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Sample records for factors influencing sleep

  1. Factors influencing sleep for parents of critically ill hospitalised children: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremler, Robyn; Dhukai, Zahida; Wong, Lily; Parshuram, Christopher

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe factors affecting the sleep of parents of critically ill children and to determine strategies used to improve their sleep. One hundred and eighteen parents of 91 children recruited during their child's paediatric intensive care unit stay responded in writing to open-ended questions assessing their experiences with sleep and eliciting ideas for strategies to promote sleep to be used by parents and provided by hospital staff. Patterns and concepts were coded and organised into themes using a qualitative descriptive approach. Seven themes emerged related to influences on and strategies to improve sleep: (1) the child's condition; (2) being at the bedside or not; (3) difficult thoughts and feelings; (4) changes to usual sleep; (5) caring for self and family; (6) the hospital environment and (7) access to sleep locations. Parents described multiple, often competing, demands that affected their ability to achieve sleep, regardless of location. Many more factors that influenced sleep were described than strategies to improve sleep, highlighting the need for nurses to explore with parents the unique barriers and facilitators to sleep they encounter and to develop and rigorously test interventions to improve sleep.

  2. Influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Betzabeth Ticona Benavente

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students. Method: An analytical cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted with 151 nursing students in São Paulo between March and April of 2012. A form for socio-demographic characteristics, the Instrument to Evaluate Stress in Nursing Students and the Pittsburgh Sleep Index were applied. Results: High levels of stress was predominant for Time Management (27.8% and Professional Training (30.5% and low sleep quality (78.8%. The Professional Communication, Professional Training and Theoretical Activity are positively correlated to sleep quality. Work activity, academic year and time for daily studies contributed to a low quality of sleep. Conclusion: Few stress factors from the academic environment and some socio-demographic characteristics contributed to the reduction of sleep quality in students.

  3. Sleep Quality and Factors Influencing Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Quality in the General Internal Medicine Inpatient Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dobing, Selina; Frolova, Natalia; McAlister, Finlay; Ringrose, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    ...) questionnaire, to characterize the previous night's sleep within 48 hours prior to discharge. A chart review was also completed to assess comorbidities, discharge diagnoses, and pharmaceutical sleep aid use...

  4. The influence of environmental factors on sleep quality in hospitalized medical patients

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    Milena eBano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sleep-wake disturbances are common in hospitalised patients but few studies have assessed them systematically. The aim of the present study was to assess sleep quality in a group of medical inpatients, in relation to environmental factors, and the switch to daylight saving time. Methods. Between March and April 2013, 132 consecutive inpatients were screened and 99 (76±11 yrs; hospitalization: 8±7 days enrolled. They slept in double or quadruple rooms, facing South/South-East, and were qualified as sleeping near/far from the window. They underwent daily sleep assessment by standard questionnaires/diaries. Illuminance was measured by a luxmeter at each patient’s eye-level, four times per day. Noise was measured at the same times by a phonometer. Information was recorded on room lighting, position of the rolling shutters and number/type of extra people in the room. Results. Compliance with sleep-wake assessment was poor, with a range of completion of 2-59%, depending on the questionnaires. Reported sleep quality was sufficient and sleep timing dictated by hospital routine; 33% of the patients reported one/more sleepless nights. Illuminance was generally low, and rolling shutters half way down for most of the 24 hours. Patients who slept near the window were exposed to more light in the morning (i.e. 222±72 vs. 174±85 lux, p<0.05 before the switch; 198±72 vs.141±137 lux, p<0.01 after the switch and tended to slept better (7.3±1.8 vs. 5.8±2.4 on a 1-10 scale, before the switch, p<0.05; 7.7±2.3 vs. 6.6±1.8, n.s. after the switch. Noise levels were higher than recommended for care units but substantially comparable across times/room types. No significant differences were observed in sleep parameters before/after the switch. Conclusions. Medical wards appear to be noisy environments, in which limited attention is paid to light/dark hygiene. An association was observed between sleep quality and bed position/light exposure, which

  5. Analysis of influence factors of children sleep disorders in 100 cases%儿童睡眠障碍100例影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析儿童睡眠障碍的影响因素。方法:收治睡眠障碍患儿100例,对患儿进行家庭社会环境与睡眠状况的问卷调查。结果:睡眠环境、家庭情况、呼吸系统疾病为可能影响患儿睡眠障碍的因素。结论:家庭社会环境和呼吸系统疾病是儿童睡眠障碍发生的主要因素。%Objective:To analyze the influence factors of children sleep disorders.Methods:100 children with sleep disorders were selected.The children were given the questionnaire survey of family social environment and sleep status.Results:The sleep environment,family situation,respiratory system diseases were the possible influence factors of children with sleep disorders. Conclusion:Family social environment and respiratory system diseases are the main factors of children sleep disorders.

  6. [Influence of environmental noise on sleep quality and sleeping disorders-implications for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhuber, M; Bolte, G

    2011-12-01

    Environmental noise is a well-known risk factor influencing sleep-wake behavior and sleep quality. Epidemiologic studies have shown that environmental noise is regarded as the most annoying environmental factor. Noise causes modifications in physiologic and mental functions and may result in health outcomes like elevated blood pressure and ischemic heart disease. Reactions to high sound levels during sleep are decreased sleep intensity, arousals, and increased stress hormone secretion. Effects of poor sleep quality are reduced cognitive performance, tiredness, and psychosomatic symptoms. Long-term consequences of recurrent sleep loss due to environmental noise may be heart disease and increased medication intake. Arousals occur especially due to single noise events and intermittent noise. Laboratory and field studies showed no habituation of physiologic parameters to high sound levels. Sleep is especially sensitive to noise; therefore, sound levels during nighttime should be much lower than during daytime.

  7. 老年住院患者睡眠质量影响因素调查分析%Influencing Factors on Sleeping Quality of Hospitalized Elderly Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪; 刘晓琴

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解老年患者住院期间睡眠影响因素及质量.方法 对2009年7月-12月入住老年科的108例患者运用匹兹保睡眠质量指数(PSQI)和自编影响睡眠因素调查表进行调查分析.结果 92.6%的老年患者有睡眠质量问题,病情不稳定患者比病情稳定者睡眠障碍发生率高,病房温湿度、气味、夜间光线、夜间查房等环境因素和担心家事、家人朋友不关心等社会因素,夜间喝浓茶、咖啡的不良习惯对睡眠质量的影响差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 多数老年患者住院期间睡眠质量差,医护人员应对此予以高度重视,针对性地采取有效治疗、护理措施及健康指导方式,改善老年患者睡眠质量.%Objective To explore the influencing factors on sleeping quality of hospitalized elderly patients. Methods From July to December 2009, 108 patients were investigated and analyzed with Pitts Paul Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and sleep factor questionnaire. Results About 92.6% of elderly patients had poor sleep quality, and the incidence of sleep disorders in patients with unstable condition was higher than that in patients with stabilized condition. The difference in influence of Environmental factors (including ward temperature and humidity, odor, light, circumstance and other factors), social factors (including concerns for the family, family and friends disinterest), and bad habits (including the night to drink tea and coffee) were statistically significant(P < 0.05). Conclusions The majority of hospitalized elderly patients have poor quality of sleep. We should improve the sleeping quality of elderly patients by effective treatment, care measures and health guidance.

  8. The influence of gravity on REM sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Gonfalone, Alain; Jha,Sushil

    2015-01-01

    Alain A Gonfalone,1 Sushil K Jha2 1European Space Agency, Paris, France; 2School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India Abstract: It is suggested that environmental variables, and gravity in particular, are the main determinants of sleep duration. Assuming that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep state depends on the influence of gravity allows a better understanding of sleep across the animal world. This paper is based on numerous results already published on sleep b...

  9. Analysis of sleeping quality and its influencing factors among soldiers%基层战士睡眠质量及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹春霞; 李浴峰; 付少波

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand sleeping quality and its influencing factors among the soldiers of the Chinese People Armed Police Force (CAPF). Methods By using random cluster sampling, 710 soldiers of CAPF were enrolled and the sleeping quality and its influencing factors were evaluated by pittsburgh sleeping quality index (PSQI). Results The mean score of PSQI was (5.59 ±2.39) and the prevalence of poor sleeping was 15.49%. Education level, living environment, eating habit and intensity of training were not associated with sleeping quality (P > 0.05). The pearson correlation analysis showed that age (r = - 0. 237), length of military service ( r = - 0. 243 ), alcohol drinking before sleeping ( r = - 0. 369 ) , smoking (r = - 0. 385 ) and interpersonal relationship ( r= - 0.225) were significantly related with sleeping quality of soldiers (P < 0. 05 ). Multi logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol drinking before sleeping, smoking, bad interpersonal relationship and length of military service were associated with sleeping quality (P <0. 01). Conclusion CAPF soldiers had lower sleep quality and spe-cial measures should be taken to improve their sleep quality.%目的 了解武警部队基层战士睡眠质量的现况及其影响因素,为采取干预措施提供科学依据.方法 采用随机整群抽样方法,应用自行设计调查表和匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)量表对武警某部基层710名战士进行调查.结果 武警基层部队战士PSQI总分为(5.59±2.39)分,15.49%的基层战士睡眠质量较差(PSQI总分≥8).学历、住宿环境、饮食习惯、训练强度与睡眠质量不具有相关性(P>0.05);年龄(r=-0.237)、军龄(r=-0.243)、睡前饮酒(r=-0.369)、吸烟(r=-0.385)和人际关系(r=-0.225)与基层战士睡眠习惯显著相关(P<0.05);多分类有序反应变量Logistic回归分析,睡觉前饮酒、吸烟、人际关系障碍和军龄具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 武警基层战士睡眠质量较差;

  10. Subjective sleep quality in perimenopausal women and its related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Zhang; Fen Lia; Yongjie Lin; Qiu Sheng; Xuewen Yu; Xinwen Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sleep quality and its related factors among perimenopausal women. Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was administered to 506 perimenopausal women. The questionnaire included the influencing factors on the sleep quality, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales (SDS), the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety (SAS) and the Modified Kupperman Index (KI). Data were analyzed by SPSS11.5. Results: The mean PSQI was 5.97±4.30.Twenty-four percent of perimenopausal women reported poor sleep. Age and perimenopausal symptoms were significantly correlated with sleep quality. The sleep quality of the 45~49 age group was the poorest and the 40~44 age group was the best. The women who had higher Kupperman index were more likely to be poor sleepers. There was no significant correlation between occupation and sleep quality. Night sweat, depression, anxiety, hot flash, stressful life event, and regular exercise were significantly and independently related with sleep quality. Among them, regular exercise was a protective factor of sleep quality. Conclusion:High incidence of poor sleep quality exists among perimenopausal women. Some effective interventions should be taken to improve the sleep quality of perimenopausal women.

  11. Influence of smoking on sleep and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleanu, Oana-Claudia; Pocora, Diana; Mihălcuţă, Stefan; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra; Zaharie, Ana-Maria; Mihălţan, Florin Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The various ill effects that tobacco smoking has on health have been largely studied, particularly on vascular, neoplastic, and respiratory diseases. Lately, the discussion about the negative impact of cigarette smoking moved towards sleep medicine. Tobacco consumption has been associated with sleep disordered architecture, both during regular intake and after withdrawal. Its effects on sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) still remain a matter of debate. It is unclear whether smoking represents a risk factor for OSAS or whether smoking cessation has any beneficial effects on OSAS and its therapy. There seems to be a synergistic effect between smoking and OSAS, both causing an increase in cardiovascular morbidity. Future studies are needed in order to establish the strength of this association. We aim to review the literature regarding the consequences of smoking on sleep architecture and SDB, adding emphasis on OSAS clinical implications and treatment.

  12. Protective and risk factors associated with adolescent sleep : Findings from Australia, Canada, and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartel, K.; Williamson, P.; van Maanen, A.; Cassoff, J.; Meijer, A.M.; Oort, F.; Knäuper, B.; Gruber, R.; Gradisar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep is vital for adolescent functioning. Those with optimal sleep duration have shown improved capacity to learn and decreased rate of motor vehicle accidents. This study explored the influence of numerous protective and risk factors on adolescents' school night sleep (bedtime, sleep

  13. Sleep quality influences subsequent motor skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleman, Erica R; Albouy, Genevieve; Doyon, Julien; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; King, Bradley R

    2016-06-01

    While the influence of sleep on motor memory consolidation has been extensively investigated, its relation to initial skill acquisition is less well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of sleep quality and quantity on subsequent motor skill acquisition in young adults without sleep disorders. Fifty-five healthy adults (mean age = 23.8 years; 34 women) wore actigraph wristbands for 4 nights, which provided data on sleep patterns before the experiment, and then returned to the laboratory to engage in a motor sequence learning task (explicit 5-item finger sequence tapping task). Indicators of sleep quality and quantity were then regressed on a measure of motor skill acquisition (Gains Within Training, GWT). Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO; i.e., the total amount of time the participants spent awake after falling asleep) was significantly and negatively related to GWT. This effect was not because of general arousal level, which was measured immediately before the motor task. Conversely, there was no relationship between GWT and sleep duration or self-reported sleep quality. These results indicate that sleep quality, as assessed by WASO and objectively measured with actigraphy before the motor task, significantly impacts motor skill acquisition in young healthy adults without sleep disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Study on sleep structure and influencing factors in epilepsy children with sleep disorder%癫疒间伴睡眠障碍患儿的睡眠结构特征及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁泽淑; 张静; 张洁; 江志; 陈波; 杨理明

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解癫疒间伴睡眠障碍住院患儿的睡眠结构特征,探寻癫疒间伴睡眠障碍的影响因素.方法 选取2006年12月至2010年6月就诊的111例癫疒间伴睡眠障碍患儿为病例组;同期89例癫疒间不伴睡眠障碍患儿为对照组.采用多导生理参数睡眠监测仪对患儿睡眠情况进行监测,并使用自拟住院癫疒间患儿睡眠生活质量问卷对患儿家长进行调查.采用Epidata3.0建立数据库,用SPSS13.0完成统计分析.结果 两组患儿的性别和智力水平差异有统计学意义(P < 0.01).与对照组患儿相比,病例组患儿睡眠结构紊乱明显.经单因素分析显示,影响癫疒间伴睡眠障碍的主要因素有:性别、智力水平、睡眠情况、家庭情况.多因素非条件Logistic回归分析显示,睡眠不安、多动或频繁觉醒、入睡困难、家庭睡眠环境不安静的癫疒间患儿伴睡眠障碍的可能性大.女童、家长对患儿睡眠作息时间规律十分重视的癫疒间患儿伴睡眠障碍的可能性小.结论 癫疒间伴睡眠障碍患儿睡眠结构改变明显,其睡眠障碍的发生受多种因素影响.对癫疒间患儿睡眠情况应进行早期监测与指导,提高癫疒间患儿的生活质量.%Objective To find out. The sleep structure of children hospitalized with epilepsy, ana to explore the influencing factors of epilepsy with sleep disorders. Methods Cluster sampling method was employed to select children from December 2006 to June 2010. A total of 111 children diagnosed epilepsy with sleep disorders were studied as the case group, and 89 epileptic children without sleep disorders were selected in the control group. Poly so mno graph y was performed to all children of both groups. Their parents were asked to answer questions in a questionnaire. Kpidata.10 was used to establish database and SPSSIXO was used in statistical analysis. Results There is a statistical significance in sexes and the mental level in the two

  15. Influence of Various Lifestyle and Psychosocial Factors on Sleep Disturbances among the College Students: A Cross-Sectional Study from an Urban Area of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara R. Kadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep occupies nearly 1/3rd of our life and is essential for overall growth and stability. Sleep deprivation results weakening of physical functions, mental health problems like depression and lowering of productivity, thus resulting in loss to an individual and society. Aim and Objectives: Sleep is essential for physical and mental stability. Its deprivation lowers work productivity and results in mental problem like depression. Various lifestyle and psychosocial factors may have impact on the sleep. In the western countries the subject is amply explored; however studies on student from developing countries like India are limited. Our objective was to study the extent of sleep disturbance and associated factors among the graduating college students. Material and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in Arts, Commerce and Science graduating college students from an urban area. The sampling technique was cluster random sampling with the sample size of 890. A pretested, selfadministered questionnaire was used as a study tool. Statistical Analysis was done using percentages, chisquare test and bi-variate logistic regression. Results: The mean duration of sleep reported by the 900 study subjects was 7.3 hours (std. deviation 1 hour. Any sleep disturbance was reported by 826 (91.8% subjects; with day time sleepiness (77.5% and difficulty in falling asleep (65.4% being the commonest complaint. Sleep disturbance score was associated with exercise, outdoor games and tea / coffee intake. It was also associated with nocturnal use of mobiles and feeling depressed. Conclusion: Sleep disturbances were present in majority of college students with day time sleepiness as its commonest manifestation. Various lifestyle and psychosocial factors had impact on the sleep. Proper lifestyle modification and good family environment areimportant to avoid sleep disturbances among the college students.

  16. Influencing factors of sleep disturbance in patients with depression%抑郁症患者伴发睡眠障碍的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小婷; 杨春霞; 李素萍; 张爱霞; 李业宁; 陈志璐; 张克让

    2016-01-01

    目的:从人口学资料、临床特征、社会心理因素方面探讨抑郁症患者伴发睡眠障碍的影响因素。方法使用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)、艾森克人格问卷(EPQ)、生活事件量表(LES)、特质应对方式问卷(TCSQ)、社会支持问卷(SSS)对409例抑郁症患者进行调查和评估,根据睡眠状况分为伴发睡眠障碍组(276例)和不伴睡眠障碍组(133例)。以是否伴发睡眠障碍为因变量,以人口学资料、临床特征、社会心理因素为自变量,使用Logistic回归分析伴发睡眠障碍的影响因素。结果(1)伴发睡眠障碍组在年龄、首发年龄、抑郁症状、焦虑症状上高于不伴睡眠障碍组,在受教育年限上低于不伴睡眠障碍组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。(2)伴发睡眠障碍组在神经质、负性生活事件上的得分高于不伴睡眠障碍组,在主观社会支持上的得分低于不伴睡眠障碍组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。(3)年龄(OR=1.053,95%CI:1.020~1.086)、抑郁症状(OR=1.335,95%CI:1.226~1.455)、负性生活事件(OR=1.011,95%CI:1.003~1.019)是抑郁症患者伴发睡眠障碍的危险因素,首发年龄(OR=0.970,95%CI:0.941~1.000)、主观社会支持(OR=0.926,95%CI:0.879~0.975)是抑郁症患者伴发睡眠障碍的保护因素。结论年龄偏大、首发年龄偏小、抑郁症状严重、经历更多负性生活事件、主观社会支持越差的抑郁症患者更有可能伴发睡眠障碍。%Objective To investigate influencing factors of sleep disturbance in depression from demographic data, clinical features and social psychological factors. Methods Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD), Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAMA), Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ), life event scale (LES), trait coping style questionnaire (TCSQ), social support scale

  17. Sleep disturbance associated factors in menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Haghani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep is necessary in life and approximately 1/3 of human life is devoted to sleep. One of the most common problems in menopausal women is sleep disturbance. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of sleep disorders and its related factors in 50 – 60 years old women Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on 200 eligible women who referred to selected health centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS. Demographic form, ten-point slide to review sexual satisfaction and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index Questioner (PSQI were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, t-test, and Pearson correlation tests.Results: The mean age of women was 53.6±3.6 year, menopause age 47.8±4, number of children 4.76±2 and partner age was 57.99±6.6. 34.5% of women were satisfied from their sexual relationship and their score was 8-10. Rate of sleep disturbances in this group was about 70%. The results showed that between four variables: economical status, occupation, partner occupation and educational status were significantly associated with sleep disturbance (P=0.002. There was not significant difference between other demographic information and sleep disturbance.Conclusion: The results show high prevalence of sleep disturbance symptoms among menopausal women. According to the relationship between some personal characters and sleep disturbance, health care providers need to consider these variables.

  18. Influence Factors And Nursing of Sleep Disorder Parkinson's Disease%帕金森病睡眠障碍影响因素分析及护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋艳丽; 赵正清; 李燕; 印青

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨帕金森病并发睡眠障碍的影响因素及护理对策.方法:对笔者所在医院2013年1-12月收治的40例帕金森病患者,采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)量表进行睡眠质量评价,分为睡眠障碍组(n=18)及对照组(n=22例),分析帕金森病患者出现睡眠障碍的相关影响因素.结果:其发生与患者HAMD评分、RBD评分关系密切.结论:合并抑郁、快动眼行为障碍可能是帕金森病患者出现睡眠障碍的影响因素,应早期给予心理、药物等综合护理,提高帕金森病患者生活质量.%Objective:To study the influential factors and nursing measures of sleep disorder in patients with parkinson disease(PD).Method:Forty patients suffered from parkinson disease from January to December 2013 in our hospital were divided into sleep disorder group(n=18) and control group(n=22), according to Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).And the influential factors of sleep disorder in PD were analyzed.Result:The occurrence of sleep disorders in PD is close to the score of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.Conclusion:Depression,Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder could be the influence factors of Parkinson's disease in sleep disorders.Sleep disturbances in PD should be given early psychology,drugs care to improve the quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

  19. 头痛门诊偏头痛患者睡眠质量及影响因素分析%Analysis of sleep quality and influence factors in migraine patients in headache clinic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洲; 周冀英; 范小平; 李雪莲; 冉丽

    2012-01-01

    To investigate sleep quality of migraineurs in headache clinic and the influence factors of sleep quality. Methods We used Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) , Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale CHADS) to assess headache intensity,sleep quality,anxiety and depression symptoms. Descriptive statistics,Chi-square test, Binary logistic regression were used to analyze the sleep quality and its impact factors. Results A total of 211 subjects, 130 (61. 61%) migraineurs had a poor sleep quality. Sleep quality mainly influenced by course of migraine and whether comorbid with anxiety and/or depression. Conclusion Over half of migraineurs comorbid with poor sleep quality,and most patients' poor sleep did not get effective improvement. So control influence factors of sleep quality may improve the poor sleep quality of migraineurs.%目的 分析神经内科头痛门诊偏头痛患者睡眠质量情况,并探讨睡眠质量的影响因素.方法 采用疼痛视觉模拟评分、匹兹堡睡眠质量指数和医院焦虑抑郁量表,评估偏头痛患者的头痛程度、睡眠质量及焦虑抑郁症状.利用描述性统计、χ2检验、回归分析等方法分析偏头痛患者睡眠质量及影响因素.结果 在211例偏头痛患者中有130例(61.61%)患者存在睡眠质量障碍.睡眠质量主要受偏头痛病程和是否伴有焦虑抑郁症状影响.结论 偏头痛患者大多伴有睡眠障碍,而且睡眠障碍有效控制率低.控制睡眠质量的影响因素,有望改善偏头痛患者的睡眠质量.

  20. INFLUENCE OF SLEEP ON OBESITY IN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton-Paduraru, Dana-teodora; Teslariu, Oana; Mocanu, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a global epidemic with long term implications. The main cause of obesity is an increase in calorie intake and a decrease in physical activity, but also there is clear evidence suggesting a link between the duration and quality of sleep and obesity risk. Good sleep habits are involved in increased ability to concentrate at school, improvement of general state, immune system development, increased quality of life. On the other hand, there are several mechanisms by which chronic sleep deprivation induces weight gain: disturbance of hormones that control hunger center, increased time for meals, reduced physical activity, metabolic changes. Recently, nighttime sleep duration has declined, in contrast with the increasing prevalence of obesity. Childhood sleep habits have a long term effect on weight, with repercussions even into adulthood. This is the reason why there is increasing interest to include sleep quality on the list for childhood obesity prevention. Sleep represents an important and independent risk factor of obesity in children and adolescents and it should be taken into consideration in the management of obesity.

  1. Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sleep problems are associated with both depressive and anxiety disorders, both of which are risk factors for suicide ( ... Time-related predictors of suicide in major affective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry , 147 , 1189-1194. Krakow, B., Ribeiro, ...

  2. Sleeping status and its influencing factors among 2 to 7 years old children in Lanzhou city%兰州市2~7岁儿童睡眠状况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶新华; 陈虹; 席莉华; 原新惠; 张晓宇; 张艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the status and correlated factors of sleeping among the children aged 2 to 7 years in Lanzhou city. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among the parents of 649 children selected with stratified random sampling from four urban districts of Lanzhou. Results The sleeping times decreased with the growth of the children (F = 23. 99, P < 0. 01). The total sleeping time of the children was less than that reported by domestic and international studies. The influencing factors of the children's total sleep time included children's age,sleeping habit and problems, and total sleep time and sleeplessness of the fosterer. The prevalence rate of sleep disorders was 50. 7% in the children. The prevalence rate was 47. 3% in the boys and 55. 2% in the girls(χ2 =3. 987,P=0. 046). The main influencing factors of sleeping were bad marrige status of parents, with single parent family, irregular sleep, sleep with parents, sleep disorder and educational background of the fosterer. Conclusion The total sleep time is at a low level and there is a high prevalence rate of sleep disorders among the children aged 2-7 years in Lanzhou city. The main influencing factors of the sleeping are family environment and sleep habit of the child and the fosterer.%目的 了解甘肃省兰州市2~7岁儿童睡眠状况及影响因素.方法 采用分层随机抽样方法,在兰州市4个区选取649名儿童进行睡眠问卷调查.结果 兰州市2~7岁儿童全天总睡眠时间随年龄增长而减少,各组间均数呈线形趋势,差异有统计学意义(F=23.99,P <0.01);男童睡眠时间长于女童,差异有统计学意义(t=3.35,P<0.01);睡眠时间的影响因素有年龄、性别、睡觉前有进食习惯、不能单独睡眠、睡眠需要帮助、睡中惊叫、睡眠时身体疼痛、白天嗜睡状态、早晨由他人唤醒、看护人总睡眠时间、失眠、看护人的年龄、学历等;睡眠障碍总发生率为50.7%,男童发生率为47.3

  3. 婴幼儿睡眠问题调查及影响因素分析%Investigation in sleep problems of infants and analysis of its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红赞; 廖少玲; 蔡宏亚

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解婴幼儿睡眠状况,分析婴幼儿睡眠问题的影响因素.方法 应用问卷调查136例婴幼儿睡眠状况及其影响因素.对结果进行描述性分析、单因素分析和多因素分析.结果 入睡困难是婴幼儿睡眠存在的主要问题,其次是频繁夜醒.影响因素有:家庭类型、父母文化程度、居室环境、出生后喂养方式、蛋白质类辅食添加时间、夜间进食次数、入睡方式、睡床情况、入睡前情绪等.结论 婴幼儿睡眠问题普遍存在,影响因素多为不正确的育儿行为.预防婴幼儿睡眠问题出现和提高婴幼儿睡眠质量,需对家长进行健康指导.%ObJective To acknowledge the sleep status of infants and analyze the influencing factors of sleep problems in them. Methods The sleep status of 136 infants and its influencing factors were investigat-ed using questionnaires, the results underwent descriptive analysis, single-factor analysis and multifactor anal-ysis. Results Difficulty in falling asleep was the major sleep problems, then was frequent night awakening. The influencing factors included: family type, education degree of the parents, inhabited environment, the feed-ing mode after birth, the period of supplementary protein dietary addition, the times of taking food through the night, and the sleep position, the bed, the emotion when falling asleep, etc. Conclusions Sleep problems is ubiquity in infants,and the unproper child rearing behaviors is the major influencing factor. In order to prevent sleep problems in infants and improve the quality of sleep in them, the parents need health guidance.

  4. Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Biological, Social, and Psychological Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A., Ed.

    Noting that healthy, adequate sleep fosters longevity and the optimal use of waking hours, and that adolescents, although rarely included in previous studies of sleep, are among the most sleep-deprived populations, this book explores the genesis and development of sleep patterns during adolescence, including biological and cultural factors that…

  5. Chronotype and sleep duration: the influence of season of assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allebrandt, Karla V; Teder-Laving, Maris; Kantermann, Thomas; Peters, Annette; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wilson, James F; Metspalu, Andres; Roenneberg, Till

    2014-06-01

    between the mid sleep on free and work days - which varied with age and sex) contributed to a greater extent to the variation in sleep duration than chronotype (after taking into account factors that are known to influence sleep duration, i.e. age, sex and body mass index). Variation in chronotype was also dependent on age, sex, season of assessment and SJl (which is highly correlated with chronotype - SJl was larger among later chronotypes). In summary, subjective assessments of sleep/wake times are very reliable to assess internal time and sleep duration (e.g. reproducing sleep duration and timing tendencies related to age and sex across the investigated populations), but season of assessment should be regarded as a potential confounder. We identified in this study photoperiod (seasonal adaptation) and SJl as two main factors influencing seasonal variation in chronotype and sleep duration. In conclusion, season of assessment, sex and age have an effect on epidemiological variation in sleep duration, chronotype and SJl, and should be included in studies investigating associations between these phenotypes and health parameters, and on the development of optimal prevention strategies.

  6. Selected neurophysiological, psychological, and behavioral influences on subjective sleep quality in nurses: a structure equation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Huey Chung

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined relationships among neurophysiological, psychological, and behavioral factors with regard to their effects on sleep quality. We used a structure equation model to investigate behavioral and psychological factors that influence neurophysiological regulation of sleep in shift workers. Using a cross-sectional study design, we tested the model with a sample of 338 female nurses working rotating shifts at an urban regional hospital. The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ and short-form Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ were used to measure neurophysiological factors involved in morningness-eveningness and menstrual distress. The Sleep Hygiene Awareness and Practice Scale (SHAPS and Profile of Mood States Short Form (POMS-SF were completed to measure behavioral factors of sleep hygiene practices and psychological factors of mood states. In addition, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI measured participant's self-reported sleep quality. The results revealed that sleep hygiene practices and mood states mediated the effects of morningness-eveningness and menstrual distress on sleep quality. Our findings provide support for developing interventions to enhance sleep hygiene and maintain positive mood states to reduce the influence of neurophysiological factors on sleep quality among shift workers.

  7. Selected neurophysiological, psychological, and behavioral influences on subjective sleep quality in nurses: a structure equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min-Huey; Liu, Wen-I; Lee, Hui-Ling; Hsu, Nanly

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined relationships among neurophysiological, psychological, and behavioral factors with regard to their effects on sleep quality. We used a structure equation model to investigate behavioral and psychological factors that influence neurophysiological regulation of sleep in shift workers. Using a cross-sectional study design, we tested the model with a sample of 338 female nurses working rotating shifts at an urban regional hospital. The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and short-form Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) were used to measure neurophysiological factors involved in morningness-eveningness and menstrual distress. The Sleep Hygiene Awareness and Practice Scale (SHAPS) and Profile of Mood States Short Form (POMS-SF) were completed to measure behavioral factors of sleep hygiene practices and psychological factors of mood states. In addition, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) measured participant's self-reported sleep quality. The results revealed that sleep hygiene practices and mood states mediated the effects of morningness-eveningness and menstrual distress on sleep quality. Our findings provide support for developing interventions to enhance sleep hygiene and maintain positive mood states to reduce the influence of neurophysiological factors on sleep quality among shift workers.

  8. 反流性食管炎患者睡眠质量影响因素的临床研究%Influencing Factors of Sleep Quality Among Patients with Reflux Esophagitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭英; 王敏志; 潘婵

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the influencing factors of sleep quality among patients with reflux esophagitis ( RE ) . Methods A cross - sectional survey was conducted among 98 RE patients. First single factor analysis was performed to explore the influencing factors, and then Logistic multiple regression analysis was carried out by taking sleep quality as the dependent variable and the statistically significant factors from single factor analysis as independent variable. Results The prevalence rate of sleep disorder in RE patients was 46% ( 45/98 ). The Logistic multiple regression analysis showed that recurrence, improper diet, bad sleeping habits, incorrect method of medication and heartburn were the influencing factors of sleep disorder in RE patients ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Sleep disorder is more common in RE patients, which is influenced by multiple factors. Nurses should take proper measures based on the influencing factors.%目的 探讨反流性食管炎(RE)患者睡眠质量的影响因素.方法 对98例RE患者进行横断面调查,首先对可能影响因素进行单因素分析,然后以睡眠质量为因变量,以单因素分析有统计学意义的因素为自变量,进行Logistic多元回归分析.结果 (1)RE患者睡眠障碍发生率为46%(45/98);(2)Logistic多元回归分析显示:复发、饮食不合理、睡眠习惯差、服药方法错误和胃灼热对睡眠障碍的影响有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 RE患者睡眠障碍较为常见,复发、饮食不合理、睡眠习惯差、服药方法错误和胃灼热是其睡眠障碍的影响因素,护理人员应根据影响因素进行针对性护理.

  9. Study on sleep quality of elderly in communities in Xi'an city and its influencing factors%西安市社区老年人睡眠质量及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 李小妹

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究西安市社区老年人的睡眠质量,分析其影响因素,为进一步提高和干预老年人睡眠质量提供依据.[方法]采用随机分层整群抽样法选取西安市社区404名年龄≥60岁的老年人,利用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表(PSQI)和自拟睡眠影响因素问卷进行调查.[结果]西安市社区老年人PSQI得分为7.36分±4.31分,明显高于全国常模(P<0.001);夜尿增多和入睡困难是引起睡眠障碍的重要原因;性别、年龄、身体状况及对身体状况的满意度、居住情况和午休习惯是影响老年人睡眠质量的重要因素.[结论]西安市社区老年人的睡眠质量较差,并受生理、心理、社会以及生活习惯的综合影响.%Objective:To study the sleep quality of elderly in communities in Xi'an City and analyze the influencing factors, so as to provide evidences for further interventions and improvement of sleep quality of elderly. Methods: A total of 404 old people more than 60 years old were selected by using random stratified cluster sampling method in communities of Xi'an City. And they were investigated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and self - made sleep influencing factors questionnaire. Results: The score of PSQI of elderly in communities in Xi'an City was 7. 36 + 4. 31, which was significantly higher than the Chinese norm(P<C0. 001). Frequent nocturia and difficulty falling asleep were the important reasons for sleep disorders. Gender, age, physical condition and satisfaction to physical condition, living situation and midday rest habits were the important influencing factors of sleep quality of elderly. Conclusion:The sleep quality of elderly in communities in Xi'an City is poor,and it is influenced by general factors including physiological, psychological, social factors and living habits.

  10. Survey and analysis on postoperative sleep quality and influencing factors for orthopedics patients%骨科患者术后睡眠质量及影响因素的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱平; 梅卫婷; 王桂平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the postoperative sleep quality and influencing factors for orthopedics patients. Method Investigate 350 patients by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and self-designed questionnaire on risking factors of sleep quality. Analyze the underlying factors by Logistic regression model. Result The average score of PSQI is (8. 38 + 3. 52). 57. 4% patients suffering from dyssomnia. Risking factors of sleep quality arc pain, compulsive position, concern on prognosis, economic burden, noise in wards and change in living habits. Conclusion Orthopedics patients have poor sleep quality. Countermcasurcs on nursing should be taken to improve their sleep quality.%目的 调查骨科患者术后的睡眠质量及影响因素.方法 采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表和自制的影响睡眠因素调查表,对350例患者进行问卷调查,对潜在影响因素应用Logistic 回归模型进行分析.结果 患者匹兹堡睡眠质量指数平均得分(8.38±3.52)分,57.4%患者睡眠不良,影响睡眠的因素分别为疼痛、被迫体位、担心预后、经济负担、病房噪声、生活习惯改变.结论 骨科患者术后睡眠质量差,需采取相应护理对策,改善患者睡眠质量.

  11. Genetic and environmental influences on sleep quality in middle-aged men: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genderson, Margo R; Rana, Brinda K; Panizzon, Matthew S; Grant, Michael D; Toomey, Rosemary; Jacobson, Kristen C; Xian, Hong; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    Poor sleep quality is a risk factor for a number of cognitive and physiological age-related disorders. Identifying factors underlying sleep quality are important in understanding the etiology of these age-related health disorders. We investigated the extent to which genes and the environment contribute to subjective sleep quality in middle-aged male twins using the classical twin design. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to measure sleep quality in 1218 middle-aged twin men from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (mean age = 55.4 years; range 51-60; 339 monozygotic twin pairs, 257 dizygotic twin pairs, 26 unpaired twins). The mean PSQI global score was 5.6 [SD = 3.6; range 0-20]. Based on univariate twin models, 34% of variability in the global PSQI score was due to additive genetic effects (heritability) and 66% was attributed to individual-specific environmental factors. Common environment did not contribute to the variability. Similarly, the heritability of poor sleep-a dichotomous measure based on the cut-off of global PSQI>5-was 31%, with no contribution of the common environment. Heritability of six of the seven PSQI component scores (subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, and daytime dysfunction) ranged from 0.15 to 0.31, whereas no genetic influences contributed to the use of sleeping medication. Additive genetic influences contribute to approximately one-third of the variability of global subjective sleep quality. Our results in middle-aged men constitute a first step towards examination of the genetic relationship between sleep and other facets of aging. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Investigation on the sleep quality of old people in nursing home and its influencing factors%老人院老年人睡眠质量及影响因素现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋杏; 张青; 赵娅; 董丽娜

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查老人院老年人睡眠质量,并分析其睡眠质量的影响因素,为进一步提高其睡眠质量、改善生活质量提供依据。方法:采用便利法选取武汉市4家老人院151名年龄≥60岁的老年人,采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数( PSQI)量表及其影响因素量表进行调查。结果:本组老年人睡眠质量较差,PSQI总分为(9.700±0.376)分;婚姻状况和配偶健康状况影响老年人的睡眠质量(P<0.05);经单因素分析,患有疾病、睡眠障碍相关症状、心理状况及老人院的环境设施为老年人睡眠质量的影响因素(P<0.05),其中入睡困难是影响老年人睡眠质量的重要因素之一。结论:老人院的老年人睡眠质量较差,并受生理、心理、社会及居住环境综合影响,故政府部门应加大力度进一步完善老人院管理体制及医疗卫生条件,建立良好的生活秩序和健全的娱乐设施,加强老人院老年人睡眠的健康教育与指导,从而促进和提高老年人睡眠质量与生活质量。%Objective:To investigate the sleep quality of old people and analyze the factors to influence the quality of sleep in order to provide basis for further improving the quality of sleep and life of the older people .Methods:The Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI)scale and influencing factors scale were used to investigate 151 older people over 60 selected from 4 nursing homes in Wuhan city .Results:The sleep quality of these old people was poor in this group ,the total score of PSQI was (9.700 ±0.376);the factors affecting their sleep qual-ity were marital status and health status of their spouse (P<0.05);by single factor analysis,suffering from disease,sleep disorder symp-toms,psychological status,environment and facilities of nursing home were the main influencing factors (P<0.05);sleep disturbance was one of the important factors affecting the sleep quality of older people

  13. 某医学院学生睡眠质量现状及影响因素的logistic回归分析%Analysis of students'status of sleeping quality and influencing factors in a medical college

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娅凌; 杨超; 张俊辉; 曾玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解医学生的睡眠质量现状及其影响因素,为制定针对性措施提供依据。方法:采取整群分层抽样的方法,利用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI)量表及自制的医学生睡眠质量影响因素调查表进行调查。采用卡方检验及多因素非条件Logistic回归模型进行统计分析。结果:调查的729人中,PSQI总分平均分为5.06±2.424,睡眠质量差的有105人,睡眠障碍率为14.40%。多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,与睡眠质量相关的主要因素包括年级、身体健康状况、担心自己睡眠质量、宿舍环境、作息时间、睡前体育活动强度、睡前经常想事情和睡前上网。结论:医学生睡眠质量的影响因素较多,应采取改变不良生活习惯、合理安排学习课程及体育活动时间等措施改善医学生睡眠质量。%Objective: To investigate current status of sleep quality and influencing factors of medical college students so as to provide suggestion for establishing improving strategies. Methods: Stratified cluster sampling was used to extract respondents. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI)and self-designed questionnaire were used to survey sleep quality of medical students. The data were analyzed by chi-square test and multivariate non-conditioned logistic regression. Results: Among 729 students investigated, the total prevalence of sleep disorder was 14.40% and average PSQI total score was 5.06 ± 2.424. Multivariate non-conditioned logistic regression showed that the physical health, worrying about their sleep quality, class, dormitory environment, work and rest time, sports strength before sleep, often thinking things before sleep, surfing the Internet before sleep were the important influencing factors of the sleep quality. Conclusion: There are many related factors affecting the medical students' sleeping quality. Bad habits should be changed and learning and sports time

  14. Assessing the Influence of Sleep-Wake Variables on Body Mass Index (BMI in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has established an association between overweight/obesity and sleep duration, suggesting that short sleep duration and timing of sleeping may lead to overweight. Most of these studies considered sleep-length rather than any other aspects associated with the sleep and wake rhythm, e.g. chronotype, which is a measure of timing of sleeping (‘when to sleep’; based on the midpoint of sleep. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different factors of the sleep-wake cycle and of co-variates on the Body Mass Index in a cross-sectional questionnaire study. Nine hundred and thirteen pupils (406 boys, 507 girls from Southwestern Germany participated in this study. Mean age was 13.7 ± 1.5 (SD years and range was between 11 – 16 years. We found that chronotype (β = .079 and social jetlag (β = .063 showed a significant influence on Body Mass Index (BMI, while sleep duration did not. Social jetlag is the absolute difference between mid-sleep time on workdays and free days. Further, screen time (in front of TV, computer, β = .13 was positively related with BMI. Self-efficacy on nutrition (β = -.11, a psychological variable important in health-behaviour models, showed an influence with high scores on self-efficacy related to lower BMI. A high BMI was correlated with low fast-food consumption (β = -.12 suggesting that adolescents with high BMI may exert some control over their eating.

  15. A twin and molecular genetics study of sleep paralysis and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Dan; French, Christopher C; Rowe, Richard; Zavos, Helena M S; Nolan, Patrick M; Parsons, Michael J; Gregory, Alice M

    2015-08-01

    Sleep paralysis is a relatively common but under-researched phenomenon. In this paper we examine prevalence in a UK sample and associations with candidate risk factors. This is the first study to investigate the heritability of sleep paralysis in a twin sample and to explore genetic associations between sleep paralysis and a number of circadian expressed single nucleotide polymorphisms. Analyses are based on data from the Genesis1219 twin/sibling study, a community sample of twins/siblings from England and Wales. In total, data from 862 participants aged 22-32 years (34% male) were used in the study. This sample consisted of monozygotic and dizygotic twins and siblings. It was found that self-reports of general sleep quality, anxiety symptoms and exposure to threatening events were all associated independently with sleep paralysis. There was moderate genetic influence on sleep paralysis (53%). Polymorphisms in the PER2 gene were associated with sleep paralysis in additive and dominant models of inheritance-although significance was not reached once a Bonferroni correction was applied. It is concluded that factors associated with disrupted sleep cycles appear to be associated with sleep paralysis. In this sample of young adults, sleep paralysis was moderately heritable. Future work should examine specific polymorphisms associated with differences in circadian rhythms and sleep homeostasis further in association with sleep paralysis.

  16. Can High Altitude Influence Cytokines and Sleep?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Aquino Lemos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2 induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain.

  17. Can High Altitude Influence Cytokines and Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; Rodrigues, Bruno; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-01-01

    The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2) induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain. PMID:23690660

  18. [Sleep Problem as a Prodrome and Risk Factor for Dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    Dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, is often associated with various sleep disorders such as insomnia, hypersomnia, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, sleep-disordered breathing and sleep debt due to organic damages of sleep/wake-promoting nucleus and circadian center (suprachiasmatic nucleus). These sleep disorders reduce the quality of life of individuals with dementia, and increase the care burden, which are major social issues. Recent studies have revealed that sleep deterioration is not only a comorbid symptom but also a prodrome and a risk factor for the development of dementia.

  19. Sleep budgets in a globalizing world: biocultural interactions influence sleep sufficiency among Egyptian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthman, Carol M; Brown, Ryan A

    2013-02-01

    Declines in self-reported sleep quotas with globalizing lifestyle changes have focused attention on their possible role in rising global health problems such as obesity or depression. Cultural factors that act across the life course and support sleep sufficiency have received scant attention, nor have the potential interactions of cultural and biological factors in age-related changes in sleep behavior been systematically investigated. This study examines the effects of cultural norms for napping and sleeping arrangements along with sleep schedules, age, and gender on sleep budgets among Egyptian households. Data were collected in 2000 from 16 households with 78 members aged 3-56 years at two sites in Egypt (Cairo and an agrarian village). Each participant provided one week of continuous activity records and details of each sleep event. Records showed that nighttime sleep onsets were late and highly variable. Napping was common and, along with wake time flexibility, played a key role in maintaining sleep sufficiency throughout the life course into later middle age. Cosleeping was prevalent and exhibited contrasting associations with reduced duration and sufficiency of both nocturnal and total sleep, and with earlier, more regular, and less disrupted sleep. Daily sleep quotas met published guidelines and showed age-related changes similar to existing reports, but differed in how they were achieved. Cultural norms organizing sleep practices by age and gender appear to tap their intrinsic biological properties as well. Moreover, flexibility in how sleep was achieved contributed to sleep sufficiency. The findings suggest how biocultural dynamics can play key roles in sleep patterns that sustain favorable sleep quotas from infancy onwards in populations pursuing globalizing contemporary lifestyles.

  20. 老年护理院患者睡眠质量调查及影响因素分析%Investigation of sleeping quality and influencing factors of the patients in elderly nursing home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹君; 王君妹; 金秀华

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the sleep quality and the influencing factors of the patients in the old nursing home.Methods198 patients were selected by cluster random sampling,from 4 nursing homes in Huinan Town, Pudong New Area. The sleep quality and the influencing factors of elderly patients were assessed by Pittsburgh sleep quality index(PSQI)and sleep related questionnaire.ResultsThe total sleep quality index of the elderly nursing home patients was 6.95±3.198 PSQI. In the elderly nursing home,the score of the sleep quality components can be seen higher on the patient's sleep time,sleep efficiency and the score of the daily functional components. Set PSQI≥8 as sleep obstacles,which accounted for 53% of the total number. The main factors that affect the sleep status of the elderly nursing home patients include:The level of personal health,the lack of family affection,the change of nursing home environment and the service level of nursing home.ConclusionThe incidence of sleep disorders in elderly nursing home patients is high. The medical staff is needed to not only stabilize the patient's chronic disease,but also provide quality care and family affection for the patients,So that patients can custom the new environment as soon as possible and relieve psychological discomfort.%目的:调查分析入住老年护理院患者的睡眠质量及影响因素。方法通过整群随机抽样,选取浦东新区惠南地区4个老年护理院中的198名患者为调查对象,采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)及睡眠相关情况调查表,评定老年患者的睡眠质量和影响因素。结果老年护理院患者睡眠质量指数PSQI总均分为(6.95±3.198),统计睡眠质量各成分得分,可以看出在老年护理院,患者入睡时间、睡眠效率和日常功能成分的得分较高。以PSQI≥8为睡眠存在障碍的标准,其人数占总人数的53.0%。影响老年护理院患者睡眠状况的主要因素包括:个人健康

  1. 老年高血压患者睡眠障碍的影响因素及护理对策%Influencing factor of the sleep disorder in elderly hypertensive patients and its nursing countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛卫红; 杨静芳; 王瑛

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨老年高血压患者睡眠障碍的影响因素及其护理对策. 方法:选择80例老年高血压患者进行回顾性研究,分析其睡眠障碍的影响因素. 采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数( PSQI)评价患者睡眠质量,对睡眠障碍患者采取有效的护理干预,比较护理干预前后患者睡眠和血压变化. 结果:老年高血压患者并发睡眠障碍,其中心理焦虑和环境因素是影响患者睡眠质量的重要因素. 经过针对性护理干预后,睡眠障碍患者PQSI评分及血压均显著低于入院时(P<0. 01). 系统的护理干预后患者PQSI评分明显低于对照组(P<0. 01). 结论:心理焦虑和环境因素是影响患者睡眠质量的主要原因,单纯降低血压虽然对于患者的PSQI有显著的降低作用,但合理有效地针对性护理干预可明显改善患者睡眠质量,进一步提高患者降压治疗效果.%Objective:To investigate the influencing factors of the sleep disorder in elderly hypertensive patients and its nursing countermeasures. Methods:The influencing factors of the sleep disorder in 80 elderly hypertensive patients were retrospectively analyzed. The sleep quality of patients was evaluated by Pittsburgh sleep quality index(PSQI),the patients with sleep disorder were treated with nursing intervention. The changes of sleep and blood pressure in sleep disorders patients were compared before and after the treatment. Results:The psychological anxiety and environment were the critical factors of sleep disorder in elderly hypertensive patients. After nursing intervention,the PQSI scores and blood pressure of patients were significantly lower than those in the patients at admission (P<0. 01),and the PQSI scores of patients were significantly lower than that in control group(P <0. 01). Conclusions:The psychological anxiety and environment are the main reasons of sleep disorder in elderly hypertensive patients. Only decreasing blood pressure treatment can decrease the PQSI

  2. Study on Clinical Nursing and Influencing Factors of Sleep Disorders in Patients With Parkinson Disease%帕金森病患者睡眠障碍影响因素及临床护理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁淑燕; 余玉银; 李金叶

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence factors of Parkinson’s diseases (PD) of patients with sleep disorders and their correlation, put forward the method of clinical nursing. Methods Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) were used to review and analyze related factors of 34 cases of PD in patients with sleep disorders. Results Patients cases with PD was 34, of 25 patients with sleep disorder, sleep disorder was 73.5%.Through multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed a correlation between PSQ I score and UPDRS- Ⅲscore,HAD score, average daily dose of levodopa, MMSE score and age. Conclusion The incidence of sleep disorders was high in Parkinson’s disease, the level of sleep disorders was associated with the severity of the disease, depression, cognitive status, age, dopaminergic drug applications. To strengthen the clinical treatment and nursing, can improve sleep disorder patients and the quality of life of PD.%目的:探讨帕金森病患者睡眠障碍的影响因素及相关性,提出针对性的临床护理方法。方法应用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表、爱泼沃斯嗜睡量表等调查表分别对34例PD患者睡眠障碍及相关因素进行评估和分析。结果34例PD患者中,合并睡眠障碍者25例,睡眠障碍发生率为73.5%。采用多因素逐步线性回归分析法对帕金森病患者睡眠障碍的影响因素进行分析,结果显示:PSQI总分与HAD评分、UPDRS-Ⅲ评分、左旋多巴日平均剂量、MMSE评分、年龄具有相关性。结论PD患者合并睡眠障碍多见,其状况与病情严重程度、认知状态、抑郁、年龄、多巴胺能药物应用等因素相关。加强临床治疗与针对性护理,可改善患者睡眠障碍状况,提高PD生活质量。

  3. Sleeping quality and its Influencing factors among university students In Tianjin%天津市大学生睡眠质量及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢娟; 吴小燕; 张晓颖; 朱红

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解天津市大学生睡眠质量状况及其影响因素,为采取干预措施提供参考依据.方法 采用分层随机整群抽样方法,应用自行设计调查表和匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)中国修订版调查表对天津市抽取的3207名在校大学生进行问卷调查.结果 PSQI平均得分为(4.76±2.55)分;有49.08%的学生睡眠质量好,37.70%的学生睡眠质量一般,13.22%的学生睡眠质量差;多因素累积比数Logistic回归分析结果表明,女性、每日学习时间≥8 h、现在饮酒、自觉学习效果一般、不太好和不好是影响天津市大学生睡眠质量的危险因素;大学4年级、家庭人均月收入≥1000元是影响天津市大学生睡眠质量的保护因素.结论 天津市大学生睡眠质量较差;性别、年级、每日学习时间、自觉学习效果、家庭人均月收入和现在饮酒是天津市大学生睡眠质量的主要影响因素.%Objective To know sleeping quality and its influencing factors among university students in Tianjin. Methods Using multistage random cluster sampling and Pittsburgh Sleeping Quality Index(PSQI) ,the sleeping quality and its influencing factors such as gender, grade, online time, study time, perceived academic performance, and living environment were evaluated among 3 207 undergraduates in Tianjin city. Results The mean score of PSQI was 4. 76 ± 2.55 and the prevalence of poor sleeping was 13. 22%. The cumulative logistic regression analysis showed that female( odds ratio [OR] = 1.34,P = 0.000), study time ≥8 hours per day(OR = 1.47,P = 0.000), study time≥ 10 hours per day ( OR = 1.79, P = 0. 000), study time ≥ 12 hours per day ( OR = 2. 77, P = 0. 000), normal self-perceived learning efficiency ( OR = 1. 90, P = 0. 008 ), bad self-perceived learning efficiency ( OR = 2. 73, P = 0. 000 ), worse self-perceived learning efficiency ( OR = 3. 29, P= 0. 002), and alcohol drinking ( OR = 1.33, P = 0. 005 ) were the risk factors of

  4. Sleep homeostatic pressure and PER3 VNTR gene polymorphism influence antidepressant response to sleep deprivation in bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Lorenzi, Cristina; Pirovano, Adele; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Combined Total sleep deprivation (TSD) and light therapy (LT) cause a rapid improvement in bipolar depression which has been hypothesized to be paralleled by changes in sleep homeostasis. Recent studies showed that bipolar patients had lower changes of EEG theta power after sleep and responders to antidepressant TSD+LT slept less and showed a lower increase of EEG theta power then non-responders. A polymorphism in PER3 gene has been associated with diurnal preference, sleep structure and homeostatic response to sleep deprivation in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that the individual variability in the homeostatic response to TSD could be a correlate of antidepressant response and be influenced by genetic factors. We administered three TSD+LT cycles to bipolar depressed patients. Severity of depression was rated on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Actigraphic recordings were performed in a group of patients. PER3 polymorphism influenced changes in total sleep time (F=2.24; p=0.024): while PER3(4/4) and PER3(4/5) patients showed a reduction in it after treatment, PER3(5/5) subjects showed an increase of about 40min, suggesting a higher homeostatic pressure. The same polymorphism influenced the change of depressive symptomatology during treatment (F=3.72; p=0.028). Sleep information was recorded till the day after the end of treatment: a longer period of observation could give more information about the possible maintenance of allostatic adaptation. A higher sleep homeostatic pressure reduced the antidepressant response to TSD+LT, while an allostatic adaptation to sleep loss was associated with better response. This process seems to be under genetic control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nurses' views of factors affecting sleep for hospitalized children and their families: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremler, Robyn; Adams, Sherri; Dryden-Palmer, Karen

    2015-08-01

    Light, noise, and interruptions from hospital staff lead to frequent awakenings and detrimental changes to sleep quantity and quality for children who are hospitalized and their parents who stay with them overnight. An understanding of nurses' views on how care affects sleep for the hospitalized child and parent is crucial to the development of strategies to decrease sleep disturbance in hospital. The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain an understanding of nurses' views on their role in and influence on sleep for families; perceived barriers and facilitators of patient and parent sleep at night; strategies nurses use to preserve sleep; the distribution, between parent and nurse, of care for the child at night; views of the parent as a recipient of nursing care at night; and the nature of interactions between nurses and families at night. Thirty registered nurses from general pediatric and critical care units participated in one of four semi-structured focus groups. Four main influences on sleep were identified: child factors; environmental factors; nurse-parent interaction factors; and nursing care factors. Some of these restricted nurses' ability to optimize sleep, but many factors were amenable to intervention. Balancing strategies to preserve sleep with the provision of nursing assessment and intervention was challenging and complicated by the difficult nature of work outside of usual waking hours. Nurses highlighted the need for formal policy and mentoring related to provision of nursing care at night in pediatric settings.

