cox et al. [Cox, L.S., Tiffany, S.T., Christen, A.G. (2001). Evaluation of the brief questionnaire of smoking urges (QSU-Brief) in laboratory and clinical settings. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 3, 7-16.], when subjected to confirmatory factor analyses, a five-item, two-factor model using the most robust items from the original QSU-Brief factor analysis was the best explanation of the data in the present study. Good internal consistency reliability estimates were also obtained with this model. These results suggest that this shortened form of the QSU-Brief can be used with the original seven-point scoring set as a reliable assessment of the dual nature of smoking urges in a treatment-seeking population.

  11. Measuring student engagement in science classrooms: An investigation of the contextual factors and longitudinal outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Justina Judy

    This dissertation includes three separate but related studies that examine the different dimensions of student experiences in science using data from two different datasets: the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and a dataset constructed using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). This mixed-dataset approach provides a unique perspective on student engagement and the contexts in which it exists. Engagement is operationalized across the three studies using aspects of flow theory to evaluate how the challenges in science classes are experienced at the student level. The data provides information on a student's skill-level and efficacy during the challenge, as well as their interest level and persistence. The data additionally track how situations contribute to optimal learning moments, along with longitudinal attitudes and behaviors towards science. In the first part of this study, the construct of optimal moments is explored using in the moment data from the ESM dataset. Several different measures of engagement are tested and validated to uncover relationships between various affective states and optimal learning experiences with a focus on science classrooms. Additional analyses include investigating the links between in the moment engagement (situational), and cross-situational (stable) measures of engagement in science. The second part of this dissertation analyzes the ESM data in greater depth by examining how engagement varies across students and their contextual environment. The contextual characteristics associated with higher engagement levels are evaluated to see if these conditions hold across different types of students. Chapter three more thoroughly analyzes what contributes to students persisting through challenging learning moments, and the variation in levels of effort put forth when facing difficulty while learning in science. In chapter four, this dissertation explores additional outcomes associated with student engagement in science

  12. An Investigation into the Lifestyle, Health Habits and Risk Factors of Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Al-Nakeeb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This project examined the lifestyle, health habits and risk factors of young adults at Qatar University. It explored the clustering and differences in dietary habits, body mass index (BMI and physical activity (PA amongst male and female students, both Qatari and non-Qatari. Seven hundred thirty two students aged 18–25 years completed a self-reported questionnaire and an objective measure of BMI. Males and females had a high prevalence of being overweight and obesity and low levels of PA, according to well-established international standards. Three clusters were identified based on the students’ lifestyle and dietary habits. Cluster 1 (high risk factors included those who engaged the least in healthy dietary practices and consumed the most unhealthy foods, participated in less PA and had the highest BMI. Cluster 2 (moderate risk factors included those with considerably more habits falling into the moderate category, engagement in the most PA, the least TV and computer viewing time and had the lowest BMI. Cluster 3 (low risk factors included those who engaged the most with the four healthy dietary practices, the least with the four unhealthy dietary practices and participated in moderate PA per week. This project provides valuable data that could be used by policy makers to address issues concerning student’s health.

  13. The inhibiting factors that principal investigators experience in leading publicly funded research projects

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, James; O'Reilly, Paul; O'Kane, Conor; Mangematin, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Securing public funding to conduct research and leading it by being a principal investigator (PI) is seen as significant career development step. Such a role brings professional prestige but also new responsibilities beyond research leadership to research management. If public funding brings financial and infrastructure support, little is understood about the inhibiting factors that publicly funded PIs face given the research autonomy offered by publicly funded researc...

  14. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on work stress: Evidence from banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Davoudzadeh Moghaddam; Yasaman Mashhadi Farahani

    2015-01-01

    An individual with a career faced with various career challenges may experience work-related stress. Work related stress is a factor that threatens employees’ health. The most common negative consequences of stress are particularly the deterioration of performance and efficiency, decrease in productivity and quality of customer’s services, which results in health problems. Work-related stress is a global issue, and banks are no exception. This paper presents a survey to investigate the influe...

  15. Stretchability of the rectus femoris muscle: investigation of validity and intratester reliability of two methods including X-ray analysis of pelvic tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, J; Björklund, M; Nordgren, B; Sahlstedt, B

    1993-03-01

    Validity and intratester reliability of two test methods designed to identify stretchability of the rectus femoris muscle (RFM) was investigated, combined with x-ray analysis of pelvic tilt in the sagittal plane. The first method is commonly used in clinical practice. The second is a new technique supposed to tilt the pelvis posteriorly and thus further separate the origin and insertion of the muscle. Investigation of validity and intratester reliability of the two methods was made by testing and retesting a random sample of 71 persons. The tests were performed with an equipment that automatically recorded the angle of knee flexion from a previously determined applied torque, indicating the end point of motion for that particular subject. Angle of knee flexion and subjective estimation of pain sensation due to stretch were recorded at each measurement. The pelvic tilt-analysis consisted of test-retest reliability of x-ray measurements, comparison between the methods in both starting and final position, and x-ray and electronic goniometer measurements. All applied torques were measured with a strain gauge. Two out of three criteria of validity favored the new method and the third pointed out the two methods as equal. The two methods as well as the x-ray measurements showed high reliability, and the hypothesis of a more posterior tilted pelvis in the new method was confirmed. The electronic goniometer was less sensitive than x-ray, but proposed to analyse pelvic tilt clinically. Methodology procedures for joint angle measurements are discussed.

  16. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical…

  17. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical…

  18. Managing the academic talent void: Investigating factors in academic turnover and retention in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Theron

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Globally, the demand for academic staff in higher education is expected to continue to increase. The South African situation is exacerbated by the so-called ‘retirement swell’ and turnover and retention problems; measurements to diagnose these factors remain limited.Research purpose: This study aimed to investigate the factors that influence turnover and retention of academic and to validate the developed talent retention diagnostic tool for use in South African higher education institutions.Motivation for the study: Limited research currently exists on the retention factors of academic staff in the South African context.Research approach, design and method: Using an investigative quantitative research approach, the tool was administered to a convenience sample of academics (n = 153 in 13 higher education institutions.Main findings: The results showed an array of distinguishing turnover and retention factors and proved the tool to be a valid and reliable measure. Over half the respondents indicated slight to strong dissatisfaction with compensation and performance management practices. Significantly, 34% indicated that they considered exiting their academic institution, citing unhappiness about compensation, as the most likely reason, whilst 74.5% have previously looked for another job.Practical/managerial implications: The research highlights key areas (i.e. compensation, emotional recognition, a bonus structure that reflects employee contribution, performance management systems, mentorship and career development opportunities that higher education should attend to if they want to retain their key and talented academic staff.Contribution/value-add: The results contribute to new knowledge on the factors that contribute to turnover and retention of academic staff and present a valid and reliable measure to assess these retention factors.

  19. Large A.C. machines theory and investigation methods of currents and losses in stator and rotor meshes including operation with nonlinear loads

    CERN Document Server

    Boguslawsky, Iliya; Hayakawa, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    In this monograph the authors solve the modern scientific problems connected with A.C. motors and generators, based first on the detailed consideration of their physical phenomena. The authors describe the theory and investigative methods they developed and applied in practice, which are considered to be of essential interest for specialists in the field of the electrical engineering industry in European countries, the USA, Argentina, and Brazil, as well as in such countries as India, China, and Iran. This book will be of interest to engineers specialized in the field of the manufacture, operation, and repair of A.C. machines (motors and generators) as well as electric drives; to professors, lecturers, and post-graduate students of technical universities, who are specializing in the field of electric machine engineering and electric drives; and to students who are engaged in the field of high current techniques, electric drives, and electric machine engineering.

  20. Investigation of High-Subsonic Performance Characteristics of a 12 Degree 21-Inch Conical Diffuser, Including the Effects of Change in Inlet-Boundary-Layer Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Martin R.; Klevatt, Paul L.

    1950-01-01

    Investigations were conducted of a 12 degree 21-inch conical diffuser of 2:l area ratio to determine the interrelation of boundary layer growth and performance characteristics. surveys were made of inlet and exit from, longitudinal static pressures were recorded, and velocity profiles were obtained through an inlet Reynolds number range, determined From mass flows and based on inlet diameter of 1.45 x 10(exp 6) to 7.45 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number range of 0.11 to approximately choking. These investigations were made to two thicknesses of inlet boundary layer. The mean value, over the entire range of inlet velocities, of the displacement thickness of the thinner inlet boundary layer was approximately 0.035 inch and that of the thicker inlet boundary layer was approximately six times this value. The loss coefficient in the case of the thinner inlet boundary layer had a value between 2 to 3 percent of the inlet impact pressure over most of the air-flow range. The loss coefficient with the thicker inlet boundary layer was of the order of twice that of the thinner inlet boundary layer at low speeds and approximately three times at high speeds. In both cases the values were substantially less than those given in the literature for fully developed pipe flow. The static-pressure rise for the thinner inlet boundary layer was of the order of 95 percent of that theoretically possible over the entire speed range. For the thicker inlet boundary layer the static pressure rise, as a percentage of that theoretically possible, ranged from 82 percent at low speeds to 68 percent at high speeds.

  1. Including the spatial variability of metal speciation in the effect factor in life cycle impact assessment: Limits of the equilibrium partitioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromson, Clara; Bulle, Cécile; Deschênes, Louise

    2017-03-01

    In life cycle assessment (LCA), the potential terrestrial ecotoxicity effect of metals, calculated as the effect factor (EF), is usually extrapolated from aquatic ecotoxicological data using the equilibrium partitioning method (EqP) as it is more readily available than terrestrial data. However, when following the AMI recommendations (i.e. with at least enough species that represents three different phyla), there are not enough terrestrial data for which soil properties or metal speciation during ecotoxicological testing are specified to account for the influence of soil property variations on metal speciation when using this approach. Alternatively, the TBLM (Terrestrial Biotic Ligand Model) has been used to determine an EF that accounts for speciation, but is not available for metals; hence it cannot be consistently applied to metals in an LCA context. This paper proposes an approach to include metal speciation by regionalizing the EqP method for Cu, Ni and Zn with a geochemical speciation model (the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model 7.0), for 5213 soils selected from the Harmonized World Soil Database. Results obtained by this approach (EF(EqP)regionalized) are compared to the EFs calculated with the conventional EqP method, to the EFs based on available terrestrial data and to the EFs calculated with the TBLM (EF(TBLM)regionalized) when available. The spatial variability contribution of the EF to the overall spatial variability of the characterization factor (CF) has been analyzed. It was found that the EFs(EqP)regionalized show a significant spatial variability. The EFs calculated with the two non-regionalized methods (EqP and terrestrial data) fall within the range of the EFs(EqP)regionalized. The EFs(TBLM)regionalized cover a larger range of values than the EFs(EqP)regionalized but the two methods are not correlated. This paper highlights the importance of including speciation into the terrestrial EF and shows that using the regionalized EqP approach is not an

  2. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF TREATMENT WITH THE INHIBITORS OF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR OF THE CHRONIC UVEITIS REFRACTORY TO THE BASIC THERAPY (INCLUDING AN ASSOCIATED WITH JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rudakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy of chronic uveitis refractory to the basic treatment, in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a very complex problem in pediatrics. Substantial progress in this area resulted after the implementation in practice of inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, as the most effective in such clinical situation drugs adalimumab and infliximab are considered (although infliximab was not officially approved in JIA. Objective. To estimate the cost effectiveness of TNF inhibitors — adalimumab, and infliximab in chronic uveitis, refractory to the basic therapy (including associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Methods. A modeling on the basis of a comparative prospective cohort clinical study was carried out. The analysis was performed by the method «cost–effectiveness» from a position of health and social accounting perspective. Results. It was shown that the frequency and time of remission did not differ when treatment with infliximab (5 mg/kg at 0–2–6 weeks and further once in 6–8 weeks and adalimumab (24 mg/m2 once in 2 weeks. Adalimumab provides a long-term maintenance of remission (no recurrence in 60% of patients within 40 months of observation, whereas 1 year after the treatment with infliximab the frequency of exacerbations was returned to that observed before therapy. The proportion of patients without relapse in the treatment with infliximab for 40 months was 18.8%. Similar results were obtained in a subset of patients with chronic uveitis associated with JIA (with follow-up of 20 months of in a group of infliximab number patients without relapse was 11.1%, with adalimumab therapy — 63.6%. In the general population of patients with refractory chronic uveitis the factor «cost–effectiveness» calculated for a patient with the maintenance of remission for 3 years with adalimumab therapy was in 2,1–2,8 times less than in the treatment with infliximab. In chronic uveitis associated with JIA, the coefficient of

  3. Psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection, among urban high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, M A; Boyer, C B

    1991-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of multiple psychosocial and knowledge-related antecedent factors that may predict sexual and alcohol and drug use behaviors that are associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus infection. Five hundred forty-four ninth-grade urban high school students were surveyed regarding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to STDs and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that higher levels of STD and AIDS knowledge were associated with lower levels of STD and AIDS anxiety (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), fewer negative attitudes toward people with AIDS (R2 delta = 0.09; p less than 0.001), stronger perceptions of self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.03; p less than 0.01), and stronger peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.05). Negative attitudes toward people with AIDS were inversely related to knowledge (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001), social support (R2 delta = 0.02; p less than 0.01), and perceived self-efficacy (R2 delta = 0.01; p less than 0.05). Predictors of alcohol and drug use included perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.08; p less than 0.001) and strong peer affiliation (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.001). The best predictor of sexual risk behavior was alcohol and drug use (R2 delta = 0.07; p less than 0.001). Lower levels of knowledge (R2 delta = 0.14; p less than 0.01) and perceived peer norms (R2 delta = 0.05; p less than 0.05) predicted nonuse of condoms. Our results indicate that several factors relate to adolescent risk for STDs: the connection between peer influence and adolescent risk behaviors, the link between alcohol and drug use and sexual risk behavior, and the role of knowledge in determining nonuse of condoms.

  4. Investigation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids including their respective N-oxides in selected food products available in Hong Kong by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Aaron C H

    2017-07-01

    This study determined the levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), including their respective N-oxides, in foodstuffs available in Hong Kong by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 234 samples (48 food items) were collected randomly from a local market and analysed. About 50% of samples were found to contain detectable amount of PAs. Amongst the 48 food items, PAs were not detected in 11 food items, including barley flour, beef, cattle liver, pork, pig liver, chicken meat, chicken liver, milk, non-fermented tea, Melissa tea and linden tea. For those found to contain detectable PAs, the summed PA content ranged up to 11,000 µg kg(-1). The highest sum of PA content among the 37 food items calculated with lower bound was cumin seed, then followed by oregano, tarragon and herbs de Provence with ranges of 2.5-11,000, 1.5-5100, 8.0-3300 and 18-1300 µg kg(-1) respectively. Among the samples, the highest sum of PA content was detected in a cumin seed sample (11,000 µg kg(-1)), followed by an oregano (5100 µg kg(-1)), a tarragon (3300 µg kg(-1)) and a herbs de Provence (1300 µg kg(-1)). In general, the results of this study agreed well with other published results in peer-reviewed journals, except that the total PAs in honey and specific tea infusion in this study were comparatively lower.

  5. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Various Plasma Actuator Configurations on Lift and Drag Coefficients of a Circular Cylinder Including the Effects of Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siavash TABATABAEIAN; Masoud MIRZAEI; Asghar SADIGHZADEH; Vahid DAMIDEH; Abdollah SHADARAM

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the effects of the existence of plasma actuator electrodes and also various configurations of the actuator for controlling the flow field around a circular cylinder are experimentally investigated.The cylinder is made of PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) and considered as a dielectric barrier.Two electrodes are flush-mounted on the surface of the cylinder and are connected to a DC high voltage power supply for generation of electrical discharge.Pressure distribution results show that the existence of the electrodes and also the plasma are able to change the pressure distribution around the cylinder and consequently the lift and drag coefficients.It is found that the effect of the existence of the electrodes is comparable with the effect of plasma actuator in controlling the flow field around the cylinder and this effect is not reported by other researchers.Eventually it is concluded that the existence of the electrodes or any extra objects on the cylinder and also the existence of the plasma are capable of changing the flow field structure around the cylinder so that the behavior of the lift and drag coefficients of the cylinder will be changed significantly.

  6. Leading-edge forensic DNA analyses and the necessity of including crime scene investigators, police officers and technicians in a DNA elimination database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Martine; Rogic, Anita; Bourgoin, Sarah; Jolicoeur, Christine; Séguin, Diane

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, sophisticated technology has significantly increased the sensitivity and analytical power of genetic analyses so that very little starting material may now produce viable genetic profiles. This sensitivity however, has also increased the risk of detecting unknown genetic profiles assumed to be that of the perpetrator, yet originate from extraneous sources such as from crime scene workers. These contaminants may mislead investigations, keeping criminal cases active and unresolved for long spans of time. Voluntary submission of DNA samples from crime scene workers is fairly low, therefore we have created a promotional method for our staff elimination database that has resulted in a significant increase in voluntary samples since 2011. Our database enforces privacy safeguards and allows for optional anonymity to all staff members. We also offer information sessions at various police precincts to advise crime scene workers of the importance and success of our staff elimination database. This study, a pioneer in its field, has obtained 327 voluntary submissions from crime scene workers to date, of which 46 individual profiles (14%) have been matched to 58 criminal cases. By implementing our methods and respect for individual privacy, forensic laboratories everywhere may see similar growth and success in explaining unidentified genetic profiles in stagnate criminal cases.

  7. Lumbar spine and pelvic posture between standing and sitting: a radiologic investigation including reliability and repeatability of the lumbar lordosis measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Diana E; Soave, David; Ross, Kim; Callaghan, Jack P

    2010-01-01

    Sitting has been identified as a cause of mechanical low back pain. The purpose of this study was to use plain film x-rays to measure lumbar spine and pelvic posture differences between standing and sitting. Eight male subjects were radiographed standing and sitting in an automobile seat. Measures of lumbar lordosis, intervertebral disk angles, lumbosacral angle, lumbosacral lordosis, and sacral tilt were completed. One-way analysis of variance (alpha = .05) was conducted on the variables stated above. A Bland-Altman analysis was conducted to assess agreement and repeatability of the lumbar lordosis angle using 2 raters. Lumbar lordosis values in standing (average, 63 degrees +/- 15 degrees ) and sacral inclination (average, 43 degrees +/- 10 degrees ) decreased by 43 degrees and 44 degrees , respectively, in sitting. Intervertebral joint angles in sitting underwent substantial flexion (L1/L2-5 degrees [+/-3 degrees ], L2/L3-7 degrees [+/-3 degrees ], L3/L4-8 degrees [+/-3 degrees ], L4/L5-13 degrees [+/-3 degrees ], and L5/S1-4 degrees [+/-10 degrees ]). Measures of lumbar lordosis; intervertebral disk angles between L2/L3, L3/L4, and L4/L5; lumbosacral lordosis; lumbosacral angle; and sacral tilt were significantly decreased between standing and sitting (P posture should be investigated because they may play a role in preventing injury and low back pain. Copyright 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary Investigation Of Emirati Women Entrepreneurship In The UAE Motivating Factors Challenges And Government Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rehan Shahnawaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this research is to conduct an in depth preliminary investigation of the Emirati Women Entrepreneurship in the UAE in terms of the factors motivating the Emirati women to engage in the entrepreneurial activities challenges and issues faced by them in that process and initiatives taken by the government of UAE in overcoming those challenges and in encouraging promoting and safeguarding their interests. Methodology This research is an exploratory one due to the fact that the topic of the research strongly requires an in depth analysis or investigation of the underlying motivating factors challenges and issues and the government initiatives taken on behalf of Emirati women entrepreneurs. The research has used qualitative content analysis technique in which the existing literature secondary data on women and Emirati women entrepreneurship was gathered and discussed to serve the purpose of the research such as from other published researches internet searches and books. DiscussionsFindings The research explored an array of factors motivating the Emirati women towards entrepreneurship and the challenges and issues they come across in that process. The motivating factors were divided into positive and negative factors with main emphasis on the positive factors. Among the positive motivating factors were the Emiratization change in the organizational culture and beliefs relaxation of social and cultural structures inde-pendence and self-improvement and development. The negative motivating factors were the necessity unacceptable working conditions inflexible work hours wage gap between males and females and job frustrations. The major challenges and issues they usually come across are traditions cultural religious and social restrictions lack of managerial experience and basic business knowledge low self-confidence and determination male prejudice stereotyping and preconception minimal networking gender based promotional

  9. Investigating the Prevalence of Dementia and Its Associated Risk Factors in a Chinese Nursing Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shanhu; Jin, Xiaoqing; Liu, Caixia; Jin, Yu; Xu, Ying; Chen, Linhui; Xu, Saizhu; Tang, Hongying

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for dementia in residents aged 65 years and older in a Chinese nursing home. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in a nursing home located in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Cognitive status, including the presence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), was measured using a combination of medical history and objective cognitive assessments. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict the associated risk factors. Results In total, 943 residents (334 males and 609 females) aged 84.00±6.67 years (mean±SD) were included. Dementia was diagnosed in 420 (44.5%) residents, and MCI was diagnosed in 195 (20.7%). Mild, moderate, and severe dementia were present in 20.3%, 14.0%, and 65.7% of those in the dementia group, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that dementia was associated with a low education level (p=0.000), an advanced age (p=0.010), and a history of stroke (p=0.023). Conclusions Our study found a high prevalence of dementia in a Chinese nursing home, and a high prevalence of patients with severe dementia. Risk factors for dementia included a low educational level, an advanced age, and a history of stroke. Appropriate interventions need to be applied to this population. PMID:27868396

  10. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  11. An investigation on influential factors of patient-controlled epidural analgesic requirement over time for upper abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Hua Hu

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Our analyses provided valuable information about the factors associated with PCEA consumption over time after upper abdominal surgery. However, the mechanism of how these factors interact over the course of time awaits further investigation.

  12. A methodology to investigate the contribution of conduction and radiation heat transfer to the effective thermal conductivity of packed graphite pebble beds, including the wall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Beer, M., E-mail: maritz.db@gmail.com [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Du Toit, C.G., E-mail: Jat.DuToit@nwu.ac.za [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Rousseau, P.G., E-mail: pieter.rousseau@uct.ac.za [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The radiation and conduction components of the effective thermal conductivity are separated. • Near-wall effects have a notable influence on the effective thermal conductivity. • Effective thermal conductivity is a function of the macro temperature gradient. • The effective thermal conductivity profile shows a characteristic trend. • The trend is a result of the interplay between conduction and radiation. - Abstract: The effective thermal conductivity represents the overall heat transfer characteristics of a packed bed of spheres and must be considered in the analysis and design of pebble bed gas-cooled reactors. During depressurized loss of forced cooling conditions the dominant heat transfer mechanisms for the passive removal of decay heat are radiation and conduction. Predicting the value of the effective thermal conductivity is complex since it inter alia depends on the temperature level and temperature gradient through the bed, as well as the pebble packing structure. The effect of the altered packing structure in the wall region must therefore also be considered. Being able to separate the contributions of radiation and conduction allows a better understanding of the underlying phenomena and the characteristics of the resultant effective thermal conductivity. This paper introduces a purpose-designed test facility and accompanying methodology that combines physical measurements with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to separate the contributions of radiation and conduction heat transfer, including the wall effects. Preliminary results obtained with the methodology offer important insights into the trends observed in the experimental results and provide a better understanding of the interplay between the underlying heat transfer phenomena.

  13. Modifiable risk factors including sunlight exposure and fish consumption are associated with risk of hypertension in a large representative population from Macau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Liang; Ho, Jacky; Feng, Jianzhang; Mpofu, Elias; Dibley, Michael J; Feng, Xiuhua; Van, Florance; Leong, Sokman; Lau, Winne; Lueng, Petra; Kowk, Carrie; Li, Yan; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye E

    2014-10-01

    Chinese populations are known to be at risk for vitamin D deficiency, with some evidence that this is due to lack of exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D deficiency and/or low sun exposure have been associated with higher incidence of hypertension in Caucasians. Thus, we investigated these associations in a Chinese population with a high rate of hypertension. From a random household survey of 1410 residents aged ≥18 years, height, weight and blood pressure were measured and demographic, exercise and dietary data were collected, as well as estimated hours of sunlight exposure on weekdays and weekends (in winter and summer). Modifiable predictors of hypertension in these data were lack of sunlight exposure and low intake of fish as well as smoking, obesity and lack of exercise. When investigated in a linear model, sunlight exposure was negatively associated with hypertension (β=-0.072, pexposure per day compared to none was associated with less hypertension (OR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8). Similarly, consuming either oily fish or seafood more than four times per week compared to less was also associated with less hypertension (oily fish (OR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.5); seafood consumption (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9)). Having daily moderate physical activity compared to none was also associated with a lower risk of hypertension (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.7-0.9). In contrast, being obese compared to normal weight and having more than five pack-years of smoking compared to none were associated with a higher risk of hypertension (OR=4.6, 95% CI: 3.7-5.7; OR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8, respectively). The major new findings of this study are that more sun exposure and high weekly fish consumption (especially oily fish) may be potentially modifiable independent factors for protecting against risk of hypertension in this population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of Ductility Reduction Factor in Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Reinforced Concrete School Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gorgulu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Converting existing Reinforced Concrete (RC frames into RC infill walls is one of the most efficient seismic strengthening technique due to its simplicity in application providing high rigidity, stability and strength in structures. On the other hand, this method affects the seismic behavior of existing RC structure in terms of the energy dissipation capacity or in other words, ductility reduction factor, Rμ. This research is an attempt to investigate the RC infill wall ratio effect on ductility reduction factor in terms of the seismic rehabilitation of the typical RC school buildings. For this purpose, nonlinear static pushover analyses are conducted for existing 3 and 5 story RC school buildings which were rehabilitated with different RC infill wall ratio. Numerical analyses are carried out by using the fiber element based modeling approach in the software, Perform-3D. Based on these analytical results, correlation between the ductility reduction factor and the RC infill wall ratio is obtained for the seismic rehabilitation of the RC school buildings. In addition, two mathematical expressions for the variation of the ductility reduction factor with RC infill wall ratios are proposed in terms of the preliminary seismic rehabilitation assessment of the existing RC school buildings.

  15. [THE RISK FACTORS OF THE DIALYSIS PERITONITIS (THREE-YEARS PROSPECTIVE INVESTIGATION)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishalov, V G; Zavodovskiy, E S; Markulan, L Yu; Goyda, S M

    2015-09-01

    The risk factors of the dialysis peritonitis occurrence were determined in patients with chronic renal disease, to whom a substitute renal therapy, using peritoneal dialysis, was conducted. The results of a three-year prospective investigation and treatment of 73 patients in Kyiv City Oleksandrivska Clinical Hospital on the base of the general surgery and nephrology departments in 2007 - 2010 yrs were studied. The dialysis peritonitis (first episode) have occurred in 42 (57.5%) patients. Cumulative rate of a dialysis peritonitis in accordance to a censored data (the dialysis peritonitis suspension or other causes) have constituted 67.7%. Due to the dialysis peritonitis occurrence the peritoneal dialysis was stopped in 14 (19.2%) patients. The obesity, raising of a serum albumin level, constipation, preliminary injection into the site of the catheter exit site we consider a risk factors for the dialysis peritonitis occurrence.

  16. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Purchase of Comprehensive Car Insurance Policies of Vehicle Owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan EYGÜ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive insurance is the coverage purchased by the individuals in exchange for the premiums paid for insuring their movable properties against the damages caused by either their or others’ faults. Comprehensive insurance is generally rooted in the automotive sector and its applications are generally designed for this sector. Vehicle owners buy their vehicles according to their tastes using a considerable part of their savings. Purchasing of a comprehensive car insurance policy means that the purchaser is transferring the costs borne by the risks to be occurred related to his or her vehicle to the insurance company. Thus, the vehicle is insured against any costs arise in case of any damage. This study were examined to investigate the comprehensive car insurance policy ownership ratio of vehicle owners, factors that may be affecting the ownership of such policies, opinions of policy owners on the insurance company providing the coverage and the factors affecting the decision of not purchasing comprehensive car insurance policies.

  17. An Investigation of Factors Influencing Nurses' Clinical Decision-Making Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Yang, Jinqiu; Liu, Lingying; Ye, Benlan

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the influencing factors on nurses' clinical decision-making (CDM) skills. A cross-sectional nonexperimental research design was conducted in the medical, surgical, and emergency departments of two university hospitals, between May and June 2014. We used a quantile regression method to identify the influencing factors across different quantiles of the CDM skills distribution and compared the results with the corresponding ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. Our findings revealed that nurses were best at the skills of managing oneself. Educational level, experience, and the total structural empowerment had significant positive impacts on nurses' CDM skills, while the nurse-patient relationship, patient care and interaction, formal empowerment, and information empowerment were negatively correlated with nurses' CDM skills. These variables explained no more than 30% of the variance in nurses' CDM skills and mainly explained the lower quantiles of nurses' CDM skills distribution.

  18. INVESTIGATIONS OF MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING TROPOSPHERIC NITRATE AEROSOL USING A COUPLING MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tijian Wang; Shu Li; Fei Jiang; Lijie Gao

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting tropospheric nitrate aerosol formation were investigated through a number of sensitivity studies using the thermodynamic equilibrium model ISORROPIA and the condensed gas-phase chemistry model. Resuits indicate that the equilibrium concentration of nitrate aerosol varies with solar zenith angle, air temperature, relative humidity, initial SO2 concentration, initial NO2 concentration and initial NH3 concentration. NH3 concentration and solar zenith angle play the most important roles, followed by relative humidity and NO2 concentration. It seems that the relations between nitrate aerosol and these four factors, as well as air temperature, are strong and highly nonlinear due to the coupling effect. The influence of SO2 concentration on nitrate aerosol is near-linear and weak.

  19. Investigation of stress intensity factor for internal cracks in FG cylinders under static and dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shariati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available his paper investigates the variations of mode I stress intensity factor (KI for inner penny-shaped and circumferential cracks in functionally graded solid and hollow thick walled cylinders, respectively with the changes of crack geometry, material gradation and loading conditions. The functionally graded material of cylinders consists of epoxy and glass. It is assumed that the mechanical properties vary with a power law in the radial direction of cylinders. Micromechanical models for conventional composites are used to estimate the material properties of functionally graded cylinders. The equations of motion obtained from the extended finite element discretization are solved by the Newmark method in the time domain. The interaction integral method is employed to calculate the mode I stress intensity factor (KI. The MATLAB programming environment was implemented to solve the problem.

  20. Retrospective multicenter matched case-control study on the risk factors for narcolepsy with special focus on vaccinations (including pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Doris; Pavel, Jutta; Mayer, Geert; Geisler, Peter; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2017-06-01

    Studies associate pandemic influenza vaccination with narcolepsy. In Germany, a retrospective, multicenter, matched case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for narcolepsy, particularly regarding vaccinations (seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections (seasonal and pandemic influenza) and to quantify the detected risks. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness who had been referred to a sleep center between April 2009 and December 2012 for multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were eligible. Case report forms were validated according to the criteria for narcolepsy defined by the Brighton Collaboration (BC). Confirmed cases of narcolepsy (BC level of diagnostic certainty 1-4a) were matched with population-based controls by year of birth, gender, and place of residence. A second control group was established including patients in whom narcolepsy was definitely excluded (test-negative controls). A total of 103 validated cases of narcolepsy were matched with 264 population-based controls. The second control group included 29 test-negative controls. A significantly increased odd ratio (OR) to develop narcolepsy (crude OR [cOR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-8.5; adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.0-9.9) was detected in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset as compared to nonvaccinated individuals. Using test-negative controls, in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset, a nonsignificantly increased OR of narcolepsy was detected when compared to nonvaccinated individuals (whole study population, BC levels 1-4a: cOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.5-6.9; aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.3-10.1). The findings of this study support an increased risk for narcolepsy after immunization with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple factors, including non-motor impairments, influence decision making with regard to exercise participation in Parkinson's disease: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Christine; Clemson, Lindy; Canning, Colleen G

    2016-01-01

    To explore how the meaning of exercise and other factors interact and influence the exercise behaviour of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) enrolled in a 6-month minimally supervised exercise program to prevent falls, regardless of whether they completed the prescribed exercise or not. This qualitative study utilised in-depth semi-structured interviews analysed using grounded theory methodology. Four main themes were constructed from the data: adapting to change and loss, the influence of others, making sense of the exercise experience and hope for a more active future. Participation in the PD-specific physiotherapy program involving group exercise provided an opportunity for participants to reframe their identity of their "active" self. Three new influences on exercise participation were identified and explored: non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue, the belief in a finite energy quota, and the importance of feedback. A model was developed incorporating the themes and influences to explain decision-making for exercise participation in this group. Complex and interacting issues, including non-motor impairments, need to be considered in order to enhance the development and ongoing implementation of effective exercise programmes for people with PD. Exercise participation can assist individuals to reframe their identity as they are faced with losses associated with Parkinson's disease and ageing. Non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue may influence exercise participation in people with Parkinson's disease. Particular attention needs to be paid to the provision of feedback in exercise programs for people with Parkinson's disease as it important for their decision-making about continuing exercise.

  2. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including Warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herthel, T D; Rick, M C; Judy, C E; Cohen, N D; Herthel, D J

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes associated with arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented but little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post operative treatment and complications were recorded. Long-term follow-up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3 screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this subgroup of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to

  3. Laser Microdissection Unravels Cell-Type-Specific Transcription in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Roots, Including CAAT-Box Transcription Factor Gene Expression Correlating with Fungal Contact and Spread1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogekamp, Claudia; Arndt, Damaris; Pereira, Patrícia A.; Becker, Jörg D.; Hohnjec, Natalija; Küster, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most widespread symbioses on Earth, promoting nutrient supply of most terrestrial plant species. To unravel gene expression in defined stages of Medicago truncatula root colonization by AM fungi, we here combined genome-wide transcriptome profiling based on whole mycorrhizal roots with real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments that relied on characteristic cell types obtained via laser microdissection. Our genome-wide approach delivered a core set of 512 genes significantly activated by the two mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices and Glomus mossae. Focusing on 62 of these genes being related to membrane transport, signaling, and transcriptional regulation, we distinguished whether they are activated in arbuscule-containing or the neighboring cortical cells harboring fungal hyphae. In addition, cortical cells from nonmycorrhizal roots served as a reference for gene expression under noncolonized conditions. Our analysis identified 25 novel arbuscule-specific genes and 37 genes expressed both in the arbuscule-containing and the adjacent cortical cells colonized by fungal hyphae. Among the AM-induced genes specifying transcriptional regulators were two members encoding CAAT-box binding transcription factors (CBFs), designated MtCbf1 and MtCbf2. Promoter analyses demonstrated that both genes were already activated by the first physical contact between the symbionts. Subsequently, and corresponding to our cell-type expression patterns, they were progressively up-regulated in those cortical areas colonized by fungal hyphae, including the arbuscule-containing cells. The encoded CBFs thus represent excellent candidates for regulators that mediate a sequential reprogramming of root tissues during the establishment of an AM symbiosis. PMID:22034628

  4. Investigating the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief)

    OpenAIRE

    Toll, Benjamin A.; Katulak, Nicole A.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the proposed two-factor structure of the 10-item Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief) and to provide evidence for the psychometric properties of this questionnaire using the seven-point scoring set from the original QSU study [Tiffany, S.T., Drobes, D.J. (1991). The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges. British Journal of Addiction 86, 1467–1476.]. The study sample (N =576) was comprised of smokers presenting...