  6. 南昌市950名初中生睡眠状况及其影响因素分析%Analysis of sleep quality and the influencing factors in senior middle school student sin Nanchang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万爱兰; 郭明; 袁也丰; 卢和丽; 杨丽霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sleep quality of middle school students and influencing factors, andto provide theoretic basis for developing middle school students' sleep quality.Methods Totally 950 middle school students in Nanchangwere selected by cluster sampling and surveyed with questionnaire including Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index ( PSQI ) , Self-Rating Anxiety Scale ( SAS ), Self-Rating Depression Scale ( SDS )and self-made general questionnaire.Results There was 17.68 % of the students having sleeping problems, grade three accounted for 7.58%,grade one accounted for 6.21% and grade two for 3.90%, sleeping quality was worse among the students in grade three than grade two (x2 = 13.581,P <0.01 ).There were significant differences among different grades in sleep latency, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep duration, sleep disturbance,daytime dysfunction, except subjective sleep quality ( P < 0.05 ).Value of variable of the students in grade three ( OR = 1.701 ), living alone ( OR =7.618 ), parents expectations( OR = 1.502 ), having a dream( OR = 1.247 ), anxiety ( OR = 1.675 ), depression( OR = 1.865 ), taking physical exercise every week ( OR = 0.522 ) and relationships ( OR = 0.584 ) accessed into Logistic regression equation of the PSQI scores.Conclusion There are more common sleep problems in grade three;grades, living alone, parents expectations, having a dream, anxiety and depression have a protective effect on sleep quality, but taking physical exercise every week and relationships are risk factors.%目的 探讨南昌市初中生睡眠质量现状及其影响因素,为提高初中生睡眠健康提供参考依据.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,对南昌市区部分学校初中生950名进行自编问卷、匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)测评.结果 南昌市在校初中生睡眠问题的发生率为17.68%,其中初三学生为35.12%,初一学生为22.02%,初二学生为42.86%,初三

  7. Study on sleep quality in psychiatric nurses and its influencing factors%精神科护士睡眠质量及影响因素相关性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽俊; 刘艳; 王珍宝; 张春雨

    2010-01-01

    Objective To discuss sleep quality in psychiatric nurses and analyze its influencing factors. Methods A total of 160 psychiatric nurses were investigated by using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Self - Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Results The average sleep duration was (7.18 ± 1.319 )hours and sleep duration in male nurses was lower than that in female nurses ( P = 0. 005 ). A total of 110people accounted for 68.75% of respondents had high sleep quality with PSQI total score equal to or below 7points. A total of 50 people accounted for 31.25% of respondents had low sleep quality with PSQI total score above 7 points. High sleep quality group had statistically significant difference with low sleep quality group in each aspect score and total score in PSQI (P < 0. 01 ); Gender, education, marital status, technology titles did not have a statistically significant difference in the PSQI total score (P >0. 05); 20 ~ 30 year-old and 6 ~ 15years of working experience had the highest scores in PSQI ( P < 0. 05 ); 20 ~ 30 years old, secondary educational background, single nurse groups had the highest incidence of sleep disorder ( P < 0. 01 ); seven components of PSQI scores and total scores significantly related to anxiety ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusions Sleep quality in psychiatric nurses are lower than the general population and one to third psychiatric nurses have problems of sleep quality. Sleep quality have a significant interaction with demographic factors and anxiety.%目的 探讨精神科护士睡眠质量及其影响因素.方法 采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)和焦虑自评量表(SAS)对160名精神科护士进行调查.结果 本组平均睡眠时间为(7.18±1.319)h,男护士睡眠时间低于女护士(P<0.05);睡眠质量较好(PSQI总分≤7分)护士占被调查者68.75%,有睡眠质量问题(PSQI总分>7分)占被调查者31.25%,两组PSQI各成分得分和总分差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);性别、学历、

  8. The influence of personality and dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions on the severity of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang Ho; An, Hoyoung; Jang, Eun Sook; Chung, Seockhoon

    2012-05-30

    Previous findings suggest that personality traits and dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions may perpetuate insomnia, but findings concerning this have been scarce. Thus, we hypothesized that personality and sleep-related cognitions influence the severity of insomnia, and investigated the association personality and sleep-related cognitions had with various sleep-related parameters, including severity of insomnia. Forty-four patients with psychophysiological insomnia were assessed using The Temperament and Character Inventory, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Dysfunctional Belief and Attitudes toward Sleep Scale, the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Insomnia severity was significantly and positively correlated with harm avoidance, self-transcendence and sleep-related cognitions, and negatively correlated with novelty seeking, reward dependence, and cooperativeness. Dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions were positively correlated with insomnia severity and sleep quality. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that sleep-related cognitions, depression and reward dependence scores were significant determinants of insomnia severity, and that sleep-related cognitions and self-transcendence were significant positive determinants of sleep quality. Reward dependence, depression and sleep-related cognitions were associated with insomnia severity, and comparison with previous findings implied that 'internalizing behavior' and depression may be more plausible candidates for the link between personality and insomnia than anxiety. Considering the major role of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) in the treatment of insomnia, assessment of these factors and management of sleep-related cognitions may help alleviate symptoms in patients with insomnia.

  9. Post-operative sleep disturbance: causes, factors and effects on outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Kehlet, H

    1995-01-01

    Post-operative sleep disturbance, with suppression of rapid eye movement sleep and slow wave sleep followed by a subsequent rebound, seems to be related to the magnitude of trauma and thereby to the surgical stress response. In this context, cortisol, autonomic stimulation, and certain cytokines...... may lead to abnormal sleep. Furthermore, the environment, pain and the administration of analgesics seem to be important factors in the precipitation of sleep abnormalities. Post-operative sleep disturbance may contribute to the development of episodic hypoxaemia, haemodynamic instability and altered...... mental status, all of which have an influence on post-operative morbidity and mortality. Prevention or reduction of the post-operative sleep disturbance may be achieved by minimizing surgical trauma, changing the conventional nursing procedures, avoiding opioids and treating pain with non...

  10. Epidemiology, risk factors, and consequences of obstructive sleep apnea and short sleep duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Lawati, Nabil M; Patel, Sanjay R; Ayas, Najib T

    2009-01-01

    We will review the epidemiology, risk factors, and consequences of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and short/long sleep duration. Obstructive sleep apnea is a disease characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea is common, with moderate to severe disease present in approximately 9% of middle aged men and 4% of women. The prevalence of OSA in certain patient populations (such as elderly patients, hypertensive patients, patients with coronary disease, and prebariatric surgery patients) is even greater. There are a number or risk factors for disease including obesity, male sex, and family history. Obstructive sleep apnea negatively impacts quality of life and is also associated with a number of adverse safety and health consequences including cardiovascular disease and motor vehicle crashes. Short habitual sleep duration can result in excessive daytime sleepiness and reduced neurocognitive function. Sleep loss may have long-term health consequences and may lead to premature death, cardiovascular disease, and the development of diabetes.

  11. Study of Sleep Quality and Influencing Factors of Employed Nurses in a Military Hospital%军队医院聘用护士睡眠质量及其影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董毅; 刘立志; 梁学军

    2014-01-01

    Ob jective The aims were to investigate the sleep quality and influencing factors of employed nurses in a military hospitals and provide references for nurse performance management .Method 220 employed nurses were selected randomly from a military hospital to investigate the sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Scale ( PSQI) .Their basic information was collected by a homemade basic general questionnaire sur-vey.The influencing factors of their sleep quality were analyzed .Results ①The Employed nurses'total score of PSQI in the military hospitals was 7.63 ±3.85.② In all factors of PSQI, the score of prolonged sleep was the highest, accounting for 32.1%, and the lowest in daytime function, for 15.7%.③Duties, nursing age, physical discomfort , environmental factors and adverse cognition were the main important factors of sleep quality of employed nurses(p<0.05 or p<0.01).Conclusion There are different levels of sleep problems in employed nurses in the military hospital , so to strengthen the mental health education can improve nurses'sense of ownership and help to improve their sleep quality .%目的:调查军队医院聘用护士的睡眠情况及其影响因素,为改善护理人员的睡眠质量,提高工作绩效提供参考。方法随机抽取某三甲军队医院220名聘用护士,采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表( pittsburgh sleep quality index , PSQI)调查睡眠质量,用自制的调查表进行基本情况调查,分析其对睡眠质量的影响。结果①军队医院聘用护士PSQI总分为7.63±3.85;②军队医院聘用护士PSQI各因子中,以入睡时间延长为最高,占32.1%,以日间功能影响为最低,占15.7%;③职务、护龄、身体不适、环境因素和不良认知是影响军队医院聘用护士睡眠质量的最主要因素(P<0.05或P<0.01)。结论军队医院聘用护士存在不同程度的睡眠质量问题,加强心理健康教育,提高

  12. 老年男性人群睡眠质量调查及影响因素分析%Analysis of sleep quality and its influence factors in the elderly males with physical examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾静; 刘淼; 汤如; 杨雪; 尹明; 何耀

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查老年男性人群睡眠质量状况及相关影响因素。方法对进行健康体检的老年男性人群进行问卷调查,应用国际公认的匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)量表评价睡眠质量,用 Logistic 回归模型筛选睡眠的影响因素。结果共纳入1132例60~99岁男性体检人群,平均(75.2±9.5)岁。低睡眠质量患病率为23.6%,且随年龄增长患病率增加。存在的睡眠问题主要是入睡时间≥30 min (占19.3%)、使用催眠药物(占18.8%)和主观睡眠质量差(占15.9%)。多因素分析显示,高龄(OR =2.31,95%CI:1.63~3.27)、焦虑得分高(OR =1.18,95%CI:1.10~1.25)及抑郁得分高(OR =1.16,95%CI:1.09~1.23)是低睡眠质量的危险因素。结论老年男性体检人群睡眠问题突出,心理健康状况影响睡眠质量。%Objective To investigate the sleep quality and its influence factors among the elderly males with physical examination.Methods The elderly male population during health examination was surveyed by questionnaire. Sleep quality of the subjects were assessed by using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI)scale and influence fac-tors were analyzed by Logistics Regression Model.Results A total of 1132 males ranging from ages 60 to 99 were en-rolled with an average of (75.23 ±9.51)years.The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 23.6% and increased with age growing.Sleep latency (≥30 min ,19.3% of the subjects)using hypnotic (18.8%of the subjects)and poor subjective sleep quality (15.9% of the subjects)were the three mainly self-reported disorders.Multivariate analysis showed that the advanced age (OR =2.31,95%CI:1.63 -3.27),high anxiety (OR =1.18,95%CI:1.10 -1.25)or depression (OR =1.16,95%CI:1.09 -1.23)scores were risk factors of poor sleep quality.Conclusion Poor sleep qualities a-mong the elderly males with physical examination is significant and mental

  13. The influence of PTSD, sleep fears, and neighborhood stress on insomnia and short sleep duration in urban, young adult, African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall Brown, Tyish; Mellman, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    African Americans residing in stressful urban environments have high rates of insomnia and short sleep duration, both of which are associated with adverse health outcomes. However, limited data exist that explore factors influencing inadequate sleep in this high-risk population. This study sought to evaluate the contributions of demographics, trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, sleep fears, and neighborhood stress to both insomnia and short sleep in urban African American young adults. Data were analyzed from self-report measures completed by 378 participants 18-35 years of age. PTSD symptom severity and sleep fears were independently associated with insomnia severity, and sleep fears was associated with sleep duration. Results have implications for preventative health intervention strategies for urban African American young adults.

  14. Sleep Loss as a Factor to Induce Cellular and Molecular Inflammatory Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Castillo-García, Stephanie Ariadne; Hernández, María Eugenia; Domínguez-Salazar, Emilio; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier; Gómez-González, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping occurs chronically in modern society. Clinical and experimental studies in humans and animal models have shown that immune function is impaired when sleep loss is experienced. Sleep loss exerts a strong regulatory influence on peripheral levels of inflammatory mediators of the immune response. An increasing number of research projects support the existence of reciprocal regulation between sleep and low-intensity inflammatory response. Recent studies show that sleep deficient humans and rodents exhibit a proinflammatory component; therefore, sleep loss is considered as a risk factor for developing cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis). Circulating levels of proinflammatory mediators depend on the intensity and duration of the method employed to induce sleep loss. Recognizing the fact that the concentration of proinflammatory mediators is different between acute and chronic sleep-loss may expand the understanding of the relationship between sleep and the immune response. The aim of this review is to integrate data from recent published reports (2002–2013) on the effects of sleep loss on the immune response. This review may allow readers to have an integrated view of the mechanisms involved in central and peripheral deficits induced by sleep loss. PMID:24367384

  15. Sleep Loss as a Factor to Induce Cellular and Molecular Inflammatory Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hurtado-Alvarado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping occurs chronically in modern society. Clinical and experimental studies in humans and animal models have shown that immune function is impaired when sleep loss is experienced. Sleep loss exerts a strong regulatory influence on peripheral levels of inflammatory mediators of the immune response. An increasing number of research projects support the existence of reciprocal regulation between sleep and low-intensity inflammatory response. Recent studies show that sleep deficient humans and rodents exhibit a proinflammatory component; therefore, sleep loss is considered as a risk factor for developing cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Circulating levels of proinflammatory mediators depend on the intensity and duration of the method employed to induce sleep loss. Recognizing the fact that the concentration of proinflammatory mediators is different between acute and chronic sleep-loss may expand the understanding of the relationship between sleep and the immune response. The aim of this review is to integrate data from recent published reports (2002–2013 on the effects of sleep loss on the immune response. This review may allow readers to have an integrated view of the mechanisms involved in central and peripheral deficits induced by sleep loss.

  16. Sleep quality of patients with type 2 diabetes and its influencing factors%2型糖尿病患者睡眠质量及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小红; 张随芳; 龙俊宏; 牛娜; 杨妙妍; 张婷婷

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sleep quality of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and analyze the influ-encing factors of the sleep quality, providing scientific evidence for the effective management of diabetes. Methods 180 patients with T2DM from October 2013 to March 2014 in the Department of Endocrinology, the Second Affiliated Hos-pital of Xi'an Jiaotong University were recruited by a convenience sampling method. The sleep quality and general in-formation of the patients were evaluated using Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and the general information ques-tionnaire, respectively. The sleep quality and its influential factors of patients with T2DM were analyzed. Results The mean PSQI global score was (8.10±4.04) scores, and the incidence rate of sleep disorder was 45.9%. Compared with the national norm, patients with T2DM had a higher score of PSQI. Additionally, the difference was statistically significant (all P<0.01). There were statistically significant differences in scores of other six factors between the two groups (all P<0.01), except the score of use of sleep medications (t=2.00, P=0.06). Single factor analysis showed that, age, use of insulin, course of diabetes and HbA1c level were related with sleep quality of patient with T2DM (P< 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that, course of diabetes, HbA1c and gender were the influencing factors of sleep quality of patients with T2DM. The adjusted R2 was 0.162 (P<0.01), indicated those three could explain 16.2% of the variance of the PSQI global score. Conclusion Patients with T2DM has poor sleep quality compared with the general population, and the incidence of sleep disorder is rather high. Factors affecting the sleep quality of patients with T2DM are the course of diabetes, HbA1c and gender: the longer the course of diabetes, the higher levels of glycated hemoglobin, and the poorer quality sleep, especially females. Clinical health care providers should pay attention to the sleep

  17. 兰州市城镇老年人睡眠质量及影响因素分析%Analysis of Sleep Quality and Influencing Factors of Elderly People in Lanzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马薇; 惠培林; 赵丽君; 魏晓泉; 王金凤; 苏晓艳; 周丽雅; 谢宇平

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析城市老年人睡眠质量及其相关影响因素,为改善老年人睡眠质量提供必要措施。方法采用多阶段随机分层抽样法,于2014年6月~2015年6月对甘肃省体检中心及甘肃省人民医院门诊的2134名年龄≥60岁的老年人进行问卷调查,采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数调查表,全部资料应用SPSS 13.0软件包进行统计学分析。结果睡眠障碍发生率62.8%,其中失眠者占73.6%,打鼾占21.3%,其他占5.1%;睡眠质量女性较男性差,二者之比为4.5:1;回归分析显示,对老年人睡眠质量影响较大的因素依次为身体状况、家庭和谐、性别、性格、运动、居住环境、配偶、经济水平等。结论兰州市城镇老年人睡眠质量普遍不佳,需要加强睡眠保健知识宣传,提高全社会尤其是政府部门对睡眠障碍及相关并发症的重视,提高老年人群的睡眠质量,减少心脑等多种疾病的发生发展。%Objective Analysis of urban old people sleep quality and its related influencing factors,to provide the necessary measures for improving the quality of the old people sleep.Methods2 134 questionnaire came from gansu province and gansu province people's hospital outpatient medical center in June 2014 to June 2015. Using pittsburgh sleep quality index questionnaires to observe. Al data was statistical analyzed using SPSS 13.0 software.Results Incidence of sleep disorders was 62.8%,in which the sleepless accounted for 73.6%,snoring accounted for 21.3%, other 5.1%. Sleep quality poor of women than men,the ratio was 4.5:1. Regression analysis showed that the elderly sleep quality influential factors had health,family harmony,gender, personality,sports,living environment,the spouse,economic level,etc.Conclusion Lanzhou urban old people sleep quality is generaly poor, need to strengthen sleep health knowledge propaganda,improve the whole society,especialy the government departments to the

  18. Sleep quality and influencing factors of perimenopausal women in Ningbo region%宁波地区围绝经期妇女睡眠质量调查及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛雪锋; 邵璐; 赵鑫; 卢小情; 郑倩; 张金堂; 王伟; 董长征

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the sleep quality and influencing factors of perimenopausal womem in Ningbo region. Methods: A total of 527 perimenopausal women who lived in Ningbo for more than 5 years were enrolled in the study. The subjects were surveyed by self-designed questionnaire and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI); PSQI > 7 was defined as the cut-off value for sleep quality. Data were analyzed by software SPSS 11.0. Results: The mean PSQI score was 5.79 ± 3.08 and 23.6% of perimenopausal women in the study showed poor sleep quality. The proportion of poor sleep in 55 - 60 age group was 40.2%, significantly higher than that of 40 - 44,45 - 49 and 50 - 54 age groups ( P <0. 05). The sleep quality was associated with physical exercise, social activity, sleep circumstance,anxiety and family income in perimenopausal women. Conclusion: The sleep quality of perimenopausal women and the influencing factors are associated with mental health, life style and sociol environment,which suggests that some interventions should be undertaken to improve the sleep quality of perimenopausal women.%目的:了解宁波地区围绝经期妇女的睡眠质量及影响因素.方法:采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表(PSQI)及自制的围绝经期妇女睡眠质量影响因素调查表,对527名长期(5年以上)居住在宁波地区的围绝经期妇女进行问卷调查,资料采用SPSS 11.0软件进行统计分析,以PSQI>7分作为界值判断睡眠质量的好差.结果:本研究中495名围绝经期妇女的PSQI平均分为5.79±3.08,23.6%的围绝经期妇女睡眠质量较差.55~60岁组围绝经期妇女存在睡眠质量不好的比例为40.2%,明显高于40~44岁组、45~49岁组及50~54岁组(P<0.05);体育锻炼、社会活动、睡眠环境、思想顾虑以及家庭收入对睡眠有一定的影响.结论:围绝经期,尤其是55~60岁年龄段妇女睡眠质量相对较差,这与其生理和心理健康状况、生活习惯、社会环境

  19. The progress of sleep quality of maintaining hemodialysis patients and influence factors%维持性血液透析患者睡眠质量及影响因素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕小林

    2010-01-01

    在医学模式发生转变的今天,患者的生存质量逐渐成为评价血液透析疗效的可靠指标,其中睡眠质量是生存质量的重要组成部分.本文概述了维持性血液透析患者睡眠质量的状况,分析了影响其睡眠质量的相关因素和原因,为今后进一步采取有针对性的防治措施和相应的护理干预提供依据和思路.%In medical pattern change today,the quality of living gradually became the effect of hemodialysis,sleep quality was an important part of the quality of survival.This article summarized maintaining hemodialysis patients sleep quality,and analyzed the influence of their sleep quality of the relevant factors and provided nursing intervention ideas.

  20. Daytime Sleepiness and Sleep Inadequacy as Risk Factors for Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Tsapanou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To examine the association between self-reported sleep problems and incidence of dementia in community-dwelling elderly people. Methods: 1,041 nondemented participants over 65 years old were examined longitudinally. Sleep problems were estimated using the RAND Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale examining sleep disturbance, snoring, sleep short of breath or with a headache, sleep adequacy, and sleep somnolence. Cox regression analysis was used to examine the association between sleep problems and risk for incident dementia. Age, gender, education, ethnicity, APOE-ε4, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and depression were included as covariates. Results: Over 3 years of follow-up, 966 (92.8% participants remained nondemented, while 78 (7.2% developed dementia. In unadjusted models, sleep inadequacy (‘Get the amount of sleep you need' at the initial visit was associated with increased risk of incident dementia (HR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.02-1.42; p = 0.027. Adjusting for all the covariates, increased risk of incident dementia was still associated with sleep inadequacy (HR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.01-1.42; p = 0.040, as well as with increased daytime sleepiness (‘Have trouble staying awake during the day' (HR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.00-1.54; p = 0.047. Conclusion: Our results suggest that sleep inadequacy and increased daytime sleepiness are risk factors for dementia in older adults, independent of demographic and clinical factors.

  1. Association between socioeconomic factors and sleep quality in an urban population-based sample in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Markus P; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    Good sleep quality is essential for recovery. The risk factors of sleep disorders have been extensively investigated, but there is sparse information on the association of socioeconomic factors with a person's sleep quality. The aim of the present analysis is to investigate this association, taking particularly the effect of health confounders into consideration. The data were extracted from the cross-sectional QUEBEB Study. In total, the study sample consisted of 3281 participants (1817 women and 1464 men, aged 16-72 years). Here socioeconomic status (SES) was collected from the baseline survey taken in 2004. Sleep quality for the same participants was measured with in-depth personal interviews in 2006 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, together with other relevant characteristics (e.g. anxiety, depression and health status). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. People living in an urban environment with a high or medium SES have a greater probability of good sleep quality (odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.14; odds ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.69) than persons with a low SES. Anxiety and depression, but also health status, are also associated with sleep quality and can influence in part the socioeconomic levels seen in sleep quality. SES and sleep quality are associated. However, there are important additional determinants that influence the level of association between SES and sleep quality. Several factors, such as anxiety, depression and health status, are associated with poorer sleep quality, but at the same time, these factors occur more often within lower social classes. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. 高中生睡眠质量的影响因素及其机制%Research on Influencing Factors and Mechanism of Sleep Quality on Senior High School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨高中生睡眠质量的影响因素及其内在机制. 方法:采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数、中学生应激源量表、简易应对方式问卷、焦虑敏感问卷对580名高中生进行调查. 结果:①自我身心压力、学习压力和同学朋友压力对高中生睡眠质量有显著预测作用;②应激源、积极应对方式、焦虑敏感均能显著预测高中生的睡眠质量(β1=0.284,P<0.001;β2=-0.129,P<0.01;β3=0.245,P<0.001);③焦虑敏感在应激源与睡眠质量之间起部分中介效应. 结论:①自我身心压力、学习压力和同学朋友压力是影响高中生睡眠质量的主要应激源;②高中生应激源既直接影响睡眠质量,也通过焦虑敏感、应对方式间接影响睡眠质量;③焦虑敏感是更近端的影响因素.%Objective:To investigate the influencing factors and mechanism of sleep quality on senior high school students.Methods:580 senior high school students were sampled to fill out the form of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index ,Stressors Scale for Middle School Students ,Simplified Coping Style Ques-tion naira ,and Anxiety Sensitivity Index.Results:①Self physical and mental stress , learning stress and peer group pressure all had significantly positive prediction effect on student 's sleep quality.②Stressors, positive coping style,anxiety sensitivity all could predict student's sleep quality(β1=0.284,P<0.001;β2=-0.129,P<0.01;β3=0.245,P<0.001).③Anxiety sensitivity had partial mediating effect be-tween stressors and sleep quality.Conclusion:①The three foremost stressors affecting sleep quality of senior high school students are self physical and mental stress , learning stress , peer group pressure.②Stressors affects sleep quality directly ,and affects sleep quality indirectly by the way of coping style and anxiety sensitivity.③Anxiety sensitivity relative to stressors is more proximal factors of sleep quality.

  3. Simulated driving under the influence of extended wake, time of day and sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Raymond W; Ferguson, Sally A; Zhou, Xuan; Kosmadopoulos, Anastasi; Kennaway, David J; Roach, Gregory D

    2012-03-01

    Around a fifth of all road accidents can be attributed to fatigued drivers. Previous studies indicate that driving performance is influenced by time of day and decreases with sustained wakefulness. However, these influences occur naturally in unison, confounding their effects. Typically, when people drive at a poor time of day and with extended wake, their sleep is also restricted. Hence, the aim of the current study was to determine the independent effects of prior wake and time of day on driving performance under conditions of sleep restriction. The driving performance of fourteen male participants (21.8 ± 3.8 years, mean ± SD) was assessed during a 10 min simulated driving task with speed/lane mean, variability and violations (speeding and crashes) measured. Participants were tested at 2.5h intervals after waking, across 7 × 28 h days with a sleep:wake ratio of 1:5. By forced desynchrony each driving session occurred at 9 doses of prior wake and within 6 divisions of the circadian cycle based on core body temperature. A mixed models ANOVA revealed significant main effects of circadian phase, prior wake and sleep debt on lane violations. In addition, three significant two-way interactions (circadian phase × prior wake, prior wake × sleep debt, sleep debt × circadian phase) and one three-way interaction (circadian × prior wake × sleep debt) were identified. The presence of the large interaction effects shows that the influence of each factor is largely dependent on the magnitude of the other factors. For example, the presence of the time of day influence on driving performance is dependent on the length of prior wake or the presence of sleep debt. The findings suggest that people are able to undertake a low-difficulty simulated drive safely, at least for a short period, during their circadian nadir provided that they have had sufficient sleep and have not been awake too long.

  4. Sleep quality and its influencing factors among primary students in Chongqing city%重庆市主城区小学生睡眠状况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雍那; 王慧; 胡华; 蒙华庆; 陈品红; 杜莲; 屈远; 邹志礼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the sleep quality and its influencing factors among the primary students of grade 4-6 were in Chongqing city and to provide evidence for the prevention and intervention of sleep problems in the students. Methods Totally 1 523 primary students of grade 4-6 selected with stratified randomly sampling from 9 primary schools of three Chongqing municipal urban districts and investigated using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQ1) and a self-designed questionnaire. Results The prevalence rate of sleep problems in the students was 26.2%. The overall sleep quality, sleep efficiency, sleep time, and sleep latency of the students from different schools showed significant differences (P<0.05 for all). The students averagely had 9. 32 ±0.81 hours of sleep for one night. The first three sleep disturbances were night waking or morning wake-up problems (8. 1% ), sleep-onset delays (5. 3% ) ,and hot feeling 5. 1%. There were 4. 7% of the students reporting drowsiness at least three times per week and 2. 2% reporting without energy during daytime. Logistic regression analyses revealed that grade,time of watching TV on normal school day,the number of bad hobby of the father,and bad health status of the children could influence sleep quality among the students. Conclusion The detection rate of sleep problems is high among the primary students of grade 4 - 6 in urban area of Chongqing city and the average total sleep time is shorter than the normal demand,and the situation should be concerned about.%目的 探讨重庆市主城区4-6年级小学生睡眠质量状况及影响因素,为预防和干预提供科学依据.方法 分层抽取重庆市主城3个区9所小学(重点、普通及农民工小学各3所)的1 523名4~6年级在校小学生为研究对象,采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)问卷及自设一般情况问卷进行调查.结果 小学生睡眠问题检出率为26.2%,不同层次学校小学生睡眠质量总体情况、睡眠效率、睡眠

  5. The influence of road traffic noise on sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, J. L.

    1988-12-01

    The influence of road traffic noise on the sleep of adults and 6-11 year old children was studied by using electrophysiological methods. Young adults, unaccustomed to traffic noise, were disturbed by continuous and intermittent traffic noise at 45 dB(A). No sleep disturbances were found for continuous traffic noise at 36 dB(A). Car passages with a peak noise level of 55 dB(A) caused awakenings. The equivalent sound pressure level ( Leq) did not correlate with sleep disturbance effects. A better noise dose description was found in the number of vehicles per night that made most noise. Children wer about 10 dB(A) less sensitive than adults to awakening reactions, and even less sensitive with respect to disturbances of REM sleep and deep sleep. Total habituation to road traffic noise did not occur, even after at least one year of exposure. Sound reduction in the bedroom induced increased amounts of deep sleep for adults and reduced falling-asleep time for children. Road traffic noise during the first hours of a night's sleep tended to disturb sleep more than when it ocurred later in the night, the main effects being a reduction of the total amount of REM sleep during the night and an increased duration of intermittent wakefulness during the hours of exposure.

  6. The influence of sex and gonadal hormones on sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orff HJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Henry J Orff, Charles J Meliska, L Fernando Martinez, Barbara L Parry Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, and sleep-related movement disorders are a significant public health issue, affecting approximately 40 million people in the US each year. Sleep disturbances are observed in both men and women, though prevalence rates often differ between the sexes. In general, research suggests that women more frequently report subjective complaints of insomnia, yet show better sleep than men when evaluated on objective measures of sleep. Men are more likely to be diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea than women, though rates of obstructive sleep apnea increase after menopause and may be generally underdiagnosed in women. Although circadian rhythm disorders are equally prevalent in men and women, studies find that women typically have earlier bedtimes and exhibit altered temperature and melatonin rhythms relative to men. Lastly, movement disorders appear to be more prevalent in women than men, presumably due to higher rates of anemia and increased risks associated with pregnancy in women. Although gonadal hormones would be expected to play a significant role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances, no causal link between these factors has been clearly established. In large part, the impact of hormones on sleep disturbances is significantly confounded by factors such as psychiatric, physical, and lifestyle concerns, which may play an equal or greater role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances than do hormonal factors. Current standard of care for persons with sleep disorders includes use of psychological, pharmacologic, and/or medical device supported interventions. Hormonal-based treatments are not typically recommended given the potential for long-term adverse health

  7. Poor sleep quality and later sleep timing are risk factors for osteopenia and sarcopenia in middle-aged men and women: The NEO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Eliane A; de Mutsert, Renée; le Cessie, Saskia; Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha M; Rosendaal, Frits R; van Heemst, Diana; den Heijer, Martin; Biermasz, Nienke R

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has detrimental metabolic consequences. Osteopenia and sarcopenia usually occur together and increase risk of fractures and disease. Results from studies linking sleep parameters to osteopenia or sarcopenia are scarce and inconsistent. To examine the associations of sleep parameters with osteopenia and sarcopenia, considering the influence of sex and menopause. Cross-sectional analysis of 915 participants (45-65 years, 56% women, BMI 26 (range: 18-56) kg/m2) in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study, a population-based cohort study. Sleep duration, quality, and timing were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); bone mineral density and relative appendicular muscle mass were measured by DXA scans. Linear and logistic regressions were performed to associate sleep parameters to bone mineral density, relative appendicular muscle mass, osteopenia (t-score between -1 and -2.5) and sarcopenia (1 SD below average muscle mass). After adjustment for confounding factors, one unit increase in PSQI score (OR and 95% CI, 1.09, 1.03-1.14), declined self-rated sleep quality (1.76, 1.03-3.01), sleep latency (1.18, 1.06-1.31), and a one hour later sleep timing (1.51, 1.08-2.11), but not sleep duration (1.05, 0.90-1.23), were associated with osteopenia. PSQI score (1.10, 1.02-1.19) was also associated with sarcopenia; OR's of sleep latency and later mid-sleep time with sarcopenia were 1.14 (0.99-1.31) and 1.54 (0.91-2.61), respectively. Associations were somewhat stronger in women and varied per menopausal status. These results suggest that decreased sleep quality and a later sleep timing are risk factors for osteopenia and sarcopenia in middle aged individuals.

  8. Influence of sleep upon overweight in children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Paredes Barato

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep restriction is an independent risk factor for weight gain and obesity and is significantly associated with the incidence and prevalence of obesity and various chronic non-communicable diseases. It leads to endocrine changes that might be associated with a higher intake of food and diurnal preference for energy-dense foods, generating a positive energy balance, leading to weight gain and increased risk of long-term obesity. Objective: To analyze whether the decreases in the amount of night time sleep is a risk factor for weight gain and obesity development. Methods: An anthropometric study (height, weight, BMI, waist circumference was conducted in 549 students between 6 and 17 years. The amount of sleep was assessed by collecting hours of sleep on weekdays, naps and weekends and stating that school children should sleep 10 hours a day. Results: Children who did not meet their recommended hours of sleep did not show statistically significant data in association with overweight or obese. The least amount of sleep was not negatively associated with BMI, or determined an increased risk for obesity. Conclusion: Sleep factor has not been identified as involved in the epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents.

  9. Nerve growth factor enhances sleep in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Krueger, J M

    1999-04-02

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) elicits rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) in cats. Removal of NGF receptor-positive cholinergic basal forebrain neurons inhibits REMS in rats. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of NGF on sleep and brain temperature (Tbr) in rabbits. Male rabbits were implanted with electroencephalograph (EEG) electrodes, a brain thermistor and an intraventricular (i.c.v.) guide cannula. Rabbits received human beta-NGF i.c.v. (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 or 10 microg] and on a separate day, 25 microl pyrogen-free saline i.c.v. as control. EEG and Tbr were recorded for 23 h after injections. The highest two doses of NGF increased both non-REMS and REMS across the 23-h recording period. REMS was enhanced dose-dependently. Tbr was not affected by any dose of NGF. These results suggest that NGF is involved in both REMS and non-REMS regulation.

  10. The influence of pre-sleep cognitive arousal on sleep onset processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Johan; De Valck, Elke; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Pattyn, Nathalie; Bulckaert, Arnoud; Berckmans, Daniel; Haex, Bart; Verbraecken, Johan; Cluydts, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive hyperarousal, resulting in enhanced cognitive activation, has been cited as an important contributor to the development and preservation of insomnia. To further understand this process, our study examined the effects of acutely-induced pre-sleep cognitive hyperarousal on sleep onset processes in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptation night, 15 subjects slept two nights in our sleep laboratory: one reference night and another one with cognitive arousal induction, in a counterbalanced order. In the cognitive arousal condition, subjects worked through half an hour of cognitive tasks without interference of an emotional component prior to retiring to bed. Objective sleep onset latency was significantly prolonged in the cognitive arousal condition compared to the reference condition. Significantly more high frequency activity was recorded during the first and second deep-sleep period. Moreover, differences in heart rate and proximal temperature during and after sleep onset were observed in the nights after the cognitive induction. Pre-sleep cognitive activation successfully induced a significant cognitive load and activation in our subjects to influence subsequent sleep (onset) processes.

  11. Adaptation of a 3-factor model for the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in Portuguese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nathália Brandolim; de Neves Jesus, Saul

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in a sample of older Portuguese adults using a cross-validation approach. Design is a cross-sectional. A convenience sample of 204 community-dwelling older adults (M=70.05, SD=7.15) were included. The global sleep quality (GSQ) score ranged from 0 to 18 with a mean of 5.98 (SD±3.45). The distribution showed that gender and perception of oneself as healthy influences GSQ in this sample. Cronbach's α was 0.69, but increased to 0.70 if the "use of sleep medication" component was deleted. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) demonstrated two factor model is better than one factor, and a model fit with good indices (chi-square=8.649, df=8, p=0.373). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed on the single factor, two factor, and three factor models, with and without the "use of sleep medications" component. The best model was the 3-factor model without the "use of sleep medications" component (chi-square=1.214, df=6, GFI=0.997, AGFI=0.918, CFI=0.986, RMSEA=0.046). The adaptation of the model is similar to the original model, with the only change being the exclusion of the "use of medications to sleep" component. We suggest using that component as a complementary qualitative assessment of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronotype influences activity circadian rhythm and sleep: differences in sleep quality between weekdays and weekend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Jacopo A; Roveda, Eliana; Montaruli, Angela; Galasso, Letizia; Weydahl, Andi; Caumo, Andrea; Carandente, Franca

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have shown the differences among chronotypes in the circadian rhythm of different physiological variables. Individuals show variation in their preference for the daily timing of activity; additionally, there is an association between chronotype and sleep duration/sleep complaints. Few studies have investigated sleep quality during the week days and weekends in relation to the circadian typology using self-assessment questionnaires or actigraphy. The purpose of this study was to use actigraphy to assess the relationship between the three chronotypes and the circadian rhythm of activity levels and to determine whether sleep parameters respond differently with respect to time (weekdays versus the weekend) in Morning-types (M-types), Neither-types (N-types) and Evening-types (E-types). The morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ) was administered to 502 college students to determine their chronotypes. Fifty subjects (16 M-types, 15 N-types and 19 E-types) were recruited to undergo a 7-days monitoring period with an actigraph (Actiwacth® actometers, CNT, Cambridge, UK) to evaluate their sleep parameters and the circadian rhythm of their activity levels. To compare the amplitude and the acrophase among the three chronotypes, we used a one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. To compare the Midline Estimating Statistic of Rhythm (MESOR) among the three chronotypes, we used a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test followed by pairwise comparisons that were performed using Dunn's procedure with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The analysis of each sleep parameter was conducted using the mixed ANOVA procedure. The results showed that the chronotype was influenced by sex (χ(2) with p = 0.011) and the photoperiod at birth (χ(2) with p sleep parameters: Sleep end, Assumed Sleep, Immobility Time and Sleep Efficiency. Sleep Efficiency showed the same patterns as did Assumed Sleep and Immobility Time: the Sleep

  13. Sleep Patterns, Sleep Disturbances, and Associated Factors Among Chinese Urban Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijun; Wang, Guanghai; Geng, Li; Luo, Junna; Li, Ningxiu; Owens, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize sleep patterns and disturbances among Chinese urban kindergarten children and examine potentially associated factors. Caregivers of 513 children (47.96% male) aged 3-6 years (mean age = 4.46, SD = 0.9) completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Almost 80% (78.8%) of the children scored above the original CSHQ cutoff point for global sleep disturbance. Regression analysis indicated that child's age, and the presence of emotional problems, hyperactivity and peer problems, cosleeping, and interparental inconsistency of attitudes toward child rearing accounted for significant variance in the CSHQ total score (R(2) = 22%). These findings indicate that there is an apparently high prevalence of sleep disturbances in Chinese urban kindergarten children; and sleep disturbances are associated with both child-related and parenting practice variables.

  14. Onset of Impaired Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    , and dyslipidemia). METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort study with 3 survey waves (2000, 2004, 2008) from the Finnish Public Sector study we used repeated information on sleep duration and disturbances to determine onset of impaired sleep. Information on development of CVD risk factors, as indicated by initiation......STUDY OBJECTIVES: Impaired sleep has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are still unsettled. We sought to determine how onset of impaired sleep affects the risk of established physiological CVD risk factors (i.e., hypertension, diabetes...... of medication for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia was derived from electronic medical records within 8 years of follow-up. Data on 45,647 participants was structured as two data-cycles to examine the effect of change in sleep (between two waves) on incident CVD events. We applied strict inclusion...

  15. Understanding sleep habits and associated factors can help to improve sleep in high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kutluhan; Kilinçaslan, Ayşe; Aydin, Neriman; Kul, Seval

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to describe the sleep profiles and associated factors of poor sleep in adolescents. We gave a sleep questionnaire and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to 3,441 high school adolescents (15-18 years) in Gaziantep, Turkey. Adolescents reported a requirement of 10.4 hours of sleep on average to feel their best during the day. However, total night sleep time (TNST) was 7.42 +/- 1.48 hours on school nights and 9.40 +/- 1.37 on non-school nights. TNST of > or =9 hours on both school nights and non-school nights was detected in 8.2%. Average bedtime and wake-up time were 23:16 and 06:41 on school nights. Bedtime was approximately 30 minutes later on non-school nights. The shift in wake-up time was nearly 2.5 hours. Statistical analysis by logistic regression model showed that TNST was most significantly correlated with school start time (morning versus afternoon) irrespective of school or non-school nights. TNST on school nights was negatively correlated with age, passive smoking at home, drinking tea/coffee, and conduct problem, whereas TNST on non-school nights was negatively correlated with the mother's education, male gender, body mass index, number of household members, and having a television in the bedroom. Daytime napping (21.3%) was associated with morning start time, age, female gender, and mother's education. Sleep-onset insomnia with sleep latency >30 minutes (21%) was not related to age or gender; however, it was associated with abnormal breathing during sleep. The findings revealed that inadequate sleep is quite prevalent among high school adolescents. Given the fact that most of the associated factors are modifiable, inadequate sleep is not inevitable for adolescents.

  16. Analysis on Sleep Quality of Nurses and Its Influencing Factors in a Grade Ⅲ-A Hospital in Hunan%湖南省某三甲医院护理人员睡眠质量及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭进平; 陈梅英; 卜平元

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sleep quality of nurses and its influencing factors. Methods Pittsburgh Sleeping Quality Index (PSQI) scale was applied to survey the sleep quality and the influencing factors of 518 nurses in a grade Ⅲ - A hospital in Hunan. The data were counted and analyzed by SPSS11.0 statistical analysis software. The total PSQI score > 7 was used as the standard for evaluation. Results The total average score of sleep quality was (6.21 ±2.98). There were 386 nurses with satisfactory sleep quality, accounted for 74.52% of the subjects. 132 nurses had sleep problems, accounted for 25.48 %. The main influencing factors of sleep quality were working under great pressure, irregutar work - and- rest pattern, lack of physical exercise, and poor sleeping environment, etc. Conclusions There exist some sleep problems among the surveyed nurses. It is necessary to adopt the relative measures, relieve working pressure, and improve sleep quality so as to increase the nurses' working efficiency and safety.%目的 了解护理人员的睡眠质量情况及影响因素.方法 采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表(PSQI)对湖南省某三甲医院518名护理人员进行睡眠质量状况及影响因素调查.资料采用SPSS11.0统计软件进行分析,以PSQI>7分作为界值,判断睡眠质量.结果 睡眠质量总分平均(6.21±2.98)分.睡眠质量正常者386人,占74.52%,睡眠质量障碍者132人,占25.48%.影响睡眠主要因素为工作压力大、作息制度无规律、缺少体育锻炼以及睡眠环境差等因素.结论 护理人员睡眠质量存在一定的问题,应采取相关措施,减轻工作压力,改善睡眠质量,提高护理人员工作效率和安全性.

  17. Mediator Effect of Sleep Hygiene Practices on Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Other Sleep-Related Factors in Chinese Mainland University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Zhou, Kaina; Li, Xiaomei; Liu, Miao; Dang, Shaonong; Wang, Duolao; Xin, Xia

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediator effect of sleep hygiene practices (SHP) on relationships between sleep quality and other sleep-related factors in Chinese mainland university students using structural equation modeling analysis. Of the 413 students, 41.4% had poor sleep quality. Gender, academic stress, relaxed psychological status, good physical status, and SHP had significant direct effects on sleep quality; relaxed psychological status had significant direct effect on SHP and indirect effect on sleep quality via SHP. The direct, indirect, and total effects of gender, academic stress, relaxed psychological status, good physical status, and SHP explained 25% of the variance in sleep quality. The Chinese mainland university students had relative poor sleep quality. SHP was a mediator between sleep quality and relaxed psychological status.

  18. Sleep Quality of Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy after Radical Mastectomy and Its Influencing Factors%乳腺癌根治术后化疗患者睡眠质量及相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢宏利; 邱阚; 张琳; 尹长恒

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the radical mastectomy or modified radical mastectomy and chemotherapy in patients with sleep quality and related factors affecting the quality of sleep.Methods:110 cases of radical mastectomy or modified radical mastectomy and chemotherapy patients,using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) evaluated sleep quality scale,Medical Coping questionnaire (MCMQ),Support Rating Scale (SSRS) evaluate mental status,coping strategies and social support on sleep quality.Results:SAS,SDS postoperative chemotherapy for breast cancer patients with risk factors of sleep quality(P<0.05). Conclusion:SAS,SDS,to support the use of chemotherapy and mastectomy patients sleep quality are closely related.%目的:研究乳腺癌根治术或改良根治术后化疗患者的睡眠质量状况及影响睡眠质量的相关因素。方法:选择110例乳腺癌根治术或改良根治术后化疗患者,采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)量表评价睡眠质量,医学应对问卷(MCMQ)、社会支持评定量表(SSRS)评价心理状态、应对策略和社会支持对睡眠质量的影响。结果:SAS、SDS为乳腺癌术后化疗患者睡眠质量危险因素(P<0.05)。结论:SAS、SDS、对支持的利用度与乳腺癌根治术后化疗患者睡眠质量关系密切。

  19. Disrupted sleep without sleep curtailment induces sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction via the tumor necrosis factor-α pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Vijay; Nair Deepti; Zhang Shelley X L; Hakim Fahed; Kaushal Navita; Kayali Foaz; Wang Yang; Li Richard C; Carreras Alba; Gozal David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction are recognized as prominent consequences of sleep deprivation. Experimentally induced short-term sleep fragmentation, even in the absence of any reductions in total sleep duration, will lead to the emergence of excessive daytime sleepiness and cognitive impairments in humans. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α has important regulatory effects on sleep, and seems to play a role in the occurrence of excessive daytime sleepiness in children who...

  20. Sleep quality and its influence factors among middle school students in Changsha city%长沙市中学生睡眠质量及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严虎; 陈晋东; 赵丽萍; 朱薇薇; 伍海姗

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study sleep quality and its related factors among middle school students in Changsha city,and to provide evidence for improving sleeping status of the students.Methods Totally 2 216 middle school students in Changsha city were selected with cluster sampling and surveyed with questionnaires including a self-designed general questionnaire,Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI),Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC) and SelfEsteem Scale(SES).Results The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 14.4% in the students and the mean score of PSQI was 4.90 ± 2.55.The sleep problems of the rural students and the senior high school students were worse than those in the urban students and the junior school students(P <0.01).The total score of PSQI was positively correlated with age,family violence,negative life event,and the score of self-esteem (r = 0.051-0.316,P < 0.05) and inversely correlated with familial economic status,family relationship and strict parents (r =-0.202-0.071,P <0.01).The factors influencing the quality of sleep in the students included negative life events (β = 0.260),junior or senior student (β = 0.166),family relationship (β =-0.128),the score of self-esteem (β = 0.112),strict parents (β =-0.081),and familial economic status (β = 0.081).Conclusion Sleep quality of middle school students is related to multiple factors and effective measures should be taken to promote physical and mental health of middle school students.%目的 了解湖南省长沙市中学生睡眠质量及其影响因素,为采取有效措施改善中学生睡眠质量提供参考.方法 采取分层整群随机抽样方法,对长沙市2 216名中学生进行自制问卷、匹兹堡睡眠质量指数、青少年生活事件量表和自尊量表测评.结果 长沙市中学生PSQI总分为(4.90±2.548)分,睡眠问题检出率为14.4%,其中农村中学生和高中学生睡眠问题分别高于城

  1. Sleep bruxism - genetic factors and psychoactive substances : Studies in Finnish twins

    OpenAIRE

    Rintakoski, Katariina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genetic and environmental factors have a varying influence on oral health-related problems. Although studies have been conducted, the contribution of genetic factors to sleep-related bruxism remains obscure. Bruxism causes several physical problems, including abnormal tooth wear, pain in the temporomandibular joint or jaw muscles, and headaches, as well as social problems. The detailed aetiology of bruxism is unknown. In addition to genetic factors, psychoactive substances are con...

  2. Electroencephalogram approximate entropy influenced by both age and sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerick M. H. Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of information-based measures to assess changes in conscious state is an increasingly popular topic. Though recent results have seemed to justify the merits of such methods, little has been done to investigate the applicability of such measures to children. For our work, we used the approximate entropy (ApEn, a measure previously shown to correlate with changes in conscious state when applied to the electroencephalogram (EEG, and sought to confirm whether previously reported trends in adult ApEn values across wake and sleep were present in children. Besides validating the prior findings that ApEn decreases from wake to sleep (including wake, rapid eye movement [REM] sleep, and non-REM sleep in adults, we found that previously reported ApEn decreases across vigilance states in adults were also present in children (ApEn trends for both age groups: wake > REM sleep > non-REM sleep. When comparing ApEn values between age groups, adults had significantly larger ApEn values than children during wakefulness. After the application of an 8 Hz high-pass filter to the EEG signal, ApEn values were recalculated. The number of electrodes with significant vigilance state effects dropped from all 109 electrodes with the original 1 Hz filter to 1 electrode with the 8 Hz filter. The number of electrodes with significant age effects dropped from ten to four. Our results support the notion that ApEn can reliably distinguish between vigilance states, with low-frequency sleep-related oscillations implicated as the driver of changes between vigilance states. We suggest that the observed differences between adult and child ApEn values during wake may reflect differences in connectivity between age groups, a factor which may be important in the use of EEG to measure consciousness.

  3. Sleep Patterns and Other Sleep Related Factors Affecting the Students of Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Adequate sleep is essential for general health. Several factors disrupt sleep patterns. The quality of sleep affects health and daily functions. Objectives The current study aimed to determine the students' sleep patterns and other sleep related factors. Patients and Methods The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 female students of the Islamic Azad University, Rasht branch (Rasht, Iran who were selected by multistage random sampling method. Data collection tool was a self-reporting questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, employing Chi-square, and Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Results The mean age of the subjects was 22.16 ± 2.86 years. Results showed 35.7% disruption of sleep onset, 46.3% impairment of sleep continuity, and 32% awakening early in the morning. Also, 42.3% of the subjects expressed excellent sleep quality. There was a significant relationship among sleep quality with the time of going to bed, difficulty in sleeping, awakening by noise, repeated awakening at night, waking up early in the morning, fatigue, and sleepiness in classroom. Conclusions The results of the current study showed a high prevalence of sleep problems among the students. Identification and treatment of students’ sleep disorders may improve academic performance and life quality.

  4. Survey on Influencing Factors of Sleep Quality in Private College Students%民办高校大学生睡眠质量的影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐美秀; 陈玉柱; 刘娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact factors of sleep quality in private college students so as to take targeted guidance and management measures. Methods Totally 417 students of a private college were randomly selected to serve as the study objects. A questionnaire survey was conducted using Interpersonal Relationship Rating Scale, Stress Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Scale. And the data were processed using SPSS 13.0 statistical analysis software. Results Private college students had sleep disorders. There were statistically significant differences in total sleep time, online time and interpersonal relationship between male and female college students (P<0.01). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the pressure and sleep time of college students were the major risk factors for sleep quality (P<0.01). Conclusions Sleep quality of private college students is related to multiple factors. It is suggested to improve sleep quality through decompression and management for rest.%目的 了解民办高校大学生睡眠质量的影响因素,从而采取有针对性的指导和管理. 方法 以某民办高校部分在校大学生为研究对象,随机抽取417人,采用人际关系评定量表、压力量表及匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表进行问卷调查.采用SPSS13.0统计分析软件进行数据处理. 结果 民办高校大学生睡眠障碍,男女大学生总睡眠时间、上网时间、人际关系比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);多元回归分析显示,压力和入睡时间是影响大学生睡眠质量的主要危险因素(P<0.01). 结论民办高校大学生睡眠质量与多因素有关,建议通过减压和作息管理提高大学生睡眠质量.

  5. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...

  6. [Factor analysis of the structure of nocturnal sleep and the results of psychodiagnostic examination in man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforuk, K K; Rotenberg, V S; Rashidov, N R; Laneev, A I

    1986-01-01

    Factor analysis was carried out of sleep structure and results of complex psychodiagnostic study in 35 subjects. Seven orthogonal factors were singled out. It is shown that alarm level is connected with fast sleep general presentation; the system of psychological defences is linked with the fast sleep in the second cycle; the self-control in alert state and the transfer from alertness to sleep are interrelated, and duration of the first and last sleep cycles are reciprocally connected.

  7. Influencing factors of visual hallucinations in patients with Parkinson's disease and its relationship with sleep disorders%帕金森病伴视幻觉的影响因素及与睡眠障碍的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武冬冬; 李淑华; 金丽莹; 金莹; 崔艺耀; 赵鸿; 刘慧菁; 马欣昕; 苏闻

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨帕金森病(PD)视幻觉的影响因素,特别是与PD睡眠障碍之间的关系.方法 连续收集2012年1月至2014年12月至北京医院神经内科PD门诊就诊的187例Hohen-Yahr分期(H-Y分期)为1~3期的PD患者,收集患者一般资料、用药情况,将患者分为有视幻觉(VH)组和无视幻觉组,比较两组临床特征的差异;采用帕金森病常规的非运动并发症问卷(NMSquest)和帕金森病睡眠量表(PDSS)调查PD患者睡眠情况,分析PD视幻觉的影响因素.结果 (1)187例PD患者视幻觉的发生率为22.5%.(2)VH组与无VH组在年龄、性别、病程、简易精神状态检查量表(MMSE)、抗PD药物左旋多巴等效剂量(LED)之间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);统一帕金森病评定量表(UPDRS)第一部分评分,VH组明显高于无VH组[3.5(2,5)分比2(1,3)分,P<0.05],汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评分和汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)评分明显高于无VH组[10(6.75,15)分比8(5,11)分,11(7.75,17)分比9(5,13)分,P<0.05],差异有统计学意义.(3)生动梦境、快速动眼睡眠期行为障碍(RBD)发生率VH组显著高于无VH组(61.9%比40.7%,71.4%比47.6%,P<0.05),日间嗜睡和不宁腿发生率,两组之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);帕金森病睡眠量表评分VH组明显低于无VH组[111(92.75,128.25)分比123(109,135)分,P<0.05].(4) Logistic逐步向前回归分析显示生动梦境的出现(P =0.045)、PDSS低分数(P =0.006)是PD视幻觉的独立影响因素.结论 H-Y分期1~3期PD患者视幻觉发生率为22.5%.生动梦境的出现及严重的睡眠障碍与帕金森病视幻觉出现独立相关.%Objective To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of visual hallucinations in patients with Parkinson's disease(PD),and to analyze the relationship between visual hallucinations and sleep disorders.Methods We recruited 187 patients with PD(H-Y Ⅰ-Ⅲ) from outpatient department in Beijing Hospital.The patients were

  8. Sleep in a live-in mining operation: the influence of start times and restricted non-work activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sally A; Baker, Angela A; Lamond, Nicole; Kennaway, David J; Dawson, Drew

    2010-12-01

    The amount of sleep obtained between shifts is influenced by numerous factors including the length of work and rest periods, the timing of the rest period relative to the endogenous circadian cycle and personal choices about the use of non-work time. The current study utilised a real-world live-in mining environment to examine the amount of sleep obtained when access to normal domestic, family and social activities was restricted. Participants were 29 mining operators (26 male, average age 37.4 ± 6.8 years) who recorded sleep, work and fatigue information and wore an activity monitor for a cycle of seven day shifts and seven night shifts (both 12h) followed by either seven or fourteen days off. During the two weeks of work participants lived on-site. Total sleep time was significantly less (pvalue than sleep associated with day shifts (p<0.01). While on-site, participants obtained only 6h of sleep indicating that the absence of competing domestic, family and social activities did not convert to more sleep. Factors including shift start times and circadian influences appear to have been more important. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Factors associated with poor sleep quality in women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansano-Schlosser, Thalyta Cristina; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2017-03-02

    to analyze the factors associated with poor sleep quality, its characteristics and components in women with breast cancer prior to surgery for removing the tumor and throughout the follow-up. longitudinal study in a teaching hospital, with a sample of 102 women. The following were used: a questionnaire for sociodemographic and clinical characterization, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the Beck Depression Inventory; and the Herth Hope Scale. Data collection covered from prior to the surgery for removal of the tumor (T0) to T1, on average 3.2 months; T2, on average 6.1 months; and T3, on average 12.4 months. Descriptive statistics and the Generalized Estimating Equations model were used. depression and pain contributed to the increase in the score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and hope, to the reduction of the score - independently - throughout follow-up. Sleep disturbances were the component with the highest score throughout follow-up. the presence of depression and pain, prior to the surgery, contributed to the increase in the global score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, which indicates worse quality of sleep throughout follow-up; greater hope, in its turn, influenced the reduction of the score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. analizar los factores asociados a la mala calidad del sueño, sus características y componentes en mujeres con cáncer de mama, antes de la cirugía de retirada del tumor y a lo largo del seguimiento. estudio longitudinal, en hospital universitario con muestra de 102 mujeres. Fueron utilizados: un cuestionario de caracterización sociodemográfica y clínica; el Índice de Calidad del Sueño de Pittsburgh; el Inventario de Depresión de Beck; y la Escala de Esperanza de Herth. La recolección comprendió los momentos: antes de la cirugía de retirada del tumor (T0), en (T1) en promedio 3,2 meses, en (T2) en promedio 6,1 meses y en (T3) en promedio 12,4 meses. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y el modelo de

  10. Modifiable factors associated with sleep dysfunction in adults with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Barbara; Glaser, Dale; Richards, Kathy; Sayers, Steven L; Marzolf, Amy; Weintraub, William S; Goldberg, Lee R

    2012-12-01

    Sleep dysfunction contributes to poor quality of life in adults with heart failure (HF). The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with sleep dysfunction that may be modifiable. Data were collected from 266 subjects enrolled from three sites in the U.S. Sleep dysfunction was measured over the past month with the Pittsburgh sleep quality index, using a score > 10 to indicate sleep dysfunction. Potentially modifiable clinical, behavioral, and psychological factors thought to be associated with sleep dysfunction were analyzed with hierarchical logistic regression analysis. When covariates of age, gender, race, data collection site, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class were entered on the first step, only NYHA was a significant correlate of sleep dysfunction. When the clinical, behavioral, and psychological factors were entered, correlates of sleep dysfunction were the number of drugs known to cause daytime somnolence (OR = 2.08), depression (OR = 1.83), worse overall perceived health (OR = 1.64), and better sleep hygiene (OR = 1.40). Although most (54%) subjects had sleep disordered breathing (SDB), SDB was not a significant predictor of sleep dysfunction. Factors associated with sleep dysfunction in HF include medications with sleepiness as a side-effect, depression, poorer health perceptions, and better sleep hygiene. Sleep dysfunction may motivate HF patients to address sleep hygiene. Eliminating medications with sleepiness as a side-effect, treating depression and perceptions of poor health may improve sleep quality in HF patients.

  11. [Sleep deprivation as a risk factor for obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Rodrigo A; Durán, Samuel A; Reyes, Sussanne C; Ponce, Rosemarie; Algarín, Cecilia R; Peirano, Patricio D

    2011-07-01

    Nocturnal sleep patterns may be a contributing factor for the epidemic of obesity. Epidemiologic ana experimental studies have reported that sleep restriction is an independent risk factor for weight gain and obesity. Moreover, sleep restriction is significantly associated with incidence and prevalence of obesity and several non-transmissible chronic diseases. Experimental sleep restriction is related to altered plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Both hormones are directly related to appetite and satiety mechanisms. Also, a higher activity of the orexin/hypocretin system has been reported, as well as changes in glucose metabolism and autonomic nervous system. Some studies indicate that these endocrine changes could be associated with a higher diurnal food intake and preference for energy- dense foods. All these changes could result in a positive energy balance, leading to weight gain and a higher obesity risk in the long-term. The present article summarizes the epidemiologic and experimental evidence related to sleep deprivation and higher obesity risk. The possible mechanisms are highlighted.

  12. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Sleep: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is sleep? Sleep is a period of unconsciousness during which ...

  13. Disrupted sleep without sleep curtailment induces sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction via the tumor necrosis factor-α pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Vijay

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction are recognized as prominent consequences of sleep deprivation. Experimentally induced short-term sleep fragmentation, even in the absence of any reductions in total sleep duration, will lead to the emergence of excessive daytime sleepiness and cognitive impairments in humans. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α has important regulatory effects on sleep, and seems to play a role in the occurrence of excessive daytime sleepiness in children who have disrupted sleep as a result of obstructive sleep apnea, a condition associated with prominent sleep fragmentation. The aim of this study was to examine role of the TNF-α pathway after long-term sleep fragmentation in mice. Methods The effect of chronic sleep fragmentation during the sleep-predominant period on sleep architecture, sleep latency, cognitive function, behavior, and inflammatory markers was assessed in C57BL/6 J and in mice lacking the TNF-α receptor (double knockout mice. In addition, we also assessed the above parameters in C57BL/6 J mice after injection of a TNF-α neutralizing antibody. Results Mice subjected to chronic sleep fragmentation had preserved sleep duration, sleep state distribution, and cumulative delta frequency power, but also exhibited excessive sleepiness, altered cognitive abilities and mood correlates, reduced cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and transcriptional activity, and increased phosphodiesterase-4 expression, in the absence of AMP kinase-α phosphorylation and ATP changes. Selective increases in cortical expression of TNF-α primarily circumscribed to neurons emerged. Consequently, sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction were absent in TNF-α double receptor knockout mice subjected to sleep fragmentation, and similarly, treatment with a TNF-α neutralizing antibody abrogated sleep fragmentation-induced learning deficits and increases in sleep propensity. Conclusions Taken together

  14. 风湿性疾病住院患者睡眠质量及影响因素调查分析%Investigation of sleep quality and influencing factors in hospitalized patients with rheumatic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍春燕; 吕雷蕾; 朱慧; 王丽; 任莉; 刘俊英; 郝京菁; 魏丽杰; 赵瑾; 孟晓君; 公茂娟

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss the sleep quality of hospitalized patients with rheumatic diseases and the factors affecting the quality of sleep. Methods With Pittsburgh sleep quality index ( PSQI) questionnaire and the self-designed questionnaire about the factors affecting sleep were used to survey 125 patients with rheumatic disease from November 2013 to October 2014 in a level three class A hospital in Beijing city. Results Rheumatoid disease inpatients PSQI scores between 7 to 12 points had 35 cases, accounted for 28. 0%, more than 12 points having 6 cases, accounted for 4. 8%, PSQI various dimensions of 93 patients with seven hours of sleep time and accounted for 74. 4%, sleep efficiency more than 85% having 115 patients and accounted for 92. 0%, but the poor quality of sleep group with 113 cases and accounted for 90. 4%, sleep time group 101 cases of patients and accounted for 80. 8%, patients with sleep disorders in 120 cases, accounted for 96%, 111 cases of patients with daytime dysfunction, accounted for 88. 8%, and used hypnotic drugs in patients with only 13 cases, accounted for 10. 4%, group of patients with rheumatic disease of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index was higher than normal group (P12分6例占4.8%;睡眠时间>7 h者93例占74.4%,睡眠效率>85%者115例占92.0%,睡眠质量差者113例占90.4%,入睡时间差者101例占80.8%,存在睡眠障碍的患者120例占96.0%,有日间功能障碍者111例占88.8%,而使用过催眠药物的患者只有13例占10.4%。风湿性疾病患者组的PSQI得分高于国内常模,差异有统计学意义(P60岁、不继续工作或学习、住院前睡眠情况差的患者睡眠质量差的比例更高(P<0.01);用物不舒适影响患者睡眠质量(P<0.01)。影响患者睡眠的首要因素是心理因素。结论风湿性疾病住院患者睡眠质量差,心理因素是影响睡眠的主要因素,糖皮质激素不是绝对影响睡眠的因素。老年人、住院前睡眠质

  15. Parent decision factors, safety strategies, and fears about infant sleep locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Jennifer J; Marvin, Alexis; Strook, Samantha

    2017-04-01

    Infant sleep safety is a primary concern of parents. Infant sleep locations vary around the world. This pilot study investigated the decision factors, fears, and safety strategies reported by parents internationally. participants (n=49) recruited online from 10 countries completed an anonymous Internet survey in English and submitted a picture of the infant's primary nighttime sleep location. Pictures were coded into 'shared' (29%) or 'separate' (71%) sleep surfaces. primary decision factors about infant sleep location were safety, comfort, family sleep quality, and overall ease. Parents maximized safety by providing a clear sleep surface, no blankets, no toys, sleep sack use, and a firm mattress. Different worries and fears emerged depending on the sleep surface. differences in the specific worries and strategies used by parents when deciding whether to share or not share a sleep surface with an infant may be used to tailor future interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gratitude influences sleep through the mechanism of pre-sleep cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alex M; Joseph, Stephen; Lloyd, Joanna; Atkins, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    To test whether individual differences in gratitude are related to sleep after controlling for neuroticism and other traits. To test whether pre-sleep cognitions are the mechanism underlying this relationship. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted with a large (186 males, 215 females) community sample (ages=18-68 years, mean=24.89, S.D.=9.02), including 161 people (40%) scoring above 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, indicating clinically impaired sleep. Measures included gratitude, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), self-statement test of pre-sleep cognitions, the Mini-IPIP scales of Big Five personality traits, and the Social Desirability Scale. Gratitude predicted greater subjective sleep quality and sleep duration, and less sleep latency and daytime dysfunction. The relationship between gratitude and each of the sleep variables was mediated by more positive pre-sleep cognitions and less negative pre-sleep cognitions. All of the results were independent of the effect of the Big Five personality traits (including neuroticism) and social desirability. This is the first study to show that a positive trait is related to good sleep quality above the effect of other personality traits, and to test whether pre-sleep cognitions are the mechanism underlying the relationship between any personality trait and sleep. The study is also the first to show that trait gratitude is related to sleep and to explain why this occurs, suggesting future directions for research, and novel clinical implications.

  17. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) modulates fear-induced alterations in sleep in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linghui; Tang, Xiangdong; Wellman, Laurie L; Liu, Xianling; Sanford, Larry D

    2009-06-18

    Contextual fear significantly reduces rapid eye movement sleep (REM) during post-exposure sleep in mice and rats. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) plays a major role in CNS responses to stressors. We examined the influence of CRF and astressin (AST), a non-specific CRF antagonist, on sleep after contextual fear in BALB/c mice. Male mice were implanted with transmitters for recording sleep via telemetry and with a guide cannula aimed into the lateral ventricle. Recordings for vehicle and handling control were obtained after ICV microinjection of saline (SAL) followed by exposure to a novel chamber. Afterwards, the mice were subjected to shock training (20 trials, 0.5 mA, 0.5 s duration) for 2 sessions. After training, separate groups of mice received ICV microinjections of SAL (0.2 microl, n=9), CRF (0.4 microg, n=8), or AST (1.0 microg, n=8) prior to exposure to the shock context alone. Sleep was then recorded for 20 h (8-hour light and 12-hour dark period). Compared to handling control, contextual fear significantly decreased REM during the 8-h light period in mice receiving SAL and in mice receiving CRF, but not in the mice receiving AST. Mice receiving CRF exhibited reductions in REM during the 12-h dark period after contextual fear, whereas mice receiving SAL or AST did not. CRF also reduced non-REM (NREM) delta (slow wave) amplitude in the EEG. Only mice receiving SAL prior to contextual fear exhibited significant reductions in NREM and total sleep. These findings demonstrate a role for the central CRF system in regulating alterations in sleep induced by contextual fear.

  18. Neurocognitive Game between Risk Factors, Sleep and Suicidal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustin Armel Etindele Sosso

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep and lifestyles interact to allow the appropriate development of cerebral structures, and prevention of mood disorders. But just a hand of articles identified a precise relationship between these two above, and the probability to develop a suicidal behaviour. Objective: The aim of this study is to explore how the suicidal behaviour is associated in simultaneous with sleep components, psychological stress, depression, anxiety, well-being, addiction, and global health of participants; and if it is also influenced by the sociodemographic profile of each subject. Methods: The present study was led by a questionnaire incorporating McNair test, and an incorporated score to evaluate suicide tendencies. The questionnaire also included socio-demographic items and other questions to exhibit a profile of suicide tendency for each individual. Results: Our results showed that the stress levels and well-being are comparable according to gender. Specifically the results showed that lack of sleep combined with a low score to McNair test strongly affects the suicidal tendency, while score of memory and attention decreased. Conclusions: The suicidal behaviour is closely linked with sleep parameters which decreased accordingly, and the family's history of medication and suicidal behaviour.

  19. lnvestigation on the sleep quality of nurses of a certain mental hospital at grade lll level and analysis of the influencing factors%某三级精神病院护士睡眠质量及影响因素现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢庆华; 钟耕坤

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解某三级精神病院护士睡眠质量及影响因素,并探讨改善护士睡眠质量的有效方法。方法:采取整群抽样的方法,抽取山东省某三级精神病院231名护士,采用匹茨堡睡眠指数量表( PSQI)调查其睡眠质量及其影响因素。结果:本组PSQI评分与国内常模比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.01),本组精神科护士21.6%存在不同程度的睡眠问题;多因素回归分析显示,工作年限、是否倒班及学历与护士PSQI评分有相关性(P<0.05,P<0.01)。结论:精神科护士睡眠质量问题发生率高于正常人群,护理管理者应制定科学合理的班次,改革工作制度及环境,提供良好的支持系统,以提高护士的睡眠质量。%Objective:To understand the status of sleep quality of nurses of a certain mental hospital at grade III level and the influen-cing factors so as to find the effective measures to improve the sleep quality of nurses. Methods:231 nurses of a certain mental hospital at grade III level in Shandong were selected by cluster sampling method,the sleep quality of them and the influencing factors were investiga-ted by Pittsburgh sleep quality index scale( PSQI). Results:The difference between PSQI score and the national norm was statistically sig-nificant(P<0. 01);21. 6% nurses had sleeping problems in different degree and the working years,shift and educational background were correlated with PSQI score of nurses(P<0. 05,P<0. 01). Conclusion:The incidence of sleeping problems are higher in the psychi-atric nurses than the normal population,nursing managers should make a scientific and rational arrangement of shifts,reform working sys-tem and improve environment so as to improve the sleep quality of nurses.

  20. Daytime Sleepiness and Sleep Inadequacy as Risk Factors for Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Angeliki Tsapanou; Yian Gu; Jennifer Manly; Nicole Schupf; Ming-Xin Tang; Molly Zimmerman; Nikolaos Scarmeas; Yaakov Stern

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: To examine the association between self-reported sleep problems and incidence of dementia in community-dwelling elderly people. Methods: 1,041 nondemented participants over 65 years old were examined longitudinally. Sleep problems were estimated using the RAND Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale examining sleep disturbance, snoring, sleep short of breath or with a headache, sleep adequacy, and sleep somnolence. Cox regression analysis was used to examine the association betwee...

  1. The spread of sleep loss influences drug use in adolescent social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C Mednick

    Full Text Available Troubled sleep is a commonly cited consequence of adolescent drug use, but it has rarely been studied as a cause. Nor have there been any studies of the extent to which sleep behavior can spread in social networks from person to person to person. Here we map the social networks of 8,349 adolescents in order to study how sleep behavior spreads, how drug use behavior spreads, and how a friend's sleep behavior influences one's own drug use. We find clusters of poor sleep behavior and drug use that extend up to four degrees of separation (to one's friends' friends' friends' friends in the social network. Prospective regression models show that being central in the network negatively influences future sleep outcomes, but not vice versa. Moreover, if a friend sleeps sleeps < or =7 hours by 11%. If a friend uses marijuana, it increases the likelihood of marijuana use by 110%. Finally, the likelihood that an individual uses drugs increases by 19% when a friend sleeps < or =7 hours, and a mediation analysis shows that 20% of this effect results from the spread of sleep behavior from one person to another. This is the first study to suggest that the spread of one behavior in social networks influences the spread of another. The results indicate that interventions should focus on healthy sleep to prevent drug use and targeting specific individuals may improve outcomes across the entire social network.

  2. Survey on the sleep quality and its influencing factors in the hospitalized patients in the department of cardiology of a certain grade Ⅲ-A hospital in Suzhou city%苏州某三甲医院心内科住院患者睡眠质量及影响因素调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 顾洁

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查分析苏州某三甲医院心内科住院患者睡眠质量及影响因素,探讨改善住院患者睡眠质量的方法。方法:选取心内科住院患者261例采用访谈、问卷调查表及匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表( PSQI)调查其睡眠质量,并分析其影响因素。结果:住院期间主观睡眠质量、睡眠潜伏期、睡眠时间、睡眠障碍、睡眠效率、昼夜睡眠倒置及总分患者得分均高于住院前得分(均P<0.05)。有慢性疾病史的患者住院期间和住院前睡眠质量均高于无慢性疾病史患者(均P<0.05)。有住院经历或者重大手术史的患者比没有类似经历的患者住院期间睡眠质量分数高( P<0.05)。住院时间<2周患者的睡眠质量分数高于住院时间≥2周的患者(P<0.05),睡眠时间接受治疗和护理(午夜)比没有接受任何治疗或护理的睡眠质量分数高(P<0.05)。此外,患者住在单人病房的住院期间睡眠质量分数均高于那些住在拥挤病房(双人或以上)的患者( P<0.05)。结论:心内科患者在住院期间睡眠质量差,受内源性因素和外源性因素两方面影响,其中外源性环境因素是最主要的原因。%Objective:To investigate and analyze the sleep quality and its influencing factors in the hospitalized patients in the depart-ment of cardiology of a certain gradeⅢ-A hospital in Suzhou city in order to find the methods to improve the sleep quality of inpatients. Methods:The interview,questionnaire survey and the Pittsburgh sleep quality index( PSQI)were adopted to investigate the sleep quality of 261 inpatients in the department of cardiology and analyze its influencing factors. Results:The subjective sleep quality,sleep latency,sleep time and sleep disorders,sleep efficiency,irregular sleep circadian rhythm and the total scores of the patients were better,milder and higher during hospitalization than those before hospitalization

  3. Factor structure of the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, RTH; Fong, TCT

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is used extensively to assess subjective sleep disturbance in cancer populations. Although previous studies on the PSQI suggested a better fit for a two- or three-factor model than the original one-factor model, none accounted for the indicator-specific effect between sleep duration and habitual sleep efficiency. This study evaluated the PSQI’s dimensionality and its convergent validity with cancer-related psychopathological states in femal...

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of poor sleep quality among Inner Mongolia Medical University students: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Qin, Peng; Zhao, Yunshan; Duan, Shengyun; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Ying; Hu, Yueling; Sun, Juan

    2016-10-30

    Medical students face new challenges at the beginning of college life, such as being responsible for oneself, an unfamiliar environment, social obligations, and academic stress, all of which influence or even heavily change their sleep quality and life, leading to sleep-related problems to some degree. This study investigated the relationship between sleep quality and behavior among students at the Inner Mongolia Medical University in China. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was also used. A total of 6044 and 6085 students completed the questionnaires in 2011 and 2013. According to the index, 27.8% (1694) of students had poor sleep quality with major risk factors being poor academic performance and interpersonal relationships in 2013. Among others, regular exercise less than three times a week, skipping breakfast, and studying in higher grades were associated with poor sleep quality. These results will help university administrators understand the risk factors of poor sleep quality among students, which can be improved through individual efforts, and provide adequate counseling and systematic education to improve their behavior and lifestyle.

  5. What is the most important factor affecting the cognitive function of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients: a single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS usually complain of daytime hypersomnia and decrease in cognitive function, which affects the quality of their work and life. The reason why the cognitive function of OSAS patients decreased remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impairment and the main influencing factors of cognitive function in OSAS. Methods There were totally 50 OSAS patients (OSAS group and 25 volunteers (control group included in our study. All of them were monitored by polysomnography (PSG and tested by Continuous Performance Test (CPT, n-back test and Stroop Color?Word Test (CWT to evaluate their sleep condition and cognitive function. Results No significant difference was found between the two groups in total sleep time and sleep efficiency (P > 0.05, for all. Compared with control group, OSAS group had significant increased time of non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅰ and stage Ⅱ, significant decreased time of stage Ⅲ (P 0.05, for all, while had significant connection with AI and NREM Ⅲ (P < 0.05, for all. The rate of OSAS patients who underwent nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP treatment was very low, only 8% (4/50. Conclusion The abnormality of OSAS patients' sleep structure is characterized with sleep fragmentation and decrease of NREM Ⅲ, which may be the main factors of cognitive impairment. Exploration of treatment methods targeted on regulating the effected hormones and receptors is meaningful.

  6. Sleep quality and some factors affecting sleep quality in the students living in the residence hall of a university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Yavuz Sari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Sleep disorders are remarkable public health problems as they adversely affect physical, mental and social health and may cause accidents and decline in academic performance and labor productivity. Aim of the study is assessing sleep quality and determining some factors affecting sleep quality in the students living in the residence hall of a university. METHOD: It is a cross sectional study conducted with 277 students, 180 of whom are female. Data were collected via a questionnaire including Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and socio-demographic characteristics query. RESULTS: According to PSQI, 41.1% of students have bad sleep quality. Sleep quality of male students and students who are overweight/obese or living in more crowded rooms in the hall of residence is worse than other students and #8217;. Prevalence of bad sleep quality is higher in medication users, participants thinking that they have problems in sleeping or falling asleep and had stressful experience in the last month. The differences between groups were statistically significant. In logistic regression analyzes, using medication (OR=2.54, having problems in sleep (OR=12.75, having problems in falling asleep (OR=8.83 and bad experiences in the last month (OR=2.66 have effects on sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions about sleep disorders are important due to their preventable characteristics. Developing healthy life habits, improving physical conditions and coping with stress will be effective on preventing and treating sleep disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 93-100

  7. Mini-KiSS Online: an Internet-based intervention program for parents of young children with sleep problems – influence on parental behavior and children's sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlarb AA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Angelika A Schlarb1,2,*, Isabel Brandhorst1,* 1University of Tuebingen, Faculty of Science, Department of Psychology, Tuebingen, 2University of Koblenz-Landau, Department of Psychology, Landau, Germany*The authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: Behavioral sleep problems are highly common in early childhood. These sleep problems have a high tendency to persist, and they may have deleterious effects on early brain development, attention, and mood regulation. Furthermore, secondary effects on parents and their relationship are documented. Negative parental cognition and behavior have been found to be important influencing factors of a child's behavioral sleep problems. Therefore, in the current study we examined the acceptance and efficacy of a newly developed Internet-based intervention program called Mini-KiSS Online for sleep disturbances for children aged 6 months to 4 years and their parents.Patients and methods: Fifty-five children (54.54% female; aged 8–57 months suffering from psychophysiological insomnia or behavioral insomnia participated in the 6-week online treatment. Sleep problems and treatment acceptance were examined with a sleep diary, anamnestic questionnaires, a child behavior checklist (the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5, and treatment evaluation questionnaires.Results: The evaluation questionnaires showed a high acceptance of Mini-KiSS Online. Parents would recommend the treatment to other families, were glad to participate, and reported that they were able to deal with sleep-related problems of their child after Mini-KiSS Online. Parental behavior strategies changed with a reduction of dysfunctional strategies, such as staying or soothing the child until they fell asleep, allowing the child to get up again and play or watch TV, or reading them another bedtime story. Frequency and duration of night waking decreased as well as the need for external help to start or maintain sleep. All parameters changed

  8. Sleep in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeta, Sônia Maria Garcia; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio; de Oliveira, Eleonora Menicucci

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that most influence the perception of sleep quality in postmenopausal women. We used the methodological strategy of the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD), which is based on a theoretical framework of social representations theory. We obtained the data by interviewing 22 postmenopausal Brazilian women who were experiencing insomnia. The women gave accounts of their difficulties with sleep; a variety of dimensions were identified within the data. The onset of sleep disorders might have occurred during childhood or in situations considered to be stressful, and were not necessarily associated with menopause. We found that hormonal alterations occurring during menopause, psychosocial factors, and sleep-breathing disorders triggered occasional sleep disturbances during this time of life. Participants were aware of the consequences of sleep deprivation. In addition, inadequate sleep hygiene habits figured prominently as determinants in the persistence of sleep disturbances.

  9. Sleep Deprivation Influences Circadian Gene Expression in the Lateral Habenula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beilin; Gao, Yanxia; Li, Yang; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1) in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS) and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis.

  10. Sleep Deprivation Influences Circadian Gene Expression in the Lateral Habenula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beilin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1 in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR. We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis.

  11. Sleep Regulation, Physiology and Development, Sleep Duration and Patterns, and Sleep Hygiene in Infants, Toddlers, and Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathory, Eleanor; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2017-02-01

    Sleep problems are common, reported by a quarter of parents with children under the age of 5 years, and have been associated with poor behavior, worse school performance, and obesity, in addition to negative secondary effects on maternal and family well-being. Yet, it has been shown that pediatricians do not adequately address sleep in routine well-child visits, and underdiagnose sleep issues. Pediatricians receive little formal training in medical school or in residency regarding sleep medicine. An understanding of the physiology of sleep is critical to a pediatrician׳s ability to effectively and confidently counsel patients about sleep. The biological rhythm of sleep and waking is regulated through both circadian and homeostatic processes. Sleep also has an internal rhythmic organization, or sleep architecture, which includes sleep cycles of REM and NREM sleep. Arousal and sleep (REM and NREM) are active and complex neurophysiologic processes, involving both neural pathway activation and suppression. These physiologic processes change over the life course, especially in the first 5 years. Adequate sleep is often difficult to achieve, yet is considered very important to optimal daily function and behavior in children; thus, understanding optimal sleep duration and patterns is critical for pediatricians. There is little experimental evidence that guides sleep recommendations, rather normative data and expert recommendations. Effective counseling on child sleep must account for the child and parent factors (child temperament, parent-child interaction, and parental affect) and the environmental factors (cultural, geographic, and home environment, especially media exposure) that influence sleep. To promote health and to prevent and manage sleep problems, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that parents start promoting good sleep hygiene, with a sleep-promoting environment and a bedtime routine in infancy, and throughout childhood. Thus, counseling

  12. Sleep restriction masks the influence of the circadian process on sleep propensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Charli; Darwent, David; Ferguson, Sally A; Kennaway, David J; Roach, Gregory D

    2012-06-01

    Previous forced desynchrony studies have highlighted the close relationship between the circadian rhythms of core body temperature (CBT) and sleep propensity. In particular, these studies have shown that a "forbidden zone" for sleep exists on the rising limb of the CBT rhythm. In these previous studies, the length of the experimental day was either ultrashort (90 min), short (20 h), or long (28 h), and the ratio of sleep to wake was normal (i.e., 1:2). The aim of the current study was to examine the relative effects of the circadian and homeostatic processes on sleep propensity using a 28-h forced desynchrony protocol in which the ratio of sleep to wake was substantially lower than normal (i.e., 1:5). Twenty-seven healthy males lived in a time-isolation sleep laboratory for 11 consecutive days. Participants completed either a control (n = 13) or sleep restriction (n = 14) condition. In both conditions, the protocol consisted of 2 × 24-h baseline days followed by 8 × 28-h forced desynchrony days. On forced desynchrony days, the control group had 9.3 h in bed and 18.7 h of wake, and the sleep restriction group had 4.7 h in bed and 23.3 h of wake. For all participants, each 30-s epoch of time in bed was scored as sleep or wake based on standard polysomnography recordings, and was also assigned a circadian phase (360° = 24 h) based on a cosine equation fitted to continuously recorded CBT data. For each circadian phase (i.e., 72 × 5° bins), sleep propensity was calculated as the percentage of epochs spent in bed scored as sleep. For the control group, there was a clear circadian rhythm in sleep propensity, with a peak of 98.5% at 5° (~05:20 h), a trough of 64.9% at 245° (~21:20 h), and an average of 82.3%. In contrast, sleep propensity for the sleep restriction group was relatively high at all circadian phases, with an average of 96.7%. For this group, the highest sleep propensity (99.0%) occurred at 60° (~09:00 h), and the lowest sleep propensity (91

  13. Factors influencing excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Souza Vilela

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Sleep deprivation in adolescents has lately become a health issue that tends to increase with higher stress prevalence, extenuating routines, and new technological devices that impair adolescents' bedtime. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the excessive sleepiness frequency and the factors that might be associated to it in this population. Methods: The cross-sectional study analyzed 531 adolescents aged 10–18 years old from two private schools and one public school. Five questionnaires were applied: the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire; the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children; the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria; the General Health and Sexual Maturation Questionnaire; and the Physical Activity Questionnaire. The statistical analyses were based on comparisons between schools and sleepiness and non-sleepiness groups, using linear correlation and logistic regression. Results: Sleep deprivation was present in 39% of the adolescents; sleep deficit was higher in private school adolescents (p < 0.001, and there was a positive correlation between age and sleep deficit (p < 0.001; r = 0.337. Logistic regression showed that older age (p = 0.002; PR: 1.21 [CI: 1.07–1.36] and higher score level for sleep hyperhidrosis in the sleep disturbance scale (p = 0.02; PR: 1.16 [CI: 1.02–1.32] were risk factors for worse degree of sleepiness. Conclusions: Sleep deficit appears to be a reality among adolescents; the results suggest a higher prevalence in students from private schools. Sleep deprivation is associated with older age in adolescents and possible presence of sleep disorders, such as sleep hyperhidrosis.

  14. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH: a new sleep factor?

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    Pablo eTorterolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurons that utilize the neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH as a neuromodulator are mainly located in the lateral hypothalamus and the incerto-hypothalamic area, and have widespread projections throughout the brain. While the biological functions of this neuropeptide are exerted in humans through two metabotropic receptors, the MCHR1 and MCHR2, only the MCHR1 is present in rodents. Recently, it has been shown that the MCHergic system is involved in the control of sleep. We can summarize the experimental findings as follows:1. The areas related to the control of sleep and wakefulness have an important density of MCHergic fibers and receptors.2. MCHergic neurons are active during sleep, especially during REM sleep.3. Genetically-modified animals without MCH have less REM sleep, notably under conditions of negative energy balance. 4. Systemically administered MCHR1 antagonists reduce sleep. 5. Intraventricular microinjection of MCH increases both slow wave sleep (SWS and REM sleep; however, the increment in REM sleep is more pronounced.6. Microinjection of MCH into the dorsal raphe nucleus increases REM sleep time. REM seep is inhibited by immunoneutralization of MCH within this nucleus.7. Microinjection of MCH in the nucleus pontis oralis of the cat enhances REM sleep time and reduces REM sleep latency.All these data strongly suggest that MCH has a potent role in the promotion of sleep. Although both SWS and REM sleep are facilitated by MCH, REM sleep seems to be more sensitive to MCH modulation.

  15. Reduction of Influence Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Sydenham, Peter H.; Thorn, Richard

    Any measurement system has imperfections and any act of measurement is liable to errors. Measurement errors either originate from system deficiencies (for instance system noise, quantization, and drift), or are due to environmental influences such as thermal, electromagnetic, and mechanical

  16. Brief Report: Influence of Physical Activity on Sleep Quality in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachob, David; Lorenzi, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-related problems are often documented in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study examined physical activity as a variable that might influence sleep quality in children with ASD. Ten children, ages 9-16 years, were asked to wear accelerometer devices for 7 days in order to track objective measures of activity and sleep…

  17. Influence on working hours among shift workers and effects on sleep quality - An intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Aust, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    ), and low intensity intervention (meetings and discussions) and reference. Sleep quality was assessed by Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ) at baseline and follow-up (12 months). To elucidate the process of the intervention interviews were conducted. Influence on one's own working hours increased only...

  18. Human REM sleep: influence on feeding behaviour, with clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, James A

    2015-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep shares many underlying mechanisms with wakefulness, to a much greater extent than does non-REM, especially those relating to feeding behaviours, appetite, curiosity, exploratory (locomotor) activities, as well as aspects of emotions, particularly 'fear extinction'. REM is most evident in infancy, thereafter declining in what seems to be a dispensable manner that largely reciprocates increasing wakefulness. However, human adults retain more REM than do other mammals, where for us it is most abundant during our usual final REM period (fREMP) of the night, nearing wakefulness. The case is made that our REM is unusual, and that (i) fREMP retains this 'dispensability', acting as a proxy for wakefulness, able to be forfeited (without REM rebound) and substituted by physical activity (locomotion) when pressures of wakefulness increase; (ii) REM's atonia (inhibited motor output) may be a proxy for this locomotion; (iii) our nocturnal sleep typically develops into a physiological fast, especially during fREMP, which is also an appetite suppressant; (iv) REM may have 'anti-obesity' properties, and that the loss of fREMP may well enhance appetite and contribute to weight gain ('overeating') in habitually short sleepers; (v) as we also select foods for their hedonic (emotional) values, REM may be integral to developing food preferences and dislikes; and (vii) REM seems to have wider influences in regulating energy balance in terms of exercise 'substitution' and energy (body heat) retention. Avenues for further research are proposed, linking REM with feeding behaviours, including eating disorders, and effects of REM-suppressant medications.

  19. Weighing the balance: how analgesics used in chronic pain influence sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Miqdad H; Kaushik, Chhavi; Temple, Daniel; Chung, Sharon A; Shapiro, Colin M

    2014-08-01

    Pain and sleep share a bidirectional relationship, with each influencing the other. Several excellent reviews have explored this relationship. In this article, we revisit the evidence and explore existing research on this complex inter-relationship. The primary focus of the article is on the pharmacological treatment of chronic non-malignant pain and the main purpose is to review the effect of various pharmacological agents used in the management of chronic pain on sleep. This has not been comprehensively done before. We explore the clinical use of these agents, their impact on sleep architecture and sleep physiology, the mechanism of action on sleep parameters and sleep disorders associated with these agents. Pharmacological classes reviewed include antidepressants, opioid analgesics, anti-epileptics, cannabinoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, drugs most commonly used to manage chronic pain. The objective is to help health professionals gain better insight into the complex effect that commonly used analgesics have on an individual's sleep and how this could impact on the effectiveness of the drug as an analgesic. We conclude that antidepressants have both positive and negative effects on sleep, so do opioids, but in the latter case the evidence shifts towards the counterproductive side. Some anticonvulsants are sleep sparing and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are sleep neutral. Cannabinoids remain an underexplored and researched group.

  20. A review of lifestyle factors that contribute to important pathways associated with major depression: diet, sleep and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresti, Adrian L; Hood, Sean D; Drummond, Peter D

    2013-05-15

    Research on major depression has confirmed that it is caused by an array of biopsychosocial and lifestyle factors. Diet, exercise and sleep are three such influences that play a significant mediating role in the development, progression and treatment of this condition. This review summarises animal- and human-based studies on the relationship between these three lifestyle factors and major depressive disorder, and their influence on dysregulated pathways associated with depression: namely neurotransmitter processes, immuno-inflammatory pathways, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbances, oxidative stress and antioxidant defence systems, neuroprogression, and mitochondrial disturbances. Increased attention in future clinical studies on the influence of diet, sleep and exercise on major depressive disorder and investigations of their effect on physiological processes will help to expand our understanding and treatment of major depressive disorder. Mental health interventions, taking into account the bidirectional relationship between these lifestyle factors and major depression are also likely to enhance the efficacy of interventions associated with this disorder.

  1. Time-of-day mediates the influences of extended wake and sleep restriction on simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Raymond W; Ferguson, Sally A; Zhou, Xuan; Sargent, Charli; Darwent, David; Kennaway, David J; Roach, Gregory D

    2012-06-01

    Although a nonlinear time-of-day and prior wake interaction on performance has been well documented, two recent studies have aimed to incorporate the influences of sleep restriction into this paradigm. Through the use of sleep-restricted forced desynchrony protocols, both studies reported a time-of-day × sleep restriction interaction, as well as a time-of-day × prior wake × sleep dose three-way interaction. The current study aimed to investigate these interactions on simulated driving performance, a more complex task with ecological validity for the problem of fatigued driving. The driving performance of 41 male participants (mean ± SD: 22.8 ±2.2 yrs) was assessed on a 10-min simulated driving task with the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLAT) measured. Using a between-group design, participants were subjected to either a control condition of 9.33 h of sleep/18.66 h of wake, a moderate sleep-restriction (SR) condition of 7 h of sleep/21 h of wake, or a severe SR condition of 4.66 h of sleep/23.33 h of wake. In each condition, participants were tested at 2.5-h intervals after waking across 7 × 28-h d of forced desynchrony. Driving sessions occurred at nine doses of prior wake, within six divisions of the circadian cycle based on core body temperature (CBT). Mixed-models analyses of variance (ANOVAs) revealed significant main effects of time-of-day, prior wake, sleep debt, and sleep dose on SDLAT. Additionally, significant two-way interactions of time-of-day × prior wake and time-of-day × sleep debt, as well as significant three-way interactions of time-of-day × prior wake × sleep debt and time-of-day × sleep debt × sleep dose were observed. Although limitations such as the presence of practice effects and large standard errors are noted, the study concludes with three findings. The main effects demonstrate that extending wake, reducing sleep, and driving at poor times of day all significantly impair driving performance at an individual

  2. Diagnostic value and its influence factors of sleep-deprived electroencephalogram on pediatric psychomotor epilepsy%剥夺睡眠脑电图对儿童精神运动性癫痫的诊断价值及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈连红; 陆燕芬; 王超; 施佳奇; 庞清忠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To research the diagnostic value and its influence factors of sleep-deprived electroencephalogram (EEG) on pediatric psychomotor epilepsy. Methods One hundred and ten conventional EEG negative children with psychomotor epilepsy were examined by sleep-deprived EEG. The relevant clinical data were compared between children with positive and negative sleep-deprived EEG. And the relevant indicators were performed with multivariate Logistic regression analysis. Results The sleep-deprived EEG examination was positive in 62cases (56. 4% ) , and negative in 48 cases (43. 6% ) . Compared with sleep-deprived EEG negative group, the rate of hypoxic asphyxia in positive group was significantly increased, the rate of precipitating factors and episodes frequency was significantly decreased, and the episodes duration was significantly extended (P <0. 05 -0. 01) . The multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that precipitating factors, episodes frequency and episodes duration were related factors to influent positive rate of sleep-deprived EEG( P < 0. 05 - 0. 001) . Conclusion Sleep-deprived EEG can increase the diagnostic rate of pediatric psychomotor epilepsy; and the epileptic precipitating factors, episodes frequency and duration are factors to influent its positive rate.%目的 研究剥夺睡眠脑电图(EEG)对儿童精神运动性癫痫的诊断价值及其影响因素.方法 对110例常规EEG检查阴性的精神运动性癫痫患儿进行剥夺睡眠EEG检查;比较剥夺睡眠EEG检查阳性与阴性患儿的有关临床资料;并对有关指标作多因素Logistic回归分析.结果 睡眠剥夺EEG检查阳性62例(56.4%)、阴性48例(43.6%).与睡眠剥夺EEG阴性组相比,阳性组有缺氧窒息史的比率显著增高,有发作诱因的比率和癫痫的发作频率明显降低,发作时间明显延长(P <0.05 ~0.01).多因素Logistic回归分析显示,发作诱因、发作频率和发作时间是影响睡眠剥夺

  3. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  4. Magnitude and influencing factors of parasomnia in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Habibur Rasul

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasomnias are undesirable events occurring in the sleep-wake transition period. Several predisposing factors are reported to induce parasomnia in preschool children. Objective To estimate the magnitude of parasomnia in school children and to evaluate its relationship with possible predisposing factors. Methods Five hundred children aged 5-16 years from a boys’ school and a girls’ school in Khulna City, Bangladesh, were randomly selected for the study conducted from July to December 2011. The survey was done in two steps: self-administered questionnaire and clinical interviews of affected students and their parents. Apart from demographic features, questionnaires included details of perinatal and personal factors as well as familial and socioeconomic factors. The diagnoses of variants of parasomnias was based on the criteria for category-based classification by the American Academy of Sleep Mmedicine. Results Seven hundred thirteen filled questionnaires revealed parasomnia in 187 (26.2% children. Most parasomnias were accompanied by other sleep disorders, in which 23 (12.3% having primary dyssomnias including 18 (9.3% obstructive sleep apnea, and 10 (5.3% parasomnias with hypersomnias. Nightmares (7.4% were highest among the parasomnias followed by nocturnal enuresis (4.1% and sleep terrors (3.4%. More girls experienced parasomnias than boys (107/360 vs. 80/353, respectively; P=0.039. Perinatal factors such as problems during pregnancy (17.1% or eventful delivery (25.7%, and socioeconomic factors such as familial disharmony (11.8% and low socioeconomic level (31.6% had positive associations with parasomnia. Conclusion One-quarter of school children experience parasomnia. We found perinatal factors particularly problem during pregnancy, and socioeconomic factors particularly familial disharmony have significant influences on this condition. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:339-45.].

  5. Sleep complaints in the Brazilian population: Impact of socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirotsu, Camila; Bittencourt, Lia; Garbuio, Silverio; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-09-01

    National surveys are relevant for the study of sleep epidemiology since they can provide specific data about sleep in large dimension with important implications for the health system. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep complaints among the Brazilian population using a randomized cluster sample according to region and socioeconomic class. For this, a 3-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select Brazilian subjects of both genders older than 16 years. A total of 2017 subjects, from 132 different cities, were selected to estimate prevalence in the Brazilian population with a sampling error of ±2%. Questions about sleep complaints were administered face-to-face by Instituto Datafolha interviewers on April 10 and 16, 2012. Data were expanded using a weighted variable. The results showed that 76% of the study population suffers from at least 1 sleep complaint, indicating that approximately 108 million Brazilians may be affected by sleep disorders. On average, each subject had 1.9 sleep problems with the most common complaints being light and insufficient sleep, snoring, moving a lot during sleep, and insomnia, which usually occurred more than 3 times per week. Low income was associated with higher number of sleep complaints only in Northeast and Southeast regions. In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of sleep complaints in a sample of the Brazilian population, suggesting that sleep disorders may be markedly frequent in the Brazilian population with a possible correlation with the socioeconomic situation of the interviewed subjects.

  6. Sleep complaints in the Brazilian population: Impact of socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Hirotsu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available National surveys are relevant for the study of sleep epidemiology since they can provide specific data about sleep in large dimension with important implications for the health system. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep complaints among the Brazilian population using a randomized cluster sample according to region and socioeconomic class. For this, a 3-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select Brazilian subjects of both genders older than 16 years. A total of 2017 subjects, from 132 different cities, were selected to estimate prevalence in the Brazilian population with a sampling error of ±2%. Questions about sleep complaints were administered face-to-face by Instituto Datafolha interviewers on April 10 and 16, 2012. Data were expanded using a weighted variable. The results showed that 76% of the study population suffers from at least 1 sleep complaint, indicating that approximately 108 million Brazilians may be affected by sleep disorders. On average, each subject had 1.9 sleep problems with the most common complaints being light and insufficient sleep, snoring, moving a lot during sleep, and insomnia, which usually occurred more than 3 times per week. Low income was associated with higher number of sleep complaints only in Northeast and Southeast regions. In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of sleep complaints in a sample of the Brazilian population, suggesting that sleep disorders may be markedly frequent in the Brazilian population with a possible correlation with the socioeconomic situation of the interviewed subjects.

  7. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  8. Sleep quality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: distribution, associated factors and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor sleep quality has been associated with increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and mortality. However, limited information exists on the distribution and determinants of sleep quality and its associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in Chinese populations. We aimed to evaluate this in the current study. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 of 1,458 men and 1,831 women aged 50–70 years from urban and rural areas of Beijing and Shanghai. Using a questionnaire, sleep quality was measured in levels of well, common and poor. Comprehensive measures of socio-demographical and health factors and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic disease were recorded. These were evaluated in association with sleep quality using logistic regression models. Results Half of the population reported good sleep quality. After adjusting for potential confounders, women and Beijing residents had almost half the probability to report good sleep quality. Good physical and mental health (good levels of self-rated health (OR 2.48; 95%CI 2.08 to 2.96 and no depression (OR 4.05; 95%CI 3.12 to 5.26 related to an increased chance of reporting good sleep quality, whereas short sleep duration ( Conclusion Levels of good sleep quality in middle-age and elderly Chinese were low. Gender, geographical location, self-rated health, depression and sleep quantity were major factors associated with sleep quality. Prospective studies are required to distil the factors that determine sleep quality and the effects that sleep patterns exert on cardio-metabolic health.

  9. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families & Friendships Military Sexual Trauma Depression mild Traumatic Brain Injury Life Stress Health & Wellness Anger Stigma Suicide Prevention ... Post-Traumatic Stress Sleep Alcohol & Drugs mild Traumatic Brain Injury Resilience Families with Kids Depression Families & Friendships Tobacco ...

  10. Influence of biperiden and bornaprine on sleep in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohagen, F; Lis, S; Riemann, D; Krieger, S; Meyer, C; Montero, R F; Grunze, H; Berger, M

    1994-08-01

    Biperiden, 4 mg, an anticholinergic drug that is relatively selective for the M1 receptor subtype, and bornaprine, 4 mg, a nonselective M1 and M2 antagonist, were administered orally in a randomized, double-blind design to twelve healthy volunteers to investigate the effect on polysomnographically recorded sleep. Both drugs suppressed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as reflected by an increase of REM latency and a decrease in the percentage of REM sleep period time with the effects of biperiden being more pronounced. No significant effect on slow wave sleep was observed. The results of this study support the hypothesis that both the M1 and the M2 receptor subtype are involved in the regulation of REM sleep in humans.

  11. The Role of Environmental Factors on Sleep Patterns and School Performance in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Dagmara; Le Cornu Knight, Frances; Milton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. An average of 7.08 h of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behavior problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance. The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may represent effective routes in alleviating modern teenage sleep debt, and in

  12. The role of environmental factors on sleep patterns and school performance in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara eDimitriou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behaviour.Aims. This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship.Sample and method. Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Results. An average of 7.08 hours of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behaviour problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance.Conclusion. The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may

  13. Work schedule influence on sleep habits in elementary and high school teachers according to chronotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Carla de Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of work schedule on sleep habits and quality, and daytime sleepiness according to individual preferences in sleep schedules was assessed in 131 elementary and high school teachers through questionnaires. Teachers who initiate classes around 7:00 hr wake up earlier and show more frequency of poor sleep quality than those who start classes in the afternoon. Between them, those who have a preference for intermediate or later hours for sleep are more irregular in their wake up schedules and increase their sleep duration on the weekend compared to those with earlier sleep preferences. On the other hand, working only in the afternoon seems to provide better sleep/awake conditions for teachers, because they keep the same sleep duration during the week and on the weekend, and they are diagnosed with less daytime sleepiness. Therefore, the discussion of school start times, originally proposed for adolescents, needs to be magnified to teachers, contributing to improvement of sleep habits and life quality in school environments.

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome, Periodic Limb Movements and Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Özgür Yalın

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is characterized by nocturnal repetitive apnea episodes. Periodic limb movements (PLMs is nocturnal, stereotypic, repetitive movements of the lower extremities. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of periodic limb movements in OSAS patients and correlation of PLM with OSAS severity. METHODS: One hundred and forty one OSAS suspected patients was enrolled into the study. All subjects’ blood pressure, heart rate measurements and neurologic examinations were made by the same neurologist. Sociodemographic characteristics were recorded. One night polysomnography (PSG was performed to all patients and results were analyzed. Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI ≥ 5 subjects were accepted as OSAS, and PLM Index (PLMI ≥ 5 subjects were accepted as having PLM. RESULTS: One hundred and two patients were diagnosed as OSAS. The control group consisted of 39 patients who had normal polysomnographic findings. OSAS patients’ were older and body mass index (BMI were higher than the control group. Systolic blood pressure was higher in OSAS group. Alcohol use was determined as a risk factor for OSAS. PLM were more common in OSAS group than the control group (% 30,3 - % 10,2. PLM frequency was associated with the severity of OSAS. CONCLUSION: In OSAS patients presence of PLM was related with OSAS severity, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and REM sleep depletion. PLM in OSAS patients could be regarded as an indicator of disease severity and also could aware clinician for increased complication rates.

  15. Sleep disorders in children with cerebral palsy and its correlation with sleep disturbance in primary caregivers and other associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Adiga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To observe prevalence of sleep disturbance (SD in cerebral palsy (CP children in a specific age-group and its correlation with SD in primary caregivers and other associated factors. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. SD assessed using Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC in CP children and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI in caregivers. Fifty cases of clinically diagnosed CP [27 females, mean age: 107.9 ΁ 29.5 months (range: 78-180 months] fulfilling criteria were included. Results: Eighteen (36% children had pathological sleep total score (TS and Disorders of Initiating and Maintaining Sleep (DIMS was the commonest SD (n = 25, 50%. All primary caregivers were mothers. Twenty-five (50% mothers had SD on PSQI scale. DIMS, Disorders of Excessive Somnolence (DES, and TS had significant correlation with PSQI (P < 0.05. Disorders of Arousal (DA and TS had significant correlation with seizures (P < 0.05 in CP children. Bed-sharing had significant correlation with SD in caregivers (P < 0.001 but not with CP children. No significant correlation was observed between SD in CP and gross motor function (Gross Motor Function Classification System, use of orthoses, and dental caries. Interpretation: Children with CP have underreported significant SD, which negatively impacts caregiver′s sleep also. Seizure disorders and medications contribute significantly to SD.

  16. Factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients in intensive care units require rest and sleep to recuperate, but might suffer from sleep deprivation due to ongoing unit activities. The study aimed to identify and describe the factors contributing to sleep deprivation in one multi-disciplinary intensive care unit MDICU in a private hospital in South Africa. Quantitative, descriptive research was conducted to identify factors contributing to sleep deprivation in the research setting, and to make recommendations to enhance these patients’ abilities to sleep. Structured interviewswere conducted with 34 adult non-ventilated patients who had spent at least one night in the MDICU and who gave informed consent. Out of the 34 interviewed patients 70.6% n = 24 indicated that they suffered from sleep deprivation in the MDICU. The five major factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a MDICU were, (1 not knowing nurses’ names, noise caused by alarms, (2 stress, (3 inability to understand medical terms, and (3 blood pressure cuffs that restricted patients’ movements and smelled badly. Patients’ abilities to sleep were enhanced by reassuring nurses whose names they knew and with whom they could communicate. By attending to the identified five major factors, patients’ abilities to sleep in a MDICU could be enhanced enabling patients to recuperate faster. The implementation of such measures need not incur financial costs for the MDICU concerned.