  5. Investigation on the Regional Loss Factor and Its Anisotropy for Aortic Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmansouri, Nastaran; Alreshidan, Mohammed; Emmott, Alexander; Lachapelle, Kevin; El-Hamamsy, Ismaïl; Cartier, Raymond; Leask, Richard L; Mongrain, Rosaire

    2016-10-26

    An aortic aneurysm is a lethal arterial disease that mainly occurs in the thoracic and abdominal regions of the aorta. Thoracic aortic aneurysms are prevalent in the root/ascending parts of the aorta and can lead to aortic rupture resulting in the sudden death of patients. Understanding the biomechanical and histopathological changes associated with ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAAs), this study investigates the mechanical properties of the aorta during strip-biaxial tensile cycles. The loss factor-defined as the ratio of dissipated energy to the energy absorbed during a tensile cycle-the incremental modulus, and their anisotropy indexes were compared with the media fiber compositions for aneurysmal (n = 26) and control (n = 4) human ascending aortas. The aneurysmal aortas were categorized into the aortas with bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valves (TAV). The strip-biaxial loss factor correlates well with the diameter of the aortas with BAV and TAV (for the axial direction, respectively, R² = 0.71, p = 0.0022 and R² = 0.54, p = 0.0096). The loss factor increases significantly with patients' age in the BAV group (for the axial direction: R² = 0.45, p = 0.0164). The loss factor is isotropic for all TAV quadrants, whereas it is on average only isotropic in the anterior and outer curvature regions of the BAV group. The results suggest that loss factor may be a useful surrogate measure to describe the histopathology of aneurysmal tissue and to demonstrate the differences between ATAAs with the BAV and TAV.

  6. Investigation of the performance based structural safety factor of elbow pipes in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Reserch Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jai Hak [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    The piping systems in nuclear power plant are composed of various typed pipes such as straight pipe, elbow, branch and reducer etc. The elbow is connected from straight pipe to another pipes in order to establish the complicated piping system. Elbow is one of very important components considering management of wall thinning degradation. It is however applied by various loads such as system pressure, earthquake, postulated break loading and many transient loads, which provoke simply the internal pressure, bending and torsional stress. In this study, firstly pipes in the secondary system of the nuclear power plant are investigated in view of the ratio of radius to thickness. Next, a large number of finite element analysis considering the all typed dimensions of commercial pipe has been performed to find out the behavior of TES(Twice Elastic Slope) plastic load of elbows, which is based on evaluation of the structural safety factor. Finally performance based structural safety factor was investigated comparing with maximum allowable load by construction code.

  7. Bidirectional associations between family factors and Internet addiction among adolescents in a prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Wang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Ju-Yu

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of family factors on the occurrence of Internet addiction and determining whether Internet addiction could make any difference in the family function. A total of 2293 adolescents in grade 7 participated in the study. We assessed their Internet addiction, family function, and family factors with a 1-year follow up. In the prospective investigation, inter-parental conflict predicted the incidence of Internet addiction 1 year later in forward regression analysis, followed by not living with mother and allowance to use Internet more than 2 h per day by parents or caregiver. The inter-parental conflict and allowance to use Internet more than 2 h per day also predicted the incidence in girls. Not cared for by parents and family APGAR score predicted the incidence of Internet addiction among boys. The prospective investigation demonstrated that the incidence group had more decreased scores on family APGAR than did the non-addiction group in the 1-year follow-up. This effect was significant only among girls. Inter-parental conflict and inadequate regulation of unessential Internet use predicted risk of Internet addiction, particularly among adolescent girls. Family intervention to prevent inter-parental conflict and promote family function and Internet regulation were necessary to prevent Internet addiction. Among adolescents with Internet addiction, it is necessary to pay attention to deterioration of family function, particularly among girls. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  8. Investigation of the influence factors of polyethylene molecule encapsulated into carbon nanotubes by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qun; He, Guofang; Zhao, Rengao; Li, Yanfei

    2011-09-01

    In this work, the influence factors, namely chirality, temperature, radius and surface chemical modification, of the interaction energy for polyethylene (PE) molecule encapsulated into single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) had been investigated by molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The results showed that all these factors would influence the interaction energy between PE and SWNTs. The interaction energy between PE molecule and the armchair SWNTs is largest among eight kinds of chiral SWNTs. The interaction energy decreases with the increase of temperature or the SWNT radius. The methyl, phenyl, hydroxyl, carboxyl, -F, and amino groups, have been introduced onto the surface of the SWNTs by the simulation software and the influence of SWNT chemical modification has also been investigated. The interaction energy between PE and chemically modified SWNTs is larger than that between PE and pristine SWNTs, and increases with increasing the concentration of the modified groups monotonously. In addition, the group electronegativity and van der Waals force will affect the interaction energy between PE and chemically modified SWNTs greatly, which can be attributed to the electronic structures of the chemically modified groups. This study can provide some useful suggestions for the composite material design and drug transport.

  9. Investigating the effects of Iranian cultural factors on brand equity for strategic management of market share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jahandoost

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Brand is a symbol, logo and indicator of the specific identity of a product manufacturer and the services they render which can create value for both the manufacturer itself and the customers of those products and services. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between Iranian cultural factors with those creating brand value in this industry. The proposed study chooses Philpa System Co. as statistical population and the subject for our case study. The study chooses 56 people who had some past purchase experience from Philpa System as samples. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among the participants. The validity of which was confirmed through depth interviews made with experts of the pertinent industry and its reliability was also calculated using Cronbach's alpha test and was shown to be 82.4 %, which indicated the good reliability of these questionnaires. The data obtained from these questionnaires were analyzed using path analysis and structural equation modeling methods. The results gained from the investigations showed that different aspects of Iranian cultural factors, specifically customer honoring, had the greatest effect on the quality of customers’ perception from the brand; it was also shown that promotion in any of the other aspects presented in Aaker’s brand equity model will directly influence and increase the perceived quality of the brand.

  10. Investigating factors influencing construction waste management efforts in developing countries: an experience from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manowong, Ektewan

    2012-01-01

    Rapid economic growth and urbanization in developing countries lead to extensive construction activities that generate a large amount of waste. A challenge is how to manage construction waste in the most sustainable way. In the developing world, research on construction waste management is scarce and such academic knowledge needs to be responsive to actual practices in the industry in order to be implemented. As construction projects involve a number of participants and stakeholders, their participation and commitment can have a major influence on the goals of green and sustainable construction for urban development. This study provides a significant step in conducting a very first research of this kind in Thailand by aiming to investigate the level of construction stakeholders' commitment as well as the achievement of construction waste management in order to improve short-term practices and to establish a long-term strategic construction waste management plan. In this study, a structural equation model was employed to investigate the influence of factors that are related to environmental aspects, social aspects, and economic aspect of construction waste management. Concern about health and safety was found to be the most significant and dominant influence on the achievement of sustainable construction waste management. Other factors affecting the successful management of construction waste in Thai construction projects were also identified. It is perceived that this study has potential to contribute useful guidelines for practitioners both in Thailand and other developing countries with similar contexts.

  11. Factors Influencing Students’ Acceptance of M-Learning: An Investigation in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Abu-Al-Aish

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available M-learning will play an increasingly significant role in the development of teaching and learning methods for higher education. However, the successful implementation of m-learning in higher education will be based on users’ acceptance of this technology. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to study the factors that affect university students’ intentions to accept m-learning. Based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT (Venkatesh et al., 2003, this study proposes a model to identify the factors that influence the acceptance of m-learning in higher education and to investigate if prior experience of mobile devices affects the acceptance of m-learning. A structural equation model was used to analyse the data collected from 174 participants. The results indicate that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, influence of lecturers, quality of service, and personal innovativeness were all significant factors that affect behavioural intention to use m-learning. Prior experience of mobile devices was also found to moderate the effect of these constructs on behavioural intention. The results of this research extend the UTAUT in the context of m-learning acceptance by adding quality of service and personal innovativeness to the structure of UTAUT and provide practitioners and educators with useful guidelines for designing a successful m-learning system.

  12. Investigating the Underlying Factors of Corruption in the Public Construction Sector: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ming; Le, Yun; Yiu, Kenneth T W; Chan, Albert P C; Hu, Yi

    2016-12-30

    Over recent years, the issue of corruption in the public construction sector has attracted increasing attention from both practitioners and researchers worldwide. However, limited efforts are available for investigating the underlying factors of corruption in this sector. Thus, this study attempted to bridge this knowledge gap by exploring the underlying factors of corruption in the public construction sector of China. To achieve this goal, a total of 14 structured interviews were first carried out, and a questionnaire survey was then administered to 188 professionals in China. Two iterations of multivariate analysis approaches, namely, stepwise multiple regression analysis and partial least squares structural equation modeling were successively utilized to analyze the collected data. In addition, a case study was also conducted to triangulate the findings obtained from the statistical analysis. The results generated from these three research methods achieve the same conclusion: the most influential underlying factor leading to corruption was immorality, followed by opacity, unfairness, procedural violation, and contractual violation. This study has contributed to the body of knowledge by exploring the properties of corruption in the public construction sector. The findings from this study are also valuable to the construction authorities as they can assist in developing more effective anti-corruption strategies.

  13. [Investigation of psychological state and its influencing factors in children with epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Zhou, Hui; Xu, Ming; Lu, Sheng-Li; Hong, Fei

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the psychological state of children with epilepsy and analyze its influencing factors. The Mental Health Scale for Child and Adolescent was used to survey 113 children with epilepsy and 114 normal children to evaluate and compare their psychological state. Questionnaires were used to investigate the general status of all subjects and the disease condition and treatment of children with epilepsy. The possible influencing factors for the psychological state of children with epilepsy were analyzed. The mental health status of children with epilepsy was poorer than that of normal children in cognition, thinking, emotion, will-behavior, and personality traits (Ptypes of antiepileptic drugs were correlated with the psychological state of children with epilepsy. There is a wider range of psychological health problems in children with epilepsy than in normal children. Poor family living environment, poor seizure control, and use of many antiepileptic drugs are the risk factors affecting the psychological state of children with epilepsy. Improving family living environment, controlling seizures, and monotherapy help to improve the psychological state of children with epilepsy.

  14. [Epidemiological investigation and correlation factors analysis of voice diseases of 5758 business dealers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zhengcai; Zhu, Qiaoying; Zong, Huiqin; Fu, Weiqing; Zhang, Jian

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the epidemic features and risk factors of voice diseases of 5758 business dealers. Questionnaire survey was conducted among 5785 business dealers of four markets in Yiwu city by random cluster sampling from March to July, 2006. They were also examined by indirect laryngoscopy. The incidence of voice disease was calculated and the risk factors were evaluated in four markets. The incidence of voice disease was 39.3%, 18.8%, 28.4% and 58.1% in garment market, crafts market, stock market, and vegetable market, respectively. The average incidence was 30.4% in four markets. The difference of incidence among four markets was statistically significant (P market. Chronic laryngitis and polyp of vocal cord were found to be the major pathological manifestations in men, while Chronic laryngitis and vocal nodules were found to be the major pathological manifestations in women. In addition, laryngeal carcinoma was confirmed in 8 cases. Market noise, pollution, unhealthy habits of business trade and excessive voice were the high risk factors. The female and the business dealers aged from 30 to 50 were the high risk people. Varied relevant measures should be taken to prevent and control voice disease in different subgroups of population. People should be examined thoroughly as soon as they got voice problem. Improvement of market environment and timely intervention may reduce the prevalence rate of voice disease.

  15. Epidemiology of temporomandibular disorders: implications for the investigation of etiologic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeResche, L

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of the distribution, determinants, and natural history of disease in populations. Epidemiology has several uses in addition to its traditional role of documenting the public health significance of a condition. Notably, epidemiologic methods and data can be used to identify and verify causes of disease. This article reviews the epidemiologic data on pain in the temporomandibular region, and on signs and symptoms associated with specific subtypes of temporomandibular disorders, with the aim of identifying possible etiologic factors for these conditions that deserve further study. Despite methodologic and population differences, several consistencies are apparent in the epidemiologic literature. Pain in the temporomandibular region appears to be relatively common, occurring in approximately 10% of the population over age 18; it is primarily a condition of young and middle-aged adults, rather than of children or the elderly, and is approximately twice as common in women as in men. This prevalence pattern suggests that etiologic investigations should be directed at biologic and psychosocial factors that are more common in women than in men, and diminish in older age groups. Most signs and symptoms associated with particular temporomandibular disorders (e.g., joint sounds, pain in the joint) also appear to be more prevalent in women than in men, although age patterns for these signs and symptoms are not as clear as for temporomandibular pain. The available data highlight the need for further research on etiologic factors associated with temporomandibular pain and with specific diagnostic subtypes of temporomandibular disorders.

  16. Injury rates and injury risk factors among federal bureau of investigation new agent trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapik Joseph J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors were acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire and existing data at the FBI Academy. Results A total of 426 men and 105 women participated in the project. Thirty-five percent of men and 42% of women experienced one or more injuries during training. The injury incidence rate was 2.5 and 3.2 injuries/1,000 person-days for men and women, respectively (risk ratio (women/men = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.7. The activities most commonly associated with injuries (% of total were defensive tactics training (58%, physical fitness training (20%, physical fitness testing (5%, and firearms training (3%. Among the men, higher injury risk was associated with older age, slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the physical fitness test (PFT, lower self-rated physical activity, lower frequency of aerobic exercise, a prior upper or lower limb injury, and prior foot or knee pain that limited activity. Among the women higher injury risk was associated with slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the PFT, and prior back pain that limited activity. Conclusion The results of this investigation supported those of a previous retrospective investigation emphasizing that lower fitness and self-reported pain limiting activity were associated with higher injury risk among FBI new agents.

  17. A preliminary study investigating the factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Tiffany Monique

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the significant factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females. A quantitative research design with a qualitative component was employed. Ex post facto survey research was conducted utilizing an online questionnaire to collect data from participants. African American undergraduate females that had declared a major in STEM comprised the target population for the study. As a basis for comparison, a second data collection ensued. All non-African American undergraduate females majoring in STEM also received the survey instrument to determine if there was a significant difference between factors that influence STEM major selection between the two groups. The Social Cognitive Career Choice Model comprised the conceptual framework for this study. Frequencies and percentages illustrated the demographic characteristics of the sample, as well as the average influence levels of each of the items without regard for level of significance. The researcher conducted an independent samples t-test to compare the mean scores for undergraduate African American females majoring in STEM and non-African American females majoring in STEM on each influential factor on the survey instrument. The researcher coded responses to open-ended questions to generate themes and descriptions. The data showed that African American female respondents were very influenced by the following items: specific interest in the subject, type of work, availability of career opportunities after graduation, parent/guardian, precollege coursework in science, and introductory college courses. In addition, the majority of respondents were very influenced by each of the confidence factors. African American females were overwhelmingly not influenced by aptitude tests. African American females were more influenced than their non-African American female counterparts for the following factors: reputation of the university, college or department, high level

  18. Structural equation model to investigate the factors influencing quality performance in Indian construction projects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Shanmugapriya; K Subramanian

    2015-09-01

    Indian construction industry has seen remarkable growth and it is an integral part of the economy with massive foreign investments which demands quality construction. The pressure to reduce time and cost of construction increases the risk on the part of stakeholders with respect to quality and safety of the construction. The problem is serious and dangerous in developing countries like India which requires focus and attention for sustained growth in construction sector. This research reports on the adoption and development of structural equation model to study the fundamental relationship between five enablers of European Foundation for quality management (EFQM) framework to improve the quality performance in Indian construction projects. Data collected from clients, contractors and consultants of Indian construction industry through questionnaire survey was used to analyze the conceptual framework using smart PLS software. The conceptual model in this research includes eight hypotheses and T-statistics values is used for checking the significance of the hypothesis. The findings of the study revealed that leadership factor has strongest total effect on people factor (Path coefficient = 0.77) and process factor has strongest effect in achieving the goals of quality performance improvement in construction projects (Path coefficient = 0.7). The results indicate that Indian construction organizations must give top priority to leadership and process related problems in various phases of the project to result in continuous improvement in quality performance.

  19. Factors Affecting the Online Shopping Behavior: An Empirical Investigation in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Tan Vu Khanh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Online shopping has become new type of retail shopping. It has now been adopted all over the world including Vietnam. This shopping method is still not as well known or accepted as in many other countries, and though the knowledge of online shopping in Vietnam is now beginning to increase rapidly, to know the factors influencing online shopping behavior of Vietnam consumers there are several articles written. The main objective of this study is to analyze factors affecting on online shopping behavior of consumers that might be one of the most important issues of e-commerce and marketing field. However, there is very limited knowledge about online consumer behavior because it is a complicated socio-technical phenomenon and involves too many factors. The model was assessed based on the data collected from 238 participants using a survey questionnaire. Finally regression analysis was used on data in order to test hypothesizes of study. This study can be considered as an applied research from purpose perspective and descriptive-survey with regard to the nature and method.

  20. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  1. Investigation of correction factors for non-reference conditions in ion chamber photon dosimetry with Monte-Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, Joerg [Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik, Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Philipps Univ. Marburg (Germany); Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz (IMPS), Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg (Germany); Heverhagen, Johannes T. [Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik, Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Philipps Univ. Marburg (Germany); Karle, Heiko [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radioonkologie sowie Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Univ., Mainz (Germany); Zink, Klemens [Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz (IMPS), Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Current dosimetry protocols require geometrical reference conditions for the determination of absorbed dose in external radiotherapy. Whenever these geometrical conditions cannot be maintained the application of additional corrections becomes necessary, in principle. The current DIN6800-2 protocol includes a corresponding factor k{sub NR}, but numerical values are lacking and no definite information about the magnitude of this correction is available yet. This study presents Monte-Carlo based calculations within the 6 MV-X photon field of a linear accelerator for a common used ion chamber (PTW31010) employing the EGSnrc code system. The linear accelerator model was matched to measurements, showing good agreement and is used as a realistic source. The individual perturbation correction factors as well as the resulting correction factor k{sub NR} were calculated as a function of depth for three field sizes, as a function of central axis distance for the largest field and within the build-up region. The behaviour of the ion chamber was further investigated for an idealized hypothetical field boundary. Within the field of the linear accelerator where charged particle equilibrium is achieved the factor k{sub NR} was generally below {proportional_to}0.5%. In the build-up region a depth dependent correction of up to 2% was calculated when positioning the chamber according to DIN6800-2. Minimizing the depth dependence of the corrections in the build-up region lead to a slightly different positioning of the ion chamber as currently recommended. In regions of the hypothetical field boundary with missing charged particle equilibrium and high dose gradients, the ion chamber response changed by up to {proportional_to}40%, caused by the comparatively large volume (0.125 cm{sup 3}) of the investigated chamber. (orig.)

  2. Preliminary investigation of plasma levels of sex hormones and human growth factor(s, and P300 latency as correlates to cognitive decline as a function of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner Mallory M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is marked by declines in levels of many sex hormones and growth factors, as well as in cognitive function. The P300 event-related potential has been established as a predictor of cognitive decline. We decided to determine if this measure, as well as 2 standard tests of memory and attention, may be correlated with serum levels of sex hormones and growth factors, and if there are any generalizations that could be made based on these parameters and the aging process. Findings In this large clinically based preliminary study several sex-stratified associations between hormone levels and cognition were observed, including (1 for males aged 30 to 49, both IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (2 for males aged 30 to 49, the spearman correlation between prolonged P300 latency and low free testosterone was significant; (3 for males aged 60 to 69, there was a significant negative correlation between P300 latency and DHEA levels; (4 for females aged 50 to 59 IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (5 for females at all age periods, estrogen and progesterone were uncorrelated with P300 latency; and (6 for females aged 40 to 69, there was significant negative correlation between DHEA levels and P300 latency. Moreover there were no statistically significant correlations between any hormone and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-111. However, in females, there was a significant positive correlation between estrogen levels and the number of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD complaints. Conclusion Given certain caveats including confounding factors involving psychiatric and other chronic diseases as well as medications, the results may still have important value. If these results could be confirmed in a more rigorously controlled investigation, it may have important value in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments and decline.

  3. Analysis of Traffic Crashes Involving Pedestrians Using Big Data: Investigation of Contributing Factors and Identification of Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kun; Ozbay, Kaan; Kurkcu, Abdullah; Yang, Hong

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to explore the potential of using big data in advancing the pedestrian risk analysis including the investigation of contributing factors and the hotspot identification. Massive amounts of data of Manhattan from a variety of sources were collected, integrated, and processed, including taxi trips, subway turnstile counts, traffic volumes, road network, land use, sociodemographic, and social media data. The whole study area was uniformly split into grid cells as the basic geographical units of analysis. The cell-structured framework makes it easy to incorporate rich and diversified data into risk analysis. The cost of each crash, weighted by injury severity, was assigned to the cells based on the relative distance to the crash site using a kernel density function. A tobit model was developed to relate grid-cell-specific contributing factors to crash costs that are left-censored at zero. The potential for safety improvement (PSI) that could be obtained by using the actual crash cost minus the cost of "similar" sites estimated by the tobit model was used as a measure to identify and rank pedestrian crash hotspots. The proposed hotspot identification method takes into account two important factors that are generally ignored, i.e., injury severity and effects of exposure indicators. Big data, on the one hand, enable more precise estimation of the effects of risk factors by providing richer data for modeling, and on the other hand, enable large-scale hotspot identification with higher resolution than conventional methods based on census tracts or traffic analysis zones. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Investigation of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): exploratory and higher order factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (D. Wechsler, 2008b). Results indicated that the WAIS-IV subtests were properly associated with the theoretically proposed first-order factors, but all but one factor-extraction criterion recommended extraction of one or two factors. Hierarchical exploratory analyses with the Schmid and Leiman procedure found that the second-order g factor accounted for large portions of total and common variance, whereas the four first-order factors accounted for small portions of total and common variance. It was concluded that the WAIS-IV provides strong measurement of general intelligence, and clinical interpretation should be primarily at that level.

  5. Human factors issues and approaches in the spatial layout of a space station control room, including the use of virtual reality as a design analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Joseph P., II

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering support was provided for the 30% design review of the late Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA). The PCA was to be the payload operations control room, analogous to the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). This effort began with a systematic collection and refinement of the relevant requirements driving the spatial layout of the consoles and PCA. This information was used as input for specialized human factors analytical tools and techniques in the design and design analysis activities. Design concepts and configuration options were developed and reviewed using sketches, 2-D Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings, and immersive Virtual Reality (VR) mockups.

  6. An Investigation of the Factor Structure and Convergent and Discriminant Validity of the Five-Factor Model Rating Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The Five-Factor Model Rating Form (FFMRF) is a one-page measure designed to provide an efficient assessment of the higher order domains of the Five Factor Model (FFM) as well as the more specific, lower order facets proposed by McCrae and Costa. Although previous research has suggested that the FFMRF's assessment of the lower order facets converge…

  7. Ecologic risk factor investigation of clusters of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiensin, Thanawat; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Songserm, Thaweesak; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Chaichoun, Kridsada; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Wongkasemjit, Surapong; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Chanachai, Karoon; Thanapongtham, Weerapong; Chotinan, Suwit; Stegeman, Arjan; Nielen, Mirjam

    2009-06-15

    This study was conducted to investigate space and time clusters of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection and to determine risk factors at the subdistrict level in Thailand. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) was diagnosed in 1890 poultry flocks located in 953 subdistricts during 2004-2007. The ecologic risk for H5N1 virus infection was assessed on the basis of a spatial-based case-control study involving 824 case subdistricts and 3296 control subdistricts from 6 study periods. Risk factors investigated in clustered areas of H5N1 included human and animal demographic characteristics, poultry production systems, and wild birds and their habitats. Six variables remained statistically significant in the final model: flock density of backyard chickens (odds ratio [OR], 0.98), flock density of fighting cocks (OR, 1.02), low and high human density (OR, 0.60), presence of quail flocks (OR, 1.21), free-grazing duck flocks (OR, 2.17), and a poultry slaughterhouse (OR, 1.33). We observed a strong association between subdistricts with H5N1 virus-infected poultry flocks and evidence of prior and concomitant H5N1 infection in wild birds in the same subdistrict.

  8. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Elementary School Students’ BMI Values Based on the System Dynamics Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Syung Lan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students’ BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student’s personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and implementation of school nutrition education, and students’ peer interaction. The results of this study showed that students with more adequate health concepts usually have better eating behaviors and consequently have less chance of becoming obese. In addition, this study also verified that educational attainment and socioeconomic status of parents have a positive correlation with students’ amounts of physical activity, and nutrition education has a prominent influence on changing students’ high-calorie diets.

  9. Studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, R.; San Juan, C.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we review studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics, making special emphasis on the policy framework in the European Union. We find several conclusions, among which the following should be emphasized. First, this review highlights the existence of different methodologies to build up models to identify the effects of policy reforms affecting land use and desertification. Second, use of micro data to set up an econometric-process simulation model of land use has already been used with success. Third, in the geographical distribution of land use, prices drive all short and long-rung processes. Finally, logistic models have recently been used to study micro decisions at the agricultural sector to identify relative rents and land characteristics such as location and soil fertility as main determinants of land use patters. (Author) 8 refs.

  10. INVESTIGATION OF FACTORS INFLUENCING ON RADIATION SITUATION FORMING DURING UTILIZATION OF NUCLEAR OBJECTS OF MARINE EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of the radiation situation investigation during fulfilling operations of utilization of nuclear objects of marine equipment in the facilities of nuclear shipbuilding and ship repair of Murmansk and Archangelsk regions. The results of research had reviled main radiation indices, which determine the facilities staff working conditions. During the cutting of constructions of nuclear objects of marine equipment the levels of radioactive contamination of the surfaces and aerosols volumetric activity in a whole do not exceed permissible levels set in RSS-99/2009 and depend on the types of operations fulfilling in the utilized object. The determining radiation factor for classifying of working conditions in the facilities is the equivalent dose rate of gamma-exposure the values of which are in the range of 0.5 – 8700.0 μSv/h.

  11. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Utilization of Information Technology (IT by Agricultural Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rezaei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the aim of investigating factors affecting utilization of information technology by students of agriculture. A survey approach was used in this study and a questionnaire was developed to gather the data. The study population was postgraduate students (MS and PhD of economic and agricultural development faculty in Tehran University who were selected by applying random sampling technique. Sample size for students was 61 persons. Data was analyzed by using SPSS/WIN software. The results of the research indicated that there was a positive significant relationship between using of information technology by students and their age, average, prior experience, information technology skills, innovativeness, perceived ease of use, attitude and self-efficacy. The relationship between computer anxiety and using of IT was negative. Stepwise Regression Analysis showed that innovativeness and attitude predict 53.2 percent of variations of IT use by students.

  12. A preliminary factor analytic investigation into the firstorder factor structure of the Fifteen Factor Plus (15FQ+ on a sample of Black South African managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seretse Moyo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The Fifteen Factor Questionnaire Plus (15FQ+ is a prominent personality questionnaire that organisations frequently use in personnel selection in South Africa.Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to undertake a factor analytic investigation of the first-order factor structure of the 15FQ+.Motivation for the study: The construct validity of the 15FQ+, as a measure of personality, is necessary even though it is insufficient to justify its use in personnel selection.Research design, approach and method: The researchers evaluated the fit of the measurement model, which the structure and scoring key of the 15FQ+ implies, in a quantitative study that used an ex post facto correlation design through structural equation modelling. They conducted a secondary data analysis. They selected a sample of 241 Black South African managers from a large 15FQ+ database.Main findings: The researchers found good measurement model fit. The measurement model parameter estimates were worrying. The magnitude of the estimated model parameters suggests that the items generally do not reflect the latent personality dimensions the designers intended them to with a great degree of precision. The items are reasonably noisy measures of the latent variables they represent.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should use the 15FQ+ carefully on Black South African managers until further local research evidence becomes available.Contribution/value-add: The study is a catalyst to trigger the necessary additional research we need to establish convincingly the psychometric credentials of the 15FQ+ as a valuable assessment tool in South Africa.

  13. An investigation into the determining factors of zoo visitor attendances in UK zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew William Whitworth

    Full Text Available The debate as to which animals are most beneficial to keep in zoos in terms of financial and conservative value is readily disputed; however, demographic factors have also been shown to relate to visitor numbers on an international level. The main aims of this research were: (1 To observe the distribution and location of zoos across the UK, (2 to develop a way of calculating zoo popularity in terms of the species kept within a collection and (3 to investigate the factors related to visitor numbers regarding admission costs, popularity of the collection in terms of the species kept and local demographic factors. Zoo visitor numbers were positively correlated with generated popularity ratings for zoos based on the species kept within a collection and admission prices (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126 and n = 34, r = -0.430, P = 0.011. Animal collections are aggregated around large cities and tourist regions, particularly coastal areas. No relationship between demographic variables and visitor numbers was found (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126, which suggests that the popularity of a zoo's collection relative to the types and numbers of species kept is more indicative of a collection's visitor numbers than its surrounding demographic figures. Zoos should incorporate generating high popularity scores as part of their collection planning strategies, to ensure that they thrive in the future, not only as tourist attractions but also as major conservation organizations.

  14. An investigation into the determining factors of zoo visitor attendances in UK zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Andrew William

    2012-01-01

    The debate as to which animals are most beneficial to keep in zoos in terms of financial and conservative value is readily disputed; however, demographic factors have also been shown to relate to visitor numbers on an international level. The main aims of this research were: (1) To observe the distribution and location of zoos across the UK, (2) to develop a way of calculating zoo popularity in terms of the species kept within a collection and (3) to investigate the factors related to visitor numbers regarding admission costs, popularity of the collection in terms of the species kept and local demographic factors. Zoo visitor numbers were positively correlated with generated popularity ratings for zoos based on the species kept within a collection and admission prices (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126 and n = 34, r = -0.430, P = 0.011). Animal collections are aggregated around large cities and tourist regions, particularly coastal areas. No relationship between demographic variables and visitor numbers was found (Pearson correlation: n = 34, r = 0.268, P = 0.126), which suggests that the popularity of a zoo's collection relative to the types and numbers of species kept is more indicative of a collection's visitor numbers than its surrounding demographic figures. Zoos should incorporate generating high popularity scores as part of their collection planning strategies, to ensure that they thrive in the future, not only as tourist attractions but also as major conservation organizations.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF INFLUENTIAL FACTORS FOR BICYCLE CRASHES USING A SPATIOTEMPORAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gill

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the numerous potential advantages of indulging in bicycling, such as elevation of health and environment along with mitigation of congestion, the cyclists are a vulnerable group of commuters which is exposed to safety risks. This study aims to investigate the explanatory variables at transportation planning level which have a significant impact on the bicycle crashes. To account for the serial changes around the built environment, the linear time trend as well as time-varying coefficients are utilized for the covariates. These model modifications help account for the variations in the environment which may escape the incorporated variables due to lack of robustness in data. Also, to incorporate the interaction of roadway, demographic, and socioeconomic features within a Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ, with the bicycle crashes of that area, a spatial correlation is integrated. This spatial correlation accounts for the spatially structured random effects which capture the unobserved heterogeneity and add towards building more comprehensive model with relatively precise estimates. Two different age groups, the student population in the TAZs, the presence of arterial roads and bike lanes, were observed to be statistically significant variables related with bicycle crashes. These observations will guide the transportation planning organizations which focus on the entity of TAZ while developing policies. The results of the current study establish a quantifies relationship between the significant factors and the crash count which will enable the planners to choose the most cost-efficient, yet most productive, factors which needs to be addressed for mitigation of crashes.

  16. Investigating the accessibility factors that influence antenatal care services utilisation in Mangwe district, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugli, Augustine K.; Mpofu, Molyn

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal and infant mortality remains a huge public health problem in developing countries. One of the strategies to minimise the risks of both maternal and infant mortality is access to and utilisation of antenatal care (ANC) services. Aim This study aimed to investigate the accessibility factors that influence the use of ANC services in Mangwe district. Methods A qualitative approach using explorative design was adopted to target women who have babies under 1 year of age. The study was conducted in Mangwe district, Matabeleland South province, Zimbabwe. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and observations. Data saturation was reached after 15 women who were conveniently sampled were interviewed. Field notes were analysed thematically using Tech’s steps. Lincoln and Guba’s criteria ensured trustworthiness of the study findings. Results Accessibility factors such as lack of transport, high transport costs and long distances to health care facilities, health care workers’ attitudes, type and quality of services as well as delays in receiving care influence women’s utilisation of ANC services in Mangwe district, Zimbabwe. Conclusion The study concluded that women were still facing problems of unavailability of nearby clinics; therefore, it was recommended that the government should avail resources for women to use. Recommendations Mangwe District Health Department should provide mobile clinics rendering ANC services in distant rural areas. PMID:28697619

  17. An observational investigation of poker style and the five-factor personality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven C; Mitchell, Laura A

    2010-06-01

    Little empirical investigation has been made of the relationship between personality and gambling play style. In an observation of on-table poker behavior, this study classified 44 players competing in an amateur league (43 male; mean age 32) according to two main dimensions of play style; tight or loose and aggressive or passive. Superstitious beliefs towards the game were additionally measured. The NEO-PI-R questionnaire (Costa and McCrae, Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO-five factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual, 1992) was used to measure personality according to the five-factor model. Results showed players with superstitious beliefs to be significantly higher in neuroticism and lower in conscientiousness and than those with no superstitious beliefs. Results approaching significance showed players adopting an aggressive style to be higher in extraversion than passive players and superstitious players to be lower in extraversion than non-superstitious players. Analysis of play style according to age of player revealed a significantly higher mean age among loose compared to tight players. Implications of results concerning validity of these style classifications and potential development in future work are discussed.

  18. Investigating the accessibility factors that influence antenatal care services utilisation in Mangwe district, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoba Nyathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal and infant mortality remains a huge public health problem in developing countries. One of the strategies to minimise the risks of both maternal and infant mortality is access to and utilisation of antenatal care (ANC services.Aim: This study aimed to investigate the accessibility factors that influence the use of ANC services in Mangwe district.Methods: A qualitative approach using explorative design was adopted to target women who have babies under 1 year of age. The study was conducted in Mangwe district, Matabeleland South province, Zimbabwe. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and observations. Data saturation was reached after 15 women who were conveniently sampled were interviewed. Field notes were analysed thematically using Tech’s steps. Lincoln and Guba’s criteria ensured trustworthiness of the study findings.Results: Accessibility factors such as lack of transport, high transport costs and long distances to health care facilities, health care workers’ attitudes, type and quality of services as well as delays in receiving care influence women’s utilisation of ANC services in Mangwe district, Zimbabwe.Conclusion: The study concluded that women were still facing problems of unavailability of nearby clinics; therefore, it was recommended that the government should avail resources for women to use.Recommendations: Mangwe District Health Department should provide mobile clinics rendering ANC services in distant rural areas.

  19. Factors influencing knowledge contribution:An empirical investigation of social networking website users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengli; DENG; Ting; ZHOU; Min; ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:In the Web 2.0 era,leveraging the collective power of user knowledge contributions has become an important part of the study of collective intelligence.This research aims to investigate the factors which influence knowledge contribution behavior of social networking sites(SNS)users.Design/methodology/approach:The data were obtained from an online survey of 251 social networking sites users.Structural equation modeling analysis was used to validate the proposed model.Findings:Our survey shows that the individuals’motivation for knowledge contribution,their capability of contributing knowledge,interpersonal trust and their own habits positively influence their knowledge contribution behavior,but reward does not significantly influence knowledge contribution in the online virtual community.Research limitations:Respondents of our online survey are mainly undergraduate and graduate students.A limited sample group cannot represent all of the population.A larger survey involving more SNS users may be useful.Practical implications:The results have provided some theoretical basis for promoting knowledge contribution and user viscosity.Originality/value:Few studies have investigated the impact of social influence and user habits on knowledge contribution behavior of SNS users.This study can make a theoretical contribution by examining how the social influence processes and habits affect one’s knowledge contribution behavior using online communities.

  20. Investigation of factors on a fungal biofilter to treat waste gas with ethyl mercaptan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guo-ying; LIU Jun-xin

    2004-01-01

    The biofilter is cost-effective for the waste gases treatment. The bacterial is the main microorganism in the conventional biofilters. However, it faces some problems on the elimination of hydrophobic compounds. In order to overcome these problems, the biofilters with fungi were developed. The objective of this study is to investigate the factors affecting ethyl mercaptan(EM)-degradation using a fungal biofilter. A laboratory experiment was set up. The effects of loading rate, empty bed residence times(EBRT) and pH on EM degradation were investigated. Over 95% removals of EM could be achieved, under the condition of the influent loadings below 50 g/(m·h). Removal efficiencies improved to 98% with EM loading decreased to 45 g/(m·h). For long EBRT of 58 s corresponding to a flow rate of 0.3 m3/h, the EM removal efficiencies of over 98% were observed. However, when EBRT was decreased to 14 s, the removal efficiencies fell under 80%. The pH range of 3-5 was feasible to fungi.

  1. [Investigation of incidence and risk factors of subcutaneous granulomas induced by injection of leuprorelin acetate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Shinji; Nakai, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Kagebayashi, Yoriaki; Samma, Shoji

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the incidence of granuloma and its related factors in 180 patients with prostate cancer who showed subcutaneous granuloma formation during androgen deprivation therapy with subcutaneously administered leuprorelin acetate. A granuloma was defined as a persistent induration over 30 mm in diameter in the injected portion. Small indurations which often developed and disappeared after every injection were excluded. The survey was performed using a questionnaire after receiving written informed consent. Among the 180 patients with prostate cancer, 21 (11.7%) developed a granuloma at the injection portion, and subsequently the injection of leuprorelin acetate had to be discontinued. Eighteen of the 21 patients alternatively received goserelin acetate. Three patients had high-grade granulomas with ulcer and abscess formation, and were successfully treated with oral antibiotics. The average duration between the first injection of leuprorelin acetate and granuloma formation was 20.2 months (range : 4 to 62 months). There was no association between granuloma formation and patient backgrounds, such as allergic predisposition and past history. Twenty-one of the 180 prostatic cancer patients developed subcutaneous granuloma induced by the injection of leuprorelin acetate. The investigation showed an unexpectedly high incidence of granuloma formation. We must explain the risk of developing subcutaneous granuloma to the patients before introducing leuprorelin acetate.

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors: investigational therapies for the treatment of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidemann AK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anja K Weidemann,1 Ania A Crawshaw,2 Emily Byrne,3 Helen S Young1 1The Dermatology Centre, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 2Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton, UK; 3University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory autoimmune condition in which environmental factors and genetic predisposition contribute to the development of disease in susceptible individuals. Angiogenesis is known to be a key pathogenic feature of psoriasis. Local and systemic elevation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A has been demonstrated in the skin and plasma of patients with psoriasis and is known to correlate with improvement following some traditional psoriasis treatments. A number of VEGF inhibitors are licensed for the treatment of malignancies and eye disease and isolated case reports suggest that some individuals with psoriasis may improve when exposed to these agents. The small number of cases and lack of unified reporting measures makes it difficult to draw generalizations and underline the heterogeneity of psoriasis as a disease entity. Though not yet licensed for the treatment of psoriasis in humans, experimental data supports the potential of VEGF inhibitors to influence relevant aspects of human cell biology (such as endothelial cell differentiation and to improve animal models of skin disease. Given the multi-factorial nature of psoriasis it is unlikely that VEGF inhibitors will be effective in all patients, however they have the potential to be a valuable addition to the therapeutic arsenal in selected cases. Current VEGF inhibitors in clinical use are associated with a number of potentially serious side effects including hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, and gastrointestinal perforation. Such risks require careful consideration in psoriasis populations particularly in light of growing concerns linking psoriasis to increased

  3. An investigation on factors influencing job satisfaction: A case study of electricity distribution firm

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    Zahra Boroumand

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction plays an essential role on the success of any organizations. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the effects of five factors including work conditions, pay, promotion, supervisor and co-worker on job satisfaction. The proposed study is performed among 130 employees who work for one of Iranian transmission electricity in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among selected employees and, at the same time, measured overall job satisfaction from other method. The results of testing different hypotheses indicate that all employees are satisfied from their job (t-student=3.243, P-value=0.01. The study also presents a method to find desirable weights for each component of job satisfaction.

  4. An investigation into problematic smartphone use: The role of narcissism, anxiety, and personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zaheer; Griffiths, Mark D; Sheffield, David

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Over the last decade, worldwide smartphone usage has greatly increased. Alongside this growth, research on the influence of smartphones on human behavior has also increased. However, a growing number of studies have shown that excessive use of smartphones can lead to detrimental consequences in a minority of individuals. This study examines the psychological aspects of smartphone use particularly in relation to problematic use, narcissism, anxiety, and personality factors. Methods A sample of 640 smartphone users ranging from 13 to 69 years of age (mean = 24.89 years, SD = 8.54) provided complete responses to an online survey including modified DSM-5 criteria of Internet Gaming Disorder to assess problematic smartphone use, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory. Results The results demonstrated significant relationships between problematic smartphone use and anxiety, conscientiousness, openness, emotional stability, the amount of time spent on smartphones, and age. The results also demonstrated that conscientiousness, emotional stability, and age were independent predictors of problematic smartphone use. Conclusion The findings demonstrate that problematic smartphone use is associated with various personality factors and contributes to further understanding the psychology of smartphone behavior and associations with excessive use of smartphones.

  5. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    for up to 22 months with 1-3 mg/kg/day. Spironolactone, at in vivo attainable doses, markedly suppressed transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines and, accordingly, inhibited release of tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor....... In conclusion, spironolactone inhibits production of several proinflammatory cytokines considered to be of pathogenic importance in many immunoinflammatory diseases and shows positive effect in patients with chronic arthritis. Its effect as an anti-inflammatory drug should be explored, because prolonged...... and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  6. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    ,000 genes) and enzyme immunoassay for quantitating secreted pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of spironolactone as an anti-inflammatory drug 21 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) or other arthritides were treated...... for up to 22 months with 1-3 mg/kg/day. Spironolactone, at in vivo attainable doses, markedly suppressed transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines and, accordingly, inhibited release of tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor...... and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  7. Disease-related and psychosocial factors associated with depressive symptoms in patients with systemic sclerosis, including fear of progression and appearance self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkenbos, Linda; van Lankveld, Wim G J M; Vonk, Madelon C; Becker, Eni S; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; van den Ende, Cornelia H M

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of depressive symptoms is high in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). This study was conducted to determine which disease-related and psychosocial factors are associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic factors. In total, 215 patients with SSc completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, physical functioning (HAQ-DI), pain (VAS), fatigue (CIS), psychosocial characteristics (CISS, ICQ, PRQ, ASE, FoP-Q-SF) and depressive symptoms (CES-D). Disease characteristics (disease duration, disease subtype, modified Rodnan Skin Score) were collected. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess associations with depressive symptoms. The mean CES-D score was 12.9 (SD=9.7) and the prevalence of patients scoring>= 16 and>=19 were 32.1% and 25.1%, respectively. The variance explained by sociodemographics and disease characteristics was negligible (R(2)≤.09). Fatigue and pain were independently associated with depressive symptoms (R(2) change=.35). After adding psychological factors (R(2) change=.21), satisfaction with social support, emotion-focused coping and helplessness were also significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Higher fear of progression was associated with more depressive symptoms (P≤.01), and appearance self-esteem showed a marginally significant association (P=.08). Depressive symptoms were common in the present sample of patients with SSc and were independently associated with pain, fatigue, social support, emotion-focused coping, helplessness and fear of progression. Results suggest that, in addition to assessment of disease characteristics, attention should be given also to psychosocial factors found to be associated with depressive symptoms. For the development and trialling of psychological interventions, fear of progression could be an important target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative investigation of physical factors contributing to gold nanoparticle-mediated proton dose enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jongmin; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Manohar, Nivedh; Kerr, Matthew; Krishnan, Sunil; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Some investigators have shown tumor cell killing enhancement in vitro and tumor regression in mice associated with the loading of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) before proton treatments. Several Monte Carlo (MC) investigations have also demonstrated GNP-mediated proton dose enhancement. However, further studies need to be done to quantify the individual physical factors that contribute to the dose enhancement or cell-kill enhancement (or radiosensitization). Thus, the current study investigated the contributions of particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE), Auger and secondary electrons, and activation products towards the total dose enhancement. Specifically, GNP-mediated dose enhancement was measured using strips of radiochromic film that were inserted into vials of cylindrical GNPs, i.e. gold nanorods (GNRs), dispersed in a saline solution (0.3 mg of GNRs/g or 0.03% of GNRs by weight), as well as vials containing water only, before proton irradiation. MC simulations were also performed with the tool for particle simulation code using the film measurement setup. Additionally, a high-purity germanium detector system was used to measure the photon spectrum originating from activation products created from the interaction of protons and spherical GNPs present in a saline solution (20 mg of GNPs/g or 2% of GNPs by weight). The dose enhancement due to PIXE/PIGE recorded on the films in the GNR-loaded saline solution was less than the experimental uncertainty of the film dosimetry (PIGE, and activation products contribute minimally to GNP/GNR-mediated proton dose enhancement, whereas Auger/secondary electrons contribute significantly but only at short distances (<100 nm) from GNPs/GNRs.

  9. Investigation into the use of complementary and alternative medicine and affecting factors in Turkish asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokem, Yasemin; Aytemur, Zeynep Ayfer; Yildirim, Yasemin; Fadiloglu, Cicek

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of complementary and alternative medicine usage in asthmatic patients living in the west of Turkey, the most frequently used complementary and alternative medicine methods and socio-demographic factors affecting this and factors related to the disease. While the rate of complementary and alternative medicine usage in asthmatic patients and the reasons for using it vary, practices specific to different countries and regions are of interest. Differing cultural and social factors even in geographically similar regions can affect the type of complementary and alternative medicine used. Two hundred asthmatic patients registered in the asthma outpatient clinic of a large hospital in Turkey and who had undergone pulmonary function tests within the previous six months were included in this study, which was planned according to a descriptive design. The patients filled out a questionnaire on their demographic characteristics and complementary and alternative medicine usage. The proportion of patients who reported using one or more of the complementary and alternative medicine methods was 63·0%. Of these patients, 61·9% were using plants and herbal treatments, 53·2% were doing exercises and 36·5% said that they prayed. The objectives of their use of complementary and alternative medicine were to reduce asthma-related complaints (58%) and to feel better (37·8%). The proportion of people experiencing adverse effects was 3·3% (n = 4). Factors motivating asthmatic patients to use complementary and alternative medicine were the existence of comorbid diseases and a long period since diagnosis (p alternative medicine and the severity of the disease, pulmonary function test parameters, the number of asthma attacks or hospitalisations because of asthma within the last year (p > 0·05). Understanding by nurses of the causes and patterns of the use of complementary and alternative medicine in asthmatic patients helps them in

  10. Investigation of health anxiety and its related factors in nursing students

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    Zhang Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuqun Zhang,1,2 Yueqiu Zhao,3 Shengqin Mao,1 Guohong Li,4 Yonggui Yuan1 1Department of Psychosomatics and Psychiatry, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Nursing Faculty of Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 3Nanjing Health School, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 4Nursing Department, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To explore health anxiety in a sample of nursing students to determine the relationships between health anxiety and life satisfaction, personality, and alexithymia.Methods: Two thousand and eighty-six nursing students in junior college, which were divided into five groups, were evaluated by questionnaires, including the Life Satisfaction Scales Applicable to College Students, the Chinese version of the Short Health Anxiety Inventory, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results: The mean age, whether the individual was an only child, residence (urban or rural, and were significantly different between the groups. The self-assessment scores were also significantly different between the groups. The Short Health Anxiety Inventory total score and the factor of fearing the likelihood of becoming ill were significantly negatively correlated with the Life Satisfaction Scales Applicable to College Students total score and its two factors, but were significantly positively correlated with psychoticism, neuroticism, and TAS-20 total scores and its scores of the three TAS-20 factors. The negative consequence scale of Short Health Anxiety Inventory was not significantly correlated with externally oriented thinking, but was significantly negatively correlated with extraversion. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that objective satisfaction, subjective satisfaction, neuroticism, and the three

  11. Investigating the factors affecting university students' entrepreneurial intent ions (Case study: Islamic Azad University of Rasht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Fadaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is considered as one of the most important social and economic challenges of the present world, and as its consequence so many complexities appear in the society. Since our country is now struggling with this matter, it is urgent to achieve a solution to end the current situation. We will not reach to such solution unless in the shadow of creativity, innovation, and concentration on entrepreneurship. Due to the importance of the issue, the current study has investigated the factors affecting university students' entrepreneurial intentions. The population consisted of all students of the Islamic Azad University of Rasht. Krejcie and Morgan's table of sample size determination was utilized, to determine the sample size from the premised population. Bearing in mind the population size, which was higher than 10000 persons, sample size was measured 370 persons; and using the available non-prob ability sampling technique, 500 questionnaires were distributed among students and 428 acceptable questionnaires were extracted and analyzed. 12 research hypotheses of Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests and structural equations modeling were utilized for data analyzing and testing. In terms of the method and nature, this is a descriptive-survey research and in terms of objective, is a practical study. The findings revealed that personal views, me ntal health norms, perceived behavior control, inner locus of control, risk-seeking, self-confidence, need of success, tolerance of ambiguity, and becoming innovative are of factors affecting university students' entrepreneurial inte ntions. The research also revealed that mental health norms and personal views have positive effects on perceived control of behavior, and mental health norms have positive effects on personal views.

  12. Investigating Veterans' Pre-, Peri-, and Post-Deployment Experiences as Potential Risk Factors for Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Seth W; Potenza, Marc N; Park, Crystal L; McKee, Sherry A; Mazure, Carolyn M; Hoff, Rani A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Gambling disorder and its comorbid diagnoses are observed at higher rates in military veterans than in the general population. A significant research gap exists regarding the relationships of veterans' life and service experiences to problematic gambling. The present study explored pre-, peri-, and post-deployment factors associated with problem gambling in veterans. Methods Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (n = 738; 463 males, and 275 females) completed questionnaires via structured telephone interview. We conducted bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses exploring associations among problem-gambling severity and socio-demographic variables, psychiatric comorbidities, and 10 scales of the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory measuring experiences pre-, peri-, and post-deployment. Results Approximately 4.2% of veterans indicated at-risk or probable pathological gambling (ARPG) post-deployment (two or more DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling). Bivariate analyses found more severe gambling in males, higher frequencies of post-traumatic stress disorder, substance dependence, traumatic brain injury, panic disorder, and depression in veterans with ARPG, and higher general harassment during deployment, and lower social support and more stressful life events post-deployment in those with ARPG. In multivariable models, both post-deployment factors remained significantly associated with ARPG. Discussion The study suggests that problem gambling among veterans is related to service experiences, and particularly to life experiences post-deployment. Conclusions Adverse service and life experiences and lack of social support may contribute to the risk of problem gambling in military veterans. Investigation of how Veterans Affairs clinical settings may serve veterans following deployment to prevent behavioral addictions is warranted.

  13. Uni- and multivariate models for investigating potential prognostic factors in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionello, Marco; Staffieri, Claudia; Breda, Stefano; Turato, Chiara; Giacomelli, Luciano; Magnavita, Paola; de Filippis, Cosimo; Staffieri, Alberto; Marioni, Gino

    2015-08-01

    With a worldwide incidence estimated at 8-15 per 100,000 population a year, idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is a common clinical finding for otologists. There is a shortage of information on the clinical factors capable of predicting hearing recovery and response to therapy. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the prognostic value of clinical variables in relation to hearing recovery, in a cohort of 117 consecutive patients with ISSHL. Clinical parameters (signs, symptoms, comorbidities and treatments) and audiometric data were analyzed with univariate and multivariate statistical approaches for prognostic purposes to identify any correlation with hearing recovery, also expressed according to the Wilson criteria. Univariate analysis showed that age and hypertension were significantly related to hearing outcome (p = 0.004 and p = 0.015, respectively). Elderly patients and those with hypertension were at higher risk of experiencing no hearing recovery (OR = 3.25 and OR = 2.89, respectively). Age was an independent prognostic factor on multivariate analysis (p = 0.007). Tinnitus as a presenting symptom showed a trend towards an association with hearing recovery (p = 0.07). The treatment regimen, the time elapsing between the onset of symptoms and the start of therapy (p = 0.34), and the duration of the treatment (p = 0.83) were unrelated to recovery on univariate analysis. Among the parameters considered, only age was significantly and independently related to hearing outcome. There is a need for well-designed, randomized clinical trials to enable an evidence-based protocol to be developed for the treatment of ISSHL.

  14. Pilot case-control investigation of risk factors for hip fractures in the urban Indian population

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    Malhotra Nidhi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the reported high prevalence of osteoporosis in India, there have been no previous studies examining the risk factors for hip fracture in the Indian population. Methods We carried out a case control investigation comprising 100 case subjects (57 women and 43 men admitted with a first hip fracture into one of three hospitals across New Delhi. The 100 controls were age and sex matched subjects who were either healthy visitors not related to the case patients or hospital staff. Information from all subjects was obtained through a questionnaire based interview. Results There was a significant increase in the number of cases of hip fracture with increasing age. There were significantly more women (57% than men (43%. Univariate analysis identified protective effects for increased activity, exercise, calcium and vitamin supplements, almonds, fish, paneer (cottage cheese, curd (plain yogurt, and milk. However, tea and other caffeinated beverages were significant risk factors. In women, hormone/estrogen therapy appeared to have a marginal protective effect. For all cases, decreased agility, visual impairment, long term medications, chronic illnesses increased the risk of hip fracture. The multivariate analysis confirmed a protective effect of increased activity and also showed a decrease in hip fracture risk with increasing body mass index (odds ratio (OR 0.024, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.006-0.10 & OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97 respectively. Individuals who take calcium supplements have a decreased risk of hip fracture (OR 0.076; CI 0.017-0.340, as do individuals who eat fish (OR 0.094; CI 0.020-0.431, and those who eat paneer (OR 0.152; 0.031-0.741. Tea drinkers have a higher risk of hip fracture (OR 22.8; 95% CI 3.73-139.43. Difficulty in getting up from a chair also appears to be an important risk factor for hip fractures (OR 14.53; 95% CI 3.86-54.23. Conclusions In the urban Indian population, dietary calcium, vitamin D

  15. Investigation of Frequency of Leftover Drugs at Home and Related Factors

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    Muharrem Ucar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this survey was to investigate the frequency of leftover drugs at homes and related factors regarding this problem. METHOD: This descriptive study was performed among 692 non-medical personnel servicing at two military bases in December 2006. Data were collected by using a questionnaire, which had been developed by the investigators. Frequencies and percents were used as descriptive statistics. Chi-square test was used to compare the frequencies of leftover drugs according to certain variables. RESULTS: Of the total participants 78,8% were males, 72,8% aged between 18 to 39, and 29,6% were unmarried. The findings revealed that 61,3% of the participants had leftover drugs at their homes. Participants living with together 2 to 4 family members had higher frequencies of leftover drugs at homes. When we looked at the frequencies of leftover drugs according to drug use behaviors; the frequency of leftover drug was determined higher among those who stated; the recipe was not explained sufficiently, he did not use drugs as directed, he kept drugs until due time when did not use all of the drugs, he kept drugs in a box or bag, he visited a health center in order to have a recipe (p<0,05. CONCLUSION: It was determined leftover drugs were kept at nearly two third of the participants’ homes. Regarding incompleteness of treatment, the intoxication risk for children, and drug waste, this frequency of drug leftover was high, and all responsible professions in the chain of rationale drug use particularly physicians should be awaked on this issue. The use of drugs in a recipe should be explained to patients clearly. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(2.000: 113-118

  16. Motivating factors for dual-method contraceptive use among adolescents and young women: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Julie; Teal, Stephanie B; Peters, Marissa; Guiahi, Maryam

    2017-06-29

    This qualitative study explores how adolescents and young women perceive the need for and describe the use of dual method contraception. We interviewed 20 sexually active women aged 16-24 who attended an adolescent-focused Title X family-planning clinic and were using a non-barrier contraceptive method. We used a semi-structured interview guide that included domains related to sexual activity, knowledge of and use of contraceptives and condoms, and relationship factors. We coded transcripts using grounded theory techniques and used an iterative process to develop overarching themes. Dual method contraceptive users primarily discussed pregnancy prevention as their motivating factor. Many expressed anxieties over an unplanned pregnancy and reported condom use as "back-up" contraception. Risk perception for pregnancy or STI acquisition did not necessarily change as relationship trust increased, but rather, their anxiety regarding the negativity of such outcomes decreased. Dual-method contraception use decreased when participants reported that condoms were not readily available, or when they self-described immaturity. Less frequently, participants reported dual method use for sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and many substituted STI testing for condom use. Contraceptive type (short-acting vs. long-acting) did not influence reported attitudes towards dual method use. Health educators and clinicians encourage condom use in young women due to the significant morbidity associated with STI acquisition. Most participants in our study view condoms as a way to improve pregnancy prevention. Acknowledging and addressing this divergence in motivation will allow caregivers to improve strategies for communicating the importance of dual method use. Young women primarily describe pregnancy prevention as the reason for dual method use, STI protection is less salient. Consideration of this viewpoint by health educators and clinicians will allow us to communicate more

  17. Factors Influencing TCE Anaerobic Dechlorination Investigated via Simulations of Microcosm Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X.; Harkness, M.; Lee, M. D.; Mack, E. E.; Dworatzek, S.; Acheson, C.; McCarty, P.; Barry, D. A.; Gerhard, J. I.

    2006-12-01

    SABRE (Source Area BioREmediation) is a public-private consortium whose charter is to determine if enhanced anaerobic bioremediation can result in effective and quantifiable treatment of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. The focus of this 4-year, $5.7 million research project is a field site in the United Kingdom containing a TCE DNAPL source area. In preparation, a microcosm study was performed to determine the optimal combination of factors to support reductive dechlorination of TCE in site soil and groundwater. The study consisted of 168 bottles distributed between four laboratories (Dupont, GE, SiREM, and Terra Systems) and tested the impact of six carbon substrates (lactate, acetate, methanol, SRS (soybean oil), hexanol, butyl acetate), bioaugmentation with KB-1 bacterial culture, three TCE levels (100 mg/L, 400 mg/L, and 800 mg/L) and two sulphate levels (200 mg/L, >500 mg/L) on TCE dechlorination. This research presents a numerical model designed to simulate the main processes occurring in the microcosms, including substrate fermentation, sequential dechlorination, toxic inhibition, and the influence of sulphate concentration. In calibrating the model to over 60 of the microcosm experiments, lumped parameters were employed to quantify the effect of key factors on the conversion rate of each chlorinated ethene in the TCE degradation sequence. Results quantify the benefit (i.e., increased stepwise dechlorination rate) due to both bioaugmentation and the presence of higher sulphate concentrations. Competitive inhibition is found to increase in significance as TCE concentrations increase; however, inclusion of Haldane inhibition is not supported. Over a wide range of experimental conditions and dechlorination steps, SRS appears to induce relatively little hydrogen limitation, thereby facilitating relatively quick conversion of TCE to ethene. In general, hydrogen limitation is found to increase with increasing TCE concentration and with bioaugmentation, and

  18. Investigations into factors affecting the cascade developer used in ESDA--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Daéid, N; Hayes, K; Allen, M

    2008-10-25

    The Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA) is a technique most commonly used for the visualisation of indented impressions on questioned documents. This work investigates some of the variables which are known to affect the results of ESDA and some variables which have, as yet, not been addressed. The investigation of variables included: examining the effects of different levels of indentation on different qualities of paper, chronological aging of cascade developer and the effects of repeated use of cascade developer on both the quality of results and the glass beads themselves, the effects of storage of cascade developer in a humidified environment and finally the effects of variation on the image development time. Results indicate that chronological aging of cascade developer does not have a negative effect on the quality of results and a 200 g portion of cascade developer will give good quality results for up to 30 traces before the quality will begin to deteriorate. Humidification of the cascade developer appears to have no advantages over storage in a normal environment and, in fact, the toner is lost sooner with humidification. The surface of the glass beads are affected through repeated use of cascade developer and appear to become visually smoother which may lead to a loss of attraction between them and the toner particles.

  19. Establishment of a serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference interval in healthy adults. The importance of environmental factors, including thyroid antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Esther; Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole

    2004-01-01

    It has previously been shown that thyroid antibodies affect thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in men and women and that TSH levels are predictive of future thyroid disease. We investigated the validity of the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines regarding......-plots. Consequently, a common reference interval for serum TSH of 0.58-4.07 mlU/l for all adults between 17 and 66 years of age was established. This reference interval is much higher than expected from the NACB-guidelines....

  20. An Investigation of the Factors That Influence Preservice Teachers' Intentions and Integration of Web 2.0 Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaf, Ayesha; Newby, Timothy J.; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate factors that predict preservice teachers' intentions and actual uses of Web 2.0 tools in their classrooms. A two-phase, mixed method, sequential explanatory design was used. The first phase explored factors, based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior, that predict preservice teachers' intentions…

  1. An Investigation of the Factors That Influence Preservice Teachers' Intentions and Actual Integration of Web 2.0 Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaf, Ayesha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this two phase mixed methods sequential explanatory study was to investigate factors that predict preservice teachers' intentions to use Web 2.0 technologies in their future classrooms and their ability to carry out their intentions during student teaching. The first phase explored factors based on the Decomposed Theory of Planned…

  2. An Investigation of the Factors That Influence Preservice Teachers' Intentions and Integration of Web 2.0 Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaf, Ayesha; Newby, Timothy J.; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate factors that predict preservice teachers' intentions and actual uses of Web 2.0 tools in their classrooms. A two-phase, mixed method, sequential explanatory design was used. The first phase explored factors, based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior, that predict preservice teachers' intentions…

  3. A Multilevel Modelling Approach to Investigating Factors Impacting Science Achievement for Secondary School Students: PISA Hong Kong Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Letao; Bradley, Kelly D.; Akers, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment Hong Kong sample to investigate the factors that impact the science achievement of 15-year-old students. A multilevel model was used to examine the factors from both student and school perspectives. At the student level, the results indicated that male students,…

  4. An Investigation of Factors Motivating Student’s Study at The International Hotel Management Institute Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengky Efendy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in this era of globalisation the hospitality industry needs well educated employees. Therefore the hotel school has to provide human resources to fit any position in the hospitality industry. The author chose the International Hotel Management Institute (IMI-Switzerland for research too specifically investigates factors affecting students’ motivations to study. The author’s experience was that many students of hospitality are not very motivated to study hotel management. Students get bored while having lectures, are not motivated to go to the library to research, and yet to be educated is the main reasons that students come to IMI to study hospitality. The author has set several objectives in chapter two to ensure the flow of this research. The literature review will be covered in motivating of students study for hotel school education.Literature review which is critically analysed by the author was chosen by the author according the field of study. The sample chosen for this research was motivation students study from first, second, third and fourth year students in IMI- Switzerland Several motivation of this research was the reference book of this field study, and the length of time for making this dissertation. After the primary data were collected and analysed, it was discovered that most of all students in IMI-Switzerland is to have a better chance of getting a job after finishing the course. 

  5. Investigation of factors influencing production of the monocyclic carotenoid torulene in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyung Cheon; Mijts, Benjamin N; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2004-10-01

    Factors influencing production of the monocyclic carotenoid torulene in recombinant Escherichia coli were investigated by modulating enzyme expression level, culture conditions, and engineering of the isoprenoid precursor pathway. The gene dosage of in vitro evolved lycopene cyclase crtY2 significantly changed the carotenoid profile. A culture temperature of 28 degrees C showed better production of torulene than 37 degrees C while initial culture pH had no significant effect on torulene production. Glucose-containing LB, 2xYT, TB and MR media significantly repressed the production of torulene, and the other carotenoids lycopene, tetradehydrolycopene, and beta-carotene, in E. coli. In contrast, glycerol-containing LB, 2xYT, TB, and MR media enhanced torulene production. Overexpression of dxs, dxr, idi and/or ispA, individually and combinatorially, enhanced torulene production up to 3.1-3.3 fold. High torulene production was observed in a high dissolved oxygen level bioreactor in TB and MR media containing glycerol. Lycopene was efficiently converted into torulene during aerobic cultures, indicating that the engineered torulene synthesis pathway is well coordinated, and maintains the functionality and integrity of the carotenogenic enzyme complex.

  6. Investigations on the Occurrence and Associated Risk Factors of Avian Coccidiosis in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shola David Ola-Fadunsin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of poultry mortalities worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and associated risk factors of avian coccidiosis in Osun State, Nigeria. Fecal samples were collected and examined from 5,544 avian species that were brought for treatment at the state veterinary hospitals over a 10-year period. Parameters such as age, sex, season, and species of birds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. Overall prevalence of 41.3% was recorded. The year specific rate for avian coccidiosis was highest in 2007 (97.9% and lowest in 2006 (0.4%, while the month-specific rate was highest in November (85.7% and lowest in July 2006 (13.3%. There was a significantly (P<0.05 higher prevalence in young birds compared to adults, in males compared to females, and during the wet season compared to the dry season. Broilers (99.8% and cockerels (81.0% were the bird types with the highest prevalence rate. The high prevalence of avian coccidiosis in the study area shows that the disease is endemic and there is need to embark on a radical preventive measure to curtail the disease.

  7. An investigation of the factors that affect surgical hand disinfection with polyvidone iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, A; Caglayan, F; Cakmak, M; Apan, T Z; Gocmen, J S; Cakmak, A; Somuncu, S; Akman, H

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the factors influencing the effectiveness of 7.5% polyvidone iodine as a surgical antiseptic. The study involved 100 operating staff (75 doctors and 25 nurses) from hospital surgical teams. Fingertips of both hands of the subjects were pressed on to agar culture before and after washing and after completion of surgery. Handwashing lasting for more than 3 min led to a significant decrease in the number of colonies compared with handwashing lasting for less than 3 min. Moreover, the number of colonies was significantly higher when surgery lasted for longer than 95 min. However, the handwashing style (with or without brushing) was not found to have a significant effect on the outcome of the disinfection procedure in terms of bacterial colonization. Subjects who had colonization of their hands after surgery were found to have significantly higher colony counts before handwashing compared with those who did not have any colonization on their hands after surgery. The results of this study revealed that in order to attain effective disinfection with polyvidone iodine, the duration of handwashing should be at least 3 min. The risk of recolonization increases when the duration of surgery exceeds 95 min.

  8. An investigation into the factors affecting the natural reproduction of Opsaridium peringueyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, N. A. G.

    An endangered freshwater fish, Opsaridium peringueyi, was studied from January, 2009 to December, 2009. The analysis of the environmental conditions indicated that the fish is found in streams with moderate to fast flow, high oxygen levels, a depth greater than 0.6 m and temperatures between 10 and 24 °C. O. peringueyi is sexually dimorphic with males growing at a faster rate and attaining a larger size than females. The breeding biology of this species was investigated in glass aquarium tanks. The spawning behaviour is described for the first time. The breeding colour of the male is deep red on the operculum, ventral part, caudal and ventral fins. The breeding colour in the female is the same as the male except the red colour is lighter. The breeding of O. peringueyi is a four stage process which begins with the appearance of breeding colour culminating in the laying of eggs after courtship. Temperature, flow-rate, conductivity and substrate were identified as the environmental cues important in the reproduction of this species. All these factors had a significant effect on the breeding activity of O. peringueyi. The possible effect of climate change on O. peringueyi is discussed.

  9. Factors Affecting the Decisions of Tabung Haji Customers in Malaysia to Use ATM Banking: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanudin Amin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a preliminary investigation of the factors that determine whether Malaysia’s Tabung Haji customers in Eastern Malaysia will use or not a new facility introduced by the institution, namely Automated Teller Machine or ATM banking. As such, this study introduces the concept Tabung Haji ATM Banking (TAB. In order to explain the factors, this paper extends the applicability of the technology acceptance model (TAM to TAB and includes “ perceived credibility (PC”, and “perceived religiosity (PR”, in addition to “perceived usefulness (PU” and “perceived ease of use (PEOU”. The results indicate that PU, PEOU, PC and PR are the key determinants to predicting the intentions to use TAB. In addition, PEOU is significantly associated with PU, which, in turn, affecting usage intention among Tabung Haji customers on TAB. This study suffers from two limitations, first is on its location of study and, second is on its limited number of measures suggested in the modified model for the study. Nevertheless, these limitations provide directions for the future study and also provide new information in a new introduced financial innovation at Tabung Haji. The results will be primarily of benefit to Tabung Ha ji since this study offers insights on the intentions of its customers to use TAB

  10. Development of multidrug resistance due to multiple factors including P-glycoprotein overexpression under K-selection after MYC and HRAS oncogene activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukari; Sato, Hiroyuki; Motokura, Toru

    2006-05-15

    Multistep tumorigenesis is a form of microevolution consisting of mutation and selection. To clarify the role of selection modalities in tumor development, we examined two alternative evolutionary conditions, r-selection in sparse culture, which allows cells to proliferate rapidly, and K-selection in confluent culture, in which overcrowding constrains cell proliferation. Using MYC- and EJ-RAS-transformed rat embryo fibroblasts, we found that K-selected cells acquired and stably maintained multidrug resistance (MDR) to DOX, VCR, MTX and Ara-C. Then, we examined the involvement of a number of factors potentially causal of the development of MDR, that is, ploidy, Tp53 mutation, doubling time and the expression levels of genes related to drug resistance. Although ploidy status and Tp53 mutations did not correlate with MDR, we found that Abcb1/Mdr1, encoding P-glycoprotein (Pgp), was significantly upregulated after K-selection. Cyclosporin A, a competitive inhibitor of Pgp, increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX and reduced the resistance to it. Indeed, the population of Pgp-transfected cells significantly expanded under K-, but not under r-selection. In addition to Pgp upregulation, altered expression of other genes such as Cda/cytidine deaminase and Slc29a1/equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 and prolonged doubling times were associated with MDR. This system reproduces events associated with MDR in vivo and would be useful for analysis of MDR development.

  11. Real-world Experience with Sofosbuvir-based Regimens for Chronic Hepatitis C, Including Patients with Factors Previously Associated with Inferior Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christina J; Roytman, Marina M; Hong, Leena K; Huddleston, Leslie; Trujillo, Ruby; Cheung, Alvin; Poerzgen, Peter; Tsai, Naoky C S

    2015-09-01

    The introduction of sofosbuvir, a direct acting antiviral, has revolutionized the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Phase 3 clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy, simplicity, and tolerability of sofosbuvir-based regimens and report high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) rates. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical trial findings translate into a real-world setting, particularly with treatment of chronic HCV in our diverse, multiethnic population of Hawai'i. Retrospective analysis was performed for 113 patients with genotype 1-6 HCV infection being treated at the Queen's Liver Center between January 2014 and March 2015. SVR rates for our cohort were slightly lower than the rates published by the clinical trials. Data analysis also suggested that most baseline characteristics previously associated with inferior response might not be as significant for sofosbuvir-based regimens; in our cohort, male gender was the only factor significantly related to increased risk of virologic relapse. Pacific Islanders also had higher rate of relapse compared to other ethnic groups, but the small number of patients treated in this subgroup make it difficult to validate this finding. While newer all-oral treatment regimens have been introduced since this study, we highlight the importance of comparing real-world versus clinical trial results for new treatments, and provide data analyses for treatment of chronic HCV in Hawai'i.