  17. Factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Ehlers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients in intensive care units require rest and sleep to recuperate, but might suffer from sleep deprivation due to ongoing unit activities. The study aimed to identify and describe the factors contributing to sleep deprivation in one multi-disciplinary intensive care unit (MDICU in a private hospital in South Africa. Quantitative, descriptive research was conducted to identify factors contributing to sleep deprivation in the research setting, and to make recommendations to enhance these patients’ abilities to sleep. Structured interviews were conducted with 34 adult non-ventilated patients who had spent at least one night in the MDICU and who gave informed consent. Out of the 34 interviewed patients 70.6% (n = 24 indicated that they suffered from sleep deprivation in the MDICU. The five major factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a MDICU were, (1 not knowing nurses’ names, noise caused by alarms, (2 stress, (3 inability to understand medical terms, and (3 blood pressure cuffs that restricted patients’ movements and smelled badly. Patients’ abilities to sleep were enhanced by reassuring nurses whose names they knew and with whom they could communicate. By attending to the identified five major factors, patients’ abilities to sleep in a MDICU could be enhanced enabling patients to recuperate faster. The implementation of such measures need not incur financial costs for the MDICU concerned.

  18. Association between socioeconomic factors and sleep quality in an urban population-based sample in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anders, Markus P; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good sleep quality is essential for recovery. The risk factors of sleep disorders have been extensively investigated, but there is sparse information on the association of socioeconomic factors with a person's sleep quality. The aim of the present analysis is to investigate...... from the baseline survey taken in 2004. Sleep quality for the same participants was measured with in-depth personal interviews in 2006 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, together with other relevant characteristics (e.g. anxiety, depression and health status). Multiple logistic regression...... analyses were performed. RESULTS: People living in an urban environment with a high or medium SES have a greater probability of good sleep quality (odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.14; odds ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.69) than persons with a low SES. Anxiety and depression...

  19. Mood Influences the Concordance of Subjective and Objective Measures of Sleep Duration in Older Adults

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    Marion Baillet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective/Background: Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults.Patients/Methods: Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA.Results: A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p<0.001. The magnitude of this difference was explained by the patient’s mood status (p=0.020. No association was found between the magnitude of this discrepancy and age, sex, sleep quality or memory performance.Conclusion: The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality.

  20. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  1. The Two-Factor Structure of Sleep Complaints and Its Relation to Depression and Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Koffel, Erin; Watson, David

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep complaints are common in depression and anxiety, there is little agreement as to how they should be organized and assessed. It is also unclear whether sleep complaints show specificity with certain disorders or if they are nonspecific symptoms. We examined the structure of sleep complaints and the relations of these complaints to depression and anxiety in three samples: college students, older adults, and psychiatric patients. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indica...

  2. A twin and molecular genetics study of sleep paralysis and associated factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Dan; French, Christopher C.; Rowe, Richard; Zavos, Helena M S; Nolan, Patrick M.; Parsons, Michael J.; Gregory, Alice M

    2015-01-01

    Sleep paralysis is a relatively common but under-researched phenomenon. In this paper we examine prevalence in a UK sample and associations with candidate risk factors. This is the first study to investigate the heritability of sleep paralysis in a twin sample and to explore genetic associations between sleep paralysis and a number of circadian expressed single nucleotide polymorphisms. Analyses are based on data from the Genesis1219 twin/sibling study, a community sample of twins/siblings fr...

  3. The Role of Environmental Factors on Sleep Patterns and School Performance in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriou, D.; Le Cornu Knight, F.; Milton, P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. AIMS: This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. SAMPLE AND METHOD: Forty-seven adolescents took p...

  4. A twin and molecular genetics study of sleep paralysis and associated factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Dan; French, Christopher C.; Rowe, Richard; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Nolan, Patrick M.; Parsons, Michael J.; Gregory, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep paralysis is a relatively common but under-researched phenomenon. In this paper we examine prevalence in a UK sample and associations with candidate risk factors. This is the first study to investigate the heritability of sleep paralysis in a twin sample and to explore genetic associations between sleep paralysis and a number of circadian expressed single nucleotide polymorphisms. Analyses are based on data from the Genesis1219 twin/sibling study, a community sample of twins/siblings fr...

  5. A real-time assessment of factors influencing medication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollarhide, Adrian W; Rutledge, Thomas; Weinger, Matthew B; Fisher, Erin Stucky; Jain, Sonia; Wolfson, Tanya; Dresselhaus, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Reducing medical error is critical to improving the safety and quality of healthcare. Physician stress, fatigue, and excessive workload are performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that may influence medical events (actual administration errors and near misses), but direct relationships between these factors and patient safety have not been clearly defined. This study assessed the real-time influence of emotional stress, workload, and sleep deprivation on self-reported medication events by physicians in academic hospitals. During an 18-month study period, 185 physician participants working at four university-affiliated teaching hospitals reported medication events using a confidential reporting application on handheld computers. Emotional stress scores, perceived workload, patient case volume, clinical experience, total sleep, and demographic variables were also captured via the handheld computers. Medication event reports (n = 11) were then correlated with these demographic and PSFs. Medication events were associated with 36.1% higher perceived workload (p sleep (p = .10). These results confirm the effect of factors influencing medication events, and support attention to both provider and hospital environmental characteristics for improving patient safety.

  6. Influence of Auricular Plaster Therapy on Sleeping Structure in OSAS Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hong; XIAO Lan-ying; WANG Bao-fa; YUAN Ya-dong; PAN Wen-sen; SHI Yu-zhen

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of auricular plaster therapy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and the influence on sleeping structure. Methods: 45 OSAS patients were randomly divided into a treatment group of 30 cases and a control group of 15 cases for comparison of the changes in parameters of respiration and sleep at night. Results: The auricular plaster therapy significantly improved the hypoventilation index, respiratory disturbance index and other respiratory parameters as well as the sleeping parameters such as the time and rate of sleep at stage Ⅰ and Ⅱ, and the waking time and rate.Conclusion: Auricular plaster therapy may show good therapeutic effects for OSAS, and with the advantages of low cost and less side effects.

  7. Sleep disturbances in Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, J J M

    2003-02-01

    The present article is meant to suggest an approach to the guidelines for the therapy of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.The factors affecting the quality of life in PD patients are depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. A large review of the literature on sleep disturbances in PD patients, provided the basis for the following classification of the sleep-arousal disturbances in PD patients. We suggest a model based on 3 steps in the treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients. This model allowing the patient, the spouse or the caregiver a quiet sleep at night, may postpone the retirement and the institutionalization of the PD patient. I. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders based on detailed anamnesis of the patient and of the spouse or of the caregiver. One week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders co morbidities. Selection of the most appropriate sleep test among: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, actigraphy or video-PSG. II. The nonspecific therapeutic approach consists in: a) Checking the sleep effect on motor performance, is it beneficial, worse or neutral. b) Psycho-physical assistance. c) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary owing to the progression of the nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals, which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of the motor centers in PD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and NonREM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates PD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. The permanent adjustment

  8. Influence of the family context on sleep disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Paula de Aguiar Lélis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify in the scientific literature the aspects related to the family context involved in sleep disorders in children. An integrative literature review was conducted in the databases: Lilacs, PubMed, Cinahl, Scopus and Cochrane, covering the period from 2007 to 2012, with the descriptors in Portuguese and English: transtornos do sono, família, criança, and sleep disorders, family, children. Thirty-four articles were identified, in which 46 aspects mentioned in the results were identified, highlighting the habits in the family sleep pattern and routine, cultural habits, socioeconomic status, and parental mood as the most frequent. Parents as family members and those responsible for directing the habits inherent in the family context have the key role in the sleep-wake process of the children.

  9. Structural validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in Chinese undergraduate students: A confirmatory factor analysis

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    Suran Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI in Chinese undergraduate students. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey with 631 Chinese undergraduate students was conducted, and the questionnaire package included a measure of demographic characteristics, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Chinese editions of Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, State- Trait Anxiety Inventory, Rumination Response Scale, and Perceived Social Support Scale. Results showed that the item use of sleep medicine was not suitable for use with this population, that a two-factor model provided the best fit to the data as assessed through confirmatory factor analysis, and that other indices were consistently correlated with the sleep quality but not the sleep efficiency factor.

  10. Social and behavioral determinants of perceived insufficient sleep: analysis of the behavioral risk factor surveillance system

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    Michael A Grandner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insufficient sleep is associated with cardiometabolic disease and poor health. However, few studies have assessed its determinants in a nationally-representative sample. Methods: Data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS was used (N=323,047 adults. Insufficient sleep was assessed as insufficient rest/sleep over 30 days. This was evaluated relative to sociodemographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, region, socioeconomics (education, income, employment, insurance, health behaviors (diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol, and health/functioning (emotional support, BMI, mental/physical health. Results: Overall, insufficient sleep was associated with being female, White or Black/African-American, unemployed, without health insurance, and not married; decreased age, income, education, physical activity; worse diet and overall health; and increased household size, alcohol, and smoking. Conclusion: These factors should be considered risk factors for insufficient sleep.

  11. The Association Between Sleep Quality and Metabolic Factors and Anthropometric Measurements

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    Khorasani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Several studies have shown that sleep disorders may lead to metabolic or endocrine changes including insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sleep quality and metabolic factors and anthropometric measurements among personnel of a central petrochemical company in Tehran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 personnel of a central petrochemical company in Tehran, during year 2015. Demographic information including age, gender, educational status, employment duration, working hours per day, marital status, smoking, medical history for disease and drug use, were collected by a questionnaire. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and also height and weight were measured by standard methods and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Pittsburg sleep quality index (PSQI was performed to assess participants’ sleep quality. Serum concentrations of fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured by the related biochemical kits. Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate adjusting of factors associated with sleep quality. Results The mean score for participants’ Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI was 4.77 ± 2.62. About 30% of participants had had bad sleep quality. A high body mass index (BMI (P < 0.001 and high waist circumference (P = 0.016 were inversely associated with sleep quality. Serum concentration of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL (P = 0.004 and triglyceride (P = 0.001 were statistically higher in participants with lower sleep quality than with those with higher sleep quality. The group with a good sleep quality had a higher serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c than those with a poor sleep quality (P = 0.034. Being female increased the risk of poor sleep quality by 2.5 folds, and with increasing BMI (OR = 1.17 and serum triglyceride (OR = 1.02 the risk of poor sleep quality

  12. Influence of Sleep Disturbances on Quality of Life of Iranian Menopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Yazdi; Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi; Amir Ziaee; Khadijeh Elmizadeh; Masomeh Ziaeeha

    2013-01-01

    Background. Subjective sleep disturbances increase during menopause. Some problems commonly encountered during menopause, such as hot flushes and sweating at night, can cause women to have difficulty in sleeping. These complaints can influence quality of life of menopausal women. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on menopausal women attending health centers in Qazvin for periodic assessments. We measured excessive daytime sleepiness by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), obstructi...

  13. Circadian factor BMAL1 in histaminergic neurons regulates sleep architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Zecharia, Anna; Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Qianzi; Yustos, Raquel; Jager, Polona; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Maywood, Elizabeth S; Chesham, Johanna E; Ma, Ying; Brickley, Stephen G; Hastings, Michael H; Franks, Nicholas P; Wisden, William

    2014-12-01

    Circadian clocks allow anticipation of daily environmental changes. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) houses the master clock, but clocks are also widely expressed elsewhere in the body. Although some peripheral clocks have established roles, it is unclear what local brain clocks do. We tested the contribution of one putative local clock in mouse histaminergic neurons in the tuberomamillary nucleus to the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Histaminergic neurons are silent during sleep, and start firing after wake onset; the released histamine, made by the enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC), enhances wakefulness. We found that hdc gene expression varies with time of day. Selectively deleting the Bmal1 (also known as Arntl or Mop3) clock gene from histaminergic cells removes this variation, producing higher HDC expression and brain histamine levels during the day. The consequences include more fragmented sleep, prolonged wake at night, shallower sleep depth (lower nonrapid eye movement [NREM] δ power), increased NREM-to-REM transitions, hindered recovery sleep after sleep deprivation, and impaired memory. Removing BMAL1 from histaminergic neurons does not, however, affect circadian rhythms. We propose that for mammals with polyphasic/nonwake consolidating sleep, the local BMAL1-dependent clock directs appropriately timed declines and increases in histamine biosynthesis to produce an appropriate balance of wake and sleep within the overall daily cycle of rest and activity specified by the SCN.

  14. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...

  15. Sleep Hygiene and its Related Factors Among the Elderly in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Bani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was exploring sleep hygiene and its related factors among the elderly in Tabriz, Iran. This study was conducted on 100 elderly men and women over the age of 60 in Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which conducted on 100 men and women over 60 years old who were selected among four active retirement centers in Tabriz, Iran in 2010. A questionnaire consisting of four sections was used for data collection. Data was gathered on socio-demographic, personal, environmental and nutritional- pharmaceutical factors of sleep hygiene. Overall sleep hygiene was considered to be as optimal if the score of three domains was between 119 and 177, moderate with score 60- 118 and unfavorable with score 0-59. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Most participants (74% claimed that they wake up frequently during the night. Sleep hygiene in 16% of the participants was optimal and in 84% was moderate. Regarding personal, environmental and nutritional- pharmaceutical factors, sleep hygiene in 18%, 16% and 54% of the samples was optimal respectively. There was a significant relationship between gender, marital status, number of household, the amount of revenue, marital life satisfaction with sleep hygiene in the elderly (p<0.05. Conclusion: The findings revealed that only small number of participants enjoyed sleep hygiene. Considering the optimal impact of sleep hygiene and its importance in fixing sleep disorders, improving sleep hygiene through educational programs can decrease the sleep disorders and improve the quality of life.

  16. Factors Affecting the Quality and Quantity of Sleep in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Esmaily

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep disturbance is common in patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery and has been recognized for more than 30 years. New literature suggests the importance of sleep and rest for restoration, protection and promotion of function and wellbeing of these patients. Because of the importance of the role of nurses in diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders, this study was conducted to determine possible effective factors on sleep quality and sleep quantity of patients after CABG. Methods: This longitudinal, descriptive and correlational study was conducted on 91 patients admitted to Imam Reza Hospital in Mashad City in 2005-2006. Subjects were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was collected by interview in three stages: 24 hours before surgery, as well as 6 weeks and 10 weeks after surgery. Subjective sleep quality was measured with PSQI and sleep quantity was measured with sleep log. The first two interviews were done at the hospital clinic and the last via telephone. Data was analyzed in SPSS using student T test, Pearson correlation coefficient and General Linear Model. Results: According to Univariable analysis, variables such as age (p=0.03, aorta clamp time (p=0.003, mechanical ventilation time (p=0.01, staying time in hospital (p=0.04 can affect sleep quantity 10 weeks after surgery. Previous history of sleep disorder (p=0.005, diabetes (p=0.02, use of diuretic drugs before surgery (p=0.04 and ACEI drugs after surgery (p=0.01 can affect sleep quality 10 weeks after surgery. Conclusion: Sleep disorder history (p=0.01, use of diuretic drugs before surgery (p=0.04 and sleep quantity 6 weeks after surgery (p=0.01 have been the most effective factors on sleep quality 10 weeks after surgery, whereas quality of life 10 weeks after surgery (p=0.04 has been the most effective factor on sleep quantity 10 weeks after surgery. There is therefore a necessity for presenting approaches in order to

  17. Influence of paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep recovery on testosterone level in rats of different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi Mi Oh; Jin Wook Kim; Myeong Heon Jin; Je Jong Kim; Du Geon Moon

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to assess serurm testosterone alterations induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and to verify their attenuation during sleep recovery (SR) based on different durations and ages.Wistar male rats aged 12 weeks for the younger group and 20 weeks for the elder group were randomly distributed into one of the following groups:a control group (cage and platform),3-day SD,5-day SD,7-day SD,1-day SR,3-day SR and 5-day SR groups.For PSD,the modified multiple platform method was used to specifically limit rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.Differences in the testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels between the younger group and the elder group according to duration of PSD and SR recovery were analysed.Testosterone continued to fall during the sleep deprivation period in a time-dependent manner in both the younger (P=-0.001,correlation coefficient r=-0.651) and elder groups (P=0.001,correlation coefficient r=-0.840).The elder group showed a significantly lower level of testosterone compared with the younger group after PSD.Upon SR after 3 days of PSD,the testosterone level continued to rise for 5 days after sleep recovery in the younger group (P=0.013),whereas testosterone concentrations failed to recover until day 5 in the elder group.PSD caused a more detrimental effect on serum testosterone in the elder group compared to the younger group with respect to decreases in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels.The replenishment of serum testosterone level was prohibited in the elder group suggesting that the effects of SD/SR may be age-dependent.The mechanism by which SD affects serum testosterone and how age may modify the process are still unclear.

  18. Influence of Nasal Resistance on Oral Appliance Treatment Outcome in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Biao; Ng, Andrew T.; Qian, Jin; Petocz, Peter; Darendeliler, M. Ali; Cistulli, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    It has been recognized that nasal airway resistance (NAR) is elevated in patients with OSA. However, little is known regarding the influence of nasal resistance on mandibular advancement splint (MAS) treatment outcome in OSA patient. We hypothesized that nasal resistance differs between MAS responders and nonresponders and therefore may influence treatment outcome. Thirty-eight patients with known OSA underwent polysomnography while wearing a custom-made MAS. Treatment outcome was defined as follows: Responders (R) ≥50% reduction in AHI, and Nonresponders (NR) as <50% reduction in AHI. NAR was measured using posterior rhinomanometry in both sitting and supine positions, with and without MAS. The mean AHI in 26 responders was significantly reduced from 29.0 ± 2.9/h to 6.7 ± 1.2/h; P < 0.01). In 12 nonresponders there was no significant change in AHI (23.9 ± 3.0/h vs 22.0 ± 4.3/h; P=ns). Baseline NAR was significantly lower in responders in the sitting position compared to nonresponders (6.5 ± 0.5 vs 9.4 ± 1.0cm H2O; P < 0.01). There was no significant change in NAR (from baseline) with MAS in either response group while in the sitting position, but in the supine position NAR increased significantly with MAS in the nonresponder group (11.8 ± 1.5 vs 13.8 ± 1.6 cm H2O/L/s; P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed that NAR and BMI were the most important predictive factors for MAS treatment outcome. These data suggest that higher levels of NAR may negatively impact on treatment outcome with MAS. Citation: Zeng B; Ng AT; Qian J; Petocz P; Darendeliler MA; Cistulli PA. Influence of nasal resistance on oral appliance treatment outcome in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2008;31(4):543-547. PMID:18457242

  19. The Influence of Sleep on the Consolidation of Positive Emotional Memories: Preliminary Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis M. Chambers

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have not only shown that a period of sleep following learning offers greater benefits to later memory than a period of wakefulness, but also that sleep actively promotes those components of memories that are emotionally salient. However, sleep's role in emotional memory consolidation has largely been investigated with memories that are specifically negative in content, such as memory for negative images or texts, leaving open the question of whether sleep influences positive memories in a similar manner. The current study investigated the emotional memory trade-off effect for positive versus neutral information. Scenes in which a positive or neutral object was placed on a neutral background were encoded prior to a period of polysomnographically-monitored nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness. Recognition memory was tested for the objects and backgrounds separately following the delay using the Remember/Know paradigm. Compared to wake participants, those who slept during the delay had increased recollection memory performance for positive objects, but not the neutral components of the studied scenes. Further, familiarity of positive objects was negatively correlated with REM latency. These results provide preliminary evidence that sleep contributes to the selective processing of positive memories, and point toward a role for REM sleep in positive memory formation.

  20. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian sleep has evolved under the influence of the day-night cycle and in response to reproductive needs, food seeking, and predator avoidance, resulting in circadian (predictive) and homeostatic (reactive) regulation. A molecular clock characterized by transcription/translation feedback loops...... mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas...

  1. Association Between Short Sleep Duration and Risk Behavior Factors in Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Judith; Wang, Guanghai; Lewin, Daniel; Skora, Elizabeth; Baylor, Allison

    2017-01-01

    To examine the association between self-reported sleep duration (SD) and peer/individual factors predictive of risky behaviors (risk behavior factors) in a large socioeconomically diverse school-based sample of early adolescents. Survey data collected from 10718 and 11240 eighth-grade students in 2010 and 2012, respectively, were analyzed. N/A. Self-reported school night SD was grouped as ≤4 hours, 5 hours, 6 hours, 7 hours, 8 hours, 9 hours, and ≥10 hours. Scores on 10 peer/individual risk behavior factor scales were dichotomized according to national eigth-grade cut points. The percentage of students reporting an "optimal" SD of 9 hours was 14.8% and 15.6% in 2010 and 2012, respectively; 45.6% and 46.1% reported sleep compared to an SD of 9 hours. For example, ORs for students sleeping sleep; in particular, an SD <7 hours is associated with increased risk behavior factors.

  2. Assessment of sleep problems and related risk factors observed in Turkish children with Autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutluer, Tuba; Karakoc Demirkaya, Sevcan; Abali, Osman

    2016-05-01

    Sleep problems are common and difficult to manage in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Another major adverse impact of sleep problems is that they exacerbate behavioral problems. To assess sleep problems and possible behavioral risk factors in detail, we aimed to compare sleep habits of children with ASD, with healthy children. The relationship between sleep difficulties and concomitant behavioral problems such as repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity, and social withdrawal were also examined. Hundred and seventeen children and adolescents including 64 with the diagnosis of ASD and 53 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Diagnostic Interview for ASD was performed according to DSM-IV-TR. Socio-demographical data form and childhood autism rating scale were filled by researchers. Aberrant behavior checklist (ABC), child behavior checklist and pediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ) were completed by the parents of the children. Children with ASD had higher frequency of sleep problems, snoring, breathing problems, behavioral problems compared with healthy children (for all parameters; P < 0.001). A positive correlation was identified between the total score of PSQ and the total score of ABC (P < 0.05, Spearman correlation coefficient: 0.347). Sleep latency was prolonged in children with ASD compared with healthy subjects (P < 0.001). In accordance with the current literature, children with ASD were subject to sleep problems significantly more than the control group. Identified risk factors for sleep problems in ASD children were behavioral factors such as stereotypies, self-mutilation, hyperactivity, and social withdrawal. Autism Res 2016, 9: 536-542. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Frequent periodic leg movement during sleep is an unrecognized risk factor for progression of atrial fibrillation.

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    Mahek Mirza

    Full Text Available Sleep apnea has been recognized as a factor predisposing to atrial fibrillation recurrence and progression. The effect of other sleep-disturbing conditions on atrial fibrillation progression is not known. We sought to determine whether frequent periodic leg movement during sleep is a risk factor for progression of atrial fibrillation. In this retrospective study, patients with atrial fibrillation and a clinical suspicion of restless legs syndrome who were referred for polysomnography were divided into two groups based on severity of periodic leg movement during sleep: frequent (periodic movement index >35/h and infrequent (≤35/h. Progression of atrial fibrillation to persistent or permanent forms between the two groups was compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis. Of 373 patients with atrial fibrillation (77% paroxysmal, 23% persistent, 108 (29% progressed to persistent or permanent atrial fibrillation during follow-up (median, 33 months; interquartile range, 16-50. Compared to patients with infrequent periodic leg movement during sleep (n=168, patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep (n=205 had a higher rate of atrial fibrillation progression (23% vs. 34%; p=0.01. Patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep were older and predominantly male; however, there were no significant differences at baseline in clinical factors that promote atrial fibrillation progression between both groups. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of atrial fibrillation progression were persistent atrial fibrillation at baseline, female gender, hypertension and frequent periodic leg movement during sleep. In patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep, dopaminergic therapy for control of leg movements in patients with restless legs syndrome reduced risk of atrial fibrillation progression. Frequent leg movement during sleep in patients with restless legs syndrome is

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as an accident risk factor in professional drivers in Yekaterinburg. Dangerous Sleep (DS-1 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Belkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available About 20% of all road traffic accidents may be associated with falling asleep while driving. This may be caused by sleep disorders leading to daytime sleepiness, the most common of which is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Objective: to study somatic and mental health, sleep disorders, OSAS in particular, in the population of Russian drivers (Sverdlovsk Region. Patients and methods. The descriptive cohort «Dangerous Sleep» (DS-1 study of 20 professional drivers having more than 5-year driving experience was conducted at the Clinical Institute of the Brain. The mean age of the drivers was 45.8 years. They underwent somatic evaluation for cardiovascular risk factors and a psychological examination involving a risk readiness diagnostic procedure, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and an electroencephalographic examination. A somnological examination assumed testing using the Epworth sleepiness scale, polysomnography, or overnight pulse metry. Results and discussion. 30% of the drivers were found to have marked attention disorders and an inability to adapt to extreme conditions, which create a risk for professional duties. The predisposing factors were noted to be alcohol addiction, overweight, and OSAS, the rate of the latter proved to be higher than that in the general population of able-bodied men. It was shown that a somnological examination should be obligatorily performed while hiring professional drivers, particularly to long hauliers. The drivers having a long length of experience, in whom a periodic examination detects sleep disorders, should be treated for somatic diseases and should also have individual working schedules to rule out their long night-time driving. 

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of sleep disturbances in a large HIV-infected adult population

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in HIV-infected patients but there is a lack of large studies on prevalence and risk factors, particularly in the context of current improved immuno-clinical status and use of the newest antiretrovirals (ARV). Method: Cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disturbance in adult HIV-infected patients in six French centres of the region “Pays de la Loire”. Patients filled a se...

  6. Associated Factors of Sleep Quality and Behavior among Students of Two Tertiary Institutions in Northern Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, P P; Say, Y H

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the associated factors of sleep quality and behavior among Malaysian tertiary students. The response rate to the questionnaire study was 41.0%. 1,118 students (M = 486, F = 632; mean age = 20.06 ± 1.53 years) were recruited from Universiti and Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak campuses) who completed a sleep quality and behavior questionnaire based on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Scale (MES) and craving of high-calorie foods. Results showed that students had the following sleeping habits - bed time = 2.41 a.m. ± 3.35 hr, rise time = 9.00 a.m. ± 1.76 hr, sleep latency = 16.65 ± 14.30 min and sleep duration = 7.31 ± 1.45 hr. 32.9% of the students were defined as poor quality sleepers, 30.6% suffering excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and 81.6% were categorized as individuals with 'definitely eveningness', defined as people who are definitely most alert in the late evening hours and prefer to go to bed late. There were no significant gender differences in sleep quality, 'chronotype' and EDS. Although there was no association of sleep quality and EDS with cumulative Grade Point Average (cGPA) and class skipping, EDS was associated with the tendency to fall asleep in class. Body Mass Index (BMI) was not associated with total sleep, PSQI, ESS and MES scores. Meanwhile, high-calorie food craving was associated with sleep duration, PSQI and ESS, but not MES. In conclusion, poor sleep behavior among Malaysian tertiary students in this study was not associated with gender, academic performance and BMI, but was associated with craving of high-calorie foods instead.

  7. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  8. The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Violani, Cristiano; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca

    2013-03-01

    This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep Disruption at Home As an Independent Risk Factor for Postoperative Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Oliver M; Gelrich, Lisa; MacLullich, Alasdair M; Driessen, Martin; Thomas, Christine; Kreisel, Stefan H

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether sleep disruption at home or in hospital is an independent risk factor for postoperative delirium in older adults undergoing elective surgery. Prospective cohort study. German teaching hospital. Individuals aged 65 and older undergoing elective arthroplasty (N = 101). Preoperative questionnaires were used to assess sleep disruption at home (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Actigraphy was used to objectively measure sleep disruption in the hospital before and after surgery. Delirium was assessed daily after surgery using the Confusion Assessment Method and, if there was uncertainty, validated according to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), criteria. Twenty-seven participants developed postoperative delirium. Those with sleep disruption at home were 3.26 times as likely to develop postoperative delirium as those without (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.34-7.92, P = .009). Participants with sleep disruption in hospital were 1.21 times as likely to develop postoperative delirium as those without (95% CI = 1.03-1.41, P = .02). When adjusting for other variables, risk remained significant for sleep disruption at home (risk ratio (RR) = 3.90, 95% CI = 2.14-7.11, P delirium than those without. Sleep disruption in the hospital may further heighten this risk. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Sleep-wake cycle of adolescents in Côte d'Ivoire: influence of age, gender, religion and occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Claudia; Randler, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is characterized by significant individual differences. Those differences in the sleep-wake cycle are partially heritable but are also influenced by environmental factors like the light/dark cycle or social habits. In this study we analyse for the first time the sleep-wake rhythm of adolescent pupils and working adolescents in a less industrialised country in West Africa near the equator. The aim of this study was to explore the sleep wake cycle in this geographical region, using Côte d'Ivoire as an example. Data collection took place between 2nd of March and 10th of June 2009. 588 adolescents (338 girls, 250 boys) between 10 and 15 years (mean ± SD: 12.72 ± 1.63) participated in this study. We collected data on the religion of the participants (Christian (N = 159), Muslim (N = 352), other/no religion (N = 77)) and their occupation. Participants were either pupils attending school (N = 336) or adolescents that were already working (N = 252) and not attending school. The interviewer filled in the questionnaire. We found significant effects of age (p religion (p < 0.001) and region (p < 0.001). The midpoint of sleep was on average 1:26 (SD: 00:30) on weekdays and 1:37 (SD: 00:42) on weekend days. There are significant differences between weekdays and weekend days, but these were only small. Sleep duration suggests that adolescents in Côte d'Ivoire may gain sufficient sleep during week and weekend days, and thus, may live more in accordance with their own biological clock than adolescents in the northern hemisphere. In contrast, the data can be interpreted that adolescents live in a permanent 'jetlag'. Factors may be the more continuous light/dark cycle in the tropics, low amount of ambient light and less electricity.

  11. Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep Prior to a Noxious Inflammatory Insult Influence Characteristics and Duration of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanini, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep and chronic pain are public health epidemics. Sleep loss worsens pain and predicts the development of chronic pain. Whether previous, acute sleep loss and recovery sleep determine pain levels and duration remains poorly understood. This study tested whether acute sleep deprivation and recovery sleep prior to formalin injection alter post-injection pain levels and duration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) underwent sleep deprivation or ad libitum sleep for 9 hours. Thereafter, rats received a subcutaneous injection of formalin or saline into a hind paw. In the recovery sleep group, rats were allowed 24 h between sleep deprivation and the injection of formalin. Mechanical and thermal nociception were assessed using the von Frey test and Hargreaves' method. Nociceptive measures were performed at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17 and 21 days post-injection. Formalin caused bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia) that persisted for up to 21 days post-injection. Sleep deprivation significantly enhanced bilateral allodynia. There was a synergistic interaction when sleep deprivation preceded a formalin injection. Rats allowed a recovery sleep period prior to formalin injection developed allodynia only in the injected limb, with higher mechanical thresholds (less allodynia) and a shorter recovery period. There were no persistent changes in thermal nociception. The data suggest that acute sleep loss preceding an inflammatory insult enhances pain and can contribute to chronic pain. The results encourage studies in a model of surgical pain to test whether enhancing sleep reduces pain levels and duration. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Sustained Partial Sleep Deprivation: Effects on Immune Modulation and Growth Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullington, Janet M.

    1999-01-01

    The vulnerability to medical emergencies is greatest in space where there are real limits to the availability or effectiveness of ground based assistance. Moreover, astronaut safety and health maintenance will be of increasing importance as we venture out into space for extended periods of time. It is therefore critical to understand the mechanisms of the regulatory physiology of homeostatic systems (sleep, circadian, neuroendocrine, fluid and nutritional balance) and the key roles played in adaptation. This synergy project has combined aims of the "Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team"; the "Immunology, Infection and Hematology Team"; and the "Muscle Alterations and Atrophy Team", to broadly address the effects of long term sleep reduction, as is frequently encountered in space exploration, on neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and circulating growth factors. Astronaut sleep is frequently curtailed to averages of between 4- 6.5 hours per night. There is evidence that this amount of sleep is inadequate for maintaining optimal daytime functioning. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effects of chronic sleep restriction, or reduction, on regulatory physiology in general, and there have been no controlled studies of the cumulative effects of chronic sleep reduction on neuroendocrine and neuroimmune parameters. This synergy project represents a pilot study designed to characterize the effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and growth factors. This project draws its subjects from two (of 18) conditions of the larger NSBRI project, "Countermeasures to Neurobehavioral Deficits from Cumulative Partial Sleep Deprivation During Space Flight", one of the projects on the "Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team ". For the purposes of this study, to investigate the effects of chronic sleep loss on neuroendocrine and neuroimmune function, we have focused on the two extreme sleep conditions

  13. Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

  14. An ASMT variant associated with bipolar disorder influences sleep and circadian rhythms: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, P A; Boudebesse, C; Henrion, A; Jamain, S; Henry, C; Leboyer, M; Bellivier, F; Etain, B

    2014-03-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) experience persistent circadian rhythm and sleep abnormalities during periods of remission, and biological studies have shown that these patients have abnormal melatonin secretion profiles or reactivity to light. We previously reported the association with BD of a common polymorphism (rs4446909) of the promoter of the acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT) gene, encoding one of the two enzymes involved in melatonin biosynthesis. This variant was associated with weaker transcription and lower levels of ASMT activity in lymphoblastoid cell lines. Actigraphy, based on the use of a mobile portable device for the analysis of sleep/wake cycles in natural conditions, may be useful for studies of carriers of the at-risk allele. We studied the association between the ASMT rs4446909 variant and sleep/activity, as assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and by actigraphy, in 53 subjects (25 patients with BD in remission and 28 healthy controls). The two groups were similar for age, sex ratio, current mood symptoms, body mass index and risk of sleep apnea syndrome. In the total sample, the GG at-risk genotype was associated with longer sleep duration (P = 0.03), greater activity in active periods of sleep (P = 0.015) and greater interday stability (P = 0.003). These associations remained significant when disease status was included in the model. Only the association with interday stability remained significant after correction for multiple testing. This pilot study thus shows that a BD-associated functional variant involved in the melatonin synthesis pathway influences sleep and circadian rhythms in bipolar patients in remission and controls.

  15. Predictive Modeling of Physician-Patient Dynamics That Influence Sleep Medication Prescriptions and Clinical Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Andrew L.; Kartoun, Uri; Pai, Jennifer K.; Chatterjee, Arnaub K.; Fitzgerald, Timothy P.; Shaw, Stanley Y.; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia remains under-diagnosed and poorly treated despite its high economic and social costs. Though previous work has examined how patient characteristics affect sleep medication prescriptions, the role of physician characteristics that influence this clinical decision remains unclear. We sought to understand patient and physician factors that influence sleep medication prescribing patterns by analyzing Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) including the narrative clinical notes as well as codified data. Zolpidem and trazodone were the most widely prescribed initial sleep medication in a cohort of 1,105 patients. Some providers showed a historical preference for one medication, which was highly predictive of their future prescribing behavior. Using a predictive model (AUC = 0.77), physician preference largely determined which medication a patient received (OR = 3.13; p = 3 × 10−37). In addition to the dominant effect of empirically determined physician preference, discussion of depression in a patient’s note was found to have a statistically significant association with receiving a prescription for trazodone (OR = 1.38, p = 0.04). EMR data can yield insights into physician prescribing behavior based on real-world physician-patient interactions. PMID:28181568

  16. Predictive Modeling of Physician-Patient Dynamics That Influence Sleep Medication Prescriptions and Clinical Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Andrew L.; Kartoun, Uri; Pai, Jennifer K.; Chatterjee, Arnaub K.; Fitzgerald, Timothy P.; Shaw, Stanley Y.; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2017-02-01

    Insomnia remains under-diagnosed and poorly treated despite its high economic and social costs. Though previous work has examined how patient characteristics affect sleep medication prescriptions, the role of physician characteristics that influence this clinical decision remains unclear. We sought to understand patient and physician factors that influence sleep medication prescribing patterns by analyzing Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) including the narrative clinical notes as well as codified data. Zolpidem and trazodone were the most widely prescribed initial sleep medication in a cohort of 1,105 patients. Some providers showed a historical preference for one medication, which was highly predictive of their future prescribing behavior. Using a predictive model (AUC = 0.77), physician preference largely determined which medication a patient received (OR = 3.13 p = 3 × 10-37). In addition to the dominant effect of empirically determined physician preference, discussion of depression in a patient’s note was found to have a statistically significant association with receiving a prescription for trazodone (OR = 1.38, p = 0.04). EMR data can yield insights into physician prescribing behavior based on real-world physician-patient interactions.

  17. 妇产科护士睡眠质量及影响因素分析%Analysis of sleep quality and influencing factors in gynecological and obstetric nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 孙东梅; 陶敏芳; 李长滨

    2014-01-01

    Objective To realize the sleeping status of obstetric and gynecological nurses through an investigation , and provide a basis to improve the nurses ’ physical and mental health .Methods The questionnaire including basic information , job information and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index ( PSQI) was used to investigate obstetric and gynecological nurses .Results The incidence of sleep disorders among obstetric and gynecological nurses was 62.71%.The scores of subjective sleep quality , sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency , sleep disturbances , daytime dysfunction and total score of sleep disorder group were (1.65 ±0.67), (3.68 ±1.60), (1.73 ±0.69), (0.62 ±0.76), (1.30 ±0.52), (2.57 ±0.69) and (11.70 ±2.80).Those scores in the normal group were (0.86 ±0.35), (1.09 ±0.87), (1.00 ±0.62), (0.05 ±0.21), (0.68 ±0.48), (1.68 ±0.95) and (5.36 ±1.84).The differences were statistically significant (t=5.05, 6.98, 4.07, 3.47, 4.53, 4.14, 10.48,respectively;P0.05).Conclusions Sleeping status of obstetric and gynecological nurses may be related to the nature of the work and need to pay more attention .%目的:通过对妇产科护士睡眠质量的调查,了解妇产科护士的睡眠状态,为提高护士身心健康提供依据。方法采用自行设计的调查问卷,内容包括调查对象的基本信息、护理工作信息及匹兹堡睡眠质量指数( PSQI)。在专人指导下采用整体抽样法对2012年8月1-30日在职的妇产科护士进行调查。结果妇产科护士睡眠障碍的发生率高达62.71%。睡眠障碍组的主观睡眠质量(1.65±0.67)分、入睡时间(3.68±1.60)分、睡眠时间(1.73±0.69)分、睡眠效率(0.62±0.76)分、睡眠障碍(1.30±0.52)分、日间功能(2.57±0.69)分,总分(11.70±2.80)分,分别高于正常组的(0.86±0.35),(1.09±0.87),(1.00±0.62),(0.05±0.21),(0.68±0

  18. Intensive language learning and increases in rapid eye movement sleep: evidence of a performance factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koninck, J; Lorrain, D; Christ, G; Proulx, G; Coulombe, D

    1989-09-01

    Ten anglophone students taking a 6-week French immersion course were recorded in the sleep laboratory during 4 consecutive nights before the course, during the course and after the course. There was a positive and significant (P less than 0.05) correlation between language learning efficiency and increases in the percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep from pre-course to course periods. This observation suggests that learning performance may be an important factor in the relationship between information processing and REM sleep.

  19. The Prioritization of Clinical Risk Factors of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaya Maranate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a problem of shortage of sleep laboratories that can accommodate the patients in a timely manner. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to worse outcomes particularly in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. For this reason, the prioritization in polysomnography (PSG queueing should be endorsed based on disease severity. To date, there have been conflicting data whether clinical information can predict OSA severity. The 1,042 suspected OSA patients underwent diagnostic PSG study at Siriraj Sleep Center during 2010-2011. A total of 113 variables were obtained from sleep questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The 19 groups of clinical risk factors consisting of 42 variables were categorized into each OSA severity. This study aimed to array these factors by employing Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process approach based on normalized weight vector. The results revealed that the first rank of clinical risk factors in Severe, Moderate, Mild, and No OSA was nighttime symptoms. The overall sensitivity/specificity of the approach to these groups was 92.32%/91.76%, 89.52%/88.18%, 91.08%/84.58%, and 96.49%/81.23%, respectively. We propose that the urgent PSG appointment should include clinical risk factors of Severe OSA group. In addition, the screening for Mild from No OSA patients in sleep center setting using symptoms during sleep is also recommended (sensitivity = 87.12% and specificity = 72.22%.

  20. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  1. Are sleep disturbances risk factors for anxiety, depressive and addictive disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillin, J C

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature which suggests that sleep disturbance in members of the general population, whether or not they have ever had a formal psychiatric disorder, is a risk factor for the onset of a formal psychiatric diagnosis at a later time. Based upon the current literature, the strongest link is between subjective insomnia, lasting at least 2 weeks, and the later onset of depression. Less well-established data suggest that lifetime reports of at least 2 weeks of insomnia, hypersomnia, or both hypersomnia and insomnia, are risk factors for the later development of depression, anxiety disorders or substance abuse. More tentatively, preliminary data suggest that increasing subjective sleep disturbance may signal a relapse in remitted depressed patients. Sleep disturbances are common manifestations of major depressive and anxiety disorders. Therefore, sleep complaints may be among the most robust prodromal symptoms reflecting partial depressive or anxiety disorders, which eventually declare themselves as full-blown clinical episodes.

  2. Sleep disorders and its related risk factors in patients undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Han; Li Xiaobei; Feng Sujuan; Zhang Guizhi; Wang Wei; Wang Shixiang

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of sleep disorders has been shown to be high in patients with chronic dialysis patients and may contribute to impaired quality of life and higher mortality in this population.However,there are few data on the relationship of sleep disorders and their risk factors in chronic dialysis patients.The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of sleep disorders and their risk factors in chronic dialysis patients.Methods A total of 42 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were involved in this cross-sectional study.Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).Restless legs syndrome (RLS) was diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group.And depression was assessed by Hamilton depression scale.General information and laboratory data were collected.Results The prevalence of sleep disorders was 47.6% in the CAPD patients.According to the PSQI,the 42 CAPD patients were divided into sleep disturbance group and non-sleep disorders group.There were no significant differences in age,gender,dialysis duration,hemoglobin,serum creatinine,urea nitrogen,β2-microglobulin,parathyroid hormone,calcium,and phosphorus between CAPD patients with sleep disorders and those without sleep disorders.But the level of serum albumin (AIb) in CAPD patients with sleep disorders was significantly lower than that in CAPD patients without sleep disorders (31.3±1.4 vs.34.3±3.7,t=3.603,P=0.001).And the prevalence of RLS and depression was significantly higher than that in CAPD patients without sleep disorders (RLS:11/22 vs.1/20,x2=10.395,P=0.001; depression:7/22 vs.1/20,x2=4.886,P=0.027).In CAPD patients with RLS,the prevalence of sleep disorders was significantly higher than that in CAPD patients without RLS (11/22 vs.11/30,x2=10.395,P=0.001).And in CAPD patients with depression,the prevalence of sleep disorders was significantly higher than that in CAPD patients without

  3. Replay of conditioned stimuli during late REM and stage N2 sleep influences affective tone rather than emotional memory strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihm, Julia S; Rasch, Björn

    2015-07-01

    Emotional memories are reprocessed during sleep, and it is widely assumed that this reprocessing occurs mainly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In support for this notion, vivid emotional dreams occur mainly during REM sleep, and several studies have reported emotional memory enhancement to be associated with REM sleep or REM sleep-related parameters. However, it is still unknown whether reactivation of emotional memories during REM sleep strengthens emotional memories. Here, we tested whether re-presentation of emotionally learned stimuli during REM sleep enhances emotional memory. In a split-night design, participants underwent Pavlovian conditioning after the first half of the night. Neutral sounds served as conditioned stimuli (CS) and were either paired with a negative odor (CS+) or an odorless vehicle (CS-). During sound replay in subsequent late REM or N2 sleep, half of the CS+ and half of the CS- were presented again. In contrast to our hypothesis, replay during sleep did not affect emotional memory as measured by the differentiation between CS+ and CS- in expectancy, arousal and valence ratings. However, replay unspecifically decreased subjective arousal ratings of both emotional and neutral sounds and increased positive valence ratings also for both CS+ and CS- sounds, respectively. These effects were slightly more pronounced for replay during REM sleep. Our results suggest that re-exposure to previously conditioned stimuli during late sleep does not affect emotional memory strength, but rather influences the affective tone of both emotional and neutral memories.

  4. Comorbidity and confounding factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang YS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Wen Jan1,2, Chien-Ming Yang1,3, Yu-Shu Huang4,51Department of Psychology, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei; 2Sleep Center of Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei; 3The Research Center for Mind Brain and Learning, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei; 4Department of Child Psychiatry and Sleep Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan; 5College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, TaiwanAbstract: Sleep problems are commonly reported in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms. Research data regarding the complex and reciprocal relationship between ADHD and sleep disturbances has now accumulated. This paper is focused on the types of sleep problems that are associated with ADHD symptomatology, and attempts to untangle confounding factors and overlapping symptoms. The goal is also to present an updated overview of the pathophysiology of and treatment strategies for sleep problems in children with ADHD. The review also points out that future research will be needed to clarify further the other psychiatric comorbidities and side effects of medication in order to improve treatment outcomes and prevent misdiagnosis in clinical practice.Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, sleep, children 

  5. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

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    Wu SSX

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim

  6. Sleep in depression: the influence of age, gender and diagnostic subtype on baseline sleep and the cholinergic REM induction test with RS 86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, D; Hohagen, F; Bahro, M; Berger, M

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and eight healthy controls and 178 patients with a major depressive disorder according to DSM-III were investigated in the sleep laboratory after a 7-day drug wash-out period. Subsamples of 36 healthy controls and 56 patients additionally took part in the cholinergic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep induction test with RS 86. Data analysis revealed that age exerted powerful influences on sleep in control subjects and depressed patients. Sleep efficiency and amount of slow wave sleep (SWS) decreased with age, whereas the number of awakenings, early morning awakening, and amounts of wake time and stage 1 increased with age. REM latency was negatively correlated with age only in the group of patients with a major depression. Statistical analysis revealed group differences for almost all parameters of sleep continuity with disturbed indices in the depressed group. Differences in SWS were not detected. REM latency and REM density were altered in depression compared to healthy subjects. Sex differences existed for the amounts of stage 1 and SWS. The cholinergic REM induction test resulted in a significantly more pronounced induction of REM sleep in depressed patients compared with healthy controls, provoking sleep onset REM periods as well in those depressed patients showing baseline REM latencies in the normal range. Depressed patients with or without melancholia (according to DSM-III) did not differ from each other, either concerning baseline sleep or with respect to the results of the cholinergic REM induction test. The results stress the importance of age when comparing sleep patterns of healthy controls with those of depressed patients. Furthermore they underline the usefulness of the cholinergic REM induction test for differentiating depressed patients from healthy controls and support the reciprocal interaction model of nonREM-REM regulation and the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of affective disorders.

  7. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: multi-nutrient supplements; survey; children; women's decisions. Factors influencing .... associations between level of education and various factors influencing women's ..... Social marketing improved the use of multivitamin and ...

  8. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  9. Clinical symptoms and related factors of obstructive sleep apnea among overweight and obese taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus D. Susanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is common condition in commercial drivers while overweight and obesity as the most important risk factors. This study aimed to know the clinical symptoms and risk factors of OSA in overweight and obese taxi drivers in Jakarta, Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in 103 taxi drivers in Jakarta from November 2011–September 2013, by systematic random sampling from 10 taxi stations. Inclusion criteria were taxi drivers with body mass index (BMI which 23–29.9 and mild or moderate OSA. Portable polysomnography (PSG test was used to diagnose OSA. Parametric and nonparametric test were used in bivariate analysis. Logistic regression multivariable was used to final evaluate risk factors of OSA.Results: There were 54 (52.4% of 103 drivers with OSA and 49 (47.6% without OSA. Clinical symptoms found significantly (p<0.05 were snoring, unrefreshing sleep, occasional sleep while driving, and headache or nausea on waking up in the morning. Risk factors for OSA were increased BMI (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.45–0.79, p=0.001, snoring history in the family (OR=4.92, 95% CI=1.82–13.31, p=0.002 and sleep duration <7 hours within 24 hours (OR=5.14, 95% CI=1.37–19.23, p=0.015.Conclusion: Clinical symptoms of OSA were snoring, unrefreshing sleep, occasional sleep while driving and headache or nausea on waking up in the morning. Risk factors of OSA were increased BMI, snoring history in the family and sleep duration <7 hours within 24 hours.

  10. The influence of care interventions on the continuity of sleep of intensive care unit patients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamze, Fernanda Luiza; de Souza, Cristiane Chaves; Chianca, Tânia Couto Machado

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to identify care interventions, performed by the health team, and their influence on the continuity of sleep of patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit. Method: descriptive study with a sample of 12 patients. A filming technique was used for the data collection. The awakenings from sleep were measured using the actigraphy method. The analysis of the data was descriptive, processed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Results: 529 care interventions were identified, grouped into 28 different types, of which 12 (42.8%) caused awakening from sleep for the patients. A mean of 44.1 interventions/patient/day was observed, with 1.8 interventions/patient/hour. The administration of oral medicine and food were the interventions that caused higher frequencies of awakenings in the patients. Conclusion: it was identified that the health care interventions can harm the sleep of ICU patients. It is recommended that health professionals rethink the planning of interventions according to the individual demand of the patients, with the diversification of schedules and introduction of new practices to improve the quality of sleep of Intensive Care Unit patients. PMID:26487127

  11. Seasonal influences on sleep and executive function in the migratory White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Ciaran T

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that the White-crowned Sparrow (WCS decreases sleep by 60% during a period of migratory restlessness relative to a non-migratory period when housed in a 12 h light: 12 h dark cycle. Despite this sleep reduction, accuracy of operant performance was not impaired, and in fact rates of responding were elevated during the migratory period, effects opposite to those routinely observed following enforced sleep deprivation. To determine whether the previously observed increases in operant responding were due to improved performance or to the effects of migration on activity level, here we assessed operant performance using a task in which optimal performance depends on the bird's ability to withhold a response for a fixed interval of time (differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-behavior, or DRL; elevated response rates ultimately impair performance by decreasing access to food reward. To determine the influence of seasonal changes in day length on sleep and behavioral patterns, we recorded sleep and assessed operant performance across 4 distinct seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall under a changing photoperiod. Results Sleep amount changed in response to photoperiod in winter and summer, with longest sleep duration in the winter. Sleep duration in the spring and fall migratory periods were similar to what we previously reported, and were comparable to sleep duration observed in summer. The most striking difference in sleep during the migratory periods compared to non-migratory periods was the change from discrete day-night temporal organization to an almost complete temporal fragmentation of sleep. The birds' ability to perform on the DRL task was significantly impaired during both migratory periods, but optimal performance was sustained during the two non-migratory periods. Conclusions Birds showed dramatic changes in sleep duration across seasons, related to day length and migratory status. Migration

  12. Relationships of sleep duration with sociodemographic and health-related factors, psychiatric disorders and sleep disturbances in a community sample of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Cho, Maeng Je; Chang, Sung Man; Bae, Jae Nam; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Soo; Chung, In-Won; Ahn, Joon Ho; Lee, Hae Woo; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine relationships of sleep duration with sociodemographic and health-related factors, psychiatric disorders and sleep disturbances in a nationwide sample in Korea. A total of 6510 subjects aged 18-64 years participated in this study. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the covariates, psychiatric disorders and sleep disturbances across the following sleep duration categories: 5 h or less, 6, 7, 8 and 9 h or more per day. Low levels of education, unemployment and physical illness were associated with sleeping for 5 h or less and 9 h or more. Being older and widowed/divorced/separated, high levels of physical activity, pain/discomfort, obesity and high scores on the General Health Questionnaires were associated with sleeping for 5 h or less. Female, being younger and underweight were associated with sleeping for 9 h or more. Alcohol dependence, anxiety disorder and social phobia were associated significantly with sleeping for 5 h or less and 9 h or more. Other psychiatric disorders were more common in subjects who slept for 5 h or less (e.g. alcohol use disorder, mood disorder, major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and specific phobia) or 9 h or more (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder). In addition, subjects who slept for 5 h or less reported more sleep disturbances than did subjects who slept for 7 h. Short or long sleep is associated with psychiatric disorders and/or sleep disturbance, therefore attention to the mental health of short or long sleepers is needed.

  13. The two-factor structure of sleep complaints and its relation to depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffel, Erin; Watson, David

    2009-02-01

    Although sleep complaints are common in depression and anxiety, there is little agreement as to how they should be organized and assessed. It is also unclear whether sleep complaints show specificity with certain disorders or whether they are nonspecific symptoms. The authors examined the structure of sleep complaints and the relations of these complaints to depression and anxiety in 3 samples: college students, older adults, and psychiatric patients. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that sleep complaints consistently defined 2 distinct dimensions: Insomnia and Lassitude. The Insomnia factor included indicators of early, middle, and late insomnia, as well as poor sleep quality. The Lassitude factor included measures of hypersomnia, fatigue, and sleepiness. Both factors were significantly related to symptoms and diagnoses of depression and anxiety. However, Lassitude was more strongly related to symptoms of depression and anxiety than was Insomnia. In addition, Lassitude showed specificity to measures and diagnoses of depression compared with anxiety disorders. This specificity can be explained by Lassitude's relation with negative and positive emotionality, both of which are components of depression.

  14. The influence of break timing on the sleep quantity and quality of fly-in, fly-out shiftworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Gemma M; Ferguson, Sally A; Banks, Siobhan; Dorrian, Jillian; Roach, Gregory D

    2014-01-01

    Although shift and break timing is known to affect the sleep of shiftworkers, this has not been demonstrated in Fly-in, Fly-out (FIFO) settings which, compared to residential based settings, may be favourable for sleep. This study investigated the sleep quantity and quality of shiftworkers working a FIFO operation comprising of shifts, and therefore breaks, across the 24-h day. The sleep of 24 males (50.43 ± 8.57 yr) was measured using actigraphy and sleep diaries. Morning breaks were associated with less sleep (09:00-12:00 h; 4.4 ± 1.3 h) and a poorer sleep quality (06:00-09:00 h; 3.1 ± 1.0, "average") compared to breaks beginning between 00:00 h and 03:00 h (6.8 ± 1.7 h; 2.2 ± 0.9, "good"). Sleep efficiency remained constant regardless of break timing (85.9 ± 5.0% to 89.9 ± 3.5%). Results indicate that even in operations such as FIFO where sleeping conditions are near-optimal and the break duration is held constant, the influence of the endogenous circadian pacemaker on sleep duration is evident.