  12. Evaluating the prevalence of canceling surgical operations,including its influencing factors at Imam Khomeini hospital in Sari during 2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zamani kiasari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Hospital admission for surgery is an important event for patients. Canceling surgical procedures produce several unpleasant results for patients such as waste of time, including payment. The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence and causes of canceling surgical procedures, in order to achieve problem solving methods.Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Statistical data regarding all surgical procedures (without sampling performed during 2006 to 2007, were recorded in a checklist. Study variables were identified based on surgical procedures that were canceled during this study. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and statistical analysis tests.Results: Of 4,711 scheduled patients, 510 (10/9% surgical operations were canceled. The highest number of patient candidates for surgical operation was related to gynecology, orthopedic, urology, while the least were related to reconstructive and vascular surgery groups respectively. The most canceled surgical procedures were related to neurosurgical operation 32/4% (68 from 207 cases while the least canceled cases belonged to gynecology 4/4% (48 from 1094 cases.Conclusion: The results of our study showed that 54/2% of canceled cases were preventable. The results of this study and similar studies demonstrate that traditional pre-operative preparation for surgical scheduling, day before surgery is in need of serious consideration. We recommend a fundamental change by discarding traditional methods and creating a new committee including specialized bed or resource groups, monthly management meetings to discuss causes of canceling surgical procedures, in order to reduce its occurrence. Thus, decreasing the rate of canceling surgical wasted, while reducing anxiety in patients and their family. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(65:52-62 (Persian

  13. Treatment outcome and prognostic factor analysis in transplant-eligible Chinese myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-based induction regimens including the staged approach, PAD or VTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chim Chor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported promising outcomes using a staged approach, in which bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone was used only in 14 patients with suboptimal response to VAD (vincristine/adriamycin/dexamethasone before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT. Here we compared the outcomes of the staged approach with frontline PAD (bortezomib/doxorubicin/dexamethasone or VTD (bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone induction, and analysed prognostic factors for outcome. Patients and methods Ninety-one transplant-eligible Chinese patients received three induction regimens prior to ASCT [staged approach (N = 25, PAD (N = 31, VTD (N = 35]. and received thalidomide maintenance for 2 years post-ASCT. Results 43 (47.3% patients had International Staging System (ISS III disease. By an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall CR/nCR rate were 37.4% post-induction, and 62.6% post-ASCT. Five-year overall (OS and event-free (EFS survivals were 66% and 45.1%. There was no difference of the post-induction CR/nCR rate, EFS or OS between patients induced by these three regimens. Moreover, ISS III disease did not affect CR/nCR rates. Multivariate analysis showed that ISS and post-ASCT CR/nCR impacted OS while ISS and post-induction CR/nCR impacted EFS. Conclusions These three induction regimens produced comparable and favorable outcomes in myeloma. The unfavorable outcome of ISS stage III persisted despite upfront/early use of bortezomib. CR/nCR predicted favorable survivals.

  14. Borrelidin Isolated from Streptomyces sp. Inhibited Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells via Several Factors Including GATA-Binding Protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hirotaka; Kondo, Yoshiyuki; Kawasaki, Takashi; Tokuyama, Shinji; Imamura, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    An inhibitor of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was isolated from Streptomyces sp. TK08330 and identified by spectroscopy as the 18-membered macrolide borrelidin. Treatment with 1.0 μM borrelidin suppressed intracellular lipid accumulation by 80% and inhibited the expression of adipocyte-specific genes. Borrelidin suppressed the mRNA expression of two master regulators of adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα). Studies on well-known upstream regulators of PPARγ revealed that borrelidin down-regulated C/EBPδ mRNA expression but did not affect expression of C/EBPβ. Borrelidin increased mRNA expression of negative regulators of differentiation such as GATA-binding protein (GATA) 3, Krüppel-like factor (KLF) 3 and KLF7, as well as positive regulators, KLF4, KLF6 and KLF15, at early stages of differentiation. To elucidate a primary mediator of borrelidin differentiation inhibitory activity, small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection experiments were performed. The mRNA expression of PPARγ, which was down-regulated by borrelidin, was not changed by KLF3 and KLF7 siRNA treatment. In contrast, expression of PPARγ in GATA-3 siRNA-treated cells was not significantly different from that of control siRNA-treated cells. Borrelidin significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in control siRNA-treated cells, and treatment with GATA-3 siRNA slightly reduced the inhibitory effect of borrelidin. These results indicate that borrelidin inhibited adipocyte differentiation partially via GATA-3.

  15. Human CD34+ CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells cultured with growth factors including Angptl5 efficiently engraft adult NOD-SCID Il2rγ-/- (NSG mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Drake

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs in clinical and research applications necessitates expansion of HSCs in vitro. Before these cells can be used they must be carefully evaluated to assess their stem cell activity. Here, we expanded cord blood CD34(+ CD133(+ cells in a defined medium containing angiopoietin like 5 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 and evaluated the cells for stem cell activity in NOD-SCID Il2rg(-/- (NSG mice by multi-lineage engraftment, long term reconstitution, limiting dilution and serial reconstitution. The phenotype of expanded cells was characterized by flow cytometry during the course of expansion and following engraftment in mice. We show that the SCID repopulating activity resides in the CD34(+ CD133(+ fraction of expanded cells and that CD34(+ CD133(+ cell number correlates with SCID repopulating activity before and after culture. The expanded cells mediate long-term hematopoiesis and serial reconstitution in NSG mice. Furthermore, they efficiently reconstitute not only neonate but also adult NSG recipients, generating human blood cell populations similar to those reported in mice reconstituted with uncultured human HSCs. These findings suggest an expansion of long term HSCs in our culture and show that expression of CD34 and CD133 serves as a marker for HSC activity in human cord blood cell cultures. The ability to expand human HSCs in vitro should facilitate clinical use of HSCs and large-scale construction of humanized mice from the same donor for research applications.

  16. Investigation of some factors affecting the sensory level of spinal anesthesia: position, baricity, temperature, needle direction and speed of injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Stienstra

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of the studies to be presented was to investigate different factors influencing spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine 0.5 %. More specifically, the first study investigated the differences in intrathecal distribution as measured by the maximum sensory level of blockade between t

  17. Investigation of some factors affecting the sensory level of spinal anesthesia: position, baricity, temperature, needle direction and speed of injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Stienstra

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of the studies to be presented was to investigate different factors influencing spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine 0.5 %. More specifically, the first study investigated the differences in intrathecal distribution as measured by the maximum sensory level of blockade

  18. INVESTIGATING THE LEVEL OF BURNOUT AND INFLUENCING FACTORS ON IT AMONG THE WORKERS: CASE STUDY THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES NATIONAL COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan DARVISH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is done with the purpose of investigation the level of burnout andinfluencing factors on it. The method used is measuring or filed-finding,descriptive studies type and the statistic society is made of the entire officialand non-official workers in the petrochemical industries national company inthe year (2009 including 6901people in the main office and 12 subsidiarycompanies who are working. The estimation of the sample volume is madeusing the cochran formula by the volume of 1742 people and the accidentalclass and the domesticated form of the Maslach Burn Out Inventory has beenused for gathering the dependant variant data of the study. In this study therelevance or effect of 20 independent variables on the burnout and itsconstituents was investigated. In the two variable tests, the emotionalcommitment had a reverse relation with burnout. So that with the increase ofthe interest and bind of the workers to the organization, the level of burnoutdecreased. In analyzing the step by step regression of the burnout accordingto the expected variables, 41percent of the explained burnout (R 2 =41%,and ranking the amount of the standard coefficient, the main elements likethe nature of the job, emotional commitment, work environment, job security,coworkers, education, job type, salary and the premium and jobindependence in the remaining regression equation and on the burnoutvariable have been influencing.

  19. Risk factor investigation for cardiovascular health through WHO STEPS approach in Ardabil, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashadi-Abdollahi H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available H Sadeghi-Bazargani1,2, H Jafarzadeh3, M Fallah4, S Hekmat3, J Bashiri3, GH Hosseingolizadeh3, MS Soltanmohammadzadeh3, A Mortezazadeh3, A Shaker3, M Danehzan3, A Zohouri3, O Khosravi3, R Nasimidoust3, N Malekpour3, E Kharazmi4, M Babaei3, M Nadirmohammadi3, H Mashhadi-Abdollahi51Neuroscience Research Center, 2Statistics and Epidemiology Department, Faculty of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Public Health Department, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran; 4Tampere School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; 5National Public Health Management Center (NPMC, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranObjectives: Reliable evidence is the keystone for any noncommunicable disease (NCD prevention plan to be initiated. In this study we carried out a risk factor investigation based on the WHO Stepwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS.Methods: The study was conducted out on 1000 adults between 15 and 64 years of age living in Ardabil province, north-west Iran during 2006, based on the WHO STEPS approach to surveillance of risk factors for NCD. At this stage only the first and second steps were carried out. Data were collected through standard questionnaires and methods analyzed using STATA version 8 statistical software package.Results: 29.0% of men and 2.6% of women were current daily tobacco smokers. The mean number of manufactured cigarettes smoked per day was 18.9 among current daily smokers. Smoking was most prevalent among men of low-income families and those of lower education. The mean body mass index (BMI was 26.6 kg/m2, and was significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure. 58.9% were overweight or obese; 18.0% had raised blood pressure and 3.7% had isolated systolic hypertension. The mean number of servings of fruit consumed per day was 1.1; 33.1% had low levels of activity. Combined risk factor analysis showed that 4.1% of participants were in the

  20. Investigating antecedent factors to job performance: Contemporary evidence from government supply management professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengedzai Mafini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of transformational leadership, organisational citizenship behaviour and quality of work life on job performance amongst supply management professionals employed by the South African government.Rationale: The depressed job performance of supply management professionals in the South African government presents an impetus to generate new empirical information on the subject in order to find solutions.Methodology: A quantitative survey approach was followed using a sample of 264 supply management professionals employed in the South African government and were based in Gauteng Province. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was conducted to assess psychometric properties of the measurement instrument. Hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM.Findings: Transformational leadership had positive and significant relationships with organisational citizenship behaviour and quality of work life. Quality of work life exerted a greater influence of job performance than organisational citizenship behaviour.Value of research: The study provides current evidence of the influence of transformational leadership on organisational citizenship behaviour and quality of work life, as well as the influence of organisational citizenship behaviour and quality of work life on job performance amongst supply management professionals.Conclusion: Transformational leadership has a positive influence on organisational citizenship behaviour and quality of work life amongst supply management professionals in the government. Both organisational citizenship behaviour and quality of work life exerta positive influence on the job performance of supply management professionals in the government. Future studies should be extended to other professional cohorts in both the private and the government sectors.

  1. An investigation of the factors affecting flatfoot in children with delayed motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun-Chung; Tung, Li-Chen; Tung, Chien-Hung; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Yang, Jeng-Feng; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of flatfoot in children with delayed motor development and the relevant factors affecting it. In total, 121 preschool-aged children aged 3-6 with delayed motor development (male: 81; female: 40) were enrolled in the motor-developmentally delayed children group, and 4 times that number, a total of 484 children (male: 324; female: 160), of gender- and age-matched normal developmental children were used as a control group for further analyses. The age was from 3.0 to 6.9 years old for the participants. The judgment criterion of flatfoot was the Chippaux-Smirak index >62.70%, in footprint measurement. The results showed that the prevalence of flatfoot in children with motor developmental delay was higher than that in normal developmental children, approximately 58.7%, and that it decreased with age from 62.8% of 3-year-olds to 50.0% of 6-year-olds. The results also showed that motor-developmentally delayed children with flatfoot are at about 1.5 times the risk of normal developmental children (odds ratio=1.511, p=0.005). In addition, the prevalence of flatfoot is relatively higher in overweight children with delayed motor development, and that in obese children is even as high as 95.8% (23/24). Children with both excessive joint laxity and delayed development are more likely to suffer from flatfoot. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for clinical workers to deal with foot issues in children with delayed motor development.

  2. Investigation the Rototiller Blade Operational Factors on the Soil Tillage of Orchard and Paddy Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Tabatabae Koloor

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years using rototillers in orchards and small fields especially in northern areas of Iran has been increased. In this study, a multi-function rototiller was developed and its performance was analyzed and evaluated in the field conditions. The specifications of this machine were determined according to the standard and operational situation. The calculations were performed for determining the rotor speed at different gears and then power transmission system was designed. Theoretical analysis was conducted to investigate the machine forward speed and blade rotational speed on the quality of rototilling operation. Results indicated that the forward speed and blade rotational speed affected the thickness of soil cut layer and soil crushing rate. Field tests were performed to determine the thickness of soil cut layer and soil crushing rate for orchard and paddy field conditions. In addition, some physical properties of soil such as composition, moisture content, weeding height, and DENSITY at 15 cm depth were measured. Data analysis was performed by Completely Randomized Design (CRD with factorial test 3×3 at three replications. Duncan test presented the best combinations of forward speed and blade rotational speed for thickness of soil cut layer were 0.4 ms-1 and 50 rpm, respectively. Also, the best combinations of these two factors for soil crushing rate lower than 40 mm were 0.2 ms-1 and 110 rpm, between 40-80 mm; 0.3 ms-1 and 50 rpm and higher than 80 mm; 0.4 ms-1 and 50 rpm, respectively.

  3. Pre-clinical investigation of Diabetes Mellitus as a risk factor for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylmann, Alexandra S Almeida; Canever, Lara; Gress, Katia; Gomes, Sarah T; Fachim, Isadora; Michels, Carolina; Stopassoli, Geórgia C; Mastella, Gustavo A; Steckert, Amanda V; Damiani, Adriani P; de Andrade, Vanessa M; Quevedo, João; Zugno, Alexandra I

    2017-05-30

    This study investigated the behavioral and biochemical parameters of DM1 as a risk factor in an animal model of schizophrenia (SZ). All groups: 1 Control (saline+saline); 2 Alloxan (alloxan+saline); 3 Ketamine (saline+ketamine); 4 (Alloxan+Ketamine) were fasted for a period of 18h before the subsequent induction of DM via a single intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of alloxan (150mg/kg). From the 4th to the 10th days, the animals were injected i.p with ketamine (25mg/kg) or saline, once a day, to induce a model of SZ and 30min after the last administration were subjected to behavioral testing. After, the animals were decapitated and the brain structures were removed. Ketamine induced hyperactivity and in the social interaction, ketamine, alloxan and the association of alloxan+ketamine increased the latency and decreased the number of contacts between animals. The animals from the ketamine, alloxan and alloxan+ketamine groups showed a prepulse startle reflex (PPI) deficit at the three intensities (65, 70 and 75dB). Ketamine was shown to be capable of increasing the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain structures. Combination of alloxan+ketamine seems to have an exacerbated effect within the cholinergic system. For lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls, alloxan+ketamine appear to have intensified lipid and protein damage in the three structures. Ketamine and the combination of ketamine+alloxan induced DNA damage in both frequency and damage index. This research found a relationship between DM1 and SZ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of measurement accuracy of factors used for detective quantum efficiency measurement in digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitomo, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shuji; Higashide, Ryo; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Hattori, Masumi; Okada, Yoko; Hayashi, Norio; Sawada, Michito

    2014-07-01

    In the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) evaluation of detectors for digital radiography (DR) systems, physical image quality indices such as modulation transfer function (MTF) and normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) need to be accurately measured to obtain highly accurate DQE evaluations. However, there is a risk of errors in these measurements. In this study, we focused on error factors that should be considered in measurements using clinical DR systems. We compared the incident photon numbers indicated in IEC 62220-1 with those estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation based on X-ray energy spectra measured employing four DR systems. For NNPS, influences of X-ray intensity non-uniformity, tube voltage and aluminum purity were investigated. The effects of geometric magnifications on MTF accuracy were also examined using a tungsten edge plate at distances of 50, 100 and 150 mm from the detector surface at a source-image receptor distance of 2000 mm. The photon numbers in IEC 62220-1 coincided with our estimates of values, with error rates below 2.5%. Tube voltage errors of approximately ±5 kV caused NNPS errors of within 1.0%. The X-ray intensity non-uniformity caused NNPS errors of up to 2.0% at the anode side. Aluminum purity did not affect the measurement accuracy. The maximum MTF reductions caused by geometric magnifications were 3.67% for 1.0-mm X-ray focus and 1.83% for 0.6-mm X-ray focus.

  5. Impact of Internal Factors on Information Technology Adoption: An Empirical Investigation of Chinese Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chunming; ZHAO Jing; XIA Liang; ZHU Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Organizations differ significantly in their inclination to deploy information technology (IT). The factors that determine the organizational inclination to deploy IT need to be classified to help firms formulate an appropriate e-strategy. This paper discusses a framework that explains the influence of internal factors on IT adoption. The framework is based on quantitative data on IT adoption from 95 firms in China. The results highlight that the internal factors of leadership, organizational learning, and IT resources positively impact IT adoption. The study also shows that these factors are correlated.

  6. An Investigation of Relationships between Internal and External Factors Affecting Technology Integration in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jung Won; Shannon, David; Wolf, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Various factors affecting technology integration have been identified, but little research has examined the relationships between factors, especially internal and external ones, and whether they directly or indirectly influenced each other. To fill this research gap, this study examined the significance and relationships of five factors…

  7. An Investigation of Relationships between Internal and External Factors Affecting Technology Integration in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jung Won; Shannon, David; Wolf, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Various factors affecting technology integration have been identified, but little research has examined the relationships between factors, especially internal and external ones, and whether they directly or indirectly influenced each other. To fill this research gap, this study examined the significance and relationships of five factors…

  8. Investigation on emission factors of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants from crop residue burning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Emission factors of particulate matter (PM), element carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, and ten ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO42-) were estimated from the domestic burning of four types of commonly produced crop residues in rural China: rice straw, wheat straw, corn stover, and cotton stalk, which were collected from the representative regions across China. A combustion tower was designed to simulate the cooking conditions under which the peasants burned their crop residues in rural China, to measure the emission factors. Results show that wheat straw has the highest emission factor for the total PM (8.75 g/kg) among the four crop residues, whereas, corn stover and wheat straw have the highest emission factor for EC (0.95 g/kg) and OC (3.46 g/kg), respectively. Corn stover also presents as having the highest emission factors of NO, NOx, and CO2 whereas, wheat straw, rice straw, and cotton stalk have the highest emission factors of NO2, SO2, and CO, respectively. The water-soluble ions, K+ and Cl-, have the highest emission factors from all the crops. Wheat straw has a relatively higher emission factor of cation species and F-, Cl-, NO2- than other residues.

  9. Investigation of factors influencing the efficacy of electromagnetic shielding in X band frequency range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Zaroushani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the importance of engineering controls for prevention of microwave exposure, this study was conducted to design and constract a novel electromagnetic shielding and also to examine the factors influencing shielding efficacy in X band frequency range. Material and Method: This study used Resin Epoxy as matrix and nano-Nickel Oxide as filler to prepare the composite plates with three different thicknesses (2,4, and 6 mm and four different weight percentages (5,7,9 and 11. The fabricated composites characterized using X-ray diffraction and Field Emission Scanning Electron microscopy. Shielding effectiveness, percolation depth, and percolation threshold were measured using Vector Network Analyzers. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis was conducted to study the temperature influence on weight loss for fabricated composites. Result: A maximum shielding effectiveness value of 84.18% was obtained for the 11%-6mm composite at 8.01 GHz and the 7%-4mm composite exhibits a higher average of shielding effectiveness of 66.72% at X- band frequency range. The 4mm thickness was optimum and critical diameter for composite plates; and percolation depth was obtained greater than thickness of composites. However, increasing the nickel oxide content did not show noticeable effect on the shielding effectiveness. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis showed that the study shields were resistant to temperature up to 150 °C without experiencing weight loss. What is more, the results indicated that Nickel oxide Nano particles had desirable distribution and dispersion in epoxy matrix and percolation threshold was appeared in low content of nickel oxide nanoparticles. Conclusion: A novel electromagnetic shield using low thickness and few content of nanoparticle with noticeable efficacy was properly designed and constructed in the field of occupational health. In addition, this shield has low cost, easy to manufacture, resistance to wet/corrosion, and low weight. Epoxy

  10. Investigation of risk factors to coronary heart disease in two countryside villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisleine Elisa Cavalcante da Silva

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors to coronary heart disease in two countryside villages in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil, typical in terms of the poverty and lack of access to public health care. All population was invited to participate in the study. The 462 volunteers (61.3% female, mean age = 42 years showed high prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (7.0%, hypertriglyceridemia (19.0%, hyperglycemia (11.0%, hypertension (30.0% and obesity (16.0%. The majority of the individuals, during the interview did not report the diseases detected by the testes. The results revealed that the high prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus could be consequence of the delayed detection of these diseases or inadequate treatment after diagnostic.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar os fatores de risco para doenças coronarianas em uma região pobre do Noroeste do Estado do Paraná - Brasil, onde o acesso a cuidados de saúde pública é deficiente.Toda a população foi convidada a participar do estudo, sendo que a população efetivamente estudada foi de 462 indivíduos, onde a maioria era mulheres (61,3% com idade média de 42 anos. Os voluntários mostraram alta prevalência de hipercolesterolemia (7%, hipertrigliceridemia (19%, hiperglicemia (11%, hipertensão (30% e obesidade (16%. Foi realizada uma entrevista com cada participante do estudo, onde a maioria declarou não ter conhecimento sobre as doenças detectadas. Os resultados obtidos através dos exames laboratoriais e entrevistas mostraram que a alta prevalência de hiperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hipertensão e obesidade resultam da detecção tardia dessas doenças ou de tratamento inadequado após o diagnóstico.

  11. Investigating the Regulation and Potential Role of Nonhypoxic Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) in Aromatase Inhibitor Resistant Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    obese and overweight patients with ER+ breast cancer to neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy. My role in this clinical trial is to analyze HIF-1 and...with drug resistance in different cancer cell types, including chronic myeloid leukemia cells (Zhao et al. Oncogene. 2010), gastric cancer cells (Liu...Hypoxia- Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) in Aromatase Inhibitor Resistant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Armina Kazi CONTRACTING

  12. An investigation of the factors affecting handwriting skill in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumin, Gonca; Kavak, Sermin Tukel

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of sensory-perceptual-motor and cognitive functions on handwriting skill in primary-school children with left-hemiplegic cerebral palsy, compared with that of their healthy peers. The study included 26 children aged 8-12 years with left hemiplegic cerebral palsy and 32 typically developing children of similar age with dominant right hand. The Minnesota Handwriting Assessment was used to evaluate handwriting skill. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was used to assess motor performance. Cognitive function was assessed by the Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment. The Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Tests were used to assess visual perception, kinaesthesia and graphesthesia. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in sensory-perceptual-motor and cognitive function and handwriting skill (p cerebral palsy (p cerebral palsy whose right sides were dominant were significantly less competent at handwriting than their right-dominant, healthy peers. It was found that the impairment in proprioception seen in the non-hemiplegic side in children with cerebral palsy, and also the impairment in bilateral coordination, speed and dexterity of the upper extremities, visual and spatial perception, visual-motor organization, and tactile-sensory impairments negatively affected their handwriting skills. In the treatment approaches for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, comprehensive sensory-perceptual-motor assessments that involve both extremities must be performed in detail at the earliest possible stage, in order to minimize the existing problems with early-treatment policies. Developing the sensory-perceptual-motor and cognitive function of hemiplegic children would thus be possible, and they would be able to develop handwriting skill as a tool for their academic lives as healthy peers.

  13. An investigation into the factors that motivate teachers to implement inquiry in the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Beth Schieber

    Inquiry-based science teaching is an inductive approach to science instruction that originated in constructivist learning theory and requires students to be active participants in their own learning process. In an inquiry-based classroom, students actively construct their knowledge of science through hands-on, engaged practices and inquiry-based approaches. Inquiry-based teaching stands in contrast to more traditional forms of teaching that see students as empty vessels to be filled by the teacher with rote facts. Despite calls from the NSF, the NRC, and the AAAS for more inquiry-based approaches to teaching science, research has shown that many teachers still do not use inquiry-based approaches. Teachers have cited difficulties including lack of time, high-stakes testing, a shortage of materials, problems with school-wide logistics, rigid science curricula, student passivity, and lack of prerequisite skills. The objective of this mixed-methods study was to examine to what extent specific, identifiable personality traits contribute to the likelihood that a teacher will use inquiry in the science classroom, and what factors figure predominantly as teachers' reasons for implementing inquiry. The findings of the study showed that the null hypotheses were not rejected. However, reduced conscientiousness and increased openness may be significant in indicating why teachers use inquiry-based teaching methods and avenues for further research. In addition, the qualitative results aligned with previous findings that showed that lack of resources (e.g., time and money) and peer support act as powerful barriers to implementing inquiry-based teaching. Inquiry teachers are flexible, come to teaching as a second or third career, and their classrooms can be characterized as chaotic, fun, and conducive to learning through engagement. The study suggests changes in practice among administrators and teachers. With adjustments in methods and survey instruments, additional research

  14. Epidemiological Investigation of Lifestyle Associated Modifiable Risk Factors among Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Srivastava

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: The study shows a high prevalence of NCD related risk factors in medical students. Primary prevention may be one way to lower the risk burden of NCDs. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 210-215

  15. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  16. Investigation of the factors influencing the potential indicator of a construction site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapidus Azariy Abramovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Today the quality of a construction object represents a sum of a number of indicators, which depends on the construction complex as a whole during the implementation steps of a construction project. The lack of an instrument for evaluating the influence on the final quality indicator is vivid. In the article the method of expert estimation is presented as an instrument for choosing the factors influencing the potential indicator of a construction site. The means to analyze the results is chosen. The authors calculated the matrix of the factors intercorrelation, which influence the final figure. These factors are grouped with the purpose to reduce the general number of experiments. The weight characteristics of the formed groups are calculated. The authors also analyzed the information loss extend as a result of factors quantity change in a model.

  17. An Empirical Investigation of the Role of Industry Factors in the Internationalization Patterns of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøgaard, Birgitte; Gioia, Carmine; Benito, Gabriel R. G.

    neglected as potential determinants of companies' internationalization. We argue that differences across industries with regard to competition level, research intensity, tangibility of the products, and the existence of clusters should influence the impetus and opportunities to internationalize. This study......Research on companies' internationalization has mainly focused on firm-level and country-level factors in order to explain firms' cross-border activities. With the exception of a limited number of studies emphasizing rivalistic behavior in oligopolistic industries, industry factors have been...... examines the role of such factors using data covering the internationalization patterns of the 100 largest non-financial Norwegian companies over the period 1990 to 2000. We find that industry factors contribute significantly to explaining the internationalization of these companies, and that the effects...

  18. A cross-battery, reference variable, confirmatory factor analytic investigation of the CHC taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Keith, Timothy Z; Flanagan, Dawn P; Alfonso, Vincent C

    2013-08-01

    The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) taxonomy has been used to classify and describe human cognitive abilities. The ability factors derived from the CHC taxonomy are often assumed to be invariant across multiple populations and intelligence batteries, which is an important assumption for research and assessment. In this study, data from five different test batteries that were collected during separate Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II; Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004) concurrent validity studies were factor-analyzed jointly. Because the KABC-II was administered to everyone in the validity studies, it was used as a reference battery to link the separate test batteries in a "cross-battery" confirmatory factor analysis. Some findings from this analysis were that CHC-based test classifications based on theory and prior research were straightforward and accurate, a first-order Fluid/Novel Reasoning (Gf) factor was equivalent to a second-order g factor, and sample heterogeneity related to SES and sex influenced factor loadings. It was also shown that a reference variable approach, used in studies that incorporate planned missingness into data collection, may be used successfully to analyze data from several test batteries and studies. One implication from these findings is that CHC theory should continue to serve as a useful guide that can be used for intelligence research, assessment, and test development.

  19. Factor Analytical Investigation of Krathom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) Withdrawal Syndrome in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan

    2016-01-01

    Krathom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is an addictive and illicit substance used in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries. It has become the most commonly used substance among villagers. The study aimed to explore the factor structure of the krathom withdrawal syndrome based on the findings of an earlier qualitative study. The current study was divided into two stages. Cross-sectional data collections were employed in both phases. The samples comprised, respectively, 196 and 330 krathom users aged over 25 years. The characteristics of krathom withdrawal symptoms and signs were identified and the factor structure examined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to examine the construct validity and multivariate linear regression was used to identify factors predicting the intensity of krathom withdrawal symptoms. The final scale comprised 20 items with four factors: craving-fatigue syndrome; musculoskeletal system and insomnia; mood symptoms; and autonomic nervous system/physical sickness. Symptoms and signs of krathom withdrawal similar to those of the withdrawal syndrome of opioid substances appear to be present in regular krathom users. The krathom withdrawal intensity is predicted by duration of krathom use, frequency, and daily amount of krathom use.

  20. An investigation of neighborhood-level social, economic and physical factors for railway suicide in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, Lay San; Spittal, Matthew J; Bugeja, Lyndal; Milner, Allison; Stevenson, Mark; McClure, Roderick

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the associations between railway suicide and neighborhood social, economic, and physical determinants using postcode-level data. It also examines whether the associations are influenced by having high concentration of high-risk individuals in a neighborhood area. Railway suicide cases from Victoria, Australia for the period of 2001-2012, their age, sex, year of death, usual residential address and suicide location were obtained from the National Coronial Information System. Univariate negative binomial regression models were used to estimate the association between railway suicide and neighborhood-level social, economic and physical factors. Variables which were significant in these univariate models were then assessed in a multivariate model, controlling for age and sex of the deceased and other known confounders. Findings from the multivariate analysis indicate that an elevated rate of railway suicide was strongly associated with neighborhood exposure of higher number of railway stations (IRR=1.30 95% CI=1.16-1.46). Other significant neighborhood risk factors included patronage volume (IRR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02-1.11) and train frequency (IRR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01-1.04). An increased number of video surveillance systems at railway stations and carparks was significantly associated with a modest reduction in railway suicide risk (IRR=0.93, 95% CI=0.88-0.98). These associations were independent of concentration of high-risk individuals. Railway suicide may be under-reported in Australia. Interventions to prevent railway suicide should target vulnerable individuals residing in areas characterized by high station density, patronage volume and train frequency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigations on biological functions of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) using a gene knock out mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    HSF1 is the major heat shock transcription factor that binds heat shock element (HSE) in the promoter of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and controls rapid HSP induction in cells subjected to various stresses such as elevated temperature, chemicals, or exposure to toxins. Although at least four members of the vertebrate HSF have been cloned, details of their individual physiological roles remain relatively obscure. To clarify the exact in vivo functions of HSF1 and assess whether HSF1 exhibits redundant or unique roles, we have created homozygous Hsf1-/- mice using standard gene targeting techniques and isolated Hsf1-/- embryonic fibroblasts. Here we demonstrate that heat shock response (HSR) was not attainable in Hsf1-/- embryonic fibroblasts, and this response was required for thermotolerance and protection against heat-induced apoptosis, and that homozygous Hsf1-/- mice, which survived to adulthood according to genetic background, exhibited multiple phenotypes including: (1) placental defects that reduced embryonic viability after late midgestation (day 13.5); (2) growth retardation; (3) female infertility caused by preimplantation lethality, and (4) increased mortality (+/+ vs -/-, P<0.05) and exaggerated production of proinflammatory cytokine, TNF α (+/- vs -/-, P<0.05) after endotoxin challenge. Interestingly, although Hsf1-/- mice exhibited placental defects and embryonic death, basal HSP expression is not appreciably altered during embryonic development by the HSF1 null mutation, suggesting this factor might be involved in regulating some non-HSP genes or signaling pathways which may be important for development. Taken together, our results established direct causal effects for the HSF1 transactivator in regulating diverse physiological and pathophysiological conditions such as developnent, growth, reproduction, apoptosis and sepsis. The present work also provided a useful mammalian model for further investigating the implications of Hsf1 and its target

  2. Investigation of the Factors Affecting Occupation Choices of High School Students with Paired Comparison Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda NALBANTOĞLU YILMAZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to determine effect sequences of factors that play a role in the professional choices of high school students. The study was conducted from 355 high school students who can give thorough and sincere information. The compositions written by students were examined and the field literature survey was done to determine the factors that play a role in the professional selection of the students. In this respect, 9 factors that affect the professional selection of the students have been determined. These factors were presented to students in pairs. And then students were asked to indicate which pair is more effective in their professional selection. Paired comparison scaling was used to determine the order of influence of the factors that affect the professional preferences of the students. According to the results of the analysis, it seems that the most important effect of professional selection of students (except 11th grade students is the interest in a profession. Also the professional selection of girls and boys are mostly influenced by their interests. At the same time, it is observed that students' university entrance examination scores substantially affect their professional selection. On the other hand, the preferences of the students are influenced by at least the environment.

  3. INVESTIGATION ON THE RESPONSE FACTORS OF CONCENTRATION DETECTORS WITHIN SEC PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-guo Liu; Hong-feng Xie; Zhi-liu Wang; Hu Yang; Rong-shi Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The response factors of refractive index (RI) and ultraviolet (UV) detectors of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) defined as the ratio of area of output signal to the mass of injected sample are studied and analyzed by using five narrowly distributed polystyrene (PS) standard samples with known molar masses. It is found that the individual response factor for a given sample varies with the concentration of the injected solution within a limited range bounded by an upper and a lower limiting response factor values. This variation reveals the conformational change of the polymer chains with the concentration of the injected solution. The dynamic contact concentrations Cs of the PS samples derived from the response factor data are in good accordance with those reported earlier by other methods. The physical meanings of the signals of the two detectors are further analyzed and theoretically formulated. The solvation of the polymer chain and the conformation changes play an important role in these detecting systems. Both of the solvation number of the structural repeating unit and the extra embedded solvent due to cluster forming in higher concentrations could be deduced from the variation of response factor with the concentration of the injected solution.

  4. Biotic and abiotic factors investigated in two Drosophila species – evidence of both negative and positive effects of interactions on performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Michael; Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    Multiple environmental factors acting in concert can interact and strongly influence population fitness and ecosystem composition. Studies investigating interactions usually involve only two environmental factors; most frequently a chemical and another abiotic factor such as a stressful temperatu...

  5. Investigation of occupational health and safety application using the internal and external factor assessment matrix: SWOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-09-01

    Material and Method: IIn this study, the threats, opportunities, weaknesses and strengths were evaluated by one of the tools named SWOT, in one of the assembly industries company in Iran, in order to controlling the operations in this company considering to safety and health standard (OHSAS18001. A comparison of the company’s performance in implementing the safety and health standards was done between years 1387 and 1388 contain in the Company considered, and weighted scoring weaknesses, strengths, threats and opportunities using the matrix of internal factors (strengths and weaknesses and external factors (treats and opportunities then, the importance of each factor were determined in the company’s implementation and enforcement of those standards. . Result: Focusing on the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats, some strategies to improve the implementation were presented. Any points were weighted based on the most important weaknesses identified as the lack of monitoring contractors, lack of management commitment for implementation of OHSAS18001, no attempt to identify the risks of change, lack of training needs assessment, main strengths identified in the context of adequate budget health and safety, environmental efforts, identify risk for abnormal conditions, the most important threats for immediate delivery customer orders and the opportunity to support the safety and health plans, were determined. . Conclusion: Sum of the weighted scores in year 87 were obtained for the external factors (opportunities and threats, 2.16 and internal factors (strengths and weaknesses 1.66. Both of these scores were less than 2.5 (minimum amount of the acceptable rate so, the company has been poor performance in the implementation of this standard for the year 87 and a weak reaction in the use of opportunities and the minimize threats has. In case of internal factors, it was worse than external one and the situation was more bold of the weaknesses companies to

  6. Investigating analgesic and psychological factors associated with risk of postpartum depression development: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhitharan T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thangavelautham Suhitharan,1 Thi Phuong Tu Pham,2 Helen Chen,2,3 Pryseley Nkouibert Assam,4 Rehena Sultana,2 Nian-Lin Reena Han,5 Ene-Choo Tan,6,7 Ban Leong Sng1,2 1Department of Women’s Anaesthesia, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 2Duke-NUS Medical School, 3Women’s Service, Department of Psychological Medicine, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 4Singapore Clinical Research Institute, 5Division of Clinical Support Services, 6Research Laboratory, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 7SingHealth Paediatrics Academic Clinical Programme, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of peripartum analgesic and psychological factors that may be related to postpartum depression (PPD.Methods: This case–control study was conducted in pregnant females who delivered at KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital from November 2010 to October 2013 and had postpartum psychological assessment. Demographic, medical, and postpartum psychological status assessments, intrapartum data including method of induction of labor, mode of labor analgesia, duration of first and second stages of labor, mode of delivery, and pain intensity on hospital admission and after delivery were collected. PPD was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and clinical assessment by the psychiatrist.Results: There were 62 cases of PPD and 417 controls after childbirth within 4–8 weeks. The odds of PPD was significantly lower (33 of 329 [10.0%] in females who received epidural analgesia for labor compared with those who chose nonepidural analgesia (29 of 150 [19.3%] ([odds ratio] 0.47 (0.27–0.8, P=0.0078. The multivariate analysis showed that absence of labor epidural analgesia, increasing age, family history of depression, history of depression, and previous history of PPD were independent risk factors for development of PPD.Conclusion: The absence of labor epidural analgesia remained as an independent

  7. Investigation of Midtrimester Amniotic Fluid Factors as Potential Predictors of Term and Preterm Deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner

    2006-01-01

    elastase (r=0.508, P<.002. Conclusions. Midtrimester amniotic fluid SLPI concentrations significantly decrease when membrane rupture precedes pre- or full-term labor. However, none of the investigated substances predict preterm delivery.

  8. PTSD symptom structure among West African war trauma survivors living in African refugee camps: a factor-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Gregory A; Chang, Zoua

    2012-04-01

    We examined the factor structure of measured posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of West African civilian refugees who had fled the civil war in Sierra Leone between 2001 and 2006. Given that such war-affected populations are common but understudied in trauma research, our objective was to examine the similarities and differences in this factor structure compared to prevailing models of PTSD symptom structure. As part of treatment services provided in refugee camps, refugees (2,140 women, 1,662 men, 1 unknown) from Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea completed the 17 symptoms portion of the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS). We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to investigate whether there was a factor structure unique to this population, and made comparisons with the numbing, dysphoria, and aroused intrusion models. Results from the confirmatory analyses showed that the dysphoria model best fit the data (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .062); however, exploratory analyses revealed that 3 items loaded differently than theoretically expected. Psychological distress cross-loaded on reexperiencing and avoidance factors and physiological reactivity loaded on the avoidance factor instead of the reexperiencing factor. The sleep difficulties item was not well explained, generally; the highest loading (λ = .22) was on the dysphoria factor. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. An Investigation of Factors Related to Self-Efficacy for Java Programming among Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Petek; Davenport, David

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors related to self-efficacy for Java programming among first year engineering students. An instrument assessing Java programming self-efficacy was developed from the computer programming self-efficacy scale of Ramalingam & Wiedenbeck. The instrument was administered at the beginning of the…

  10. Definition of Investigative Areas for Human-Factor Aspects of Aircraft Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    ACINCE MANA6GMENT DISCUSSED IS WAEEOTETI~liN FATIGAE PIRM DESCUSSED OF SKILL FAT1G6U RECOMMENDATINS NME INCIDENCE COSTS. A FACTOR 0% Sf 452 MIEAP OUN ES...thought processes and/ or muscular reflexes are retarded to the point that the pilot cannot meet the workload deirands of a flight. 0 Overconfidence - A

  11. Investigating Commercial Cellulase Performances Toward Specific Biomass Recalcitrance Factors Using Reference Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Xiaohui; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Xiao

    2014-04-01

    Three commercial cellulase preparations, Novozymes Cellic® Ctec2, Dupont Accellerase® 1500, and DSM Cytolase CL, were evaluated for their hydrolytic activity using a set of reference biomass substrates with controlled substrate characteristics. It was found that lignin remains a significant recalcitrance factor to all the preparations, although different enzyme preparations respond to the inhibitory effect of lignin differently. Also, different types of biomass lignin can inhibit cellulose enzymes in different manners. Enhancing enzyme activity toward biomass fiber swelling is an area significantly contributing to potential improvement in cellulose performance. While the degree of polymerization of cellulose in the reference substrates did not present a major recalcitrance factor to Novozymes Cellic® Ctec2, cellulose crystallite has been shown to have a significant lower reactivity toward all enzyme mixtures. The presence of polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs) in Novozymes Ctec2 appears to enhance enzyme activity toward decrystallization of cellulose. This study demonstrated that reference substrates with controlled chemical and physical characteristics of structural features can be applied as an effective and practical strategy to identify cellulosic enzyme activities toward specific biomass recalcitrance factor(s) and provide specific targets for enzyme improvement.

  12. Mother's postnatal stress: an investigation of links to various factors during pregnancy and post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ewa; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2016-12-01

    Higher levels of parental stress have long-term effects on children's health and could lead to dysfunction in the parent-child interaction. Different background factors can be predictors of high parental stress. The aim of this study was to examine parental stress among Swedish women and identify different factors linked to women's parental stress. About 702 women were recruited to a clinical study and followed up six months after birth. Data were collected by two questionnaires, and 279 women completed the Swedish Parental Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ). Less than very good mental health and depressive symptoms after birth were strongly associated with parental stress, and the strongest association was found between post-partum depressive symptoms and high levels of stress in the subscale Incompetence. Multiparity was associated with high stress in two subscales, and lower level of education was a protective factor for stress in nearly all subscales. Depressive symptoms and perceived poor mental health post-partum are the most important factors related to high parental stress. The results point to the importance of identifying and supporting mothers with depressive symptoms, since these women have both mental illness and increased stress. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Investigating the Factors Influencing Teachers' Use of ICT in Teaching in Bruneian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Sallimah M.; Laxman, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The primary focus of the research study described in this paper was to assess the status quo of teachers' use of Information and Communication Technology in teaching in terms of the factors that influence their use. Using a survey questionnaire, data was collected from a total of 1,891 secondary school teachers in all government schools in Negara…

  14. Factors Influencing Students' Acceptance of M-Learning: An Investigation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Al-Aish, Ahmad; Love, Steve

    2013-01-01

    M-learning will play an increasingly significant role in the development of teaching and learning methods for higher education. However, the successful implementation of m-learning in higher education will be based on users' acceptance of this technology. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to study the factors that affect university students'…

  15. Analysis of Factors Influencing Undergraduates' Occupation Choices: An Investigation of Both Social and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Li; Shunguo, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Based on 2006 survey data on students from three universities in western China, this study analyzes the effect of the students' family background and academic achievements on their occupation choices. Both social capital and human capital were found to be significant factors influencing their employment decisions. The more abundant the social and…

  16. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Appraisal of the Decision to Take Early Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowan, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines why individuals elect to take the early retirement package offered by their employer, as well as factors affecting their appraisal of that decision. Results suggest that all early retirement decisions are not voluntary. Individuals who do not wish to retire and who had lower self-esteem, fewer financial resources, and plans to continue…

  17. Post-MBA Industry Shifts: An Investigation of Career, Educational and Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Alvin; Bento, Regina; Arbaugh, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine factors that predict industry-level career change among MBA graduates. Design/methodology/approach: The study analyzed longitudinal data from the Management Education Research Institute (MERI)'s Global MBA Graduate Survey Dataset and MBA Alumni Perspectives Survey Datasets, using principal component…

  18. Preliminary Investigation of the 1991 Medical College Admission Test Factor Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weichang; Mitchell, Karen J.

    A substantially revised Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) was introduced in spring 1991. The new examination is designed to assess critical thinking skills, basic concepts and problem solving facility in science, and writing skills. This paper reports preliminary findings on the factor structure of the revised MCAT, which consists of four…

  19. Investigation into Factors affecting Precision Positioning Instruments with a view to Standardisation of Specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Wemyss, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the requirements in their totality of precision positioning instruments with a view to suggesting standardised specification guidelines. Although concerns over inadequate vendor specifications were voiced as early as 2003, no national or international standards have yet been published that address this issue. To facilitate this investigation, a comprehensive design was undertaken of a three axis nanopositoning instrument. A state-of-the-art design was r...

  20. An investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Anja; Roger L Milne; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A.; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R.; Darabi, Hatef

    2014-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC.

  1. An Investigation of Decision Making Styles and the Five-Factor Personality Traits with Respect to Attachment Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, M. Engin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate if the attachment styles significantly predict the decision self-esteem, decision making styles and five-factor personality traits. Subjects of the study were 567 students in total from different faculties of Selcuk University. The results of the study showed that the attachment styles of the students…

  2. An investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Alison M Dunning; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R.; Darabi, Hatef

    2014-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC.

  3. Critical factors influencing hospitals' adoption of HL7 version 2 standards: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Hung; Lin, I-Chun; Roan, Jin-Sheng; Yeh, Jehn-Shan

    2012-06-01

    Industry predictions focus on future e-hospitals that will integrate all stakeholders into a seamless network, allowing data to be shared. The Health Level Seven (HL7) is a standard for the interchange of data within the healthcare industry. It simplifies communication interfaces and allows the interoperability among heterogeneous applications. Although the benefits of adopting HL7 are well known, only a few hospitals in Taiwan have actually adopted it. What are the reasons behind the hospitals' lack of intention to adopt HL7? Most prior studies on HL7 have focused on technical issues and general overlooked the managerial side. This has caused a lack of understanding of factors influencing hospitals' decision on HL7 adoption. In fact, main reasons behind a hospital's decision on whether to adopt an innovative technology are more often related to organizational than purely technical issues. Hence, we pay our attention to these organizational considerations over HL7 adoption. Based on the Innovation Diffusion Theory, we proposed a research model to explore the critical factors influencing Taiwan hospitals' adoption intention of HL7. 472 questionnaires were distributed to all accredited hospitals in Taiwan and 122 were returned. The valid response rate was 25.21% (119). Factor analysis, logistic regression and Pearson Chi-square test were conducted to verify the research model. The results showed that environmental pressure, top management attitude towards HL7, staff's technology capability, system integrity, and hospital's scale were critical factors influencing hospitals' intention on whether to adopt HL7. The research findings provided the government, the healthcare industry, the hospital administrators and the academia with practical and theoretical references. These factors should be considered in planning promotion plan to encourage hospital adoption of HL7. This study also opens up a new research direction as well as a new viewpoint, and consequentially

  4. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on Hormo

  5. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on

  6. Retraction statement: Investigating factors associated with nurses' attitudes towards perinatal bereavement care: a study in Shandong and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The above article from Journal of Clinical Nursing, 'Investigating factors associated with nurses' attitudes towards perinatal bereavement care: a study in Shandong and Hong Kong' by Chan, M. F., Lou, F.-l., Cao, F.-l., Li, P., Liu, L. and Wu, L. H. published online on 6 July 2009 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in Volume 18, pp. 2344-2354, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation carried out by the National University of Singapore due to major overlap with a previously published article: Chan MF, Lou F-l, Arthur DG, Cao F-l, Wu LH, Li P, Sagara-Rosemeyer M, Chung LYF & Lui L (2008) Investigating factors associate to nurses' attitudes towards perinatal bereavement care. Journal of Clinical Nursing 17: 509-518. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02007.x.

  7. Investigation of Power Factor on Harmonic Effect due to Types of Voltage Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B. Risnidar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed about power factor on harmonic effect due to types of voltage source. Usually, the voltage source is sinusoidal. But in actual condition the load that has voltage sources through the elements where the output voltage of element as input to load is not pure sinusoidal, for example at Power of Common Coupling (PCC between transformer and linear load and nonlinear load. The research has been done with Schhafner Power Quality Analyzer and was focused to power factor (p.f., Total Harmonic Distortion (THD, and harmonic energy losses cost from measurement where load is Induction motor and Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD. As voltage source in this research are sine wave, square wave and combinations of 3rd, 5th and 7th harmonic order like harmonic 313, and harmonic 357.

  8. The Holyoake Codependency Index: investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, G E; Roberts, C M

    2000-12-01

    The Holyoake Codependency Index is being developed to measure the extent to which a person endorses codependent beliefs and attributions. A 28-item pilot version was administered to 39 male and 268 female clients of a family counseling agency. Factor analysis, used to identify the shortest version with acceptable reliability, yielded a 13-item final version comprising three subscales (external focus, self-sacrifice, and reactivity). The subscales correspond to key themes within the literature on codependency. Scores on each subscale correlated significantly in the predicted direction with relevant measures of psychological functioning; providing initial evidence of construct validity. The 13-item scale was administered to a general community sample of 303 women and the factor structure was fully replicated. Internal consistency of the subscales ranged from .74 to .84 with the family counseling sample and from .73 to .83 with the general community sample.

  9. A retrospective investigation into risk factors of sarcoptic mange in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Lucy; Gough, Kevin; Flynn, Robin J; Elsheikha, Hany M

    2010-07-01

    This retrospective study of sarcoptic mange in dogs aimed to identify risk factors for this disease and determine their influence on treatment outcome. Data regarding dog demographics, clinical presentation, diagnostic method, treatment, and outcome were analyzed. No statistical association was found between sex and incidence of sarcoptic mange. However, age of dogs was found to be a risk factor which could increase the chances of dogs contracting sarcoptic mange. The results indicate that the disease predominantly affects young dogs, of all breeds and both sexes, implicating age-related immunity. The most common clinical feature reported was pruritus, with the ear margins preferentially affected. Additionally, contact with other animals played an important role in occurrence of the disease indicating the highly transmissible nature of the disease.

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCING CUSTOMERS’ BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS TRUSTED SERVICE PROVIDERS: AN INVESTIGATION OF FOUR SERVICE SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurau Calin

    2013-07-01

    20 minutes, and the respondents being randomly selected from the waiting areas of five UK supermarkets. The collected data has been analysed with the SPSS software, using the Chi Square and Pearson’s two-tailed correlation tests. The results indicate a complex relationship between various categories of factors and the level of customer loyalty, which varies in relation to specific service settings. The findings have been integrated into a synthetic model, developed for four different types of services.

  11. Self-efficacy and childhood asthma : an investigation of psychological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, Joanne Tracy

    2001-01-01

    Childhood asthma is a chronic condition affecting up to one in every seven children. Self-management programs have been developed to help improve children's abilities to both manage and cope with their asthma. If these programs are to be fully effective, an understanding of the psychological factors that influence children's sense of competence to manage their condition is required. This study aimed to identify psychological variables that may influence children's asthma sel...

  12. Investigating Factors Influencing Customer Online Buying Satisfaction In Gauteng, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Rudansky-Kloppers

    2014-01-01

    Online shopping has increased significantly worldwide in the last few years. South Africa is no exception, but although this country has experienced an increase in online shopping, it seems to lag behind the rest of the world where this development is concerned. Research into the factors which influence customer online shopping satisfaction is thus imperative in order for South African retailers to develop the correct strategies for online sales. With this information, they can convert potent...

  13. Investigation of risk factors of psychological acceptance and burnout syndrome among nurses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongcheng; Yao, Wu; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong; Lan, Yajia

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reliability of Chinese version of Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), the relationship between psychological acceptance (PA), and burnout syndrome and their risk factors among nurses in China. The reliability of AAQ-II in Chinese was evaluated first by testing on 111 doctors and 108 nurses in China. On the number of 845 nurses selected from nine city hospitals by using stratified cluster sampling method, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was administered to establish the presence of burnout, and the AAQ-II was used to measure their PA. Results showed that the AAQ-II in Chinese had a good test-retest reliability. PA was statistically significantly negatively correlated to the three dimensionalities of burnout among nurses in China. Male and female nurses had a significant difference in PA. Risk factors for burnout were age (25-44 years), marital status (married), gender (male), hospital department (emergency) and position (primary title) as well as PA. The findings provide insights into the risk factors of burnout in Chinese nurses and may have clinical implications in preventing burnout in Chinese nurses. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. An empirical investigation on factors influencing choice of foreign market by media firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Farhangi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a number of factors suggested in the literature as important determinants of the foreign market selection. Key strategic factors are determined as four groups: host-country characteristics, firm-specific factors, competitive situation and content adaptation. In this study, multiple regression and path analysis are used. To test the model with modeling techniques, the necessary data from 29 media firms were used. It is based on a questionnaire, which has provided several insights into market selection elements. Our findings indicate that all components of the host country, exporting companies, competitive situation and the content adaptation could influence positively the selection of foreign market. The results also indicate that the adaptation of content was the most effective in choosing a foreign market. In addition, cross-cultural adaptation is an important component in selection of foreign markets. The results also suggest that the causal relationships between the independent variables are positive and significant, while the relationship between the content adaptation and the competitive situation has not been confirmed.

  15. An Empirical Investigation of Factors Determining the Consumers’ Choice of Mobile Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Gautam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After the implementation of government policies on globalization and liberalization, the consumers have become more critical about the selection of service providers. Consumers are now very much aware of the alternatives available in relation to services and the provider organizations. Expectations of consumers are rising and the provider organizations should be aware of these expectations. The objective of the present study is to examine the factors responsible for helping the consumers to choose mobile telecommunication service provider among the competitors in the market. The primary statistical techniques used in the study are Exploratory Factor Analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling. The data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire consisting of different questions related to demographics, service quality, product quality and availability, promotion and price in order to study perceptions of consumers. In order to examine these above mentioned variables and to derive meaningful conclusions, use of structural equation modelling was imperative. AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structure version 16.0 was employed in the research to test the underlying hypotheses of the study. Results showed that the paths are significantly related to the casual processes. Price was found to be the most important factor followed by product quality and availability, service quality, and promotion in determining perceptions of customers towards mobile telecommunication services. It is expected that the findings of the study may provide meaningful insights to the service providers and contribute in improving their strategies and marketing operations.

  16. Evaluation of Dual Energy X Ray Absorbsiometry and Osteoporosis Risk Factors in 197 Patients - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şirin Raife Çoban

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine the risk factors for osteoporosis, dual energy X ray absorbsiometry (DXA measures, dorsolomber radiographics and laboratory analysis of 197 patients which followed in Goztepe Education and Research Hospital Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Policlinics. Patients and Methods: 197 patients, ages between 37-78, which followed in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Policlinics, cross-sectionally evaluated. Patients interrogated about risk factors like life style, calcium-caffeine-alcohol consumption in nutrition, cigarette smoking, age ot menarch, number of births, time of menopause, physical activity levels and their dorsolomber AP-lateral radiograpichs, laboratory analysis and bone mineral density measures with DXA has done. Osteoporosis-osteopenia classification has done by the T score criterias of World Health Organisation. Pearson correlation analysis and ANOVA has used as statistical method. Results: Mean age was 59,24±8,33. Mean body mass index was 26,42±3,99. A significant correlation did not found between life style, nutrition, age of menarch, number of births, early fracture, compression fracture, sunbathe and T scores. A statistically significant correlation has found between age and femur neck T scores; body mass index and lomber-femoral T scores; time of menopause and femur neck T scores (p<0,005. Conclussion: A significant correlation did not found between the minimal risk factors and DXA measures. Age, body mass index and time of menopause has found related to bone mineral density measures. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2007;13:80-2

  17. Experimental investigation of the mass flow gain factor in a draft tube with cavitation vortex rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, C.; Favrel, A.; Müller, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Alligné, S.; Avellan, F.

    2017-04-01

    At off-design operating operations, cavitating flow is often observed in hydraulic machines. The presence of a cavitation vortex rope may induce draft tube surge and electrical power swings at part load and full load operations. The stability analysis of these operating conditions requires a numerical pipe model taking into account the complexity of the two-phase flow. Among the hydroacoustic parameters describing the cavitating draft tube flow in the numerical model, the mass flow gain factor, representing the mass excitation source expressed as the rate of change of the cavitation volume as a function of the discharge, remains difficult to model. This paper presents a quasi-static method to estimate the mass flow gain factor in the draft tube for a given cavitation vortex rope volume in the case of a reduced scale physical model of a ν = 0.27 Francis turbine. The methodology is based on an experimental identification of the natural frequency of the test rig hydraulic system for different Thoma numbers. With the identification of the natural frequency, it is possible to model the wave speed, the cavitation compliance and the volume of the cavitation vortex rope. By applying this new methodology for different discharge values, it becomes possible to identify the mass flow gain factor and improve the accuracy of the system stability analysis.

  18. Investigation of the Bystander Effect in School Bullying: Comparison of Experiential, Psychological and Situational Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiyeon; Oh, Insoo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the "bystander effect" known to occur in emergency situations is effective in bullying situations through examination of the individual experiences of 467 middle- and high-school students. While the bystander effect was not found to be valid in bullying situations, there were…

  19. Investigation of Factors Contributing to Diabetes Risk in American Indian/Alaska Native Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam-Zwart, Kayleen; Cawston, Alvina

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family history, sedentary behaviors, and childhood risk for type 2 diabetes. Participants were 480 students attending schools on or near an American Indian reservation. Data were collected through survey and BMI measurement. Children who frequently watched television or played video games did not…

  20. Investigation of innovation development of the mechanical engineering enterprises considering the main risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halushchak, Olha Yaropolkivna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The main risks occurring while the innovations introducing at the mechanicalengineering enterprises have been analyzed. An innovation production policy of the mechanicalengineering enterprise was determined on the basis of theoretical investigation. The optimalapproach concerning the risk estimation of the enterprise innovation activity is proposed in thearticle.

  1. Factors affecting the vase life of Rosa cultivar 'Sonia': Microbiological and scanning electron microscopic investigations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, H.M.C.

    1991-01-01

    The papers compiled in this thesis comprise a series of successively executed investigations into the role of micro-organisms in xylem plugging, and disturbance of the water relations and the vase life of cut flowers. For this purpose Rosahybrida cultivar 'Sonia' (the hybrid tea-rose Rosa cultivar '

  2. Investigating factors determining the use of the clinical care module by nurses through the UTAUT model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhou, M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nurses can be empowered in the decision making process if provided with objective diagnostic data. This research applied the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model to investigate the usage of electronic health systems and analyse...

  3. An Investigation into the Factors Affecting the Use of Language Learning Strategies by Persian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mohammad; Riazi, Abdolmehdi; Saif, Shahrzad

    2008-01-01

    As part of a larger study (Rahimi, 2004), this study investigates the use of language learning strategies by post-secondary level Persian EFL learners. Particular attention is paid to the variables affecting learners' choice of strategies, and the relationship, if any, between these variables and learners' patterns of strategy use. Data were…

  4. Investigating factors determining the use of the clinical care module by nurses through the UTAUT model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhou, M

    2016-08-22

    Full Text Available Nurses can be empowered in the decision making process if provided with objective diagnostic data. This research applied the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model to investigate the usage of electronic health systems and analyse...

  5. A prospective cohort study investigating factors associated with depression during medical internship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Srijan; Kranzler, Henry R; Krystal, John H; Speller, Heather; Chan, Grace; Gelernter, Joel; Guille, Constance

    2010-06-01

    Although the prevalence of depression among medical interns substantially exceeds that of the general population, the specific factors responsible are not well understood. Recent reports of a moderating effect of a genetic polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter protein gene on the likelihood that life stress will precipitate depression may help to understand the development of mood symptoms in medical interns. To identify psychological, demographic, and residency program factors that are associated with depression among interns and to use medical internship as a model to study the moderating effects of this polymorphism. A prospective cohort study. Thirteen US hospitals. Seven hundred forty interns entering participating residency programs. Subjects were assessed for depressive symptoms using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), a series of psychological traits, and the 5-HTTLPR genotype prior to internship and then assessed for depressive symptoms and potential stressors at 3-month intervals during internship. The PHQ-9 depression score increased from 2.4 prior to internship to a mean of 6.4 during internship (P internship to a mean of 25.7% during internship (P internship (female sex, US medical education, difficult early family environment, history of major depression, lower baseline depressive symptom score, and higher neuroticism) and during internship (increased work hours, perceived medical errors, and stressful life events) was associated with a greater increase in depressive symptoms during internship. In addition, subjects with at least 1 copy of a less-transcribed 5-HTTLPR allele reported a greater increase in depressive symptoms under the stress of internship (P = .002). There is a marked increase in depressive symptoms during medical internship. Specific individual, internship, and genetic factors are associated with the increase in depressive symptoms.

  6. Investigation of the influential strength of factors on adoption of green supply chain management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, K.; Muduli, K.; Kannan, Devika

    2016-01-01

    that not only improves the environmental performance of individual organizations, but also that of the entire supply chain which has also been accepted by industries. However, an exception is observed in the case of the mining industries in India. This can be attributed to the poor understanding of the involved...... factors. Hence, an attempt is made here to identify the drivers of GSCM and extract the causal relationship among them through the use of decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL). Further, the strength of influence of these drivers on each other as also on the entire system...

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (includes ROTC No. 1, date 01/25/1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1999-07-29

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 254 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 254 was used between 1963 through 1973 for the decontamination of test-car hardware and tooling used in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program. The CAS is composed of a fenced area measuring approximately 119 feet by 158 feet that includes Building 3126, an associated aboveground storage tank, a potential underground storage area, two concrete decontamination pads, a generator, two sumps, and a storage yard. Based on site history, the scope of this plan is to resolve the problem statement identified during the Data Quality Objectives process that decontamination activities at this CAU site may have resulted in the release of contaminants of concern (COCs) onto building surfaces, down building drains to associated leachfields, and to soils associated with two concrete decontamination pads located outside the building. Therefore, the scope of the corrective action field investigation will involve soil sampling at biased and random locations in the yard using a direct-push method, scanning and static radiological surveys, and laboratory analyses of all soil/building samples. Historical information provided by former NTS employees indicates that solvents and degreasers may have been used in the decontamination processes; therefore, potential COCs include volatile/semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, asbestos, gamma-emitting radionuclides, plutonium, uranium, and strontium-90. The results of this

  8. Investigation of CBS, MTR, RFC-1 and TC polymorphisms as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintelman-Rodrigues, N; Corrêa, J C; Santos, J M; Pimentel, M M G; Santos-Rebouças, C B

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that almost 92% of the DS children are born from young mothers, suggesting that other risk factors than advanced maternal age must be involved. In this context, some studies demonstrated a possible link between DS and maternal polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism. These polymorphisms, as well as low intake of folate could generate genomic instability, DNA hypomethylation and abnormal segregation, leading to trisomy 21. We compared the frequency of CBS 844ins68, MTR 2756A>G, RFC-1 80G> A and TC 776C>G polymorphisms among 114 case mothers and 110 matched controls, in order to observe whether these variants act as risk factors for DS. The genotype distributions revealed that there were not significant differences between both samples. However, when we proceed the multiplicative interaction analyses between the four polymorphisms described above together with the previously studied MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C and MTRR 66A>G polymorphisms, our results show that the combined genotype TC 776CC / MTHFR 677TT and TC 776CC / MTR 2756AG were significantly higher in the control sample. Nevertheless, there was no significant association after Bonferroni correction. Our results suggest that maternal folate-related polymorphisms studied here have no influence on trisomy 21 susceptibility in subjects of Brazilian population.

  9. Investigating Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms of Chronic Kidney Diseases in China with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Shen, Biyu; Wang, Xueqin

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To assess the depressive symptoms status of chronic kidney diseases in Nantong, China, with type 2 diabetes and to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms. Methods. In this cross-sectional analytic study, 210 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD-D). The quality of life was measured with the RAND 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36). And the independent risk factors of depressive symptoms were assessed by using a stepwise forward model of logistic regression analysis. Results. The mean age of the study subjects was 57.66 years (SD: 11.68). Approximately 21.4% of subjects reported depressive symptoms (n = 45). Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (P = 0.010), hypertension (P = 0.022), Stage IV (P = 0.003), and Stage V (P hypertension are at a marked increased risk of depressive symptoms. Providing optimal care for the psychological health of this population is vital.

  10. An investigation on effective factors influencing employee performance: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Alavi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human resources are considered as one of the key components of any organization to reach its objectives. Human resources help organization performance doing organizational duties and making employees’ improvement. Because of this, employee performance appraisal has changed to one of the most important issues for top managers. Performance appraisal is necessary to select useful strategies for increasing productivity of human resource management along with productivity of employee to get strategic targets. In this study, we extract effective factors on increasing of employee performance and subsequently, present some suggestions to managers of academic organizations. The study was performed on some employees who worked for Islamic Azad University in 2013. Cronbach alpha was equal to 99.4% for employee performance appraisal, which confirmed the overall survey. To recognize key factors we used path analysis technique too. The results of the study revealed that in this school, employee performance in practical field was higher than expected, but in terms of operational and behavioral fields, they were in the middle stage.

  11. Investigation of the Factors Hindering and Promoting Tourism Evidences from Villages of Abyaneh Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Manafian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism, a dynamic industry with a promising future, can play a key role in economic improvement of talented countries such as Iran. Abyaneh village is one of the best-known villages in both Iran and the world. The number of annual visitors of this ancient village is approximately 550,000 that is a considerable number. Within a short radius of Abyaneh there are five villages (Barz, Tare, Komjan, Yarand, Hanjan with a lot of potentials to develop rural tourism. But only 20% of tourists of Abyaneh population consider the surrounding villages as a separate destination. The large number of tourists visiting Abyaneh village provides opportunity for managing rural tourism in this area is to attract tourists to the surrounding villages around Abyaneh. In the present study, the hindering and promoting factors of fostering tourism in these villages have been compared by both the surrounded villagers' and locals' of Abyaneh village. To this end, 222 questionnaires were distributed among the individuals and the means were compared using Mann-Whitney test. The most important unfavorable factor, from the surrounded villagers' point of view, is lack of enough advertising and marketing and from the locals of Abyaneh village points of view, is the shortage of attractions, compared with attractions of Abyaneh.

  12. Investigation of CBS, MTR, RFC-1 and TC Polymorphisms as Maternal Risk Factors for Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fintelman-Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence shows that almost 92% of the DS children are born from young mothers, suggesting that other risk factors than advanced maternal age must be involved. In this context, some studies demonstrated a possible link between DS and maternal polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism. These polymorphisms, as well as low intake of folate could generate genomic instability, DNA hypomethylation and abnormal segregation, leading to trisomy 21. We compared the frequency of CBS 844ins68, MTR 2756A>G, RFC-1 80G> A and TC 776C>G polymorphisms among 114 case mothers and 110 matched controls, in order to observe whether these variants act as risk factors for DS. The genotype distributions revealed that there were not significant differences between both samples. However, when we proceed the multiplicative interaction analyses between the four polymorphisms described above together with the previously studied MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C and MTRR 66A>G polymorphisms, our results show that the combined genotype TC 776CC / MTHFR 677TT and TC 776CC / MTR 2756AG were significantly higher in the control sample. Nevertheless, there was no significant association after Bonferroni correction. Our results suggest that maternal folate-related polymorphisms studied here have no influence on trisomy 21 susceptibility in subjects of Brazilian population.

  13. Investigation of CBS, MTR, RFC-1 and TC Polymorphisms as Maternal Risk Factors for Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintelman-Rodrigues, N.; Corrêa, J. C.; Santos, J. M.; Pimentel, M. M. G.; Santos-Rebouças, C. B.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that almost 92% of the DS children are born from young mothers, suggesting that other risk factors than advanced maternal age must be involved. In this context, some studies demonstrated a possible link between DS and maternal polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism. These polymorphisms, as well as low intake of folate could generate genomic instability, DNA hypomethylation and abnormal segregation, leading to trisomy 21. We compared the frequency of CBS 844ins68, MTR 2756A>G, RFC-1 80G> A and TC 776C>G polymorphisms among 114 case mothers and 110 matched controls, in order to observe whether these variants act as risk factors for DS. The genotype distributions revealed that there were not significant differences between both samples. However, when we proceed the multiplicative interaction analyses between the four polymorphisms described above together with the previously studied MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C and MTRR 66A>G polymorphisms, our results show that the combined genotype TC 776CC / MTHFR 677TT and TC 776CC / MTR 2756AG were significantly higher in the control sample. Nevertheless, there was no significant association after Bonferroni correction. Our results suggest that maternal folate-related polymorphisms studied here have no influence on trisomy 21 susceptibility in subjects of Brazilian population. PMID:19729796

  14. Mediating and Marketing Factors Influence the Prescription Behavior of Physicians: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Raheem Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors present general review of the literature and the results of an empirical research on the subject. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted, being answered by 350 respondents: mix of graduate and post graduate doctors of private and public hospitals of Karachi City, and pharmaceutical personnel (mix of sales and marketing of national and multinational pharmaceutical companies operating in Pakistan. To test hypothesis, structural equation modelling (SEM was employed using AMOS 7 software package. As data are normally distributed, maximum likelihood method of estimation was used. Factorial ANOVA also enables us to examine the interaction effect between the factors. The results from factorial ANOVA test all the hypotheses of model, and results were declared significant at p <0.05. Findings are interesting as they establish association between variables (scientific literatures, promotional material, regular follow up, CMEs & conferences, personalized activities and prescription behavior of doctors mediated by strong phenomenon of medical representative PR and brand image of a company/product in changing the prescription behavior of doctors. Based on the results of this study, the pharmaceutical companies can device better marketing strategies keeping in view of these mediating effects. The article presents only two mediating and five marketing factors, whereas, more marketing and mediating variables can be added and tested, so, in future this gape can be overcome by other researchers. Moreover, a larger sample size could be applied and the scope of study can be enhanced.

  15. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor in a corrugated plate heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shive Dayal Pandey, V.K. Nema

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Experiments are conducted to determine the heat transfer characteristics for fully developed flow of air and water flowing in alternate corrugated ducts with an inter-wall spacing equal to the corrugation height. The friction factor is found for air channel. The test section was formed by three identical corrugated channels having corrugation angle of 30 degree with cold air flowing in the middle one and hot water equally divided in the adjacent channels. Sinusoidal wavy arcs connected with tangential flat portions make the said corrugation angle with transverse direction. The Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter varied from 750 to 3200 for water and from 16900 to 68000 for air by changing the mass flow rates of the two fluids. The Prandtl numbers were approximately constant at 2.55 for water and 0.7 for air. The various correlations are obtained Num=0.247Re^0.83 for water, Num=66.686Re^0.18 and friction factor f = 0.644 / Re^0.18 for air.

  16. Investigating effective factors on improvement and development of medicinal Pants in Iran (case study Isfahan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Fathollah Amiri Aghdaie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using plants has a long history in treatment. Herbal medicine has always been one of the main pillars of the famous medical school in ancient civilization. Nowadays also, a high Volume of trade in the world is belongs to medicinal because of its current importance. However a very few studies have been performed in the field of medicinal plants marketing In this study we have tried to determine the factors that can help to improve and develop The market of medicinal plants in Iran. The paper is descriptive-cognition and the related Information for this scope have been collected by using library resources such as books And scientific journals, moreover for collecting necessary data in order to confirm or reject Research hypothesis a questionnaire made by researchers have been used, data analyzed with SPSS software and presumption statistical methods. Sample 57 consists of medicinal plants sellers(druggist, pharmacists and doctors choose with random sampling. The result showed that all the variables factors of the study can help to improve and expand medicinal market.