  15. Short sleep duration and large variability in sleep duration are independently associated with dietary risk factors for obesity in Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, J S; Hjorth, M F; Andersen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    -to-day variability) as well as parent-reported sleep problems are independently associated with proposed dietary risk factors for overweight and obesity in 8-11 year old children.Design:In this cross-sectional study data on sleep duration and day-to-day variability in sleep duration were measured in 676 Danish...... and ghrelin levels.Results:Sleep duration (hours/night) was negatively and significantly (P0.003) associated with energy density (ED) of the diet (β=-0.32 kJ/g), added sugar (β=-1.50 E%) and SSB (β=-1.07 E%). Furthermore, variability in sleep duration (min/night) was positively associated with SSB (β=0.20 E...... and ethnicity).Conclusion:Our study suggests that short sleep duration, high sleep duration variability, and experiencing sleep problems are all associated with a poor, obesity-promoting diet in children.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 8 August 2013. doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.147....

  16. Level of proinsulin in association with cardiovascular risk factors and sleep snoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-Zhi Jia; Hai-Yan Wang; Wen-Zhu Ma; Zhi-Jian Yang; Shi-Wei Chen; Guang-Yao Qi; Chun-Fa You; Jian-Feng Ma; Jing-Xin Zhang; Zhen-Zhen Wang; Wei-Chong Qian

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the relationship between the level of proinsulin with cardiovascular risk factors and sleep snoring.METHODS: Based on the random stratified sampling principle, 1 193 Chinese residents in Pizhou City, Jiangsu Province (530 males and 663 females, aged 35-59 years with an average age of 46.69 years) were recruited. Their sleep snoring habits were investigated. Biotin-avidin based double mAbs ELISA was used to detect specific insulin and proinsulin, and a risk factor score was established to evaluate the individuals according to the number of their risk factors.RESULTS: The results of Spearman correlation analysis and covariate ANOVA analysis after age and sex were controlled, indicated that not only the level of proinsulin (r = 0.156, P = 0.000, F= 5.980 P = 0.000), but also cardiovascular risk factors score (r = 0.194, P = 0.000,F= 11.135, P = 0.000) significantly associated with the frequency of sleep snoring, and the significant relationship between true insulin and frequency of sleep snoring was only shown in the covariate ANOVA analysis (F = 2.868,P = 0.022). The result of multivariate stepwise logistic regression after age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference and true insulin were controlled showed that proinsulin (division by interval of quartile) was an independent risk factor for sleep snoring (OR = 1.220,95%CI: 1.085-1.373, P = 0.001).CONCLUSION: The interaction of cardiovascular risk factors clustering, high proinsulin level and sleep breathing disorder may be a syndrome, which has not been recognized in human beings so far.

  17. Effects of various factors on sleep disorders and quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telarovic, Srdjana; Mijatovic, Dragana; Telarovic, Irma

    2015-12-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), sleep disorders (SD) occur as a result of the neurochemical changes in sleep centres, neurodegenerative changes in dopaminergic neurons, and other factors. The most common SD include excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, restless legs syndrome and nocturia. The aim of the study was to compare quality of sleep, as a factor that greatly impacts quality of life (QoL), between PD patients and a control group and to further examine SD in the PD group with focus on incidence and SD types as well as on effects various factors (age, sex, PD characteristics, medication usage) have on these disorders. The study included 110 patients who met the criteria for the diagnosis of PD and 110 age-matched healthy controls. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PD Sleep Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, PD QoL Questionnaire-8 and PD Questionnaire-39 (items 30 and 33). In the group with PD, we considered the duration of the disease, the stage of disease according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale, medications and their impact on the SD. The average duration of the disease was 6 years and the mean stage was 2.44. The result showed significant differences in the sleep quality between groups. In the PD group, SD differences were also found according to gender, duration of the disease and medication usage. The most common SD were fragmented sleep, insomnia and nocturia. To improve the QoL of PD patients, it is necessary to pay more attention to detecting and solving SD.

  18. Polysomnographic sleep, growth hormone insulin-like growth factor-I axis, leptin, and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael; Wildschiødtz, Gordon; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Short sleep appears to be strongly associated with obesity and altered metabolic function, and sleep and growth hormone (GH) secretion seems interlinked. In obesity, both the GH-insulin-like-growth-factor-I (GH-IGF-I) axis and sleep have been reported to be abnormal, however, no studies have...... investigated sleep in relation to the GH-IGF-I axis and weight loss in obese subjects. In this study polygraphic sleep recordings, 24-h GH release, 24-h leptin levels, free-IGF-I, total-IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), acid-labile subunit (ALS), cortisol and insulin sensitivity were determined in six...... severely obese subjects (BMI: 41+/-1 kg/m(2), 32+/-2 years of age), cross-sectional at baseline, and longitudinal after a dramatically diet-induced weight loss (36+/-7 kg). Ten age- and gender-matched nonobese subjects served as controls. Sleep duration (360+/-17 vs. 448+/-15 min/night; P

  19. Sleep time and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-López, J P; de Carvalho, H B; de Moraes, A C F; Ruiz, J R; Sjöström, M; Marcos, A; Polito, A; Gottrand, F; Manios, Y; Kafatos, A; Molnar, D; Widhalm, K; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to examine the association between adolescents' sleep time and a cardiometabolic risk score. A second aim was to examine associations between sleep time and individual cardiometabolic risk factors. Adolescents (N=699; ages, 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study were examined. Sleep time was reported by a questionnaire. Physical activity (PA) was assessed by accelerometry (n=497). Cardiometabolic risk factors measurements included insulin resistance, blood pressure, adiposity markers, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lipids. A cardiovascular disease risk score was computed. Associations were examined by a multilevel regression analysis (linear for individual risk factors and Poisson for the clustered risk score). For school days no association was found between sleep time and cardiometabolic risk factors. At weekend days, the prevalence ratio (PR) of having a clustered risk score increased by 15% for each additional hour of sleep controlling for age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES); however, the prevalence disappeared when adjusting for PA. In European adolescents sleep time is not associated with cardiometabolic risk factors when important confounders are considered. Future research about sleep cardiovascular risk factors should register other sleep dimensions (sleep patterns or disturbances) to provide a better insight in this scientific field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Claudia MOISĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

  1. Sleep Tips: 7 Steps to Better Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn every night. Consider simple tips for better sleep, from setting a sleep schedule to including physical activity in your daily ... simply worn out? Perhaps the solution is better sleep. Think about all the factors that can interfere ...

  2. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of sleep disturbances in a large HIV-infected adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Allavena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in HIV-infected patients but there is a lack of large studies on prevalence and risk factors, particularly in the context of current improved immuno-clinical status and use of the newest antiretrovirals (ARV. Method: Cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disturbance in adult HIV-infected patients in six French centres of the region “Pays de la Loire”. Patients filled a self-administered questionnaire on their health behaviour, sleep attitudes (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index PSQI, quality of life (WHO QOL HIV BREF questionnaire and depression (Beck depression Inventory (BDI-II questionnaire. Socio-demographic and immunovirologic data, medical history, ARVs were collected. Results: From November 2012 to May 2013, 1354 consecutive non-selected patients were enrolled. Patients’ characteristics were: 73.5% male, median age 47 years, active employment 56.7%, France-native 83% and Africa-native 14.7%, CDC stage C 21%, hepatitis co-infection 13%, lipodystrophy 11.8%, dyslipidemia 20%, high BP 15.1%, diabetes 3%, tobacco smokers 39%, marijuana and cocaine users, 11.7% and 1.7% respectively, and excessive alcohol drinkers 9%. Median (med duration of HIV infection was 12.4 years, med CD4 count was 604/mm3; 94% of Patients were on ARVs, 87% had undetectable viral load. Median sleeping time was 7 hours. Sleep disturbances (defined as PSQI score >5 were observed in 47% of the patients, more frequently in female (56.4% than in male (43.9% (p19 in 19.7% of the patients. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with sleep disturbances (p10 vs. <10 y. (OR 1.5; CI 1.1–2.0, ARV regimen containing nevirapine (OR 0.7; CI 0.5–0.9 or efavirenz (OR 0.5; CI 0.3–0.7. Conclusions: Prevalence of sleep disturbances is high in this HIV population and roughly similar to the French population. Associated factors are rather related to social and psychological

  4. Evidence for similarities between adolescents and parents in sleep patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Hatzinger, Martin; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2009-12-01

    Sleep in adolescence may vary according to strain and environmental factors. In particular, parents' behavior may affect their children's psychological functioning and sleep. However, no data have been gathered with respect to parents and their adolescent children's concurrent sleep patterns. This was the aim of the present study, together with exploration of the possible influence of parenting style on adolescents' sleep. A total of 293 adolescents (mean age: 17.55; 214 females, 79 males) completed several questionnaires regarding their own psychological functioning as well as a sleep log for seven consecutive days. Additionally, adolescents rated parents' sleep and parenting styles. Adolescents' and parents' sleep patterns proved to be correlated. Moreover, mother's sleep was related to adolescents' psychological functioning. However, SEM showed that mother's sleep influenced adolescents' sleep not directly, but indirectly, via parenting style and adolescents' psychological functioning. Sleep patterns of parents and their adolescent children show similarities. Moreover, mother's poor sleep has a direct impact on parenting style, which in turn affects adolescents' psychological functioning and sleep. Therefore, sleep problems in adolescents may mirror an unfavorable parenting style and sleep complaints among mothers. These conclusions might usefully inform family counseling and treatment of adults' and adolescents' sleep complaints.

  5. The homeostatic regulation of REM sleep: A role for localized expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Subimal; Knapp, Clifford M; Koul-Tiwari, Richa; Barnes, Abigail

    2015-10-01

    Homeostatic regulation of REM sleep plays a key role in neural plasticity and deficits in this process are implicated in the development of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanisms that underlie this homeostatic regulation process. This study examined the hypothesis that, during selective REM sleep deprivation (RSD), increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in REM sleep regulating areas is critical for the development of homeostatic drive for REM sleep, as measured by an increase in the number of REM sleep transitions. Rats were assigned to RSD, non-sleep deprived (BSL), or total sleep deprivation (TSD) groups. Physiological recordings were obtained from cortical, hippocampal, and pontine EEG electrodes over a 6h period, in which sleep deprivation occurred during the first 3h. In the RSD, but not the other conditions, homeostatic drive for REM sleep increased progressively. BDNF protein expression was significantly greater in the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) and subcoeruleus nucleus (SubCD) in the RSD as compared to the TSD and BSL groups, areas that regulate REM sleep, but not in the medial preoptic area, which regulates non-REM sleep. There was a significant positive correlation between RSD-induced increases in number of REM sleep episodes and increased BDNF expression in the PPT and SubCD. These increases positively correlated with levels of homeostatic drive for REM sleep. These results, for the first time, suggest that selective RSD-induced increased expression of BDNF in the PPT and SubCD are determinant factors in the development of the homeostatic drive for REM sleep.

  6. The Effect of Body Position on Physiological Factors that Contribute to Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Simon A.; Edwards, Bradley A.; Wellman, Andrew; Turton, Anthony; Skuza, Elizabeth M.; Berger, Philip J.; Hamilton, Garun S.

    2015-01-01

    Study objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) resolves in lateral sleep in 20% of patients. However, the effect of lateral positioning on factors contributing to OSA has not been studied. We aimed to measure the effect of lateral positioning on the key pathophysiological contributors to OSA including lung volume, passive airway anatomy/collapsibility, the ability of the airway to stiffen and dilate, ventilatory control instability (loop gain), and arousal threshold. Design: Non-randomized single arm observational study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients/participants: 20 (15M, 5F) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-treated severe OSA patients. Interventions: Supine vs. lateral position. Measurements: CPAP dial-downs performed during sleep to measure: (i) Veupnea: asleep ventilatory requirement, (ii) passive V0: ventilation off CPAP when airway dilator muscles are quiescent, (iii) Varousal: ventilation at which respiratory arousals occur, (iv) active V0: ventilation off CPAP when airway dilator muscles are activated during sleep, (v) loop gain: the ratio of the ventilatory drive response to a disturbance in ventilation, (vi) arousal threshold: level of ventilatory drive which leads to arousal, (vii) upper airway gain (UAG): ability of airway muscles to restore ventilation in response to increases in ventilatory drive, and (viii) pharyngeal critical closing pressure (Pcrit). Awake functional residual capacity (FRC) was also recorded. Results: Lateral positioning significantly increased passive V0 (0.33 ± 0.76L/min vs. 3.56 ± 2.94L/min, P Turton A, Skuza EM, Berger PJ, Hamilton GS. The effect of body position on physiological factors that contribute to obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1469–1478. PMID:25761982

  7. Influence of sleep disorders on somatic symptoms, mental health, and quality of life in patients with chronic constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ya; Tang, Yu-Rong; Xie, Chen; Yu, Ting; Xiong, Wen-Jie; Lin, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in CC patients, and it is positively related to greater somatic and psychiatric symptoms. Methods: The participants were 126 adult outpatients with CC. The measures were: constipation—Constipation Scoring System (CSS) and Patient Assessment of Constipation-Symptoms (PAC-SYM); sleep—Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); anxiety—General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7); depression—Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9); and QOL—Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QOL) and SF-36. Patients were divided into sleep-disorder and normal-sleep groups by their PSQI scores. Results: The sleep-disorder group had significantly higher rates of incomplete defecation and blockage and higher CSS scores, PAC-SYM total scores, and PAC-SYM rectal-item scores than the normal-sleep group. GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores were significantly higher in patients with poor sleep. Furthermore, sleep disorders, depression, and anxiety were all positively correlated with constipation severity. “Worry/anxiety” score of PAC-QOL scale was significantly higher and scores for seven SF-36 subscales were significantly lower in patients with poor sleep. In addition, correlation analyses showed significant negative relations between QOL and constipation, sleep disturbance, anxiety as well as depression. However, multiple regression revealed that PAC-QOL was positively associated with severe constipation and SF-36 was negatively associated with anxiety and depression. But sleep disturbance was not the independent risk factor for QOL of CC patients. Conclusion: Sleep disorders may worsen the physical- and mental health of CC patients. Sleep disturbance may lower CC patients’ QOL indirectly through the combined effects of anxiety, depression, and constipation. PMID:28207519

  8. Sleep in the intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrami, Flávia Gabe; Nguyen, Xuân-Lan; Pichereau, Claire; Maury, Eric; Fleury, Bernard; Fagondes, Simone

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Poor sleep quality is a consistently reported by patients in the ICU. In such a potentially hostile environment, sleep is extremely fragmented and sleep architecture is unconventional, with a predominance of superficial sleep stages and a limited amount of time spent in the restorative stages. Among the causes of sleep disruption in the ICU are factors intrinsic to the patients and the acute nature of their condition, as well as factors related to the ICU environment and the treatments administered, such as mechanical ventilation and drug therapy. Although the consequences of poor sleep quality for the recovery of ICU patients remain unknown, it seems to influence the immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurological systems. There is evidence that multifaceted interventions focused on minimizing nocturnal sleep disruptions improve sleep quality in ICU patients. In this article, we review the literature regarding normal sleep and sleep in the ICU. We also analyze sleep assessment methods; the causes of poor sleep quality and its potential implications for the recovery process of critically ill patients; and strategies for sleep promotion. PMID:26785964

  9. Rotating night shift work, sleep quality, selected lifestyle factors and prolactin concentration in nurses and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech; Peplonska, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The pattern of secretion of many hormones, including prolactin, is dependent on the circadian rhythm. Night shift work involves exposure to artificial light at night and sleep deficiency, which in turn can affect prolactin synthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible association between night shift work characteristics, sleep quality, lifestyle factors and prolactin concentration, using data from a cross-sectional study of nurses and midwives. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 327 nurses and midwives currently working on rotating night shifts, and 330 nurses and midwives working during the day (aged 40-60 years) (388 premenopausal and 269 postmenopausal). Information about night shift work characteristics, lifestyle, reproductive factors, sleep pattern and other covariates was collected through a face-to-face interview, and from a one-week work and sleep diary completed by the subjects. Weight and height were measured. Prolactin concentration was measured in the morning blood sample using the electrochemiluminesence immunoassay method. Associations were analyzed using linear regression models adjusted for important confounders. Analyses were carried out separately in pre- and postmenopausal women. None of the night shift work or sleep characteristics was significantly associated with prolactin concentration. Prolactin concentration was significantly (p prolactin among premenopausal women, but inversely among postmenopausal. Age was related to prolactin among postmenopausal women only. Our study indicates that rotating night shift work is not associated with prolactin concentration. Smoking, parity, time of blood collection and age among postmenopausal women were significant determinants of prolactin.

  10. Examining the role of psychological factors in the relationship between sleep problems and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, D; Kyle, S D; Pratt, D; Peters, S; Gooding, P

    2017-06-01

    We sought to conduct the first systematic review of empirical evidence investigating the role of psychological factors in the relationship between sleep problems and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Twelve studies were identified which examined psychological factors grouped into four categories of cognitive appraisals, psychosocial factors, emotion regulation strategies, and risk behaviours. Although there was substantial heterogeneity across studies with respect to measurement, sampling, and analysis, preliminary evidence indicated that negative cognitive appraisals, perceived social isolation, and unhelpful emotion regulation strategies may contribute to the association between sleep problems and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Given that findings in this area are currently restricted to studies with cross-sectional designs, the directionality of the interrelationships between these psychological factors, sleep problems and suicidality, remains unclear. We integrate the findings of our review with contemporary psychological models of suicidal behaviour to develop a clear research agenda. Identified pathways should now be tested with longitudinal and experimental designs. In addition, a more thorough investigation of the complexities of sleep, psychological factors, and suicidal thoughts and behaviours is crucial for the development of targeted psychological interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Influence of sleep and meal schedules on performance peaks in competitive sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javierre, C; Calvo, M; Díez, A; Garrido, E; Segura, R; Ventura, J L

    1996-08-01

    The influence of sleep and meal schedules on performance in short distance running was assessed in a group of 8 national-class competition male sprinters. They were tested on Saturdays for five consecutive weeks. On each testing day, the performance time for an 80 m sprint was registered on eight different occasions during days 1 and 4, on 9 occasions on days 2 and 5, and on 7 occasions on day 3. On control days (days 1 and 4) performance gradually improved during the morning up to 13:00 h, decreased at 15:00 h, and again improved thereafter, with a maximum peak performance at 19:00 h. On day 2, in which sleep/wake cycles and meal-times were advanced for two hours, and on day 3, in which timetables were delayed for two hours, maximum peak performance was observed at 17:00 h and 21:00 h, respectively. At the time of maximum peak performance on both days a statistically significant improvement was observed as compared with the control day (day 2, p sleep/wake cycle was advanced for two hours, performance in the afternoon and evening was similar to that recorded on days 1 and 4. We observed that easy manipulation of sleep and meal schedules would allow competitive sprinters to synchronize peak power output with the time of the athletic event, increasing the chances for improvement in performance.

  12. Sleep and exercise: a reciprocal issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Léger, Damien

    2015-04-01

    Sleep and exercise influence each other through complex, bilateral interactions that involve multiple physiological and psychological pathways. Physical activity is usually considered as beneficial in aiding sleep although this link may be subject to multiple moderating factors such as sex, age, fitness level, sleep quality and the characteristics of the exercise (intensity, duration, time of day, environment). It is therefore vital to improve knowledge in fundamental physiology in order to understand the benefits of exercise on the quantity and quality of sleep in healthy subjects and patients. Conversely, sleep disturbances could also impair a person's cognitive performance or their capacity for exercise and increase the risk of exercise-induced injuries either during extreme and/or prolonged exercise or during team sports. This review aims to describe the reciprocal fundamental physiological effects linking sleep and exercise in order to improve the pertinent use of exercise in sleep medicine and prevent sleep disorders in sportsmen.

  13. Sleep deprivation influences diurnal variation of human time perception with prefrontal activity change: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Soshi

    Full Text Available Human short-time perception shows diurnal variation. In general, short-time perception fluctuates in parallel with circadian clock parameters, while diurnal variation seems to be modulated by sleep deprivation per se. Functional imaging studies have reported that short-time perception recruits a neural network that includes subcortical structures, as well as cortical areas involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC. It has also been reported that the PFC is vulnerable to sleep deprivation, which has an influence on various cognitive functions. The present study is aimed at elucidating the influence of PFC vulnerability to sleep deprivation on short-time perception, using the optical imaging technique of functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Eighteen participants performed 10-s time production tasks before (at 21:00 and after (at 09:00 experimental nights both in sleep-controlled and sleep-deprived conditions in a 4-day laboratory-based crossover study. Compared to the sleep-controlled condition, one-night sleep deprivation induced a significant reduction in the produced time simultaneous with an increased hemodynamic response in the left PFC at 09:00. These results suggest that activation of the left PFC, which possibly reflects functional compensation under a sleep-deprived condition, is associated with alteration of short-time perception.

  14. Sleep Quality Changes during Overwintering at the German Antarctic Stations Neumayer II and III: The Gender Factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Steinach

    Full Text Available Antarctic residence holds many challenges to human physiology, like increased psycho-social tension and altered circadian rhythm, known to influence sleep. We assessed changes in sleep patterns during 13 months of overwintering at the German Stations Neumayer II and III from 2008 to 2014, with focus on gender, as many previous investigations were inconclusive regarding gender-based differences or had only included men.Time in bed, sleep time, sleep efficiency, number of arousals, sleep latency, sleep onset, sleep offset, and physical activity level were determined twice per month during seven overwintering campaigns of n = 54 participants (37 male, 17 female using actimetry. Data were analyzed using polynomial regression and analysis of covariance for change over time with the covariates gender, inhabited station, overwintering season and influence of physical activity and local sunshine radiation.We found overall longer times in bed (p = 0.004 and sleep time (p = 0.014 for women. The covariate gender had a significant influence on time in bed (p<0.001, sleep time (p<0.001, number of arousals (p = 0.04, sleep latency (p = 0.04, and sleep onset (p<0.001. Women separately (p = 0.02, but not men (p = 0.165, showed a linear increase in number of arousals. Physical activity decreased over overwintering time for men (p = 0.003, but not for women (p = 0.174. The decline in local sunshine radiation led to a 48 minutes longer time in bed (p<0.001, 3.8% lower sleep efficiency (p<0.001, a delay of 32 minutes in sleep onset (p<0.001, a delay of 54 minutes in sleep offset (p<0.001, and 11% less daily energy expenditure (p<0.001, for all participants in reaction to the Antarctic winter's darkness-phase.Overwinterings at the Stations Neumayer II and III are associated with significant changes in sleep patterns, with dependences from overwintering time and local sunshine radiation. Gender appears to be an influence, as women showed a declining sleep quality

  15. Chronotype and sleep duration : The influence of season of assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allebrandt, Karla V; Teder-Laving, Maris; Kantermann, Thomas; Peters, Annette; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wilson, James F; Metspalu, Andres; Roenneberg, Till

    Little is known about human entrainment under natural conditions, partly due to the complexity of human behavior, torn between biological and social time and influenced by zeitgebers (light-dark cycles) that are progressively "polluted" (and thereby weakened) by artificial light. In addition, data

  16. Chronotype and sleep duration : The influence of season of assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allebrandt, Karla V; Teder-Laving, Maris; Kantermann, Thomas; Peters, Annette; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wilson, James F; Metspalu, Andres; Roenneberg, Till

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about human entrainment under natural conditions, partly due to the complexity of human behavior, torn between biological and social time and influenced by zeitgebers (light-dark cycles) that are progressively "polluted" (and thereby weakened) by artificial light. In addition, data a

  17. Sleep deprivation effects on growth factor expression in neonatal rats: a potential role for BDNF in the mediation of delta power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Ilana S; Peyron, Christelle; Denning, Daniel P; Ruby, Norman F; Flores, Judith; Sapolsky, Robert M; Heller, H Craig; O'Hara, Bruce F

    2004-04-01

    The sleeping brain differs from the waking brain in its electrophysiological and molecular properties, including the expression of growth factors and immediate early genes (IEG). Sleep architecture and homeostatic regulation of sleep in neonates is distinct from that of adults. Hence, the present study addressed the question whether the unique homeostatic response to sleep deprivation in neonates is reflected in mRNA expression of the IEG cFos, brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) in the cortex. As sleep deprivation is stressful to developing rats, we also investigated whether the increased levels of corticosterone would affect the expression of growth factors in the hippocampus, known to be sensitive to glucocorticoid levels. At postnatal days 16, 20, and 24, rats were subjected to sleep deprivation, maternal separation without sleep deprivation, sleep deprivation with 2 h recovery sleep, or no intervention. mRNA expression was quantified in the cortex and hippocampus. cFos was increased after sleep deprivation and was similar to control level after 2 h recovery sleep irrespective of age or brain region. BDNF was increased by sleep deprivation in the cortex at P20 and P24 and only at P24 in the hippocampus. FGF2 increased during recovery sleep at all ages in both brain regions. We conclude that cortical BDNF expression reflects the onset of adult sleep-homeostatic response, whereas the profile of expression of both growth factors suggests a trophic effect of mild sleep deprivation.

  18. Do sleep hygiene measures and progressive muscle relaxation influence sleep bruxism? Report of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente López, M; van Selms, M K A; van der Zaag, J; Hamburger, H L; Lobbezoo, F

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of sleep hygiene measures combined with relaxation techniques in the management of sleep bruxism (SB) in a double-blind, parallel, controlled, randomised clinical trial design. Sixteen participants (mean ± s.d. age = 39·9 ± 10·8 years) were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 8) or to the experimental treatment group (n = 8). Participants belonging to the latter group were instructed to perform sleep hygiene measures and progressive muscle relaxation techniques for a 4-week period. Two polysomnographic recordings, including bilateral masseter electromyographic activity, were made: one prior to the treatment and the other after the treatment period. The number of bruxism episodes per hour, the number of burst per hour and the bruxism time index (i.e. the percentage of total sleep time spent bruxing) were established as outcome variables. No significant differences could be observed between the outcome measures obtained before and after the 4-week period, neither for the sleep bruxism variables nor for the sleep variables. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that there is no effect of sleep hygiene measures together with progressive relaxation techniques on sleep bruxism or sleep over a 4-week observation period.

  19. Treatment Factors That Influence Mortality in Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, John; Ayuk, John; Sherlock, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare condition characterized by excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), which is almost always due to a pituitary adenoma. Acromegaly is associated with significant morbidity such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiomyopathy, obstructive sleep apnoea, malignancy and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Acromegaly has also been associated with increased mortality in several retrospective studies. This review will focus on the epidemiological data relating to mortality rates in acromegaly, the relationship between acromegaly and malignancy, the role of GH and insulin-like growth factor-I in assessing the risk of future mortality, and the impact of radiotherapy and hypopituitarism on mortality.

  20. 网络对大学生睡眠质量的影响调查%Investigation of the influence of network on College Studentssleep quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宏亚; 廖少玲; 杨招娣; 黄晓霜; 王甜; 黄秀凤

    2014-01-01

    Objective Diversified electronic instrument application,investigation on the effect of understanding and sleep status of the status quo of College Studentssleep quality.Methods The collection of valid questionnaire 438 college students survey of sleep,with PSQI tests,sleep status,sleep time,sleep quality,sleep,sleep effect on Cognition;A self-made question naive of college students in one month,from the evening activities form,sleep questionnaire,college students since that affect sleep factor table,on line time table,statistical induction questionnaire,analysis of influence factors of college students sleep prominent.Results 41.77% in 438 college students PSQI students score>7,poor sleep quality;One month in the eve-ning activities of 18:30-1:30 in the morning time,the number of Internet is much higher and other activities,especially in the sleep time;every night sleep less than 6 hours of the number 42.92%,less sleep time;The questionnaire within one month from the thought of many factors of sleep quality.the influence of the network accounting for 45.2 1;the network time,the use of the questionnaire 2 hours a day number 62.66%.Conclusion Influencing factors of sleep quality of college students are in many aspects,but the network influence factors of sleep quality of college students is more prominent,due to adopt a variety of meas-ures to improve the sleep quality of College students.%目的多元化电子仪器应用下,对大学生睡眠质量现状的了解及睡眠状况的影响调查。方法收集有效问卷438名大学生调查睡眠情况,用匹茨堡睡眠指数量表(PSQI)进行测评,睡眠状况、睡眠时间、睡眠质量、睡眠效果、对睡眠的认识;自制大学生1个月内的调查问卷,从晚上活动表、睡眠时间调查表、大学生自认为影响睡眠的因素表、上网时间表,统计归纳调查问卷,分析影响大学生睡眠突出因素。结果438名大学生中41.77%的学生PSQI总分>7

  1. Genetic associations with obstructive sleep apnea traits in Hispanic/Latino Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and premature mortality. Although there is strong clinical and epidemiologic evidence supporting the importance of genetic factors in influencing obstructive sleep apnea, its genetic bas...

  2. Energetic constraints, not predation, influence the evolution of sleep patterning in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellini, I; Nunn, C L; McNamara, P; Preston, B T; Barton, R A

    2008-10-01

    Mammalian sleep is composed of two distinct states - rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep - that alternate in cycles over a sleep bout. The duration of these cycles varies extensively across mammalian species. Because the end of a sleep cycle is often followed by brief arousals to waking, a shorter sleep cycle has been proposed to function as an anti-predator strategy. Similarly, higher predation risk could explain why many species exhibit a polyphasic sleep pattern (division of sleep into several bouts per day), as having multiple sleep bouts avoids long periods of unconsciousness, potentially reducing vulnerability.Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested these predictions in mammals, and also investigated the relationships among sleep phasing, sleep-cycle length, sleep durations and body mass.Neither sleep-cycle length nor phasing of sleep was significantly associated with three different measures of predation risk, undermining the idea that they represent anti-predator adaptations.Polyphasic sleep was associated with small body size, shorter sleep cycles and longer sleep durations. The correlation with size may reflect energetic constraints: small animals need to feed more frequently, preventing them from consolidating sleep into a single bout. The reduced daily sleep quotas in monophasic species suggests that the consolidation of sleep into one bout per day may deliver the benefits of sleep more efficiently and, since early mammals were small-bodied and polyphasic, a more efficient monophasic sleep pattern could be a hitherto unrecognized advantage of larger size.

  3. Sleep Hygiene and Recovery Strategies in Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; Halson, Shona; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset; Ahmaidi, Said; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep (e.g., playing night matches interspersed with 3 days; performing activities demanding high levels of concentration close to bedtime; use of products containing caffeine or alcohol in the period preceding bedtime; regular daytime napping throughout the week; variable wake-up times or bedtime), potentially leading to sleep deprivation. We outline simple, practical, and pharmaceutical-free sleep strategies that are coordinated to the constraints of elite soccer in order to promote sleep. Sleep deprivation is best alleviated by sleep extension; however, sleep hygiene strategies (i.e., consistent sleep pattern, appropriate napping, and active daytime behaviors) can be utilized to promote restorative sleep. Light has a profound impact on sleep, and sleep hygiene strategies that support the natural environmental light-dark cycle (i.e., red-light treatment prior to sleep, dawn-simulation therapy prior to waking) and prevent cycle disruption (i.e., filtering short wavelengths prior to sleep) may be beneficial to elite soccer players. Under conditions of inordinate stress, techniques such as brainwave entrainment and meditation are promising sleep-promoting strategies, but future studies are required to ascertain the applicability of these techniques to elite soccer players. Consuming high-electrolyte fluids such as milk, high-glycemic index carbohydrates, some forms of protein immediately prior to sleep, as well as tart cherry juice concentrate and tryptophan may promote rehydration, substrate stores replenishment, muscle-damage repair and/or restorative sleep. The influence of cold water immersion performed close to bedtime on subsequent sleep is still debated. Conversely, the potential detrimental effects of sleeping medication must be recognized. Sleep initiation is influenced by numerous factors, reinforcing the need for future research to identify such

  4. Influence of fatigue, stress, muscle soreness and sleep on perceived exertion during submaximal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Monoem; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Castagna, Carlo; Hambli, Mourad; Hue, Olivier; Chamari, Karim

    2013-07-02

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Hooper's Index variations (i.e., self-ratings of fatigue, stress, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and sleep) on rating of perceived exertion during a 10 min submaximal exercise training session (RPE-10 min) and then check the stability and the internal consistency of RPE-10 min. Seventeen junior soccer players took part in this study. The individual Hooper's indices taken before each training session were correlated with RPE-10 min during a constant intensity and duration effort (10 min) using Pearson product moment correlation. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to assess the internal consistency of the RPE-10 min. All individual correlations between RPE-10 min and quality of sleep and quantity of fatigue, stress, and DOMS were non-significant (p>0.05). No significant correlations were resulted between RPE-10 min and Hooper's Index in all athletes. The ICC of RPE-10 min was 0.77 thus demonstrating internal consistency. The results of the present study demonstrated the objectivity and utility of RPE as a psychological tool for monitoring training during traditional soccer training. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep are not major contributors of perceived exertion during traditional soccer training without excessive training loads. It seems that psychobiological factors other than fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep may have mediated the 10 min exercise perceptual intensity.

  5. Prevalence of risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in interstate bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carlos Alberto de Assis; de Oliveira, Haroldo Willuweit

    2006-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in interstate bus drivers. This study involved 262 professional interstate bus drivers employed by a Brazilian company headquartered in the Federal District. The drivers were evaluated using a questionnaire designed to assess respiratory sleep disorders, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, test of sustained attention, test of divided attention and anthropometric measurements. Body weight was found to be above the ideal in 68% of the drivers evaluated, 34% of which had a neck circumference = 42 cm. During the study period, the drivers reported using tobacco (27%), cola-based soft drinks (55%), alcohol (65%) and coffee (88%). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was = 10 points in 28%. Snoring was reported by 36%, sleep apnea by 5%, a sensation of suffocation during sleep by 12%, restless sleep by 29% and drowsiness while driving by 48%. There were 42% who had been involved in transit accidents, 7.6% of which were attributed to hypersomnolence. Those scoring higher than 10 of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale presented lower levels of sustained attention. In addition, a reduction in divided attention was found to correlate with greater daytime sleepiness and larger neck circumference. The rate of stimulant use found in the group of drivers evaluated is alarming. The high prevalence of daytime sleepiness indicates that attentiveness is reduced in this population.

  6. Differential effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on salivary factors in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Dr T J; Shittu, S T; Meludu, C C; Salami, A A

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on salivary factors in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of 6 animals each as control, total sleep deprivation (TSD) and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) groups. The multiple platform method was used to induce partial and total sleep deprivation for 7days. On the 8th day, stimulated saliva samples were collected for the analysis of salivary lag time, flow rate, salivary amylase activity, immunoglobulin A secretion rate and corticosterone levels using ELISA and standard kinetic enzyme assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with Dunnett T3 post hoc tests. Salivary flow rate reduced significantly in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as the control group (p=0.01). The secretion rate of salivary IgA was significantly reduced in the TSD group compared with the control group (p=0.04). Salivary amylase activity was significantly elevated in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as control group (psleep deprivation is associated with reduced salivary flow rate and secretion rate of IgA as well as elevated levels of salivary amylase activity in rats. However, sleep recovery of four hours in the PSD group produced ameliorative effects on the impaired functions of salivary glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Age, drugs, or disease: what alters the macrostructure of sleep in Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixel-Döring, Friederike; Trautmann, Ellen; Mollenhauer, Brit; Trenkwalder, Claudia

    2012-10-01

    To describe the alterations in the macrostructure of sleep in a large cohort of sleep-disturbed patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and investigate influencing factors. A cohort of sleep-disturbed but otherwise unselected PD patients (n=351) was investigated with video-supported polysomnography. We analyzed the influence of age, disease duration, disease severity, and dopaminergic medication on subjective sleep perception, sleep efficiency, the amount of slow wave sleep, awakenings, periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS), and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Sleep efficiency and slow wave sleep decreased with age (p=0.003 and p=0.041, respectively). The number of awakenings and the frequency of RBD increased with age (p=0.028 and p=0.006, respectively). Higher Hoehn & Yahr stages were associated with more PLMS (p=0.017). A higher daily dose of levodopa corresponded to more RBD (psleep efficiency, slow wave sleep, awakenings, or PLMS. Dopamine agonists increased awakenings (psleep perception was not influenced by any of the factors analyzed. The only path model that could be replicated identified disease severity and dopamine agonists as interdependent factors influencing awakenings and PLMS. Age leads to less sleep and a higher risk for RBD, and disease severity increases motor phenomena such as PLMS; dopamine agonists reduce PLMS but increase awakenings. No single factor analyzed influenced subjective sleep perception in this cohort of sleep disturbed PD patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  9. Do sleep hygiene measures and progressive muscle relaxation influence sleep bruxism? Report of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valiente López, M.; van Selms, M.K.A.; van der Zaag, J.; Hamburger, H.L.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of sleep hygiene measures combined with relaxation techniques in the management of sleep bruxism (SB) in a double-blind, parallel, controlled, randomised clinical trial design. Sixteen participants (mean ± s.d. age = 39·9 ± 10·8 years) were randomly as

  10. Effects of interface pressure distribution on human sleep quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyong Chen

    Full Text Available High sleep quality promotes efficient performance in the following day. Sleep quality is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature, light, sound and smell. Here, we investigated whether differences in the interface pressure distribution on healthy individuals during sleep influenced sleep quality. We defined four types of pressure models by differences in the area distribution and the subjective feelings that occurred when participants slept on the mattresses. One type of model was showed "over-concentrated" distribution of pressure; one was displayed "over-evenly" distributed interface pressure while the other two models were displayed intermediate distribution of pressure. A polysomnography analysis demonstrated an increase in duration and proportion of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep stages 3 and 4, as well as decreased number of micro-arousals, in subjects sleeping on models with pressure intermediately distributed compared to models with over-concentrated or over-even distribution of pressure. Similarly, higher scores of self-reported sleep quality were obtained in subjects sleeping on the two models with intermediate pressure distribution. Thus, pressure distribution, at least to some degree, influences sleep quality and self-reported feelings of sleep-related events, though the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The regulation of pressure models imposed by external sleep environment may be a new direction for improving sleep quality. Only an appropriate interface pressure distribution is beneficial for improving sleep quality, over-concentrated or -even distribution of pressure do not help for good sleep.

  11. Survey of sleep quality and influencing factors of old women with stress urinary incontinence%老年女性压力性尿失禁患者睡眠质量及影响因素的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许少英; 冼志莲; 刘婧

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查老年女性压力性尿失禁(stress urinary incontinence,SU1)患者的睡眠质量及影响因素.方法 应用睡眠状况自评量表(self-rating scale of sleep,SRSS)和自行设计的影响睡眠因素调查问卷,对100例老年女性SUI患者进行问卷调查,了解其睡眠状况及影响因素.结果 老年女性SUI患者SRSS评分较常模得分高;发生睡眠障碍的有61例,占61.00%;不良情绪、经济负担加重、夜间起床、躯体不适、噪声、环境陌生及生活习惯改变、灯光、日间活动量减少是影响患者睡眠质量的因素.结论 老年女性SUI患者睡眠质量明显低于健康人群,其影响因素包括社会心理因素、生理因素及环境因素,应加强护理干预,提高患者睡眠质量.%Objective To study the sleep quality and influencinS factors of old women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI).Methods By using the self-rating scale of sleep (SRSS) and self-designed scale for sleep factors, 100 casea with SUI were investigated.Results 61.0% patients had poor sleep quality.Compared with nonn, the difference was significant (P < 0.01).The aleep disorders incidence of patients with severe SUI were high than those with moderate and mild SUI.By logistic regreasion, the main iniluencing factors were had mood, economic burden, getting up to urinate, physical discomfort, noise, strange environment, change in living habits, light, and less aclivity at daytime.Conclusion The aleep quality of old women with SUI is significandy worse than thai of healthy people.Nuraing intervention ahould be given to improve their sleep qualiiy.

  12. The influence of upper airways diameter on the intensity of obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Szymańska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by at least 5 ten-second-long episodes of apnea or hypopnea, per hour of sleep. This disease may lead to severe, life-threatening complications. Therefore, risk analysis and its influence on disease intensity is crucial for proper implementation of preventive treatments. Objective. To determine the relation between the intensity of OSA expressed in Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI, and the anterior-posterior diameter of upper airways at the levels of soft palate and tongue base. Material and Method. Medical records of 41 patients with sleep apnea (AHI>4 diagnosed through polysomnographic examination obstructive were used for the study. The data consisted of: age and gender, polysomnographic examination results (AHI, lateral cephalogram with cephalomertic analysis, together with measurements of the upper and lower pharyngeal depth according to McNamara. Statistical analysis was carried out in accordance with Pearson’s r correlation coefficient test (Statistica 8.0 software package. Results. Analysis of the influence of upper airways diameter on the intensity of OSA showed that the value of upper Airways diameter at the tongue base level had no statistically significant impact on the value of AHI (p=0.795. However, a statistically significant impact of the value of upper airways diameter on the AHI value (p=0.008 at the soft palate level was observed. Patients with OSA have narrowed upper airways diameter. The value of AHI increases with the decrease of upper diameter and is not dependent on a lower diameter value. Patients with a decreased upper airways diameter should be informed about potential breathing disorders during sleep.

  13. [Insomnia and total sleep time in France: prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors in a general population survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, F; Richard, J-B; Léger, D

    2013-12-01

    Sleep is considered as a major protective factor for good health and quality of life. The epidemiology of chronic insomnia and other sleep disorders has recently been developed in France. The aim of this study was to evaluate total sleep time and the prevalence of chronic insomnia in the general population aged 15 to 85 years. It was also to investigate factors associated with sleep disorders. Within the framework of the Health Barometer 2010, a French general population survey, 27,653 15 to 85-year-old individuals were questioned about their health behaviors and attitudes, in particular about their sleeping time and habits. The average sleeping time of the 15 to 85-year-old was 7 hours 13 minutes. It was higher for women than for men (7 hours 18 minutes vs 7 hours 07 minutes; Psocio-demographic characteristics. Since the beginning of 1990s, a single-question inquiry on "sleeping problems present during the last 8 days" has been asked in the Health Barometer. The rate of subjects concerned increased from 1995, with a prevalence stabilized at a high level since 2000. Based on these data, we think that the surveillance of sleep disorders is an important public health issue and that prevention and health educational initiatives should be launched in the general population to promote a better quality of sleep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Building a self-regulatory model of sleep deprivation and deception: the role of caffeine and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, David T; Ellis, Aleksander P J; Christian, Michael S; Mai, Ke Michael

    2014-11-01

    Employees are getting less sleep, which has been shown to deplete self-regulatory resources and increase unethical behavior (Barnes, Schaubroeck, Huth, & Ghumman, 2011; Christian & Ellis, 2011). In this study, we extend the original mediated model by examining the role of 2 moderators in the relationship between sleep deprivation, depletion, and deceptive behavior. First, we derive psychological arguments from the psychopharmacology literature to hypothesize that caffeine moderates the relationship between sleep deprivation and depletion by replenishing self-regulatory resources. Second, we draw from recent research in social psychology to hypothesize that social influence moderates the relationship between depletion and deceptive behavior, such that depleted individuals are less able to resist the negative influence of others. Results of a laboratory study provide support for our expanded model combining mediation and moderation, adding to our understanding of the role of sleep deprivation in the incidence of workplace deception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The occurrence and predictive factors of sleep paralysis in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lišková M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Monika Lišková,1,2 Denisa Janečková,1 Lucie Klůzová Kráčmarová,3 Karolína Mladá,1 Jitka Bušková1,2 1Institute of Sleep Medicine, National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, 2Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, 3Olomouc University Social Health Institute, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence and predictive factors of sleep paralysis (SP in Czech university students. Our sample included 606 students who had experienced at least one episode of SP. The participants completed an online battery of questionnaires involving questionnaires focused on describing their sleep habits and SP episodes, the 18-item Boundary Questionnaire (BQ-18, the Modified Tellegen Absorption Scale (MODTAS, the Dissociative Experience Scale Taxon, the Beck Depression Inventory II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The strongest predictive factor for the frequency of SP episodes was nightmares. The strongest predictive factor for the intensity of fear was dream occurrences. In our study sample, SP was more common in women than in men. Those who scored higher in BQ-18 experienced more often pleasant episodes of SP and those who scored higher in MODTAS were more likely to experience SP accompanied with hallucinations. While 62% of respondents answered that their SP was accompanied by intense fear, 16% reported that they experienced pleasant feelings during SP episodes. We suggest that not only the known rapid eye movement sleep dysregulation but also some personality variables may contribute to the characteristics of SP. Keywords: sleep paralysis, absorption, personality boundaries, dissociation, nightmares

  16. Associations of sleep disturbance and duration with metabolic risk factors in obese persons with type 2 diabetes: data from the Sleep AHEAD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St-Onge MP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marie-Pierre St-Onge,1 Gary Zammit,2 David M Reboussin,3 Samuel T Kuna,4 Mark H Sanders,8 Richard Millman,6 Anne B Newman,5 Thomas A Wadden,4 Rena R Wing,6 F Xavier Pi-Sunyer,1 Gary D Foster7 Sleep AHEAD Research Group*1New York Obesity Research Center, St Luke's/Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY, USA; 2Clinilabs, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 7Center for Obesity Research and Education, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 8Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA*A full list of the members of the Sleep AHEAD Research Group is available in an online appendixPurpose: Some studies have found an association between sleep disturbances and metabolic risk, but none has examined this association in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between sleep disturbances and metabolic risk factors in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.Patients and methods: This study was a cross-sectional examination of the relationship between sleep parameters (apnea/hypopnea index [AHI], time spent in various sleep stages and metabolic risk markers (fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, lipids using baseline data of the Sleep AHEAD cohort. Subjects (n = 305 were participants in Sleep AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes, a four-center ancillary study of the Look AHEAD study, a 16-center clinical trial of overweight and obese participants with type 2 diabetes, designed to assess the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular events. All participants underwent one night of in-home polysomnography

  17. [Sleep: regulation and phenomenology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchierini, M-F

    2013-12-01

    This article describes the two-process model of sleep regulation. The 24-hour sleep-wake cycle is regulated by a homeostatic process and an endogenous, 2 oscillators, circadian process, under the influence of external synchronisers. These two processes are partially independent but influence each other, as shown in the two-sleep-process auto-regulation model. A reciprocal inhibition model of two interconnected neuronal groups, "SP on" and "SP off", explains the regular recurrence of paradoxical sleep. Sleep studies have primarily depended on observation of the subject and have determined the optimal conditions for sleep (position, external conditions, sleep duration and need) and have studied the consequences of sleep deprivation or modifications of sleep schedules. Then, electrophysiological recordings permitted the classification of sleep stages according to the observed EEG patterns. The course of a night's sleep is reported on a "hypnogram". The adult subject falls asleep in non-REM sleep (N1), then sleep deepens progressively to stages N2 and N3 with the appearance of spindles and slow waves (N2). Slow waves become more numerous in stage N3. Every 90minutes REM sleep recurs, with muscle atonia and rapid eye movements. These adult sleep patterns develop progressively during the 2 first years of life as total sleep duration decreases, with the reduction of diurnal sleep and of REM sleep. Around 2 to 4 months, spindles and K complexes appear on the EEG, with the differentiation of light and deep sleep with, however, a predominance of slow wave sleep.

  18. Comparing sleep disorders in urban and suburban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur'aini Nur'aini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Sleep disturbances commonly occur in adolescents. Socioeconomic levels, lifestyle, and urban or suburban environments influence the sleep patterns of adolescents. The modernization process in urban environments is marked by the development of information technology media, and the lack of parental monitoring potentially influencing adolescent sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances may affect children's physical growth, as well as their emotional, cognitive, and social development. Objective To assess for sleep disorders in urban and suburban adolescents, and to determine the factors that influence the prevalence of sleep disturbances. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 12 to 15-year-old junior high school students in urban (n=350 and suburban (n=350 environments in the city of Medan, North Sumatera. The study was undertaken from May to June 2010 using the Sleep Disorders Scale for Children (SDSC, a set of questionnaires. The SDSC was filled out by parents based on what they remembered about their children's sleep patterns in the prior 6 months. Results In the urban group, there were 133 (38.0% subjects with sleep disturbances, 182 (52.0% were borderline, and 35 (10.0% were normal. In the suburban group, there were 132 (37.7% subjects with sleep disturbances, 180 (51.4% were borderline, and 38 (10.9% were normal. The most influential factors for sleep disturbances in urban and suburban youth were environmental noise (P=0.001 and consuming beverages that contain caffeine (P=0.001. There were three types of sleep disorders that significantly found more in urban adolescents: disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, disorders of excessive somnolence, and sleep hyperhidrosis. Conclusion The prevalence of sleep disturbances do not differ between urban and suburban adolescents. Howevet; there are significant differences in the types of sleep disorders experienced. The most influential factors on sleep disturbance in both

  19. Comparing sleep disorders in urban and suburban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur’aini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Sleep disturbances commonly occur in adolescents. Socioeconomic levels, lifestyle, and urban or suburban environments influence the sleep patterns of adolescents. The modernization process in urban environments is marked by the development of information technology media, and the lack of parental monitoring potentially influencing adolescent sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances may affect children’s physical growth, as well as their emotional, cognitive, and social development. Objective To assess for sleep disorders in urban and suburban adolescents, and to determine the factors that influence the prevalence of sleep disturbances. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 12 to 15-year-old junior high school students in urban (n=350 and suburban (n=350 environments in the city of Medan, North Sumatera. The study was undertaken from May to June 2010 using the Sleep Disorders Scale for Children (SDSC, a set of questionnaires. The SDSC was filled out by parents based on what they remembered about their children’s sleep patterns in the prior 6 months. Results In the urban group, there were 133 (38.0% subjects with sleep disturbances, 182 (52.0% were borderline, and 35 (10.0% were normal. In the suburban group, there were 132 (37.7% subjects with sleep disturbances, 180 (51.4% were borderline, and 38 (10.9% were normal. The most influential factors for sleep disturbances in urban and suburban youth were environmental noise (P=0.001 and consuming beverages that contain caffeine (P=0.001. There were three types of sleep disorders that significantly found more in urban adolescents: disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, disorders of excessive somnolence, and sleep hyperhidrosis. Conclusion The prevalence of sleep disturbances do not differ between urban and suburban adolescents. However, there are significant differences in the types of sleep disorders experienced. The most influential factors on sleep disturbance in

  20. Influence of Sleep Disturbances on Quality of Life of Iranian Menopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yazdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Subjective sleep disturbances increase during menopause. Some problems commonly encountered during menopause, such as hot flushes and sweating at night, can cause women to have difficulty in sleeping. These complaints can influence quality of life of menopausal women. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on menopausal women attending health centers in Qazvin for periodic assessments. We measured excessive daytime sleepiness by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA by the Berlin questionnaire, and insomnia by the insomnia severity index (ISI. We evaluate quality of life by the Menopause specific quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL. Results. A total of 380 menopausal women entered the study. Mean age of participated women was 57.6 ± 6.02. Mean duration of menopause was 6.3 ± 4.6. The frequency of severe and moderate insomnia was 8.4% (32 and 11.8% (45. Severe daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10 was present in 27.9% (80 of the participants. Multivariate analytic results show that insomnia and daytime sleepiness have independent negative impact on each domain and total score of MENQOL questionnaire. Conclusion. According to our findings, EDS and insomnia are frequent in menopausal women. Both EDS and insomnia have significant quality of life impairment.

  1. Influence of sleep disturbances on quality of life of Iranian menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Zohreh; Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Ziaee, Amir; Elmizadeh, Khadijeh; Ziaeeha, Masomeh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Subjective sleep disturbances increase during menopause. Some problems commonly encountered during menopause, such as hot flushes and sweating at night, can cause women to have difficulty in sleeping. These complaints can influence quality of life of menopausal women. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on menopausal women attending health centers in Qazvin for periodic assessments. We measured excessive daytime sleepiness by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by the Berlin questionnaire, and insomnia by the insomnia severity index (ISI). We evaluate quality of life by the Menopause specific quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL). Results. A total of 380 menopausal women entered the study. Mean age of participated women was 57.6 ± 6.02. Mean duration of menopause was 6.3 ± 4.6. The frequency of severe and moderate insomnia was 8.4% (32) and 11.8% (45). Severe daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10) was present in 27.9% (80) of the participants. Multivariate analytic results show that insomnia and daytime sleepiness have independent negative impact on each domain and total score of MENQOL questionnaire. Conclusion. According to our findings, EDS and insomnia are frequent in menopausal women. Both EDS and insomnia have significant quality of life impairment.

  2. Seasonal and geographical influence on sleeping patterns inferred from mobile phone data

    CERN Document Server

    Monsivais, Daniel; Ghosh, Asim; Kaski, Kimmo

    2016-01-01

    Influence of the sunrise, sunset and daylight on the human sleep wake cycle has been primarily studied using questionnaires from limited size cohorts. The studies indicate that it varies along the year while the sunrise and sunset could be related with the onset and conclusion of sleep. Here, we take an empirical data-driven approach by utilizing anonymized mobile phone data or "digital footprints" of very large size cohort during a year. Using aggregated calling patterns we construct the distributions for the daily first and last calls in different cities along the year. We also characterize a daily period of low calling activity that allows to infer the dependence of the sleep-wake cycle on geographical location and the seasonal changes. We find rather surprisingly that the mobile phone users synchronize their last and first calls with the local sun transit time along the longitude they are located. Further analysis reveals that the difference between the durations of the low activity period in the summer a...