  17. A longitudinal investigation of sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in aesthetic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, E M; Warschburger, P

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated a higher risk of disordered eating in certain types of elite sports such as aesthetic sports (e.g., rhythmical gymnastics, figure skating). But even though some studies on risk factors for disordered eating in sports exist, most research on this topic is based on cross-sectional data with limitations on causal inferences. We examined sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in a 1-year longitudinal study with two assessment points. The participants were 65 adolescent athletes from aesthetic sports (mean age 14.0  ±.2.2 years) who completed measures of disordered eating, social pressure from the sports environment, sports-related body dissatisfaction, desire to be leaner to improve sports performance, and emotional distress resulting from missed exercise sessions. All variables were relatively stable in the mean. Individual changes in the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance were associated with individual changes in disordered eating. Furthermore, a cross-lagged partial correlation analysis showed that the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance was predictive of disordered eating and not vice versa. The results of our study indicate that athletes are more at risk for disordered eating if they believe it is possible to enhance their sports performance through weight regulation.

  18. Investigating antecedent factors to job performance: Contemporary evidence from government supply management professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Chengedzai Mafini

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of transformational leadership, organisational citizenship behaviour and quality of work life on job performance amongst supply management professionals employed by the South African government.Rationale: The depressed job performance of supply management professionals in the South African government presents an impetus to generate new empirical information on the subject in order to find solutions.Methodology: A quantitative ...

  19. INVESTIGATING THE COLLECTIVE ONLINE purchase PHENOMENON: FACTORS AFFECTING THE SHOPPING INTENSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Everton Roberto Comin; Rafael Teixeira; Juliana Durayski; Natália Gomes da Silva; Julio Vieira

    2014-01-01

    The collective online shopping is a recent phenomenon in Brazil whose objective is to sell products and services for a minimum number of consumers. This study aims to investigate whether the intensity of collective online shopping is influenced by the aspects consumer interest in online collective shopping, impulse buying and insecurity. The data collection was based on a questionnaire with closed questions with multiple choices and a 5-point Likert scale.The final sample is compo...

  20. Investigation on the Use of Equivalency Factors for the Design and Evaluation of Flexible Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    M o st C o m m o n Lime Clayey soils with a plasticity index (PI) of 12 or more Portland Cement Well-graded sandy gravels or gravelly sands...Hutchinson, Ulery, Ladd, and Barker (1977) utilized three experiments to investigate cement , bituminous, and lime stabilization techniques . From their report...Design Methodologies to Justify Utilizing Soil Stabilization Techniques in Lieu of Hauling Conventional Soils

  1. Postmortem investigation of mylohyoid hiatus and hernia: aetiological factors of plunging ranula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, John D; Kim, Ann; Al-Ali, Saad; Morton, Randall P

    2013-09-01

    The mylohyoid hiatus and hernia were discovered in the nineteenth century and were considered to explain the origin of the plunging ranula from the sublingual gland. This formed the rationale for sublingual sialadenectomy for the treatment of plunging ranula. However, a more recent, extensive histological investigation reported that hernias contained submandibular gland, which supported an origin of the plunging ranula from the submandibular gland and submandibular sialadenectomy for the treatment of plunging ranula. We therefore decided to investigate the occurrence and location of the hiatus and the histological nature of the hernia. Twenty-three adult cadavers were dissected in the submandibular region. The locations and dimensions of mylohyoid hiatuses were measured before taking biopsies of hernias. Hiatuses with associated hernias were found in ten cadavers: unilateral in six; and bilateral in four, in one of which there were three hiatuses. Sublingual gland was identified in nine hernias and fat without gland in six. This investigation supports clinical and experimental evidence that the plunging ranula originates from the sublingual gland and may enter the neck through the mylohyoid muscle. It confirms the rationale of sublingual sialadenectomy for the treatment of plunging ranula.

  2. Investigation and Evaluation of Children’s Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents’ occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p < 0.05. Four risk factors for elevated blood lead levels were found by logistic regression analysis, including younger age, male, shorter distance from the recycling plant, and parents with at least one working in the recycling plant. The rate of excess lead concentration in water was 6.25%, 6.06% in soil and 44.44% in leaf vegetables, which were all higher than the Chinese environment standards. The shorter the distance to the factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant.

  3. Investigating the Effective Factors Related to Women’s Social Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Jahangiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Security is one of the first necessities in every society. Talking about different aspects of security, such as personal security, national security, social security, aviation security, road safety, food security and other types of security, shows that this topic is really pervasive in every single aspect of a person's life. Having been influenced by an idealistic view, until the 80s, studies on security were conceived as a response to survival, and it was taken for granted that human beings will always face an existential threat that makes security inevitable. In such attitudes, security was considered in association with physical survival of government- nation, and potential military invasion to this survival. In the late 1970s, with the advent of globalization, transnational idea, networks, etc. a new interpretation of world formed, and it replaced some concepts like idea, order and certainty with some other concepts such as doubt, fear and uncertainty. The first scholar who doubts the classical relations between security and defense is Bary Buzan. We can consider him as the founder of the Copenhagen School. He theorizes about security. He claims that security is not limited to national security (or the security of the government, but that security should be also expanded into new branches (military, political, economic, environmental, and social. Copenhagen School considers women as a social group that has its own identity. Several factors, such as economic and social factors, media, religious commitment, etc. can bring about a sense of security for women. However, these factors can influence women rights, their freedom of speech and religious freedom, or may lead to a variety of threats. As long as a society is not safe, in individuals' point of view, citizens will not feel secure. Women will not feel secure either, unless they feel peacefully at schools, universities, workplaces, public places, on streets, etc. That is why

  4. The Contribution of Risk Factors to the Higher Incidence of Invasive and In Situ Breast Cancers in Women With Higher Levels of Education in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H.; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Hermann, Silke; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amelia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; May, Anne; Monninkhof, Evelyn; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Ramon Quiros, Jose; Duell, Eric J.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Khaw, Kay Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Reeves, Gillian K.; Chajes, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the role of known risk factors in educational differences in breast cancer incidence. Analyses were based on the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition and included 242,095 women, 433 cases of in situ breast cancer, and 4,469 cases of invasive breast ca

  5. The contribution of risk factors to the higher incidence of invasive and in situ breast cancers in women with higher levels of education in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Menvielle (Gwenn); A.E. Kunst (Anton); C.H. van Gils (Carla); P.H.M. Peeters (Petra); H.C. Boshuizen (Hendriek); K. Overvad (Kim); A. Olsen (Anja); A. Tjonneland (Anne); S. Hermann (Silke); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); M.M. Bergmann (Manuela); A.-K. Illner (Anne-Kathrin); P. Lagiou (Pagona); D. Trichopoulos (Dimitrios); A. Trichopoulou (Antonia); D. Palli (Domenico); F. Berrino (Franco); A. Mattiello (Amelia); R. Tumino (Rosario); C. Sacerdote (Carlotta); A.M. May (Anne); E. Monninkhof (Evelyn); T. Braaten (Tonje); E. Lund (Eiliv); J.R. Quirós; E.J. Duell (Eric); M.J. Sánchez; C. Navarro (Carmen); S. Borgquist (Signe); J. Manjer (Jonas); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); G.K. Reeves (Gillian); V. Chajes (Véronique); S. Rinaldi (Sabina); N. Slimani (Nadia); V. Gallo (Valentina); P. Vineis (Paolo); E. Riboli (Elio); H.B. Bueno-De-Mesquita (Bas); N.E. Allen (Naomi); E. Ardanaz (Eva)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe authors investigated the role of known risk factors in educational differences in breast cancer incidence. Analyses were based on the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition and included 242,095 women, 433 cases of in situ breast cancer, and 4,469 cases of invasi

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 165: Areas 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (including Record of Technical Change Nos. 1, 2, and 3) (January 2002, Rev. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2002-01-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 165 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 165 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 25-20-01, Lab Drain Dry Well; CAS 25-51-02, Dry Well; CAS 25-59-01, Septic System; CAS 26-59-01, Septic System; CAS 25-07-06, Train Decontamination Area; CAS 25-07-07, Vehicle Washdown; CAS 26-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Station; and CAS 25-47-01, Reservoir and French Drain. All eight CASs are located in the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Six of these CASs are located in Area 25 facilities and two CASs are located in Area 26 facilities. The eight CASs at CAU 165 consist of dry wells, septic systems, decontamination pads, and a reservoir. The six CASs in Area 25 are associated with the Nuclear Rocket Development Station that operated from 1958 to 1973. The two CASs in Area 26 are associated with facilities constructed for Project Pluto, a series of nuclear reactor tests conducted between 1961 to 1964 to develop a nuclear-powered ramjet engine. Based on site history, the scope of this plan will be a two-phased approach to investigate the possible presence of hazardous and/or radioactive constituents at concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The Phase I analytical program for most CASs will include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radionuclides. If laboratory data obtained from the Phase I investigation indicates the presence of contaminants of concern, the process will continue with a Phase II investigation to define the extent of contamination. Based on the

  7. The influence of Alpine soil properties on shallow movement hazards, investigated through factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stanchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain watersheds are particularly vulnerable to extreme meteorological events, such as high intensity rainfall, and mountain soils often show pronounced fragility and low resilience due to severe environmental conditions. Alpine soil vulnerability is partly intrinsic but in part related to climate change (mainly precipitation regimes, and is enhanced by the abandonment of rural mountain areas that reduced the land maintenance actions traditionally carried out by farmers and local populations in the past. Soil hazards are related to different processes such as water erosion, loss of consistency, surface runoff and sediment transport, often occurring simultaneously and interacting with each other. Therefore, the overall effects on soil are not easy to quantify as they can be evaluated from different soil chemical and physical properties, referring to specific soil loss phenomena such as soil erosion, soil liquefaction, loss of consistency etc. In this study, we focus our attention on a mountain region in the NW Italian Alps (Valle d'Aosta, which suffered from diffuse soil instability phenomena in recent years, as a consequence of extreme rainfall events and general abandonment of the agricultural activities in marginal areas. The main effects were a large number of shallow landislides involving limited soil depths (less than 1 m, affecting considerable surfaces in the lower and middle part of the slopes. These events caused loss of human lives in the year 2000 and therefore raised the attention on land maintenance issues. Surface (topsoil: 0–20 cm and subsurface (subsoil: 20–70 cm samples were characterised chemically and physically (pH, carbon and nitrogen contents, cation exchange capacity, texture, aggregate stability, Atterberg limits etc. and they showed very different soil properties. Topsoils were characterised by better stability, structure, and consistency. The differences between the two depths were potential trigger factors for

  8. An investigation of the factors that regulate muscarinic receptor expression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Myoung Suk; Scarr, Elizabeth; Dean, Brian

    2014-09-01

    We previously identified a group of subjects with schizophrenia who, on average, have a 75% decrease in cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1 (CHRM1) in Brodmann's area (BA) 9. To extend this finding, we determined i) if the decrease in CHRM1 was present in another functionally related CNS region (BA6), ii) whether the marked decrease in CHRM1 was accompanied by changes in levels of other CHRMs and iii) potential factors responsible for the decreased CHRM1 expression. We measured CHRM1 and CHRM3 using in situ radioligand binding with [(3)H]pirenzepine and [(3)H]4-DAMP respectively in BA6 from 20 subjects with schizophrenia who had low levels of CHRM1 in BA9 (SzLow[(3)H]PZP), 18 subjects with schizophrenia whose levels of CHRM1 were similar to controls (SzNormal[(3)H]PZP) and 20 control subjects. Levels of CHRM1, 3 and 4 mRNA were measured using qPCR and levels of the transcription factors, SP1 and SP3, were determined using Western blots. In BA6, the density of [(3)H]pirenzepine binding was decreased in subjects with SzLow[(3)H]PZP (p<0.001) compared to controls. The density of [(3)H]4-DAMP binding, levels of CHRM1, 3 and 4 mRNA and levels of SP1 and SP3 was not significantly different between the three groups. This study shows that the previously identified decrease in CHRM1 expression is not confined to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex but is present in other cortical areas. The effect shows some specificity to CHRM1, with no change in levels of binding to CHRM3. Furthermore, this decrease in CHRM1 does not appear to be associated with low levels of CHRM1 mRNA or to simply be regulated by the transcription factors, SP1 and SP3, suggesting that other mechanisms are responsible for the decreased CHRM1 in these subjects. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Is Passive Smoking a Risk Factor for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis? - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Altunbayrak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to show whether or not passive smoking is a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Material and Methods: 250 postmenopausal women between the ages 40-65, who have not had menstruated for at least one year, had FSH>40mIU/ml, have not secondary osteoporosis cause and who naturally entered menopause were engaged in the study. Cases were divided into three study groups depending on their relations with cigarettes (Aİ: active smokers, Pİ: passive smokers, K: Control and the groups are collated in terms of postmenopausal osteoporosis risk factors. BMD were measured with the DXA method. Results were evaluated as according to the measurements of WHO. ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Mann Whitney U and K-Square tests were applied for statistical analysis. p<0.05 value was accepted statistically meaningful. Results: Aİ consume more tea-coffee at a significant level when compared with Pİ and K (p<0.001. Pİ use more Ca and Vit-D supplementes and ARZ-OAB (antirezorptive-osteoanabolic medicine at a significant level when compared with Aİ and K (p<0.05, p<0.01. There were no statistical differences between the groups in terms of education, consumption of milk and dairy products, consumption of salt, daily Ca amount taken on a diet, habit of postmenopausal exercising, fracture anamnesis, story of osteoporosis in the family, menarche age, menopause age and time, fertility time and use of HRT. K are more the values of BMD and T-Score belonging to L1-L4 Vertebral and Femur Neck at a significant level when compared with Pİ and Aİ (p<0.001. Discussion: Some features have found at a higher level in Pİ, which have positive effect on BMD (such as high BMI average, more Ca and Vit-D supplementes usage and more ARZ-OAB usage and in Aİ, which have a negative effect on BMD (such as low BMI, urban life, more tea-coffee consumption. Nevertheless, the data we found indicated that there was going to be low bone density in the L1-L4 Vertebra

  10. The investigation of factors related to suicide attempts in Southeastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Ibiloglu A

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu, Abdullah Atli, Suleyman Demir, Mehmet Gunes, Mehmet Cemal Kaya, Mahmut Bulut, Aytekin Sir Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey Background: Suicide is an important health problem in Turkey as it is in all regions of the world. Suicidal behavior has multiple causes, which are broadly divided into those related to proximal stressors and those due to predisposition. Suicide statistics may be associated with mental health disorders, which are among the foremost predictors of suicide attempts. More than 90% of patients who commit suicide have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder, usually a major depressive disorder. Other major risk factors for suicide attempts are history of suicide attempts in the family, stressful life events, sleep disturbances, poor income, unemployment, severity of symptoms of depression, and anxiety. Sleep is a complex phenomenon. Sleep disturbances can therefore be contributed to the emergence of suicidal behavior allowing for the possibility of predicting future suicides. Methods: We evaluated 106 patients who were admitted after suicide attempts to the Department of Psychiatry at Dicle University Faculty of Medicine. The recruited subjects were assessed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, and the intensity of symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The mean values of the subjects attempting multiple and single suicides were compared using appropriate inferential statistical tests. Results: Most suicide attempts are believed to be preventable. Our results revealed that a great variety of risk factors are associated with an increased risk for multiple suicide attempts. Most of these attempts appeared to be spontaneous and impulsive rather than planned. In particular, this study highlights the importance of previous suicide attempts, history of

  11. Multiple transcription factors directly regulate Hox gene lin-39 expression in ventral hypodermal cells of the C. elegans embryo and larva, including the hypodermal fate regulators LIN-26 and ELT-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Ju; Reece-Hoyes, John S; Walhout, Albertha J M; Eisenmann, David M

    2014-05-13

    Hox genes encode master regulators of regional fate specification during early metazoan development. Much is known about the initiation and regulation of Hox gene expression in Drosophila and vertebrates, but less is known in the non-arthropod invertebrate model system, C. elegans. The C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 is required for correct fate specification in the midbody region, including the Vulval Precursor Cells (VPCs). To better understand lin-39 regulation and function, we aimed to identify transcription factors necessary for lin-39 expression in the VPCs, and in particular sought factors that initiate lin-39 expression in the embryo. We used the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) method to screen for factors that bound to 13 fragments from the lin-39 region: twelve fragments contained sequences conserved between C. elegans and two other nematode species, while one fragment was known to drive reporter gene expression in the early embryo in cells that generate the VPCs. Sixteen transcription factors that bind to eight lin-39 genomic fragments were identified in yeast, and we characterized several factors by verifying their physical interactions in vitro, and showing that reduction of their function leads to alterations in lin-39 levels and lin-39::GFP reporter expression in vivo. Three factors, the orphan nuclear hormone receptor NHR-43, the hypodermal fate regulator LIN-26, and the GATA factor ELT-6 positively regulate lin-39 expression in the embryonic precursors to the VPCs. In particular, ELT-6 interacts with an enhancer that drives GFP expression in the early embryo, and the ELT-6 site we identified is necessary for proper embryonic expression. These three factors, along with the factors ZTF-17, BED-3 and TBX-9, also positively regulate lin-39 expression in the larval VPCs. These results significantly expand the number of factors known to directly bind and regulate lin-39 expression, identify the first factors required for lin-39 expression in the embryo, and hint at a

  12. An Investigation of Factors Related to Job Motivation of Faculty members at Islamic Azad Universities in Zanjan Province-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Davoudi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate job motivation of faculty members in Islamic Azad Universities of Zanjan province based on Herzberg 's theory. The research method was applied research in terms of purpose and so it was survey and correlation research in terms of data collecting method .The statistical population were 640 faculty members in 2012.For this purpose, using cluster random sampling, data was collected from 150 people as the sample through Andraka' s job motivation questionnaire(2004, and researcher-made questionnaire conducted based on two factors Herzberg 's theory, with the reliability of 0.79 and 0.91, respectively.. We analyzed data using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings showed that all the motivational factors and some Hygiene factors such as policy and regulations, organizational communications and monitoring and supervising had significant relationship with job motivation, But relationship among Hygiene factors such as salary, work environment conditions and job security with job motivation was not significant. Results showed that the overall motivational factors are completely consistent with Herzberg 's theory, but in the field of Hygiene factors in the salary, work environment conditions and job security were consistent and policy and regulations, organizational communication and supervision were inconsistent.

  13. Numerical investigation and optimization on mixing enhancement factors in supersonic jet-to-crossflow flow fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Huang, Wei; Li, Hao; Zhang, Tian-tian

    2016-10-01

    Sufficient mixing between the supersonic airstream and the injectant is critical for the design of scramjet engines. The information in the two-dimensional supersonic jet-to-crossflow flow field has been explored numerically and theoretically, and the numerical approach has been validated against the available experimental data in the open literature. The obtained results show that the extreme difference analysis approach can obtain deeper information than the variance analysis method, and the optimal strategy can be generated by the extreme difference analysis approach. The jet-to-crossflow pressure ratio is the most important influencing factor for the supersonic jet-to-crossflow flow field, following is the injection angle, and all the design variables have no remarkable impact on the separation length and the height of Mach disk in the range considered in the current study.

  14. Investigation on influencing factors of acoustic streaming in thermoacoustic waveguides with slowly varying cross-section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yuxian; LIU Ke; YANG Jun

    2012-01-01

    The influencing factors of acoustic streaming in thermoacoustic waveguides with slowly varying cross-section are analyzed based on theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The distribution curves of acoustic streaming velocity in waveguides with different characteristic scales are presented in several specific cases. The results show that appropriate forms of varying cross-section can strengthen or weaken acoustic streaming for specific acoustic fields and the thermophysical parameters have no effect on this part. In addition, the influence of time-average temperature distribution on acoustic streaming is substantial in tubes with a width of the order of the thermal penetration depth. Without time-average temperature distribution, the effect of heat conduction on acoustic streaming is great in tubes whose width is an order of about 10 to 20 times the viscous penetration depth.

  15. An investigation of potential success factors for an introductory model-driven programming course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the course design of a CS1 model-driven programming course we study potential indicators of success for such a course. We explain our specific interpretation of objects-first. Of eight potential indicators of success, we have found only two to be significant at a 95% confidence...... on the success factors for objects-first programming......., the impact of our findings on teaching, limits of what to conclude from the available data, and the variety of the notion "objects-first". Because of the variety of interpretations of "objects-first", the present research is necessary as a supplement to earlier research in order to make generalizable results...

  16. Motivation and engagement in computer-based learning tasks: investigating key contributing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ott, Mauro Tavella

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, drawing on a research project concerning the educational use of digital mind games with primary school students, aims at giving a contribution to the understanding of which are the main factors influencing student motivation during computer-based learning activities. It puts forward some ideas and experience based reflections, starting by considering digital games that are widely recognized as the most promising ICT tools to enhance student motivation. The project results suggest that student genuine engagement in learning activities is mainly related to the actual possession of the skills and of the cognitive capacities needed to perform the task. In this perspective, cognitive overload should be regarded as one of the main reasons contributing to hinder student motivation and, consequently, should be avoided. Other elements such as game attractiveness and experimental setting constraints resulted to have a lower effect on student motivation.

  17. An investigation of factors increasing the risk of aggressive behaviour among schizophrenic inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eLejoyeux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the studyThis study tried to identify risk factors of aggressive behavior in a population of schizophrenic inpatients. We tested the association between aggressive behavior and socio-demographic characteristics, addictive disorders, history of suicide attempt and sexual violence, impulsivity and sensation seeking.MethodsAll consecutive schizophrenic inpatients (100 were assessed during six months. Aggressive behavior was quantified with a standardized scale, the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. We studied socio-demographic characteristics and the history of suicide attempt and sexual violence with a specific standardized questionnaire. Addictive disorders were identified with the Fagerström and CAGE questionnaires and with the DSM-IV-R diagnostic criteria for nicotine, alcohol, cannabis opiates, and cocaine abuse and dependence disorders. Lastly, we studied sensation-seeking with the Zuckerman scale and impulsivity with the Barratt scale. ResultsLinear regression identified four factors associated with aggressive behaviour: male gender (odd ratio =12.8, history of sexual violence (odd ratio = 3.6, Fagerström score (odd ratio= 1.3, number of cigarettes smoked each day (odd ratio=1.16. Patients with nicotine use or dependence had significantly higher levels of OAS scores. This difference was not observed between patients with or without alcohol dependence. OAS scores were correlated to the number of cigarettes smoked each day and to Fagerström scores. Patients with a higher level of sensation seeking and impulsivity also had higher OAS scores. ConclusionA Typical schizophrenic patient at risk of showing aggressive behavior is a man, who smokes and presents a history of sexual violence.

  18. Qualitative investigation of factors contributing to effective nutrition education for Navajo families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Bauer, Mark; Pareo, Shirley; Phillips-Benally, Shirleen; Roanhorse, Julia; Garcia, Linda

    2008-07-01

    Obesity rates in American Indian and Alaskan Native children are a major health threat, yet effective ways to address this remain elusive. Building on an earlier dietary assessment of Navajo Head Start families which indicated a gap in parental nutrition awareness despite a strong program emphasis, the aim of this project was to identify culturally relevant nutrition education strategies for Navajo parents and educators of young children. Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 41 parents and early childhood education paraprofessionals to identify contributors to both healthful and unhealthy food ways of Navajo preschoolers. were presented in two community venues to verify the themes and discuss implications. Results Barriers to healthful eating included availability/cost, parenting/control, preferences/habits, time pressures, and knowledge/education. Enablers to healthful eating included the categories of schools/education, and support/modeling. Reactions to these findings during community forums suggested (1) the need for stronger parenting and parental control over the food environment; (2) community-level action to address these barriers; and (3) the need for knowledge and culturally relevant educational strategies for caregivers and children. Implications for interventions include building upon existing community resources to enhance culturally relevant and respectful parental, family, and community support for affordable and acceptable food experiences and choices for young children and their families.

  19. Investigation on the factors influencing the thickness distribution of superplastic-formed components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chong-yang; FANG You-tong

    2005-01-01

    In the superplastic sheet forming process, the uniformity of the sheet's final thickness distribution is vital for ensuring the good mechanical quality of the formed components. The influences of the component shape and the contact friction on the final thickness distribution were investigated in this work by using finite element method on a series of axisymmetric models. It was concluded that shape optimization and friction elimination are required to get uniform thickness distribution, and eventually to improve the mechanical quality of the formed components. The constitutive equation of the Ti-6A1-4V superplastic material was also determined on the basis of experimental data.

  20. Experimental investigation of the factors influencing the polymer-polymer bond strength during two component injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2007-01-01

    . A thorough understanding of the factors that influence the bond strength of polymers is necessary for multi component polymer processing. This paper investigates the effects of the process and material parameters on the bond strength of two component polymer parts and identifies the factors which can......Two component injection moulding is a commercially important manufacturing process and a key technology for Moulded Interconnect Devices (MIDs). Many fascinating applications of two component or multi component polymer parts are restricted due to the weak interfacial adhesion of the polymers...... effectively control the adhesion between two polymers. The effects of environmental conditions on the bond strength after moulding are also investigated. The material selections and environmental conditions were chosen based on the suitability of MID production, but the results and discussion presented...

  1. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L; Truong, Thérèse

    2015-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estro......A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated...... with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage...

  2. [Investigation and analysis of factors that affect the health of children in the plastic recycling and regeneration processing region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juanli; Li, Liping; Lu, Yaogui

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the main influential factors for the health of children in the plastic waste recovery and recycling area. A cross-sectional survey was performed among children aged 9∼17 years from three natural villages engaged in plastic waste recovery and recycling and four control villages engaged in planting. The health status of children was investigated by random household survey using a face-to-face questionnaire, and the main influential factors were analyzed accordingly. The incidence rates of respiratory symptoms (cough and expectoration, nasal congestion, and sore throat) (78.4%, 69/88) and digestive diseases (gastrointestinal disease and liver disease) (14.8%, 13/88) in the waste processing area were significantly higher than those in the control area (64.0%, 71/111; 6.3%, 7/111) (P plastic can be smelt around the residential area.

  3. Investigation of the Influence Factors on Distortion in Induction-Hardened Steel Shafts Manufactured from Cold-Drawn Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Juan; Epp, Jeremy; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva; Nunes, Rafael Menezes; Zoch, Hans Werner

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the distortion of steel shafts was investigated before and after induction hardening. Several essential influencing factors in the manufacturing process chain regarding cold drawing, cutting method, notches on the shafts, and induction hardening were analyzed by design of experiment (DoE). Further necessary examinations of microstructures, hardness profile, segregation of chemical composition, and residual stress state were conducted for understanding the distortion behavior. The results of the statistical analysis of the DoE showed that the drawing process is the most important factor influencing distortion. The surface hardening depth of induction hardening is the second main factor. The relationship between inhomogeneities in the work pieces and the distortion was finally discussed.

  4. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Yesilyurt, Betul T; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Arias Perez, José Ignacio; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C; Spurdle, Amanda; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E; Easton, Doug F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D P; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-03-15

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint ) factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies.

  5. The Impact Of Socio-Demographic Factors And Political Perceptions On Consumer Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Foods: An Econometric Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Antonopoulou, Lina; Christos T. Papadas; Targoutzidis, Antonis

    2009-01-01

    This survey-based paper investigates the impact of socio-demographic factors, along with political perceptions, as expressed by attitudes towards globalization, on consumer attitudes towards GM foods, in Greece. Different aspects of consumer attitudes regarding GM foods are examined, such as general preference, banning, labeling, intention to purchase them at a sufficiently low price, the nutritional category of food product and the proximity of the genetic modification to the final product. ...

  6. Investigating The Factors Impacting On The Development & Deployment Of ITS Solutions In Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi; Tadayoni, Reza; Tsivor, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    . There are bundles of drivers for developing and deploying ITS solutions for technological advancement and societal modernization, as well as economic growth and sustainability for developing countries. Ironically, there also exit a number of barriers mitigating the development and deployment of ITS technologies...... in these countries. The main bottlenecks to deploying ITS applications in developing countries include: insufficient understanding of the potentials of ITS and its benefits due to lack of education and awareness, lack of financial resources, lack of technical support, difficulties in integrating ITS applications...

  7. Risk factors for SARS transmission from patients requiring intubation: a multicentre investigation in Toronto, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Raboud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the 2003 Toronto SARS outbreak, SARS-CoV was transmitted in hospitals despite adherence to infection control procedures. Considerable controversy resulted regarding which procedures and behaviours were associated with the greatest risk of SARS-CoV transmission. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors for transmission of SARS-CoV during intubation from laboratory confirmed SARS patients to HCWs involved in their care. All SARS patients requiring intubation during the Toronto outbreak were identified. All HCWs who provided care to intubated SARS patients during treatment or transportation and who entered a patient room or had direct patient contact from 24 hours before to 4 hours after intubation were eligible for this study. Data was collected on patients by chart review and on HCWs by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Generalized estimating equation (GEE logistic regression models and classification and regression trees (CART were used to identify risk factors for SARS transmission. RESULTS: 45 laboratory-confirmed intubated SARS patients were identified. Of the 697 HCWs involved in their care, 624 (90% participated in the study. SARS-CoV was transmitted to 26 HCWs from 7 patients; 21 HCWs were infected by 3 patients. In multivariate GEE logistic regression models, presence in the room during fiberoptic intubation (OR = 2.79, p = .004 or ECG (OR = 3.52, p = .002, unprotected eye contact with secretions (OR = 7.34, p = .001, patient APACHE II score > or = 20 (OR = 17.05, p = .009 and patient Pa0(2/Fi0(2 ratio < or = 59 (OR = 8.65, p = .001 were associated with increased risk of transmission of SARS-CoV. In CART analyses, the four covariates which explained the greatest amount of variation in SARS-CoV transmission were covariates representing individual patients. CONCLUSION: Close contact with the airway of severely ill patients and failure of infection control practices to prevent exposure

  8. Investigating Indoor Radon Levels and Influencing Factors in Primary Schools of Zulfi City, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Al-Mosa, Tahani M.; Baig, M. R.

    2011-10-01

    Measurement of indoor Concentrations were performed in Zulfi city of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 track etch detectors. This investigation focused on the influence of different parameters, namely different locations, school categories, school building types, and room type as well as on the existence of differences in radon concentration at floor levels. We divided the Zulfi city into five regions, keeping in mind their geographical locations between Tuwaiq Mountains and Al-Thuwayrat sands. The measured average radon concentrations for regions 1-5 respectively are: 87.0±14.2 Bq/m3, 83.4±6.0 Bq/m3, 61.6±6.4 Bq/m3, 63.7±5.4 Bq/m3 and 87.5±6.Bq/m3 and the minimum concentrations are 28.0 Bq/m3, 5.5 Bq/m3, 1.1 Bq/m3, 1.0 Bq/m3 and 24 Bq/m3 respectively. These results are still within normal limits and below the action level of 148 Bqm-3 set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A test of significance using Minitab program was applied to investigate if radon levels in regions are significantly different from each other. We tried all combinations, and found the following results. The "within regions" (different location) test yielded, region 2 is not significant versus region "1" (p = 0.783) and versus region "5" (P = 0.646), whereas it is significant versus region "3" ( P = 0.0160) and also versus region "4" (p = 0.018). We investigated government and rented school's building also and none was found significantly different (p = 0.052). Floors of the same building were tested in order to examine the radon concentration as a function of storey level. No significant difference was observed at floor levels (p = 0.009). When girl's schools versus Boys and kindergartens schools were tested they were found significantly different. It is believed that this significant difference is due to geographical nature of the area, since most of the girl's schools were selected from regions 2 and 3, these regions are relatively close to the Tuwaiq mountains whereas other

  9. Investigating the Reliability and Factor Structure of the Self-Regulating Capacity in Vocabulary Learning (SRCvoc in Iranian EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Taleb Doaee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the reliability and factor structure of the self-regulating capacity in vocabulary learning strategies scale (SRCvoc in the Iranian EFL context. To this end, the original (SRCvoc questionnaire (Tseng, Dornyei, & Schmitt, 2006 was translated into Persian, using a translation/back-translation procedure. Then, the Persian version of the SRCVOC was piloted to 43 high school students and showed acceptable internal consistency reliability (α = .81. In the main phase of the study, a sample of 1167 high school students (grades 9-12 from fifteen high schools in three Iranian cities completed the Persian SRCvoc. Based on the results, the Persian version of the scale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability (α = 0.81. The factor structure of the translated version of the measure was investigated through a series of factor analyses. The results showed that the translated SVLSQ is composed of one dimension with five subcomponents, with a different factor structure as compared to the original questionnaire. The findings of the study suggest that the Persian version of the SVLSQ is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring self-regulatory vocabulary learning strategies in Iran.

  10. Investigation of influencing factors on friction during ring test in hot forging using FEM simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethy, Ritanjali; Galdos, Lander; Mendiguren, Joseba; Sáenz de Argandoña, Eneko

    2016-10-01

    Few studies have been undertaken to understand the friction in hot forming, especially when addressing the issue of varying input parameters. Better understanding of their role is therefore needed in order to obtain accurate results in numerical simulations. This paper numerically investigates the high temperature ring compression test to evaluate how frictional behaviour is affected by variations of input parameters (i.e. press velocity, Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC), processing time, mesh size, material and tool temperature). The high temperature ring-compression process was simulated by means of Finite Element Modelling (FEM) using FORGE-3D software with the ring made of AISI 304L having ratio of outer diameter, inner diameter and height of 30:15:10. According to the results, the HTC and the press velocity have most significant effects on frictional behavior and the calibration curves needed to calculate the friction coefficients after experimental testing.

  11. Investigating success factors influencing in e-CRM adoption: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariz Taherikia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the effects of technology adoption and quality of websites on customer satisfaction as well as customer loyalty in banking industry. It also investigates the effect of electronic customer satisfaction on customer loyalty and the effect of electronic customer satisfaction on customer loyalty on e-CRM. The study is accomplished among managers of bank Sepah in city of Qom, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study has confirmed that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between the effects of technology adoption and quality of web services on electronic customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The results also confirm the positive effect of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty, electronic customer satisfaction as well as electronic customer loyalty on e-CRM.

  12. Investigation of reliability attributes and accelerated stress factors of terrestrial solar cells. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, J.L.; Lathrop, J.W.

    1979-05-01

    The results of accelerated stress testing of four different types of silicon terrestrial solar cells are discussed. The accelerated stress tests used included bias-temperature tests, bias-temperature-humidity tests, thermal cycle and thermal shock tests, and power cycle tests. Characterization of the cells was performed before stress testing and at periodic down-times, using electrical measurement, visual inspection, and metal adherence pull tests. Electrical parameters measured included short-circuit current, I/sub sc/, open circuit voltage, V/sub oc/, and output power, voltage, and current at the maximum power point, P/sub m/, V/sub m/, and I/sub m/ respectively. Incorporated in the report are the distributions of the prestress electrical data for all cell types. Data was also obtained on cell series and shunt resistance. Significant differences in the response to the various stress tests was observed between cell types. On the basis of the experience gained in this research work, a suggested Reliability Qualification Test Schedule was developed.

  13. An investigation of the role of immunologic factors in anemia associated with canine heartworm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, L L; Halliwell, R E; Jackson, R F; Needham, T C; Limpach, M

    1984-10-01

    Direct Coombs' antiglobulin tests were performed on 80 dogs with patent Dirofilaria immitis infection and 170 dogs negative for microfilaria of D. immitis. Presence or absence of anemia was determined by hematocrit in 55 of the heartworm negative dogs and 68 of the dogs with heartworm disease. Heartworm infected dogs showed a higher incidence (37%) of anemia than noninfected dogs (14.5%). Anemia was most prevalent in two groups of dogs with heartworm infection, one group showing vena caval syndrome (91%) and the other occult dirofilariasis (62.5%). These latter two groups of dogs also showed a significantly higher number of positive Coombs' reactions at 37 degrees C than other dogs with heartworm disease and the noninfected dogs. The number of positive Coombs' reactions at 4 degrees C among the total of 80 dogs with heartworm infection was significantly higher than that for dogs without heartworm disease. However, there was no positive correlation between anemia and the outcome of the Coombs' test at either temperature. These findings do not suggest that immunologic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of anemia in dogs with heartworm disease.