  3. Analysis on risk factors of sleep quality in fighter pilots%歼击机飞行员睡眠质量危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董燕; 方玉婷; 陈虹汝; 冯小霞; 张胜; 马金鹏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the risk factors of sleep disorder in fighter pilots for improving their sleep quality . Methods Three hundred and forty‐seven fighter pilots were selected by cluster random sampling ,and were investigated by using self‐made questionnaire combined with pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) questionnaire .The subjects were divided into sleep disorder group (PSQI score≥ 7) and control group (PSQI score < 7) to analyze the risk factors influencing their sleep quality .The data was analyzed by a Logistic regression model . Results Three hundred and thirty feedbacks were valid . The prevalence of sleep disorder was 19 .4% . Logistic regression analysis showed that family history of sleep disorder (OR= 4 .060) ,physical diseases (OR= 4 .007) ,over pressure from work and life (OR = 2 .868) were the risk factors influencing sleep quality . The incidences of gastroenteritis ,cervical diseases ,lumbar diseases ,headache and gastroesophageal reflux disease in sleep disorder group were significantly higher than those in control group ( P< 0 .05 ) . Conclusions The prevalence of sleep disorder in fighter pilots is comparatively high ,and that is closely related to such risk factors as overpressure ,physical diseases and family disorder history .The corresponding interventions should be taken to improve their sleep quality .%目的:探索影响歼击机飞行员睡眠质量的相关危险因素,为改进飞行员睡眠质量提供临床依据。方法以整群随机抽样方法抽取347名歼击机飞行员,采用自制问卷与匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表(Pittsburgh sleep quality index ,PSQI)相结合形式,对飞行员睡眠质量进行横断面调查研究。以PSQI总分≥7分作为睡眠障碍组,PSQI总分<7分为对照组,对飞行员睡眠质量进行相关因素分析。结果得到有效样本330例,飞行员睡眠障碍发生率为19.4%,Logistic多因素回归分析显示,睡眠不良家族史、躯体

  4. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  5. Contributing influences of work environment on sleep quantity and quality of nursing assistants in long-term care facilities: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; McEnany, Geoffry Phillips; Gore, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The effect of shift work on nurses' sleep is well-studied, but there are other challenging aspects of health care work that might also affect the sleep of direct caregivers. This study examined the influence of the long-term care work environment on sleep quantity and quality of nursing assistants. A cross-sectional survey collected data from 650 nursing assistants in 15 long-term care facilities; 46% reported short sleep duration and 23% reported poor sleep quality. A simple additive index of the number of beneficial work features (up to 7) was constructed for analysis with Poisson regression. With each unit increase of beneficial work features, nursing assistants were 7% less likely to report short sleep duration and 17% less likely to report poor sleep quality. These results suggest that effective workplace interventions should address a variety of work stressors, not only work schedule arrangements, in order to improve nursing assistants' sleep health.

  6. The diagnostic value of deprivation of sleep EEG and its influencing factors on children’s psychomotor epilepsy%剥夺睡眠脑电图对儿童精神运动性癫痫的诊断价值及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    候蕴祈; 欧阳基鹏; 游文霞; 梁艳玲; 钟剑平

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨剥夺睡眠脑电图(EEG)在小儿精神运动性癫痫(psychomotor epilepsy ,PE)中的临床应用价值及相关影响因素。方法2012‐01—2014‐01选取行常规性EEG检查正常的158例PE患儿行剥夺性EEG检查,根据检查结果将PE患儿分为剥夺睡眠EEG阴性组102例以及阳性组56例,分析2组患儿临床资料,并采用Logistic多因素分析影响剥夺睡眠EEG诊断阳性率的相关影响因素。结果剥夺睡眠EEG阳性组癫痫发作频率及有发展诱因的比率低于阴性组,而缺氧窒息史比率高于阴性组,发作时间较长,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。经Logistic多因素分析显示,发作时间、发作诱因、发作频率是影响剥夺睡眠EEG阳性率的独立危险因素。结论对PE患儿应用剥夺睡眠EEG诊断可提高阳性检查率,患儿癫痫发作时间、发作诱因及发作频率可影响剥夺睡眠EEG诊断阳性率。%Objective To investigate the clinical value and related factors of sleep deprivation electroencephalogram (EEG) in children with psychomotor epilepsy (PE). Methods One hundred and fifty‐eight cases of normal children underwent PE deprivation EEG inspection were selected from January 2012 to January 2014. The PE children were divided into 102 cases of sleep deprivation EEG negative and 46 cases of positive group ,clinical data of the two groups were comparatively analyzed ,and the related factors affecting the positive rate of diagnosis of sleep deprivation EEG were analyzed by multi‐factor Logistic. Re‐sults Sleep deprivation EEG seizure frequency and positive group had developed a ratio of less than negative incentives ,and hypoxia asphyxia ratio was higher than the negative group ,the onset of a long time ,there were significant differences (P<0.05). Logistic multivariate analysis showed that the onset time of onset of incentives ,seizure frequency are independent risk factors for sleep deprivation EEG

  7. Individual and socio-demographic factors related to presenting problem and diagnostic impressions at a pediatric sleep clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Sonia L; Patrick, Kristina E; Williamson, Ariel A; Moore, Melisa; Mindell, Jodi A

    2016-09-01

    Individual and socio-demographic factors have been found to be associated with sleep disturbances in children. Few studies have examined these factors among children presenting for care at pediatric sleep clinics. This study examined individual and socio-demographic factors in association with presenting problems and diagnostic impressions for new patients at an interdisciplinary pediatric sleep clinic. Data were collected from electronic medical records of 207 consecutive patients (54% male, 59% White, Meanage = 7.73, SD = 5.62). Older age, female gender, and White race were associated with higher likelihood of presenting with difficulty falling asleep; younger age, male gender, and Black race were associated with higher likelihood of presenting with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-related concerns. Older age was associated with diagnostic impressions of inadequate sleep hygiene, insufficient sleep, circadian rhythm disorder/delayed sleep phase disorder, periodic limb movement disorder/restless legs syndrome, and insomnia, while younger age was associated with provisional OSA and behavioral insomnia of childhood (BIC) diagnoses. Male gender was associated with provisional OSA. White race was associated with BIC. Age-based analyses were also conducted to further understand the findings within a developmental context. Age- and gender-related findings converged with prevalence literature on pediatric sleep disorders. Race was only associated with presenting concern and BIC, and one association for neighborhood disadvantage was found within the age-based analysis. Results suggest a potential service delivery gap, with racial/ethnic minority youth being less likely to present for sleep services, despite prevalence data on the increased likelihood of sleep disturbances among these youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Thymic Output: Influence Factors and Molecular Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Jin; Jun Zhang; Weifeng Chen

    2006-01-01

    Thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, able to generate mature T cells that eventually colonize secondary lymphoid organs, and is therefore essential for peripheral T cell renewal. Recent data showed that normal thymocyte export can be altered by several influence factors including several chemokines,sphingosinel-phosphate (S1P),transcription factors such as Foxjl, Kruppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2) and antigen stimulation, etc. In this review, we summarized the recent reports about study strategies, influence factors and possible molecular mechanisms in thymic output.

  9. 31. FACTORS INFLUENCING UTILIZATION OF INTERMITTENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    treatment of malaria during pregnancy(IPTp), effective IPTp service utilization ... effective case management of malaria. Despite the ... Factors influencing IPTp utilization identified in the study included; educational status of a woman,. Medical ...

  10. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Factors Influencing Performance and Progress of Primary School Pupils in ... found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school ... on school progress and performance, however; home language did play a role.

  11. Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers among Tertiary ... role stereotype and common business practices on media self employment in ... Sex, Psycho-social Characteristics, self Employment, Providing Media Services.

  12. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  13. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human beings are ... Key words: Mursik, Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), probiotic, Preschoolers, Focus group

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING AS A. PROFESSION ... Colleges of Health Technology undergoing external ... questionnaire requested information on age ... individual with good communication skills and ...

  15. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING SUSTAINED MANAGERIAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Marius RIZESCU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effectiveness is learnable in economic theory and practice with various forms of manifestation of the results obtained by the managers, such as profitability, the productivity of factors of production, capital efficiency, cost savings, etc. Regarded as the organizing principle and driving activity in the market economy, it has a much richer content and also favorable results of generalizing all derived by managers. Choosing effective in meeting needs with limited resources or powerlessness to maximize resource needs under restrains, are expressions through which efficiency is situated at the heart of economic theory and practice.

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  18. The occurrence and predictive factors of sleep paralysis in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lišková, Monika; Janečková, Denisa; Klůzová Kráčmarová, Lucie; Mladá, Karolína; Bušková, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence and predictive factors of sleep paralysis (SP) in Czech university students. Our sample included 606 students who had experienced at least one episode of SP. The participants completed an online battery of questionnaires involving questionnaires focused on describing their sleep habits and SP episodes, the 18-item Boundary Questionnaire (BQ-18), the Modified Tellegen Absorption Scale (MODTAS), the Dissociative Experience Scale Taxon, the Beck Depression Inventory II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The strongest predictive factor for the frequency of SP episodes was nightmares. The strongest predictive factor for the intensity of fear was dream occurrences. In our study sample, SP was more common in women than in men. Those who scored higher in BQ-18 experienced more often pleasant episodes of SP and those who scored higher in MODTAS were more likely to experience SP accompanied with hallucinations. While 62% of respondents answered that their SP was accompanied by intense fear, 16% reported that they experienced pleasant feelings during SP episodes. We suggest that not only the known rapid eye movement sleep dysregulation but also some personality variables may contribute to the characteristics of SP.

  19. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  20. Variation properties of ionospheric eclipse factor and ionospheric influence factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunmei; YUAN Yunbin; OU Jikun; CHEN Jinping

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and calculation methods of ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) and ionospheric influence factor (IFF) are further illustrated. The temporal and spacial variation properties of IEF and IFF are studied, which shows that the properties are influenced by the geographic position and season. The possibility of improving the precision of using GPS data to determine ionospheric delay based on the above variation properties is also analysed.

  1. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor improves sleep continuity in patients with treatment resistant depression and high inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Jeremy F; Raison, Charles L; Rye, David B; Montague, Amy R; Woolwine, Bobbi J; Felger, Jennifer C; Haroon, Ebrahim; Miller, Andrew H

    2015-07-01

    Blockade of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in depressed patients with increased inflammation has been associated with decreased depressive symptoms. Nevertheless, the impact of TNF blockade on sleep in depressed patients has not been examined. Accordingly, sleep parameters were measured using polysomnography in 36 patients with treatment resistant major depression at baseline and 2weeks after 3 infusions (week 8) of either the TNF antagonist infliximab (n=19) or placebo (n=17). Markers of inflammation including c-reactive protein (CRP) and TNF and its soluble receptors were also assessed along with depression measured by the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. No differences in sleep parameters were found as a function of infliximab treatment over time. Nevertheless, wake after sleep onset (WASO), the spontaneous arousal index and sleep period time significantly decreased, and sleep efficiency significantly increased, from baseline to week 8 in infliximab-treated patients with high (CRP>5mg/L) (n=9) versus low inflammation (CRP⩽5mg/L) (n=10), controlling for changes in scores of depression. Stage 2 sleep also significantly decreased in infliximab-treated patients with high versus low inflammation. Decreases in soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNFR1) significantly correlated with decreases in WASO and increases in sleep efficiency in infliximab-treated subjects with high inflammation. Placebo-treated subjects exhibited no sleep changes as a function of inflammation, and no correlations between inflammatory markers and sleep parameters in placebo-treated patients were found. These data suggest that inhibition of inflammation may be a viable strategy to improve sleep alterations in patients with depression and other disorders associated with increased inflammation.

  2. Genetic and environmental contributions to sleep-wake behavior in 12-year-old twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletten, Tracey L; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Wright, Margaret J; Zhu, Gu; Naismith, Sharon; Martin, Nicholas G; Hickie, Ian

    2013-11-01

    To examine the role of genetic and environmental factors on sleep behavior in 12-year-old twins matched for family environment. Population-based twin cohort. Participants were assessed in their home environment. One hundred thirty-two adolescent twins comprising 25 monozygotic (MZ) and 41 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs; aged 12.2 ± 0.1 y (mean ± standard deviation). N/A. For 2 weeks in their home environment, participants wore a wrist activity monitor and completed a daily sleep diary. Sleep diaries included reports of bedtime, wake time, and estimated sleep onset time. Mean timing, duration, and quality of sleep during the 2 weeks were calculated for each individual and compared within twin pairs. MZ twin correlations were higher than the DZ correlations for total sleep time (MZr = 0.64; DZr = 0.38) and sleep onset latency (MZr = 0.83; DZr = 0.53) and significantly higher for wake after sleep onset (MZr = 0.66; DZr = 0.04) and sleep efficiency (MZr = 0.82; DZr = 0.10). Univariate modeling showed additive genetic factors accounted for 65% of the variance in total sleep time, 83% in sleep onset latency, and 52% and 57% of the variance in wake after sleep onset and sleep efficiency, respectively. A predominant influence of shared environment was found on the timing of sleep (67% for sleep start time, 86% for sleep end time). There is a strong genetic influence on the sleep-wake patterns of 12-year-old adolescents. Genes have a greater influence on sleep initiation and sleep maintenance and a smaller role in sleep timing, likely to be influenced by family environment.

  3. Neuroimaging of sleep and sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofzinger, Eric A

    2006-03-01

    Herein are presented the results of research in the area of sleep neuroimaging over the past year. Significant work has been performed to clarify the basic mechanisms of sleep in humans. New studies also extend prior observations regarding altered brain activation in response to sleep deprivation by adding information regarding vulnerability to sleep deprivation and regarding the influence of task difficulty on aberrant responses. Studies in sleep disorder medicine have yielded significant findings in insomnia, depression, and restless legs syndrome. Extensive advances have been made in the area of sleep apnea where physiologic challenges have been used to probe brain activity in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea syndrome.

  4. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPOSTING POULTRY WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kopeć

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic recycling of waste, taking into account sanitary safety, should be a fundamental method for recovering the nutrients present in the waste for plants and organic matter. It also refers to by-products of animal origin, which are not intended for consumption by humans. In the present research , composting of hydrated poultry slaughterhouse waste with maize straw was carried out. A combination with fodder yeast and post-cellulose lime was also introduced, which modified chemical and physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. The experiment was carried out by recording the biomass temperature for 110 days in 1.2×1.0×0.8 m reactors with perforated bottoms enabling active aeration. The following parameters were taken into consideration in the composted material: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, respiratory activity, microorganisms, fractions of compost obtained after washing on sieves. Small amounts of fodder yeast favoured the development of microorganisms and caused a sanitary risk in the final product. At the initial stage, the temperature of raw compost in that object was several degrees lower than in the case of the composted mass without yeast addition. The addition of post-cellulose lime at ratios 6.5:1:6.5 (maize straw: poultry slaughterhouse waste: post-cellulose lime caused a change in the time of microbiological activity, and led to its inhibition in the final process. In comparison to objects with poultry waste, the highest degree of hygienization was found in the compost with post-cellulose lime (with pH close to neutral. By adjusting the ratios of substrates we can influence the microbiological activity, but the amounts of individual substrates should be determined taking into account the quality of the obtained compost.

  5. The contributing factors to poor sleep experiences in according to the university students: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insaf Altun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep problems among university students are common; however, the contributing factors to poor sleep experiences are still unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the contributing factors to poor sleep experiences in university students. Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional, and the students completed self-report, anonymous questionnaires provided during an in-class survey. This is a single center study. A descriptive survey was conducted randomly on 256 university students in Turkey. The instruments for data collection consisted of the demographic data, and the contributing factors to poor sleep. Results: The most frequent self-reported cause to poor sleep experiences in according to the university students were exposure psychological problems (67.2%, stress (64.8%, exposure to tobacco smoke in the sleeping room (63,7%, pain (62,9%, having family problems (62,5%, being patient (55,1%, air quality of the room (55,1%, strenuous physical activity (53,9%, fatigue (53,5%, sadness (53,1%, noise that caused by other people in the room (52.0%, room scents (sweat, perfume, humidity, naphthalene, etc. (53.1%, depression (51, 6 %, anxiety, and tension (51, 1%. Conclusion: Students should be encouraged to solve psychological problems, to suitable stress-relieving measures, to follow sleep hygiene practice and adequate time management for academic and social activities.

  6. Analysis of influencing factors on circadian blood pressure of hypertensive patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome%阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停相关性高血压患者血压节律影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩瑞梅; 李南方; 严治涛; 汪迎春; 张丽丽; 毕云伟; 程维平

    2013-01-01

    性睡眠呼吸暂停相关性高血压患者中,OSAHS、年龄病程和体质量因素可能是导致该人群血压节律异常变化的主要因素.%Objective To investigate the effect of obesity,arousal,hypoxia and sympathetic activation on the circadian blood pressure of hypertensive patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.Methods Polysomnography (PSG) was performed in 436 hypertensive patients complaining of snoring,daytime sleepiness,lips cyanosis,hyperhemoglobinemia of unknown etiology,or with refractory hypertension.Hypertensive subjects were divided into four groups according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI):hypertensive with mild obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) (n =131),hypertensive with moderate OSAHS (n =95),hypertensive with severe OSAHS (n =95) and hypertensive without OSAHS as control group (n =115).The ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM),PSG,urine electrolyte,and urine vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) were compared among groups.Factor analysis was employed to identify common factors related to the alterations of circadian blood pressure.Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors of the observed variables.Results There were significant differences among groups in age,neck circumference and waist circumference (P < 0.001).In severe group,24 hour average systolic blood pressure (24 hSBP) [(137.0 ± 16.8) mm Hg vs.(131.3 ±11.9) mm Hg,(131.3 ± 13.2) mm Hg (1 mm Hg =0.133 kPa)],daytime systolic blood pressure (daySBP) [(140.8±16.8) mmHgvs.(135.7±11.9) mmHg,(135.3±13.5) mmHg]andnight systolic blood pressure (night-SBP) [(130.9 ±17.0)mm Hg vs.(124.5 ±14.0)mm Hg,(124.3 ±13.2) mm Hg]were significantly higher than those of control or mild OSAS groups (P < 0.01).Factor analysis showed that body mass (BM),life style,urine electrolyte,age and course of disease (ACD) were the common factors influencing circadian blood pressure.OSAHS was correlated with declining percentage of SBP (

  7. Factors Influencing the Quality of Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin ZAMFIROIU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications are becoming increasingly used. Mobile devices are becoming indispensable for the user. In the material are claiming the sales of mobile devices internationally and the use of mobile applications compared to traditional internet use on desktop systems for the United States. Are presented influences the quality of mobile applications and based on these influencing factors built a model of choice for optimal application of mobile applications and traditional desktop application. At the end of the material presented methods to increase quality by tracking the influence factors during the development of mobile applications.

  8. Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Bilodeau, Stéphanie; Langlois, Geneviève; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2011-07-01

    Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity.

  9. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XII: A Survey of Sleep Quantity and Quality in On-Board Crew Rest Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Dinges, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Many aircraft operated on long-haul commercial airline flights are equipped with on-board crew rest facilities, or bunks, to allow crewmembers to rest during the flight. The primary objectives of this study were to gather data on how the bunks were used, the quantity and quality of sleep obtained by flight crewmembers in the facilities, and the factors that affected their sleep. A retrospective survey comprising 54 questions of varied format addressed demographics, home sleep habits, and bunk sleep habits. Crewmembers from three airlines with long-haul fleets carrying augmented crews consisting of B747-100/200, B747-400, and MD-11 aircraft equipped with bunks returned a total of 1404 completed surveys (a 37% response rate). Crewmembers from the three carriers were comparable demographically, although one carrier had older, more experienced flight crewmembers. Each group, on average, rated themselves as "good" or "very good" sleepers at home, and all groups obtained about the same average amount of sleep each night. Most were able to sleep in the bunks, and about two thirds indicated that these rest opportunities benefited their subsequent flight deck alertness and performance. Comfort, environment, and physiology (e.g., being ready for sleep) were identified as factors that most promoted sleep. Factors cited as interfering with sleep included random noise, thoughts, heat, and the need to use the bathroom. These factors, in turn, suggest potential improvements to bunk facilities and their use. Ratings of the three aircraft types suggested differences among facilities. Bunks in the MD-11 were rated significantly better than either of the B747 types, and the B747-400 bunks received better ratings than did the older, B747-100/200 facilities.

  10. Associations of Sleep Quality and Awake Physical Activity with Fluctuations in Nocturnal Blood Pressure in Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Kadoya

    Full Text Available Sleep quality and awake physical activity are important behavioral factors involved in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, potentially through nocturnal blood pressure (BP changes. However, the impacts of quantitatively measured sleep quality and awake physical activity on BP fluctuation, and their relationships with several candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension are not well elucidated.This cross-sectional study included 303 patients registered in the HSCAA study. Measurements included quantitatively determined sleep quality parameters and awake physical activity obtained by actigraph, nocturnal systolic BP (SBP fall [100 × (1- sleep SBP/awake SBP ratio], apnea hypopnea index, urinary sodium and cortisol secretion, plasma aldosterone concentration and renin activity, insulin resistance index, parameters of heart rate variability (HRV, and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF.Simple regression analysis showed that time awake after sleep onset (r = -0.150, a parameter of sleep quality, and awake physical activity (r = 0.164 were significantly correlated with nocturnal SBP fall. Among those, time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.179 and awake physical activity (β = 0.190 were significantly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP fall in multiple regression analysis. In a subgroup of patients without taking anti-hypertensive medications, both time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.336 and awake physical activity (β = 0.489 were more strongly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP falls.Sleep quality and awake physical activity were found to be significantly associated with nocturnal SBP fall, and that relationship was not necessarily confounded by candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension.

  11. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  12. Patient factors that influence warfarin dose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pamela J

    2010-06-01

    Warfarin has long been the mainstay of oral anticoagulation therapy for the treatment and prevention of venous and arterial thrombosis. The narrow therapeutic index of warfarin, and the complex number of factors that influence international normalized ratio (INR) response, makes optimization of warfarin therapy challenging. Determination of the appropriate warfarin dose during initiation and maintenance therapy requires an understanding of patient factors that influence dose response: age, body weight, nutritional status, acute and chronic disease states, and changes in concomitant drug therapy and diet. This review will examine specific clinical factors that can affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin, as well as the role of pharmacogenetics in optimizing warfarin therapy.

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: An important piece in the puzzle of cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cátia; Santos, Beatriz; Severino, Davide; Cabanelas, Nuno; Peres, Marisa; Monteiro, Isabel; Leal, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is a clinical entity characterized by recurring episodes of apnea and/or hypopnea during sleep, due to a total or partial collapse, respectively, of the upper airway. This collapse originates a set of pathophysiological changes that determine the appearance of several cardiovascular complications. OSA contributes for the development of hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias and coronary heart disease. Nowadays it is recognized to be an important public health problem, taking into account not just its repercussions but also its prevalence, since the main risk factor for the disease is obesity, a growing problem worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about OSA, as regards its definition, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, cardiovascular effects and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors related to the occurrence of isolated sleep paralysis elicited during a multi-phasic sleep-wake schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tomoka; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Sasaki, Yuka; Inugami, Maki; Murphy, Timothy I

    2002-02-01

    To further investigate mechanisms of isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) in normal individuals, we experimentally elicited ISPs by facilitating sleep onset REM periods (SOREMP), a prerequisite of ISPs, and examined behavioral and psychological measurements relating to ISP appearances. The multi-phasic sleep/wake schedule (MPS) began at approximately midnight and ended when net sleep reached 7.5 hours. Participants were awakened after every 5 min of REM sleep to obtain a maximum number of SOREMPs. Upon each awakening, mentation reports and subjective measurements were collected. Performance tests were then assigned. Sleep lab, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neurosciences, Japan. Thirteen healthy Japanese students (10 males) with high self-reported frequencies of ISPs but no other narcolepsy-related symptoms. From 184 sleep interruptions, 8 ISP episodes were obtained. In within participant comparisons between episodes with and without ISPs, the vigilance task (VT) reaction times were elevated before SOREMPs with ISPs. In between analyses (ISP vs non-ISP), the ISP group showed poorer performance, more complaints of physical, mental, and neurotic symptoms, increased subjective fatigue and increased stage 1 throughout the entire schedule. VT hit rates remained constant in the non-ISP group, but dropped in the later part of schedule in the ISP group. Subjective sleepiness dropped over time in the non-ISP group while it slightly increased in the ISP group. ISP is likely to appear as a phenotype of REM dissociation during SOREMP when participants with low tolerance for disrupted sleep-wake rhythms are placed in this type of schedule.

  15. What Sways People's Judgment of Sleep Quality? A Quantitative Choice-Making Study With Good and Poor Sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlee, Fatanah; Sanborn, Adam N; Tang, Nicole K Y

    2017-07-01

    We conceptualized sleep quality judgment as a decision-making process and examined the relative importance of 17 parameters of sleep quality using a choice-based conjoint analysis. One hundred participants (50 good sleepers; 50 poor sleepers) were asked to choose between 2 written scenarios to answer 1 of 2 questions: "Which describes a better (or worse) night of sleep?". Each scenario described a self-reported experience of sleep, stringing together 17 possible determinants of sleep quality that occur at different times of the day (day before, pre-sleep, during sleep, upon waking, day after). Each participant answered 48 questions. Logistic regression models were fit to their choice data. Eleven of the 17 sleep quality parameters had a significant impact on the participants' choices. The top 3 determinants of sleep quality were: Total sleep time, feeling refreshed (upon waking), and mood (day after). Sleep quality judgments were most influenced by factors that occur during sleep, followed by feelings and activities upon waking and the day after. There was a significant interaction between wake after sleep onset and feeling refreshed (upon waking) and between feeling refreshed (upon waking) and question type (better or worse night of sleep). Type of sleeper (good vs poor sleepers) did not significantly influence the judgments. Sleep quality judgments appear to be determined by not only what happened during sleep, but also what happened after the sleep period. Interventions that improve mood and functioning during the day may inadvertently also improve people's self-reported evaluation of sleep quality.

  16. Energetic constraints, not predation, influence the evolution of sleep patterning in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Capellini, I.; Nunn, C L; McNamara, P; Preston, B T; Barton, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian sleep is composed of two distinct states – rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep – that alternate in cycles over a sleep bout. The duration of these cycles varies extensively across mammalian species. Because the end of a sleep cycle is often followed by brief arousals to waking, a shorter sleep cycle has been proposed to function as an anti-predator strategy. Similarly, higher predation risk could explain why many species exhibit a polyphasic sleep pattern (division of ...

  17. Study Protocol: The influence of Running Therapy on executive functions and sleep of prisoners [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Meijers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Executive dysfunction appears to be related to increased recidivism. Of note is that sleep disturbances, which are highly prevalent in prisons, may attenuate executive functions. Thus, improving executive functions, either directly or indirectly through the improvement of sleep, may reduce recidivism. It is hypothesised that physical exercise, in the form of Running Therapy, has a direct positive effect on executive functions as well as an indirect effect through the improvement of sleep. Methods/Design: Seventy two (N = 72 detainees in various penitentiary institutions in the Netherlands will be recruited in this study. A baseline measurement, including six neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB, an assessment of sleep quality and duration using the Actiwatch (Actiwatch 2, Philips Respironics, Murrysville, PA, USA and various other measurements will be administered before the start of the treatment. After 3 months of Running Therapy, participants will be assessed again with the same tests for neuropsychological and physical functioning. Primary outcomes are executive functioning and various sleep variables. Discussion: This study will be the first to investigate the possible influence of Running Therapy on the cognitive functioning, sleep and aggression in prisoners.

  18. [Influence of a program of physical activity in children and obese adolescents with sleep apnea; study protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cordero, M J; Sánchez López, A M; Mur Villar, N; Sánchez Marenco, A; Guisado Barrilao, R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies show an alarming increase in the rate of overweight / obesity among the infant - juvenile population. Obesity in childhood is associated with a significant number of complications, such as sleep apnea syndrome, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. It is estimated that the prevalence of sleep apnea in children is 2-3% in the general population, while in obese adolescents, varies between 13% and 66%, according to various studies. It is associated with impairment of neurocognitive function, behavior, cardiovascular system, metabolic disorders and growth. Sleep apnea is a serious public health problem that increases when children and adolescents are overweight or obese. We hypothesize that aerobic endurance exercise can be an effective treatment for obesity and apnea at the same time. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of physical activity in children and adolescents with overweight / obesity in sleep apnea. An observational, descriptive, prospective, longitudinal study will be carried out in children with sleep apnea and obesity. The universe will be made up of 60 children and adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years, attending the endocrinology service for suffering of obesity in the Hospital Clinico San Cecilio of Granada during the period September 2012-September 2013. The smple will consist of children and adolescents that meet these characteristics and to whom their parents/tutors have authorized through the informed consent. Sleep apnea in children wil be measured by polysomnography and sleep quality questionnaire. There will also be a nutritional assessment by a food frequency questionnaire and an anthropometric assessment. Among the expected results are the lower overweight and obesity in children through the physical activity program. To reduce apnea and to improve sleep quality.

  19. Sleeping outside the box: electroencephalographic measures of sleep in sloths inhabiting a rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattenborg, Niels C; Voirin, Bryson; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Kays, Roland W; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Kuemmeth, Franz; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-08-23

    The functions of sleep remain an unresolved question in biology. One approach to revealing sleep's purpose is to identify traits that explain why some species sleep more than others. Recent comparative studies of sleep have identified relationships between various physiological, neuroanatomical and ecological traits, and the time mammals spend in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep. However, owing to technological constraints, these studies were based exclusively on animals in captivity. Consequently, it is unclear to what extent the unnatural laboratory environment affected time spent sleeping, and thereby the identification and interpretation of informative clues to the functions of sleep. We performed the first electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings of sleep on unrestricted animals in the wild using a recently developed miniaturized EEG recorder, and found that brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) inhabiting the canopy of a tropical rainforest only sleep 9.63 h d(-1), over 6 h less than previously reported in captivity. Although the influence of factors such as the age of the animals studied cannot be ruled out, our results suggest that sleep in the wild may be markedly different from that in captivity. Additional studies of various species are thus needed to determine whether the relationships between sleep duration and various traits identified in captivity are fundamentally different in the wild. Our initial study of sloths demonstrates the feasibility of this endeavour, and thereby opens the door to comparative studies of sleep occurring within the ecological context within which it evolved.

  20. Effect of diabetes mellitus on sleep quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a highly prevalent conditionaffecting about 347 million people worldwide. Inaddition to its numerous clinical implications, DM alsoexerts a negative effect on patient's sleep quality.Impaired sleep quality disrupts the adequate glycemiccontrol regarded as corner stone in DM managementand also lead to many deleterious effects causing aprofound impact on health related quality of life. Thisarticle outlines various factors leading to impaired sleepquality among diabetics and delineates how individualfactor influences sleep. The article also discussespotential interventions and lifestyle changes to promotehealthy sleep among diabetics.

  1. 青年肥胖阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征患者糖代谢异常的影响因素%Factors influencing glucose metabolism in young obese subjects with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晨鹃; 李庆云; 李敏; 周俊; 杜娟; 易华华; 冯静; 周丽娜; 王琼

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨青年肥胖阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS)患者糖代谢异常的影响因素.方法 纳入2012年1月至2014年12月行多导睡眠监测(PSG)的青年肥胖者106例,其中男74例,女32例,年龄18 ~44岁,体质指数(BMI)≥30 kg/m2.106例患者中OSAHS组59例,非OSAHS组47例.所有患者于PSG监测次日清晨行口服葡萄糖耐量-胰岛素释放试验(OGTT-IRT),检测血清糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c).计算稳态模型胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)、Matsuda胰岛素敏感性指数(MI)、稳态模型胰岛β细胞功能指数(HOMA-β)、早时相胰岛素分泌指数(△I30/△G30)、180 min胰岛素曲线下面积(AUC-I180)及口服处理指数(DIo),比较组间差异,并采用多元逐步回归法分析相关影响因素.结果 OSAHS组合并糖尿病比例显著高于非OSAHS组(22.0%比4.3%,P=0.009).OSAHS组OGTT 0、30和60 min血糖和HbA1c值均显著高于非OSAHS组(均P<0.05).OSAHS组DIo显著低于非OSAHS组(P =0.024),HOMA-IR、MI、HOMA-β、△I30/△G30、AUC-I180两组间差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).多元逐步回归分析显示OGTT 0、30和60 min血糖与氧减指数(ODI)呈独立正相关(β=0.243,0.273和0.371,均P<0.05).HOMA-β与呼吸暂停低通气指数(AHI)呈独立负相关(β=-0.243,P=0.011),DIo与ODI呈独立负相关(β=-0.234,P=0.031).结论 青年肥胖OSAHS患者较单纯肥胖者有更显著的糖代谢异常和胰岛β细胞代偿功能减退,与夜间呼吸暂停相关的低氧事件独立相关.%Objective To explore the factors influencing glucose metabolism in young obese subjects with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS).Methods A total of 106 young obese subjects[18-44 years old,body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2] were enrolled and divided into two groups based on full-night polysomnography (PSG),OSAHS group[apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5 events/h] and non-OSAHS group (AHI < 5 events/h).Oral glucose tolerance-insulin releasing test (OGTT

  2. The sleeping brain's influence on verbal memory: boosting resistance to interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Ellenbogen

    Full Text Available Memories evolve. After learning something new, the brain initiates a complex set of post-learning processing that facilitates recall (i.e., consolidation. Evidence points to sleep as one of the determinants of that change. But whenever a behavioral study of episodic memory shows a benefit of sleep, critics assert that sleep only leads to a temporary shelter from the damaging effects of interference that would otherwise accrue during wakefulness. To evaluate the potentially active role of sleep for verbal memory, we compared memory recall after sleep, with and without interference before testing. We demonstrated that recall performance for verbal memory was greater after sleep than after wakefulness. And when using interference testing, that difference was even more pronounced. By introducing interference after sleep, this study confirms an experimental paradigm that demonstrates the active role of sleep in consolidating memory, and unmasks the large magnitude of that benefit.

  3. Correlation between obesity and chronic kidney disease: is obstructive sleep apnea an interfering factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos-Camilo M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mariana Santos-Camilo, Stefanie Pires Arães, Camila Hirotsu, Sergio Tufik, Monica Levy Andersen Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil The increasing prevalence of obesity can be considered an alarming issue throughout the world.1 In only 4 years, for example, the People’s Republic of China has experienced an increase in the overweight population from 29.1% to 34.4%.2 Therefore, we would like to congratulate Xu et al3 for conducting an elegant study on a less explored topic: the accumulation of visceral fat in kidney disease. The rise in obesity may result, at least in part, from changes in lifestyle, currently characterized by sedentary, poor eating, and sleep habits. The reduction in sleep duration is known to predispose individuals to obesity by increasing the white adipose tissue deposits such as visceral fat.4,5 Of note, obesity and visceral fat accumulation are etiopathological factors for both chronic kidney disease (CKD and sleep disorders.6,7  View the original paper by Xu et al

  4. [Factors associated with poor sleep quality in the Brazilian population ≥ 40 years of age: VIGICARDIO Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Pareja, Maritza; Loch, Mathias Roberto; Dos Santos, Hellen Geremias; Sakay Bortoletto, Maira Sayuri; Durán González, Alberto; Maffei de Andrade, Selma

    The prevalence of poor sleep quality in men and women ≥ 40 years old from the VIGICARDIO Study was determined, and sociodemographic, health, lifestyle and social capital factors associated with poor sleep quality were identified. A population-based study conducted in 2011 among 1,058 non-institutionalised individuals randomly selected from Cambé, Paraná State, Brazil. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between sleep quality and sociodemographic, health, lifestyle and social capital factors in men and women. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 34% in men and 44% in women. Having bad/regular self-rated health status was a factor associated with poor sleep quality in men (OR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.17-2.72) and women (OR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.68-3.53). Being obese (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.13-2.46), having depression (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.41-3.13) and presenting temporal orientation difficulties (OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.08-3.52) were associated factors in women. Difficulty to understand what is explained (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.16-4.09) and alcohol abuse (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.21-2.83) were associated factors in men. Factors affecting sleep quality are different for men and for women. These factors should be taken into consideration when devising activities that promote good sleep quality, with a view to improving their effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Influencing factors in MMR immunisation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Marie C; Cox, Carol L

    Immunisation decision making is not a straightforward process for parents. Many factors influence parental decision making on whether they immunise their child with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The feasibility study described in this article provides insight into influencing factors associated with decisions regarding the immunisation of children by parents. The study findings suggest that the practice nurse is a credible source of information for parents seeking informed decision making. At a time when the incidence of measles and mumps is rising in the UK, the provision of appropriate information by the practice nurse has the potential to increase uptake of the MMR vaccine.

  6. Which oropharyngeal factors are significant risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea? An age-matched study and dentist perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruangsri S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Supanigar Ruangsri,1,2 Teekayu Plangkoon Jorns,1,2 Subin Puasiri,3 Thitisan Luecha,4 Chariya Chaithap,4 Kittisak Sawanyawisuth5,6 1Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, 2Neuroscience Research and Development Group (NRDG, 3Department of Community Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, 4Faculty of Dentistry, 5Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 6Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. Methods: We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand. Patients with OSA were enrolled in the study, along with age-matched patients with non-OSA (controls. Baseline characteristics, clinical data, and oropharyngeal data of all patients were compared between the two groups. Oropharyngeal measurements included tongue size, torus mandibularis, Mallampati classification, palatal space, and lateral pharyngeal wall area. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with OSA. Results: During the study period, there were 156 patients who met the study criteria; 78 were patients with OSA and the other 78 were healthy control subjects. In the OSA group, there were 43 males with a mean age of 53 (standard deviation 12.29 years and a mean BMI of 30.86 kg/mm2. There were 37 males in the control group with a mean age of 50 (standard deviation 12.04 years and a mean BMI of 24.03 kg/mm2. According to multivariate logistic analysis, three factors were perfectly associated with OSA, including torus mandibularis class 6

  7. INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR LEASING MARKET CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors. This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.

  8. Neuroimmunologic aspects of sleep and sleep loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, N. L.; Szuba, M. P.; Staab, J. P.; Evans, D. L.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    The complex and intimate interactions between the sleep and immune systems have been the focus of study for several years. Immune factors, particularly the interleukins, regulate sleep and in turn are altered by sleep and sleep deprivation. The sleep-wake cycle likewise regulates normal functioning of the immune system. Although a large number of studies have focused on the relationship between the immune system and sleep, relatively few studies have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on immune parameters. Studies of sleep deprivation's effects are important for several reasons. First, in the 21st century, various societal pressures require humans to work longer and sleep less. Sleep deprivation is becoming an occupational hazard in many industries. Second, to garner a greater understanding of the regulatory effects of sleep on the immune system, one must understand the consequences of sleep deprivation on the immune system. Significant detrimental effects on immune functioning can be seen after a few days of total sleep deprivation or even several days of partial sleep deprivation. Interestingly, not all of the changes in immune physiology that occur as a result of sleep deprivation appear to be negative. Numerous medical disorders involving the immune system are associated with changes in the sleep-wake physiology--either being caused by sleep dysfunction or being exacerbated by sleep disruption. These disorders include infectious diseases, fibromyalgia, cancers, and major depressive disorder. In this article, we will describe the relationships between sleep physiology and the immune system, in states of health and disease. Interspersed will be proposals for future research that may illuminate the clinical relevance of the relationships between sleeping, sleep loss and immune function in humans. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  9. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  10. On factors influencing students’ listening abilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡天秀

    2012-01-01

    As we all know,listening,speaking,reading,and writing are four basic skills in language teaching and learning.Listening plays an important role in improving other skills.There are some factors influencing students’ listening abilities.So it’s important for teachers to improve students’ listening abilities.

  11. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  12. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1986-01-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...

  13. Factors influencing the process of farm liquidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dudek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the logit analysis was used in order to define the factors influencing farm liquidation. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its regional differences were analysed. Significant and negative impact of the number of people in a family farm and the number of machinery and technical equipment, as well as the positive impact of the farmer’ age are reported.

  14. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  15. Use of personal EEG monitors in a behavioral neuroscience course to investigate natural setting sleep patterns and the factors affecting them in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jillian C; Malerba, Julie R; Schroeder, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is often a topic of avid interest to college students, yet it is one that does not yield itself well to hands-on, interactive learning modules. Supplementing classroom learning with interactive "real world" laboratory activities provides students with a deeper understanding of behavior and its neural control. The project described here was designed to supplement the teaching of EEGs, sleep and circadian rhythms and involved students in the empirical process from hypothesizing about the factors that affect sleep, to personal data collection, data analysis and writing in the style of a peer-reviewed manuscript. Students enrolled in Behavioral Neuroscience at Connecticut College were provided with a home-based personal EEG monitor used to collect sleep data in their natural sleep setting. Participants recorded sleep data with the use of the ZEO® Personal Sleep Coach system and completed a nightly sleep journal questionnaire for seven nights. The ZEO® system uses EEG patterns to define sleep stages including wakefulness, light, deep and REM sleep. The journal included questions about factors known to affect sleep such as stress, caffeine, academic activity, exercise and alcohol. A class data set was compiled and used by students to perform univariate correlations examining the relationships between ZEO® variables and sleep journal variables. The data set allowed students to choose specific variables to investigate, analyze and write a peer-reviewed style manuscript. Significant class-wide correlations were found between specific sleep stages and behavioral variables suggesting that the ZEO® system is sophisticated yet inexpensive enough to be used as an effective tool in the classroom setting. Overall student feedback on the exercise was positive with many students indicating that it significantly enhanced their understanding of sleep architecture and made them keenly aware of the factors that affect quality of sleep.

  16. Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.

  17. A clinical approach to obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeder MT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Micha T Maeder,1 Otto D Schoch,2 Hans Rickli1 1Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kantonsspital St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular diseases, and increased mortality. Epidemiological studies have established these associations, and there are now numerous experimental and clinical studies which have provided information on the possible underlying mechanisms. Mechanistic proof-of-concept studies with surrogate endpoints have been performed to demonstrate that treatment of OSA by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP has the potential to reverse or at least to attenuate not only OSA but also the adverse cardiovascular effects associated with OSA. However, no randomized studies have been performed to demonstrate that treatment of OSA by CPAP improves clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and/or established cardiovascular disease and concomitant OSA. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of OSA as a potential cardiovascular risk factor, the impact of OSA on cardiac function, the role of OSA as a modifier of the course of cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure, and the insights from studies evaluating the impact of CPAP therapy on the cardiovascular features associated with OSA. Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular, risk, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, hypertension

  18. Medication effects on sleep and breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Gilbert; Tsai, Sheila; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

    2014-09-01

    Sleep respiration is regulated by circadian, endocrine, mechanical and chemical factors, and characterized by diminished ventilatory drive and changes in Pao2 and Paco2 thresholds. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are more pronounced during rapid eye movement. Breathing is influenced by sleep stage and airway muscle tone. Patient factors include medical comorbidities and body habitus. Medications partially improve obstructive sleep apnea and stabilize periodic breathing at altitude. Potential adverse consequences of medications include precipitation or worsening of disorders. Risk factors for adverse medication effects include aging, medical disorders, and use of multiple medications that affect respiration.

  19. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  20. Uncovering Factors Influencing Interpersonal Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Lennie; Jansen, Carel; Hoeks, John

    2017-01-01

    Talking to friends, family, or peers about health issues might, among other things, increase knowledge of social norms and feelings of self-efficacy in adopting a healthier lifestyle. We often see interpersonal health communication as an important mediating factor in the effects of health campaigns on health behavior. No research has been done so far, however, on factors that influence whether and how people talk about health issues without being exposed to a health campaign first. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 12 participants about their communication behavior concerning six different health themes, like smoking and exercising. The results suggest that at least four types of interpersonal health communication can be distinguished, each influenced by different factors, like conversational partner and objective of the conversation. Future research should take this diversity of interpersonal health communication into account, and focus on designing health campaigns that aim to trigger dialogue within target populations.

  1. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilda Pečarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  2. One's sex, sleep, and posttraumatic stress disorder

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    Kobayashi Ihori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women are approximately twice as likely as men to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD after trauma exposure. Mechanisms underlying this difference are not well understood. Although sleep is recognized to have a critical role in PTSD and physical and psychological health more generally, research into the role of sleep in PTSD sex differences has been only recent. In this article, we review both animal and human studies relevant to sex differences in sleep and PTSD with an emphasis on the roles of sex hormones. Sleep impairment including insomnia, trauma-related nightmares, and rapid-eye-movement (REM sleep fragmentation has been observed in individuals with chronic and developing PTSD, suggesting that sleep impairment is a characteristic of PTSD and a risk factor for its development. Preliminary findings suggested sex specific patterns of sleep alterations in developing and established PTSD. Sleep maintenance impairment in the aftermath of trauma was observed in women who subsequently developed PTSD, and greater REM sleep fragmentation soon after trauma was associated with developing PTSD in both sexes. In chronic PTSD, reduced deep sleep has been found only in men, and impaired sleep initiation and maintenance with PTSD have been found in both sexes. A limited number of studies with small samples have shown that sex hormones and their fluctuations over the menstrual cycle influenced sleep as well as fear extinction, a process hypothesized to be critical to the pathogenesis of PTSD. To further elucidate the possible relationship between the sex specific patterns of PTSD-related sleep alterations and the sexually dimorphic risk for PTSD, future studies with larger samples should comprehensively examine effects of sex hormones and the menstrual cycle on sleep responses to trauma and the risk/resilience for PTSD utilizing various methodologies including fear conditioning and extinction paradigms and animal models.

  3. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Enterprise social media platforms provide new ways of sharing knowledge and communicating within organizations to benefit from the social capital and valuable knowledge that employees have. Drawing on social dilemma and self-determination theory, the aim of the study is to understand what...... factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence...... knowledge sharing framework helps to understand what factors impact engagement on social media. Furthermore the article suggests different types of interventions to overcome the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Originality/value: The study contributes to an understanding of factors leading...

  4. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

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    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  5. Sleep: A Health Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyster, Faith S.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Walsh, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health. Citation: Luyster FS; Strollo PJ; Zee PC; Walsh JK. Sleep: a health imperative. SLEEP 2012;35(6):727-734. PMID:22654183

  6. Modifiable Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation: The Role of Alcohol, Obesity, and Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Kiran; Tang, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia affecting a growing number of Canadians. Traditional risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and valvular disease, are often present in older patients with AF. Modifiable risk factors should also be sought in patients presenting with new-onset AF. Obesity is a rapidly growing epidemic in Canada. Emerging evidence is linking obesity and the often coexistent obstructive sleep apnea with an increased incidence of AF. Alcohol intake can also predispose to the development of AF. The purpose of this article is to review recent evidence looking at these modifiable risk factors and how intervention can mitigate these increased risks. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Influence of Obesity on Different Genders in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Tung Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is considered to be a major contributing factor to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; however, there is limited evidence with regard to gender predominance. We analyzed 2345 patients (339 females in correlation with body mass index (BMI and OSA severity. Male AHIs were significantly higher than female AHIs in each BMI group. As the BMI increased, the AHI increased in both males and females, and this trend was more obvious in males. For BMI-matched male and female patients with OSA, the severity of OSA was higher in males. As BMI increased, the severity of OSA increased more obviously in males. Our findings suggest that increased body fat contributes to the pathogenesis of OSA more in males than in females and that obesity plays a more significant role in contributing to OSA in male patients.

  8. Tongue Volume Influences Lowest Oxygen Saturation but Not Apnea-Hypopnea Index in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyeon Ahn

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify correlations between sleep apnea severity and tongue volume or posterior airway space measured via three-dimensional reconstruction of volumetric computerized tomography (CT images in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA for use in predicting OSA severity and in surgical treatment. We also assessed associations between tongue volume and Mallampati score.Snoring/OSA male patients (n = 64 who underwent polysomnography, cephalometry, and CT scans were enrolled in this retrospective study. OSA was diagnosed when the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI was greater than 5 (mild 5-14; moderate 15-29; severe>30. The patients were also categorized into the normal-mild group (n = 22 and the moderate-severe group (n = 42. Using volumetric CT images with the three-dimensional reconstruction technique, the volume of the tongue, posterior airway space volume, and intra-mandibular space were measured. The volumes, polysomnographic parameters, and physical examination findings were compared, and independent factors that are related to OSA were analysed.No associations between tongue volume or posterior airway space and the AHI were observed. However, multivariate linear analyses showed that tongue volume had significantly negative association with lowest O2 saturation (r = 0.365, p = 0.027. High BMI was related to an increase in tongue volume. Modified Mallampati scores showed borderline significant positive correlations with absolute tongue volume (r = 0.251, p = 0.046 and standardized tongue volume (absolute tongue volume / intramandibular area; r = 0.266, p = 0.034. Between the normal-mild and moderate-severe groups, absolute tongue volumes were not different, although the standardized tongue volume in the moderate-severe group was significantly higher.Absolute tongue volume showed stronger associations with lowest O2 saturation during sleep than with the severity of AHI. We also found that high BMI was a relevant factor for

  9. The influence of sleep quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald, J.F.; Meijer, A.M.; Oort, F.J.; Kerkhof, G.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Insufficient sleep, poor sleep quality and sleepiness are common problems in children and adolescents being related to learning, memory and school performance. The associations between sleep quality (k = 16 studies, N = 13,631), sleep duration (k = 17 studies, N = 15,199), sleepiness (k = 17, N =

  10. Age-related influences of prior sleep on brain activation during verbal encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle B Jonelis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Disrupted sleep is more common in older adults (OA than younger adults (YA, often co-morbid with other conditions. How these sleep disturbances affect cognitive performance is an area of active study. We examined whether brain activation during verbal encoding correlates with sleep quantity and quality the night before testing in a group of healthy OA and YA. Twenty-seven OA (ages 59-82 and twenty-seven YA (ages 19-36 underwent one night of standard polysomnography. Twelve hours post-awakening, subjects performed a verbal encoding task while undergoing functional MRI. Analyses examined the group (OA vs. YA by prior sleep quantity (Total Sleep Time (TST or quality (Sleep Efficiency (SE interaction on cerebral activation, controlling for performance. Longer TST promoted higher levels of activation in the bilateral anterior parahippocampi in OA and lower activation levels in the left anterior parahippocampus in YA. Greater SE promoted higher activation levels in the left posterior parahippocampus and right inferior frontal gyrus in YA, but not in OA. The roles of these brain regions in verbal encoding suggest, in OA, longer sleep duration may facilitate functional compensation during cognitive challenges. By contrast, in YA, shorter sleep duration may necessitate functional compensation to maintain cognitive performance, similar to what is seen following acute sleep deprivation. Additionally, in YA, better sleep quality may improve semantic retrieval processes, thereby aiding encoding.

  11. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  13. 驻岛官兵睡眠质量及相关因素分析%The survey on sleep quality and related factors in soldiers stationed on islands.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余海鹰; 杨春; 高志勤; 施建安; 赵汉清

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the sleep quality status and related factors in soldiers stationed on islands. Method 355 soldiers stationed on islands were assessed with self-made soldier' s mental health questionnaire and Pittsburgh sleep quality index questionnaire ( PSQI). Results The detection rate of sleep quality abnormality in soldiers on islands was 26.20% , which was significantly higher than that in normal males (P <0. 01). The score of subjective sleep quality (SSQ), sleep latency ( SL) , sleep duration ( Sdu ) , habitual sleep efficiency ( HSE ) , sleep disturbance (Sdi) , daytime dysfunction (DD) in soldiers on islands were significantly higher than those in normal male population ( P <0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that the notable risk factors of sleep quality abnormality consisted of not being only-child, considering bad relationship with comrades, considering the strict management, un-accustomed to army life, existence of influencing factors to sleep. Conclusion The sleep quality in soldiers stationed on islands is not optimistic, which should be paid more attention.%目的 了解驻岛官兵的睡眠质量状况.方法 采用自制的官兵心理卫生调查问卷及匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)量表对355名某部驻岛官兵进行调查测试.结果 驻岛官兵的睡眠质量异常检出率为26.20%,高于正常男性群体(P<0.01);驻岛官兵的主观睡眠质量( SSQ)、入睡潜伏时间(SL)、睡眠时间(Sdu)、睡眠效率(HSE)、睡眠干扰因素(Sdi)、白天功能障碍(DD)分值及PSQI总分均高于正常男性群体(P<0.01);Logistic回归分析显示:非独生子女、认为与战友关系差、认为部队管理严、不习惯部队生活、有影响自我睡眠的因素存在为睡眠质量异常的显著危险因子.结论 驻岛官兵的睡眠质量状况不容乐观,应当给予进一步关注.

  14. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Cross-sectional study. General population sample. There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and MS, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Tae-Eum Type as an Independent Risk Factor for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Ku Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is prevalent and associated with several kinds of chronic diseases. There has been evidence that a specific type of Sasang constitution is a risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases that can be found in patients with OSA, but there are no studies that address the association between the Sasang constitution type (SCT and OSA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the SCT and OSA. A total of 652 participants were included. All participants were examined for demographic information, medical history, and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on life style and sleep-related variables. Biochemical analyses were performed to determine the glucose and lipid profiles. An objective recording of OSA was done with an unattended home PSG using an Embla portable device. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI and oxygen desaturation index (ODI were significantly higher in the Tae-eum (TE type as compared to the So-eum (SE and the So-yang (SY types. Even after adjusting for confounding variables, the TE type still had a 2.34-fold (95% CI, 1.11–4.94; P=0.0262 increased risk for OSA. This population-based cohort study found that the TE constitutional type is an independent risk factor for the development of OSA.

  16. Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

  17. Investigation Factors That Affecting Sleep Quality and Nursing Intervention in Patients of Orthognathic Postoperative%正颌患者术后睡眠状况影响因素调查及护理干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚瑶

    2013-01-01

      目的:了解正颌术术后患者睡眠状况的发生情况及影响因素并进行相应的护理干预.方法:本文通过采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(Piusburgh sleep quality index,PSQI)量表对住院患者的睡眠状况影响因素进行分析并有针对性的进行护理干预.结果:92.5%的正颌术后患者存在睡眠质量问题,调查发现术后疼痛、环境改变、心理因素等对患者睡眠有不同程度的影响,通过护理干预有效改善了患者的睡眠质量.结论:正颌术后患者存在着较高的睡眠问题,应针对不同的患者采取合理的有针对性的护理干预措施,提高睡眠质量.%Objective:To understand the occurrence and influencing factors of sleep quality after orthognathic surgery and corresponding nursing intervention.Method:In this paper,anthor analyzed the influencing factors of patients sleep state in hospital by using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (Piusburgh sleep quality index,PSQI)and gave them targeted nursing intervention.Result:92.5%patients with orthognathic surgery had the sleep quality problems,this survey found that postoperative pain,environment changes,psychological factors had different effects on sleep.Through the effective nursing intervention improve the sleep quality of patients effectively.Conclusion:Orthognathic patients should have higher sleep problems,for different patients to take reasonable targeted nursing intervention measures can effectively improve the quality of sleep.