  14. An investigation of the five-factor model of personality and coping behaviour in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Greenlees, Iain; Jones, Marc

    2011-05-01

    Coping strategies are important for performance in sport and individual differences may contribute to the coping strategies adopted by athletes. In this study, we explored the main and interactive effects of the big five personality dimensions on sport-related coping and compared personality profiles of discrete groups of athletes. Altogether, 253 athletes (mean age 21.1 years, s=3.7) completed the NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and the Coping Function Questionnaire for Sport (Kowalski & Crocker, 2001). Results showed that extraverted athletes, who were also emotionally stable and open to new experiences (a three-way interaction effect), reported a greater use of problem-focused coping strategies. Conscientious athletes (main effect), and athletes displaying high levels of extraversion, openness, and agreeableness (a three-way interaction effect), reported a greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and athletes with low levels of openness, or high levels of neuroticism (main effects), reported a greater use of avoidance coping strategies. Different personality characteristics were observed between higher-level and lower-level athletes, between men and women athletes, and between individual and team sport athletes. These findings suggest that the five-factor model of personality can help distinguish various levels of athletic involvement and can help identify the coping strategies athletes are likely to adopt during participation.

  15. Investigating factors leading to fogging of glass vials in lyophilized drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Fattah, Ahmad M; Oeschger, Richard; Roehl, Holger; Bauer Dauphin, Isabelle; Worgull, Martin; Kallmeyer, Georg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2013-10-01

    Vial "Fogging" is a phenomenon observed after lyophilization due to drug product creeping upwards along the inner vial surface. After the freeze-drying process, a haze of dried powder is visible inside the drug product vial, making it barely acceptable for commercial distribution from a cosmetic point of view. Development studies were performed to identify the root cause for fogging during manufacturing of a lyophilized monoclonal antibody drug product. The results of the studies indicate that drug product creeping occurs during the filling process, leading to vial fogging after lyophilization. Glass quality/inner surface, glass conversion/vial processing (vial "history") and formulation excipients, e.g., surfactants (three different surfactants were tested), all affect glass fogging to a certain degree. Results showed that the main factor to control fogging is primarily the inner vial surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity. While Duran vials were not capable of reliably improving the level of fogging, hydrophobic containers provided reliable means to improve the cosmetic appearance due to reduction in fogging. Varying vial depyrogenation treatment conditions did not lead to satisfying results in removal of the fogging effect. Processing conditions of the vial after filling with drug product had a strong impact on reducing but not eliminating fogging.

  16. The investigation of Risk factors of influenza pandemic H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    koorosh Holakooyi Naeini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Influenza pandemic H1N1 is an acute respiratory infectious disease that is combination of two types of influenza virus type A (H1N1. This study aimed to identify risk factors affecting influenza pandemic H1N1. Methods: In this case-control study, the cases were 18 positive cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 and the controls were the patients who were admitted during the same time as the cases to sections of Orthopedics, Urology, Surgery and Women of the same hospital for reasons other than influenza. The data were collected through a form by two experienced nurses and then were fed into SPSS, and were analyzed using independent T-test and chi-square. Results: A significant relationship was observed between pandemic H1N1 influenza infection and a history of domestic travel, contact with confirmed patients, respiratory diseases, and diabetes (P0.05. Conclusion: People with underlying diseases, especially respiratory diseases, diabetes, heart disease and a secondary infection and cardiovascular disease most likely are susceptible to influenza pandemic H1N1.

  17. Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lammi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 secretion.

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document.

  19. Engineering Area Investigation of Reliability Attributes and Accelerated Stress Factors on Terrestrial Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Prince, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    Results obtained include the definition of a simplified stress test schedule for terrestrial solar cells based on the work performed during the first program year, and the design and fabrication of improved jigs and fixtures for electrical measurement and stress testing. Implementation of these advanced techniques for accelerated stress testing is underway on three solar cell types. In addition, review of the literature on second quadrant phenomena was begun and some preliminary second-quadrant electrical measurements were performed. Results obtained at the first down time for 75 C B-T testing and biased and unbiased T-H pressure cooker testing of type F cells showed little or no degradation in electrical parameters. Significant physical effects (large solder bubbles) were noted for type F cells subjected to the pressure cooker stress test.

  20. Investigation of EBG array performance on decreasing the mutual coupling and improve shield factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahele Ahmadian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper EBG structures including parallel plates of EBGs are being used to reduce the mutual coupling between the two omni-directional antennas. Here, we have chosen the Discone antennas as omni directional antennas and comparisons between uniform and non-uniform structure with conventional array of antenna is presented, and compared with the fractal structure for designing ultra wide band structure. The multi-layer EBG structure have been designed and simulated based on EBG metamaterial characteristics. Our aim is to reduce coupling or reduction of S21 to have better coupling reduction and shielding effectiveness for applying the structure as an absorber or shield and shielding bandwidth in non uniform structure is increased up to 16 GHz.

  1. An Investigation of the Mortality Rate and Risk Factors in Newborn Infants With Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

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    Sabzehei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the serious challenges facing neonatal medicine is meconium aspiration syndrome, delays in the treatment of which can lead to high mortality. Objectives This study was designed and conducted with the aim of determining the mortality rate and risk factors affecting this rate in newborn infants with meconium aspiration syndrome. Methods This study was conducted as a retrospective descriptive research on newborn infants with meconium aspiration syndrome hospitalized at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Fatemieh and Be’sat hospitals in Hamadan city during a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. Demographic information of the mother and the newborn, hospitalization course, the need for mechanical ventilation, and complications and outcomes of disease were extracted and were analyzed using the SPSS software version 22. Results Sixty-three newborn infants, diagnosed with meconium aspiration syndrome, were entered in this study, 40% of them were male, 85.7% wighed more than 2500 g, and 17.5% were post term, 25.3% had a five-minute Apgar Score (AS5min of less than seven, 39.6% were nonvigorous at birth, 31.8% needed to be placed on mechanical ventilation, and 14.3% died during the hospitalization course. There was a significant relationship between the need for mechanical ventilation, nonvigorous state at the birth, complications of disease and mortality rate. Conclusions Despite the progress made in medicine, meconium aspiration syndrome is still one of the causes of newborn infants’ mortality. The mortality and morbidity rates can be reduced by improvement in perinatal care, prevention of post term delivery, timely caesarean and effective neonatal resuscitation at birth.

  2. Investigation on Factors Associated with Severe Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical and laboratory features of patients with mild and severe HFMD to identify early predictive or diagnostic markers for severe cases. Methods Samples of feces, nasopharyngeal-swab specimens, peripheral blood, serum and cerebral spinal lfuid were collected. Postmortem pathological examination was conducted on 2 dead patients with complication due to neurogenic pulmonary edema. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain-reaction (RT-PCR), culture and isolation of enterovirus 71 (EV71) were performed to detect EV71 infection. Both univariate and multivariate logistic analysis were used to identify factors associated with severe cases. Results EV71 was mainly responsible for HFMD. In this study, 5 isolated EV71 strains belonged to C4 gene subtype. Compared with mild patients, EV71-RNA detection rate was higher and CoxA16 detection rate was lower among severe patients (P < 0.01). Inlfammatory cell inifltration in the lung, cardiac and liver tissues were mild by postmortem pathological examination. It was found that body temperature, vomitting, limb tremor, neutrophil, blood glucose and EV71 infection were significantly related to the severe cases by univariate logisticanalysis. However, after multivariate logistic regression analysis, only vomiting (OR 16.1, CI 2.3-110.5,P < 0.01) and limb tremor (OR 117.6, CI 13.8-1004.5,P < 0.01) were signiifcantly and independently correlated with the severe cases. Conclusions EV71 was mainly responsible for HFMD, particularly for severe cases. Vomiting and limb tremor were predictive markers for severe cases.

  3. Investigating factors influencing consumer willingness to buy GM food and nano-food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Chengyan [University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Departments of Applied Economics and Horticultural Science, Bachman Endowed Chair in Horticultural Marketing (United States); Zhao, Shuoli [University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Department of Applied Economics (United States); Cummings, Christopher [Nanyang Technological University, Division of Communication Research, Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information (Singapore); Kuzma, Jennifer, E-mail: jkuzma@ncsu.edu [North Carolina State University, Genetic Engineering & Society Center (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Emerging technologies applied to food products often evoke controversy about their safety and whether to label foods resulting from their use. As such, it is important to understand the factors that influence consumer desires for labeling and their willingness-to-buy (WTB) these food products. Using data from a national survey with US consumers, this study employs structural equation modeling to explore relationships between potential influences such as trust in government to manage technologies, views on restrictive government policies, perceptions about risks and benefits, and preferences for labeling on consumer’s WTB genetically modified (GM) and nano-food products. Some interesting similarities and differences between GM- and nano-food emerged. For both technologies, trust in governing agencies to manage technologies did not influence labeling preferences, but it did influence attitudes about the food technologies themselves. Attitudes toward the two technologies, as measured by risk–benefit comparisons and comfort with consumption, also greatly influenced views of government restrictive policies, labeling preferences, and WTB GM or nano-food products. For differences, labeling preferences were found to influence WTB nano-foods, but not WTB GM foods. Gender and religiosity also had varying effects on WTB and labeling preferences: while gender and religiosity influenced labeling preferences and WTB for GM foods, they did not have a significant influence for nano-foods. We propose some reasons for these differences, such as greater media attention and other heuristics such as value-based concerns about “modifying life” with GM foods. The results of this study can help to inform policies and communication about the application of these new technologies in food products.

  4. Investigating factors influencing consumer willingness to buy GM food and nano-food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chengyan; Zhao, Shuoli; Cummings, Christopher; Kuzma, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    Emerging technologies applied to food products often evoke controversy about their safety and whether to label foods resulting from their use. As such, it is important to understand the factors that influence consumer desires for labeling and their willingness-to-buy (WTB) these food products. Using data from a national survey with US consumers, this study employs structural equation modeling to explore relationships between potential influences such as trust in government to manage technologies, views on restrictive government policies, perceptions about risks and benefits, and preferences for labeling on consumer's WTB genetically modified (GM) and nano-food products. Some interesting similarities and differences between GM- and nano-food emerged. For both technologies, trust in governing agencies to manage technologies did not influence labeling preferences, but it did influence attitudes about the food technologies themselves. Attitudes toward the two technologies, as measured by risk-benefit comparisons and comfort with consumption, also greatly influenced views of government restrictive policies, labeling preferences, and WTB GM or nano-food products. For differences, labeling preferences were found to influence WTB nano-foods, but not WTB GM foods. Gender and religiosity also had varying effects on WTB and labeling preferences: while gender and religiosity influenced labeling preferences and WTB for GM foods, they did not have a significant influence for nano-foods. We propose some reasons for these differences, such as greater media attention and other heuristics such as value-based concerns about "modifying life" with GM foods. The results of this study can help to inform policies and communication about the application of these new technologies in food products.

  5. Short Duration Bioastronautics Investigation 1904: Human Factors Assessment of Vibration Effects on Visual Performance during Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shelby; Holden, Kritina; Ebert, Douglas; Root, Phillip; Adelstein, Bernard; Jones, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of the Short Duration Bioastronautics Investigation (SDBI) 1904 was to determine visual performance limits during Shuttle operational vibration and g-loads, specifically through the determination of minimal usable font sizes using Orion-type display formats. Currently there is little to no data available to quantify human visual performance under the extreme g- and vibration conditions of launch. Existing data on shuttle vibration magnitude and frequency is incomplete and does not address human visual performance. There have been anecdotal reports of performance decrements from shuttle crews, but no structured data have been collected. Previous work by NASA on the effects of vibration and linear g-loads on human performance was conducted during the Gemini era, but these experiments were performed using displays and controls that are dramatically different than current concepts being considered by the Constellation Program. Recently, three investigations of visual performance under vibration have been completed at NASA Ames Research Center: the first examining whole-body vibration, the second employing whole-body vibration coupled with a sustained g-load, and a third examining the effects of peak versus extended duration vibration. However, all of these studies were conducted using only a single x-axis direction (eyeballs in/out). Estimates of thrust oscillations from the Constellation Ares-I first stage are driving the need for realistic human performance requirements. SDBI 1904 was an opportunity to address the need for requirements by conducting a highly focused and applied evaluation in a relevant spaceflight environment. The SDBI was a companion effort to Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 695, which measured shuttle seat accelerations (vibration) during ascent. Data from the SDBI will serve an important role in interpreting the DTO vibration data. Both SDBI 1904 and DTO 695 were low impact with respect to flight resources, and combined, they

  6. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on customer loyalty: A case study of Shahrvand food chain in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Valiollah Tabatabaee Hanzaee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In today's competitive business environment, consumers are exposed to make their choice from different alternatives. Customer loyalty has never been an easy task and many business owners may lose their customer as soon as new products appear on the market. This paper presents a study to find important factors influencing on sales force using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire and distributed among 180 customers of a well-known food chain named Shahrvand in different regions in city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 156 filled ones. The questionnaire consists of 68 questions Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.847, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of our survey indicate that five major factors including multi-sensory brand experience, brand engagement, pleasing brand, brand communications and brand effectiveness influence brand loyalty, significantly.

  7. Investigating the factors affecting the disclosure of intellectual capital in companies listed on the Tehran stock exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gilani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. This research studies the effective factor of disclosing intellectual capital of firms listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. The results of the analysis. Intellectual capital is one of the most valuable assets of the organization. Despite numerous studies on intellectual capital and its effects in various aspects, the disclosure of intellectual capital is the missing ring in the areas of accounting studies. This research tries, through fill this gap, providing paving the way for the creation and expansion of this valuable asset. This research studies the effective factor of disclosing intellectual capital of firms listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. In order to measure intellectual capital disclosure, Li et.al [9] intellectual capital disclosure checklist was used. In order to test research hypotheses, a sample including 96 firms during years 2009-2013 was selected as statistical sample of research and research hypotheses were tested by using multivariate regression model based on the pooled data method. Findings indicated that there is a positive significant relationship between size of firm, profitability and leverage with intellectual capital disclosure level. However, there was no significant relationship between size of auditing firm and intellectual capital disclosure. The findings of surveys conducted research, filling gaps in this area, it can be helpful for managers, investors, policy makers Stock Exchange, and other users of accounting information in order to make better decisions. Conclusions and directions of further researches. This research aims at investigating the relationship between size of firm, profitability, leverage and size of auditing firm with intellectual capital disclosure. In order to reach this objective, sample consisted of 96 firms listed in Terhan Stock Exchange during 2009-2013 was considered. The relationship between size of auditing firm and intellectual capital disclosure was tested. Results of

  8. Investigation of the spatiotemporal variation and influencing factors on fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide concentrations near a road intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Qing-Chang; He, Hong-Di; Wang, Dongsheng; Gao, Ya; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2017-03-01

    The minute-scale variations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations near a road intersection in Shanghai, China were investigated to identify the influencing factors at three traffic periods. Measurement results demonstrate a synchronous variation of pollutant concentrations at the roadside and setbacks, and the average concentration of PM2.5 at the roadside is 7% (44% for CO) higher than that of setbacks within 500 m of the intersection. The pollution level at traffic peak periods is found to be higher than that of off-peak periods, and the morning peak period is found to be the most polluted due to a large amount of diesel vehicles and unfavorable dispersion conditions. Partial least square regressions were constructed for influencing factors and setback pollutant concentrations, and results indicate that meteorological factors are the most significant, followed by setback distance from the intersection and traffic factors. CO is found to be sensitive to distance from the traffic source and vehicle type, and highly dependent on local traffic conditions, whereas PM2.5 originates more from other sources and background levels. These findings demonstrate the importance of localized factors in understanding spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution at intersections, and support decision makers in roadside pollution management and control.

  9. Improving cluster-based methods for investigating potential for insect pest species establishment: region-specific risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Watts

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing cluster-based methods for investigating insect species assemblages or profiles of a region to indicate the risk of new insect pest invasion have a major limitation in that they assign the same species risk factors to each region in a cluster. Clearly regions assigned to the same cluster have different degrees of similarity with respect to their species profile or assemblage. This study addresses this concern by applying weighting factors to the cluster elements used to calculate regional risk factors, thereby producing region-specific risk factors. Using a database of the global distribution of crop insect pest species, we found that we were able to produce highly differentiated region-specific risk factors for insect pests. We did this by weighting cluster elements by their Euclidean distance from the target region. Using this approach meant that risk weightings were derived that were more realistic, as they were specific to the pest profile or species assemblage of each region. This weighting method provides an improved tool for estimating the potential invasion risk posed by exotic species given that they have an opportunity to establish in a target region.

  10. Investigation of the spatiotemporal variation and influencing factors on fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide concentrations near a road intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Qing-Chang; He, Hong-Di; Wang, Dongsheng; Gao, Ya; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2016-05-01

    The minute-scale variations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations near a road intersection in Shanghai, China were investigated to identify the influencing factors at three traffic periods. Measurement results demonstrate a synchronous variation of pollutant concentrations at the roadside and setbacks, and the average concentration of PM2.5 at the roadside is 7% (44% for CO) higher than that of setbacks within 500 m of the intersection. The pollution level at traffic peak periods is found to be higher than that of off-peak periods, and the morning peak period is found to be the most polluted due to a large amount of diesel vehicles and unfavorable dispersion conditions. Partial least square regressions were constructed for influencing factors and setback pollutant concentrations, and results indicate that meteorological factors are the most significant, followed by setback distance from the intersection and traffic factors. CO is found to be sensitive to distance from the traffic source and vehicle type, and highly dependent on local traffic conditions, whereas PM2.5 originates more from other sources and background levels. These findings demonstrate the importance of localized factors in understanding spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution at intersections, and support decision makers in roadside pollution management and control.

  11. Investigation of factors influencing biogas production in a large-scale thermophilic municipal biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Agnes; Jerome, Valerie; Freitag, Ruth [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Chair for Process Biotechnology; Burghardt, Diana; Likke, Likke; Peiffer, Stefan [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydrology; Hofstetter, Eugen M. [RVT Process Equipment GmbH, Steinwiesen (Germany); Gabler, Ralf [BKW Biokraftwerke Fuerstenwalde GmbH, Fuerstenwalde (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    A continuously operated, thermophilic, municipal biogas plant was observed over 26 months (sampling twice per month) in regard to a number of physicochemical parameters and the biogas production. Biogas yields were put in correlation to parameters such as the volatile fatty acid concentration, the pH and the ammonium concentration. When the residing microbiota was classified via analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, most bacterial sequences matched with unidentified or uncultured bacteria from similar habitats. Of the archaeal sequences, 78.4% were identified as belonging to the genus Methanoculleus, which has not previously been reported for biogas plants, but is known to efficiently use H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} produced by the degradation of fatty acids by syntrophic microorganisms. In order to further investigate the influence of varied amounts of ammonia (2-8 g/L) and volatile fatty acids on biogas production and composition (methane/CO{sub 2}), laboratory scale satellite experiments were performed in parallel to the technical plant. Finally, ammonia stripping of the process water of the technical plant was accomplished, a measure through which the ammonia entering the biogas reactor via the mash could be nearly halved, which increased the energy output of the biogas plant by almost 20%. (orig.)

  12. Investigation and Evaluation of Children's Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-05-28

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents' occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant.

  13. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Performance of Environmental Impact Assessment Practices (EIA in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Impact Assessment is used to detect changes that a proposed project may have on environment. The intent of present study is to investigate impact of institutional capacity and legal framework on performance of Environmental Impact Assessment practices in Pakistan such as screening, scoping and mitigation, environmental management plan and reporting. Sample of 200 EIA professionals have been selected by using random sampling approach from all provinces of Pakistan. Data has been collected through structured questionnaire and analysed by using AMOS 19 (Analysis of Moment Structures software. Results of path analysis indicated that institutional capacity and legal framework have significant direct impact on performance of all EIA practices in Pakistan. Model fit statistics such as GFI, RMR, NFI, IFI, TLI, RFI, CFI indicate the fitness of research model in this context. It has been suggested that there must be relevant and sufficient human resources that can uplift institutional capacity and legal framework must be well implemented because it will lead to enhanced performance of EIA practices in Pakistan.

  14. The Heavy Vehicle Study: a case-control study investigating risk factors for crash in long distance heavy vehicle drivers in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grunstein Ron R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy vehicle transportation continues to grow internationally; yet crash rates are high, and the risk of injury and death extends to all road users. The work environment for the heavy vehicle driver poses many challenges; conditions such as scheduling and payment are proposed risk factors for crash, yet the precise measure of these needs quantifying. Other risk factors such as sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnoea have been shown to increase crash risk in motor vehicle drivers however the risk of heavy vehicle crash from this and related health conditions needs detailed investigation. Methods and Design The proposed case control study will recruit 1034 long distance heavy vehicle drivers: 517 who have crashed and 517 who have not. All participants will be interviewed at length, regarding their driving and crash history, typical workloads, scheduling and payment, trip history over several days, sleep patterns, health, and substance use. All participants will have administered a nasal flow monitor for the detection of obstructive sleep apnoea. Discussion Significant attention has been paid to the enforcement of legislation aiming to deter problems such as excess loading, speeding and substance use; however, there is inconclusive evidence as to the direction and strength of associations of many other postulated risk factors for heavy vehicle crashes. The influence of factors such as remuneration and scheduling on crash risk is unclear; so too the association between sleep apnoea and the risk of heavy vehicle driver crash. Contributory factors such as sleep quality and quantity, body mass and health status will be investigated. Quantifying the measure of effect of these factors on the heavy vehicle driver will inform policy development that aims toward safer driving practices and reduction in heavy vehicle crash; protecting the lives of many on the road network.

  15. Investigation of Amount and Effective Factors on Trihalomethane Production in PotableWater of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andalib A.H.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives:Yazd province is located in the central desert part of Iran in which water scarcity was one of the most important problems. This has been recently solved to some extent, due to the approved channel project of water transferring from Isfahan to Yazd. Chlorination is usually used in the last stage of water treatment for disinfection in the networks, treatment plants, storages and channel stations. The possibility of carcinogen lateral composites formation is expected by tri-halo-methanes (THMs due to the reactions occurs between the natural organic materials and free chlorine available in water. Based on the established standard by the country, the permissible limit of THMs in water is 200 mg/L. In this research, in addition to the amount of THMs and their distribution in Yazd water transferring channel and the city water network system, the important parameters and their correlations with THMs formation were discussed.Materials and Methods: In a year of sampling period, the concentrations of THMs including the four major components of chloroform, bromoform, bromo di-chloro methane and di-bromo chloro methane during all seasons were measured using gas chromatograph and analyzed. This was done for 11 stations including Zayande-rood Basin River and Isfahan water treatment plant up to Yazd Shehneh storage, stations and inline equalization tanks and also five regions of Yazd city network.Results: According to the results, the maximum rate of THMs (51.14 mg/L during the sampling period in summer for Yazd city network and in ancient context of Jamea Mosque district was found. In addition, the minimum concentration of THMs was 1.60 mg/L in winter for the domestic network of the city which was related to Azad Shahr district. The Average total amount of THMs during sampling periods in all stations was 12.26 mg/L. Conclusion: SPSS and Excel softwares were used to analyze the research data in the descriptive and inferential manner

  16. Factors affecting the removal of ammonia from air on carbonaceous materials: Investigation of reactive adsorption mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Camille

    Air pollution related to the release of industrial toxic gases, represents one of the main concerns of our modern world owing to its detrimental effect on the environment. To tackle this growing issue, efficient ways to reduce/control the release of pollutants are required. Adsorption of gases on porous materials appears as a potential solution. However, the physisorption of small molecules of gases such as ammonia is limited at ambient conditions. For their removal, adsorbents providing strong adsorption forces must be used/developed. In this study, new carbon-based materials are prepared and tested for ammonia adsorption at ambient conditions. Characterization of the adsorbents' texture and surface chemistry is performed before and after exposure to ammonia to identify the features responsible for high adsorption capacity and for controlling the mechanisms of retention. The characterization techniques include: nitrogen adsorption, thermal analysis, potentiometric titration, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy. The results obtained indicate that ammonia removal is governed by the adsorbent's surface chemistry. On the contrary, porosity (and thus physisorption) plays a secondary role in this process, unless strong dispersive forces are provided by the adsorbent. The surface chemistry features responsible for the enhanced ammonia adsorption include the presence of oxygen-(carboxyl, hydroxyl, epoxy) and sulfur- (sulfonic) containing groups. Metallic species improve the breakthrough capacity as well as they lead to the formation of Lewis acid-base interactions, hydrogen-bonding or complexation. In addition to the latter three mechanisms, ammonia is retained on the adsorbent surface via Bronsted acid-base interactions or via specific reactions with the adsorbent's functionalities leading to the incorporation of ammonia into the adsorbent's matrix. Another mechanism

  17. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    residue revealed that it contains calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and other yet unidentified minor components when calcium hydroxide was used as the electrolyte. The surface film can be completely removed mechanically or to some extent inhibited chemically, with both of these processes resulting in an increase in the efficiency of the electrochemical chloride extraction process. In addition, an obvious relationship between the cover depth, water-to-cement ratio, and chloride extraction efficiency does not exist, however, cover depth does influence the current density. The final phase of this study will be presented in a VTRC/FHWA final report. This report will include the results that are presented in this dissertation, in addition to the results from the ongoing research. It will also include an estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment.

  18. Investigation of reliability attributes and accelerated stress factors on terrestrial solar cells. Third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lathrop, J.W.; Hartman, R.A.; Saylor, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    The third year of the accelerated reliability testing program concentrated on electrical measurement instrumentation and in modeling cell behavior in the second quadrant. In addition, some preliminary work was done on correlating cell color changes with electrical degradation. Not reported are results of continuing accelerated stress tests on state of the art cells. A number of new cells were added to the program, but not in time for sufficient data to be obtained, while the older cells are undergoing extended test periods and new data are not yet available on them. The all-digital, microprocessor controlled, short interval tester, which was designed and fabricated, has replaced the manual measurement procedure formerly used. This has improved measurement accuracy and repeatability, reduced measurement time, and through coordinated data management procedures, eliminated data errors. A complete description of the tester including schematics and software is given and its operating procedures described. A computer model, based on the thermal and electrical properties of the cells and encapsulating materials, was developed to relate cell temperature to electrical characteristics in the second quadrant. This model adequately predicted the behavior of both encapsulated and unencapsulated cells, although accurate temperature measurements on encapsulated cells were difficult to obtain. In addition, only cells of one type were used for comparison and other cell types may require different parameter values for fitting. Use of the model should permit the prediction of a cell's sensitivity to degradation in the second quadrant. The computer program is listed together with a description of its operation.

  19. INVESTIGATING THE PROCURING FACTORS OF SUFFRAGETTES MOVEMENT WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Hatice Gurcum

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The French Revolution roused many debates on human rights, including women's rights, which was known and criticized strongly by conservatives in late 18th century Europe, particularly France, and America. A keen observation on French Revolution resulted in “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” which was published by Wollstonecraft in 1792, and which was the first great feminist treatise. Depending upon Wollstonecraft’s ideas the suffragettes movement, which sought to persuade women to endeavour to acquire strength, both of mind and body, and to get the right to vote, to be equal with men and to have equal opportunity of education with men, began in the very beginning of 19th century and spread all other countries in the 20th century. This movement changed the roles of men and women both inside the house and inside the society and formed the strong modern woman concept and the modern clothing of women. Women worked very hard to earn the right to vote, they also worked for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms. This research is carred out to explain thoroughly the circumstances procuring the suffrage movement within the context of textile industry and era dynamics.

  20. Factors Affecting Phage D29 Infection: A Tool to Investigate Different Growth States of Mycobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Benjamin M. C.; Gerrard, Zara E.; Huxley, Jonathan N.; Rees, Catherine E. D.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages D29 and TM4 are able to infect a wide range of mycobacteria, including pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. Successful phage infection of both fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria can be rapidly detected using the phage amplification assay. Using this method, the effect of oxygen limitation during culture of mycobacteria on the success of phage infection was studied. Both D29 and TM4 were able to infect cultures of M. smegmatis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) grown in liquid with aeration. However when cultures were grown under oxygen limiting conditions, only TM4 could productively infect the cells. Cell attachment assays showed that D29 could bind to the cells surface but did not complete the lytic cycle. The ability of D29 to productively infect the cells was rapidly recovered (within 1 day) when the cultures were returned to an aerobic environment and this recovery required de novo RNA synthesis. These results indicated that under oxygen limiting conditions the cells are entering a growth state which inhibits phage D29 replication, and this change in host cell biology which can be detected by using both phage D29 and TM4 in the phage amplification assay. PMID:25184428

  1. Factors affecting phage D29 infection: a tool to investigate different growth states of mycobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M C Swift

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages D29 and TM4 are able to infect a wide range of mycobacteria, including pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. Successful phage infection of both fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria can be rapidly detected using the phage amplification assay. Using this method, the effect of oxygen limitation during culture of mycobacteria on the success of phage infection was studied. Both D29 and TM4 were able to infect cultures of M. smegmatis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP grown in liquid with aeration. However when cultures were grown under oxygen limiting conditions, only TM4 could productively infect the cells. Cell attachment assays showed that D29 could bind to the cells surface but did not complete the lytic cycle. The ability of D29 to productively infect the cells was rapidly recovered (within 1 day when the cultures were returned to an aerobic environment and this recovery required de novo RNA synthesis. These results indicated that under oxygen limiting conditions the cells are entering a growth state which inhibits phage D29 replication, and this change in host cell biology which can be detected by using both phage D29 and TM4 in the phage amplification assay.

  2. Factors affecting phage D29 infection: a tool to investigate different growth states of mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Benjamin M C; Gerrard, Zara E; Huxley, Jonathan N; Rees, Catherine E D

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages D29 and TM4 are able to infect a wide range of mycobacteria, including pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. Successful phage infection of both fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria can be rapidly detected using the phage amplification assay. Using this method, the effect of oxygen limitation during culture of mycobacteria on the success of phage infection was studied. Both D29 and TM4 were able to infect cultures of M. smegmatis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) grown in liquid with aeration. However when cultures were grown under oxygen limiting conditions, only TM4 could productively infect the cells. Cell attachment assays showed that D29 could bind to the cells surface but did not complete the lytic cycle. The ability of D29 to productively infect the cells was rapidly recovered (within 1 day) when the cultures were returned to an aerobic environment and this recovery required de novo RNA synthesis. These results indicated that under oxygen limiting conditions the cells are entering a growth state which inhibits phage D29 replication, and this change in host cell biology which can be detected by using both phage D29 and TM4 in the phage amplification assay.

  3. An investigation of factors associated with psychiatric hospital admission despite the presence of crisis resolution teams

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    Nolan Fiona

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crisis resolution teams (CRTs provide a community alternative to psychiatric hospital admission for patients presenting in crisis. Little is known about the characteristics of patients admitted despite the availability of such teams. Methods Data were drawn from three investigations of the outcomes of CRTs in inner London. A literature review was used to identify candidate explanatory variables that may be associated with admission despite the availability of intensive home treatment. The main outcome variable was admission to hospital within 8 weeks of the initial crisis. Associations between this outcome and the candidate explanatory variables were tested using first univariate and then multivariate analysis. Results Patients who were uncooperative with initial assessment (OR 10.25 95% CI-4.20–24.97, at risk of self-neglect (OR 2.93 1.42–6.05, had a history of compulsory admission (OR 2.64 1.07–6.55, assessed outside usual office hours (OR 2.34 1.11–4.94 and/or were assessed in hospital casualty departments (OR 3.12 1.55–6.26, were more likely to be admitted. Other than age, no socio-demographic features or diagnostic variables were significantly associated with risk of admission. Conclusion With the introduction of CRTs, inpatient wards face a significant challenge, as patients who cooperate little with treatment, neglect themselves, or have previously been compulsorily detained are especially likely to be admitted. The increased risk of admission associated with casualty department assessment may be remediable.

  4. Investigating the key factors in designing a communication skills program for medical students: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi Hazavehei, Seyyed M.; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Emadzadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Medical students have a serious need to acquire communication skills with others. In many medical schools, special curriculums are developed to improve such skills. Effective training of communication skills requires expert curriculum design. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and views of experts and stakeholders in order to design a suitable training program in communication skills for medical students. Methods The content analysis approach was used in this qualitative study. Forty-three participants were selected from the faculty, nurses, physicians, residents, and medical students at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences using purposive sampling. The data were collected through focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. To ensure the accuracy of the data, the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability were met. The data were analyzed by MAXQDA software using the Graneheim & Lundman model. Results The findings of this study consisted of two main themes, i.e., “The vast nature of the present communication skills training” and “administrative requirements of the training program regarding communication skills.” The first theme included the educational needs of students, the problems associated with training people to have good communication skills, the importance of good communication skills in performing professional duties, communication skills and job requirements, the learning environment of communication skills, and the status of existing training programs for communication skills. Strategies and suitable methods for teaching communication skills and methods of evaluating the students in this regard also were obtained. Conclusion The findings of this study were the elements required to design a proper and local model to teach communication skills to medical students through analyzing the concepts of effective communication. The results of this study can be useful for medical

  5. Toward biophysical synergy: Investigating advection along the Polar Front to identify factors influencing Alaska sablefish recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotwell, S. Kalei; Hanselman, Dana H.; Belkin, Igor M.

    2014-09-01

    In fisheries stock assessment, reliable estimation of year-class strength is often hindered by lack of data on early life history stages and limited knowledge of the underlying environmental processes influencing survival through these stages. One solution to improving these estimates of year-class strength or recruitment is to first develop regional indices representing the spatial and temporal extent of a hypothesized feature influencing a species' recruitment. These covariates should then be integrated within a population model where a variety of model selection techniques may be conducted to test for a reduction in recruitment uncertainty. The best selected model(s) may provide insight for developing hypotheses of mechanisms influencing recruitment. Here we consider the influence of a large-scale oceanographic feature, the North Pacific Polar Front, on recruitment of Alaska sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria). Our working hypothesis is that advection of oceanic properties along the Polar Front and associated currents plays a key role in shaping the oceanographic climate of Alaskan waters and, hence, the environment that sablefish encounter during their early life history. As a first step in this investigation, we developed time series of sea surface temperature along the Polar Front mean path. We then integrated this data into the recruitment equations of the sablefish assessment base model. Model selection was based on a multistage hypothesis testing procedure combined with cross-validation and a retrospective analysis of prediction error. The impact of the best model was expressed in terms of increased precision of recruitment estimates and proportional changes in female spawning biomass for both current estimates and in future projections. The best model suggested that colder than average wintertime sea surface temperatures in the central North Pacific represent oceanic conditions that create positive recruitment events for sablefish. The incorporation of this

  6. An investigation of most important internal and external organizational factors effect on new product performance in food industries

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    Hamid raza Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New products are critical and undeniable factors for companies that operate in a competitive and changing environment. Many researchers have sought to identify factors that affect the success of new product. This research seeks to identify and categorize the most important factors which influenced on the performance of new products in food industries. After reading several researches, these factors were classified into two categories: internal and external factors. The most important internal factors that, addressed in this research include: entrepreneurial orientation, organizational learning and new product development process, and the most important external factors are: the predictability of customers demands, technological turbulence, market turbulence and intensity of competition. Statistical society of this study is 66 food companies of Mazandaran province, with at least 2 years work experience, that released at least one new product within last year. In this study, hypothesis were tested by structural equation tests, correlation, and hierarchical and multiple regressions, and data analysis software SPSS16 and Visual PLS was used. The findings of this research indicate that entrepreneurial orientation, new product development process and predictability of customer demand has a direct and meaningful impact, and technological turbulence, market turbulence and competitive intensity have a significant moderating effect on the performance of new products in food industries. But it didn’t demonstrate a significant impact of organizational learning on new product performance. The study of indirect effect of organizational learning on new product performance shows that, organizational learning may increase the performance of new products when, a new product development process acts as a mediating variable. Determining suitability of the model by GOF indices shows that the modified model of new product model of new product development process

  7. The investigation of relationship between joint findings and serum angiogenic and inflammatory factor levels in severe hemophilia A patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapnar, Tuba H; Karadaş, Nihal; Özek, Gülcihan; Tüfekçi, Özlem; Atabay, Berna; Türker, Meral; Yüksel, Faize; Karapınar, Deniz Y; Vergin, Canan; İrken, Gülersu; Ören, Hale

    2014-10-01

    Despite the use of primary prophylactic Factor VIII replacement in severe hemophilia A patients, bleeding into joints cannot be prevented completely and early diagnosis and treatment of the joint bleedings are important for prevention of permanent joint damage. Recent studies have shown that neoangiogenesis plays important role in development of synovitis after recurrent joint bleedings. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between joint findings and levels of serum angiogenic and inflammatory factors in severe hemophilia A patients.The patient groups consisted of 10 severe hemophilia A patients with acute joint bleeding and 25 severe hemophilia A patients without acute joint bleeding. They were all inhibitor negative. The control group consisted of 22 healthy male children. Complete blood cell count analysis, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin, lactic acid, and ELISA-based detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, thrombomodulin, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and endostatin were performed from peripheral blood of patient and the control groups. CRP and MIF levels were detected significantly higher in hemophilia patients with acute joint bleeding than patients without acute joint bleeding. There was a positive correlation between serum thrombomodulin, VEGF, and MIF levels. In this study, we demonstrated that serum CRP and MIF levels increases in acute bleeding period regardless of the presence of previous joint damage in children with severe hemophilia. CRP elevation may be a useful and rapid marker for acute bleeding in these patients.

  8. Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortner, Renée T; Hüsing, Anika; Kühn, Tilman;

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer risk prediction models including lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive factors have limited discrimination. Adding biomarker data to these models may improve predictive capacity; to our knowledge, this has not been investigated for endometrial cancer. Using a nested case......-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we investigated the improvement in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from an existing risk prediction model based on epidemiologic factors. Serum...... concentrations of sex steroid hormones, metabolic markers, growth factors, adipokines, and cytokines were evaluated in a step-wise backward selection process; biomarkers were retained at pdiscrimination was assessed using...

  9. SU-E-T-517: Investigation of Factors Contributing to Extracranial Radiation Doses From Leksell Gamma Knife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kon, D [The University of Tokyo Graduate school of Medicine, Tokyo, JP (Japan); Kameda Medical Centre, Chiba, JP (Japan); Nakano, M [The University of Tokyo Graduate school of Medicine, Tokyo, JP (Japan); Nawa, K; Haga, A; Nakagawa, K [University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, JP (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate dominant factors for doses to extracranial sites in treatment with Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK). Methods Monte Carlo simulation was implemented using EGS5 version 1.4.401. The simulation was divided into two major steps for the purpose of efficiency. As the first step, phase-space files were obtained at a scoring plane located just below patient-side surface of the collimator helmet of LGK. Scored particles were classified into three groups, primary, leakage and scatter, using their history information until their arrival to the scoring plane. Then classification was used at the following second step simulation to investigate which type of particle is dominant in the deposited energy at extra-cranial sites. In the second stage, a cylindrical phantom with a semisphere shaped head was modeled such that the geometrical center of the phantom’s head corresponds to the unit center point (UCP) of LGK. Scoring regions were arranged at 10 cm intervals from the UCP to 70 cm away on the central axis of the phantom. Energy deposition from each type of particles and location of interaction were recorded. Results The dominant factor of deposited energy depended on the collimator size. In the case of smaller collimator size, leakage was dominant. However, contribution of leakage was relatively small in the case of larger collimator size. The contribution of internal scatter varied with the distance from the UCP. In the proximal areas, internal scatter was dominant, whereas in the distal areas, particles interacting with machine components became dominant factor. Conclusion The Result of this study indicates that the dominant factor to dose to an extracranial site can vary with the distance from UCP and with collimator size. This means that the variation of this contribution must be considered for modeling of the extracranial dose especially in the distal area. This work was partly supported by the JSPS Core-to-Core Program (No

  10. THE INVESTIGATION OF THE FACTORS WHICH LEAD TO THE DESTRUCTION OF ORTHODOX CHURCH BUILDINGS AND THEIR PARTS

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    LYKHOHRAI V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement. The main characteristic of the buildings, including Orthodox churches, is a reliability index. It depends on the service condition and includes reliability, durability, effective age of a structure and suitability of buildings and their separate elements to repairs [4; 10]. Despite the fact that the greatest losses Ukrainian architectural heritage have suffered from the policy of the communist regime and utilitarian, equally important factor was the low cultural standard of living. A number of lost churches as a result of neglect and "unconscious vandalism" is equal to the losses that were caused by the First and Second World Wars [2; 9]. As a result of the increase, the intensity of the adverse factors impact on Orthodox churches building their reliability is reduced. Since the dominant number of scientific publications dealing with technical condition and methods of restoration only for particular buildings, it is still no common data on the primary cause of the destruction of Orthodox churches. The main unexplored issues include the following: 1 what kinds of structural destructions have a mass character; 2 what kinds of what factors have a critical role in reducing building reliability index; 3 what are the main causes of the loss of interior decoration of churches. Research in this area will help to prioritize the development of constructive and technological solutions for the restoration of Ukrainian sacral architectural heritage. The purpose of the article. To identify factors which have the most impact on the durability of supporting structures of stone Orthodox churches (including which were built before 1917 and preserve their interior decoration on the basis of the expert survey. Conclusion. According to the results of expert evaluation and calculations, found that: cupolas, vaults (domes and vertical bearing structures suffered the most significant losses; the main destructive factors of Orthodox churches can be

  11. Depressive symptoms as a novel risk factor for recurrent venous thromboembolism: a longitudinal observational study in patients referred for thrombophilia investigation.

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    Roland von Känel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that psychosocial factors, including depression predict incident venous thromboembolism (VTE against a background of genetic and acquired risk factors. The role of psychosocial factors for the risk of recurrent VTE has not previously been examined. We hypothesized that depressive symptoms in patients with prior VTE are associated with an increased risk of recurrent VTE. METHODS: In this longitudinal observational study, we investigated 271 consecutive patients, aged 18 years or older, referred for thrombophilia investigation with an objectively diagnosed episode of VTE. Patients completed the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D. During the observation period, they were contacted by phone and information on recurrent VTE, anticoagulation therapy, and thromboprophylaxis in risk situations was collected. RESULTS: Clinically relevant depressive symptoms (HADS-D score ≥ 8 were present in 10% of patients. During a median observation period of 13 months (range 5-48, 27 (10% patients experienced recurrent VTE. After controlling for sociodemographic and clinical factors, a 3-point increase on the HADS-D score was associated with a 44% greater risk of recurrent VTE (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.06. Compared to patients with lower levels of depressive symptoms (HADS-D score: range 0-2, those with higher levels (HADS-D score: range 3-16 had a 4.1-times greater risk of recurrent VTE (OR 4.07, 95% CI 1.55, 10.66. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that depressive symptoms might contribute to an increased risk of recurrent VTE independent of other prognostic factors. An increased risk might already be present at subclinical levels of depressive symptoms.

  12. Experimental and theoretical investigations on the singularity of the intensity factor of the current in high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingyi; Huang, Yi; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Youhe

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents experimental and analytical investigations into the distribution of current around a through-edge crack located in an infinitely long cylindrical high temperature superconductor (HTS) on the basis of the Bean model. Current distributions around the crack in the HTS without deformation are obtained by a simple conformal mapping. It is shown that the current is singular at the tip of the crack. An intensity factor of the current is introduced to characterize the singularity, the order of which is equal to -1. Additionally, an experimental verification according to the trapped field distributions around the crack is carried out, and the experimental results show little difference with the theoretical analysis.

  13. Prevalence and predictors for musculoskeletal discomfort in Malaysian office workers: Investigating explanatory factors for a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maakip, Ismail; Keegel, Tessa; Oakman, Jodi

    2016-03-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a major occupational health issue for workers in developed and developing countries, including Malaysia. Most research related to MSDs has been undertaken in developed countries; given the different regulatory and cultural practices it is plausible that contributions of hazard and risk factors may be different. A population of Malaysian public service office workers were surveyed (N = 417, 65.5% response rate) to determine prevalence and associated predictors of MSD discomfort. The 6-month period prevalence of MSD discomfort was 92.8% (95%CI = 90.2-95.2%). Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) analyses was used to compare a range of models and determine a model of best fit. Contributions associated with MSD discomfort in the final model consisted of physical demands (61%), workload (14%), gender (13%), work-home balance (9%) and psychosocial factors (3%). Factors associated with MSD discomfort were similar in developed and developing countries but the relative contribution of factors was different, providing insight into future development of risk management strategies.

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 9/17/2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-05-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 5 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 5 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 05-16-01, Landfill; 06-08-01, Landfill; 06-15-02, Sanitary Landfill; 06-15-03, Sanitary Landfill; 12-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 20-15-01, Landfill; 23-15-03, Disposal Site. Located between Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 5 consists of unlined landfills used in support of disposal operations between 1952 and 1992. Large volumes of solid waste were produced from the projects which used the CAU 5 landfills. Waste disposed in these landfills may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment. During the 1992 to 1995 time frame, the NTS was used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. Instead of managing solid waste at one or two disposal sites, the practice on the NTS was to dispose of solid waste in the vicinity of the project. A review of historical documentation, process knowledge, personal interviews, and inferred activities associated with this CAU identified the following as potential contaminants of concern: volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel- and gasoline-range organics), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Metals, plus nickel and zinc. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution

  15. Application of Taguchi Method to Investigate the Effects of Process Factors on the Production of Industrial Piroxicam Polymorphs and Optimization of Dissolution Rate of Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazian, Alen; Davood, Asghar; Dabirsiaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Piroxicam has two different crystalline forms (known as needle and cubic forms), that they are different in physicochemical properties such as biological solubility. In the current research, using Taguchi experimental design approach the influences of five operating variables on formation of the piroxicam polymorph shapes in recrystallization were studied. The variables include type of solvent, cooling methods, type of mixture paddle, pH, and agitator speed. Statistical analysis of results revealed the significance order of factors affecting the product quality and quantity. At first using the Taguchi experimental method, the influence of process factors on the yield, particle size and dissolution rate of piroxicam powder was statistically investigated. The optimum conditions to achieve the best dissolution rate of piroxicam were determined experimentally. The results were analyzed using Qualitek4 software and it was revealed that the type of solvent and method of cooling respectively are the most important factors that affect the dissolution rate. It was also experimentally achieved that some factors such as type of agitator paddle, pH and agitation rate have no significant effects on dissolution rate.

  16. Study Design for a Case Control Investigation of Cellular Telephones and Other Risk Factors for Brain Tumors in Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inskip, P.D.; Hatch, E.E.; Stewart, P.A.; Heineman, E.F.; Ziegler, R.G.; Dosemeci, M.; Parry, D.; Rothman, N.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Wilcosky, T.C.; Watson, D.J.; Shapiro, W.R.; Selker, R.G.; Fine, H.A.; Black, P. McL.; Loeffler, J.S.; Linet, M.S

    1999-07-01

    The aetiology of brain tumours is poorly understood. Due, in part, to public concern about a postulated relationship between the use of cellular telephones or other increasingly prevalent environmental exposures and the incidence of brain cancer in adults, the National Cancer Institute is collaborating with three US hospitals in a comprehensive case control study of malignant and benign brain tumours. Factors under consideration include use of cellular phones and other wireless communication devices, workplace exposures to chemical agents and electromagnetic fields, dietary factors, family history of tumours, genetic determinants of susceptibility, home appliance use, reproductive history and hormonal exposures, viruses, medical and dental exposure to ionising radiation, and other aspects of medical history. Approximately 800 newly diagnosed brain tumour cases and 800 controls were enrolled at hospitals in Boston, Phoenix and Pittsburgh from 1994 to 1998. Cases include all adults (age {>=} 18 y) newly diagnosed with a histologically confirmed intracranial glioma, histologically confirmed intracranial meningioma or acoustic neuroma. Controls are patients admitted to the same hospitals as the cases, and treated for any of a variety of non-malignant conditions. Key features of the study include its large size, the emphasis on rapid ascertainment of incident cases and interview of study subjects rather than surrogate respondents, the use of detailed, job-specific questions developed by industrial hygienists to ascertain occupational exposures, and the storage of blood samples for future evaluation of inherited susceptibility, biomarkers of exposure and gene environment interactions. (author)

  17. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  18. Investigating Rate of Iatric Tourisms’ Satisfaction and Prioritizing the Effective Factors on it via Fuzzy TOPSIS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sadr Bafghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This research aimed to investigate rate of iatric tourisms’ satisfaction about provided medical services for them and their fellow travelers in Yazd city. For this purpose, the quality level of services provided to the patients and their fellow travelers was investigated and some solutions have been suggested in order to enhance this level. Methods: In this direction, a questionnaire was designed according to SERVQUAL model in 5 aspects consisting of 21 questions. Therefore, quality differences have been measured according to opinions of 114 foreign patients and their fellow travelers in the hospitals around the city. This is a descriptive- measurement research. In order to analyze the data available techniques in statistics were utilized and Fuzzy TOPSIS technique was used for prioritizing the solutions. Results: The results revealed that services quality difference is significant in 3 aspects of responsibility, guarantee and agreement. In other words, there is a significant difference between patients’ perception and expectation with those of their fellow travelers regarding quality of provided services. Conclusion: However, results of rating with Fuzzy TOPSIS indicated that the factors of proper equipments and proper quality of therapy are in the better situation comparing with other factors.

  19. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  20. Investigating the neurobiology of music: brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulation in the hippocampus of young adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Francesco; Fiore, Marco; Ricci, Enzo; Padua, Luca; Sabino, Andrea; Tonali, Pietro Attilio

    2007-09-01

    It has been shown that music might be able to improve mood state in people affected by psychiatric disorders, ameliorate cognitive deficits in people with dementia and increase motor coordination in Parkinson patients. Robust experimental evidence explaining the central effects of music, however, is missing. This study was designed to investigate the effect of music on brain neurotrophin production and behavior in the mouse. We exposed young adult mice to music with a slow rhythm (6 h/day; mild sound pressure levels, between 50 and 60 db) for 21 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, mice were tested for passive avoidance learning and then killed for analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in selected brain regions. We found that music-exposed mice showed increased BDNF, but not nerve growth factor in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we observed that music exposure significantly enhanced learning performance, as measured by the passive avoidance test. Our results demonstrate that exposure to music can modulate the activity of the hippocampus by influencing BDNF production. Our findings also suggest that music exposure might be of help in several central nervous system pathologies.

  1. Investigating the Effects of Loading Factors on the In Vitro Pharmaceutical Performance of Mesoporous Materials as Drug Carriers for Ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmin Lai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the loading factors, i.e., the initial drug loading concentration and the ratio of the drug to carriers, on the in vitro pharmaceutical performance of drug-loaded mesoporous systems. Ibuprofen (IBU was used as a model drug, and two non-ordered mesoporous materials of commercial silica Syloid® 244FP (S244FP and Neusilin® US2 (NS2 were selected in the study. The IBU-loaded mesoporous samples were prepared by a solvent immersion method with a rotary evaporation drying technique and characterized by polarized light microscopy (PLM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Dissolution experiments were performed in simulated gastric media at 37 °C under non-sink conditions. The concentration of IBU in solution was determined by HPLC. The study showed that the dissolution rate of IBU can be improved significantly using the mesoporous S224FP carriers due to the conversion of crystalline IBU into the amorphous form. Both of the loading factors affected the IBU dissolution kinetics. Due to the molecular interaction between the IBU and NS2 carriers, the loading factors had little effects on the drug release kinetics with incomplete drug desorption recovery and insignificant dissolution enhancement. Care and extensive evaluation must therefore be taken when mesoporous materials are chosen as carrier delivery systems.

  2. Investigation of the role of personal factors on work injury in underground mines using structural equation modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.S. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Work injuries in mines are complex and generally characterized by several factors starting from personal to technical and technical to social characteristics. In this paper, investigation was made through the application of structural equation modeling to study the nature of relationships between the influencing/associating personal factors and work injury and their sequential relationships leading towards work injury occurrences in underground coal mines. Six variables namely, rebelliousness, negative affectivity, job boredom, job dissatisfaction and work injury were considered in this study. Instruments were developed to quantify them through a questionnaire survey. Underground mine work-ers were randomly selected for the survey. Responses from 300 participants were used for the analysis. The structural model of LISREL was used to estimate the interrelationships amongst the variables. The case study results show that negative affectivity and job boredom induce more job dissatisfaction to the workers whereas risk taking attitude of the individual is positively influenced by job dissatisfaction as well as by rebelliousness characteristics of the individual. Finally, risk taking and job dissatisfaction are having positive significant direct relationship with work injury. The findings of this study clearly reveal that rebelliousness, negative affectivity and job boredom are the three key personal factors influencing work related injuries in mines that need to be addressed properly through effective safety programs.

  3. Investigation of Barriers and Factors Affecting the Reverse Logistics of Waste Management Practice: A Case Study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalee Pumpinyo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth in developing countries accelerated waste generation, and Thailand also is experiencing issues related to increased waste generation and improper waste management. The country’s domestic waste utilization is only 20%–26%. Efficient waste management and increased quantity of waste utilization is possible only by overcoming problems and constraints in reverse logistics (RL systems in Thailand. To address these issues and constraints, this study aims to focus the investigation on the current practices in the RL systems. The study was conducted in Bangkok and its vicinity. An integrated approach of qualitative and quantitative methods was employed to investigate the systems’ and stakeholders’ characteristics and to explore the factors influencing and constraining RL practices. Data were gathered through: (1 existing literature and in-depth interviews of key stakeholders involved in RL; and (2 a questionnaire survey of 98 managers of separation centers (SCs probing their practices and studying the factors influencing those practices. The findings showed that RL systems can be separated into three levels, i.e., downstream, middle stream and upstream. SCs are key stakeholders in RL of waste management, and they collect waste from downstream, manage waste in a systematic way and send it upstream. The factors influencing and the barriers in the flow of recyclable waste are related to environmental, economic and social aspects. The analysis shows that waste managed by a cooperative-like franchise of SCs perceived that their practices were more efficient than those of a non-franchise practices. Additionally, these SCs have more bargaining power with waste buyers and sellers to set prices in the RL system. The constraints in RL practice are related to finance, market, labor, management/technology and legal issues.

  4. Investigation of urinary abnormalities and risk factors for kidney disease in the World Kidney Day campaigns in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M.H.A. Araújo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: chronic kidney disease (CKD is an increasing common problem in the world due to the exponential growth of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and other risk factors. The aim of this study is to investigate urinary abnormalities and risk factors for kidney disease in the general population. Methods: this study was performed from data collected during the annual World Kidney Day (WKD campaigns, in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, between 2009 and 2012. The population sought assistance spontaneously in stands placed in high people-traffic areas. Results: among 2,637 individuals interviewed, the mean age was 50.7±15.7 years and 53% were male. The main risk factors found were sedentarism (60.7%, obesity (22.7% and smoking (19.8%. Blood pressure (BP > 140x90 mmHg was found in 877 (33%. Increased BP was found for the first time in 527 cases (19.9%. Cardiovascular diseases were reported in 228 (8.6%. Diabetes was related by 343 (13%. Capillary blood glucose > 200 mg/dL was found in 127 (4.8% and it was > 200 mg/dL for the first time in 30 (1.13%. Urinalysis was performed in 1,151 people and found proteinuria in 269 (23.3%. Proteinuria was most frequent in hypertension people (77.3% vs. 55.8%, p=0.0001, diabetes mellitus (22.7% vs. 15.2%, p=0.005 and elderly (42.1% vs. 30.7%, p=0.0007. Conclusion: risk factors for CKD are frequent in the general population. Many individuals had hypertension and diabetes and did not know this. It is important to regularly perform actions like WKD in order to early detect potential candidates for CKD.

  5. [An investigation of psychological state at different stages of occupational AIDS exposure and related influencing factors in Nanning, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Q; Ge, X M; Mo, J C; Li, S S; Chen, C C; Chen, S Y

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the changes in psychological state after occupational exposure in the AIDS occupational exposure population and related influencing factors, and to provide baseline data and a basis for related departments to conduct mental health prevention and intervention for personnel with occupational AIDS exposure. Methods: AIDS risk assessment was performed for all personnel with occupational AIDS exposure in 2014 in Nanning, China, and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) psychological scale was used for psychological state evaluation at 24 hours, 1 week, and 3 months after occupational exposure in all persons who met the research criteria. Results: Most of the persons with occupational AIDS exposure came from secondary and tertiary hospitals (85%) , and nurses accounted for the highest percentage (78.3% ). The age ranged from 21 to 50 years, and the mean age was 31.02 ± 7.92 years. The persons with occupational AIDS exposure aged 20~29 years accounted for the highest percentage (51.6%) , and most persons (76.7%) graduated from junior colleges. Compared with the adult norm, there was significant increases in the total psychological score and the number of positive items after occupational exposure (P<0.05). The scores of all items at 24 hours were significantly higher than those at the other time points, and the scores of all items gradually decreased over time (F=227.24, 267.57, and 287.46, P<0.05). Compared with the adult norm, there were significant increases in the factor points at 24 hours and significant reductions in the factor points at 3 months (P<0.05). Compared with those at 24 hours, the factor scores at 3 months decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Occupational AIDS exposure affects the mental status of related personnel, and the mental status at 24 hours after exposure is poor. Related departments should provide corresponding psychological counseling for the occupational exposure population at different exposure times.

  6. An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Management of Risk for the Rice Cultivating Women in Sari Town with LISREL Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. charmchian Langerodi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agriculture relies on nature and farmers face environmental, social, financial and legal issues that makes farming to be consistently and strongly associated with risk. Agriculture can be considered to be the most risky economic venture. Ahmadi (1 listed several main sources of risk that farmers face. Economic risk includes price fluctuations for raw materials such as seed and fertilizer and for machinery at the pre-market delivery stage, difficulty obtaining bank credit and loans, price volatility for products in the post market delivery stage, inconsistent government policies for products and global fluctuations in the price of products. Social risk includes theft of crops, production and agricultural machinery and war. Nature-related risk includes natural disasters, climate change, agricultural pests and diseases. Market risk includes changes in the price of raw materials and products and increasing interest rates. Given that the range of agricultural activities having critical risk are diverse and the climate can vary widely, more sophisticated services are needed to meet the demands, cope with hazards and decrease risk. Understanding how women rice farmers deal with risk is essential for educators, and agriculture-related industries such as insurance, and policymakers. If the attitudes of these women towards risk are accurately recognized, risk management strategies, risk-related educational programs and risk strategies can be designed to meet their needs. The overallaim of this research isto investigate factors affecting risk management, and proposing and designing a model among rice cultivating women in Sari. Materials and Methods: The population of the study comprised 1677rice cultivating women in Sari of whom 248 were selected through stratified random sampling. A combination of quantitative, and descriptive-inferential statistics served as the methodology for the study and SPSS 16 and LISREL were applied for data analysis

  7. Strategy that includes serial noninvasive leg tests for diagnosis of thromboembolic disease in patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism based on data from PIOPED. Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, P D; Hull, R D; Pineo, G

    1995-10-23

    To estimate the percentage of patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism in whom a noninvasive diagnosis or exclusion of thromboembolic disease might be safely made on the basis of ventilation-perfusion (VQ) lung scans, single noninvasive tests of the lower extremities, and, in patients with adequate cardiorespiratory reserve, serial noninvasive tests of the lower extremities. Calculations were made among 662 patients who participated in the collaborative study Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) and who had blood gas values measured while breathing room air and who underwent pulmonary angiography. The diagnostic strategy recommends treatment in all patients with a high-probability VQ scan and no treatment in patients with nearly normal VQ scans. In patients with nondiagnostic VQ scans (intermediate- or low-probability scans), a single noninvasive leg test is recommended. It was assumed that 50% of patients with pulmonary embolism would show deep venous thrombosis with a single noninvasive leg test. If results are abnormal, treatment is indicated. If normal, serial noninvasive leg tests are recommended. Treatment can be withheld if results of serial tests are normal. In patients with poor cardiorespiratory reserve, pulmonary angiography is indicated. A single noninvasive leg test in patients with nondiagnostic VQ scans would show deep venous thrombosis and, therefore, eliminate the need for pulmonary angiography in 53 (11%) of 468 patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 9% to 15%) who otherwise would require angiography. Serial noninvasive leg tests in patients with adequate cardiorespiratory reserve who had a normal result of a single leg test would either show deep venous thrombosis or exclude it in 222 (47%) of 468 patients (95% CI, 43% to 52%). The need for pulmonary angiography, therefore, would be reduced from 468 (71%) of 662 (95% CI, 67% to 74%) if no noninvasive leg tests were performed to 415 (63%) of 662 (95% CI, 59

  8. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were

  9. The role of epidermal growth factor receptor in photodynamic therapy: a review of the literature and proposal for future investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carpio, Pedro A; Trelles, Mario A

    2010-11-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway seems to be an important contributor to the antiproliferative response to photodynamic therapy (PDT), in terms of cell death, apoptosis and tumour destruction. We reviewed all preclinical investigations in the scientific literature on the role of the EGFR pathway in PDT. A systematic search of Medline-indexed references up to March 2010 using the recommended strategies for Medline information retrieval and identifying relevant studies from systematic reviews, revealed 16 full articles that were exhaustively analysed. EGFR inhibition/degradation appeared to be a major effect of PDT in all investigations. PDT was found to result in a time-dependent reduction of EGFR expression, inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation and induction of apoptosis during the regression of tumours. Within the time period of the PDT reaction, normal and malignant cells lose their responsiveness to EGF. The ERK1/2 and EGFR-PI3K-Akt pathways seem to be involved in cellular survival after PDT. Pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy to block EGFR activity combined with PDT seem to be very effective in reducing malignant tumours in vivo. The effect of PDT is associated with inactivation of the EGFR pathway, but biochemical and cellular phenomena are important and scarcely investigated. EGFR inhibitors and PDT act synergistically, and this is highly relevant for clinical use.

  10. A study investigating the experience of working for people with Parkinson's and the factors that influence workplace success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Rebecca L; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Andrews, Thomasin C; Martin, Anne; Gay, Stella; White, Claire M

    2017-05-10

    The experience of working for people with Parkinson's disease (PD) is known to vary substantially and affects the length of time in employment after diagnosis. This study aims at exploring the experience of working for people with PD and to create a model detailing the factors that influence their workplace success. A qualitative grounded theoretical approach was used. Seventeen working people with PD were selected for individual interviews which were conducted sequentially. Data were analyzed in an iterative, inductive process of coding to identify common themes and to generate a model that explains the data. Two core themes that influence workplace success for people with PD were identified. 'Feeling in control of Parkinson's' describes the actions that they make to remain in control. 'Being able to control Parkinson's in the workplace' describes external factors that they believe influence their ability to work successfully. The theoretical model demonstrates how a variety of factors interplay to influence workplace success for people with PD. PD is often poorly understood but the ability to explore and devise strategies for oneself and the flexibility to work around a fluctuating daily pattern were regularly identified as strategies that facilitated success. Implications for Rehabilitation The experience of working for people with Parkinson's is variable and is influenced by how in control the person with Parkinson's feels and the strategies they use to manage challenges. There is a need for greater workplace education to enhance employers' understanding of Parkinson's to ensure better support for strategies or reasonable adjustments by employers. People with Parkinson's are able to devise strategies to overcome some of their own specific workplace challenges including through technology but often, they prefer not to use disability aids. Daily fluctuations in Parkinson's symptoms are an important factor influencing workplace success.

  11. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  12. Investigate Factor Effecting Of Students’ Achievement on High School Entrance Exam-(SBS Respect to the Different Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa METİN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to investigate factor affecting of secondary school students’ achievement on high school entrance exam (SBS respect to the different variables. The study was carried out at fall semester of 2012 with 991 students educating primary schools in Artvin. In this study survey method was used and data gathered with questionnaire consists of 40 items. As a result of study, it was determinate that effects of family, educational facilities, teachers and personal characters on students’ achievement are at high level. There is no different between gender and students achievement (p>0.05, although there are different between grade level, family incomes, graduation types of mother and father and students achievement (p<0.05.

  13. A microscopic investigation of the transition form factor in the region of collective multipole excitations of stable and unstable nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papakonstantinou, P. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik]|[Athens Univ. (Greece). Physics Dept., Nuclear and Particle Physics Section; Mavrommatis, E. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Physics Dept., Nuclear and Particle Physics Section; Wambach, J.; Ponomarev, V.Y. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2004-12-20

    We have used a self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock plus continuum-RPA model to study the low-multipole response of stable and neutron/proton-rich Ni and Sn isotopes. We focus on the momentum-transfer dependence of the strength distribution, as it provides information on the structure of excited nuclear states and in particular on the variations of the transition form factor (TFF) with the energy. Our results show, among other things, that the TFF may show significant energy dependence in the region of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance and that the TFF corresponding to the threshold strength in the case of neutron-rich nuclei is different compared to the one corresponding to the respective giant resonance. Perspectives are given for more detailed future investigations. (orig.)

  14. On the Peter Principle: An agent based investigation into the consequential effects of social networks and behavioural factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetta, A. G.; Harper, P. R.; Knight, V. A.; Vieira, I. T.; Williams, J. E.

    2012-05-01

    The Peter Principle is a theory that provides a paradoxical explanation for job incompetence in a hierarchical organisation. It argues that should staff be competent at a given level, their competence may not be implicit at higher levels due to the differences in the skill set required. Furthering the work of a recent investigation into the Peter Principle utilising agent based simulation, this paper explores external factors upon varying promotion strategies to assess efficiency. Through additional elements of social networks and organisational thought, a more representative view of workplace interaction is presented. Results of the simulation found that although the Peter Principle affects efficiency, it may not be to the levels previously suggested. Furthermore promotion on merit provided the most favourable maximum and minimum efficiency margins, given the absence of clear evidence pertaining to the existence of the Peter Principle.

  15. Investigation of scattering coefficients and anisotropy factors of human cancerous and normal prostate tissues using Mie theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yang; Chen, Jun; Wang, Wubao

    2014-02-01

    The scattering coefficient, μs, the anisotropy factor, g, the scattering phase function, p(θ), and the angular dependence of scattering intensity distributions of human cancerous and normal prostate tissues were systematically investigated as a function of wavelength, scattering angle and scattering particle size using Mie theory and experimental parameters. The Matlab-based codes using Mie theory for both spherical and cylindrical models were developed and applied for studying the light propagation and the key scattering properties of the prostate tissues. The optical and structural parameters of tissue such as the index of refraction of cytoplasm, size of nuclei, and the diameter of the nucleoli for cancerous and normal human prostate tissues obtained from the previous biological, biomedical and bio-optic studies were used for Mie theory simulation and calculation. The wavelength dependence of scattering coefficient and anisotropy factor were investigated in the wide spectral range from 300 nm to 1200 nm. The scattering particle size dependence of μs, g, and scattering angular distributions were studied for cancerous and normal prostate tissues. The results show that cancerous prostate tissue containing larger size scattering particles has more contribution to the forward scattering in comparison with the normal prostate tissue. In addition to the conventional simulation model that approximately considers the scattering particle as sphere, the cylinder model which is more suitable for fiber-like tissue frame components such as collagen and elastin was used for developing a computation code to study angular dependence of scattering in prostate tissues. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to deal with both spherical and cylindrical scattering particles in prostate tissues.

  16. [An investigation of the CH4 and N2O emission factors of light-duty gasoline vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-qiang; Song, Jing-hao; Hu, Jing-nan; Xie, Shu-xia; Zu, Lei

    2014-12-01

    In China, most of the studies of vehicular greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been focused on CO2 emissions. The investigation of non-CO2 GHGs, e.g. CH4 and N2O, are mainly carried out based on models developed in Europe and the US, and there are few vehicle emission tests for CH4 and N2O. In this study, 22 light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) were selected for tailpipe CH4 and N2O tests using chassis dynamometer, and their emission factors were obtained based on the NEDC driving cycle. The results showed that the CH4 emission factors of China I to China IV LDGVs were 0.048 g x km(-1), 0.048 g x km(-1), 0.038 g x km(-1) and 0.028 g x km(-1), respectively. For N2O, the emission factors of China I to China IV were 0.045 g x km(-1), 0.039 g x km(-1), 0.026 g x km(-1) and 0.021 g x km(-1), respectively. In the GHGs emissions (in terms of CO2 Eq.) per LDGV, the percentage of CH4 and N2O emissions decreased gradually with tightening of emission standards. The contribution of CH4 emissions was lower than 0.5% in the total emissions, and N2O share rate was between 3.03% and 6.35%. Therefore, tightening emission standards can effectively reduce the CH4 and N2O emissions, to mitigate the greenhouse effects caused by vehicle emissions.

  17. International projects and cross-cultural adjustments of British expatriates in Middle East: A qualitative investigation of influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Konanahalli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased globalisation within the British AEC (Architectural Engineering and Construction sector has increased the need for companies to transfer their staff to manage their overseas operations. To be able to perform abroad, expatriates must harmonise themselves to the conditions prevailing in the host country. These include getting accustomed to living, working and interacting with the host country nationals. The process is commonly referred to as ‘cross-cultural adjustment’. Various factors influence the process of adjustment. In order to identify these issues, a qualitative study was undertaken, which mainly comprised of a comprehensive literature review and interviews with British expatriates working on international AEC assignments in Middle Eastern countries. The current study focuses on exploring the role of the organisation, host country, work related factors and their ability to dictate a British expatriate's adjustment. The findings suggest that success of expatriation does not entirely rest on an expatriate's ability but also on organisational support and assistance that expatriates receive prior to and during the assignment. Organisational factors such as, selection mechanisms, job design, training, logistical and social support, mentoring, etc., influence various aspects of expatriate adjustment. Striking cultural contrasts between British and Arab culture both in work and non work situations also dictate the level of support required by the expatriate, suggesting that expatriate relocation to less developed, remote or politically unstable regions, demands additional support and consideration by the parent company. This study is relevant to the AEC companies employing British expatriates, who need to be cognisant of the issues highlighted above to make rational and informed decisions when handling international assignments in the Middle East.

  18. International projects and cross-cultural adjustments of British expatriates in Middle East: A qualitative investigation of influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Konanahalli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Increased globalisation within the British AEC (Architectural Engineering and Construction sector has increased the need for companies to transfer their staff to manage their overseas operations. To be able to perform abroad, expatriates must harmonise themselves to the conditions prevailing in the host country. These include getting accustomed to living, working and interacting with the host country nationals. The process is commonly referred to as ‘cross-cultural adjustment’. Various factors influence the process of adjustment. In order to identify these issues, a qualitative study was undertaken, which mainly comprised of a comprehensive literature review and interviews with British expatriates working on internationa