  18. 医学生睡眠质量调查及相关因素分析%Sleep quality of medical students and the related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭海; 张海

    2004-01-01

    well-being of human beings. There has been much research about the sleep problems among undergraduate medical students, while the sleep quality of other types of medical students is not well discussed.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sleep quality of undergraduates, seven-year program students and graduate students, and the influencing factors so as to provide a scientific basis for improving the sleep quality of medical students.DESIGN: A sampled survey.SETTING, PARTICIPANTS and METHODS: With cluster sampling method, a total of 998 subjects were selected from Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, involving undergraduates,seven-year program students and graduate students, and a self-made sleep status questionnaire was used for a survey. We got 918 valid questionnaires,including 389 males and 529 females, with an age range of 16 to 35 years old.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The sleep quality of the students was evaluated in the light of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index(PSQI) . The score no less than 8 was taken as the criterion of having a sleep disorder. The influencing factors included general status and psychological health status.RESULTS: 17.32% of the people had problems in sleep quality. The prevalence rates of the sleep disorder were 23.37%, 14.02% and 12. 16% in undergraduates, seven-year course students and graduate students respectively. The former one was significantly higher than the latter two(x2 = 16. 07, P < 0.01 ). Stepwise regression analysis found that the factors that affected the sleep quality were bad sleep environment, discomfort of the bedclothes, anxiety, depression, great pressure from study and taking little exercise. The score of PSQI of undergraduates was significantly higher than that of the other two sorts of students( F = 15.20, P < 0.05). The score of sleep latency of seven-year program students was significantly lower than that of the other two sorts of students( F = 9. 17, P < 0.05), and the score of

  19. Sleep deprivation influences some but not all processes of supervisory attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, J. R.; Monk, T. H.; van der Molen, M. W.

    2003-01-01

    Does one night of sleep deprivation alter processes of supervisory attention in general or only a specific subset of such processes? Twenty college-aged volunteers, half female, performed a choice reaction time task. A cue indicated that compatible (e.g., right button, right-pointing arrow) or incompatible (e.g., left button, right-pointing arrow) responses were to be given to a stimulus that followed 50 or 500 ms later. The paradigm assessed response inhibition, task-shifting skill, and task strategy-processes inherent in supervisory attention. Performance, along with heart rate, was assessed for 12 hr following normal sleep or a night of complete sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation altered neither preparation for task shifting nor response inhibition. The ability to use preparatory bias to speed performance did decrease with sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation appears to selectively affect this supervisory attention process, which is perceived as an active effort to cope with a challenging task.

  20. Sleep deprivation influences some but not all processes of supervisory attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, J. R.; Monk, T. H.; van der Molen, M. W.

    2003-01-01

    Does one night of sleep deprivation alter processes of supervisory attention in general or only a specific subset of such processes? Twenty college-aged volunteers, half female, performed a choice reaction time task. A cue indicated that compatible (e.g., right button, right-pointing arrow) or incompatible (e.g., left button, right-pointing arrow) responses were to be given to a stimulus that followed 50 or 500 ms later. The paradigm assessed response inhibition, task-shifting skill, and task strategy-processes inherent in supervisory attention. Performance, along with heart rate, was assessed for 12 hr following normal sleep or a night of complete sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation altered neither preparation for task shifting nor response inhibition. The ability to use preparatory bias to speed performance did decrease with sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation appears to selectively affect this supervisory attention process, which is perceived as an active effort to cope with a challenging task.

  1. Psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems: a longitudinal study of the general working population in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Håkon A; Sterud, Tom

    2017-04-20

    A growing number of longitudinal studies report associations between adverse psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems. However, the evidence regarding the direction of these associations and the effects of changes in exposure across time is limited. This study examined the plausibility of normal, reverse, and reciprocal associations between ten psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems. In addition, we analyzed if reduced exposure across time had the anticipated result of reducing the risk of sleep problems. Randomly drawn from the general working-age population, the cohort comprised respondents with an active employee relationship in 2009 and 2013 (N = 5760). Exposures and outcome were measured on two occasions separated by 4 years. We computed several sex-stratified logistic regression models with adjustments for various plausible confounders. We found support for the commonly hypothesized unidirectional forward associations between psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems among women only. Among men, psychosocial stressors at work and sleep problems were reciprocally and reversely related. Nevertheless, reduced exposure levels across time pertaining to effort-reward imbalance (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.19-0.69) and lack of social support (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.32-0.93) among men, and work-family imbalance (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.15-0.46) among women were associated with a robust significant lower risk of sleep problems compared to those in the stable high exposure groups. The study results suggest that preventive measures targeting effort-reward imbalance and lack of social support among men, and work-family imbalance among women, might contribute to reduce the risk of troubled sleep among employees.

  2. Predation and the phasing of sleep : an evolutionary individual-based model

    OpenAIRE

    Acerbi, Alberto; Nunn, Charles Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    All mammals thus far studied sleep, yet important questions remain concerning the ecological factors that influence sleep patterns. Here, we developed an evolutionary individual-based model to investigate the effect of predation pressure on prey sleep. We investigated three ecological conditions, including one that assumed a dynamic interaction between predator and prey behaviour. In condition 1, we found that monophasic predators (i.e. with one sleep bout per 24 h) select for monophasic prey...

  3. Factors influencing the feasibility of laparoscopy colectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhiyun; Zhang Zhongtao

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective was to review the factors affecting the feasibility of performing successful laparoscopic colectomy.Data sources The literatures about the risk factors closely related to the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy on different surgical diseases of the colon cited in this review were obtained from PubMed published in English from 2006 to 2012.Study selection Original articles regarding the risk factors that affect the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy were selected.Results Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,advanced age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of developing serious complications such as hemorrhage,anastomotic leak,and skin and soft tissue infections following laparoscopic colectomy.These factors also increase the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.In this study,we reviewed the recent original articles about the relationship of laparoscopic colectomy with these risk factors.We also describe some strategies that limit the likelihood of these complications and the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.Conclusions Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of either serious complications or conversion to open operation with laparoscopic colectomy.Evaluation of these risk factors preoperatively should influence the decision to perform colectomy using laparoscopic techniques.

  4. 老年缺血性脑卒中患者睡眠障碍相关因素研究%Research on Related Factors of Sleep Disorders of Elderly Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晓琴; 戚萌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the influencing factors of sleep disorders of elderly ischemic stroke patients. Methods 224 ca-ses of elderly ischemic stroke patients were selected and their related information was collected. They were divided into research group and control group according to whether they had sleep disorders or not. The difference of clinical features was analyzed and compared to explore the risk factors. Results There was statistically significant difference between the two groups in elderly patients who lived a-lone, smokers, patients with hypertension and sleep apnea syndrome, patients with the inclination of anxiety or depression, and pa-tients whose stroke happened under the cerebral cortex of brain. Depression, sleep apnea syndrome, and subcortical stroke were risk factors of sleep disorder of elderly ischemic stroke patients. Conclusion There exit many influencing factors for sleep disorder of eld-erly ischemic stroke patients. With the knowledge of the factors, we should discover and eliminate sleep disorders as soon as possible.%目的:分析老年缺血性脑卒中患者睡眠障碍( sleep disorders)的影响因素。方法纳入老年缺血性脑卒中( elderly ischemic stroke)患者224例,搜集患者相关资料,根据是否存在睡眠障碍列为研究组及对照组,分析比较两组患者的临床特点差异,筛选危险因素。结果研究组中空巢老人( living alone elderly patients),吸烟者,合并有高血压、睡眠障碍综合征( sleep apnea syndrome),有焦虑、抑郁倾向者,缺血性卒中部位分布于皮层下者,与对照组相比,差异有统计学意义。抑郁( depression)、睡眠障碍综合征、皮层下卒中( under the cerebral cortex of brain stroke)是老年缺血性脑卒中患者合并睡眠障碍的危险因素。结论缺血性脑卒中合并睡眠障碍患者影响因素较多,临床上应从相关影响因素出发,及早发现并纠正睡眠障碍。

  5. Daytime sleepiness and sleep habits as risk factors of traffic accidents in a group of Turkish public transport drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Cahit; Etcibaşı, Şeref; Öztürk, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To explore the association of daytime sleepiness, sleep complaints and sleep habits with self-reported car crashes among public transport drivers. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on male professional public drivers in two different cities using a validated, self-administered sleep questionnaire which comprised of symptoms suggesting sleep disorders, a subjective report of daytime sleepiness and driving characteristics. The subjects (mean age±SD, 40±11 years) were divided into two groups: (1) accident group and (2) no accident group. Results: Forty nine (15.3%) of the 320 public drivers reported that they had at least one sleepiness related motor vehicle accident and/or near-missed accident (Group 1). The mean age, body mass index and annual distance driven were similar in both groups. Although Group 1 reported less sleep time per night, more witnessed apneas, abnormal sleep, alcohol use and had higher mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores than Group 2, multivariate analysis of risk factors revealed that only daytime sleepiness increase the risk of traffic accidents [OR: 1.32 (1.19-1.47)]. Conclusion: These results suggest that self-reported sleepiness is a predictive sign of traffic accidents due to driver sleepiness. PMID:24482715

  6. Primary nocturnal enuresis as a risk factor for sleep disorders: an observational questionnaire-based multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, “Magna Graecia” University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, ItalyIntroduction: Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE is a common problem in developmental age with an estimated overall prevalence ranging from 1.6% to 15%, and possible persistence during adolescence. There is a growing interest in the sleep habits of children affected by PNE, which is derived from the contradictory data present in clinical literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of sleep disturbances in a population of children affected by PNE, and to identify whether PNE could be considered as a risk factor for sleep disturbances among children.Materials and methods: A total of 190 PNE children (97 males, 93 females aged 7–15 years, (mean 9.64 ± 1.35 years, and 766 typically developing children matched for age (P = 0.131 and gender (P = 0.963 were enrolled. To evaluate the presence of sleep habits and disturbances, all of the subjects’ mothers filled out the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children (SDSC, a questionnaire consisting of six subscales: Disorders in Initiating and Maintaining Sleep (DIMS, Sleep Breathing Disorders (SBD, Disorders of Arousal (DA, Sleep–Wake Transition Disorders (SWTD, Disorders of Excessive Somnolence (DOES, and Nocturnal Hyperhidrosis (SHY. The results were divided into “pathological” and “normal” scores using a cut

  7. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  8. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  9. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, N Venkata Naga; Prasanna, P Muthu; Sakarkar, Suhas Narayan; Prabha, K Surya; Ramaiah, P Seetha; Srawan, G Y

    2010-05-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the quality preservation techniques of sensitive substances and a method for production of materials with new valuable properties. Microencapsulation is a process of enclosing micron-sized particles in a polymeric shell. There are different techniques available for the encapsulation of drug entities. The encapsulation efficiency of the microparticle or microsphere or microcapsule depends upon different factors like concentration of the polymer, solubility of polymer in solvent, rate of solvent removal, solubility of organic solvent in water, etc. The present article provides a literature review of different microencapsulation techniques and different factors influencing the encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulation technique.

  10. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarkoti, Bishal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING BENDING RIGIDITY OF SUBMERGED VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Long-hua; YANG Xiao-li

    2011-01-01

    The bending rigidity of submerged vegetation is closely related with vegetative drag force.This work aims at determining the effects of flow conditions and characteristics of vegetation on the bending rigidity of submerged vegetation.Based on the dimensional analysis method,the factors influencing the bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation were analyzed.The relationship between the relative bending rigidity and its influencing factors was investigated by experimental observation,and a relative bending rigidity expression for submerged vegetation was obtained by means of multiple linear regression method.The results show that the submerged vegetation has three states under different inflow conditions,and the each critical relative bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation was determined for the different states of submerged vegetation.

  12. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  13. Factors Influencing Impulse Buying in Retail Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgadze, Nino

    2014-01-01

    Impulse buying is a widely pervasive phenomenon. Statistics shows that more and more shoppers are experiencing irresistible urge to purchase unplanned and in most cases unnecessary product. Existing researches fall short in identifying most suitable tools that marketers can adopt in order to promote impulsive sales. Therefore, this thesis provides deep analysis of those, controllable factors that influence impulse buying. Particularly four external cues are examined: product display, promotio...

  14. Major Factors influences the 2008 Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2007 was an unusual year for China's stock market, as the index climbed from 2675 points up to 6124 by the end of the year, setting new records again and again throughout 2007. What will happen to the stock market in the coming 2008? Let's havea look at some of the main factors that will influence the stock market this year, perhaps we can find out if 2008 will be another memorable year full of surprises.

  15. Gender influences on performance, mood and recovery sleep in fatigued aviators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J A; LeDuc, P A

    1998-12-01

    Female aviators now are able to serve in combat roles, but few studies have addressed potential differences between the ability of males and females to withstand combat stressors. This study examined responses of men and women to one operational stressor, sleep deprivation. Pilots were tested on flight performance and mood during 40-h periods of sustained wakefulness. Baseline and recovery sleep also were examined. Gender produced no operationally-significant effects of flight performance or recovery sleep. Although mood tests showed that women felt less tense and more energetic than men, there were no interactions between sleep deprivation and gender on either flight performance or psychological mood.

  16. Influence of sleep self-adaptation on sleep quality in Chinese military personnel%中国军人睡眠自适应能力与睡眠质量的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔红; 胡军生; 郭渝成

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sleep self-adaptation for Chinese military personnel and the correlations with sleep quality. Methods 857 soldiers completed the Sleep Quality Scale of Chinese Military Personnel (SQSCMP) and the Soldier Sleep Self-Adaptation Scale (SSSAS). Results The average level of sleep selfadaptation of Chinese military personnel was 2.89, below the theoretical midpoint score 3. There were significant positive correlations between the sleep quality and the global level of sleep self-adaptation and its 5 factors ( r =0. 16 ~ 0. 533, P < 0.001 ), except the factor of perceived importance of sleep ( r = -0.027 ). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the major determinants of the sleep quality were the factors of positive attitudes about sleep,the positive self-suggastions on sleep and the ability of anti-disturbance of sleep. Conclusion The positive and appropriate attitudes and beliefs about sleep are of benefit to sleep quality.%目的 探讨中国军人的睡眠自适应能力水平及其与睡眠质量的关系.方法 采用军人睡眠自适应量表和中国军人睡眠质量量表对857名军人进行了调查.结果 中国军人的睡眠自适应水平中等偏低,平均分为2.89分,低于理论中点分3分;睡眠质量与睡眠自适应水平之间的关系较为密切,除了与对睡眠的重视因子相关不显著外(相关系数为-0.027),与睡眠自适应总体水平及其5个因子的相关在0.16至0.533之间(P<0.01);睡眠的积极暗示、睡眠的抗干扰力和睡眠的积极态度等3个因子是影响军人睡眠质量总体水平的主要因素.结论 睡眠有关的积极、正确的信念与态度能够有效改善人们的睡眠质量.

  17. Is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome a risk factor for pulmonary thromboembolism?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kezban Ozmen Suner; Ali Nihat Annakkaya; Umran Toru; Talha Dumlu; Ege Gulec Balbay; Peri Arbak; Leyla Yilmaz Aydin; Hasan Suner

    2012-01-01

    Background In many studies,obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease.Conversely,there are few reports establishing possible relation between OSA and venous thromboembolism (VTE).In this study,the aim is to evaluate OSA via polysomnography in patients with pulmonary embolism and drawing the attention of clinicians to the presence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may be a risk factor for pulmonary embolism.Methods Fifty consecutive patients who were diagnosed with pulmonary embolism (PE) were evaluated prospectively for OSAS.Polysomnographic examination was conducted on 30 volunteer patients.The frequency of OSAS in PE was determined and PE cases were compared to each other after being divided into two groups based on the presence of a major risk factor.Results The study consisted of a total of 30 patients (14 females and 16 males).In 56.7% of the patients (17/30),OSAS was determined.The percent of cases with moderate and severe OSAS (apnea hipoapnea index>15) was 26.7%(8/30).Patients who had pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) without any known major VTE risk (n=20),were compared to patients with VTE risk factors (n=10),and significantly higher rates of OSAS were seen (70% and 30% respectively;P=-0.045).The mean age of the group with major PE risk factors was lower than the group without major PE risk factors (52 years old and 66 years old,respectively; P=0.015),however,weight was greater in the group with major PE risk factors (88 kg and 81 kg,respectively; P=0.025).By multivariate Logistic regression analysis,in the group without any visible major risk factors,the only independent risk factor for PE was OSAS (P=0.049).Conclusions In patients with PTE,OSA rates were much higher than in the general population.Moreover,the rate for patients with clinically significant moderate and severe OSA was quite high.PTE patients with OSA symptoms (not syndromes) and without known major risk factor

  18. Factors influencing the eicosanoids synthesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefel, Jarosław; Kruszewski, Wiesław Janusz; Sobczak, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    External factors activate a sequence of reactions involving the reception, transduction, and transmission of signals to effector cells. There are two main phases of the body's reaction to harmful factors: the first aims to neutralize the harmful factor, while in the second the inflammatory process is reduced in size and resolved. Secondary messengers such as eicosanoids are active in both phases. The discovery of lipoxins and epi-lipoxins demonstrated that not all arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives have proinflammatory activity. It was also revealed that metabolites of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins also take part in the resolution of inflammation. Knowledge of the above properties has stimulated several clinical trials on the influence of EPA and DHA supplementation on various diseases. However, the equivocal results of those trials prevent the formulation of guidelines on EPA and DHA supplementation. Prescription drugs are among the substances with the strongest influence on the profile and quantity of the synthesized eicosanoids. The lack of knowledge about their influence on the conversion of EPA and DHA into eicosanoids may lead to erroneous conclusions from clinical trials.

  19. Prevalence, Associated Factors and Treatment of Sleep Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wouw, E.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    In people with intellectual disability (ID), impaired sleep is common. Life expectancy has increased in this group, and it is known that in general population sleep deteriorates with aging. Therefore the aims of this systematic review were to examine how sleep problems are defined in research among adults and older people with ID, and to collect…

  20. Influences of early shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm, mood and sleep: within-subject variation in male airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600 h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200 h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times over the day on two consecutive early shift days, two late days and two rest days. Sampling was scheduled at waking, waking+30 m, waking+2.5 h, waking+8 h, waking+12 h and bedtime. Waking time, sleep duration, sleep quality and working hours were also recorded. Cortisol responses were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance with shift condition (early, late, rest) and sample time (1-6) as within-subject factors. Early shifts were associated with a higher cortisol increase in response to awakening (CAR(i)), a greater total cortisol output over the day (AUC(G)) and a slower rate of decline over the day than late shifts or rest days. Early shifts were also associated with shorter sleep duration but co-varying for sleep duration did not alter the effects of shift on the cortisol rhythm. Both types of work shift were associated with more stress, tiredness and lower happiness than rest days, but statistical adjustment for mood ratings did not alter the findings. Early shift days were associated with significantly higher levels of circulating cortisol during waking hours than late shifts or rest days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Review of Factors Influencing Health Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Almaspoor Khanghah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : Inequity in health is a universal term which is used for showing current differences, variations and inequalities of people in accessing to health services. The current study aimed to assess the factors influencing health inequalities to present the results to the researchers and health care professionals. Material and Methods : In this review, several databases including PubMed, Proquest, Scopus, Google Scholar search engine, SID and IranDoc were searched within 2000-2014 period. We found 746 articles and refined them step by step according to the aim of the study by reviewing the titles, abstracts and full texts. Finally, 16 articles were selected for further study Results: In the present study, identified determinants in health inequalities were as follows: 1- Economic and income factors 2- Political factors, social and public policy 3- Cultural and social values 4- social and demographic factors 5- Behavioral, psychological and biological factors. Although, other factors like governmental, international, social cohesion, incidents and even the health system itself were involved in health inequalities, but the listed determinants were among the most important determinants in health inequalities in the conducted studies. Conclusion : Given the importance of people's health and inequalities in health, the approach should focus on reducing the inequalities in all policies and development programs and the role of these factors should be taken into consideration by managers and policy-makers

  2. Evaluation of the risk factors of depressive disorders comorbid with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai LQ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liqiang Cai,1 Luoyi Xu,1 Lili Wei,1 Yi Sun,2 Wei Chen1,3 1Department of Psychiatry, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 2Department of Electroencephalogram, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, 3Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Chinese Ministry of Health, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Objective: Overlap of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA complicates diagnosis of depressive disorder and renders antidepressant treatment challenging. Previous studies have reported that the incidence of OSA is higher in patients with depression than in the general population. The purpose of this article was to investigate clinical risk factors to predict OSA in depression disorders.Methods: A total of 115 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD and bipolar disorder (in a major depressive episode, who underwent overnight polysomnography, were studied retrospectively. They were divided into two groups: non-OSA and OSA. The patients who had apnea–hypopnea index (AHI <5 were defined as the non-OSA group, whereas the OSA group was defined as those with an AHI ≥5. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association among AHI and clinical factors, including sex, age, body mass index (BMI, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, and diagnosis (MDD or bipolar disorder [in a major depressive episode].Results: In 115 patients, 51.3% had OSA. Logistic regression analysis showed significant associations between AHI and diagnosis (MDD or bipolar disorder [in a major depressive episode], BMI, HAMD, and PSQI (P<0.05.Conclusion: The findings of our study suggested that the rate of depression being comorbid with OSA is remarkably high and revealed that there is a high rate of undetected OSA among depressive disorder patients and untreated OSA among mood

  3. Orexin and sleep quality in anorexia nervosa: Clinical relevance and influence on treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauchelli, Sarah; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Sánchez, Isabel; Riesco, Nadine; Custal, Nuria; Fernández-García, Jose C; Garrido-Sánchez, Lourdes; Tinahones, Francisco J; Steiger, Howard; Israel, Mimi; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; de la Torre, Rafael; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Ortega, Francisco J; Frühbeck, Gema; Granero, Roser; Tárrega, Salome; Crujeiras, Ana B; Rodríguez, Amaia; Estivill, Xavier; Beckmann, Jacques S; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, Jose M; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Orexins/hypocretins are orexigenic peptides implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and the sleep/wake cycle. Little is known about the functioning of these peptides in anorexia nervosa (AN). The aims of the current study were to evaluate the extent to which orexin-A might be linked to sleep and treatment outcome in AN. Fasting plasma orexin-A concentrations were measured in 48 females with AN at the start of a day hospital treatment and in 98 normal-eater/healthy-weight controls. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was administered at the beginning of the treatment as a measure of sleep quality. Other psychopathological variables were evaluated with the Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL90R) and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI). Patients were assessed at the start and end of treatment by means of commonly used diagnostic criteria and clinical questionnaires. The AN patients presented more sleep disturbances and poorer overall sleep quality than did the healthy controls (p=.026) but there were no global differences between groups in plasma orexin-A concentrations (p=.071). In the AN sample, orexin-A concentrations were associated with greater sleep disturbances (|r|=.30), sleep inefficiency (|r|=.22) and poorer overall sleep (|r|=.22). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) showed that both elevated orexin-A concentrations and inadequate sleep predicted poorer treatment outcome. Plasma orexin-A concentrations contribute to poor sleep quality in AN, and both of these variables are associated with therapy response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nursing assessment of obstructive sleep apnea in hospitalised adults: a review of risk factors and screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Alison; Belan, Ingrid; Neill, Jane; Rowland, Sharn

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 2-4% of the general population and may be more prevalent in obese adults. However, sleep apnea remains consistently under-diagnosed in the general population as well as in hospital wards. Nurse awareness of OSA during routine monitoring could allow specific observations of hospitalised adults to identify those at high risk and ensure appropriate referral. This integrative literature review analysed major risk factors for OSA and identified screening tools that nurses could utilise in hospital wards. The most important risk factors relevant to nursing practice in hospital settings were obesity, hypertension and sleep position. The most suitable screening tool was the Berlin Questionnaire, while there was some evidence to support measuring waist circumference. A nursing assessment flow chart was developed based on the literature reviewed. This paper highlights a role for nurses in recognising patients at risk of OSA and minimising complications in hospitalised adults.

  5. Risk factors for isolated sleep paralysis in an African American sample: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Raffa, Susan D; White, Kamila S; Barlow, David H

    2008-12-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) is a temporary period of involuntary immobility that can occur at sleep onset or offset. It has previously been reported in association with both panic disorder (PD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study examined the association between ISP and several possible risk factors--anxiety sensitivity, trauma exposure, life stress, and paranormal beliefs--in a sample of African American participants with and without a history of ISP. Significant between-group differences were found for PD and PTSD diagnoses, anxiety sensitivity, life stress, and certain aspects of paranormal belief, with the ISP group being higher on all of these indices. No differences were found with regard to trauma exposure. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that PD, anxiety sensitivity, and life stress each contributed unique variance to ISP cognitive symptoms, whereas PTSD and paranormal beliefs did not. These results provide preliminary support for an association between ISP and anxiety sensitivity and corroborate previous reports of ISP's association with PD and life stress. The current trauma/PTSD findings are mixed, however, and warrant future research.

  6. Serum Level of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jing; XU Yongjian; ZHANG Zhenxiang; LIU Huiguo; XIONG Weining; XU Shuyun

    2007-01-01

    To explore the relationship between the serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)level and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), the concentrations of serum VEGF in 40 OSAHS patients and 9 healthy controls were measured by using ELISA method.Meanwhile the correlation between the concentration of VEGF and parameters of polysomnography (PSG) was examined. Our results showed that the concentrations of VEGF were significantly higher in OSAHS patients with severe hypoxia (536.8±334.7 pg/mL) than in those with mild hypoxia (329.2±174.7 pg/mL) and healthy controls (272. 8±211.0 pg/mL) (P<0.05 for both). The concentrations of VEGF were also significantly higher in OSAHS patients with hypertension (484.5±261.4 pg/mL) than in those without hypertension (311.0±158.4 pg/mL) and healthy controls (272. 8±211.0 pg/mL) (P<0.05 for both). There was a positive correlation between the concentration of VEGF and the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) (γ=0.34, P<0.05). It is concluded that the concentration of the serum VEGF is positively related to the severity of OSAHS. The elevated serum VEGF level may be involved in the pathogenesis of the complications of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.

  7. Genetic background influences age-related decline in visual and nonvisual retinal responses, circadian rhythms, and sleep.

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, G; Heise, I; Starbuck, B; Osborne, T.; Wisby, L; De Potter, P; Jackson, IJ; Foster, RG; Peirson, SN; Nolan, PM

    2015-01-01

    The circadian system is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via retinal photoreceptors and regulates numerous aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep. These processes are all key factors in healthy aging showing a gradual decline with age. Despite their importance, the exact mechanisms underlying this decline are yet to be fully understood. One of the most effective tools we have to understand the genetic factors underlying these processes are genetically inbred mouse ...

  8. Magnitude and influencing factors of parasomnia in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury Habibur Rasul; Khan Golam Mostafa; Nitya Nanda Baruri; Jakia Sultana

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasomnias are undesirable events occurring in the sleep-wake transition period. Several predisposing factors are reported to induce parasomnia in preschool children. Objective To estimate the magnitude of parasomnia in school children and to evaluate its relationship with possible predisposing factors. Methods Five hundred children aged 5-16 years from a boys’ school and a girls’ school in Khulna City, Bangladesh, were randomly selected for the study conducted from July t...

  9. Magnitude and influencing factors of parasomnia in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury Habibur Rasul; Khan Golam Mostafa; Nitya Nanda Baruri; Jakia Sultana

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasomnias are undesirable events occurring in the sleep-wake transition period. Several predisposing factors are reported to induce parasomnia in preschool children. Objective To es timate the magnitude of parasomnia in school children and to evaluate its relationship with possible predisposing factors . Methods Five hundred children aged 5- 16 years from a boys' school and a girls' school in Khulna City, Ban gladesh, were randomly selected for the study c...

  10. CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Jozsef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.

  11. Automatic SLEEP staging: From young aduslts to elderly patients using multi-class support vector machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul; Sorensen, Helge B. D.

    2013-01-01

    , and not the affected sleep events. The age-related influences are then reduced by robust subject-specific scaling. The classification of the three sleep stages are achieved by a multi-class support vector machine using the one-versus-rest scheme. It was possible to obtain a high classification accuracy of 0......Aging is a process that is inevitable, and makes our body vulnerable to age-related diseases. Age is the most consistent factor affecting the sleep structure. Therefore, new automatic sleep staging methods, to be used in both of young and elderly patients, are needed. This study proposes...... an automatic sleep stage detector, which can separate wakefulness, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep using only EEG and EOG. Most sleep events, which define the sleep stages, are reduced with age. This is addressed by focusing on the amplitude of the clinical EEG bands...

  12. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  13. The Influence of a Mandibular Advancement Plate on Polysomnography in Different Grades of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Raunio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a mandibular advancement device on different grades of obstructive sleep apnea using a relatively simple test for the apnea-hypopnea index to determine if a mandibular device will be effective. Material and Methods: A total of 68 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS including, 31 with mild, 23 with moderate and 14 with severe OSAS were treated with a mandibular advancement device (MAD and monitored with polysomnography. Results: 25 of the 31 mild, 15 of the 23 moderate and 2 of the 14 severe OSAS patients were cured of their OSAS if a post treatment apnea-hypopnea index of less than 5 is regarded as cured. The odds ratios for success with MAD therapy are 3 for women over men, 14.9 for mild obstructive sleep apnea, 5.42 for moderate obstructive sleep apnea if severe obstructive sleep apnea is assigned an odds ratio of 1. Conclusions: The use of the apnea-hypopnea index alone is useful in mild and moderate disease to predict the effectiveness of mandibular advancement device. Treatment with a mandibular advancement device is very effective in treating mild and moderate obstructive sleep apnea. Conservative treatment with a mandibular advancement device can be successful in less severe grades of sleep apnea and may be an alternative for non-surgical patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea intolerant of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure management.

  14. The influence of sleep deprivation and knowledge of results on perceptual encoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyvers, Franciscus J.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    This study investigates the way sleep deprivation effects on perceptual processes are modulated by knowledge of results (KR). In a choice-reaction task, signal quality was manipulated, combined with and without KR and under increasing levels of lack of sleep. It was found that the decrease of

  15. The influence of sleep deprivation and knowledge of results on perceptual encoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyvers, Franciscus J.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    This study investigates the way sleep deprivation effects on perceptual processes are modulated by knowledge of results (KR). In a choice-reaction task, signal quality was manipulated, combined with and without KR and under increasing levels of lack of sleep. It was found that the decrease of perfor

  16. Evaluation of the risk factors of depressive disorders comorbid with obstructive sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liqiang; Xu, Luoyi; Wei, Lili; Sun, Yi; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Objective Overlap of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) complicates diagnosis of depressive disorder and renders antidepressant treatment challenging. Previous studies have reported that the incidence of OSA is higher in patients with depression than in the general population. The purpose of this article was to investigate clinical risk factors to predict OSA in depression disorders. Methods A total of 115 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (in a major depressive episode), who underwent overnight polysomnography, were studied retrospectively. They were divided into two groups: non-OSA and OSA. The patients who had apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) <5 were defined as the non-OSA group, whereas the OSA group was defined as those with an AHI ≥5. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association among AHI and clinical factors, including sex, age, body mass index (BMI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and diagnosis (MDD or bipolar disorder [in a major depressive episode]). Results In 115 patients, 51.3% had OSA. Logistic regression analysis showed significant associations between AHI and diagnosis (MDD or bipolar disorder [in a major depressive episode]), BMI, HAMD, and PSQI (P<0.05). Conclusion The findings of our study suggested that the rate of depression being comorbid with OSA is remarkably high and revealed that there is a high rate of undetected OSA among depressive disorder patients and untreated OSA among mood disorder patients. The clinical risk factors (diagnosis [MDD or bipolar disorder {in a major depressive episode}], BMI, HAMD, and PSQI) could predict AHI or OSA diagnosis and contribute to OSA screening in depressive disorder patients. PMID:28144146

  17. Assessment of Quality of Sleep and its Relationship with Psychiatric Morbidity and Socio-Demographic Factors in the Patients of Chronic Renal Disease Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Usama Bin; Butt, Batool

    2017-07-01

    To assess the subjective sleep quality and its relationship with the presence of psychiatric morbidity in the patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) and undergoing the procedure of hemodialysis (HD); and analyze the associated socio-demographic factors. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Nephrology Department, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July to December 2016. Patients of CKD undergoing the HD were included in the final analysis. Quality of sleep was determined by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Psychiatric morbidity was determined by the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). Relationship of education, BMI, gender, age, duration of dialysis, dialysis count per week, marital status, level of family income, psychiatric morbidity, occupation, biochemical markers (urea, creatinine, BUN, albumin, calcium, phosphorous and hemoglobin), tobacco smoking, and use of naswar was determined with the sleep quality. One hundred and forty patients were screened through the PSQI; 44 (31.4%) had good quality of sleep while 96 (68.6%) had poor sleep quality. Statistical analysis revealed that presence of psychiatric morbidity, increasing age, female gender, being unmarried, low family income, and low frequency of dialysis had significant association with the poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality was highly prevalent among the patients of CKD receiving the hemodialysis. The patients with low family income, more age, and with two or less dialysis sessions per week should be screened thoroughly for the sleep problems. Presence of psychiatric morbidity emerged as an independent factor responsible for the poor sleep quality in our target population.

  18. The interaction between sleep quality and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrberg, K; Dresler, M; Niedermaier, S; Steiger, A; Genzel, L

    2012-12-01

    Sleep quality has significant effects on cognitive performance and is influenced by multiple factors such as stress. Contrary to the ideal, medical students and residents suffer from sleep deprivation and stress at times when they should achieve the greatest amount of learning. In order to examine the relationship between sleep quality and academic performance, 144 medical students undertaking the pre-clinical board exam answered a survey regarding their subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index, PSQI), grades and subjective stress for three different time points: semester, pre- and post-exam. Academic performance correlated with stress and sleep quality pre-exam (r = 0.276, p performance meant low sleep quality and high stress), however not with the stress or sleep quality during the semester and post-exam. 59% of all participants exhibited clinically relevant sleep disturbances (PSQI > 5) during exam preparation compared to 29% during the semester and 8% post-exam. This study shows that in medical students it is not the generally poor sleepers, who perform worse in the medical board exams. Instead students who will perform worse on their exams seem to be more stressed and suffer from poor sleep quality. However, poor sleep quality may negatively impact test performance as well, creating a vicious circle. Furthermore, the rate of sleep disturbances in medical students should be cause for intervention.

  19. Environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present an overview of recent findings on the environmental and behavioral factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis. The authors primarily concentrated on deliberations of possibile main causes of the damage of the endothelium. At the same time the following pathogenic mechanisms as cellular dysfunction, inflammation and coagulation disorders have been enumerated. The links between the state of the vascular endothelium and life style have been emphasized. It is also important to note that the primary causes of the endothelial damage should be traced as originally suggested many years ago viewing such factors as anger, hostility, aggression, impulsiveness and depression but with a new approach. The authors supplement the comments, on the environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis, with basic data on family predisposition to the development of this disease. They highlight that current genetic research have not determined genes responsible for atheroscelosis. According to the authors the considerations and conclusions presented in this overview are important for the educational purposes related to the most frequent disease process resulting in many diseases in medical disciplines.

  20. Shift-work disorder and sleep-related environmental factors in the manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Yukari; Nakamura, Arisa; Yamauchi, Takenori; Takeuchi, Shouhei; Kuroda, Yoshiki

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between shift-work disorder (SWD) and environmental and somatic factors related to falling asleep among rapidly rotating shift workers in a manufacturing industry.A total of 556 male workers were recruited to complete a self-administered questionnaire regarding age, shift work experience, lifestyle, and family structure; the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS); the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI); and the Horne and Ostberg questionnaire, a questionnaire for environmental and somatic factors related to falling asleep. We classified workers according to having SWD or not, and compared workers with SWD with those without this disorder in terms of all items covered in the aforementioned questionnaires. A total of 208 workers (62.8%) working rapidly rotating shifts were diagnosed with SWD. The ESS and PSQI scores and scores for environmental and somatic factors were significantly higher in workers with SWD than in those without this disorder. The ESS scores and scores for environmental and somatic factors were also associated with SWD in the logistic regression analyses. We suggest that susceptibility to SWD in the manufacturing industry may be associated with environmental and somatic factors related to falling asleep.

  1. REM sleep deprivation promotes a dopaminergic influence in the striatal MT2 anxiolytic-like effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseda, Ana Carolina D.; Targa, Adriano D.S.; Rodrigues, Lais S.; Aurich, Mariana F.; Lima, Marcelo M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible anxiolytic-like effects of striatal MT2 activation, and its counteraction induced by the selective blockade of this receptor. Furthermore, we analyzed this condition under the paradigm of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REMSD) and the animal model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) induced by rotenone. Male Wistar rats were infused with intranigral rotenone (12 μg/μL), and 7 days later were subjected to 24 h of REMSD. Afterwards the rats underwent striatal micro-infusions of selective melatonin MT2 receptor agonist, 8-M-PDOT (10 μg/μL) or selective melatonin MT2 receptor antagonist, 4-P-PDOT (5 μg/μL) or vehicle. Subsequently, the animals were tested in the open-field (OP) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Results indicated that the activation of MT2 receptors produced anxiolytic-like effects. In opposite, the MT2 blockade did not show an anxiogenic-like effect. Besides, REMSD induced anxiolytic-like effects similar to 8-M-PDOT. MT2 activation generated a prevalent locomotor increase compared to MT2 blockade in the context of REMSD. Together, these results suggest a striatal MT2 modulation associated to the REMSD-induced dopaminergic supersensitivity causing a possible dopaminergic influence in the MT2 anxiolytic-like effects in the intranigral rotenone model of PD. PMID:27226821

  2. Vascular stiffness determined from a nocturnal digital pulse wave signal: association with sleep, sleep-disordered breathing, and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedmyr, Sven; Zou, Ding; Sommermeyer, Dirk; Ficker, Joachim H; Randerath, Winfried; Fietze, Ingo; Sanner, Bernd; Hedner, Jan; Grote, Ludger

    2016-12-01

    Reflection of the finger pulse wave form is a valid measure of arterial stiffness, which may be continuously assessed during sleep. We investigated the relationships between sleep, sleep-disordered breathing, hypertension, and pulse propagation time (PPT) in patients with suspected sleep apnea. The digital photoplethysmographic signal derived from finger pulse oximetry was recorded during overnight sleep studies in 440 patients (64% men, age 55 ± 12 years, BMI 30 ± 6 kg/m, apnea-hypopnea index 19 ± 19 n/h). PPT, defined as the time interval between the systolic and diastolic peak of the finger pulse wave, was calculated. The influence of sleep stages on PPT were assessed in patients undergoing polysomnography. Generalized linear models were used to study predictors of PPT and hypertension. Mean overnight PPT was independently associated with age (β = -1.34, P PPT was shorter in hypertensive patients compared with normotensive patients (160 ± 33 vs. 177 ± 47 ms, P PPT was influenced by sleep stage (highest PPT during slow wave sleep compared with wake and all other sleep stages, all P PPT by oximetry was strongly associated with factors known to determine daytime vascular stiffness. In addition, PTT provides information on functional and structural vascular properties during sleep. This novel technique offers new opportunities to noninvasively monitor vascular function during the sleeping period.

  3. Sleep deprived and sweating it out: the effects of total sleep deprivation on skin conductance reactivity to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jean C J; Verhulst, Silvan; Massar, Stijn A A; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-01-01

    We examined how sleep deprivation alters physiological responses to psychosocial stress by evaluating changes in skin conductance. Between-subjects design with one group allocated to 24 h of total sleep deprivation and the other to rested wakefulness. The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants were 40 healthy young adults recruited from a university. Sleep deprivation and feedback. Electrodermal activity was monitored while participants completed a difficult perceptual task with false feedback. All participants showed increased skin conductance levels following stress. However, compared to well-rested participants, sleep deprived participants showed higher skin conductance reactivity with increasing stress levels. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation augments allostatic responses to increasing psychosocial stress. Consequentially, we propose sleep loss as a risk factor that can influence the pathogenic effects of stress. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Poor Sleep Quality among Chinese Elderly in an Urban Community: Results from the Shanghai Aging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jianfeng Luo; Guoxing Zhu; Qianhua Zhao; Qihao Guo; Haijiao Meng; Zhen Hong; Ding Ding

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders causes a significant negative effect on mental and physical health, particularly among the elderly. The disease burden and risk factors of poor sleep quality of the elderly need to be verified using a validated form of measurement in urban mainland China. METHODS: This study included 1086 community residents aged ≥ 60 years who completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI). Poor sleeper was defined by a CPSQI global score of >5. Subjec...

  5. Contextual factors influencing research use in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Contextual factors are perceived to be significant barriers to research-utilisation-related activity, but little is known about how context impacts on specific research-based decisions, or how the individual interacts with the organisation in the requirement for research-based change. This study describes the impact of contextual factors on the practical reasoning of nurse specialists in the construction of policy for practice. Three groups of clinical nurse specialists were observed during a series of meetings convened to construct evidence-based guidelines for nursing practice. Transcripts of the meetings were analysed to identify and categorise the physical, social, political, and economic influences on 31 nursing issues. Multiple contextual factors influenced each decision made, with decisions about nursing practice bounded by setting and system considerations, relationships with others in the care team, and resource constraints. Practitioners were involved in weighing up alternative scenarios, contexts, and contingencies for each decision, requiring strategies to adapt and reconstruct the nature of care, to influence others, and to affect organisational decision-making processes. The practical accomplishment of evidence-based practice required diverse skills: translating between evidence and practice; mediating the values, preferences, and working practices of multiple stakeholders; negotiating organisational complexity and the management of boundaries; and coordinating inter-organisational and inter-agency working. Nurse specialists in this study had a significant role in instigating, fuelling, and coordinating policy review, predominantly by communication across professional and organisational boundaries. Clinical specialists acting as organisational boundary spanners require skills in the informal cultural work of organising, facilitating, and maintaining links across professional, team, and organisational boundaries. If their role in the negotiation of

  6. Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

  7. [Occupational stress in assembly line workers in electronics manufacturing service and related influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y Q; Li, S; Wang, C; Wang, J; Liu, X M

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate occupational stress in assembly line workers in electronics manu-facturing service (EMS) and related influencing factors. Methods: From June to October, 2015, a cross-sectional survey was performed for 5 944 assembly line workers in EMS (observation group) and 6 270 workers from other posts (non-assembly line workers and management personnel; control group) using the self-made questionnaire for basic information, job demand-control (JDC) model questionnaire, and effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaire to collect respondents' basic information and occupational stress. Results: The observation group had significantly lower work autonomy, social support, and work reward scores than the control group (2.72 ± 0.63/3.64 ± 0.68/4.06 ± 0.80 vs 3.00 ± 0.67/3.83 ± 0.68/4.24 ± 0.75, t=23.53, 15.41, and 12.70, all P60 hours/week, and sleeping time Bachelor's degree or above, working time >60 hours/week, and sleeping timeline workers in EMS are a relatively vulnerable group and have a high degree of occupational stress. Working time >60 hours/week and sleeping time <7 hours/day are major risk factors for occupational stress.

  8. The relationship between tumor necrosis factor-α gene promoter polymorphism and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉国

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) gene promoter polymorphism and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods The plasma TNF-αlevel of OSAHS group and non-OSAHS group was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Eighteen patients with severe OSAHS were treated with continuous

  9. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  10. Sleep quality during pregnancy: associations with depressive and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Aukia, Linda; Karlsson, Hasse; Karlsson, Linnea; Paavonen, E Juulia

    2017-02-01

    Sleep disturbances are common during pregnancy, yet underdiagnosed and under-investigated. We evaluated sleep quality during pregnancy and assessed associated factors, especially depressive and anxiety symptoms. A total of 78 healthy pregnant women from the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study were studied twice prospectively during pregnancy (in mid-pregnancy and late pregnancy). Sleep quality was evaluated by the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, depressive symptoms by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and anxiety symptoms by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Poor general sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, the number of nocturnal awakenings per night, and too-early morning awakenings increased in late pregnancy compared with mid-pregnancy (all p-values anxiety symptoms were cross-sectionally related to sleep disturbances, but depressive or anxiety symptoms in mid-pregnancy were not associated with sleep disturbances in late pregnancy. We found deterioration in sleep quality across pregnancy. However, no increase in negative daytime consequences was found, presumably indicating a compensatory capacity against sleep impairment. Additionally, depressive and anxiety symptoms and sleep disturbances were only cross-sectionally associated. Our study calls for further research on the factors that influence sleep disturbances during pregnancy. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-02-01

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  12. A survey on factors influencing city branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.

  13. Influence of Sleep Disorders on the Behavior of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Cristina Fadini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between sleep disorders and behavior of subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and controls subjects using specific questionnaires. A small percentage (1.8% of control subjects had symptoms indicative of sleep-breathing disorders and nocturnal sweating. Fifty-nine percent of the subjects with autism spectrum disorder subjects had symptoms indicative of at least one sleep disorder, being sleep-breathing disorders the most commonly reported (38%. In the control group, symptoms of sleep-breathing disorders were correlated with social, thought, attention, aggression, externalizing and behavioral problems. In the autism spectrum disorder group, disorders of arousal correlated with thinking problems and disorders of excessive somnolence were correlated with thinking and behavioral problems. These results suggest that children and adolescents with ASD have a high incidence of sleep disorders, which in turn correlate with some of the behavioral aspects that they already experience. Furthermore, sleep disturbances, when present in children with typical development, also correlate with behavioral problems.

  14. Sleep aspnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008057 A multi-center study on the association between sleep apnea and prevalence of hypertension. CHEN Baoyuan(陈宝元), et al. Dept Respir Med, Tianjin Med Univ General Hosp, Tianjin 300052. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis, 2007;30(12):894-897. Objective To investigate the prevalence of hypertension among sleep apnea patients and the associated factors. Methods A total of 2297 patients (male 1310, female 211) from 20 teaching hospita

  15. Hyperbilirubinemia Influences Sleep-Wake Cycles of Term Newborns in a Non-Linear Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian; Zhou, Yanxia; Li, Xufang; Cheng, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is a common cause for irreversible neuronal influence in the brain of term newborns, while the feature of neurological symptoms associated with hyperbilirubinemia has not been well characterized yet. In the present study, we examined a total of 203 neonates suffering from hyperbilirubinemia with a bedside amplitude-integrated Electroencephalography (aEEG) device, in order to determine whether there is any special change in sleep-wake cycles (SWCs). Among these patients, 14 cases showed no recognizable SWCs with the total serum bilirubin (TSB) level at 483.9–996.2 μmol/L; 75 cases exhibited reduced SWCs with the TSB level at 311.2–688.5 μmol/L; and the rest cases had the normal SWCs. The number of the normal SWCs occurrence had a significant negative correlation with the increased TSB level in a non-linear manner (r = -0.689, p <0.001). In addition, the increased TSB reshaped the structure of SWC by narrowing down the broadband and broadening the narrowband. Spearman’s correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between the TSB level and the ratio of broadband (r = -0.618, p < 0.001), a significant positive correlation between the TSB level and the narrowband ratio (r = 0.618, p < 0.001), respectively. Furthermore, the change of SWC seemed like a continuous phenomenon, and the hyperbilirubinemia caused SWC changes was fit into a loess model in this paper. In summary, the hyperbilirubinemia influenced SWC of term newborns significantly at a non-linear manner, and these results revealed the feature of the neurological sequela that is associated with TSB. PMID:28072860

  16. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Park

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

  17. The influence of sleep deprivation and obesity on DNA damage in female Zucker rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuli M. Tenorio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate overall genetic damage induced by total sleep deprivation in obese, female Zucker rats of differing ages. METHOD: Lean and obese Zucker rats at 3, 6, and 15 months old were randomly distributed into two groups for each age group: home-cage control and sleep-deprived (N = 5/group. The sleep-deprived groups were deprived sleep by gentle handling for 6 hours, whereas the home-cage control group was allowed to remain undisturbed in their home-cage. At the end of the sleep deprivation period, or after an equivalent amount of time for the home-cage control groups, the rats were brought to an adjacent room and decapitated. The blood, brain, and liver tissue were collected and stored individually to evaluate DNA damage. RESULTS: Significant genetic damage was observed only in 15-month-old rats. Genetic damage was present in the liver cells from sleep-deprived obese rats compared with lean rats in the same condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with genetic damage in brain cells regardless of obesity status. DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood cells regardless of sleep condition or obesity status. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that obesity was associated with genetic damage in liver cells, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with DNA damage in brain cells. These results also indicate that there is no synergistic effect of these noxious conditions on the overall level of genetic damage. In addition, the level of DNA damage was significantly higher in 15-month-old rats compared to younger rats.

  18. Influence of chronotype and social zeitgebers on sleep/wake patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Korczak

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-individual differences in the phase of the endogenous circadian rhythms have been established. Individuals with early circadian phase are called morning types; those with late circadian phase are evening types. The Horne and Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ is the most frequently used to assess individual chronotype. The distribution of MEQ scores is likely to be biased by several fact, ors, such as gender, age, genetic background, latitude, and social habits. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of different social synchronizers on the sleep/wake cycle of persons with different chronotypes. Volunteers were selected from a total of 1232 UFPR undergraduate students who completed the MEQ. Thirty-two subjects completed the study, including 8 morning types, 8 evening types and 16 intermediate types. Sleep schedules were recorded by actigraphy for 1 week on two occasions: during the school term and during vacation. Sleep onset and offset times, sleep duration, and mid-sleep time for each chronotype group were compared by the Mann-Whitney U-test separately for school term and vacation. School term and vacation data were compared by the Wilcoxon matched-pair test. Morning types showed earlier sleep times and longer sleep duration compared with evening types (23:00 ± 44 and 508.9 ± 50.27 vs 01:08 ± 61.95 and 456.44 ± 59.08, for the weekdays during vacation. During vacation, the subjects showed later sleep times, except for the morning types, who did not exhibit differences for sleep onset times. The results support the idea that social schedules have an impact on the expression of circadian rhythmicity but this impact depends on the individual chronotype.

  19. The influence of physical activity in water on sleep quality in pregnant women: A randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Blanque, R; Sánchez-García, J C; Sánchez-López, A M; Mur-Villar, N; Aguilar-Cordero, M J

    2017-07-07

    Sleep is a physiological state of self-regulation. The international classification of sleep disorders now includes as a new category those occurring during pregnancy. Regular physical activity is known to improve the quality of life, one aspect of which is sleep quality. During pregnancy, physical activity is decreased but should not be eliminated, as studies have reported a high correlation between sleep disorders and the absence of physical activity. Regular physical exercise during pregnancy, whether performed in water or out of it, provides greater control of gestational weight gain. Furthermore, the reduced weight gain during pregnancy, as a result of physical exercise, is associated with greater physical resistance to the demands of childbirth, combats the fatigue caused by pregnancy and reduces back pain. All of these outcomes tend to enhance sleep quality, among other beneficial effects. To determine whether, in pregnant women, there is an association between moderate-intensity physical activity in an aquatic environment and sleep quality. A randomised clinical trial was conducted with a sample of 140 pregnant women aged 21-43 years, divided into two groups; Intervention Group and Control Group. The women were recruited in the twelfth week of gestation and took part in the [Study of] Water Exercise in Pregnancy programme from week 20 to week 37. Sleep quality was evaluated in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. The Mann-Whitney U test showed that the results obtained were statistically significant (pWater Exercise in Pregnancy method improves the quality of sleep in pregnant women, both subjectively and in terms of latency, duration and efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  1. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods.Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance.Study design: Population based cross - sectional study.Setting: Rural area of East DelhiParticipants: Married women in the reproductive age group.Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample.Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group.Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child.Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptivesStatistical Analysis: By proportions.Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception.Recommendations:(i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention.(ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  2. Landslide forecasting and factors influencing predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Gigli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Forecasting a catastrophic collapse is a key element in landslide risk reduction, but it is also a very difficult task owing to the scientific difficulties in predicting a complex natural event and also to the severe social repercussions caused by a false or missed alarm. A prediction is always affected by a certain error; however, when this error can imply evacuations or other severe consequences a high reliability in the forecast is, at least, desirable. In order to increase the confidence of predictions, a new methodology is presented here. In contrast to traditional approaches, this methodology iteratively applies several forecasting methods based on displacement data and, thanks to an innovative data representation, gives a valuation of the reliability of the prediction. This approach has been employed to back-analyse 15 landslide collapses. By introducing a predictability index, this study also contributes to the understanding of how geology and other factors influence the possibility of forecasting a slope failure. The results showed how kinematics, and all the factors influencing it, such as geomechanics, rainfall and other external agents, are key concerning landslide predictability.

  3. "Sleep disparity" in the population: poor sleep quality is strongly associated with poverty and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nirav P; Grandner, Michael A; Xie, Dawei; Branas, Charles C; Gooneratne, Nalaka

    2010-08-11

    Little is known about the social determinants of sleep attainment. This study examines the relationship of race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and other factors upon sleep quality. A cross-sectional survey of 9,714 randomly selected subjects was used to explore sleep quality obtained by self-report, in relation to socioeconomic factors including poverty, employment status, and education level. The primary outcome was poor sleep quality. Data were collected by the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation. Significant differences were observed in the outcome for race/ethnicity (African-American and Latino versus White: unadjusted OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.24-2.05 and OR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.37-1.98, respectively) and income (below poverty threshold, unadjusted OR = 2.84, 95%CI 2.41-3.35). In multivariable modeling, health indicators significantly influenced sleep quality most prominently in poor individuals. After adjusting for socioeconomic factors (education, employment) and health indicators, the association of income and poor sleep quality diminished, but still persisted in poor Whites while it was no longer significant in poor African-Americans (adjusted OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.47-2.58 versus OR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.87-1.54, respectively). Post-college education (adjusted OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.31-0.71) protected against poor sleep. A "sleep disparity" exists in the study population: poor sleep quality is strongly associated with poverty and race. Factors such as employment, education and health status, amongst others, significantly mediated this effect only in poor subjects, suggesting a differential vulnerability to these factors in poor relative to non-poor individuals in the context of sleep quality. Consideration of this could help optimize targeted interventions in certain groups and subsequently reduce the adverse societal effects of poor sleep.

  4. Predicting Performance during Chronic Sleep Loss: Identification of Factors Sensitive to Individual Fatigue Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-18

    confirmed that changes in response to sleep loss were evident, whereas significance at the individual level revealed inter-individual variability in...Repeated Measures Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) to identify those variables which were significantly affected by chronic sleep restriction. Any...during the sleep restriction phase of the study. Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT). Two variables from the PVT were analyzed: number of PVT

  5. Sleep Logistics as a Force Multiplier: An Analysis of Reported Fatigue Factors From Southwest Asia Warfighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    adherence to sleep / rest plans. A second instrument, known as a Wrist Actigraphy Monitor8 (WAM), was used by a control group at NPS in order to test the...with operational missions, 8 Sometimes referred to as a Wrist Activity Monitor. 47 it was agreed that the study of warfighter sleep habits would be...the WAM to a computer and may be expressed numerically and graphically, aiding in sleep /wake history analysis. The activity measurements recorded

  6. Choice of biomaterials—Do soft occlusal splints influence jaw-muscle activity during sleep? A preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Taro; Takeuchi, Tamiyo; Tomonaga, Akio; Yachida, Wataru; Ohata, Noboru; Svensson, Peter

    2012-12-01

    AimThe choice of biomaterials for occlusal splints may significantly influence biological outcome. In dentistry, hard acrylic occlusal splints (OS) have been shown to have a temporary and inhibitory effect on jaw-muscle activity, such as tooth clenching and grinding during sleep, i.e., sleep bruxism (SB). Traditionally, this inhibitory effect has been explained by changes in the intraoral condition rather than the specific effects of changes in occlusion. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of another type of occlusal surface, such as a soft-material OS in addition to a hard-type OS in terms of changes in jaw-muscle activity during sleep. Materials and methodsSeven healthy subjects (mean ± SD, six men and one woman: 28.9 ± 2.7 year old), participated in this study. A soft-material OS (ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer) was fabricated for each subject and the subjects used the OS for five continuous nights. The EMG activity during sleep was compared to baseline (no OS). Furthermore, the EMG activity during the use of a hard-type OS (Michigan-type OS, acrylic resin), and hard-type OS combined with contingent electrical stimulation (CES) was compared to baseline values. Each session was separated by at least two weeks (washout). Jaw-muscle activity during sleep was recorded with single-channel ambulatory devices (GrindCare, MedoTech, Herlev, Denmark) in all sessions for five nights. ResultsJaw-muscle activity during sleep was 46.6 ± 29.8 EMG events/hour at baseline and significantly decreased during the hard-type OS (17.4 ± 10.5, P = 0.007) and the hard-type OS + CES (10.8 ± 7.1, P = 0.002), but not soft-material OS (36.3 ± 24.5, P = 0.055). Interestingly, the soft-material OS (coefficient of variance = 98.6 ± 35.3%) was associated with greater night-to-night variations than baseline (39.0 ± 11.8%) and the hard-type OS + CES (53.3 ± 13.7%, P biomaterials for occlusal splints may have a significant impact on the neurobiological

  7. Comprehensive Health-Related Quality of Life is Influenced by Nocturia and Sleep Disturbance: Investigation Based on the SF-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suekane, Shigetaka; Ueda, Kousuke; Suyama, Shunsuke; Hayashi, Tokumasa; Toyozawa, Noriyuki; Yoshitake, Maki; Nishihara, Kiyoaki; Sakashita, Nao; Uchimura, Naohisa; Matsuoka, Kei

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of nocturia and sleep disturbance on health-related quality of life(HRQOL) using the Medical Outcomes Study 8-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-8) in patients with nocturia. We also assessed the effect of therapeutic intervention by means of an anticholinergic agent on the results of the SF-8. One hundred and eighty-four patients who voided at least once per night were surveyed using the SF-8, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). These parameters were also evaluated before and after 12 weeks of imidafenacin treatment in 51 patients with OAB accompanied by nocturia. The SF-8 physical component summary score (PCS) showed a significant decrease as nighttime voiding frequency increased. The mental health component summary score was 47.1 and 47.6 (which were lower than the standard value of 50) in the group with a nighttime frequency of once and ≥3/night, respectively. The SF-8 PCS and 6 subscales were negatively associated with nighttime voiding frequency, while the PSQI global score was positively associated with it. Imidafenacin significantly improved the OABSS, PSQI, and ESS, as well as the SF-8 score. This is the first study using the SF-8 to show that nocturia and sleep disturbance have a major influence on comprehensive HRQOL and that the SF-8 can be used to monitor HRQOL in OAB patients receiving treatment for nocturia.

  8. Family Stress and Adolescents’ Cognitive Functioning: Sleep as a Protective Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined two sleep-wake parameters as moderators of the associations between exposure to family stressors and adolescent cognitive functioning. Participants were 252 school-recruited adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66% European American, 34% African American). Youths reported on three dimensions of family stress: marital conflict, harsh parenting, and parental psychological control. Cognitive functioning was indexed through performance on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Sleep minutes and efficiency were measured objectively using actigraphy. Towards identifying unique effects, path models controlled for two family stress variables while estimating the third. Analyses revealed that sleep efficiency moderated the associations between negative parenting (harsh parenting and parental psychological control) and adolescents’ cognitive functioning. The highest level of cognitive performance was predicted for adolescents with higher levels of sleep efficiency in conjunction with lower levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control. The effects of sleep were more pronounced at lower levels of negative parenting where adolescents with higher sleep efficiency performed better than their counterparts with poorer sleep. At higher levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control, similar levels of cognitive performance were observed regardless of sleep. Results are discussed in comparison to other recent studies on interrelations among family stress, sleep, and cognitive performance in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25329625

  9. Family stress and adolescents' cognitive functioning: sleep as a protective factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Buckhalt, Joseph A

    2014-12-01

    We examined 2 sleep-wake parameters as moderators of the associations between exposure to family stressors and adolescent cognitive functioning. Participants were 252 school-recruited adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66% European American, 34% African American). Youths reported on 3 dimensions of family stress: marital conflict, harsh parenting, and parental psychological control. Cognitive functioning was indexed through performance on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Sleep minutes and efficiency were measured objectively using actigraphy. Toward identifying unique effects, path models controlled for 2 family stress variables while estimating the third. Analyses revealed that sleep efficiency moderated the associations between negative parenting (harsh parenting and parental psychological control) and adolescents' cognitive functioning. The highest level of cognitive performance was predicted for adolescents with higher levels of sleep efficiency in conjunction with lower levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control. The effects of sleep were more pronounced at lower levels of negative parenting, in which adolescents with higher sleep efficiency performed better than their counterparts with poorer sleep. At higher levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control, similar levels of cognitive performance were observed regardless of sleep. Results are discussed in comparison with other recent studies on interrelations among family stress, sleep, and cognitive performance in childhood and adolescence.

  10. Short sleep is a questionable risk factor for obesity and related disorders: statistical versus clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Jim

    2008-03-01

    Habitually insufficient sleep could contribute towards obesity, metabolic syndrome, etc., via sleepiness-related inactivity and excess energy intake; more controversially, through more direct physiological changes. Epidemiological studies in adult/children point to small clinical risk only in very short (around 5h in adults), or long sleepers, developing over many years, involving hundreds of hours of 'too little' or 'too much' sleep. Although acute 4h/day sleep restriction leads to glucose intolerance and incipient metabolic syndrome, this is too little sleep and cannot be sustained beyond a few days. Few obese adults/children are short sleepers, and few short sleeping adults/children are obese or suffer obesity-related disorders. For adults, about 7h uninterrupted daily sleep is 'healthy'. Extending sleep, even with hypnotics, to lose weight, may take years, compared with the rapidity of utilising extra sleep time to exercise and evaluate one's diet. The real health risk of inadequate sleep comes from a sleepiness-related accident.

  11. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing large African herbivore movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour o

  12. Genetic and environmental influences on sleeptalking, half-sleeping, night terrors, and nocturnal enuresis in childhood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    OOKI, Syuichi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify genetic contributions to the childhood behavioral phenomena of sleeptalking, half-sleeping, night terrors, and nocturnal enuresis using the two largest data...

  13. Sleeping quality and the associated factors analyzing among clinical nurses%临床护士睡眠质量及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小丽; 张弘炎; 姜淑霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查新疆医科大学第一附属医院护士睡眠质量并分析其影响因素,针对不同因素提出相应对策,从而改善护士睡眠质量。方法随机抽取各临床科室的407名护生作为调查对象,使用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表(PSQI)及一般情况调查表进行调查,并分析调查结果。结果急诊护士睡眠障碍发生率最高(80.00%),其次为儿科(76.47%)、重症(73.47%)、内科(65.83%)、外科(61.74%)、手术室(48.78%),门诊及其他(39.02%)最低,性别(t=-2.015,P=0.045)、年龄(F=8.509, P=0.000)、编制(F=3.609,P=0.013)为PSQI总分的影响因素,不同民族比较仅催眠药物得分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而文化程度和婚姻状况因素比较发现各因子和PSQI总分均差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论各个科室护士睡眠质量情况均较差,其睡眠质量状况与所在科室、性别、年龄和编制均有一定关联,应加强干预措施,提高该人群整体睡眠水平。%Objective To know the sleeping quality of clinical nurses in Urumqi, and analyze the influencing factors, put forward the corresponding countermeasures for different factors to improves the sleeping quality. Methods Randomly selected 407 nurses in clinical departments as the research objects in Urumqi top three hospitals, using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index scale (PSQI) and general situation questionnaire to investigate, and then analyzed the results of the survey. Results The incidence rate of sleeping disorders in emergency nurses was the highest (80.00%), followed by pediatric, intensive department, internal medicine, surgical department, operating room, outpatient and others was the lowest (39.02%). Gender (t=-2.015, P =0.045), age (F=8.509, P =0.000), establishment(F=3.609, P =0.013) were the influence factors of PSQI scores. Only the difference of the scores of hypnotic drugs between different

  14. Evaluating the influence of sleep deprivation upon circadian rhythms of exercise metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelpare, W J; Plyley, M J; Shephard, R J

    1992-06-01

    Cardiorespiratory and gas exchange responses to a moderate, standardized treadmill walking task showed a weak circadian rhythm, with larger superimposed peaks attributable to feeding. However, both rhythms became progressively attenuated during a period of sleep deprivation. A method of exploring this phenomenon is illustrated by an analysis of data on walking heart rate, respiratory minute volume, oxygen intake, and rating of perceived exertion, collected on 11 young men at 3-hr intervals during 60 hours of sleep deprivation.

  15. The Change of Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression in culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were measured and the relationship between OSAS and IL-6 or TNF-α expression studied. Both IL-6 and TNF-α were detected by using ELISA in 22 patients with OSAS and 16 normal controls. The levels of LPS-induced IL-6 (787.82±151.97 pg/ml) and TNF-α (4165.45±1501.43 pg/ml) expression in the supernatant of the culture of PBMC and plasma level of IL-6 (50.67±4.70 pg/ml) and TNF-α (299.09±43.57 pg/ml) in the patients with OSAS were significantly higher than those in the normal controls (in the supernatant of the culture of PBMC: 562.69±197.54 pg/ml and 1596.25±403.08 pg/ml respectively; in the plasma: 12.69±2.75 pg/ml and 101.88±21.27 pg/ml respectively). There were significantly positive correlation between the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and the percentage of time of apnea and hyponea, as well as the percentage of time spending at SaO2 below 90 % in the total sleep time. It was concluded that LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF-α levels as well as plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the patients with OSAS were up-regulated, which may be associated with the pathogenesis of OSAS.

  16. Risk factors and myocardial infarction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: impact of β2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mügge Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increased sympathetic nervous activity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is largely responsible for the high prevalence of arterial hypertension, and it is suggested to adversely affect triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels in these patients. The functionally relevant polymorphisms of the β2-adrenergic receptor (Arg-47Cys/Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu have been shown to exert modifying effects on these risk factors in previous studies, but results are inconsistent. Methods We investigated a group of 429 patients (55 ± 10.7 years; 361 men, 68 women with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea/hypopnea index (AHI 29.1 ± 23.1/h and, on average, a high cardiovascular risk profile (body mass index 31.1 ± 5.6, with hypertension in 60.1%, dyslipidemia in 49.2%, and diabetes in 17.2% of patients. We typed the β2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and investigated the five most frequent haplotypes for their modifying effects on OSA-induced changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and lipid levels. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease (n = 55, 12.8% and survived myocardial infarction (n = 27, 6.3% were compared between the genotypes and haplotypes. Results Multivariate linear/logistic regressions revealed a significant and independent (from BMI, age, sex, presence of diabetes, use of antidiabetic, lipid-lowering, and antihypertensive medication influence of AHI on daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, prevalence of hypertension, and triglyceride and HDL levels. The β2-adrenergic receptor genotypes and haplotypes showed no modifying effects on these relationships or on the prevalence of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and coronary heart disease, yet, for all three polymorphisms, heterozygous carriers had a significantly lower relative risk for myocardial infarction (Arg-47Cys: n = 195, odds ratio (OR = 0.32, P = 0.012; Arg16Gly: n = 197, OR

  17. Melatonin secretion and excretion : a clinical study focusing on factors and disease states which might influence melatonin

    OpenAIRE

    Wikner, Johan

    1998-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to find out whether other factors than the the light-dark changes influence the function of the pineal gland. Since melatonin (MT) itself, or its precursor serotonin, are of importance for sleep, mood, and pain perception, disease states - or situations in which these functions are disturbed - should be of interest to investigate in this context. Altogether 100 individuals (51 men and 49 women) participated in the study. Seventy were he...

  18. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole.

  19. To sleep or not to sleep: The ecology of sleep in artificial organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Nunn Charles L; McNamara Patrick; Acerbi Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background All animals thus far studied sleep, but little is known about the ecological factors that generate differences in sleep characteristics across species, such as total sleep duration or division of sleep into multiple bouts across the 24-hour period (i.e., monophasic or polyphasic sleep activity). Here we address these questions using an evolutionary agent-based model. The model is spatially explicit, with food and sleep sites distributed in two clusters on the landscape. Ag...

  20. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-reported nonrestorative sleep in fibromyalgia – relationship to impairments of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liedberg GM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gunilla M Liedberg,1 Mathilda Björk,2 Björn Börsbo31Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, 2Rehabilitation Centre and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, 3Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH, Linköping University, Linköping, SwedenPurpose: The purpose of this study was: 1 to determine variables that might characterize good or bad sleep; and 2 to describe the relationship between sleep, impairment of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life based on quality of sleep in women with fibromyalgia (FM. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study included 224 consecutive patients diagnosed at a specialist center. These patients were mailed a questionnaire concerning sleep, body functions, personal factors, and health-related quality of life. In total, 145 completed questionnaires were collected. Results: Using sleep variables (sleep quality, waking up unrefreshed, and tiredness when getting up, we identified two subgroups – the good sleep subgroup and the bad sleep subgroup – of women with FM. These subgroups exhibited significantly different characteristics concerning pain intensity, psychological variables (depressed mood, anxiety, catastrophizing, and self-efficacy, impairments of body functions, and generic and health-related quality of life. The good sleep subgroup reported a significantly better situation, including higher employment/study rate. The bad sleep subgroup reported a greater use of sleep medication. Five variables determined inclusion into either a good sleep or a bad sleep subgroup: pain in the evening, self-efficacy, anxiety, and according to the Short Form health survey role emotional and physical functioning. Conclusion: This study found that it was possible to identify two subgroups of women with FM based on quality of sleep variables. The two subgroups differed significantly with respect to pain, psychological

  2. Poor sleep in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Marie Bøe Lunde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor sleep is a frequent symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Sleep may be influenced by MS-related symptoms and adverse effects from immunotherapy and symptomatic medications. We aimed to study the prevalence of poor sleep and the influence of socio-demographic and clinical factors on sleep quality in MS- patients. METHODS: A total of 90 MS patients and 108 sex-and age- matched controls were included in a questionnaire survey. Sleep complaints were evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and a global PSQI score was used to separate good sleepers (≤ 5 from poor sleepers (>5. Excessive daytime sleepiness, the use of immunotherapy and antidepressant drugs, symptoms of pain, depression, fatigue and MS-specific health related quality of life were registered. Results were compared between patients and controls and between good and poor sleepers among MS patients. RESULTS: MS patients reported a higher mean global PSQI score than controls (8.6 vs. 6.3, p = 0.001, and 67.1% of the MS patients compared to 43.9% of the controls (p = 0.002 were poor sleepers. Pain (p = 0.02, fatigue (p = 0.001, depression (p = 0.01 and female gender (p = 0.04 were associated with sleep disturbance. Multivariate analyses showed that female gender (p = 0.02, use of immunotherapy (p = 005 and a high psychological burden of MS (p = 0.001 were associated with poor sleep among MS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep is common in patients with MS. Early identification and treatment of modifiable risk factors may improve sleep and quality of life in MS.

  3. Factors influencing career choice in anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student′s stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky′s 13-point sense of coherence scale. Methods: Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky′s sense of coherence (SOC scale. Results: Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%, while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor−patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55 (25 th percentile was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60 in the survey. Conclusion: Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student′s personality.

  4. Factors influencing nurses' perceptions of occupational safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Menevse; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-01-02

    To determine nurses' perceptions of occupational safety and their work environment and examine the sociodemographic traits and job characteristics that influence their occupational safety, we studied a sample of 278 nurses. According to the nurses, the quality of their work environment is average, and occupational safety is insufficient. In the subdimensions of the work environment scale, it was determined that the nurses think "labor force and other resources" are insufficient. In the occupational safety subdimensions "occupational illnesses and complaints" and "administrative support and approaches," they considered occupational safety to be insufficient. "Doctor-nurse-colleague relationships," "exposure to violence," and "work unit" (eg, internal medicine, surgical, intensive care) are the main factors that affect occupational safety. This study determined that hospital administrations should develop and immediately implement plans to ameliorate communication and clinical precautions and to reduce exposure to violence.

  5. Factors Influencing Sulfinatodehalogenation Reactions of Perhalocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU,Kai(吴恺); CHEN,Qing-Yun(陈庆云)

    2004-01-01

    The study on the factors influencing sulfinatodehalogenation of perfluorohexyl chloride plus octene-1 by using Na2S2O4/NaHCO3 discovered that among the various solvents tested(e.g.Me2SO,NMP,DMAc,CH3CN,CH3CN/H2O)at different temperatures,Me2SO was found to be the most suitable solvent and the conversion of the chloride was very dependent on the reaction temperature.When Me2SO was used in the reaction of perfluoroalkyl iodides,the reaction temperature could be decreased by 20℃ as compared with that carried out in CH3CN/H2O to reach the comparable yields.

  6. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Meyrick C M

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of "being there" in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users' attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

  7. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  8. Factors influencing women's decision making in hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Monika; Armfield, Nigel R; Page, Katie; Kerr, Gayle; Kurz, Suzanne; Jackson, Graeme; Currie, Jason; Weaver, Edward; Yazdani, Anusch; Obermair, Andreas

    2017-09-12

    To explore factors influencing how well-informed women felt about hysterectomy, influences on their decision making, and on them receiving a less-invasive alternative to open surgery. Online questionnaire, conducted in 2015-2016, of women who had received a hysterectomy in Australia, in the preceding two years. Questionnaires were completed by 2319/6000 women (39% response). Most women (n=2225; 96%) felt well-informed about hysterectomy. Women were more aware of the open abdominal approach (n=1798; 77%), than of less-invasive vaginal (n=1552; 67%), laparoscopic (n=1540; 66%), laparoscopic-assisted (n=1303; 56%), and robotic approaches (n=289; 12%). Most women (n=1435; 62%) reported their gynaecologist was the most influential information source. Women who received information about hysterectomy from a GP (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.15-1.90), or from a gynaecologist (OR=1.3; 95% CI 1.06-1.58), were more likely to feel better informed (p<0.01). This study is important because it helps clinicians, researchers and health policy makers to understand why many women still receive an open abdominal approach despite many learned societies recommending to avoid it if possible. Additional information, or education about avoiding open abdominal approach where possible may lead to a greater number of women receiving less-invasive types of hysterectomy in the future. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronobiology, sleep-related risk factors and light therapy in perinatal depression: the "Life-ON" project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiardi, Simone; Cirignotta, Fabio; Cicolin, Alessandro; Garbazza, Corrado; D'Agostino, Armando; Gambini, Orsola; Giordano, Alessandra; Canevini, Mariapaola; Zambrelli, Elena; Marconi, Anna Maria; Mondini, Susanna; Borgwardt, Stefan; Cajochen, Christian; Rizzo, Nicola; Manconi, Mauro

    2016-11-04

    Perinatal depression (PND) has an overall estimated prevalence of roughly 12 %. Untreated PND has significant negative consequences not only on the health of the mothers, but also on the physical, emotional and cognitive development of their children. No certain risk factors are known to predict PND and no completely safe drug treatments are available during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Sleep and depression are strongly related to each other because of a solid reciprocal causal relationship. Bright light therapy (BLT) is a well-tested and safe treatment, effective in both depression and circadian/sleep disorders. In a 3-year longitudinal, observational, multicentre study, about 500 women will be recruited and followed-up from early pregnancy (10-15 gestational week) until 12 months after delivery. The primary aim of the present study is to systematically explore and characterize risk factors for PND by prospective sleep assessment (using wrist actigraphy, polysomnography and various sleep questionnaires) and bloodbased analysis of potential markers during the perinatal period (Life-ON study). Secondary aims are to explore the relationship between specific genetic polymorphisms and PND (substudy Life-ON1), to investigate the effectiveness of BLT in treating PND (substudy Life-ON2) and to test whether a short term trial of BLT during pregnancy can prevent PND (substudy Life-ON3). The characterization of specific predictive and risk factors for PND may substantially contribute to improve preventive medical and social strategies for the affected women. The study results are expected to promote a better understanding of the relationship between sleep disorders and the development of PND and to confirm, in a large sample of women, the safety and efficacy of BLT both in prevention and treatment of PND. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02664467 . Registered 13 January 2016.

  10. Chronically restricted or disrupted sleep as a causal factor in the development of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Havekes, Robbert; Steiger, Axel; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common complaint in the majority of people suffering from depression. While sleep complaints were traditionally seen as a symptom of mood disorders, accumulating evidence suggests that in many cases the relationship may be reverse as well. A long list of longitudinal studies sho

  11. [Sleep disorders among physicians on shift work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlafer, O; Wenzel, V; Högl, B

    2014-11-01

    Sleep disorders in physicians who perform shift work can result in increased risks of health problems that negatively impact performance and patient safety. Even those who cope well with shift work are likely to suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss possible causes, contributing factors and consequences of sleep disorders in physicians and to identify measures that can improve adaptation to shift work and treatment strategies for shift work-associated sleep disorders. The risk factors that influence the development of sleep disorders in physicians are numerous and include genetic factors (15 % of the population), age (> 50 years), undiagnosed sleep apnea,, alcohol abuse as well as multiple stress factors inherent in clinical duties (including shift work), research, teaching and family obligations. Several studies have reported an increased risk for medical errors in sleep-deprived physicians. Shift workers have an increased risk for psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases and shift work may also be a contributing factor to cancer. A relationship has been reported not only with sleep deprivation and changes in food intake but also with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Nicotine and alcohol consumption are more frequent among shift workers. Increased sickness and accident rates among physicians when commuting (especially after night shifts) have a socioeconomic impact. In order to reduce fatigue and to improve performance, short naps during shiftwork or naps plus caffeine, have been proposed as coping strategies; however, napping during adverse circadian phases is less effective, if not impossible when unable to fall asleep. Bright and blue light supports alertness during a night shift. After shiftwork, direct sunlight exposure to the retina can be avoided by using dark sunglasses or glasses with orange lenses for commuting home. The home environment for daytime sleeping after a night shift should be

  12. Influence of obstructive sleep apnea on ischemia-modified albumin levels and carotid intima-media thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanli, Harun; Kiyici, Aysel; Arik, Bilal; Efe, Duran; Akgedik, Recep

    2016-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is strongly associated with the presence of significant risk factors for cardiovascular disturbances. A disturbance in the oxidative/antioxidative balance is involved in the pathogenesis of OSA and cardiovascular diseases. Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is suggested as a novel marker of oxidative stress; IMA can be defined as decreased binding of transitional metal ions to serum albumin in oxidative status. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the influence of OSA on IMA levels and CIMT. In total, 61 individuals with OSA with no comorbidities and 24 healthy controls with a similar body mass index and age were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of IMA, CIMT (estimated radiologically), and polysomnographic parameters, were determined and interpreted. Serum IMA levels were significantly higher in individuals with OSA compared with the control group (p=0.0003). CIMT was significantly higher in the OSA group compared with the control group (0.88± 0.26 mm vs 0.75±0.17 mm, p=0.005). The CIMT and serum IMA levels were positively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (r=0.35 and r=0.32, respectively), and with the oxygen desaturation index (r=0.34 and r=0.29, respectively) at baseline. Increased IMA levels and CIMT may be related to increased oxidative stress and risk of atherosclerosis in individuals with OSA.

  13. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Demian

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator) influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise. PMID:26483931

  14. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Halperin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise.

  15. Factors Influencing Students’ Perceptions of Online Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falls

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.

  16. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Gimeno Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  17. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ≥14 days during the past 30 days, obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged ≥ 18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity. Results The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p  Conclusions Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health.

  18. Visibility graph analysis of very short-term heart rate variability during sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, F. Z.; Li, F. W.; Wang, J.; Yan, F. R.

    2016-09-01

    Based on a visibility-graph algorithm, complex networks were constructed from very short-term heart rate variability (HRV) during different sleep stages. Network measurements progressively changed from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep to light sleep and then deep sleep, exhibiting promising ability for sleep assessment. Abnormal activation of the cardiovascular controls with enhanced 'small-world' couplings and altered fractal organization during REM sleep indicates that REM could be a potential risk factor for adverse cardiovascular event, especially in males, older individuals, and people who are overweight. Additionally, an apparent influence of gender, aging, and obesity on sleep was demonstrated in healthy adults, which may be helpful for establishing expected sleep-HRV patterns in different populations.

  19. 老年肺癌患者睡眠质量及其影响因素的调查%Investigation of sleep quality of elderly lung cancer patients and its influential factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕小莲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the quality of sleep of elderly lung cancer patients and analyze its influential factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the general data and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires for 100 elderly lung cancer patients (experimental group)and 100 elderly patients without lung cancer ( control group ). Results 59.4% of experimental group had poor sleep quality with the mean score of PSQI as (8.15 ±3.34) as compared to only 24.2% of control group with that of PSQI as (4.31 ± 3.52 ). As compared with the control group, the experimental group had lower sleep efficiency and worse sleep quality. The factors influencing sleep quality were pain, dyspnea and nocturnal awakenings. Conclusions Sleep disorders prevail among elderly lung cancer patients; thus it is critical important to enhance sleep management of elderly lung cancer patients and take appropriate nursing intervention to promote their sleep so as to improve their quality of life.%目的 探讨老年肺癌患者的睡眠质量及其影响因素.方法 采用横断面调查方法,对100例老年肺癌患者(观察组)和100例非肺癌患者老年人(对照组)进行一般资料和匹兹堡睡眠质量指数问卷调查.结果 59.4%的老年肺癌患者睡眠质量差,其平均得分为(8.15±3.34)分,而非肺癌老年人中仅有24.2%有睡眠障碍,其平均得分为(4.31±3.52)分;且老年肺癌患者的睡眠效率、睡眠质量等较非肺癌老年人为低;影响老年肺癌患者睡眠的因素为疼痛、呼吸困难和夜间觉醒.结论 老年肺癌患者普遍存在睡眠障碍问题,因此,加强老年肺癌患者的睡眠管理至关重要,探讨合理的护理干预措施促进睡眠进而提高其生活质量.

  20. Sleep fragmentation and sepsis differentially impact blood-brain barrier integrity and transport of tumor necrosis factor-α in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opp, Mark R; George, Amrita; Ringgold, Kristyn M; Hansen, Kim M; Bullock, Kristin M; Banks, William A

    2015-11-01

    The factors by which aging predisposes to critical illness are varied, complex, and not well understood. Sepsis is considered a quintessential disease of old age because the incidence and mortality of severe sepsis increases in old and the oldest old individuals. Aging is associated with dramatic changes in sleep quality and quantity and sleep increasingly becomes fragmented with age. In healthy adults, sleep disruption induces inflammation. Multiple aspects of aging and of sleep dysregulation interact via neuroimmune mechanisms. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), a cytokine involved in sleep regulation and neuroimmune processes, exerts some of its effects on the CNS by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study we examined the impact of sepsis, sleep fragmentation, and aging on BBB disruption and TNF transport into brain. We used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in young and aged mice that were either undisturbed or had their sleep disrupted. There was a dichotomous effect of sepsis and sleep disruption with age: sepsis disrupted the BBB and increased TNF transport in young mice but not in aged mice, whereas sleep fragmentation disrupted the BBB and increased TNF transport in aged mice, but not in young mice. Combining sleep fragmentation and CLP did not produce a greater effect on either of these BBB parameters than did either of these manipulations alone. These results suggest that the mechanisms by which sleep fragmentation and sepsis alter BBB functions are fundamentally different from one another and that a major change in the organism's responses to those insults occurs with aging.

  1. 军队疗养青年军人睡眠质量调查及其影响因素分析%Investigation of sleep quality and its influential factors in Chinese young convalescent soliders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈素娟; 张瑞乔; 张林基; 张筱微; 陈宇

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the status of the sleep quality of the Chinese young convalescent soliders and analyze its influential factors, and to provide reference for corresponding health care and health education. Methods: A total of 346 young military persons were investigated by the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) scale in our sanatorium. The individual information and potential influential factors related with sleep quality were collected. Results; The total sleep quality of young military personnel was not good. The PSQI score was 7. 12 ± 3.76. The chronic diseases and special service environment could influence the sleep quality. Conclusion; The status of sleep quality of young military personnel should not be neglected, and the necessary interventional and therapeutic measures should be taken.%目的:了解青年军人的睡眠质量,并分析影响睡眠质量的因素,为制定相应的医疗保健及健康教育措施提供参考.方法:采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)量表对来我院疗养的346名青年军人进行调查,并分析可能影响睡眠质量的因素.结果:青年军人总体睡眠状况一般,PSQI得分平均为(7.12±3.76)分.一些慢性疾病或特殊服役环境会影响睡眠质量.结论:青年军人睡眠质量问题不容忽视,需要采取必要的措施进行干预和治疗.

  2. Relationship between isolated sleep paralysis and geomagnetic influences: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa, J

    1995-06-01

    This preliminary report, of a longitudinal study, looks at the relationship between geomagnetic activity and the incidence of isolated sleep paralysis over a 23.5-mo. period. The author, who has frequently and for the last 24 years experienced isolated sleep paralysis was the subject. In addition, incidence of lucid dreaming, vivid dreams, and total dream frequency were looked at with respect to geomagnetic activity. The data were in the form of dream-recall frequency recorded in a diary. These frequency data were correlated with geomagnetic activity k-index values obtained from two observatories. A significant correlation was obtained between periods of local geomagnetic activity and the incidence of isolated sleep paralysis. Specifically, periods of relatively quiet geomagnetic activity were significantly associated with an increased incidence of episodes.

  3. Influence of Day Length and Physical Activity on Sleep Patterns in Older Icelandic Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brychta, Robert J; Arnardóttir, Nanna Ýr; Jóhannsson, Erlingur

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. Methods: A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 +/- 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger...... to women, men had a shorter sleep duration (462 +/- 80 vs. 487 +/- 68 minutes, p = 0.008), earlier rise time, and a greater number of awakenings per night (46.5 +/- 18.3 vs. 40.2 +/- 15.7, p = 0.007), but sleep efficiency and onset latency were similar between the two sexes. Daily PA was also similar...

  4. Sleeping site selection by agile gibbons: the influence of tree stability, fruit availability and predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Susan M; Höing, Andrea; Rinear, John; Sheeran, Lori K

    2012-01-01

    Primates spend a significant proportion of their lives at sleeping sites: the selection of a secure and stable sleeping tree can be crucial for individual survival and fitness. We measured key characteristics of all tree species in which agile gibbons slept, including exposure of the tree crown, root system, height, species and presence of food. Gibbons most frequently slept in Dipterocarpaceae and Fabaceae trees and preferentially chose trees taller than average, slept above the mean canopy height and showed a preference for liana-free trees. These choices could reflect avoidance of competition with other frugivores, but we argue these choices reflect gibbons prioritizing avoidance of predation. The results highlight that gibbons are actively selecting and rejecting sleeping trees based on several characteristics. The importance of the presence of large trees for food is noted and provides insight into gibbon antipredatory behaviour.

  5. [About a possible role of parasomnia as a factor of stabilization of sleep cycles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepoval'nikov, A N; Gol'bin, A Ts

    2009-01-01

    Cyclical organization of sleep is one of necessary conditions of normal human and animal life activity and one of basic manifestations of the circadian cycle. Transition from the slow-wave to the paradoxical sleep is often accompanied by brief, sometimes rhythmical motor and autonomic reactions that do not cause arousal, but seem to promote activation of the mechanisms providing the "shift" of the sleep phases. Immaturity (or damage) of the neurophysiological mechanisms responsible for the "shift" of the sleep stages leads to hindering of alternation of the sleep phases, which disturbs their normal sequence and leads to deficit of reparative and homeostatic processes; this is manifested in deterioration of the neuropsychical state during wakefulness. The data are presented which allow suggesting that as a compensatory mechanism promoting the sleep phase shift there can appear stereotypical motor or autonomic reactions - pathological parasomnia, for instance, enuresis. Episodes of the pathological parasomnia promote normalization of the sleep stage alternation and thereby affect positively recovery of its cyclical organization.

  6. Remarks on the physical factor influencing the individual language learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨君

    2015-01-01

    individual language learner as a subject of learning can be influenced by many factors such as physical factor,cognitive factor,and affective factor.All of which play an important role in language learning.These three factors are worthy of our research and physical factor will be discussed in this essay.

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with disturbed sleep in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverment, Shaaron; Clarke, Emily; Wadeley, Alison; Sengupta, Raj

    2017-02-01

    This review explores the prevalence and factors associated with disturbed sleep for patients with ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis in order to clarify consistent findings in this otherwise disparate research field. The association of physical, demographic and psychological factors correlating with poor sleep was explored, and the effectiveness of interventions assessed. Ten electronic databases were searched: AMED, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, OpenGrey and BASE. Following application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 29 articles were critically assessed on the basis of methodology, experimental design, ethics and quality of sleep data, leading to the selection of 15 studies for final review. Poor sleep was reported in 35-90% of patients with axial spondyloarthritis and is more prevalent within this clinical population compared to healthy control subjects. Disturbed sleep is an important aspect of disease for patients and reflects the severity of disease activity, pain, fatigue and functional disability. However, the direction of this relationship is undetermined. Associations with age, gender, years spent in education, quality of life and depression have also been demonstrated. Anti-TNF medication is effective in reducing poor sleep, and exercise has also produced beneficial results. Future research into poor sleep should take account of its multifactorial nature. There is also a current lack of research investigating non-pharmacological interventions or combination therapies. A standardised, validated measurement of poor sleep, appropriate for regular patient screening, would be a useful first step for future research.

  8. Impaired glucose tolerance in sleep disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Keckeis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological and experimental data suggest a negative influence of shortened or disturbed night sleep on glucose tolerance. Due to the high prevalence of sleep disorders this might be a major health issue. However, no comparative studies of carbohydrate metabolism have been conducted in clinical sleep disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT and assessed additional parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, N = 25, restless legs syndrome (RLS, N = 18 or primary insomnia (N = 21, and in healthy controls (N = 33. Compared to controls, increased rates of impaired glucose tolerance were found in OSAS (OR: 4.9 and RLS (OR: 4.7 patients, but not in primary insomnia patients (OR: 1.6. In addition, HbA1c values were significantly increased in the same two patient groups. Significant positive correlations were found between 2-h plasma glucose values measured during the OGTT and the apnea-arousal-index in OSAS (r = 0.56; p<0.05 and the periodic leg movement-arousal-index in RLS (r = 0.56, p<0.05, respectively. Sleep duration and other quantitative aspects of sleep were similar between patient groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that some, but not all sleep disorders considerably compromise glucose metabolism. Repeated arousals during sleep might be a pivotal causative factor deserving further experimental investigations to reveal potential novel targets for the prevention of metabolic diseases.

  9. Systemic inflammation: a key factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, S

    2012-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent disease and is recognised as a major public health burden. Large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated an independent relationship between OSAS and various cardiovascular disorders. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in OSAS is not completely understood but a multifactorial aetiology is likely. Inflammatory processes have emerged as critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis at all stages of atheroma formation. Increased levels of various circulating markers of inflammation including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 6 (IL6), IL-8 and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been reported as associated with future cardiovascular risk. There is increasing evidence of elevated inflammatory markers in OSAS with a significant fall after effective treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. This evidence is particularly strong for TNFalpha, whereas studies on IL6 and CRP have yielded conflicting results possibly due to the confounding effects of obesity. Cell culture and animal studies have significantly contributed to our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the association between OSAS and inflammation. Intermittent hypoxia, the hallmark of OSAS, results in activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein (AP)-1. These promote activation of various inflammatory cells, particularly lymphocytes and monocytes, with the downstream consequence of expression of pro-inflammatory mediators that may lead to endothelial dysfunction. This review provides a critical analysis of the current evidence for an association between OSAS, inflammation and cardiovascular disease, discusses basic mechanisms that may be responsible for this association and proposes future research possibilities.

  10. Prevalence and predictive factors of sleep bruxism in children with and without cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Batista Miamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have found a higher prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB in individuals with cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with the clinical manifestation of SB in children with and without cognitive impairment. The sample was made up of 180 individuals: Group 1 - without cognitive impairment; Group 2 - with Down syndrome; Group 3 - with cerebral palsy. Malocclusions were assessed based on the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI; lip competence was assessed based on Ballard's description. The bio-psychosocial characteristics were assessed via a questionnaire and clinical exam. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05 and multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of bruxism was 23%. There were no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.970. Individuals with sucking habits (OR [95% CI] = 4.44 [1.5 to 13.0], posterior crossbite (OR [95% CI] = 3.04 [1.2 to 7.5] and tooth wear facets (OR [95% CI] = 3.32 [1.2 to 8.7] had a greater chance of exhibiting SB. Sucking habits, posterior crossbite and tooth wear facets were identified as being directly associated with the clinical manifestations of bruxism.

  11. [Sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome: risk factors in children and adolescents; a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cordero, M J; Sánchez López, A M; Mur Villar, N; García García, I; Guisado Barrilao, R

    2013-11-01

    The sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is a disorder that currently affects a large number of children and adolescents. The aim of this review is to assess the factors causing this condition and the risk of suffering another disease associated with SAHS. The 50 articles selected for inclusion in this review were identified through GOOGLE SCHOLAR. The validity of the items was established by the degree of evidence obtained, by recommendations made in this respect and by the applicability to the situation observed. The review considers studies of SAHS in children and adolescents, taking into account those relating this disorder with obesity, hypertension, physical activity and other variables. The studies reviewed show that SAHS is associated with childhood obesity and that it increases the risk of cerebro-cardiovascular disease. It is also shown that SAHS decreases children's and adolescents' physical capacity and quality of life. Psychological aspects are also affected, impacting on academic performance, which is poorer than in healthy children. Therefore, early paediatric diagnosis of SAHS is important in order to prevent associated disorders.

  12. Chronobiology, sleep-related risk factors and light therapy in perinatal depression: The "Life-ON" project

    OpenAIRE

    Baiardi, Simone; Cirignotta, Fabio; Cicolin, Alessandro; Garbazza, Corrado; D’Agostino, Armando; Gambini, Orsola; Giordano, Alessandra; Canevini, Mariapaola; Zambrelli, Elena; Marconi, Anna Maria; Mondini, Susanna; Borgwardt, Stefan; Cajochen, Christian; Rizzo, Nicola; Manconi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Background Perinatal depression (PND) has an overall estimated prevalence of roughly 12 %. Untreated PND has significant negative consequences not only on the health of the mothers, but also on the physical, emotional and cognitive development of their children. No certain risk factors are known to predict PND and no completely safe drug treatments are available during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Sleep and depression are strongly related to each other because of a solid reciprocal causal rel...

  13. Hydrolysis kinetics of atrazine and influence factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The hydrolysis kinetics of atrazine in distilled water and leaching water from soil, and their influence factors were studied by incubation at 35℃ and HPLC analysis method in this paper. The kinetic process of atrazine hydrolysis can be described by the first-order reaction law. The results showed that the hydrolysis rate constants k in leaching water and distilled water were 1.606x10-3/d and 1.055x10-3/d, respectively; the half-life of atrazine hydrolysis in distilled water at pH 3, pH 4.5 and pH 8 were 373 days, 522 days and 657 days respectively. The results also showed that the proton in reaction solution can catalyze the atrazine hydrolysis; humic acid and NH4+ etc. substances in aqueous solution can facilitate atrazine hydrolysis; rate constants of atrazine hydrolysis with humic acid and NH4NO3 were 2.431x10-3/d and 1.498x10-3/d respectively which were 2.3 and 1.42 times of control(1.055x10-3/d); anion NO3- can inhibit catalysis of humic acid to atrazine hydrolysis.

  14. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  15. Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoshi,Ko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

  16. 贵阳市大学生睡眠质量及影响因素分析%Quality of sleep and related factors among university students in Guiyang city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海燕; 贾璐安; 崔迪; 罗婷; 荣娜; 雷松岭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the sleep quality and its influencing factors among university students in Guiyang city. Methods With stratified sampling,2 126 students from three universities were selected and surveyed with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI) and a self-developed questionnaire on influencing factors of sleep quality. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze related factors of sleep quality. Results The average PSQI score was 6. 27 ± 2. 34 and 27.4% of the students reported poor quality of sleep. There was no significant difference between the male and the female in the quality of sleep. The junior students had the worst sleep quality. Factors influencing the quality of sleep in the students included frequent web surfing (β = 0. 072) ,bad relationship between the father and mother (β = - 0. 049), having rocky relationship with teacher (β = - 0. 049 ) , without regular physical exercise (β = - 0. 054), having bad relationship with classmates (β = -0.058) .stress of study(β = -0.066) ,a failure in love(β = -0.069) .neglect of self-health(β = -0.084) .without good relationship with family members (β= -0.089), and worring about self-health constantly (β= -0. 162). Conclusion The sleep quality is not good in university students of Guiyang city and specific measures should be taken for related factors to improve the quality of sleep.%目的 了解贵州省贵阳市2 126名大学生睡眠质量状况并分析其影响因素.方法 采用匹兹堡睡眠质量指数( PSQI)量表及自制的大学生睡眠质量影响因素调查表对在校本科大学生进行抽样调查,采用多元线性回归分析睡眠质量的影响因素.结果 贵阳市大学生PSQI总均分为(6.27±2.34)分,27.4%的大学生存在睡眠质量问题,男女生PSQI总分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),大三年级学生睡眠质量最差;睡眠质量影响因素为:经常上网(β=0.072)、父母不和(β=-0.049)、与教师关系紧张(β=-0.049)、

  17. [Sleep and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, G; Vlatkovic, D

    2006-03-22

    Our knowledge about the multiple aspects of sleep functions are still insufficient. Concerning the relationship between sleep and sexuality there are four points of view to take into account. Two observations: a spontaneous sexual excitement during REM sleep and that some anxious dreams can produce also sexual arousal. Two hypotheses: the erotic pleasure could be easier to perceive in a sleeping or dreaming state than in a waking state and some sleeping troubles could have an important influence on the sexual life of a couple.

  18. Patient room lighting influences on sleep, appraisal and mood in hospitalised people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giménez, M.C.; Geerdinck, L.M.; Versteylen, M.; Leffers, P.; Meekes, G.J.B.M.; Herremans, H.; Ruyter, B.E.R. de; Bikker, J.W.; Kuijpers, P.M.J.C.; Schlangen, L.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Irregular 24 h light/dark cycles with night-time light exposure and a low amplitude are disruptive for sleep, mood and circadian rhythms. Nevertheless such lighting conditions are quite common in medical care facilities. A controlled clinical trial among 196 cardiology ward patients (mean age 66.5 ±

  19. Relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cognitive function of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Hong Wang; Guo-Ping He; Xu-Ping Xiao; Can Gu; Hua-Ying Chen

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the relationship between the blood serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level and cognitive function deterioration in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), and to explore the possible mechanism of cognitive impairment. Methods: Twenty-eight male OSAHS patients and 14 normal males (as controls) were enrolled in the study. Polysomnography and the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) were conducted. The blood serum BDNF levels were measured using ELISA. Results: The OSAHS group had significantly decreased blood serum BDNF levels compared with the control group (t=-10.912, P= 0.000). The blood serum BDNF level of the subjects was significantly positively associated with the MoCA score (r= 0.544, P= 0.000), significantly negatively associated with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and shallow sleep (S1+S2) (AHI:r=-0.607, P=0.000;S1+S2:r=-0.768, P=0.000), and significantly positively associated with the lowest SaO2 (LSO), slow wave sleep (S3+S4), and rapid eye movement sleep (REM) (LSO:r=0.566, P=0.000;S3+S4:r=0.778, P=0.000;REM:r= 0.575, P= 0.000). Conclusions: OSAHS patients have significantly decreased blood serum BDNF levels compared with the control. Nocturnal hypoxia as well as the deprivation of slow wave sleep and REM may lead to the decreased serum BDNF level of OSAHS patients. This decreased blood serum BDNF level may contribute to the cognitive impairment in OSAHS.

  20. [Sleep changes with aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbus, Christophe; Cochen, Valérie

    2010-03-01

    Many factors contribute to the alteration of sleep in older adults. Most of their complaints can be explained by the modifications of the sleep organisation observed in this population. Sleep architecture is altered with aging. Insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness can reflect an alteration of the circadian rhythm. This population is also frequently exposed to specific sleep disorders such as the restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movements or obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep disorders in patients with Alzheimer's disease is a daily preoccupation at home or in institution. Circadian rhythm modifications and sleep disorders are frequent in this frail population and can induce disturbing behavior disorders. Before the prescription of hypnotics and psychotropic drugs, facing a sleep complaint practitioners should take into account the risks induced by these treatments that should no longer be the unique and reflex treatment in these situations.

  1. Change in sleep duration and proposed dietary risk factors for obesity in Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, M. F.; Quist, J. S.; Andersen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    at baseline and after ∼200 days. Results Baseline sleep duration did not predict changes in dietary intake or vice versa (all P ≥ 0.69). However, 1-h lower sleep duration was associated with higher intake of added sugar (1.59 E%; P = 0.001) and sugar-sweetened beverages (0.90 E%; P = 0.002) after 200 days...

  2. Selection of sleeping trees in pileated gibbons (Hylobates pileatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoonjampa, Rungnapa; Koenig, Andreas; Borries, Carola; Gale, George A; Savini, Tommaso

    2010-06-01

    Selection and use patterns of sleeping sites in nonhuman primates are suggested to have multiple functions, such as predation avoidance, but they might be further affected by range defense as well as foraging constraints or other factors. Here, we investigate sleeping tree selection by the male and female members of one group of pileated gibbons (Hylobates pileatus) at Khao Ang Rue Nai Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. Data were collected on 113 nights, between September 2006 and January 2009, yielding data on 201 sleeping tree choices (107 by the female and 94 by the male) and on the characteristics of 71 individual sleeping trees. Each sleeping tree and all trees > or =40 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) in the home range were assessed (height, DBH, canopy structure, liana load) and mapped using a GPS. The gibbons preferentially selected tall (mean=38.5 m), emergent trees without lianas. The majority of the sleeping trees (53.5%) were used only once and consecutive reuse was rare (9.5%). Sleeping trees were closer to the last feeding tree of the evening than to the first feeding tree in the morning, and sleeping trees were located in the overlap areas with neighbors less often than expected based on time spent in these areas. These results suggest avoidance of predators as the main factor influencing sleeping tree selection in pileated gibbons. However, other non-mutually exclusive factors may be involved as well.

  3. Effects of Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF on Sleep and Temperature Following Predictable Controllable and Uncontrollable Stress in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie eWellman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF is a major mediator of central nervous system responses to stressors, including alterations in wakefulness and sleep. However, its role in mediating stress-induced alterations in sleep has not been fully delineated. In this study, we assessed the role of CRF and the non-specific CRF antagonist, astressin (AST, in regulating changes in sleep produced by signaled, escapable shock (SES and signaled inescapable shock (SIS, two stressors that can increase or decrease sleep, respectively. Male BALB/cJ mice were surgically implanted with transmitters (DataSciences ETA10-F20 for recording EEG, activity and core body temperature by telemetry and a cannula for intracerebroventricular microinjections. After baseline (Base sleep recording, mice were presented tones (90 dB, 2 kHz that started 5.0 sec prior to and co-terminated with footshock (0.5 mA; 5.0 sec maximum duration. SES mice (n=9 always received shock but could terminate it by moving to the non-occupied chamber in a shuttlebox. Yoked SIS mice (n=9 were treated identically, but could not alter shock duration. Training with SES or SIS was conducted over two days to stabilize responses. Afterwards, the mice received saline, CRF (0.4 µg (0.42 mM or AST (1.0 µg (1.4 mM prior to SES or SIS. Sleep was analyzed over 20 h post-stress recordings. After administration of saline, REM was significantly greater in SES mice than in SIS mice whereas after CRF or AST, REM was similar in both groups. Total 20 h NREM did not vary across condition or group. However, after administration of saline and CRF, NREM episode duration was significantly decreased, and NREM episode number significantly increased, in SIS mice compared to SES animals. SES and SIS mice showed similar stress induced hyperthermia (SIH across all conditions. These data demonstrate that CRF can mediate stress-induced changes in sleep independently of SIH, an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation.

  4. Situational factors affecting sleep paralysis and associated hallucinations: position and timing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, J A

    2002-06-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) entails a period of paralysis upon waking or falling asleep and is often accompanied by terrifying hallucinations. Two situational conditions for sleep paralysis, body position (supine, prone, and left or right lateral decubitus) and timing (beginning, middle, or end of sleep), were investigated in two studies involving 6730 subjects, including 4699 SP experients. A greater number of individuals reported SP in the supine position than all other positions combined. The supine position was also 3-4 times more common during SP than when normally falling asleep. The supine position during SP was reported to be more prevalent at the middle and end of sleep than at the beginning suggesting that the SP episodes at the later times might arise from brief microarousals during REM, possibly induced by apnea. Reported frequency of SP was also greater among those consistently reporting episodes at the beginning and middle of sleep than among those reporting episodes when waking up at the end of sleep. The effects of position and timing of SP on the nature of hallucinations that accompany SP were also examined. Modest effects were found for SP timing, but not body position, and the reported intensity of hallucinations and fear during SP. Thus, body position and timing of SP episodes appear to affect both the incidence and, to a lesser extent, the quality of the SP experience.

  5. Urban water consumption and its influencing factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Liangxin; Gai, Lingtong; Tong, Yan; Li, Ruihua

    2017-01-01

    Factors that affect water consumption should be identified to develop effective public policies. However, factors influencing domestic water consumption in cities in China, particularly on a national scale, are unclear. In this study, urban water consumption and its influencing factors in 286

  6. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  7. Influence of neighbourhood-level crowding on sleep-disordered breathing severity: mediation by body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dayna A; Drake, Christopher; Joseph, Christine L M; Krajenta, Richard; Hudgel, David W; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E

    2015-10-01

    Neighbourhood-level crowding, a measure of the percentage of households with more than one person per room, may impact the severity of sleep-disordered breathing. This study examined the association of neighbourhood-level crowding with apnoea-hypopnoea index in a large clinical sample of diverse adults with sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep-disordered breathing severity was quantified as the apnoea-hypopnoea index calculated from overnight polysomnogram; analyses were restricted to those with apnoea-hypopnoea index ≥5. Neighbourhood-level crowding was defined using 2000 US Census tract data as percentage of households in a census tract with >1 person per room. Multivariable linear mixed models were fit to examine the associations between the percentage of neighbourhood-level crowding and apnoea-hypopnoea index, and a causal mediation analysis was conducted to determine if body mass index acted as a mediator between neighbourhood-level crowding and apnoea-hypopnoea index. Among 1789 patients (43% African American; 68% male; 80% obese), the mean apnoea-hypopnoea index was 29.0 ± 25.3. After adjusting for race, age, marital status and gender, neighbourhood-level crowding was associated with apnoea-hypopnoea index; for every one-unit increase in percentage of neighbourhood-level crowding mean, the apnoea-hypopnoea index increased by 0.40 ± 0.20 (P = 0.04). There was a statistically significant indirect effect of neighbourhood-level crowding through body mass index on the apnoea-hypopnoea index (P crowding is associated with severity of sleep-disordered breathing. Body mass index partially mediated the association between neighbourhood-level crowding and sleep-disordered breathing. Investigating prevalent neighbourhood conditions impacting breathing in urban settings may be promising.

  8. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela-victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  9. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors