Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara
Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.
Benavente, Sonia Betzabeth Ticona; Silva, Rodrigo Marques da; Higashi, Aline Baraldi; Guido, Laura de Azevedo; Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira
Objective:To analyze the influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students. Method: An analytical cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted with 151 nursing students in São Paulo between March and April of 2012. A form for socio-demographic characteristics, the Instrument to Evaluate Stress in Nursing Students and the Pittsburgh Sleep Index were applied. Results: High levels of stress was predominant for Time Management (27.8%) ...
Full Text Available Sleep quality in hospitalized Canadian General Internal Medicine patients is not well characterized. Our goals were to characterize hospital sleep quality in this population and identify potentially modifiable barriers to good sleep.GIM inpatients at a quaternary centre in Edmonton, Canada completed a survey, including the Verran-Snyder Halpern (VSH questionnaire, to characterize the previous night's sleep within 48 hours prior to discharge. A chart review was also completed to assess comorbidities, discharge diagnoses, and pharmaceutical sleep aid use.Patients reported significantly worse nighttime sleep duration in hospital compared with home (mean 5.5 versus 7.0 hours per night, p < 0.0001. Sleep quality was poor, as measured by the VSH disturbance (mean 371, effectiveness (190, and supplementation (115 subscales. Variables independently associated with poorer sleep duration in multivariable regression include prior diagnosis of sleep disorder and multi-patient occupancy rooms. Age, sex, admitting diagnosis, length of stay, frequency of vital checks, and use of sleep pharmaceuticals during the index hospitalization were not associated with sleep duration. The most frequently reported reasons for poor sleep included noise (59%, nursing interruptions (30%, uncomfortable beds (18%, bright lights (16%, unfamiliar surroundings (14%, and pain (9%.Sleep quality for GIM inpatients is significantly worse in hospital than at home. There is a need to test non-pharmacologic interventions to address the most frequently identified factors causing poor sleep hygiene for GIM inpatients.
Tao, Jianxiang; Liu, Weicai; Wu, Junhua; Zhang, Xuying; Zhang, Yongting
The purpose of this study is to investigate the grinding patterns and discuss the factors influencing the position relationship between intercuspal position (ICP) and grinding area during sleep bruxism. Lateral condylar inclination, inclination of lateral incisal path and freedom in long centric of thirty subjects were measured. The grinding patterns during sleep bruxism were recorded with a bruxism recording device, BruxChecker. The position relationship between ICP and the grinding area was examined. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for correlation analysis between grinding area and free factors (grinding patterns, freedom in long centric and discrepancy between lateral condylar inclination and inclination of lateral incisal path). All 12 subjects with 0mm-freedom in long centric exhibited that ICP of both sides located within the grinding areas. 4 subjects showed that ICP of both sides located outside the grinding areas. There is a significant correlation between 0mm-freedom in long centric and ICP within the grinding areas (p grinding area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wu, D D; Li, S H; Jin, L Y; Jin, Y; Cui, Y Y; Zhao, H; Liu, H J; Ma, X X; Su, W; Chen, H B
To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of visual hallucinations in patients with Parkinson's disease(PD), and to analyze the relationship between visual hallucinations and sleep disorders. We recruited 187 patients with PD(H-Y Ⅰ-Ⅲ) from outpatient department in Beijing Hospital. The patients were investigated for general information and the use of medicine. The patients were divided into visual hallucination(VH) group and non-hallucination(non-VH) group. A comparison study was conducted between two groups. We investigated the sleep disorders of PD patients according to Non Motor Symptom Quest(NMSquest) and Parkinson's disease sleep scale(PDSS). Logistic stepwise multiple regression procedures were used to determine the best predictive model of visual hallucinations in patients with PD. (1) 42 cases(22.5%) of PD patients were accompanied by visual hallucinations; (2) the VH group and non-VH group had no difference in age, sex, duration of illness, the scores of Minimum Mental State Examination(MMSE) and levodopa equivalent doses (LED). The scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale(UPDRS) Ⅰ, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety(HAMA) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression(HAMD) in VH group were significantly higher than those in non-VH group[3.5(2, 5) vs 2 (1, 3); 10(6.75, 15) vs 8(5, 11); 11(7.75, 17) vs 9(5, 13); Psleep behavior disorder(RBD) in VH group were significantly higher than those in non-VH group(61.9% vs 40.7%, 71.4% vs 47.6%, P0.05). The score of PDSS in VH group was significantly lower than that in non-VH group[111(92.75, 128.25) vs 123(109, 135), Psleep disorder are independently associated with VH in PD.
García-García, Fabio; Acosta-Peña, Eva; Venebra-Muñoz, Arturo; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric
Kuniomi Ishimori and Henri Piéron were the first researchers to introduce the concept and experimental evidence for a chemical factor that would presumably accumulate in the brain during waking and eventually induce sleep. This substance was named hypnotoxin. Currently, the variety of substances which have been shown to alter sleep includes peptides, cytokines, neurotransmitters and some substances of lipidic nature, many of which are well known for their involvement in other biological activities. In this chapter, we describe the sleep-inducing properties of the vasoactive intestinal peptide, prolactin, adenosine and anandamide.
Full Text Available Introduction. Sleep-wake disturbances are common in hospitalised patients but few studies have assessed them systematically. The aim of the present study was to assess sleep quality in a group of medical inpatients, in relation to environmental factors, and the switch to daylight saving time. Methods. Between March and April 2013, 132 consecutive inpatients were screened and 99 (76±11 yrs; hospitalization: 8±7 days enrolled. They slept in double or quadruple rooms, facing South/South-East, and were qualified as sleeping near/far from the window. They underwent daily sleep assessment by standard questionnaires/diaries. Illuminance was measured by a luxmeter at each patient’s eye-level, four times per day. Noise was measured at the same times by a phonometer. Information was recorded on room lighting, position of the rolling shutters and number/type of extra people in the room. Results. Compliance with sleep-wake assessment was poor, with a range of completion of 2-59%, depending on the questionnaires. Reported sleep quality was sufficient and sleep timing dictated by hospital routine; 33% of the patients reported one/more sleepless nights. Illuminance was generally low, and rolling shutters half way down for most of the 24 hours. Patients who slept near the window were exposed to more light in the morning (i.e. 222±72 vs. 174±85 lux, p<0.05 before the switch; 198±72 vs.141±137 lux, p<0.01 after the switch and tended to slept better (7.3±1.8 vs. 5.8±2.4 on a 1-10 scale, before the switch, p<0.05; 7.7±2.3 vs. 6.6±1.8, n.s. after the switch. Noise levels were higher than recommended for care units but substantially comparable across times/room types. No significant differences were observed in sleep parameters before/after the switch. Conclusions. Medical wards appear to be noisy environments, in which limited attention is paid to light/dark hygiene. An association was observed between sleep quality and bed position/light exposure, which
Demir Zencirci, Ayten; Arslan, Sümeyye
Aim To assess the relationship between sleep quality and demographic variables, morning-evening type, and burnout in nurses who work shifts. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional self-administered study with forced choice and open-ended structured questionnaires – Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, Morningness-eveningness Questionnaire, and Maslach Burnout Inventory. The study was carried out at Gazi University Medicine Faculty Hospital of Ankara on 524 invited nurses from July to September 2008, with a response rate of 89.94% (n = 483). Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to determine the risk factors of poor sleep quality. Results Most socio-demographic variables did not affect sleep quality. Participants with poor sleep quality had quite high burnout levels. Most nurses who belonged to a type that is neither morning nor evening had poor sleep quality. Nurses who experienced an incident worsening their sleep patterns (P burnout dimensions were high. Conclusions Nurses working consistently either in the morning or at night had better sleep quality than those working rotating shifts. Further studies are still needed to develop interventions that improve sleep quality and decrease burnout in nurses working shifts. PMID:21853548
Pease, Anna; Ingram, Jenny; Blair, Peter S; Fleming, Peter J
Qualitative interviews with mothers of babies at higher risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were carried out to understand their views and decision-making process on the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted between February and November 2014 in deprived areas of Bristol, UK. Mothers were asked about their decision-making for the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages including infant sleep position, co-sleeping, smoking, dummy use, feeding and disrupted routines. The interviews were transcribed, coded and thematic analysis carried out. Participants were invited based on an algorithm developed in a previous SIDS case control study that identified an increased risk of SIDS from four demographic characteristics: young maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, three or more children, and a measure of deprivation. The presence of three, or more characteristics led to being invited to take part in the qualitative study. Factors influencing mothers' adherence to the safe sleep messages included previous experience and the credibility of the advice given. They described disrupted routines that led to risky scenarios with a belief that occasional risks were acceptable. Where circumstances made following the advice more difficult they found alternative strategies to reduce the risk, including the use of movement monitors, regular checking and a belief that lighter maternal sleep in the presence of a baby was protective. Safer sleep messages should be tailored to fit with the lived realities of mothers, especially those at higher risk. The traditional list of 'do's' and 'don'ts' was not well accepted by this group. Interventions that seek to influence this higher-risk group should acknowledge mothers' own protective instincts and consider their beliefs and understanding behind the safer sleep messages if they are to be effective and encourage this group to change.
Rocha, Bruna Rainho; Behlau, Mara
To verify the influence of sleep quality on the voice. Descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study. Data were collected by an online or printed survey divided in three parts: (1) demographic data and vocal health aspects; (2) self-assessment of sleep and vocal quality, and the influence that sleep has on voice; and (3) sleep and voice self-assessment inventories-the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Voice Handicap Index reduced version (VHI-10). A total of 862 people were included (493 women, 369 men), with a mean age of 32 years old (maximum age of 79 and minimum age of 18 years old). The perception of the influence that sleep has on voice showed a difference (P influence a voice handicap are vocal self-assessment, ESS total score, and self-assessment of the influence that sleep has on voice. The absence of daytime sleepiness is a protective factor (odds ratio [OR] > 1) against perceived voice handicap; the presence of daytime sleepiness is a damaging factor (OR influences voice. Perceived poor sleep quality is related to perceived poor vocal quality. Individuals with a voice handicap observe a greater influence of sleep on voice than those without. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yugantara R. Kadam
Full Text Available Background: Sleep occupies nearly 1/3rd of our life and is essential for overall growth and stability. Sleep deprivation results weakening of physical functions, mental health problems like depression and lowering of productivity, thus resulting in loss to an individual and society. Aim and Objectives: Sleep is essential for physical and mental stability. Its deprivation lowers work productivity and results in mental problem like depression. Various lifestyle and psychosocial factors may have impact on the sleep. In the western countries the subject is amply explored; however studies on student from developing countries like India are limited. Our objective was to study the extent of sleep disturbance and associated factors among the graduating college students. Material and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in Arts, Commerce and Science graduating college students from an urban area. The sampling technique was cluster random sampling with the sample size of 890. A pretested, selfadministered questionnaire was used as a study tool. Statistical Analysis was done using percentages, chisquare test and bi-variate logistic regression. Results: The mean duration of sleep reported by the 900 study subjects was 7.3 hours (std. deviation 1 hour. Any sleep disturbance was reported by 826 (91.8% subjects; with day time sleepiness (77.5% and difficulty in falling asleep (65.4% being the commonest complaint. Sleep disturbance score was associated with exercise, outdoor games and tea / coffee intake. It was also associated with nocturnal use of mobiles and feeling depressed. Conclusion: Sleep disturbances were present in majority of college students with day time sleepiness as its commonest manifestation. Various lifestyle and psychosocial factors had impact on the sleep. Proper lifestyle modification and good family environment areimportant to avoid sleep disturbances among the college students.
Full Text Available Background: Sleep is necessary in life and approximately 1/3 of human life is devoted to sleep. One of the most common problems in menopausal women is sleep disturbance. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of sleep disorders and its related factors in 50 – 60 years old women Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on 200 eligible women who referred to selected health centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS. Demographic form, ten-point slide to review sexual satisfaction and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index Questioner (PSQI were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, t-test, and Pearson correlation tests.Results: The mean age of women was 53.6±3.6 year, menopause age 47.8±4, number of children 4.76±2 and partner age was 57.99±6.6. 34.5% of women were satisfied from their sexual relationship and their score was 8-10. Rate of sleep disturbances in this group was about 70%. The results showed that between four variables: economical status, occupation, partner occupation and educational status were significantly associated with sleep disturbance (P=0.002. There was not significant difference between other demographic information and sleep disturbance.Conclusion: The results show high prevalence of sleep disturbance symptoms among menopausal women. According to the relationship between some personal characters and sleep disturbance, health care providers need to consider these variables.
Full Text Available Bradley V Vaughn, Sean Rotolo, Heidi L Roth Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Circadian rhythms and sleep influence a variety of physiological functions, including the digestive system. The digestive system also has intrinsic rhythms that interact dynamically with circadian rhythms. New advances in understanding the interaction of these rhythms and sleep provide the prospect of evaluating their role in normal physiology and the link of their disruption to pathological conditions. Recent work has demonstrated that sleep and circadian factors influence appetite, nutrient absorption, and metabolism. Disruption of sleep and circadian rhythms may increase vulnerability to digestive disorders, including reflux, ulcers, inflammatory bowel issues, irritable bowel disease, and gastrointestinal cancer. As our knowledge of the link between circadian timing and gastrointestinal physiology grows, so do our opportunities to provide promising diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for gastrointestinal disorders. Keywords: digestion, digestive diseases, gastrointestinal reflux, sleep, circadian rhythm
Thalyta Cristina Mansano-Schlosser
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze the factors associated with poor sleep quality, its characteristics and components in women with breast cancer prior to surgery for removing the tumor and throughout the follow-up. Method: longitudinal study in a teaching hospital, with a sample of 102 women. The following were used: a questionnaire for sociodemographic and clinical characterization, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the Beck Depression Inventory; and the Herth Hope Scale. Data collection covered from prior to the surgery for removal of the tumor (T0 to T1, on average 3.2 months; T2, on average 6.1 months; and T3, on average 12.4 months. Descriptive statistics and the Generalized Estimating Equations model were used. Results: depression and pain contributed to the increase in the score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and hope, to the reduction of the score - independently - throughout follow-up. Sleep disturbances were the component with the highest score throughout follow-up. Conclusion: the presence of depression and pain, prior to the surgery, contributed to the increase in the global score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, which indicates worse quality of sleep throughout follow-up; greater hope, in its turn, influenced the reduction of the score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index.
Monma, Takafumi; Ando, Akira; Asanuma, Tohru; Yoshitake, Yutaka; Yoshida, Goichiro; Miyazawa, Taiki; Ebine, Naoyuki; Takeda, Satoko; Omi, Naomi; Satoh, Makoto; Tokuyama, Kumpei; Takeda, Fumi
To clarify sleep disorder risk factors among student athletes, this study examined the relationship between lifestyle habits, competition activities, psychological distress, and sleep disorders. Student athletes (N = 906; male: 70.1%; average age: 19.1 ± 0.8 years) in five university sports departments from four Japanese regions were targeted for analysis. Survey items were attributes (age, gender, and body mass index), sleep disorders (recorded through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), lifestyle habits (bedtime, wake-up time, smoking, drinking alcohol, meals, part-time jobs, and use of electronics after lights out), competition activities (activity contents and competition stressors), and psychological distress (recorded through the K6 scale). The relation between lifestyle habits, competition activities, psychological distress, and sleep disorders was explored using logistic regression analysis. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis with attributes as adjustment variables showed that "bedtime," "wake-up time," "psychological distress," "part-time jobs," "smartphone/cellphone use after lights out," "morning practices," and "motivation loss stressors," were risk factors that were independently related to sleep disorders. Sleep disorders among student athletes are related to lifestyle habits such as late bedtime, early wake-up time, late night part-time jobs, and use of smartphones/cellphones after lights out; psychological distress; and competition activities such as morning practices and motivation loss stressors related to competition. Therefore, this study suggests the importance of improving these lifestyle habits, mental health, and competition activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Valdir de Aquino Lemos
Full Text Available The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2 induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain.
de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; Rodrigues, Bruno; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio
The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2) induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain. PMID:23690660
Dallaspezia, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Lorenzi, Cristina; Pirovano, Adele; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco
Combined Total sleep deprivation (TSD) and light therapy (LT) cause a rapid improvement in bipolar depression which has been hypothesized to be paralleled by changes in sleep homeostasis. Recent studies showed that bipolar patients had lower changes of EEG theta power after sleep and responders to antidepressant TSD+LT slept less and showed a lower increase of EEG theta power then non-responders. A polymorphism in PER3 gene has been associated with diurnal preference, sleep structure and homeostatic response to sleep deprivation in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that the individual variability in the homeostatic response to TSD could be a correlate of antidepressant response and be influenced by genetic factors. We administered three TSD+LT cycles to bipolar depressed patients. Severity of depression was rated on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Actigraphic recordings were performed in a group of patients. PER3 polymorphism influenced changes in total sleep time (F=2.24; p=0.024): while PER3(4/4) and PER3(4/5) patients showed a reduction in it after treatment, PER3(5/5) subjects showed an increase of about 40min, suggesting a higher homeostatic pressure. The same polymorphism influenced the change of depressive symptomatology during treatment (F=3.72; p=0.028). Sleep information was recorded till the day after the end of treatment: a longer period of observation could give more information about the possible maintenance of allostatic adaptation. A higher sleep homeostatic pressure reduced the antidepressant response to TSD+LT, while an allostatic adaptation to sleep loss was associated with better response. This process seems to be under genetic control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carissimi, Alicia; Dresch, Fabiane; Martins, Alessandra Castro; Levandovski, Rosa Maria; Adan, Ana; Natale, Vincenzo; Martoni, Monica; Hidalgo, Maria Paz
This epidemiological study evaluated the impact of school time on sleep parameters of children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved 639 elementary and high school students (mean age 13.03 years, range 8-18, 58.5% female) from the south of Brazil. Participants answered the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), and were asked about their sleeping habits on weekdays and weekends. Sleep deficit was defined as the difference between sleep duration on weekdays and weekends. The morning-school-time students presented significantly higher age, bedtime and wake up differences, sleep deficits, and social jetlag. The sleep deficit presented by girls was greater than that observed in boys of the same age. The difference between weekday and weekend waking times was also significantly greater in girls than in boys aged 13-18 years. Sleep deficit was significantly positively correlated with age and differences in wake up times, and significantly negatively correlated with MEQ scores, social jetlag, difference between weekday and weekend bedtimes, midpoint of sleep on weekends, and midpoint of sleep on weekends corrected for sleep deficit. A step-by-step multivariate logistic regression identified social jetlag, the difference between waking times on weekdays and weekends, and the midpoint of sleep on weekends as significant predictors of sleep deficit (Adjusted R(2) = 0.95; F = 1606.87; p school time influences the sleep parameters. The association of school schedules and physiological factors influence the sleep/wake cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Burke, Tina M; Scheer, Frank A J L; Ronda, Joseph M; Czeisler, Charles A; Wright, Kenneth P
Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic and circadian processes modulate cognition, including reaction time, memory, mood and alertness. How these processes influence higher-order cognitive functions is not well known. Six participants completed a 73-day-long study that included two 14-day-long 28-h forced desynchrony protocols to examine separate and interacting influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase on higher-order cognitive functions of inhibitory control and selective visual attention. Cognitive performance for most measures was impaired immediately after scheduled awakening and improved during the first ~2-4 h of wakefulness (decreasing sleep inertia); worsened thereafter until scheduled bedtime (increasing sleep homeostasis); and was worst at ~60° and best at ~240° (circadian modulation, with worst and best phases corresponding to ~09:00 and ~21:00 hours, respectively, in individuals with a habitual wake time of 07:00 hours). The relative influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase depended on the specific higher-order cognitive function task examined. Inhibitory control appeared to be modulated most strongly by circadian phase, whereas selective visual attention for a spatial-configuration search task was modulated most strongly by sleep inertia. These findings demonstrate that some higher-order cognitive processes are differentially sensitive to different sleep-wake regulatory processes. Differential modulation of cognitive functions by different sleep-wake regulatory processes has important implications for understanding mechanisms contributing to performance impairments during adverse circadian phases, sleep deprivation and/or upon awakening from sleep. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.
Rosenberg, J; Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Kehlet, H
Post-operative sleep disturbance, with suppression of rapid eye movement sleep and slow wave sleep followed by a subsequent rebound, seems to be related to the magnitude of trauma and thereby to the surgical stress response. In this context, cortisol, autonomic stimulation, and certain cytokines...... may lead to abnormal sleep. Furthermore, the environment, pain and the administration of analgesics seem to be important factors in the precipitation of sleep abnormalities. Post-operative sleep disturbance may contribute to the development of episodic hypoxaemia, haemodynamic instability and altered...... mental status, all of which have an influence on post-operative morbidity and mortality. Prevention or reduction of the post-operative sleep disturbance may be achieved by minimizing surgical trauma, changing the conventional nursing procedures, avoiding opioids and treating pain with non...
Pease, Anna; Ingram, Jenny; Blair, Pete; Fleming, Peter
Objective: Qualitative interviews with mothers of babies at higher risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were carried out to understand their views and decision-making process on the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages.Design and setting: Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted between February and November 2014 in deprived areas of Bristol, UK. Mothers were asked about their decision-making for the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages including infant ...
Li, Na; Otomaru, Takafumi; Said, Mohamed Moustafa; Kanazaki, Ayako; Yeerken, Yesiboli; Taniguchi, Hisashi
To investigate factors affecting sleep quality in maxillectomy patients after prosthetic rehabilitation and to determine the association between defect status and sleep quality. A total of 57 patients participated in this study. Sleep quality, general health, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) were evaluated. Of the total sample, 89% had poor sleep quality. Early morning awakening and daytime sleepiness were the most common complaints. Defect status and the extent of neck dissection could affect sleep quality in these patients. Improvement of OHRQoL in patients with dentomaxillary prostheses may help improve sleep.
Kato, Takafumi; Thie, Norman M; Huynh, Nelly; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Lavigne, Gilles J
Sleep bruxism (SB) is an unusual orofacial movement described as a parafunction in dentistry and as a parasomnia in sleep medicine. Since several peripheral influences could be involved in sleep-wake regulation and the genesis of rhythmic jaw movements, the authors have reviewed the relevant literature to facilitate understanding of mechanisms possibly involved in SB genesis. Various animal and human studies indicate that during either wakefulness or anesthesia, orofacial sensory inputs (e.g., from periodontium, mucosa, and muscle) could influence jaw muscle activity. However, the role of these sensory inputs in jaw motor activity during sleep is unclear. Interestingly, during sleep, the jaw is usually open due to motor suppression; tooth contact most likely occurs in association with sleep arousal. Recent physiologic evidence supports an association between sleep arousal and SB; a sequential change from autonomic (cardiac) and brain cortical activities precede SB-related jaw motor activity. This suggests that the central and/or autonomic nervous systems, rather than peripheral sensory factors, have a dominant role in SB genesis. However, some peripheral sensory factors may exert an influence on SB through their interaction with sleep-wake mechanisms. The intent of this review is to integrate various physiologic concepts in order to better understand the mechanisms underlying the genesis of SB.
Keebaugh, Erin S; Park, Jin Hong; Su, Chenchen; Yamada, Ryuichi; Ja, William W
Plant-derived caffeine is regarded as a defensive compound produced to prevent herbivory. Caffeine is generally repellent to insects and often used to study the neurological basis for aversive responses in the model insect, Drosophila melanogaster. Caffeine is also studied for its stimulatory properties where sleep or drowsiness is suppressed across a range of species. Since limiting access to food also inhibits fly sleep-an effect known as starvation-induced sleep suppression-we tested whether aversion to caffeinated food results in reduced nutrient intake and assessed how this might influence fly studies on the stimulatory effects of caffeine. We measured sleep and total consumption during the first 24 hours of exposure to caffeinated diets containing a range of sucrose concentrations to determine the relative influence of caffeine and nutrient ingestion on sleep. Experiments were replicated using three fly strains. Caffeine reduced total consumption and nighttime sleep, but only at intermediate sucrose concentrations. Although sleep can be modeled by an exponential dose response to nutrient intake, caffeine-mediated sleep loss cannot be explained by absolute caffeine or sucrose ingestion alone. Instead, reduced sleep strongly correlates with changes in total consumption due to caffeine. Other bitter compounds phenocopy the effect of caffeine on sleep and food intake. Our results suggest that a major effect of dietary caffeine is on fly feeding behavior. Changes in feeding behavior may drive caffeine-mediated sleep loss. Future studies using psychoactive compounds should consider the potential impact of nutrition when investigating effects on sleep. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tempesta, Daniela; De Gennaro, Luigi; Natale, Vincenzo; Ferrara, Michele
The recall of emotional memory is enhanced after sleep and is hindered by sleep deprivation. We used an emotional memory task to assess whether poor sleep quality, as well as sleep deprivation, may influence the accuracy of memory recognition, but also the affective tone associated with the memory. Seventy-five subjects, divided into poor sleeper (PS), good sleeper (GS), and sleep deprivation (SD) groups, completed two recall (R) sessions: R1, 1 h after the encoding phase; and R2, after one night of sleep for PS and GS groups and after one night of sleep deprivation for the SD group. During the encoding phase, the participants rated valence and arousal of 90 pictures. During R1 and R2, the participants first made a yes/no memory judgment of the 45 target pictures intermingled with 30 non-target pictures, then rated valence and arousal of each picture. Recognition accuracy was higher for the PS and GS groups compared to the SD group for all pictures. Emotional valence of the remembered pictures was more negative after sleep deprivation and poor quality sleep, while it was preserved after a good sleep. These results provide the first evidence that poor sleep quality negatively affects emotional valence of memories, within the context of preserved emotional memory consolidation. It is suggested that low sleep quality and lack of sleep may impose a more negative affective tone to memories. The reported effects are not to be ascribed to depressive mood, but to a specific influence of poor sleep quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hall Brown, Tyish; Mellman, Thomas A
African Americans residing in stressful urban environments have high rates of insomnia and short sleep duration, both of which are associated with adverse health outcomes. However, limited data exist that explore factors influencing inadequate sleep in this high-risk population. This study sought to evaluate the contributions of demographics, trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, sleep fears, and neighborhood stress to both insomnia and short sleep in urban African American young adults. Data were analyzed from self-report measures completed by 378 participants 18-35 years of age. PTSD symptom severity and sleep fears were independently associated with insomnia severity, and sleep fears was associated with sleep duration. Results have implications for preventative health intervention strategies for urban African American young adults.
Full Text Available A reduction in the amount of time spent sleeping occurs chronically in modern society. Clinical and experimental studies in humans and animal models have shown that immune function is impaired when sleep loss is experienced. Sleep loss exerts a strong regulatory influence on peripheral levels of inflammatory mediators of the immune response. An increasing number of research projects support the existence of reciprocal regulation between sleep and low-intensity inflammatory response. Recent studies show that sleep deficient humans and rodents exhibit a proinflammatory component; therefore, sleep loss is considered as a risk factor for developing cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Circulating levels of proinflammatory mediators depend on the intensity and duration of the method employed to induce sleep loss. Recognizing the fact that the concentration of proinflammatory mediators is different between acute and chronic sleep-loss may expand the understanding of the relationship between sleep and the immune response. The aim of this review is to integrate data from recent published reports (2002–2013 on the effects of sleep loss on the immune response. This review may allow readers to have an integrated view of the mechanisms involved in central and peripheral deficits induced by sleep loss.
Vaughn, Bradley; Rotolo,Sean; Roth,Heidi
Bradley V Vaughn, Sean Rotolo, Heidi L Roth Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Circadian rhythms and sleep influence a variety of physiological functions, including the digestive system. The digestive system also has intrinsic rhythms that interact dynamically with circadian rhythms. New advances in understanding the interaction of these rhythms and sleep provide the prospect of evaluating their...
Pinotti, Mirko; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Frigato, Elena; Branchini, Alessio; Cavallari, Nicola; Baba, Kenkichi; Contreras-Alcantara, Susana; Ehlen, J. Christopher; Bernardi, Francesco; Paul, Ketema N.; Tosini, Gianluca
Chronic sleep loss, a common feature of human life in industrialized countries, is associated to cardiovascular disorders. Variations in functional parameters of coagulation might contribute to explain this relationship. By exploiting the mouse model and a specifically designed protocol, we demonstrated that seven days of partial sleep deprivation significantly decreases (−30.5%) the thrombin generation potential in plasma evaluated upon extrinsic (TF/FVIIa pathway) but not intrinsic activation of coagulation. This variation was consistent with a decrease (−49.8%) in the plasma activity levels of factor VII (FVII), the crucial physiologicalal trigger of coagulation, which was even more pronounced at the liver mRNA level (−85.7%). The recovery in normal sleep conditions for three days completely restored thrombin generation and FVII activity in plasma. For the first time, we demonstrate that chronic sleep deprivation on its own reduces, in a reversible manner, the FVII expression levels, thus influencing the TF/FVIIa activation pathway efficiency. PMID:20418241
Full Text Available Background/Aims: To examine the association between self-reported sleep problems and incidence of dementia in community-dwelling elderly people. Methods: 1,041 nondemented participants over 65 years old were examined longitudinally. Sleep problems were estimated using the RAND Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale examining sleep disturbance, snoring, sleep short of breath or with a headache, sleep adequacy, and sleep somnolence. Cox regression analysis was used to examine the association between sleep problems and risk for incident dementia. Age, gender, education, ethnicity, APOE-ε4, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and depression were included as covariates. Results: Over 3 years of follow-up, 966 (92.8% participants remained nondemented, while 78 (7.2% developed dementia. In unadjusted models, sleep inadequacy (‘Get the amount of sleep you need' at the initial visit was associated with increased risk of incident dementia (HR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.02-1.42; p = 0.027. Adjusting for all the covariates, increased risk of incident dementia was still associated with sleep inadequacy (HR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.01-1.42; p = 0.040, as well as with increased daytime sleepiness (‘Have trouble staying awake during the day' (HR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.00-1.54; p = 0.047. Conclusion: Our results suggest that sleep inadequacy and increased daytime sleepiness are risk factors for dementia in older adults, independent of demographic and clinical factors.
Zheng, Bang; Wang, Kailu; Pan, Ziqi; Li, Man; Pan, Yuting; Liu, Ting; Xu, Dan; Lyu, Jun
To investigate the sleep quality and related factors among medical students in China, understand the association between dormitory environment and sleep quality, and provide evidence and recommendations for sleep hygiene intervention. A total of 555 undergraduate students were selected from a medical school of an university in Beijing through stratified-cluster random-sampling to conduct a questionnaire survey by using Chinese version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and self-designed questionnaire. Analyses were performed by using multiple logistic regression model as well as multilevel linear regression model. The prevalence of sleep disorder was 29.1%(149/512), and 39.1%(200/512) of the students reported that the sleep quality was influenced by dormitory environment. PSQI score was negatively correlated with self-reported rating of dormitory environment (γs=-0.310, Psleep disorder included grade, sleep regularity, self-rated health status, pressures of school work and employment, as well as dormitory environment. RESULTS of multilevel regression analysis also indicated that perception on dormitory environment (individual level) was associated with sleep quality with the dormitory level random effects under control (b=-0.619, Psleep disorder was high in medical students, which was associated with multiple factors. Dormitory environment should be taken into consideration when the interventions are taken to improve the sleep quality of students.
Eberhardt, J. L.
The influence of road traffic noise on the sleep of adults and 6-11 year old children was studied by using electrophysiological methods. Young adults, unaccustomed to traffic noise, were disturbed by continuous and intermittent traffic noise at 45 dB(A). No sleep disturbances were found for continuous traffic noise at 36 dB(A). Car passages with a peak noise level of 55 dB(A) caused awakenings. The equivalent sound pressure level ( Leq) did not correlate with sleep disturbance effects. A better noise dose description was found in the number of vehicles per night that made most noise. Children wer about 10 dB(A) less sensitive than adults to awakening reactions, and even less sensitive with respect to disturbances of REM sleep and deep sleep. Total habituation to road traffic noise did not occur, even after at least one year of exposure. Sound reduction in the bedroom induced increased amounts of deep sleep for adults and reduced falling-asleep time for children. Road traffic noise during the first hours of a night's sleep tended to disturb sleep more than when it ocurred later in the night, the main effects being a reduction of the total amount of REM sleep during the night and an increased duration of intermittent wakefulness during the hours of exposure.
Full Text Available Henry J Orff, Charles J Meliska, L Fernando Martinez, Barbara L Parry Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, and sleep-related movement disorders are a significant public health issue, affecting approximately 40 million people in the US each year. Sleep disturbances are observed in both men and women, though prevalence rates often differ between the sexes. In general, research suggests that women more frequently report subjective complaints of insomnia, yet show better sleep than men when evaluated on objective measures of sleep. Men are more likely to be diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea than women, though rates of obstructive sleep apnea increase after menopause and may be generally underdiagnosed in women. Although circadian rhythm disorders are equally prevalent in men and women, studies find that women typically have earlier bedtimes and exhibit altered temperature and melatonin rhythms relative to men. Lastly, movement disorders appear to be more prevalent in women than men, presumably due to higher rates of anemia and increased risks associated with pregnancy in women. Although gonadal hormones would be expected to play a significant role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances, no causal link between these factors has been clearly established. In large part, the impact of hormones on sleep disturbances is significantly confounded by factors such as psychiatric, physical, and lifestyle concerns, which may play an equal or greater role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances than do hormonal factors. Current standard of care for persons with sleep disorders includes use of psychological, pharmacologic, and/or medical device supported interventions. Hormonal-based treatments are not typically recommended given the potential for long-term adverse health
Drake, Christopher L.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Roth, Thomas
Study Objectives: Determine the genetic and environmental contributions to sleep reactivity and insomnia. Design: Population-based twin cohort. Participants: 1782 individual twins (988 monozygotic or MZ; 1,086 dizygotic or DZ), including 744 complete twin pairs (377 MZ and 367 DZ). Mean age was 22.5 ± 2.8 years; gender distribution was 59% women. Measurements: Sleep reactivity was measured using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST). The criterion for insomnia was having difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or nonrefreshing sleep “usually or always” for ≥ 1 month, with at least “somewhat” interference with daily functioning. Results: The prevalence of insomnia was 21%. Heritability estimates for sleep reactivity were 29% for females and 43% for males. The environmental variance for sleep reactivity was greater for females and entirely due to nonshared effects. Insomnia was 43% to 55% heritable for males and females, respectively; the sex difference was not significant. The genetic variances in insomnia and FIRST scores were correlated (r = 0.54 in females, r = 0.64 in males), as were the environmental variances (r = 0.32 in females, r = 0.37 in males). In terms of individual insomnia symptoms, difficulty staying asleep (25% to 35%) and nonrefreshing sleep (34% to 35%) showed relatively more genetic influences than difficulty falling asleep (0%). Conclusions: Sleep reactivity to stress has a substantial genetic component, as well as an environmental component. The finding that FIRST scores and insomnia symptoms share genetic influences is consistent with the hypothesis that sleep reactivity may be a genetic vulnerability for developing insomnia. Citation: Drake CL; Friedman NP; Wright KP; Roth T. Sleep reactivity and insomnia: genetic and environmental influences. SLEEP 2011;34(9):1179-1188. PMID:21886355
Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A
Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...... for REM sleep behavior disorder....
Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis
, and dyslipidemia). METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort study with 3 survey waves (2000, 2004, 2008) from the Finnish Public Sector study we used repeated information on sleep duration and disturbances to determine onset of impaired sleep. Information on development of CVD risk factors, as indicated by initiation...... of medication for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia was derived from electronic medical records within 8 years of follow-up. Data on 45,647 participants was structured as two data-cycles to examine the effect of change in sleep (between two waves) on incident CVD events. We applied strict inclusion...... and exclusion criteria to determine temporality between changes in sleep and the outcomes. RESULTS: While we did not find consistent effects of onset of short or long sleep, we found onset of disturbed sleep to predict subsequent risk of hypertension (hazard ratio = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.04-1.44) and dyslipidemia (HR...
Bayat, Mohamad; Shariati, Mahsa; Rakhshan, Vahid; Abbasi, Mohsen; Fateh, Ali; Sobouti, Farhad; Davoudmanesh, Zeinab
Previous studies on risk factors of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are highly controversial and mostly identifying a few cephalometric risk factors. OSA diagnosis was made according to the patients' apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Included were 74 OSA patients (AHI > 10) and 52 control subjects (AHI ≤ 10 + free of other OSA symptoms). In both groups, 18 cephalometric parameters were traced (SNA, SNB, ANB, the soft palate's length (PNS-P), inferior airway space, the distance from the mandibular plane to the hyoid (MP-H), lengths of mandible (Go-Gn) and maxilla (PNS-ANS), vertical height of airway (VAL), vertical height of the posterior maxilla (S-PNS), superior posterior airway space (SPAS), middle airway space, distances from hyoid to third cervical vertebra and retrognathion (HH1), C3 (C3H), and RGN (HRGN), the maximum thickness of soft palate (MPT), tongue length (TGL), and the maximum height of tongue). These parameters were compared using t-test. Significant variables were SPAS (p = 0.027), MPT, TGL, HH1, C3H, HRGN, PNS-P, S-PNS, MP-H, VAL, and Go-Gn (all p values ≤ 0.006). OSA patients exhibited thicker and longer soft palates, hyoid bones more distant from the vertebrae, retrognathion, and mandibular plane, higher posterior maxillae, longer mandibles, and smaller superior-posterior airways.
Liu, Zhijun; Wang, Guanghai; Geng, Li; Luo, Junna; Li, Ningxiu; Owens, Judith
This study aimed to characterize sleep patterns and disturbances among Chinese urban kindergarten children and examine potentially associated factors. Caregivers of 513 children (47.96% male) aged 3-6 years (mean age = 4.46, SD = 0.9) completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Almost 80% (78.8%) of the children scored above the original CSHQ cutoff point for global sleep disturbance. Regression analysis indicated that child's age, and the presence of emotional problems, hyperactivity and peer problems, cosleeping, and interparental inconsistency of attitudes toward child rearing accounted for significant variance in the CSHQ total score (R(2) = 22%). These findings indicate that there is an apparently high prevalence of sleep disturbances in Chinese urban kindergarten children; and sleep disturbances are associated with both child-related and parenting practice variables.
Silva, Maria-Raquel; Paiva, Teresa
Sleep is of major importance for the athletes' short and long-term health, performance and recovery; however, published studies on athletes' sleep and even fewer before competition are scarce. This study evaluated the risk factors of sleep in young female gymnasts before an international competition. Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts (M=18.7,SD=2.9yrs.) of high performance (M=36.6,SD=7.6h/week) were evaluated regarding training and sport practice, body composition, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, precompetitive anxiety by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test form A, and detailed dietary intake just prior to a world competition. The majority of the participants (83.6%) presented reduced body fat levels (M=9.1,SD=2.1%) and low energy availability (M=31.5,SD=11.9kcal/kgFFM/day). They slept 8h10±1h30/night on weekdays and 8h40±00h40/night on weekends, 67% suffered from mild daytime sleepiness and 78% had a reduced sleep quality. Precompetitive anxiety was on average moderate (M=22.7,SD=3.2). The risk factors for short sleep duration were: 1.92 for a training volume>30hours/week (95%CI 0.84-4.39), 4.57 for menstruation (95%CI 1.17- 17.77), 6.62 for bedtime≥11:00PM (95%CI 1.74-25.10), 1.40 for BFsleep duration on weekdays and precompetitive stress were also predictors for a reduced sleep quality and/or abnormal daytime sleepiness. Age, training regime, menstruation, individual preferences for bedtime, body composition and energy were important predictors of gymnasts' precompetitive sleep with consequences upon their sleep duration, SQ and DS.
Maria E Pushpanathan
Full Text Available Many studies have sought to describe the relationship between sleep disturbance and cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD. The Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS and its variants (the Parkinson's disease Sleep Scale-Revised; PDSS-R, and the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale-2; PDSS-2 quantify a range of symptoms impacting sleep in only 15 items. However, data from these scales may be problematic as included items have considerable conceptual breadth, and there may be overlap in the constructs assessed. Multidimensional measurement models, accounting for the tendency for items to measure multiple constructs, may be useful more accurately to model variance than traditional confirmatory factor analysis. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a multidimensional model (a bifactor model is more appropriate than traditional factor analysis for data generated by these types of scales, using data collected using the PDSS-R as an exemplar. 166 participants diagnosed with idiopathic PD participated in this study. Using PDSS-R data, we compared three models: a unidimensional model; a 3-factor model consisting of sub-factors measuring insomnia, motor symptoms and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA and REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD symptoms; and, a confirmatory bifactor model with both a general factor and the same three sub-factors. Only the confirmatory bifactor model achieved satisfactory model fit, suggesting that PDSS-R data are multidimensional. There were differential associations between factor scores and patient characteristics, suggesting that some PDSS-R items, but not others, are influenced by mood and personality in addition to sleep symptoms. Multidimensional measurement models may also be a helpful tool in the PDSS and the PDSS-2 scales and may improve the sensitivity of these instruments.
Gomes Felden, Érico Pereira; Barbosa, Diego Grasel; Junior, Geraldo Jose Ferrari; Santos, Manoella De Oliveira; Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos
The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with short sleep duration on southern Brazilian high school students. Our study was comprised of 1,132 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years, enrolled in public high schools in São José, Brazil. The students answered a questionnaire about working (work and workload), health perception, smoking, school schedule, sleep (duration and daytime sleepiness), and socio-demographics data. The results showed that more than two thirds of adolescent workers had short sleep duration (76.7%), and those with a higher workload (more than 20 hours) had a shorter sleep duration (7.07 hours) compared to non-workers (7.83 hours). In the analysis of factors associated with short sleep duration, adolescents who worked (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.53 to 2.95) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to those who did not work. In addition, older adolescents (17-19 years) and students with poor sleep quality were 40% and 55% more likely to have short sleep duration compared to younger adolescents (14-16 years) and students with good sleep quality, respectively. Adolescents with daytime sleepiness were more likely to have short sleep duration (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07) compared to those without excessive daytime sleepiness. In addition students of the morning shift (OR = 6.02, 95% CI 4.23 to 8.57) and evening shift (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.22) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to adolescents of the afternoon shift. Thereby adolescents who are workers, older, attended morning and evening classes and have excessive daytime sleepiness showed risk factors for short sleep duration. In this sense, it is pointed out the importance of raising awareness of these risk factors for short sleep duration of students from public schools from São José, located in southern Brazil.
Debora Petrungaro Migueis
Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a common disorder that can lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as well as to metabolic, neurological, and behavioral consequences. It is currently believed that nasal obstruction compromises the quality of sleep when it results in breathing disorders and fragmentation of sleep. However, recent studies have failed to objectively associate sleep quality and nasal obstruction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the influence of nasal obstruction on OSAS and polysomnographic indices associated with respiratory events. METHODS: Eleven original articles published from 2003 to 2013 were selected, which addressed surgical and non-surgical treatment for nasal obstruction, performing polysomnography type 1 before and after the intervention. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: In most trials, nasal obstruction was not related to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, indicating no improvement in OSAS with reduction in nasal resistance. However, few researchers evaluated other polysomnography indices, such as the arousal index and rapid eye movement (REM sleep percentage. These could change with nasal obstruction, since it is possible that the nasal obstruction does not completely block the upper airways, but can increase negative intrathoracic pressure, leading to sleep fragmentation.
Migueis, Debora Petrungaro; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Lemes, Lucas Neves de Andrade; Moreira, Chirlene Santos Souza; Joffily, Lucia; Araujo-Melo, Maria Helena de
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder that can lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as well as to metabolic, neurological, and behavioral consequences. It is currently believed that nasal obstruction compromises the quality of sleep when it results in breathing disorders and fragmentation of sleep. However, recent studies have failed to objectively associate sleep quality and nasal obstruction. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the influence of nasal obstruction on OSAS and polysomnographic indices associated with respiratory events. Eleven original articles published from 2003 to 2013 were selected, which addressed surgical and non-surgical treatment for nasal obstruction, performing polysomnography type 1 before and after the intervention. In most trials, nasal obstruction was not related to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), indicating no improvement in OSAS with reduction in nasal resistance. However, few researchers evaluated other polysomnography indices, such as the arousal index and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage. These could change with nasal obstruction, since it is possible that the nasal obstruction does not completely block the upper airways, but can increase negative intrathoracic pressure, leading to sleep fragmentation. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla; Angelhoff, Charlotte; Johnsson, Ewa; Karlsson, Jenny; Mörelius, Evalotte
To explore and describe how parents of preterm and/or sick infants in neonatal care perceive their sleep. Parents experience many stressful situations when their newborn infant is preterm and/or sick. This affects bonding. By developing more family-centred care units with single-family rooms, parents are given the opportunity to stay and care for their newborn infant(s) 24 hours a day. Lack of sleep may affect new parents' ability to cope with the many challenges they face on a daily basis. A phenomenographic study with an inductive and exploratory design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve parents of infants in neonatal care between January-March 2012. To describe variations in perception of the phenomenon, data were analysed using phenomenography. Four descriptive categories were identified within the phenomenon sleep in parents of preterm and/or sick infants in neonatal care: impact of stress on sleep; how the environment affects sleep; keeping the family together improves sleep; and, how parents manage and prevent tiredness. Anxiety, uncertainty and powerlessness have a negative influence on sleep. This can be decreased by continuous information, guidance and practical support. Skin-to-skin care was perceived as a stress-reducing factor that improved relaxation and sleep and should be encouraged by the nurse. The parents also mentioned the importance of being together. Having a private place where they could relax and take care of themselves and their newborn infant improved sleep. It was also desirable to involve older siblings in order to decrease feelings of loneliness, sadness and isolation. Improved parental sleep in neonatal care may help the families cope with the situation and facilitate problem-solving, emotional regulation and the transition to parenthood. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vitale, Jacopo A; Roveda, Eliana; Montaruli, Angela; Galasso, Letizia; Weydahl, Andi; Caumo, Andrea; Carandente, Franca
Several studies have shown the differences among chronotypes in the circadian rhythm of different physiological variables. Individuals show variation in their preference for the daily timing of activity; additionally, there is an association between chronotype and sleep duration/sleep complaints. Few studies have investigated sleep quality during the week days and weekends in relation to the circadian typology using self-assessment questionnaires or actigraphy. The purpose of this study was to use actigraphy to assess the relationship between the three chronotypes and the circadian rhythm of activity levels and to determine whether sleep parameters respond differently with respect to time (weekdays versus the weekend) in Morning-types (M-types), Neither-types (N-types) and Evening-types (E-types). The morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ) was administered to 502 college students to determine their chronotypes. Fifty subjects (16 M-types, 15 N-types and 19 E-types) were recruited to undergo a 7-days monitoring period with an actigraph (Actiwacth® actometers, CNT, Cambridge, UK) to evaluate their sleep parameters and the circadian rhythm of their activity levels. To compare the amplitude and the acrophase among the three chronotypes, we used a one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. To compare the Midline Estimating Statistic of Rhythm (MESOR) among the three chronotypes, we used a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test followed by pairwise comparisons that were performed using Dunn's procedure with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The analysis of each sleep parameter was conducted using the mixed ANOVA procedure. The results showed that the chronotype was influenced by sex (χ(2) with p = 0.011) and the photoperiod at birth (χ(2) with p circadian rhythm of activity levels was influenced by the chronotype; second, the chronotype had a significant effect on sleep parameters: the E-types had a reduced sleep quality and
Steinhorst, Ana P; Gonçalves, Sandro C; Oliveira, Ana T; Massierer, Daniela; Gus, Miguel; Fuchs, Sandra C; Moreira, Leila B; Martinez, Denis; Fuchs, Flávio D
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Apnea overloads the autonomic cardiovascular control system and may influence blood pressure variability, a risk for vascular damage independent of blood pressure levels. This study investigates the hypothesis that blood pressure variability is associated with OSA. In a cross-sectional study, 107 patients with hypertension underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and level III polysomnography to detect sleep apnea. Pressure variability was assessed by the first derivative of blood pressure over time, the time rate index, and by the standard deviation of blood pressure measurements. The association between the apnea-hypopnea index and blood pressure variability was tested by univariate and multivariate methods. The 57 patients with apnea were older, had higher blood pressure, and had longer duration of hypertension than the 50 patients without apnea. Patients with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 10 had higher blood pressure variability assessed by the standard deviation than patients with AHI variability assessed by the time rate index presented a trend for association during sleep (P = 0.07). Daytime blood pressure variability was not associated with the severity of sleep apnea. Sleep apnea increases nighttime blood pressure variability in patients with hypertension and may be another pathway linking sleep abnormalities to cardiovascular disease.
Gerick M. H. Lee
Full Text Available The use of information-based measures to assess changes in conscious state is an increasingly popular topic. Though recent results have seemed to justify the merits of such methods, little has been done to investigate the applicability of such measures to children. For our work, we used the approximate entropy (ApEn, a measure previously shown to correlate with changes in conscious state when applied to the electroencephalogram (EEG, and sought to confirm whether previously reported trends in adult ApEn values across wake and sleep were present in children. Besides validating the prior findings that ApEn decreases from wake to sleep (including wake, rapid eye movement [REM] sleep, and non-REM sleep in adults, we found that previously reported ApEn decreases across vigilance states in adults were also present in children (ApEn trends for both age groups: wake > REM sleep > non-REM sleep. When comparing ApEn values between age groups, adults had significantly larger ApEn values than children during wakefulness. After the application of an 8 Hz high-pass filter to the EEG signal, ApEn values were recalculated. The number of electrodes with significant vigilance state effects dropped from all 109 electrodes with the original 1 Hz filter to 1 electrode with the 8 Hz filter. The number of electrodes with significant age effects dropped from ten to four. Our results support the notion that ApEn can reliably distinguish between vigilance states, with low-frequency sleep-related oscillations implicated as the driver of changes between vigilance states. We suggest that the observed differences between adult and child ApEn values during wake may reflect differences in connectivity between age groups, a factor which may be important in the use of EEG to measure consciousness.
Foltán, R.; Hoffmannová, J.; Pavlíková, G.; Hanzelka, T.; Klíma, K.; Horká, E.; Adámek, S.; Šedý, Jiří
Roč. 40, č. 2 (2011), s. 146-149 ISSN 0901-5027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : orthognathic surgery * obstructive sleep apnea * ventilation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2011
Full Text Available Background Adequate sleep is essential for general health. Several factors disrupt sleep patterns. The quality of sleep affects health and daily functions. Objectives The current study aimed to determine the students' sleep patterns and other sleep related factors. Patients and Methods The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 female students of the Islamic Azad University, Rasht branch (Rasht, Iran who were selected by multistage random sampling method. Data collection tool was a self-reporting questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, employing Chi-square, and Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Results The mean age of the subjects was 22.16 ± 2.86 years. Results showed 35.7% disruption of sleep onset, 46.3% impairment of sleep continuity, and 32% awakening early in the morning. Also, 42.3% of the subjects expressed excellent sleep quality. There was a significant relationship among sleep quality with the time of going to bed, difficulty in sleeping, awakening by noise, repeated awakening at night, waking up early in the morning, fatigue, and sleepiness in classroom. Conclusions The results of the current study showed a high prevalence of sleep problems among the students. Identiﬁcation and treatment of students’ sleep disorders may improve academic performance and life quality.
Eberhardt, J. L.; Stråle, L.-O.; Berlin, M. H.
The effects of road traffic noise on sleep were studied in the laboratory using nine young male adults (aged 20-26). The subjects were exposed to noise with different temporal characteristics: (i) continuous traffic noise of 36 dB(A) or 45 dB(A), (ii) intermittent noise of 50 truck passages with L pmax = 45 dB(A) ( L eq = 29 dB(A)) or L pmax = 55 dB(A) ( L eq = 36 dB(A)), and (iii) a combination of continuous (45 dB(A)) and intermittent ( L pmax = 55 dB(A)) traffic noise. For one noise condition (intermittent 55 dB(A)) the effect of the use of ear plugs was also studied. The intermittent noise of L pmax = 45 dB(A) caused transitions towards lighter sleep, whereas 55 dB(A) was needed to induce awakening effects. It could be shown that the probability for arousal reactions depends on the emergence of the noise peaks from the background, rather than the absolute noise peak level. Continuous traffic noise of 45 dB(A) caused REM sleep deficits, while intermittent traffic noise of L pmax = 45 dB(A) caused stage III+IV deficits. The night with ear plugs was virtually undisturbed. After nights with REM sleep deficits the subjective sleep quality was rated lower and mood was influenced adversely. For the types of exposure used in the present investigation L eq alone is not an adequate descriptor of the noise dose, relating to the sleep disturbances observed. From the present experiment, together with other existing data, it might be concluded that the WHO recommendation of L eq = 35 dB(A) is adequate, but should be supplemented with a maximum noise level, as expressed for example in L pmax or LI, that should not be exceeded.
Schoch, Sarah F; Cordi, Maren J; Rasch, Björn
Emotionality can increase recall probability of memories as emotional information is highly relevant for future adaptive behavior. It has been proposed that memory processes acting during sleep selectively promote the consolidation of emotional memories, so that neutral memories no longer profit from sleep consolidation after learning. This appears as a selective effect of sleep for emotional memories. However, other factors contribute to the appearance of a consolidation benefit and influence this interpretation. Here we show that the strength of the memory trace before sleep and the sensitivity of the retrieval test after sleep are critical factors contributing to the detection of the benefit of sleep on memory for emotional and neutral stimuli. 228 subjects learned emotional and neutral pictures and completed a free recall after a 12-h retention interval of either sleep or wakefulness. We manipulated memory strength by including an immediate retrieval test before the retention interval in half of the participants. In addition, we varied the sensitivity of the retrieval test by including an interference learning task before retrieval testing in half of the participants. We show that a "selective" benefit of sleep for emotional memories only occurs in the condition with high memory strength. Furthermore, this "selective" benefit disappeared when we controlled for the memory strength before the retention interval and used a highly sensitive retrieval test. Our results indicate that although sleep benefits are more robust for emotional memories, neutral memories similarly profit from sleep after learning when more sensitive indicators are used. We conclude that whether sleep benefits on memory appear depends on several factors, including emotion, memory strength and sensitivity of the retrieval test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mansano-Schlosser, Thalyta Cristina; Ceolim, Maria Filomena
to analyze the factors associated with poor sleep quality, its characteristics and components in women with breast cancer prior to surgery for removing the tumor and throughout the follow-up. longitudinal study in a teaching hospital, with a sample of 102 women. The following were used: a questionnaire for sociodemographic and clinical characterization, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the Beck Depression Inventory; and the Herth Hope Scale. Data collection covered from prior to the surgery for removal of the tumor (T0) to T1, on average 3.2 months; T2, on average 6.1 months; and T3, on average 12.4 months. Descriptive statistics and the Generalized Estimating Equations model were used. depression and pain contributed to the increase in the score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and hope, to the reduction of the score - independently - throughout follow-up. Sleep disturbances were the component with the highest score throughout follow-up. the presence of depression and pain, prior to the surgery, contributed to the increase in the global score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, which indicates worse quality of sleep throughout follow-up; greater hope, in its turn, influenced the reduction of the score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. analizar los factores asociados a la mala calidad del sueño, sus características y componentes en mujeres con cáncer de mama, antes de la cirugía de retirada del tumor y a lo largo del seguimiento. estudio longitudinal, en hospital universitario con muestra de 102 mujeres. Fueron utilizados: un cuestionario de caracterización sociodemográfica y clínica; el Índice de Calidad del Sueño de Pittsburgh; el Inventario de Depresión de Beck; y la Escala de Esperanza de Herth. La recolección comprendió los momentos: antes de la cirugía de retirada del tumor (T0), en (T1) en promedio 3,2 meses, en (T2) en promedio 6,1 meses y en (T3) en promedio 12,4 meses. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y el modelo de
Smith, Rebecca L; Flaws, Jodi A; Mahoney, Megan M
Poor sleep is one of the most common problems reported during menopause, and is known to vary throughout the menopause transition. The objective of this study was to describe the dynamics of poor sleep among participants of the Midlife Women's Health Study and to identify risk factors associated with poor sleep during the menopausal transition. Annual responses to surveys that included questions about the frequency of sleep disturbances and insomnia were analyzed to determine the likelihood of persistent poor sleep throughout the menopausal transition and the correlation of responses to the different sleep-related questions, including frequency of restless sleep during the first year of the study. Responses to questions about a large number of potential risk factors were used to identify risk factors for poor sleep. Poor sleep in premenopause was not predictive of poor sleep in perimenopause, and poor sleep in perimenopause was not predictive of poor sleep in postmenopause. Frequencies of each of the measures of poor sleep were highly correlated. For all sleep outcomes, high frequency of depression was related to a high frequency of poor sleep. Vasomotor symptoms were also significantly related with a higher frequency of all poor sleep outcomes. A history of smoking was also associated with higher frequencies of insomnia and sleep disturbances. The risk factors identified for poor sleep, depression and vasomotor symptoms, were consistently associated with poor sleep throughout the menopausal transition. The likelihood of these risk factors changed from premenopause, through perimenopause, and into postmenopause, however, which could explain changes in sleep difficulties across the menopausal transition. Treatment of these risk factors should be considered when addressing sleep difficulties in menopausal women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Buman, Matthew P; Kline, Christopher E; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Phillips, Barbara; Tulio de Mello, Marco; Hirshkowitz, Max
Excess sitting is emerging as a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, mental illness, and all-cause mortality. Physical activity, distinct from sitting, is associated with better sleep and lower risk for OSA, yet relationships among sitting behaviors and sleep/OSA remain unknown. We examined whether total sitting time and sitting while viewing television were associated with sleep duration and quality, OSA risk, and sleepiness. The 2013 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll was a cross-sectional study of 1,000 adults aged 23 to 60 years. Total sitting time, time watching television while sitting, sleep duration and quality, OSA risk, and daytime sleepiness were assessed. After adjusting for confounding factors (including BMI and physical activity), each additional hour per day of total sitting was associated with greater odds of poor sleep quality (OR [95% CI] = 1.06 [1.01, 1.11]) but not with other sleep metrics (including sleep duration), OSA risk, or daytime sleepiness. For television viewing while sitting, each additional hour per day was associated with greater odds of long sleep onset latency (≥ 30 min) (OR = 1.15 [1.04, 1.27]), waking up too early in the morning (OR = 1.12 [1.03, 1.23]), poor sleep quality (OR = 1.12 [1.02, 1.24]), and "high risk" for OSA (OR = 1.15 [1.04, 1.28]). Based upon an interaction analysis, regular physical activity was protective against OSA risk associated with television viewing (P = .04). Excess sitting was associated with relatively poor sleep quality. Sitting while watching television was associated with relatively poor sleep quality and OSA risk and may be an important risk factor for sleep disturbance and apnea risk.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction are recognized as prominent consequences of sleep deprivation. Experimentally induced short-term sleep fragmentation, even in the absence of any reductions in total sleep duration, will lead to the emergence of excessive daytime sleepiness and cognitive impairments in humans. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α has important regulatory effects on sleep, and seems to play a role in the occurrence of excessive daytime sleepiness in children who have disrupted sleep as a result of obstructive sleep apnea, a condition associated with prominent sleep fragmentation. The aim of this study was to examine role of the TNF-α pathway after long-term sleep fragmentation in mice. Methods The effect of chronic sleep fragmentation during the sleep-predominant period on sleep architecture, sleep latency, cognitive function, behavior, and inflammatory markers was assessed in C57BL/6 J and in mice lacking the TNF-α receptor (double knockout mice. In addition, we also assessed the above parameters in C57BL/6 J mice after injection of a TNF-α neutralizing antibody. Results Mice subjected to chronic sleep fragmentation had preserved sleep duration, sleep state distribution, and cumulative delta frequency power, but also exhibited excessive sleepiness, altered cognitive abilities and mood correlates, reduced cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and transcriptional activity, and increased phosphodiesterase-4 expression, in the absence of AMP kinase-α phosphorylation and ATP changes. Selective increases in cortical expression of TNF-α primarily circumscribed to neurons emerged. Consequently, sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction were absent in TNF-α double receptor knockout mice subjected to sleep fragmentation, and similarly, treatment with a TNF-α neutralizing antibody abrogated sleep fragmentation-induced learning deficits and increases in sleep propensity. Conclusions Taken together
Duarte, João; Nelas, Paula; Chaves, Cláudia; Ferreira, Manuela; Coutinho, Emília; Cunha, Madalena
To characterise sleep-wake patterns and their influence on academic performance for a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Cross-sectional, analytical-explanatory, correlational epidemiological research. The protocol includes the composite morningness questionnaire (Barton et al, 1985 adapted by Silva et al, 1985), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (Murray, 1991), chronic fatigue scale (Smith et al, 1995), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Buysse, 1988), Educational Achievement (Fermin, 2005), personal and academic data. 2094 students (55.3% girls; 16-23 years old; M=16.82±1.25) attending secondary school in central Portugal. Living in urban areas, living with their parents and about 57.1% are in a family with reasonable economic resources. Adolescents' sleep patterns reveal that they sleep on average between 8-9 hours a night, do not use medication to sleep, with sleep latency within the normal range, with good sleep efficiency, without daytime dysfunction and with undisturbed sleep, predominantly intermediate chronotype. Minor drowsiness, increased sleep efficiency, improved subjective sleep satisfaction, less sleep disturbance, less daytime dysfunction, not consuming hypnotic medications, associated with better academic performance. Morningness/eveningness, sleep efficiency, daytime dysfunction and sleep latency emerge as predictors of academic performance. The chronotype interacts to predict the quality of sleep enhancing it as a mediator of school performance. Sleep and associated individual characteristics should be considered in the diagnosis and intervention process in secondary education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Baker, Fiona C; Wolfson, Amy R; Lee, Kathryn A
To investigate factors associated with poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in women living in the United States. Data are presented from the National Sleep Foundation's 2007 Sleep in America Poll that included 959 women (18-64 years of age) surveyed by telephone about their sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle factors. Poor sleep quality was reported by 27% and daytime sleepiness was reported by 21% of respondents. Logistic multivariate regression analyses revealed that poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were both independently associated with poor health, having a sleep disorder, and psychological distress. Also, multivariate analyses showed that women who consumed more caffeinated beverages and those who had more than one job were more likely to report poor sleep quality but not daytime sleepiness. Daytime sleepiness, on the other hand, was independently associated with being black/African American, younger, disabled, having less education, and daytime napping. Poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness are common in American women and are associated with health-related, as well as sociodemographic, factors. Addressing sleep-related complaints in women is important to improve their daytime functioning and quality of life.
Parkes, J D
Sleep-wake problems are common in specific inborn errors of metabolism and structure of the central nervous system. Psychological factors, behavioural difficulties, metabolic disturbances, and widespread rather than focal damage to the nervous system are present in many of these diseases and all influence the sleep-wake cycle. However, a number of conditions cause relatively focal damage to the neuroanatomical substrate of sleeping and waking. These include fatal familial insomnia, with involvement of the prion protein gene on chromosome 20, Norrie disease, the Prader-Willi syndrome and the Moebius syndrome. The last three important conditions, although rare, are considered in detail in this review. They result in sensory deprivation, hypothalamic and mid-brain damage, and involve the X-chromosome, chromosome 15, and chromosome 13, respectively. These conditions cause a wide variety of sleep disturbance, including parasomnias, daytime sleepiness, and a condition like cataplexy. The place of the relevant gene products in normal sleep regulation needs further exploration.
... Institute (NHLBI). 1 Mood. Sleep affects your mood. Insufficient sleep can cause irritability that can lead to trouble with relationships, ... basics/understanding_sleep.htm#dynamic_activity Centers for Disease ... insufficient rest or sleep among adults—United States, 2008. MMWR, 58 (42), ...
Wood, Alex M; Joseph, Stephen; Lloyd, Joanna; Atkins, Samuel
To test whether individual differences in gratitude are related to sleep after controlling for neuroticism and other traits. To test whether pre-sleep cognitions are the mechanism underlying this relationship. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted with a large (186 males, 215 females) community sample (ages=18-68 years, mean=24.89, S.D.=9.02), including 161 people (40%) scoring above 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, indicating clinically impaired sleep. Measures included gratitude, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), self-statement test of pre-sleep cognitions, the Mini-IPIP scales of Big Five personality traits, and the Social Desirability Scale. Gratitude predicted greater subjective sleep quality and sleep duration, and less sleep latency and daytime dysfunction. The relationship between gratitude and each of the sleep variables was mediated by more positive pre-sleep cognitions and less negative pre-sleep cognitions. All of the results were independent of the effect of the Big Five personality traits (including neuroticism) and social desirability. This is the first study to show that a positive trait is related to good sleep quality above the effect of other personality traits, and to test whether pre-sleep cognitions are the mechanism underlying the relationship between any personality trait and sleep. The study is also the first to show that trait gratitude is related to sleep and to explain why this occurs, suggesting future directions for research, and novel clinical implications.
Faustin Armel Etindele Sosso
Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep and lifestyles interact to allow the appropriate development of cerebral structures, and prevention of mood disorders. But just a hand of articles identified a precise relationship between these two above, and the probability to develop a suicidal behaviour. Objective: The aim of this study is to explore how the suicidal behaviour is associated in simultaneous with sleep components, psychological stress, depression, anxiety, well-being, addiction, and global health of participants; and if it is also influenced by the sociodemographic profile of each subject. Methods: The present study was led by a questionnaire incorporating McNair test, and an incorporated score to evaluate suicide tendencies. The questionnaire also included socio-demographic items and other questions to exhibit a profile of suicide tendency for each individual. Results: Our results showed that the stress levels and well-being are comparable according to gender. Specifically the results showed that lack of sleep combined with a low score to McNair test strongly affects the suicidal tendency, while score of memory and attention decreased. Conclusions: The suicidal behaviour is closely linked with sleep parameters which decreased accordingly, and the family's history of medication and suicidal behaviour.
Sara C Mednick
Full Text Available Troubled sleep is a commonly cited consequence of adolescent drug use, but it has rarely been studied as a cause. Nor have there been any studies of the extent to which sleep behavior can spread in social networks from person to person to person. Here we map the social networks of 8,349 adolescents in order to study how sleep behavior spreads, how drug use behavior spreads, and how a friend's sleep behavior influences one's own drug use. We find clusters of poor sleep behavior and drug use that extend up to four degrees of separation (to one's friends' friends' friends' friends in the social network. Prospective regression models show that being central in the network negatively influences future sleep outcomes, but not vice versa. Moreover, if a friend sleeps =7 hours, it increases the likelihood a person sleeps < or =7 hours by 11%. If a friend uses marijuana, it increases the likelihood of marijuana use by 110%. Finally, the likelihood that an individual uses drugs increases by 19% when a friend sleeps < or =7 hours, and a mediation analysis shows that 20% of this effect results from the spread of sleep behavior from one person to another. This is the first study to suggest that the spread of one behavior in social networks influences the spread of another. The results indicate that interventions should focus on healthy sleep to prevent drug use and targeting specific individuals may improve outcomes across the entire social network.
Jacobs, Patricia A.
This report supplies references and comments on literature that identifies human factors influencing decision making, particularly military decision making. The literature has been classified as follows (the classes are not mutually exclusive): features of human information processing; decision making models which are not mathematical models but rather are descriptive; non- personality factors influencing decision making; national characteristics influencing decision makin...
Ozge Yavuz Sari
Full Text Available AIM: Sleep disorders are remarkable public health problems as they adversely affect physical, mental and social health and may cause accidents and decline in academic performance and labor productivity. Aim of the study is assessing sleep quality and determining some factors affecting sleep quality in the students living in the residence hall of a university. METHOD: It is a cross sectional study conducted with 277 students, 180 of whom are female. Data were collected via a questionnaire including Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and socio-demographic characteristics query. RESULTS: According to PSQI, 41.1% of students have bad sleep quality. Sleep quality of male students and students who are overweight/obese or living in more crowded rooms in the hall of residence is worse than other students and #8217;. Prevalence of bad sleep quality is higher in medication users, participants thinking that they have problems in sleeping or falling asleep and had stressful experience in the last month. The differences between groups were statistically significant. In logistic regression analyzes, using medication (OR=2.54, having problems in sleep (OR=12.75, having problems in falling asleep (OR=8.83 and bad experiences in the last month (OR=2.66 have effects on sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions about sleep disorders are important due to their preventable characteristics. Developing healthy life habits, improving physical conditions and coping with stress will be effective on preventing and treating sleep disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 93-100
Wang, Lan; Qin, Peng; Zhao, Yunshan; Duan, Shengyun; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Ying; Hu, Yueling; Sun, Juan
Medical students face new challenges at the beginning of college life, such as being responsible for oneself, an unfamiliar environment, social obligations, and academic stress, all of which influence or even heavily change their sleep quality and life, leading to sleep-related problems to some degree. This study investigated the relationship between sleep quality and behavior among students at the Inner Mongolia Medical University in China. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was also used. A total of 6044 and 6085 students completed the questionnaires in 2011 and 2013. According to the index, 27.8% (1694) of students had poor sleep quality with major risk factors being poor academic performance and interpersonal relationships in 2013. Among others, regular exercise less than three times a week, skipping breakfast, and studying in higher grades were associated with poor sleep quality. These results will help university administrators understand the risk factors of poor sleep quality among students, which can be improved through individual efforts, and provide adequate counseling and systematic education to improve their behavior and lifestyle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS usually complain of daytime hypersomnia and decrease in cognitive function, which affects the quality of their work and life. The reason why the cognitive function of OSAS patients decreased remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impairment and the main influencing factors of cognitive function in OSAS. Methods There were totally 50 OSAS patients (OSAS group and 25 volunteers (control group included in our study. All of them were monitored by polysomnography (PSG and tested by Continuous Performance Test (CPT, n-back test and Stroop Color?Word Test (CWT to evaluate their sleep condition and cognitive function. Results No significant difference was found between the two groups in total sleep time and sleep efficiency (P > 0.05, for all. Compared with control group, OSAS group had significant increased time of non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅰ and stage Ⅱ, significant decreased time of stage Ⅲ (P 0.05, for all, while had significant connection with AI and NREM Ⅲ (P < 0.05, for all. The rate of OSAS patients who underwent nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP treatment was very low, only 8% (4/50. Conclusion The abnormality of OSAS patients' sleep structure is characterized with sleep fragmentation and decrease of NREM Ⅲ, which may be the main factors of cognitive impairment. Exploration of treatment methods targeted on regulating the effected hormones and receptors is meaningful.
Full Text Available Angelika A Schlarb1,2,*, Isabel Brandhorst1,* 1University of Tuebingen, Faculty of Science, Department of Psychology, Tuebingen, 2University of Koblenz-Landau, Department of Psychology, Landau, Germany*The authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: Behavioral sleep problems are highly common in early childhood. These sleep problems have a high tendency to persist, and they may have deleterious effects on early brain development, attention, and mood regulation. Furthermore, secondary effects on parents and their relationship are documented. Negative parental cognition and behavior have been found to be important influencing factors of a child's behavioral sleep problems. Therefore, in the current study we examined the acceptance and efficacy of a newly developed Internet-based intervention program called Mini-KiSS Online for sleep disturbances for children aged 6 months to 4 years and their parents.Patients and methods: Fifty-five children (54.54% female; aged 8–57 months suffering from psychophysiological insomnia or behavioral insomnia participated in the 6-week online treatment. Sleep problems and treatment acceptance were examined with a sleep diary, anamnestic questionnaires, a child behavior checklist (the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5, and treatment evaluation questionnaires.Results: The evaluation questionnaires showed a high acceptance of Mini-KiSS Online. Parents would recommend the treatment to other families, were glad to participate, and reported that they were able to deal with sleep-related problems of their child after Mini-KiSS Online. Parental behavior strategies changed with a reduction of dysfunctional strategies, such as staying or soothing the child until they fell asleep, allowing the child to get up again and play or watch TV, or reading them another bedtime story. Frequency and duration of night waking decreased as well as the need for external help to start or maintain sleep. All parameters changed
Zhang, Beilin; Gao, Yanxia; Li, Yang; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Hua
Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1) in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS) and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis.
Haresh T. Suppiah
Full Text Available Sleep is crucial to the physiological and psychological development of youth. The implications of insufficient sleep on learning and school performance are well documented. However, adequate sleep often goes unmet due to a combination of biological, societal, and environmental factors, especially during adolescence. In the present review, the changes to adolescent sleep patterns, and its consequences on cognition and learning are briefly explored. We then review the empirical literature of the role of exercise in regulating adolescent sleep patterns, and its potential mechanisms.
Chazelle, Emilie; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle
This study aimed at exploring the cross-sectional and prospective associations between psychosocial work factors and sleep problems. The study population consisted of a national representative sample of the French working population (SIP survey). The sample sizes were 7506 and 3555 for the cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Sleep problems were defined by either sleep disturbances or insufficient sleep duration at least several times a week. Psychosocial work factors included classical (job strain model factors) and emergent factors (recognition, insecurity, role/ethical conflict, emotional demands, work-life imbalance, etc.). Occupational factors related to working time/hours and physical work environment were also included as well as covariates related to factors outside work. Statistical analyses were performed using weighted Poisson regression analysis. In the cross-sectional analyses, psychological demands, low social support, low recognition, emotional demands, perception of danger, work-life imbalance and night work were found to be associated with sleep problems. In the prospective analyses, psychological demands and night work were predictive of sleep problems. Using a less conservative method, more factors were found to be associated with sleep problems. Dose-response associations were observed, showing that the more frequent the exposure to these factors, the higher the risk of sleep problems. No effect of repeated exposure was found on sleep problems. Classical and emergent psychosocial work factors were associated with sleep problems. More prospective studies and prevention policies may be needed.
Vleeshouwers, Jolien; Knardahl, Stein; Christensen, Jan Olav
This prospective cohort study examined previously underexplored relations between psychological/social work factors and troubled sleep in order to provide practical information about specific, modifiable factors at work. A comprehensive evaluation of a range of psychological/social work factors was obtained by several designs; i.e., cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up, prospective analyses with baseline predictors (T1), prospective analyses with average exposure across waves as predictor ([T1 + T2] / 2), and prospective analyses with change in exposure from baseline to follow-up as predictor. Participants consisted of a sample of Norwegian employees from a broad spectrum of occupations, who completed a questionnaire at two points in time, approximately two years apart. Cross-sectional analyses at T1 comprised 7,459 participants, cross-sectional analyses at T2 included 6,688 participants. Prospective analyses comprised a sample 5,070 of participants who responded at both T1 and T2. Univariable and multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were performed. Thirteen psychological/social work factors and two aspects of troubled sleep, namely difficulties initiating sleep and disturbed sleep, were studied. Ordinal logistic regressions revealed statistically significant associations for all psychological and social work factors in at least one of the analyses. Psychological and social work factors predicted sleep problems in the short term as well as the long term. All work factors investigated showed statistically significant associations with both sleep items, however quantitative job demands, decision control, role conflict, and support from superior were the most robust predictors and may therefore be suitable targets of interventions aimed at improving employee sleep. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Yvette Ortega; Dean Pearson
Invasiveness of spotted knapweed and biological control agents. Dean and Yvette are examining the influence of drought on the invasiveness of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and its susceptibility to herbivory by biological control agents. In collaboration with the University of Montana and Forest Health Protection, researchers have constructed 150...
Full Text Available Neurons that utilize the neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH as a neuromodulator are mainly located in the lateral hypothalamus and the incerto-hypothalamic area, and have widespread projections throughout the brain. While the biological functions of this neuropeptide are exerted in humans through two metabotropic receptors, the MCHR1 and MCHR2, only the MCHR1 is present in rodents. Recently, it has been shown that the MCHergic system is involved in the control of sleep. We can summarize the experimental findings as follows:1. The areas related to the control of sleep and wakefulness have an important density of MCHergic fibers and receptors.2. MCHergic neurons are active during sleep, especially during REM sleep.3. Genetically-modified animals without MCH have less REM sleep, notably under conditions of negative energy balance. 4. Systemically administered MCHR1 antagonists reduce sleep. 5. Intraventricular microinjection of MCH increases both slow wave sleep (SWS and REM sleep; however, the increment in REM sleep is more pronounced.6. Microinjection of MCH into the dorsal raphe nucleus increases REM sleep time. REM seep is inhibited by immunoneutralization of MCH within this nucleus.7. Microinjection of MCH in the nucleus pontis oralis of the cat enhances REM sleep time and reduces REM sleep latency.All these data strongly suggest that MCH has a potent role in the promotion of sleep. Although both SWS and REM sleep are facilitated by MCH, REM sleep seems to be more sensitive to MCH modulation.
Urponen, H; Vuori, I; Hasan, J; Partinen, M
The purpose of this epidemiological survey (N = 1600) was to describe the factors which middle-aged urban people in Finland perceived as promoting or disturbing sleep. The response rate was 75%. The results suggested that quality of sleep is determined by numerous factors; social and psychological factors, health status, external sleeping conditions, life style and living habits. Every third respondent felt that exercise had a positive impact on sleep. Second in importance were reading and listening to music. Furthermore, sauna, shower and bath, stability in life, psychological factors, positive experience in work, satisfactory sexual life and good and quiet sleeping environment were reported to have positive effects on sleep. Men considered work-related pressure and fatigue (20%) as the most important factor disturbing falling asleep or quality of sleep. In women's ranking work problems appeared no sooner than in the third place. Women reported worries, interpersonal problems, and marital and family discord as the most disturbing factors to sleep (37%). Coffee in the evening had a negative effect on falling asleep. Although a 'nightcap' was considered to improve relaxation on falling sleep, men ranked alcohol as the fourth disturbing factor. Other disturbing factors were stress, irregularities in everyday life because of social events, travelling or atypical catnaps. Eating and exercising too heavily or too late in the evening were found to disturb sleep. On the other hand, temporary lack of exercise seemed to impair the quality of sleep. As external factors disturbing sleep the subjects considered noise light, too high room temperature, tight clothing, unfamiliar sleeping environment and restless children.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Sheth, Bhavin R; Serranzana, Andrew; Anjum, Syed F; Khan, Murtuza
Studies to date have examined the influence of sleep on forms of memory that require voluntary attention. The authors examine the influence of sleep on a form of memory that is acquired by passive viewing. Induction of the McCollough effect, and measurement of perceptual color bias before and after induction, and before and after intervening sleep, wake, or visual deprivation. Sound-attenuated sleep research room. 13 healthy volunteers (mean age = 23 years; age range = 18-31 years) with normal or corrected-to-normal vision. N/A. ) ENCODING: sleep preceded adaptation. On separate nights, each participant slept for an average of 0 (wake), 1, 2, 4, or 7 hr (complete sleep). Upon awakening, the participant's baseline perceptual color bias was measured. Then, he or she viewed an adapter consisting of alternating red/horizontal and green/vertical gratings for 5 min. Color bias was remeasured. The strength of the aftereffect is the postadaptation color bias relative to baseline. A strong orientation contingent color aftereffect was observed in all participants, but total sleep duration (TSD) prior to the adaptation did not modulate aftereffect strength. Further, prior sleep provided no benefit over prior wake. Retention: sleep followed adaptation. The procedure was similar except that adaptation preceded sleep. Postadaptation sleep, irrespective of its duration (1, 3, 5, or 7 hr), arrested aftereffect decay. By contrast, aftereffect decay was arrested during subsequent wake only if the adapted eye was visually deprived. Sleep as well as passive sensory deprivation enables the retention of a color aftereffect. Sleep shelters this reflexive form of memory in a manner akin to preventing sensory interference.
Grandner, Michael A.; Patel, Nirav P.; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Jackson, Nicholas; Gehrman, Philip R.; Perlis, Michael L.; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.
Explore how social factors influence sleep, especially sleep-related beliefs and behaviors. Sleep complaints, sleep hygiene behaviors, and beliefs about sleep were studied in 65 black/African American and white/European American women. Differences were found for snoring and discrepancy between sleep duration and need. Sleep behaviors differed across groups for napping, methods for coping with sleep difficulties, and nonsleep behaviors in bed. Beliefs also distinguished groups, with difference...
Aubin, Sébrina; Jennum, Poul; Nielsen, Tore
We examined the structure, duration and quality of sleep, including non-rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep, in 11 blind individuals without conscious light perception and 11 age- and sex-matched sighted controls. Because blindness is associated with a greater incidence of free......-running circadian rhythms, we controlled for circadian phase by a measure of melatonin onset timing. When circadian rhythm was entrained and melatonin onset occurred at normal times, sleep structure did not differ between blind and sighted individuals. On the other hand, an abnormal timing of the circadian phase......, including delayed, shifted and unclassifiable melatonin onsets, led to larger rapid eye movement sleep latencies and increased wake times. No differences were observed for stages of non-rapid eye movement sleep, either between congenital and late blind and sighted individuals, or across the different...
Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep is an effective factor in the recovery processes. Many variables affect on the sleep quality of hospitalized elderly people. This study was conducted to determine the factors disturbing sleep quality among hospitalized older adult patients in Kashan hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 390 elderly hospitalized patients in Kashan hospitals. The study data was gathered via Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI Questionnaire. A global total score of 5 or greater indicated a “poor" quality of sleep. The data were analyzed using Chi square, t- test and binary logistic regression at multivariate model. Results: The total quality of sleep was poor in hospitalized elderly patients (7/2±4/8. Sex, marital status, level of education, type of ward, previous hospitalization experience, use of hypnotics at home and hospital, and previous sleep disorders were statistically associated with quality of sleep; however, there was not significant relationship between quality of sleep and age, length of hospitalization, and daytime napping. In the final regression model, marital status (OR=4.6, level of education (OR=1.9, length of hospitalization (OR=1.1, Previous hospitalization experience (OR=0.4, use of hypnotics in hospital (OR=0.27 and previous sleep disorder (OR=0.01 were the most important determinants of sleep quality. Conclusion: Quality of sleep was poor in hospitalized elderly due to a wide range of sleep disturbing factors. The most important factors involved marital status, level of education, previous hospitalization experience, previous sleep disorder and use of hypnotics in hospital.
Owens, Jane F; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica; Kamarck, Thomas W; Lee, Laisze; Strollo, Patrick J; Reis, Steven E; Matthews, Karen A
To evaluate the relations between sleep characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors and napping behavior, and to assess whether daytime napping leads to subsequent better or worse sleep. The sample consisted of 224 (African American, Caucasian, and Asian) middle-aged men and women. Sleep measures included nine nights of actigraphy and sleep diaries, sleep questionnaires, and one night of polysomnography to measure sleep disordered breathing. More frequent napping was associated with shorter nighttime sleep duration averaged across the nine nights of actigraphy (especially among African Americans), more daytime sleepiness, more pain and fatigue by diary, and increased body mass index and waist circumference. Shorter nighttime sleep duration was associated with taking a nap during the next day and taking a nap was associated with less efficient sleep the next night. Napping in middle-aged men and women is associated with overall less nighttime sleep in African Americans and lower sleep efficiency as measured by actigraphy, and increased BMI and central adiposity. These findings point to the importance of measuring of napping in understanding associations of sleep with cardiovascular risk.
Full Text Available Social conflicts that occur in several areas in Indonesia lately, one of them is caused by the weakness of law certainty. This is feared to threaten the integration of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to determine the factors that affect social conflict in Manis Lor village in Kuningan district. The method used the explanatory quantitative methods, the statistical test Path Analysis. The study population was a formal and informal community leaders (village chief, clergy, and youth, and the people who involved in a conflict in Manis Lor village Kuningan regency. The result shows a There is no significant influence between social identity factors with social conflict anarchist. b There is significant influence between socio-economic factors with social conflict anarchists. c There is no significant influence between the credibility factor anarchist leaders with social conflict. d There is no significant influence between the motive factor with anarchist social conflict. e There is significant influence between personality factors/beliefs with anarchist social conflict. f There is significant influence of behavioral factors anarchist communication with social conflict.
Nanduri, Jayasri; Peng, Ying-Jie; Yuan, Guoxiang; Kumar, Ganesh K.; Prabhakar, Nanduri R.
Systemic hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) with recurrent apnea is a major risk factor for developing essential hypertension. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a hallmark manifestation of recurrent apnea. Rodent models patterned after the O2 profiles seen with SDB patients showed that CIH is the major stimulus for causing systemic hypertension. This article reviews the physiological and molecular basis of CIH-induced hypertension. Physiological studies have identified that augmented carotid body chemosensory reflex and the resulting increase in sympathetic nerve activity is a major contributor to CIH-induced hypertension. Analysis of molecular mechanisms revealed that CIH activates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and suppresses HIF-2- mediated transcription. Dysregulation of HIF-1- and HIF-2- mediated transcription leads to imbalance of pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant enzyme gene expression resulting in increased reactive species (ROS) generation in the chemosensory reflex which is central for developing hypertension. PMID:25772710
Tester, Nicole J; Foss, Joanne Jackson
In the same way the human body requires food, hydration, and oxygen, it also requires sleep. Even among healthy people, the amount and quality of sleep substantially influence health and quality of life because sleep helps regulate physiological functioning. Given the impact of sleep on participation, the American Occupational Therapy Association reclassified sleep from an activity of daily living to an occupational domain. Poor sleep is a frequent medical complaint, especially among populations with neurological impairment. Occupational therapy practitioners should consider routinely screening for factors affecting their clients' sleep. By addressing such factors, as well as related routines and habits, practitioners can enhance the effectiveness of rehabilitation, promote health and well-being, and increase engagement and life quality. Practitioners should acknowledge the importance of sleep in practice, and the study of sleep should be prioritized by researchers in the field to meet client needs and establish evidence for interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Rasmussen, Michael; Wildschiødtz, Gordon; Juul, Anders
compared with nonobese subjects After diet-induced weight loss the differences in GH, free IGF-I, and leptin were no longer present between previously obese and nonobese subjects, whereas a significant difference in sleep duration and total IGF-I levels persisted. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM......Short sleep appears to be strongly associated with obesity and altered metabolic function, and sleep and growth hormone (GH) secretion seems interlinked. In obesity, both the GH-insulin-like-growth-factor-I (GH-IGF-I) axis and sleep have been reported to be abnormal, however, no studies have...... investigated sleep in relation to the GH-IGF-I axis and weight loss in obese subjects. In this study polygraphic sleep recordings, 24-h GH release, 24-h leptin levels, free-IGF-I, total-IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), acid-labile subunit (ALS), cortisol and insulin sensitivity were determined in six...
Kjeldsen, J S; Hjorth, M F; Andersen, Rikke
Background:Lack of sleep and increased consumption of energy-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) have all been suggested as factors contributing to the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity.Objective:To evaluate whether objectively measured sleep duration (average and day......-to-day variability) as well as parent-reported sleep problems are independently associated with proposed dietary risk factors for overweight and obesity in 8-11 year old children.Design:In this cross-sectional study data on sleep duration and day-to-day variability in sleep duration were measured in 676 Danish...... and ethnicity).Conclusion:Our study suggests that short sleep duration, high sleep duration variability, and experiencing sleep problems are all associated with a poor, obesity-promoting diet in children.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 8 August 2013. doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.147....
Grandner, Michael A.; Patel, Nirav P.; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Jackson, Nicholas; Gehrman, Philip R.; Perlis, Michael L.; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.
Explore how social factors influence sleep, especially sleep-related beliefs and behaviors. Sleep complaints, sleep hygiene behaviors, and beliefs about sleep were studied in 65 black/African American and white/European American women. Differences were found for snoring and discrepancy between sleep duration and need. Sleep behaviors differed across groups for napping, methods for coping with sleep difficulties, and nonsleep behaviors in bed. Beliefs also distinguished groups, with differences in motivation for sleep and beliefs about sleep being important for health and functioning. These findings have important public health implications in terms of developing effective sleep education interventions that include consideration of cultural aspects. PMID:23862291
Dimitriou, Dagmara; Le Cornu Knight, Frances; Milton, Patrick
Background: Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. Aims: This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. Sample and Method: Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Results: An average of 7.08 h of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behavior problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance. Conclusion: The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may represent effective
Full Text Available Background. Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behaviour.Aims. This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship.Sample and method. Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Results. An average of 7.08 hours of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behaviour problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance.Conclusion. The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may
Dimitriou, Dagmara; Le Cornu Knight, Frances; Milton, Patrick
Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. An average of 7.08 h of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behavior problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance. The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may represent effective routes in alleviating modern teenage sleep debt, and in
Garde, Anne Helene; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Aust, Birgit
in the high intensity group (p effects of interventions on sleep quality were observed. Thus, sleep quality was not improved by increasing work time influence in the present group of Danish elder care workers. This was partly due to program failure (failed intervention), but may also be due......The aim of the present intervention study was to examine if increased influence on working hours among shift workers led to better sleep quality. 391 employees were categorized into groups based on the performed activities: High (self-rostering), moderate (education and/or policy for working hours...
Jane Carla de Souza
Full Text Available The influence of work schedule on sleep habits and quality, and daytime sleepiness according to individual preferences in sleep schedules was assessed in 131 elementary and high school teachers through questionnaires. Teachers who initiate classes around 7:00 hr wake up earlier and show more frequency of poor sleep quality than those who start classes in the afternoon. Between them, those who have a preference for intermediate or later hours for sleep are more irregular in their wake up schedules and increase their sleep duration on the weekend compared to those with earlier sleep preferences. On the other hand, working only in the afternoon seems to provide better sleep/awake conditions for teachers, because they keep the same sleep duration during the week and on the weekend, and they are diagnosed with less daytime sleepiness. Therefore, the discussion of school start times, originally proposed for adolescents, needs to be magnified to teachers, contributing to improvement of sleep habits and life quality in school environments.
Van Deun, D; Verhaert, V; Willemen, T; Wuyts, J; Verbraecken, J; Exadaktylos, V; Haex, B; Vander Sloten, J
Proper body support plays an import role in the recuperation of our body during sleep. Therefore, this study uses an automatically adapting bedding system that optimises spinal alignment throughout the night by altering the stiffness of eight comfort zones. The aim is to investigate the influence of such a dynamic sleep environment on objective and subjective sleep parameters. The bedding system contains 165 sensors that measure mattress indentation. It also includes eight actuators that control the comfort zones. Based on the measured mattress indentation, body movements and posture changes are detected. Control of spinal alignment is established by fitting personalized human models in the measured indentation. A total of 11 normal sleepers participated in this study. Sleep experiments were performed in a sleep laboratory where subjects slept three nights: a first night for adaptation, a reference night and an active support night (in counterbalanced order). Polysomnographic measurements were recorded during the nights, combined with questionnaires aiming at assessing subjective information. Subjective information on sleep quality, daytime quality and perceived number of awakenings shows significant improvements during the active support (ACS) night. Objective results showed a trend towards increased slow wave sleep. On the other hand, it was noticed that % N1-sleep was significantly increased during ACS night, while % N2-sleep was significantly decreased. No prolonged N1 periods were found during or immediately after steering.
Knowing the risk factors associated to sleep disorders allows to develop therapeutic measures focused on their origin. Modifiable factors such as overweight/obesity, smoking and consumption of central nervous system depressants are especially important since prevention of these conditions may have an impact on the prevention of the onset of the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.
Pagnin, Daniel; de Queiroz, Valéria
This study assessed the influence of burnout dimensions and sleep difficulties on the quality of life among preclinical-phase medical school students. Data were collected from 193 students through their completion of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey, the Mini-Sleep Questionnaire, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory. This survey performed hierarchical multiple regressions to quantify the effects of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, academic efficacy, and sleep difficulties on the physical, psychological, social, and environmental components of an individual's quality of life. The influence of confounding variables, such as gender, stress load, and depressive symptoms, were controlled in the statistical analyses. Physical health decreased when emotional exhaustion and sleep difficulties increased. Psychological well-being also decreased when cynicism and sleep difficulties increased. Burnout and sleep difficulties together explained 22 and 21 % of the variance in the physical and psychological well-being, respectively. On the other hand, physical health, psychological well-being, and social relationships increased when the sense of academic efficacy increased. Physical and psychological well-being are negatively associated with emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and sleep difficulties in students in the early phase of medical school. To improve the quality of life of these students, a significant effort should be directed towards burnout and sleep difficulties.
Rotenberg, V S
A new approach to the sleep stages role in memory is discussed in the context of the two opposite patterns of behavior-search activity and renunciation of search. Search activity is activity designed to change the situation (or the subjects attitudes to it) in the absence of a definite forecast of the results of such activity, but with the constant consideration of these results at all stages of activity. Search activity increases general adaptability and body resistance while renunciation of search decreases adaptability and requires REM sleep for its compensation. Unprepared learning, which is often accompanied by failures on the first steps of learning, is suggested to produce renunciation of search, which decreases learning ability, suppress retention, and increase REM sleep requirement. A prolonged REM sleep deprivation before training causes learned helplessness and disturbs the learning process, while short REM sleep deprivation cause the "rebound" of the compensatory search activity that interferes with passive avoidance. REM sleep deprivation performed after a training session can increase distress caused by a training procedure, with the subsequent negative outcome on retention.
Oliveira, Olinda; Anastácio, Zélia
Resumo publicado em Mayo 2013 na Edição Especial Congreso I da revista científica internacional Atención Primaria indexada nas bases de dados Medline, Embase, Scopus y Science Citation Index Expanded Introduction: Sleep is a vital function, playing a central role in health and quality of life. Objectives: To determine the quantity and quality of sleep of the students according to their residence milieu, gender and school grade; identify external factors that influence sleep; inquire the in...
Valerie J. Ehlers
Full Text Available Patients in intensive care units require rest and sleep to recuperate, but might suffer from sleep deprivation due to ongoing unit activities. The study aimed to identify and describe the factors contributing to sleep deprivation in one multi-disciplinary intensive care unit (MDICU in a private hospital in South Africa. Quantitative, descriptive research was conducted to identify factors contributing to sleep deprivation in the research setting, and to make recommendations to enhance these patients’ abilities to sleep. Structured interviews were conducted with 34 adult non-ventilated patients who had spent at least one night in the MDICU and who gave informed consent. Out of the 34 interviewed patients 70.6% (n = 24 indicated that they suffered from sleep deprivation in the MDICU. The five major factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a MDICU were, (1 not knowing nurses’ names, noise caused by alarms, (2 stress, (3 inability to understand medical terms, and (3 blood pressure cuffs that restricted patients’ movements and smelled badly. Patients’ abilities to sleep were enhanced by reassuring nurses whose names they knew and with whom they could communicate. By attending to the identified five major factors, patients’ abilities to sleep in a MDICU could be enhanced enabling patients to recuperate faster. The implementation of such measures need not incur financial costs for the MDICU concerned.
Valerie J. Ehlers
Full Text Available Patients in intensive care units require rest and sleep to recuperate, but might suffer from sleep deprivation due to ongoing unit activities. The study aimed to identify and describe the factors contributing to sleep deprivation in one multi-disciplinary intensive care unit MDICU in a private hospital in South Africa. Quantitative, descriptive research was conducted to identify factors contributing to sleep deprivation in the research setting, and to make recommendations to enhance these patients’ abilities to sleep. Structured interviewswere conducted with 34 adult non-ventilated patients who had spent at least one night in the MDICU and who gave informed consent. Out of the 34 interviewed patients 70.6% n = 24 indicated that they suffered from sleep deprivation in the MDICU. The five major factors contributing to sleep deprivation in a MDICU were, (1 not knowing nurses’ names, noise caused by alarms, (2 stress, (3 inability to understand medical terms, and (3 blood pressure cuffs that restricted patients’ movements and smelled badly. Patients’ abilities to sleep were enhanced by reassuring nurses whose names they knew and with whom they could communicate. By attending to the identified five major factors, patients’ abilities to sleep in a MDICU could be enhanced enabling patients to recuperate faster. The implementation of such measures need not incur financial costs for the MDICU concerned.
Anders, Markus P; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria
BACKGROUND: Good sleep quality is essential for recovery. The risk factors of sleep disorders have been extensively investigated, but there is sparse information on the association of socioeconomic factors with a person's sleep quality. The aim of the present analysis is to investigate...... from the baseline survey taken in 2004. Sleep quality for the same participants was measured with in-depth personal interviews in 2006 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, together with other relevant characteristics (e.g. anxiety, depression and health status). Multiple logistic regression...... analyses were performed. RESULTS: People living in an urban environment with a high or medium SES have a greater probability of good sleep quality (odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.14; odds ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.69) than persons with a low SES. Anxiety and depression...
Dollarhide, Adrian W; Rutledge, Thomas; Weinger, Matthew B; Fisher, Erin Stucky; Jain, Sonia; Wolfson, Tanya; Dresselhaus, Timothy R
Reducing medical error is critical to improving the safety and quality of healthcare. Physician stress, fatigue, and excessive workload are performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that may influence medical events (actual administration errors and near misses), but direct relationships between these factors and patient safety have not been clearly defined. This study assessed the real-time influence of emotional stress, workload, and sleep deprivation on self-reported medication events by physicians in academic hospitals. During an 18-month study period, 185 physician participants working at four university-affiliated teaching hospitals reported medication events using a confidential reporting application on handheld computers. Emotional stress scores, perceived workload, patient case volume, clinical experience, total sleep, and demographic variables were also captured via the handheld computers. Medication event reports (n = 11) were then correlated with these demographic and PSFs. Medication events were associated with 36.1% higher perceived workload (p sleep (p = .10). These results confirm the effect of factors influencing medication events, and support attention to both provider and hospital environmental characteristics for improving patient safety. © 2013 National Association for Healthcare Quality.
Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël
Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467
Preišegolavičiūtė, Evelina; Leskauskas, Darius; Adomaitienė, Virginija
The objective of the study was to analyze associations among quality of sleep, profile of the studies, and lifestyle factors among the students of three different study profiles (medicine, economics, and law). A total of 405 randomly selected students from the first and fourth years of studies from 4 different universities in Lithuania answered the standardized questionnaires consisting of two parts: 1) the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for subjective evaluation of sleep quality; 2) the questionnaire about sleep and lifestyle habits and impact of poor sleep on the quality of life developed by the researchers. More than half (59.4%) of the students scored higher than 5 on the PSQI, which allowed suspecting sleep disorders. A significant difference in the frequency of poor sleepers was found regarding the profile of studies (Pstudents. There was a significant correlation between quality of sleep and subjective evaluation of quality of life (Pstudents experienced the highest impact of poor sleep on the quality of life (P=0.008). Students studying before going to sleep, spending more time studying, and having less leisure time had worse quality of sleep (Pstudents of medicine. The incidence of sleep problems is high among students in Lithuania, reaching 59.4%. Medical students have worse quality of sleep and worse impact of poor sleep on the quality of life compared to students of law and economics. A significant difference was found between medical students and their peers in other profiles of studies regarding their attitudes and habits related to studies: medical students spent more time for studying, were more anxious about studies and less satisfied with the results, studied more often before going to sleep.
Dimitriou, Dagmara; Le Cornu Knight, Frances; Milton, Patrick
Background: Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. Aims: This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. Sample and Method: Forty-seven adolescents ...
Dagmara eDimitriou; Dagmara eDimitriou; Frances eLe Cornu Knight; Frances eLe Cornu Knight; Patrick eMilton; Patrick eMilton
Background. Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behaviour.Aims. This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship.Sample and method. Forty-seven adolescents took pa...
May 22, 2013 ... Key words: Ramadan fasting, food intake consumption, sleep schedule, body weight, plasma parameters, ... month of intermittent fasting (Nomani et al. ..... ponses to exercise, fluid, and energy balances during Ramadan in.
aimed at identifying the factors that influence women's decisions to purchase specific .... influence of all the factors influencing their decision to purchase a selected .... one free” promotions seemed to have had the greatest influence on this ...
Conclusion: The study showed poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in patients with breast cancer during the active phase of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy may bring symptom distress to patients and adversely influence sleep quality.
Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.; van Dam, A.-M.; Czéh, B.; Gage, F.H.; Kempermann, G.; Song, H.
This review summarizes and discusses the regulation of adult neurogenesis and hippocampal cellular plasticity by systemic factors. We focus on the role of stress, glucocorticoids, and related factors such as sleep deprivation and inflammation.
Schlieber, M; Han, J
Sleep has a significant influence on children's development. The objective of this study was to investigate Head Start children's sleeping patterns and the impact on cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Using the 2009 cohort of the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (N = 2,868), information on sleeping patterns was assessed through parent interviews. Cognitive outcomes were assessed using direct assessments (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IV, the Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test, and Subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III) in addition to teacher report. Behavioural outcomes were assessed through parent and teacher reports. A multiple regression analysis was performed for each outcome variable. Descriptive findings showed that 89% of children had a regular bedtime at least 4 days per week and that the average amount of sleep per night was 10.41 hr. White mothers were more likely than other racial groups to adhere to a consistent bedtime, and maternal employment predicted less hour of sleep per night. Multiple regression analyses revealed that disrupted sleep had a negative influence on cognitive outcomes, especially in areas of mathematical problem solving, receptive language, teacher-reported literacy behaviours, and approaches to learning. Disrupted sleep was associated with the risk of misbehaviour by increasing teacher and parent ratings on aggressive behaviours, hyperactivity, and withdrawing in addition to decreased scores on overall social skills. Having an inconsistent bedtime negatively predicted expressive vocabulary and teacher-reported literacy behaviours. The findings of this study support the influential role of sleep on children's development. Sleeping through the night and having a consistent bedtime were found to be predictive of many areas of cognitive and behavioural development. Head Start staff can provide the supports to increase parental knowledge on appropriate child sleep practices. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Motivation, attitude, age, intelligence, aptitude, cognitive style, and personality are considered as factors that greatly influence someone in the process of his or her second language acquisition. Experts state that those factors give a more dominant contribution in SLA to learners variedly, depend on who the learners are, their age, how they behave toward the language, their cognitive ability, and also the way they learn.
Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.
A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)
Mong, Jessica A.; Baker, Fiona C.; Mahoney, Megan M.; Paul, Ketema N.; Schwartz, Michael D.; Semba, Kazue; Silver, Rae
While much is known about the mechanisms that underlie sleep and circadian rhythms, the investigation into sex differences and gonadal steroid modulation of sleep and biological rhythms is in its infancy. There is a growing recognition of sex disparities in sleep and rhythm disorders. Understanding how neuroendocrine mediators and sex differences influence sleep and biological rhythms is central to advancing our understanding of sleep-related disorders. While it is known that ovarian steroids affect circadian rhythms in rodents, the role of androgen is less understood. Surprising findings that androgens, acting via androgen receptors in the master “circadian clock” within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), modulate photic effects on activity in males points to novel mechanisms of circadian control. Work in aromatase deficient (ArKO) mice suggests that some sex differences in photic responsiveness are independent of gonadal hormone effects during development. In parallel, aspects of sex differences in sleep are also reported to be independent of gonadal steroids and may involve sex chromosome complement. This a summary of recent work illustrating how sex differences and gonadal hormones influence sleep and circadian rhythms that was presented at a mini-symposium at the 2011 annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. PMID:22072663
Askenasy, J J M
The present article is meant to suggest an approach to the guidelines for the therapy of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.The factors affecting the quality of life in PD patients are depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. A large review of the literature on sleep disturbances in PD patients, provided the basis for the following classification of the sleep-arousal disturbances in PD patients. We suggest a model based on 3 steps in the treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients. This model allowing the patient, the spouse or the caregiver a quiet sleep at night, may postpone the retirement and the institutionalization of the PD patient. I. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders based on detailed anamnesis of the patient and of the spouse or of the caregiver. One week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders co morbidities. Selection of the most appropriate sleep test among: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, actigraphy or video-PSG. II. The nonspecific therapeutic approach consists in: a) Checking the sleep effect on motor performance, is it beneficial, worse or neutral. b) Psycho-physical assistance. c) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary owing to the progression of the nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals, which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of the motor centers in PD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and NonREM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates PD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. The permanent adjustment
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI in Chinese undergraduate students. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey with 631 Chinese undergraduate students was conducted, and the questionnaire package included a measure of demographic characteristics, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Chinese editions of Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, State- Trait Anxiety Inventory, Rumination Response Scale, and Perceived Social Support Scale. Results showed that the item use of sleep medicine was not suitable for use with this population, that a two-factor model provided the best fit to the data as assessed through confirmatory factor analysis, and that other indices were consistently correlated with the sleep quality but not the sleep efficiency factor.
Long-Term Melatonin Therapy for Adolescents and Young Adults with Chronic Sleep Onset Insomnia and Late Melatonin Onset: Evaluation of Sleep Quality, Chronotype, and Lifestyle Factors Compared to Age-Related Randomly Selected Population Cohorts.
Zwart, Tom C; Smits, Marcel G; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A; van Geijlswijk, Ingeborg M
The extent of continuance of melatonin therapy initiated in pre-pubertal children with chronic sleep onset insomnia (CSOI) was investigated in young adult life. Sleep timing, sleep quality, adverse events, reasons for cessation of therapy, and patient characteristics with regard to therapy regimen, chronotype and lifestyle factors possibly influencing sleeping behavior were assessed. With an online survey using questionnaires (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, and Munich Chronotype Questionnaire), outcomes were measured and compared with age-related controls. These controls were extracted from published epidemiological research programs applying the same questionnaires. At the moment of the survey, melatonin was still continued by 27.3% of the patients, with a mean treatment duration of 10.8 years. The overall average treatment duration was 7.1 years. Sleep quality of both discontinued and persistent melatonin users did not deviate from controls. Sleep timing and chronotype scores indicated evening type preference in all responders. Adverse events were scarce but the perceived timing of pubertal development suggested a tendency towards delayed puberty in former and current users of melatonin. This study may underestimate the number of children that are able to stop using melatonin due to the response rate (47.8%) and appeal for continuing users. Sleep timing parameters were based on self-reported estimates. Control populations were predominantly students and were of varying nationalities. The statistical power of this study is low due to the limited sample size. Melatonin therapy sustained for 7.1 years does not result in substantial deviations of sleep quality as compared to controls and appears to be safe. The evening type preference suggests a causal relation with CSOI. This study shows that ten years after initiation of treatment with melatonin for CSOI, approximately 75% of the patients will have
Kaur, Harpreet; Bhoday, Harpreet Singh
Sleep affects physical growth, behavior and emotional development besides determining cognitive functioning, learning and attention especially of a growing child. Adolescence represents one of the critical transitions in the life span and is characterized by a tremendous pace in growth and change that is second only to that of infancy. Adolescent sleep patterns deserve particular attention because of the potential impact on school performance. Average sleep period in adolescents is reduced during school days to around seven hours. The reasons may be biological mainly the sleep phase delay or psychosocial and environmental. These include academic demands, social activities, sports, internet, television viewing, part-time employment, and use of mobile phone at night, peer and parental influence and socioeconomic status. These changing patterns of sleep in adolescents lead to many behavioral sleep problems like Delayed Sleep-phase Syndrome; Difficulties in falling asleep (insomnia); excessive daytime sleepiness, poor academic performance. Decreased sleep in adolescents also causes obesity and other cardio-metabolic abnormalities. This needs an integrated approach involving adolescents themselves, their parents, teachers and specialized physicians to help improve the sleep quantity and quality and lead to a better quality of life and daytime functioning in adolescents. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.
Winkler, Harald; Baumert, Kevin; Blanchard, Odile; Burch, Sarah; Robinson, John
This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation
Pagnin, Daniel; de Queiroz, Val?ria
This study assessed the influence of burnout dimensions and sleep difficulties on the quality of life among preclinical-phase medical school students. Data were collected from 193 students through their completion of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, the Maslach Burnout Inventory?Student Survey, the Mini-Sleep Questionnaire, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory. This survey performed hierarchical multiple regressions to quantify the e...
Duarte, João; Nelas, Paula; Chaves, Cláudia; Ferreira, Manuela; Coutinho, Emília; Cunha, Madalena
Objective: To characterise sleep-wake patterns and their influence on academic performance for a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Research design: Cross-sectional, analytical-explanatory, correlational epidemiological research. The protocol includes the composite morningness questionnaire (Barton et al, 1985 adapted by Silva et al, 1985), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (Murray, 1991), chronic fatigue scale (Smith et al, 1995), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Buysse, 1988), Educational A...
Narciso, Fernanda V.; Esteves, Andrea M.; Oliveira e Silva, Luciana; Bittencourt, Lia R.A.; Silva, Rogerio S.; Pires, Maria Laura N.; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio
Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of individual circadian preferences of drivers with fixed night work schedules on sleep patterns. Subjects and Methods A total of 123 professional drivers, 32 indifferent preference drivers and 91 morning preference drivers of an intermunicipality and interstate bus transportation company were evaluated. All drivers underwent polysomnographic recordings after their shifts. Furthermore, they filled out a questionnaire that contained sociodemographic and health questions. The Horne and Östberg questionnaire was used to assess the subjects' morningness-eveningness preference. Results The mean age was 42.54 ± 6.98 years and 82 (66.66%) of the drivers had worked for ≥15 years. A significant effect on rapid eye movement (REM) was observed in the morning preference drivers. They showed an increased sleep latency and an REM sleep percentage of 5% of the total REM time. This reveals a significant effect on sleep architecture associated with work time. Conclusion The drivers reported that morning preference had a significant effect on their sleep pattern indicating less REM sleep and longer REM sleep latency in the morning preference group. Thus, it is important to evaluate interactions between individual aspects of health and other parameters, such as sleep quality and work organizational factors, to promote night shift workers' health and well-being. PMID:23988815
Narciso, Fernanda V; Esteves, Andrea M; Oliveira e Silva, Luciana; Bittencourt, Lia R A; Silva, Rogerio S; Pires, Maria Laura N; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio
The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of individual circadian preferences of drivers with fixed night work schedules on sleep patterns. A total of 123 professional drivers, 32 indifferent preference drivers and 91 morning preference drivers of an intermunicipality and interstate bus transportation company were evaluated. All drivers underwent polysomnographic recordings after their shifts. Furthermore, they filled out a questionnaire that contained sociodemographic and health questions. The Horne and Östberg questionnaire was used to assess the subjects' morningness-eveningness preference. The mean age was 42.54 ± 6.98 years and 82 (66.66%) of the drivers had worked for ≥15 years. A significant effect on rapid eye movement (REM) was observed in the morning preference drivers. They showed an increased sleep latency and an REM sleep percentage of 5% of the total REM time. This reveals a significant effect on sleep architecture associated with work time. The drivers reported that morning preference had a significant effect on their sleep pattern indicating less REM sleep and longer REM sleep latency in the morning preference group. Thus, it is important to evaluate interactions between individual aspects of health and other parameters, such as sleep quality and work organizational factors, to promote night shift workers' health and well-being. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Halson, Shona L
Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, changes in glucose metabolism and neuroendocrine function as a result of chronic, partial sleep deprivation may result in alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, appetite, food intake and protein synthesis. These factors can ultimately have a negative influence on an athlete's nutritional, metabolic and endocrine status and hence potentially reduce athletic performance. Research has identified a number of neurotransmitters associated with the sleep-wake cycle. These include serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, cholinergic, galanin, noradrenaline, and histamine. Therefore, nutritional interventions that may act on these neurotransmitters in the brain may also influence sleep. Carbohydrate, tryptophan, valerian, melatonin and other nutritional interventions have been investigated as possible sleep inducers and represent promising potential interventions. In this review, the factors influencing sleep quality and quantity in athletic populations are examined and the potential impact of nutritional interventions is considered. While there is some research investigating the effects of nutritional interventions on sleep, future research may highlight the importance of nutritional and dietary interventions to enhance sleep.
Benedetti, Francesco; Melloni, Elisa M T; Dallaspezia, Sara; Bollettini, Irene; Locatelli, Clara; Poletti, Sara; Colombo, Cristina
Alteration of circadian rhythms and sleep disruption are prominent trait-like features of bipolar disorder (BD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures suggest a widespread alteration of white matter (WM) microstructure in patients with BD. Sleep promotes myelination and oligodendrocyte precursor cells proliferation. We hypothesized a possible association between DTI measures of WM microstructure and sleep quantity measures in BD. We studied 69 inpatients affected by a depressive episode in course of type I BD. We used whole brain tract-based spatial statistics on DTI measures of WM microstructure: axial, radial, and mean diffusivity (AD, RD, MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA). Self-assessed measures of time asleep (TA) and total sleep time (TST) were extracted from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Actigraphic recordings were performed on a subsample of 23 patients. We observed a positive correlation of DTI measures of FA with actigraphic measures of TA and TST, and with PSQI measure of TA. DTI measures of RD inversely associated with actigraphic measure of TA, and with PSQI measures of TA and TST. Several WM tracts were involved, including corpus callosum, cyngulate gyrus, uncinate fasciculus, left superior and inferior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi, thalamic radiation, corona radiata, retrolenticular part of internal capsule and corticospinal tract. The study is correlational in nature, and no conclusion about a causal connection can be drawn. Reduced FA with increased RD and MD indicate higher water diffusivity associated with less organized myelin and/or axonal structures. Our findings suggest an association between sleep disruption and these measures of brain microstructure in specific tracts contributing to the functional connectivity in BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cori, Jennifer M; Rochford, Peter D; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Trinder, John; Jordan, Amy S
Ventilatory after-discharge (sustained elevation of ventilation following stimulus removal) occurs during sleep but not when hypocapnia is present. Genioglossus after-discharge also occurs during sleep, but CO2 effects have not been assessed. The relevance is that postarousal after-discharge may protect against upper airway collapse. This study aimed to determine whether arousal elicits genioglossus after-discharge that persists into sleep, and whether it is influenced by CO2. Twenty-four healthy individuals (6 female) slept with a nasal mask and ventilator. Sleep (EEG, EOG, EMG), ventilation (pneumotachograph), end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and intramuscular genioglossus EMG were monitored. NREM eucapnia was determined during 5 minutes on continuous positive airway pressure (4 cmH2O). Inspiratory pressure support was increased until PETCO2 was ≥2 mm Hg below NREM eucapnia. Supplemental CO2 was added to reproduce normocapnia, without changing ventilator settings. Arousals were induced by auditory tones and genioglossus EMG compared during steady-state hypocapnia and normocapnia. Eleven participants (4 female) provided data. Prearousal PETCO2 was less (p sleep. For tonic activity, after-discharge lasted four breaths irrespective of CO2 condition. For peak activity, after-discharge lasted one breath during hypocapnia and 6 breaths during normocapnia. However, when peak activity following the return to sleep was compared between CO2 conditions no individual breath differences were observed. Postarousal genioglossal after-discharge may protect against upper airway collapse during sleep. Steady-state CO2 levels minimally influence postarousal genioglossus after-discharge. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail email@example.com.
LI Xiang; LI Yan-peng; WU Hui-juan; ZHANG Lin; ZHAO Zheng-qing; PENG Hua; ZHAO Zhong-xin
Objective Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) usually complain of daytime hypersomnia and decrease in cognitive function, which affects the quality of their work and life. The reason why the cognitive function of OSAS patients decreased remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impairment and the main influencing factors of cognitive function in OSAS. Methods There were totally 50 OSAS patients (OSAS group) and 25 volunteers (control group) included i...
Sharma, Sushma; Srijithesh, P. R.
Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome is an established and modifiable but under recognized risk factor for common disorders like stroke and hypertension. Objective: To assess awareness level of health care practitioners and medical students about OSA as a risk factor for stroke and hypertension. Methods: Questionnaire based survey with multiple response type and fill in the blanks type questions. The data was compiled and analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results: 180 participant...
This study examines the changes in the lifestyle that accompanied Ramadan fasting. For this purpose, we followed the questionnaire programming meals, food consumption and sleep rhythm. We also followed changes in plasma biological parameters. The results show that daily energy consumption was not changed and ...
Alexis M. Chambers
Full Text Available Studies have not only shown that a period of sleep following learning offers greater benefits to later memory than a period of wakefulness, but also that sleep actively promotes those components of memories that are emotionally salient. However, sleep's role in emotional memory consolidation has largely been investigated with memories that are specifically negative in content, such as memory for negative images or texts, leaving open the question of whether sleep influences positive memories in a similar manner. The current study investigated the emotional memory trade-off effect for positive versus neutral information. Scenes in which a positive or neutral object was placed on a neutral background were encoded prior to a period of polysomnographically-monitored nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness. Recognition memory was tested for the objects and backgrounds separately following the delay using the Remember/Know paradigm. Compared to wake participants, those who slept during the delay had increased recollection memory performance for positive objects, but not the neutral components of the studied scenes. Further, familiarity of positive objects was negatively correlated with REM latency. These results provide preliminary evidence that sleep contributes to the selective processing of positive memories, and point toward a role for REM sleep in positive memory formation.
Irwin, Michael R.; Olmstead, Richard; Valladares, Edwin M.; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Ehlers, Cindy L.
Background In alcohol dependence, markers of inflammation are associated with increases in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is thought to be a prognostic indicator of alcohol relapse. This study was undertaken to test whether blockade of biologically active tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) normalizes REM sleep in alcohol-dependent adults. Methods In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 18 abstinent alcohol-dependent male adults received a single dose of etanercept (25 mg) versus placebo in a counterbalanced order. Polysomnographic sleep was measured at baseline and for 3 nights after the acute dose of etanercept or placebo. Results Compared with placebo, administration of etanercept produced significant decreases in the amount and percentage of REM sleep. Decreases in REM sleep were robust and approached low levels typically found in age-comparable control subjects. Individual differences in biologically active drug as indexed by circulating levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II negatively correlated with the percentage of REM sleep. Conclusions Pharmacologic neutralization of TNF-α activity is associated with significant reductions in REM sleep in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. These data suggest that circulating levels of TNF-α may have a physiologic role in the regulation of REM sleep in humans. PMID:19185287
Musa, Nor Asma; Moy, Foong Ming; Wong, Li Ping
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with poor sleep quality among secondary school teachers in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. This was a cross sectional study, conducted in two phases. Phase I tested the reliability of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in the Malay language (M-PSQI), whereas Phase II determined the prevalence and factors associated with poor sleep quality where a total of 1871 secondary school teachers were studied. Participants were recruited using multistage sampling. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and teaching characteristics, comorbidities and characteristics of sleep. The M-PSQI was used to measure sleep quality. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 was used to measure mental health status. Results showed that the M-PSQI had a good internal consistency and moderate reliability. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 61 (95% CI: 54-67) %. Total teaching hours/day, depression and stress were significantly associated with poor sleep quality in the univariate analysis, while only stress (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.05%) remained significant in the multivariate analyses. In conclusion, stress level of the secondary school teachers should be reduced to improve sleep quality.
George, Nancy M; Davis, Jean E
Adolescents need about nine hours of sleep per night, yet most teens get far less. Inadequate sleep has consequences not only for academic performance but also for mental and physical health; it has been linked to lowered resilience and an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. It's imperative that assessment of sleep become a routine part of adolescent health care. An understanding of sleep physiology is essential to helping nurses better assess and manage sleep deprivation in this population. Sleep assessment involves evaluating the three main aspects of sleep: amount, quality, and architecture. The authors provide an overview of sleep physiology, describe sleep changes that occur during adolescence, and discuss the influence of these changes on adolescent health. They also provide simple questions that nurses can use to assess sleep and risk factors for disrupted sleep, and discuss patient education and other interventions.
signals to cerebral cortex , regulation of consciousness, alertness, and sleep Brainstem Nerve connections of motor and sensory systems, maintaining...thalamus functions include sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex . In addition, the thalamus is also involved in regulation of...sleep deprivation in cerebral cortex of rats (19). However, in this published study, the authors used only two animals (n=2) in each experimental
Asawa, Kailash; Sen, Nandini; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Sultane, Pratibha; Mandal, Aritra
Oral health and academic performance are important contributing factors for a student's professional life. Countless factors affect both, among which sleep, vitality and fatigue are less explored areas that also have a strong impact. The objective of the study was to assess the association of sleep disturbances, fatigue and vitality with self reported oral health status, oral hygiene habits and academic performance of dental students of Udaipur. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate and postgraduate dental students of Udaipur. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to assess the psychological factors, vitality, sleep quality, fatigue, self reported oral health status, habits and academic performance. Analysis of variance and stepwise multiple linear regression were utilized for statistical analysis with 95% confidence level and 5% level of significance. Of the 230 participants, 180 (78.3%) were undergraduates and 50 (21.7%) were postgraduates. Among them, females showed higher scores in disturbed sleep index (2.69±2.14) as compared to males (2.45±1.91). Respondents who had "Poor" dental health, scored more in disturbed sleep index (3.15±1.64) and fatigue scale (20.00±4.88). Subjects who flossed "everyday", were found to have good sleep and more energy (p=0.01) and those who assessed themselves as excellent students scored more in the Vitality Scale (p=0.01) and less in the Sleep index (p=0.01). The present study confirms that disturbed sleep, aliveness and fatigue, all are interlinked with each other and are imperative factors having the potential to alter the oral health status, habits and academics of dental students.
Full Text Available Background: Sleep disturbances are common, but widely underdiagnosed in cancer patients. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep quality and its associated factors among women with breast cancer.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on women with breast cancer referring to 2 outpatient clinics in Isfahan, Iran. Sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI], severity of anxiety and depression [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS], cancer symptoms [M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI], and quality of life (QOL [European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30] were assessed in the present study.Results: The study population consisted of 101 patients with mean age of 49.7 years and mean cancer duration of 2.3 years. The mean global PSQI score of patients was 8.5 and 80.2% had poor sleep quality. Factors associated with global PSQI score in univariate analyses were body mass index (BMI (r = 0.445, severity of cancer symptoms (r = 0.580, anxiety (r = 0.363, and depression (r = 0.332. BMI and symptom severity were independently associated with poor sleep quality (standardized coefficient = 0.388 and 0.480, respectively. With regards to QOL, patients with poor sleep quality had lower physical and psychosocial functioning than good sleepers.Conclusion: Sleep disturbances are highly common in women with breast cancer in our society and significantly affect their QOL. Obesity, cancer symptoms, and psychological symptoms are important factors associated with and contributing to sleep problems in these patients. Cancer care programs must have a comprehensive approach, including sleep assessment and management, toward the treatment of these patients.
Suzuki, Ayako; Sinton, Christopher M; Greene, Robert W; Yanagisawa, Masashi
Sleep is regulated by homeostatic mechanisms, and the low-frequency power in the electroencephalogram (delta power) during non-rapid eye movement sleep reflects homeostatic sleep need. Additionally, sleep is limited by circadian and environmentally influenced arousal. Little is known, however, about the underlying neural substrates for sleep homeostasis and arousal and about the potential link between them. Here, we subjected C57BL/6 mice to 6 h of sleep deprivation using two different methods: gentle handling and continual cage change. Both groups were deprived of sleep to a similar extent (>99%), and, as expected, the delta power increase during recovery sleep was quantitatively similar in both groups. However, in a multiple sleep latency test, the cage change group showed significantly longer sleep latencies than the gentle handling group, indicating that the cage change group had a higher level of arousal despite the similar sleep loss. To investigate the possible biochemical correlates of these behavioral changes, we screened for arousal-related and sleep need-related phosphoprotein markers from the diencephalon. We found that the abundance of highly phosphorylated forms of dynamin 1, a presynaptic neuronal protein, was associated with sleep latency in the multiple sleep latency test. In contrast, the abundance of highly phosphorylated forms of N-myc downstream regulated gene 2, a glial protein, was increased in parallel with delta power. The changes of these protein species disappeared after 2 h of recovery sleep. These results suggest that homeostatic sleep need and arousal can be dissociated behaviorally and biochemically and that phosphorylated N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 and dynamin 1 may serve as markers of homeostatic sleep need and arousal, respectively.
A. A. Belkin
Full Text Available About 20% of all road traffic accidents may be associated with falling asleep while driving. This may be caused by sleep disorders leading to daytime sleepiness, the most common of which is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Objective: to study somatic and mental health, sleep disorders, OSAS in particular, in the population of Russian drivers (Sverdlovsk Region. Patients and methods. The descriptive cohort «Dangerous Sleep» (DS-1 study of 20 professional drivers having more than 5-year driving experience was conducted at the Clinical Institute of the Brain. The mean age of the drivers was 45.8 years. They underwent somatic evaluation for cardiovascular risk factors and a psychological examination involving a risk readiness diagnostic procedure, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and an electroencephalographic examination. A somnological examination assumed testing using the Epworth sleepiness scale, polysomnography, or overnight pulse metry. Results and discussion. 30% of the drivers were found to have marked attention disorders and an inability to adapt to extreme conditions, which create a risk for professional duties. The predisposing factors were noted to be alcohol addiction, overweight, and OSAS, the rate of the latter proved to be higher than that in the general population of able-bodied men. It was shown that a somnological examination should be obligatorily performed while hiring professional drivers, particularly to long hauliers. The drivers having a long length of experience, in whom a periodic examination detects sleep disorders, should be treated for somatic diseases and should also have individual working schedules to rule out their long night-time driving.
Lai, P P; Say, Y H
The objective of the study was to investigate the associated factors of sleep quality and behavior among Malaysian tertiary students. The response rate to the questionnaire study was 41.0%. 1,118 students (M = 486, F = 632; mean age = 20.06 ± 1.53 years) were recruited from Universiti and Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak campuses) who completed a sleep quality and behavior questionnaire based on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Scale (MES) and craving of high-calorie foods. Results showed that students had the following sleeping habits - bed time = 2.41 a.m. ± 3.35 hr, rise time = 9.00 a.m. ± 1.76 hr, sleep latency = 16.65 ± 14.30 min and sleep duration = 7.31 ± 1.45 hr. 32.9% of the students were defined as poor quality sleepers, 30.6% suffering excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and 81.6% were categorized as individuals with 'definitely eveningness', defined as people who are definitely most alert in the late evening hours and prefer to go to bed late. There were no significant gender differences in sleep quality, 'chronotype' and EDS. Although there was no association of sleep quality and EDS with cumulative Grade Point Average (cGPA) and class skipping, EDS was associated with the tendency to fall asleep in class. Body Mass Index (BMI) was not associated with total sleep, PSQI, ESS and MES scores. Meanwhile, high-calorie food craving was associated with sleep duration, PSQI and ESS, but not MES. In conclusion, poor sleep behavior among Malaysian tertiary students in this study was not associated with gender, academic performance and BMI, but was associated with craving of high-calorie foods instead.
Hjorth, M. F.; Quist, J. S.; Andersen, Rikke
Background Recent cross-sectional studies found higher consumption of energy-dense foods among children with short sleep duration; however, longitudinal studies examining changes in sleep and diet over time are needed. Objective This study aimed to investigate prospective associations between...... with no change in energy density of the diet (P = 0.78). Conclusion Our results suggest that a negative change in sleep duration is associated with higher intakes of sugar containing foods/beverages....... changes in objectively measured sleep duration and alterations in proposed dietary risk factors for obesity in 8–11-year-old Danish children. Methods Four hundred forty-one children recorded dietary intake during seven consecutive days, along with accelerometer measurements estimating sleep duration...
Presley, Cheryl A; Meilman, Philip W; Leichliter, Jami S
The purpose of this article is to examine the aspects of collegiate environments, rather than student characteristics, that influence drinking. Unfortunately, the existing literature is scant on this topic. A literature review of articles primarily published within the last 10 years, along with some earlier "landmark" studies of collegiate drinking in the United States, was conducted to determine institutional factors that influence the consumption of alcohol. In addition, a demonstration analysis of Core Alcohol and Drug Survey research findings was conducted to further elucidate the issues. Several factors have been shown to relate to drinking: (1) organizational property variables of campuses, including affiliations (historically black institutions, women's institutions), presence of a Greek system, athletics and 2- or 4-year designation; (2) physical and behavioral property variables of campuses, including type of residence, institution size, location and quantity of heavy episodic drinking; and (3) campus community property variables, including pricing and availability and outlet density. Studies, however, tend to look at individual variables one at a time rather than in combination (multivariate analyses). Some new analyses, using Core Alcohol and Drug Survey data sets, are presented as examples of promising approaches to future research. Given the complexities of campus environments, it continues to be a challenge to the field to firmly establish the most compelling institutional and environmental factors relating to high-risk collegiate drinking.
De Fiebre, N C; Marley, R J; Wehner, J M; Collins, A C
The anesthetic potency of many agents, including alcohols, barbiturates and other sedative-hypnotic drugs, is influenced by lipid solubility. Previous studies from our laboratory, however, have demonstrated that genetic factors influence this relationship. We have reported that mouse lines selectively bred for differences in duration of ethanol-induced anesthesia, the long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice, differ in sleep-time response to water-soluble, but not lipid-soluble, sedative-hypnotic drugs. The studies described here sought to determine whether this same relationship exists for the hypothermic response produced by 17 sedative-hypnotic drugs in the LS and SS mice. Dose-response and time course relationships for hypothermic actions were determined and were compared with the dose-related anesthetic effects of the drugs. Hypothermic potencies increased along with lipid solubility for both the LS and SS mouse lines, but the rate of change differed for the two mouse lines. LS mice were more responsive to ethanol and other water-soluble drugs whereas the SS were more responsive to lipid-soluble drugs; significant correlations were obtained between lipid solubility (log P-octanol-water partition coefficient) and relative LS-SS responsiveness to both the hypothermic and hypnotic actions of the 17 test drugs. Thus, both hypnotic and hypothermic actions of sedative-hypnotic drugs are correlated with lipid solubility. Possible explanation for these correlations include greater LS central nervous system sensitivity to water-soluble drugs and LS-SS differences in distribution of lipid-soluble drugs.
Wennman, Heini; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Tolvanen, Asko; Peltonen, Markku; Vasankari, Tommi; Borodulin, Katja
Associations of behaviorally modifiable factors like physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and sleep with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are complicated. We examined whether membership in latent classes (LCs) differentiated by PA and sleep profiles (real-life clustering of behaviors in population subgroups) associate with metabolic risk factors and CVD risk. The National FINRISK 2012 Study comprise a cross-sectional sample of 10,000 Finns aged 25 to 74 years. Analyses included participants with complete data on a health questionnaire, a health examination, who had no prevalent CVD (n = 4031). LCs with PA and sleep profiles were previously defined using latent class analysis. Ten metabolic risk factors and the Framingham 10-year CVD risk score were compared between the LCs. PA and sleep class profiles were substantially similar for genders. Compared to LC-1, with a profile including high PA and sufficient sleep, membership in LC-4, with a profile including sedentariness and insufficient sleep was associated with high metabolic risk factors in women but not in men. In women, also membership in LC-2, with a profile including light PA, sufficient sleep, and high sedentariness was associated with high metabolic risk factors. The Framingham 10-year CVD risk score was highest in LCs 2 and 4 in both genders. Membership in LCs differentiated by PA and sleep profiles was associated with metabolic risk factors merely in women, suggesting gender differences in the interrelationships of health behaviors and metabolic risk factors. Total CVD risk differed between the LCs despite of gender; however, the effect was small.
Todd, Oliver M; Gelrich, Lisa; MacLullich, Alasdair M; Driessen, Martin; Thomas, Christine; Kreisel, Stefan H
To determine whether sleep disruption at home or in hospital is an independent risk factor for postoperative delirium in older adults undergoing elective surgery. Prospective cohort study. German teaching hospital. Individuals aged 65 and older undergoing elective arthroplasty (N = 101). Preoperative questionnaires were used to assess sleep disruption at home (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Actigraphy was used to objectively measure sleep disruption in the hospital before and after surgery. Delirium was assessed daily after surgery using the Confusion Assessment Method and, if there was uncertainty, validated according to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), criteria. Twenty-seven participants developed postoperative delirium. Those with sleep disruption at home were 3.26 times as likely to develop postoperative delirium as those without (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.34-7.92, P = .009). Participants with sleep disruption in hospital were 1.21 times as likely to develop postoperative delirium as those without (95% CI = 1.03-1.41, P = .02). When adjusting for other variables, risk remained significant for sleep disruption at home (risk ratio (RR) = 3.90, 95% CI = 2.14-7.11, P delirium than those without. Sleep disruption in the hospital may further heighten this risk. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad
Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.
Rosen, Larry; Carrier, Louis M; Miller, Aimee; Rokkum, Jeffrey; Ruiz, Abraham
Sleep problems related to technology affect college students through several potential mechanisms including displacement of sleep due to technology use, executive functioning abilities, and the impact of emotional states related to stress and anxiety about technology availability. In the present study, cognitive and affective factors that influence technology usage were examined for their impact upon sleep problems. More than 700 US college students completed an online questionnaire addressing technology usage, anxiety/dependence, executive functioning, nighttime phone usage, bedtime phone location, and sleep problems. A path model controlling for background variables was tested using the data. The results showed that executive dysfunction directly predicted sleep problems as well as affected sleep problems through nighttime awakenings. In addition, anxiety/dependence increased daily smartphone usage and also increased nighttime awakenings, which, in turn, affected sleep problems. Thus, both the affective and cognitive factors that influence technology usage affected sleep problems. Copyright © 2016 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior and habits of sleep. The cause of sleep disorders can be financial problems, depression and anxiety, cigarettes, coffee, alcohol or chronic diseases. The study found the most common mistakes in sleep hygiene. The study included 122 participants. In the study group, 60,7% of respondents were females whereas 39,3% were males. The age of participants ranged from 17 to 53 years. The study conducted in the period from November 2016 to January 2017 and it employed standardized interview research method. Research tool, which was used for data collection was a questionnaire consisted of 18 questions single-choice questions and 4 open questions. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. All values for which p <0.05 (probability of error were considered statistically significant. Respondents were asked about education, hygiene knowledge, hygiene practice, family sleep disorders. Respondents answered for questions about the quality of sleep. There were 71.3% of respondents have variable and irregular duration of fall asleep, 68.9% of them were female (p <0.05. On the other hand, variable and irregular duration of fsleep affects 52.5% of respondents, 37.5% of them have shift work. The most commonly reported sleep problem was fatigue after waking up (64.8% of respondents. Not much less because 57.4% of respondents feel drowsy during the day, more often respondents who did not consume coffee. 23.8% of respondents reported nighttime waking and falling asleep. Morning sickness is reported by 42.6% of respondents in the early morning, the problem was more common among women. Among the causes of sleep disorders were: stress, daytime abuse of coffee, personal problems, work or school problems, high levels of noise, smoking, watching TV late at night, using the Internet, increased physical activity in the evening, frequent night science, the presence of chronic illness. As many as 43.4% of
Insufficient sleep and chronic pain are public health epidemics. Sleep loss worsens pain and predicts the development of chronic pain. Whether previous, acute sleep loss and recovery sleep determine pain levels and duration remains poorly understood. This study tested whether acute sleep deprivation and recovery sleep prior to formalin injection alter post-injection pain levels and duration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) underwent sleep deprivation or ad libitum sleep for 9 hours. Thereafter, rats received a subcutaneous injection of formalin or saline into a hind paw. In the recovery sleep group, rats were allowed 24 h between sleep deprivation and the injection of formalin. Mechanical and thermal nociception were assessed using the von Frey test and Hargreaves' method. Nociceptive measures were performed at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17 and 21 days post-injection. Formalin caused bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia) that persisted for up to 21 days post-injection. Sleep deprivation significantly enhanced bilateral allodynia. There was a synergistic interaction when sleep deprivation preceded a formalin injection. Rats allowed a recovery sleep period prior to formalin injection developed allodynia only in the injected limb, with higher mechanical thresholds (less allodynia) and a shorter recovery period. There were no persistent changes in thermal nociception. The data suggest that acute sleep loss preceding an inflammatory insult enhances pain and can contribute to chronic pain. The results encourage studies in a model of surgical pain to test whether enhancing sleep reduces pain levels and duration. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Mullington, Janet M.
The vulnerability to medical emergencies is greatest in space where there are real limits to the availability or effectiveness of ground based assistance. Moreover, astronaut safety and health maintenance will be of increasing importance as we venture out into space for extended periods of time. It is therefore critical to understand the mechanisms of the regulatory physiology of homeostatic systems (sleep, circadian, neuroendocrine, fluid and nutritional balance) and the key roles played in adaptation. This synergy project has combined aims of the "Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team"; the "Immunology, Infection and Hematology Team"; and the "Muscle Alterations and Atrophy Team", to broadly address the effects of long term sleep reduction, as is frequently encountered in space exploration, on neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and circulating growth factors. Astronaut sleep is frequently curtailed to averages of between 4- 6.5 hours per night. There is evidence that this amount of sleep is inadequate for maintaining optimal daytime functioning. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effects of chronic sleep restriction, or reduction, on regulatory physiology in general, and there have been no controlled studies of the cumulative effects of chronic sleep reduction on neuroendocrine and neuroimmune parameters. This synergy project represents a pilot study designed to characterize the effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and growth factors. This project draws its subjects from two (of 18) conditions of the larger NSBRI project, "Countermeasures to Neurobehavioral Deficits from Cumulative Partial Sleep Deprivation During Space Flight", one of the projects on the "Human Performance Factors, Sleep and Chronobiology Team ". For the purposes of this study, to investigate the effects of chronic sleep loss on neuroendocrine and neuroimmune function, we have focused on the two extreme sleep conditions
Kumar, Tankesh; Jha, Sushil K
Many studies suggest that fear conditioning influences sleep. It is, however, not known if the changes in sleep architecture after fear conditioning are essentially associated with the consolidation of fearful memory or with fear itself. Here, we have observed that within sleep, NREM sleep consistently remained augmented after the consolidation of cued fear-conditioned memory. But a similar change did not occur after impairing memory consolidation by blocking new protein synthesis and glutamate transmission between glial-neuronal loop in the lateral amygdala (LA). Anisomycin (a protein synthesis inhibitor) and DL-α-amino-adipic acid (DL- α -AA) (a glial glutamine synthetase enzyme inhibitor) were microinjected into the LA soon after cued fear-conditioning to induce memory impairment. On the post-conditioning day, animals in both the groups exhibited significantly less freezing. In memory-consolidated groups (vehicle groups), NREM sleep significantly increased during 2nd to 5th hours after training compared to their baseline days. However, in memory impaired groups (anisomycin and DL- α -AA microinjected groups), similar changes were not observed. Our results thus suggest that changes in sleep architecture after cued fear-conditioning are indeed a consolidation dependent event. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Borchers, Claudia; Randler, Christoph
The human sleep-wake cycle is characterized by significant individual differences. Those differences in the sleep-wake cycle are partially heritable but are also influenced by environmental factors like the light/dark cycle or social habits. In this study we analyse for the first time the sleep-wake rhythm of adolescent pupils and working adolescents in a less industrialised country in West Africa near the equator. The aim of this study was to explore the sleep wake cycle in this geographical region, using Côte d'Ivoire as an example. Data collection took place between 2nd of March and 10th of June 2009. 588 adolescents (338 girls, 250 boys) between 10 and 15 years (mean ± SD: 12.72 ± 1.63) participated in this study. We collected data on the religion of the participants (Christian (N = 159), Muslim (N = 352), other/no religion (N = 77)) and their occupation. Participants were either pupils attending school (N = 336) or adolescents that were already working (N = 252) and not attending school. The interviewer filled in the questionnaire. We found significant effects of age (p gender (p religion (p < 0.001) and region (p < 0.001). The midpoint of sleep was on average 1:26 (SD: 00:30) on weekdays and 1:37 (SD: 00:42) on weekend days. There are significant differences between weekdays and weekend days, but these were only small. Sleep duration suggests that adolescents in Côte d'Ivoire may gain sufficient sleep during week and weekend days, and thus, may live more in accordance with their own biological clock than adolescents in the northern hemisphere. In contrast, the data can be interpreted that adolescents live in a permanent 'jetlag'. Factors may be the more continuous light/dark cycle in the tropics, low amount of ambient light and less electricity.
Beam, Andrew L.; Kartoun, Uri; Pai, Jennifer K.; Chatterjee, Arnaub K.; Fitzgerald, Timothy P.; Shaw, Stanley Y.; Kohane, Isaac S.
Insomnia remains under-diagnosed and poorly treated despite its high economic and social costs. Though previous work has examined how patient characteristics affect sleep medication prescriptions, the role of physician characteristics that influence this clinical decision remains unclear. We sought to understand patient and physician factors that influence sleep medication prescribing patterns by analyzing Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) including the narrative clinical notes as well as codified data. Zolpidem and trazodone were the most widely prescribed initial sleep medication in a cohort of 1,105 patients. Some providers showed a historical preference for one medication, which was highly predictive of their future prescribing behavior. Using a predictive model (AUC = 0.77), physician preference largely determined which medication a patient received (OR = 3.13 p = 3 × 10-37). In addition to the dominant effect of empirically determined physician preference, discussion of depression in a patient’s note was found to have a statistically significant association with receiving a prescription for trazodone (OR = 1.38, p = 0.04). EMR data can yield insights into physician prescribing behavior based on real-world physician-patient interactions.
Mosca, Matthew; Aggarwal, Brooke
Lack of sleep has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Prior research has often been conducted in select populations and has not consistently adjusted for confounders, especially psychosocial factors. The aims of this study were to assess the association between sleep habits and established risk factors for CVD and to evaluate potential interactions by race and gender. Participants were part of a CVD screening and educational outreach program in New York City. Free-living men older than 40 years and women older than 50 years (n = 371, mean age = 60 years, 57% women, 60% racial/ethnic minorities) were systematically assessed for CVD risk (including traditional, lifestyle, and psychosocial risk factors) and completed a standardized questionnaire regarding sleep habits (including sleep duration and snoring). Lipids were analyzed by validated finger-stick technology. Stress at work and at home was assessed using a validated screening tool from the INTERHEART study. Associations between participants' sleep habits and CVD risk factors/demographic factors were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. The proportion of participants who reported sleeping less than 6 hours per night on average was 28%, and 52% of participants reported snoring. Sleeping less than 6 hours per night was significantly (P stress at home, increased financial stress, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level. Gender modified the association between sleep duration and LDL-C level (P = .04): Sleeping less than 6 hours per night was significantly associated with reduced LDL-C level among women and increased LDL-C level among men. Snoring was significantly associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level (stress at work and at home, less than 30 minutes of exercise per day, less than 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, and being overweight
Johnathon P. Ehsani
Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.
Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Nyando ... The overall objective of this study was to determine factors influencing the ... EBF and its benefits), pre lacteal feeds and exclusive breastfeeding consistency.
Owens, Judith; Wang, Guanghai; Lewin, Daniel; Skora, Elizabeth; Baylor, Allison
To examine the association between self-reported sleep duration (SD) and peer/individual factors predictive of risky behaviors (risk behavior factors) in a large socioeconomically diverse school-based sample of early adolescents. Survey data collected from 10718 and 11240 eighth-grade students in 2010 and 2012, respectively, were analyzed. N/A. Self-reported school night SD was grouped as ≤4 hours, 5 hours, 6 hours, 7 hours, 8 hours, 9 hours, and ≥10 hours. Scores on 10 peer/individual risk behavior factor scales were dichotomized according to national eigth-grade cut points. The percentage of students reporting an "optimal" SD of 9 hours was 14.8% and 15.6% in 2010 and 2012, respectively; 45.6% and 46.1% reported sleep compared to an SD of 9 hours. For example, ORs for students sleeping school students are at high risk of insufficient sleep; in particular, an SD Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hjorth, M F; Quist, J S; Andersen, R; Michaelsen, K F; Tetens, I; Astrup, A; Chaput, J-P; Sjödin, A
Recent cross-sectional studies found higher consumption of energy-dense foods among children with short sleep duration; however, longitudinal studies examining changes in sleep and diet over time are needed. This study aimed to investigate prospective associations between changes in objectively measured sleep duration and alterations in proposed dietary risk factors for obesity in 8-11-year-old Danish children. Four hundred forty-one children recorded dietary intake during seven consecutive days, along with accelerometer measurements estimating sleep duration at baseline and after ∼200 days. Baseline sleep duration did not predict changes in dietary intake or vice versa (all P ≥ 0.69). However, 1-h lower sleep duration was associated with higher intake of added sugar (1.59 E%; P = 0.001) and sugar-sweetened beverages (0.90 E%; P = 0.002) after 200 days with no change in energy density of the diet (P = 0.78). Our results suggest that a negative change in sleep duration is associated with higher intakes of sugar containing foods/beverages. © 2014 World Obesity.
Full Text Available Ya-Wen Jan1,2, Chien-Ming Yang1,3, Yu-Shu Huang4,51Department of Psychology, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei; 2Sleep Center of Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei; 3The Research Center for Mind Brain and Learning, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei; 4Department of Child Psychiatry and Sleep Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan; 5College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, TaiwanAbstract: Sleep problems are commonly reported in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms. Research data regarding the complex and reciprocal relationship between ADHD and sleep disturbances has now accumulated. This paper is focused on the types of sleep problems that are associated with ADHD symptomatology, and attempts to untangle confounding factors and overlapping symptoms. The goal is also to present an updated overview of the pathophysiology of and treatment strategies for sleep problems in children with ADHD. The review also points out that future research will be needed to clarify further the other psychiatric comorbidities and side effects of medication in order to improve treatment outcomes and prevent misdiagnosis in clinical practice.Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, sleep, children
Rihm, Julia S; Rasch, Björn
Emotional memories are reprocessed during sleep, and it is widely assumed that this reprocessing occurs mainly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In support for this notion, vivid emotional dreams occur mainly during REM sleep, and several studies have reported emotional memory enhancement to be associated with REM sleep or REM sleep-related parameters. However, it is still unknown whether reactivation of emotional memories during REM sleep strengthens emotional memories. Here, we tested whether re-presentation of emotionally learned stimuli during REM sleep enhances emotional memory. In a split-night design, participants underwent Pavlovian conditioning after the first half of the night. Neutral sounds served as conditioned stimuli (CS) and were either paired with a negative odor (CS+) or an odorless vehicle (CS-). During sound replay in subsequent late REM or N2 sleep, half of the CS+ and half of the CS- were presented again. In contrast to our hypothesis, replay during sleep did not affect emotional memory as measured by the differentiation between CS+ and CS- in expectancy, arousal and valence ratings. However, replay unspecifically decreased subjective arousal ratings of both emotional and neutral sounds and increased positive valence ratings also for both CS+ and CS- sounds, respectively. These effects were slightly more pronounced for replay during REM sleep. Our results suggest that re-exposure to previously conditioned stimuli during late sleep does not affect emotional memory strength, but rather influences the affective tone of both emotional and neutral memories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Türkay, Cansel; Ozol, Duygu; Kasapoğlu, Benan; Kirbas, Ismail; Yıldırım, Zeki; Yiğitoğlu, Ramazan
Currently the common pathogenetic mechanisms in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are gaining increased attention. The aim of this study is to find out the influence of chronic intermittent hypoxemia and OSA related parameters to the severity of NAFLD. We examined the liver functions tests and ultrasonographic data of liver as well as markers of OSA severity (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI], oxygen desaturation index, minimum oxygen saturation, percentage of time spent with S(pO(2)) hypoxia during sleep. The prevalence of NAFLD was higher in patients with severe OSA, suggesting a role for nocturnal hypoxemia in the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease.
Kalmbach, David A; Arnedt, J Todd; Song, Peter X; Guille, Constance; Sen, Srijan
While short and poor quality sleep among training physicians has long been recognized as problematic, the longitudinal relationships among sleep, work hours, mood, and work performance are not well understood. Here, we prospectively characterize the risk of depression and medical errors based on preinternship sleep disturbance, internship-related sleep duration, and duty hours. Survey data from 1215 nondepressed interns were collected at preinternship baseline, then 3 and 6 months into internship. We examined how preinternship sleep quality and internship sleep and work hours affected risk of depression at 3 months, per the Patient Health Questionnaire 9. We then examined the impact of sleep loss and work hours on depression persistence from 3 to 6 months. Finally, we compared self-reported errors among interns based on nightly sleep duration (≤6 hr vs. >6 hr), weekly work hours (Poorly sleeping trainees obtained less sleep and were at elevated risk of depression in the first months of internship. Short sleep (≤6 hr nightly) during internship mediated the relationship between sleep disturbance and depression risk, and sleep loss led to a chronic course for depression. Depression rates were highest among interns with both sleep disturbance and short sleep. Elevated medical error rates were reported by physicians sleeping ≤6 hr per night, working ≥ 70 weekly hours, and who were acutely or chronically depressed. Sleep disturbance and internship-enforced short sleep increase risk of depression development and chronicity and medical errors. Interventions targeting sleep problems prior to and during residency hold promise for curbing depression rates and improving patient care. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail email@example.com.
Al-Samsam, Rim H; Cullen, Pauline
To document the quantity and architecture of sleep using objective electrophysiologic assessment in sedated mechanically ventilated pediatric intensive care unit patients over a 24-hr period and to investigate the effect of noise and staff interventions on sleep pattern in these subjects. Prospective observational study. Pediatric intensive care unit at a university hospital. A total of 11 patients studied between September 2000 and June 2001, with ages ranging from 3 to 21 months. All patients were intubated, mechanically ventilated, and sedated with morphine and midazolam infusions. Limited sleep polysomnograph, staff interventions, and noise levels were continuously monitored during a 24-hr period. Noise levels were consistently >48 dB(A); the highest night peak reached 103 dB(A). Staff interventions lasted for a mean of 240 (SD 90) mins in a 24-hr period. There was no significant difference in the number of interventions between day and night. Severe alterations to sleep architecture were found throughout the 24 hrs, with no diurnal variations. Active sleep was severely reduced to a mean of 3% (SD 4%; range, 0-11%) of total sleep time. There was severe sleep fragmentation as reflected by the high number (mean, 40 [SD 20]) of wake episodes. The above findings suggest a significant electrophysiologic abnormality of sleep in the pediatric intensive care unit patients. Our pediatric intensive care unit environment is characterized by both, high noise levels and frequent staff interventions. This study has several limitations and future studies are needed, with larger sample size and an attempt to manipulate the environmental factors to minimize their negative effects on sleep.
Hein, Matthieu; Lanquart, Jean-Pol; Loas, Gwénolé; Hubain, Philippe; Linkowski, Paul
Several studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of insomnia in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a large sample of insomnia sufferers. Data from 1311 insomnia sufferers who were recruited from the research database of the sleep laboratory of the Erasme Hospital were analysed. An apnea-hypopnea index of ≥15 events per hour was used as the cut-off score for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine clinical and demographic risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers. The prevalence of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in our sample of insomnia sufferers was 13.88%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender, snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, lower maintenance insomnia complaint, presence of metabolic syndrome, age ≥ 50 & 30 kg/m 2 , and CRP >7 mg/L were significant risk factors of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers. Moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a common pathology in insomnia sufferers. The identification of these different risk factors advances a new perspective for more effective screening of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in insomnia sufferers.
Sharma, Sushma; Srijithesh, P R
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome is an established and modifiable but under recognized risk factor for common disorders like stroke and hypertension. To assess awareness level of health care practitioners and medical students about OSA as a risk factor for stroke and hypertension. Questionnaire based survey with multiple response type and fill in the blanks type questions. The data was compiled and analyzed using SPSS version 19. 180 participants completed the survey questionnaire. Only 24 (13.3%) identified OSA as a reversible risk factor for ischemic stroke. 11 (6%) participants only could answer OSA as an identified risk factor for hypertension as per Seventh Joint National Committee report. This study reveals dismal level of awareness, among health professionals and medical students, about OSA being an established and modifiable risk factor for hypertension and ischemic stroke.
Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA syndrome is an established and modifiable but under recognized risk factor for common disorders like stroke and hypertension. Objective: To assess awareness level of health care practitioners and medical students about OSA as a risk factor for stroke and hypertension. Methods: Questionnaire based survey with multiple response type and fill in the blanks type questions. The data was compiled and analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results: 180 participants completed the survey questionnaire. Only 24 (13.3% identified OSA as a reversible risk factor for ischemic stroke. 11 (6% participants only could answer OSA as an identified risk factor for hypertension as per Seventh Joint National Committee report. Poor awareness extended over all categories of participants (medical students, trained doctors and nursing staff . Conclusion: This study reveals dismal level of awareness, among health professionals and medical students, about OSA being an established and modifiable risk factor for hypertension and ischemic stroke.
Hamze, Fernanda Luiza; de Souza, Cristiane Chaves; Chianca, Tânia Couto Machado
to identify care interventions, performed by the health team, and their influence on the continuity of sleep of patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit. descriptive study with a sample of 12 patients. A filming technique was used for the data collection. The awakenings from sleep were measured using the actigraphy method. The analysis of the data was descriptive, processed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. 529 care interventions were identified, grouped into 28 different types, of which 12 (42.8%) caused awakening from sleep for the patients. A mean of 44.1 interventions/patient/day was observed, with 1.8 interventions/patient/hour. The administration of oral medicine and food were the interventions that caused higher frequencies of awakenings in the patients. it was identified that the health care interventions can harm the sleep of ICU patients. It is recommended that health professionals rethink the planning of interventions according to the individual demand of the patients, with the diversification of schedules and introduction of new practices to improve the quality of sleep of Intensive Care Unit patients.
Fernanda Luiza Hamze
Full Text Available Objective: to identify care interventions, performed by the health team, and their influence on the continuity of sleep of patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit.Method: descriptive study with a sample of 12 patients. A filming technique was used for the data collection. The awakenings from sleep were measured using the actigraphy method. The analysis of the data was descriptive, processed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software.Results: 529 care interventions were identified, grouped into 28 different types, of which 12 (42.8% caused awakening from sleep for the patients. A mean of 44.1 interventions/patient/day was observed, with 1.8 interventions/patient/hour. The administration of oral medicine and food were the interventions that caused higher frequencies of awakenings in the patients.Conclusion: it was identified that the health care interventions can harm the sleep of ICU patients. It is recommended that health professionals rethink the planning of interventions according to the individual demand of the patients, with the diversification of schedules and introduction of new practices to improve the quality of sleep of Intensive Care Unit patients.
(1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.
Parsons, M.S.; Waggoner, Ch.A.
Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size
De Luca Canto, Graziela; Singh, Vandana; Conti, Paulo; Dick, Bruce D; Gozal, David; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos
To summarize the association between sleep bruxism and psychosocial factors in children and adolescents. Individual search strategies for five databases were developed. The references cited in the selected articles were checked and a partial gray literature search was undertaken. Only articles that used the international diagnostic criteria for sleep bruxism as proposed by the American Association of Sleep Medicine were included. Any form of reporting of psychosocial factors was considered. Of the 44 retained articles, only 7 studies were finally included for the qualitative/quantitative synthesis. No evidence supportive of an association between sleep bruxism and psychosocial factors in children younger than 5 years emerged. A significant association was present in children between 6 and 11 years old and in adolescents 12 to 17 years old. Risk of bias was low-to-moderate in most of the included studies. The current available evidence suggests an association between sleep bruxism and psychological factors in children older than 6 years. © The Author(s) 2014.
Student Claudia MOISĂ
Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.
Lasisi, Dr T J; Shittu, S T; Meludu, C C; Salami, A A
Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on salivary factors in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of 6 animals each as control, total sleep deprivation (TSD) and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) groups. The multiple platform method was used to induce partial and total sleep deprivation for 7days. On the 8th day, stimulated saliva samples were collected for the analysis of salivary lag time, flow rate, salivary amylase activity, immunoglobulin A secretion rate and corticosterone levels using ELISA and standard kinetic enzyme assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with Dunnett T3 post hoc tests. Salivary flow rate reduced significantly in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as the control group (p=0.01). The secretion rate of salivary IgA was significantly reduced in the TSD group compared with the control group (p=0.04). Salivary amylase activity was significantly elevated in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as control group (psalivary lag time and levels of corticosterone among the groups. These findings suggest that total sleep deprivation is associated with reduced salivary flow rate and secretion rate of IgA as well as elevated levels of salivary amylase activity in rats. However, sleep recovery of four hours in the PSD group produced ameliorative effects on the impaired functions of salivary glands. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A
Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that
Hoshikawa, Masako; Uchida, Sunao; Hirano, Yuichi
The amount, quality, and timing of sleep are considered important for athletes' ability to train, maximize training responses, and recover. However, some research has shown that elite athletes do not obtain sufficient sleep. Based on this background, researchers recently started to assess and manage sleep in elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence of poor sleep quality and its associated factors amongst elite Japanese athletes. Eight hundred and ninety-one candidates for the 17th Asian Games Incheon 2014, who were over 20 years old, participated in this study. They completed a questionnaire that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, two-question case-finding instruments, and a checklist for sleep hygiene. Data from 817 of the 891 athletes (91.7%) with no missing values were analyzed. The mean time in bed was 7 h and 29 min. Two hundred and twenty-nine (28.0%) athletes showed a PSQI global score above the clinical criteria. A multiple logistic analysis revealed that sleep quality was significantly associated with five factors: "time in bed," "eating breakfast every morning," "avoiding the use of electronic devices (PC, smartphone, etc.) just before bedtime," "depressive mood", and "not thinking about troubles while in bed." Forty percent of athletes reported they had been informed by someone about "snoring loudly" and/or "leg twitching or jerking during sleep." The results of this study demonstrate that 28% of the athletes showed the PSQI score above the cutoff for poor sleep quality (> 5.5), which suggests that there may be a high prevalence of poor sleep quality in this population of athletes. To improve athletes' sleep, the five factors associated with sleep quality should be emphasized in athletes' sleep education. Furthermore, in medical evaluations of athletes, it may be desirable to include screening for sleep disorders.
Griffith, Candice D.; Mahadevan, Sankaran
This paper develops a probabilistic approach that could use empirical data to derive values of performance shaping factor (PSF) multipliers for use in quantitative human reliability analysis (HRA). The proposed approach is illustrated with data on sleep deprivation effects on performance. A review of existing HRA methods reveals that sleep deprivation is not explicitly included at present, and expert opinion is frequently used to inform HRA model multipliers. In this paper, quantitative data from empirical studies regarding the effect of continuous hours of wakefulness on performance measures (reaction time, accuracy, and number of lapses) are used to develop a method to derive PSF multiplier values for sleep deprivation, in the context of the SPAR-H model. Data is extracted from the identified studies according to the meta-analysis research synthesis method and used to investigate performance trends and error probabilities. The error probabilities in test and control conditions are compared, and the resulting probability ratios are suggested for use in informing the selection of PSF multipliers in HRA methods. Although illustrated for sleep deprivation, the proposed methodology is general, and can be applied to other performance shaping factors. - Highlights: • Method proposed to derive performance shaping factor multipliers from empirical data. • Studies reporting the effect of sleep deprivation on performance are analyzed. • Test data using psychomotor vigilance tasks are analyzed. • Error probability multipliers computed for reaction time, lapses, and accuracy measures.
Pressman, Sarah D; Jenkins, Brooke N; Kraft-Feil, Tara L; Rasmussen, Heather; Scheier, Michael F
Given the known detrimental effects of poor sleep on an array of psychological and physical health processes, it is critical to understand the factors that protect sleep, especially during times of stress when sleep particularly suffers. Positive affect (PA) arises as a variable of interest given its known associations with health and health behaviors and its ability to buffer stress. In 2 studies, we examined which types of PA (distinguished by arousal level and trait/state measurement) were most beneficial for sleep and whether these associations varied depending on the stress context. In Study 1, college students (N = 99) reported on their PA and sleep during the week of a major exam. In Study 2, 2 weeks of daily PA and sleep data were collected during a period with no examinations in a similar sample of students (N = 83). Results indicated that high trait vigor was tied to better sleep efficiency and quality, especially during high stress. Trait calm was generally unhelpful to sleep, and was related negatively to sleep duration. State calm, on the other hand, interacted with stress in Study 2 to predict more efficient day-to-day sleep on days with higher average stress. These findings illustrate the importance of considering arousal level, affect duration, and the stress context in studies of PA and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... in various countries of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human ... influence consumption of Mursik, a traditionally fermented milk product from ...
Hoefelmann, Luana Peter; Lopes, Adair da Silva; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Moritz, Pablo; Nahas, Markus Vinicius
We aimed to identify and compare the sociodemographic and economic factors associated with perceived sleep quality and sleep duration in high school students from Santa Catarina, Brazil (2001 and 2011). Our study used a school-based, cross-sectional survey administered in 2001 and 2011 to high school students aged 15-19 years (n=5028 in 2001; n=6529 in 2011) enrolled in public schools in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The students responded to a questionnaire that asked about the number of hours slept on school days (insufficient, or = 8 h), perceived sleep quality (adequate or poor), sociodemographic characteristics (gender, age, and area), economic factors (work and family income), and school-related variables (grade and shift). The prevalence of poor sleep quality and insufficient sleep increased by 31.2% and 45.9%, respectively, between 2001 and 2011. Remunerated employment, urban environment, male gender, and high family income were strongly associated with these outcomes. There was a notable increase in insufficient sleep and the perception of poor sleep quality among the students in Santa Catarina in the last decade. Public policies are needed to ameliorate this situation, which has disastrous consequences for the health of adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PATRICIA C. DA ROCHA
Full Text Available The complaints regarding sleep problems have not been well identified after a stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors of sleep quality and insomnia complaints in patients with stroke. A total of 70 subjects, 40 patients (57 ± 7 years and 30 healthy controls (52 ± 6 years assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and the Sleep Habits Questionnaire took part in the study. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test, the Student's t-test and logistic regression analysis. On average, the patients showed poor sleep quality (patients: 6.3 ± 3.5; controls: 3.9 ± 2.2; p= 0.002 and insomnia complaint was the most prevalent (patients: 37.5%; controls: 6.7%; p= 0.007. The absence of insomnia complaint (OR= 0.120; 95%CI= 0.017-0.873; p= 0.036 and the decreased latency of sleep (OR= 0.120; 95%CI= 0.017-0.873; p= 0.036 were the protective factors of sleep quality. Female sex (OR= 11.098; 95%CI= 1.167-105.559; p= 0.036 and fragmented sleep (OR= 32.040; 95%CI= 3.236-317.261; p= 0.003 were the risk factors for insomnia complaint. We suggest that complaints of poor sleep quality and insomnia should be given priority assessment during clinical diagnosis of sleep disorders in stroke.
Tang, Xiangdong; Xiao, Jihua; Liu, Xianling; Sanford, Larry D
The open field (OF) is thought to induce anxiety in rodents. It also allows an opportunity for exploration in a novel environment. Less activity in the OF is thought to indicate greater anxiety whereas more activity may reflect greater exploration, and possibly greater exploratory learning. Anxiety and learning have poorly understood relationships to sleep. In order to determine how anxiety and exploration in the OF could influence sleep, we recorded sleep in mouse strains (C57BL/6J (B6), BALB/cJ (C), DBA/2J (D2), and CB6F1/J (CB6)) with different levels of anxiety and exploration after 30 min in an OF. In all strains, OF exposure induced immediate decreases in rapid eye movement sleep (REM) followed by longer latency increases in REM. The time course and amount of REM decreases and increases varied among strains. Compared to less anxious B6, D2 and CB6 mice, C mice had greater and longer lasting immediate decreases in REM. C mice also displayed longer periods of decreases REM and a smaller, longer latency increase in REM. OF exploratory activity was positively correlated to percentage of REM increases from 6 to 10h after OF exposure. The results suggest that the anxiogenic component of the OF produced an immediate decrease in REM that was greater in more "anxious" mice. In contrast, exploration in the OF was associated with increased REM, with the increase greater in less anxious mice. The results are discussed with respect to the potential influences of anxiety and learning on sleep.
李一峰; 张志华; 王文靖; 吴晓爽; 赵凤; 孙业桓
目的 了解职业学院学生睡眠质量水平及影响因素,为改善学生睡眠质量和促进身心健康发展提供科学依据.方法 采取分层整群抽样的方法选取安徽省5座城市的5所职业学院10 158名学生为调查对象,调查内容包括一般情况、吸烟、饮酒、网络欺凌、睡眠质量等.结果 学生存在睡眠障碍的有1 417名(13.9％),男生和女生网络欺凌者睡眠障碍的发生率分别为24.4％,32.7％,均高于无网络欺凌者中睡眠障碍的发生率(12.1％,14.6％)(x2值分别为22.516,41.390,P值均＜0.01).多因素Logistic回归分析显示,家庭人均月收入较高、学习成绩好、父母管教一般是睡眠障碍的保护因素,性别为女性、饮酒、网络欺凌、学习成绩差、隔代家庭结构是睡眠障碍的危险因素(P值均＜0.05).结论 安徽省职业学院学生中存在睡眠障碍的现象,有网络欺凌、饮酒、学习成绩差和隔代家庭结构的学生应作为睡眠障碍干预的重点人群.%Objective To understand the current situation of sleeping quality among vocational students,and to provide scientific basis for improving the students' sleeping quality and promote promoting the healthy development of students' physical and mental health.Methods A total of 10 158 vocational students from 5 vocational colleges in 5 cities of Anhui were selected by stratified cluster sampling,and the data about the situation of bullying,sleeping quality,smoking and drinking was collected.Chisquare test and Logistic regression were used to analyze the relationship between cyberbullying and sleep disorder and the related factors.Results A total of 1 417 students were found with sleeping disorder.The Occupational College students sleep disorder detection rate was 13.9％(n =1 417).Among boys and girls with cyber bullying,The incidence of sleep disorders were 24.4％ and 32.7％,respectively,which in boys and girls was higher than in that of those without
Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech; Peplonska, Beata
The pattern of secretion of many hormones, including prolactin, is dependent on the circadian rhythm. Night shift work involves exposure to artificial light at night and sleep deficiency, which in turn can affect prolactin synthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible association between night shift work characteristics, sleep quality, lifestyle factors and prolactin concentration, using data from a cross-sectional study of nurses and midwives. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 327 nurses and midwives currently working on rotating night shifts, and 330 nurses and midwives working during the day (aged 40-60 years) (388 premenopausal and 269 postmenopausal). Information about night shift work characteristics, lifestyle, reproductive factors, sleep pattern and other covariates was collected through a face-to-face interview, and from a one-week work and sleep diary completed by the subjects. Weight and height were measured. Prolactin concentration was measured in the morning blood sample using the electrochemiluminesence immunoassay method. Associations were analyzed using linear regression models adjusted for important confounders. Analyses were carried out separately in pre- and postmenopausal women. None of the night shift work or sleep characteristics was significantly associated with prolactin concentration. Prolactin concentration was significantly (p night shift work is not associated with prolactin concentration. Smoking, parity, time of blood collection and age among postmenopausal women were significant determinants of prolactin.
Wang, Shibin; Wu, Yanhua; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Forester, Brent P; Gatchel, Jennifer R; Chiu, Helen F K; Kou, Changgui; Fu, Yingli; Qi, Yue; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo; Xiang, Yu-Tao
This study investigated the total sleep time (TST) and its associated factors in an older Chinese adult population. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used in this cross-sectional study. A total of 4,115 older adults aged 60 to 79 years were selected and interviewed. Sleep duration was classified as short (8h per day) and medium sleep (7-8h per day). The total mean sleep time was 6.86±1.75h. Short and long sleepers accounted for 45.2% and 14.8% of the sample, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that inadequate fruit intake and poor mental health were positively associated with short sleep, and married/cohabitation status and living in rural areas was negatively associated with short sleep. In addition, aged 75-79 years old, inadequate fruit intake, poor mental health and multi-morbidity were positively associated with long sleep. Ischemic heart disease, COPD and chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcer were positively associated with short sleep duration, while hyperlipidemia, hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases, and urolithiasis were positively associated with long sleep duration. Given the high frequency of aberrant sleep duration and its negative health impact, health professionals should pay more attention to sleep patterns in older people. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Astrup, Arne; Hjorth, Mads Fiil
subjects. This review summarizes the scientific evidence on the role mental stress (either in or not in association with impaired sleep) may play in poor sleep, enhanced appetite, cravings and decreased motivation for physical activity. All these factors contribute to weight gain and obesity, possibly via...
... turn every night. Consider simple tips for better sleep, from setting a sleep schedule to including physical activity in your daily ... factors that can interfere with a good night's sleep — from work stress and family responsibilities to unexpected ...
Full Text Available Sleep architecture and sleep patterns normally change with aging. In preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the accumulation of amyloid plaques begins 10 to 20 years before any cognitive symptoms progress. Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ is secreted during physiological synaptic activity. Since synaptic activity is correlated with sleep and awake state, a degree of Aβ fluctuates in a diurnal sleep pattern. In animal and human studies, a degree of sleep quality showed a significant correlation with brain levels of Aβ and a risk of AD. Conversely, Aβ aggregation would debilitate neuronal function in brain regions critical to sleep and wake promotion. This bidirectional relationship can be explained as positive feedback loop and associated factors that influence this relationship. In AD, the degree of sleep disturbances is much more severe compared with in the normal elderly. Further, Sundowning syndrome and a reduction of melatonin level cause a stressful neuropsychiatric symptoms and a disruption of physiological sleep rhythm, respectively. In AD patients, a correlation between sleep architectural modifications and learning performances has been reported. Moreover, executive function and emotional reactivity might be attenuated by sleep disturbances, too. However, sleep disturbance does not impact cognitive functions of all patients with AD. This could support an individual and potentially genetically determined susceptibility. Sleep disturbances have an important effect on patients and caregivers. It has a critical value to confirm and treat individuals with sleep disorders and to explore whether good quality of sleep in humans can decrease the progression of preclinical to symptomatic AD.
Full Text Available Antarctic residence holds many challenges to human physiology, like increased psycho-social tension and altered circadian rhythm, known to influence sleep. We assessed changes in sleep patterns during 13 months of overwintering at the German Stations Neumayer II and III from 2008 to 2014, with focus on gender, as many previous investigations were inconclusive regarding gender-based differences or had only included men.Time in bed, sleep time, sleep efficiency, number of arousals, sleep latency, sleep onset, sleep offset, and physical activity level were determined twice per month during seven overwintering campaigns of n = 54 participants (37 male, 17 female using actimetry. Data were analyzed using polynomial regression and analysis of covariance for change over time with the covariates gender, inhabited station, overwintering season and influence of physical activity and local sunshine radiation.We found overall longer times in bed (p = 0.004 and sleep time (p = 0.014 for women. The covariate gender had a significant influence on time in bed (p<0.001, sleep time (p<0.001, number of arousals (p = 0.04, sleep latency (p = 0.04, and sleep onset (p<0.001. Women separately (p = 0.02, but not men (p = 0.165, showed a linear increase in number of arousals. Physical activity decreased over overwintering time for men (p = 0.003, but not for women (p = 0.174. The decline in local sunshine radiation led to a 48 minutes longer time in bed (p<0.001, 3.8% lower sleep efficiency (p<0.001, a delay of 32 minutes in sleep onset (p<0.001, a delay of 54 minutes in sleep offset (p<0.001, and 11% less daily energy expenditure (p<0.001, for all participants in reaction to the Antarctic winter's darkness-phase.Overwinterings at the Stations Neumayer II and III are associated with significant changes in sleep patterns, with dependences from overwintering time and local sunshine radiation. Gender appears to be an influence, as women showed a declining sleep quality
Steinach, Mathias; Kohlberg, Eberhard; Maggioni, Martina Anna; Mendt, Stefan; Opatz, Oliver; Stahn, Alexander; Gunga, Hanns-Christian
Antarctic residence holds many challenges to human physiology, like increased psycho-social tension and altered circadian rhythm, known to influence sleep. We assessed changes in sleep patterns during 13 months of overwintering at the German Stations Neumayer II and III from 2008 to 2014, with focus on gender, as many previous investigations were inconclusive regarding gender-based differences or had only included men. Time in bed, sleep time, sleep efficiency, number of arousals, sleep latency, sleep onset, sleep offset, and physical activity level were determined twice per month during seven overwintering campaigns of n = 54 participants (37 male, 17 female) using actimetry. Data were analyzed using polynomial regression and analysis of covariance for change over time with the covariates gender, inhabited station, overwintering season and influence of physical activity and local sunshine radiation. We found overall longer times in bed (p = 0.004) and sleep time (p = 0.014) for women. The covariate gender had a significant influence on time in bed (p<0.001), sleep time (p<0.001), number of arousals (p = 0.04), sleep latency (p = 0.04), and sleep onset (p<0.001). Women separately (p = 0.02), but not men (p = 0.165), showed a linear increase in number of arousals. Physical activity decreased over overwintering time for men (p = 0.003), but not for women (p = 0.174). The decline in local sunshine radiation led to a 48 minutes longer time in bed (p<0.001), 3.8% lower sleep efficiency (p<0.001), a delay of 32 minutes in sleep onset (p<0.001), a delay of 54 minutes in sleep offset (p<0.001), and 11% less daily energy expenditure (p<0.001), for all participants in reaction to the Antarctic winter's darkness-phase. Overwinterings at the Stations Neumayer II and III are associated with significant changes in sleep patterns, with dependences from overwintering time and local sunshine radiation. Gender appears to be an influence, as women showed a declining sleep quality
Mohammad Reza Iravani
Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.
Haddad, Monoem; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Castagna, Carlo; Hambli, Mourad; Hue, Olivier; Chamari, Karim
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Hooper's Index variations (i.e., self-ratings of fatigue, stress, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and sleep) on rating of perceived exertion during a 10 min submaximal exercise training session (RPE-10 min) and then check the stability and the internal consistency of RPE-10 min. Seventeen junior soccer players took part in this study. The individual Hooper's indices taken before each training session were correlated with RPE-10 min during a constant intensity and duration effort (10 min) using Pearson product moment correlation. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to assess the internal consistency of the RPE-10 min. All individual correlations between RPE-10 min and quality of sleep and quantity of fatigue, stress, and DOMS were non-significant (p>0.05). No significant correlations were resulted between RPE-10 min and Hooper's Index in all athletes. The ICC of RPE-10 min was 0.77 thus demonstrating internal consistency. The results of the present study demonstrated the objectivity and utility of RPE as a psychological tool for monitoring training during traditional soccer training. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep are not major contributors of perceived exertion during traditional soccer training without excessive training loads. It seems that psychobiological factors other than fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep may have mediated the 10 min exercise perceptual intensity. © 2013.
Arita, Aki; Sasanabe, Ryujiro; Hasegawa, Rika; Nomura, Atsuhiko; Hori, Reiko; Mano, Mamiko; Konishi, Noriyuki; Shiomi, Toshiaki
We examined the risk factors for automobile accidents caused by falling asleep while driving in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We asked licensed drivers with history of snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness who had undergone polysomnography (PSG) at the Department of Sleep Medicine/Sleep Disorders Center at Aichi Medical University Hospital to complete the questionnaires on accidents caused by falling asleep while driving. As a subjective measure of sleepiness, we used the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Based on PSG results, 2387 subjects diagnosed with OSAS were divided into three groups according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): mild-to-moderate (5 ≤ AHI accidents in the past 5 years due to falling asleep. Our multivariate analysis suggests that scores on the ESS and patient-reported frequency of feeling drowsy while regular driving and working are related to automobile accidents caused by falling asleep while driving.
The study investigated the factors influencing substance abuse amongundergraduate students in Osun State; Nigeria. A sample of 1, 200undergraduate students were randomly selected from three tertiaryinstitution in Osun State. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse Questionnaire (FISA) was developed by the researcher ...
This paper examines factors influencing customer satisfaction with reference and information services in an academic environment. The paper identifies types of reference services in libraries, factors influencing customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction with reference and information services and suggested the way forward ...
This research study was set out to analyze factors influencing rural farmer's engagement in livelihood diversification in the study area. The specific objectives were; to identify the different levels of farmers' engagement in livelihood diversification, determine the socio-demographic factors or forces that influence farmers' ...
Background: Cut‑off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in ...
Trenell, Michael I; Marshall, Nathaniel S; Rogers, Naomi L
1. The aim of the present review is to outline: (i) the association between sleep and metabolism; (ii) how sleep duration influences the development of disease; and (iii) how sex differences, ageing and obesity may potentially influence the relationship between sleep, metabolic control and subsequent disease. 2. Sleep is associated with a number of endocrine changes, including a change in insulin action in healthy young individuals. Sleep duration shows a prospective U-shaped relationship with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. 3. Chronic sleep restriction is becoming more common. Experimental sleep restriction impedes daytime glucose control and increases appetite. 4. The sex hormones oestrogen and testosterone influence sleep duration and quality and may account for sex differences in the prevalence of sleep-related disorders. 5. Ageing is associated with a decreased sleep duration, decreased muscle mass and impaired insulin action. 6. Obesity impairs insulin action and is associated with the incidence and severity of obstructive sleep apnoea. 7. Sleep plays an integral role in metabolic control. Consequently, insufficient sleep may represent a modifiable risk factor for the development of Type 2 diabetes. The challenge ahead is to identify how sex differences, ageing and obesity could potentially influence the relationship between sleep and metabolism.
Full Text Available Introduction and Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by at least 5 ten-second-long episodes of apnea or hypopnea, per hour of sleep. This disease may lead to severe, life-threatening complications. Therefore, risk analysis and its influence on disease intensity is crucial for proper implementation of preventive treatments. Objective. To determine the relation between the intensity of OSA expressed in Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI, and the anterior-posterior diameter of upper airways at the levels of soft palate and tongue base. Material and Method. Medical records of 41 patients with sleep apnea (AHI>4 diagnosed through polysomnographic examination obstructive were used for the study. The data consisted of: age and gender, polysomnographic examination results (AHI, lateral cephalogram with cephalomertic analysis, together with measurements of the upper and lower pharyngeal depth according to McNamara. Statistical analysis was carried out in accordance with Pearson’s r correlation coefficient test (Statistica 8.0 software package. Results. Analysis of the influence of upper airways diameter on the intensity of OSA showed that the value of upper Airways diameter at the tongue base level had no statistically significant impact on the value of AHI (p=0.795. However, a statistically significant impact of the value of upper airways diameter on the AHI value (p=0.008 at the soft palate level was observed. Patients with OSA have narrowed upper airways diameter. The value of AHI increases with the decrease of upper diameter and is not dependent on a lower diameter value. Patients with a decreased upper airways diameter should be informed about potential breathing disorders during sleep.
Huang, Y M; Yang, C C H; Lai, C J; Kuo, T B J
Significant changes in autonomic activity occur at sleep-wake transitions and constitute an ideal setting for investigating the modulatory role of the autonomic nervous system on gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA). Using continuous power spectral analysis of electroencephalogram, electromyogram, and electrogastromyogram (EGMG) data from freely moving rats that had undergone chemical sympathetomy and/or truncal vagotomy, sleep-wake-related fluctuations in GMA were compared among the intervention groups. The pattern and extent of fluctuations in EGMG power across the sleep-wake states was blunted most significantly in rats undergoing both chemical sympathectomy and truncal vagotomy. The effect of these interventions also varied with respect to the transition between different sleep-wake states. The most prominent influences were observed between active waking and quiet sleep and between paradoxical sleep and quiet sleep. The sleep-wake-related fluctuations in EGMG power are a result of joint contributions from both sympathetic and vagal innervation. Vagotomy mainly resulted in a reduction in EGMG power, while the role of sympathetic innervation was unveiled by vagotomy and this was reflected most obviously in the extent of the fluctuations in EGMG power. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Zielinski, Mark R; Dunbrasky, Danielle L; Taishi, Ping; Souza, Gianne; Krueger, James M
Systemic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is linked to sleep and sleep altering pathologies in humans. Evidence from animals indicates that systemic and brain TNF-α have a role in regulating sleep. In animals, TNF-α or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhance brain pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and sleep after central or peripheral administration. Vagotomy blocks enhanced sleep induced by systemic TNF-α and LPS in rats, suggesting that vagal afferent stimulation by TNF-α enhances pro-inflammatory cytokines in sleep-related brain areas. However, the effects of systemic TNF-α on brain cytokine expression and mouse sleep remain unknown. We investigated the role of vagal afferents on brain cytokines and sleep after systemically applied TNF-α or LPS in mice. Spontaneous sleep was similar in vagotomized and sham-operated controls. Vagotomy attenuated TNF-α- and LPS-enhanced non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS); these effects were more evident after lower doses of these substances. Vagotomy did not affect rapid eye movement sleep responses to these substances. NREMS electroencephalogram delta power (0.5-4 Hz range) was suppressed after peripheral TNF-α or LPS injections, although vagotomy did not affect these responses. Compared to sham-operated controls, vagotomy did not affect liver cytokines. However, vagotomy attenuated interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and TNF-α mRNA brain levels after TNF-α, but not after LPS, compared to the sham-operated controls. We conclude that vagal afferents mediate peripheral TNF-α-induced brain TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA expressions to affect sleep. We also conclude that vagal afferents alter sleep induced by peripheral pro-inflammatory stimuli in mice similar to those occurring in other species.
Dietrich, B; Herrmann, W M
1. In a controlled, randomized, double-blind study the influence of cilazapril and metoprolol on learning and memory functions and on sleep behaviour was investigated in healthy young volunteers under steady-state conditions. Twenty-three subjects were given either 2.5 mg cilazapril, 200 mg metoprolol, or placebo for 14 days in a latin square design separated by washout periods of 7 days. 2. To test memory functions different modalities--verbal, visual, numerical associative and two dimensional spatial memory were tested for recent anterograde recall, both short-term (less than 10 s) and middle-term (up to 15 min) were selected. The test had a content similar to that used in daily life situations. The sleep behaviour was tested both by objective (all night sleep EEG) and subjective measures. 3. Neither antihypertensive drug had an observable influence on memory performance at the dosages used under steady-state conditions. However, sleep was disturbed during metoprolol, while cilazapril could not be differentiated from placebo. The effects of metoprolol on sleep behaviour were observed in the objective and subjective measures. There was more frequent awakening during the night with the subjective complaint of difficulties in sleeping through. 4. From this study it is concluded that cilazapril has no major effect on memory functions and sleep behaviour. This is only true for the dosages given and under steady-state conditions.
Though the Back to Sleep Campaign that began in 1994 caused an overall decrease in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) rates, racial disparity has continued to increase in St. Louis. Though researchers have analyzed and described various sociodemographic characteristics of SIDS and infant deaths by unintentional suffocation in St. Louis, they have not simultaneously controlled for contributory risk factors to racial disparity such as race, poverty, maternal education, and number of children born to each mother (parity). To determine whether there is a relationship between maternal socioeconomic factors and sleep-related infant death. This quantitative case-control study used secondary data collected by the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services between 2005 and 2009. The sample includes matched birth/death certificates and living birth certificates of infants who were born/died within time frame. Descriptive analysis, Chi-square, and logistic regression. The controls were birth records of infants who lived more than 1 year. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses confirmed that race and poverty have significant relationships with infant sleep-related deaths. The social significance of this study is that the results may lead to population-specific modifications of prevention messages that will reduce infant sleep-related deaths. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Coborn, Jamie E; Houser, Monica M; Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Teske, Jennifer A
The growing prevalence of obesity, inadequate sleep and sleep disorders together with the negative impact of lack of sleep on overall health highlights the need for therapies targeted towards weight gain due to sleep loss. Sex disparities in obesity and sleep disorders are present; yet, the role of sex is inadequately addressed and thus it is unclear whether sensitivity to sleep disruption differs between men and women. Like sex, environmental factors contribute to the development of obesity and poor sleep. The obesogenic environment is characterized by easy access to palatable foods and a low demand for energy expenditure in daily activities. These and other environmental factors are discussed, as they drive altered sleep or their interaction with food choice and intake can promote obesity. We discuss data that suggest differences in sleep patterns and responses to sleep disruption influence sex disparities in weight gain, and that enviromental disturbances alter sleep and interact with features of the obesogenic environment that together promote obesity.
Full Text Available Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as sleeping of less than 7 h per day. Excessive sleep duration was defined as sleeping of more than 9 h per day. Results: A total of 561 (23.9% participants reported insufficient sleeping duration, whereas 485 (20.9% claimed excessive sleep duration. A total of 358 (15.2% of pregnant women reported problems regarding sleep quality. Compared to pregnant women with sufficient sleeping duration, those with insufficient sleeping duration were prone to have poor sleep quality, whereas those with excessive sleeping duration featured low possibility of poor sleep quality. High-risk groups of insufficient sleep duration include women of Han nationality, with siblings, in their first trimester of pregnancy, receiving care in low-capacity/quality hospital settings, and with daily or 1–3 days of secondhand smoke exposure. High-risk groups of excessive sleep duration include women living in rural areas, unemployed, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and receiving care in medium-capacity/quality hospital settings. High-risk groups of poor sleep quality include women of non-Han nationality, low income level, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and with insufficient sleep duration. Conclusions: Insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality commonly occur during pregnancy in China. Findings provide a better understanding of the influencing factors of insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor quality of sleep. These findings have some implications
Full Text Available High sleep quality promotes efficient performance in the following day. Sleep quality is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature, light, sound and smell. Here, we investigated whether differences in the interface pressure distribution on healthy individuals during sleep influenced sleep quality. We defined four types of pressure models by differences in the area distribution and the subjective feelings that occurred when participants slept on the mattresses. One type of model was showed "over-concentrated" distribution of pressure; one was displayed "over-evenly" distributed interface pressure while the other two models were displayed intermediate distribution of pressure. A polysomnography analysis demonstrated an increase in duration and proportion of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep stages 3 and 4, as well as decreased number of micro-arousals, in subjects sleeping on models with pressure intermediately distributed compared to models with over-concentrated or over-even distribution of pressure. Similarly, higher scores of self-reported sleep quality were obtained in subjects sleeping on the two models with intermediate pressure distribution. Thus, pressure distribution, at least to some degree, influences sleep quality and self-reported feelings of sleep-related events, though the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The regulation of pressure models imposed by external sleep environment may be a new direction for improving sleep quality. Only an appropriate interface pressure distribution is beneficial for improving sleep quality, over-concentrated or -even distribution of pressure do not help for good sleep.
Full Text Available Background. Subjective sleep disturbances increase during menopause. Some problems commonly encountered during menopause, such as hot flushes and sweating at night, can cause women to have difficulty in sleeping. These complaints can influence quality of life of menopausal women. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on menopausal women attending health centers in Qazvin for periodic assessments. We measured excessive daytime sleepiness by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA by the Berlin questionnaire, and insomnia by the insomnia severity index (ISI. We evaluate quality of life by the Menopause specific quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL. Results. A total of 380 menopausal women entered the study. Mean age of participated women was 57.6 ± 6.02. Mean duration of menopause was 6.3 ± 4.6. The frequency of severe and moderate insomnia was 8.4% (32 and 11.8% (45. Severe daytime sleepiness (ESS ≥ 10 was present in 27.9% (80 of the participants. Multivariate analytic results show that insomnia and daytime sleepiness have independent negative impact on each domain and total score of MENQOL questionnaire. Conclusion. According to our findings, EDS and insomnia are frequent in menopausal women. Both EDS and insomnia have significant quality of life impairment.
AJRH Managing Editor
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Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers among Tertiary ... role stereotype and common business practices on media self employment in ... Sex, Psycho-social Characteristics, self Employment, Providing Media Services.
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Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated by Olam Organisation in ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... level, household size, no of farm family assisting on the farm, management system adopted, ...
ISSN 0794-5698. Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in Fadama II Project ... project implementation (80%) in the stages of project development. Women .... the project as they appeared to have more family burden to ...
The detectability of various details is estimated quantitatively from the essential technical parameters of the imaging system and additional influencing factors including viewing of the image. The analysis implies the formation of the input radiation distribution (contrast formation, influence of kVp). Noise, image contrast (gamma), modulation transfer function and contrast threshold of the observer are of different influence on details of different size. Thus further optimization of imaging systems and their adaption to specific imaging tasks are facilitated
Podhorecka, Marta; Cytarska, Magdalena; Gębka, Dominika; Perkowski, Radosław; Androsiuk-Perkowska, Joanna; Jaroch, Alina; Siedlecka-Główczewska, Emilia; Sokołowski, Remigiusz; Zukow, Walery; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia
Podhorecka Marta, Cytarska Magdalena, Gębka Dominika, Perkowski Radosław, Androsiuk-Perkowska Joanna, Jaroch Alina, Siedlecka–Główczewska Emilia, Sokołowski Remigiusz, Zukow Walery, Kędziora-Kornatowska Kornelia. Can physical activity influence the quality of sleep among the elderly? Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(12):288-305. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1133730 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/5177 ...
Baker, Tamara A; Whitfield, Keith E
This study examined factors that influence sleep quality in older African American women (N = 181) reporting chronic pain. Participants completed a series of questions assessing demographic and behavioral characteristics, health status, pain intensity, and sleep disturbance. Findings indicated that younger participants and those experiencing poorer physical functioning reported more difficulty sleeping due to pain. Similarly, participants who reported being awakened from sleep due to pain were younger and experienced greater pain intensity. Understanding the relationship between sleep and pain in this group of women may be useful in promoting effective disease management and sleep awareness among patients, caregivers, and healthcare professionals.
Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.
Lewis, Gerald R.; And Others
This study of the primary restraining and driving forces that influence Title VII bilingual education programs found the external environment, the local community, to be the main factor influencing institutionalization and self-renewal. The internal environment--the local school, and the local school's organization or central office, school board,…
Brooks Holliday, Stephanie; Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Beckman, Robin; Buysse, Daniel; Hale, Lauren; Buman, Matthew; Troxel, Wendy
Pain affects millions of American adults. However, individuals from socioeconomically disadvantaged groups experience higher rates of pain, and individuals from racial/ethnic minorities report greater pain severity and pain-related disability. Some studies find an association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and pain. The present study aimed to further understand the association between neighborhood disadvantage and pain, including the role of objective (e.g., crime rates) and subjective neighborhood characteristics (e.g., perceived safety, neighborhood satisfaction), and to examine sleep and psychological distress as potential mediators of these associations. The sample included 820 participants from two predominantly African American socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Trained data collectors interviewed participants on a number of self-report measures, and objective neighborhood characteristics were obtained from city crime data and street segment audits. Subjective characteristics, specifically perceived infrastructure and perceived safety, were associated with pain. Based on bootstrapped regression models, sleep efficiency and psychological distress were tested as mediators of the association between these neighborhood factors and pain. Results of mediation testing indicated that psychological distress served as a significant mediator. Though sleep efficiency was not a mediator, it had a significant independent association with pain. Understanding the contribution of sleep problems and psychological distress to pain among at-risk individuals living in disadvantaged neighborhoods is important to identifying ways that individual- and neighborhood-level interventions may be leveraged to reduce pain-related disparities.
Yang, Tingzhong; Peng, Sihui; Barnett, Ross; Zhang, Chichen
Ecological models have emphasized that short sleep duration (SSD) is influenced by both individual and environmental variables. However, few studies have considered the latter. The present study explores the influence of urban and regional contextual factors, net of individual characteristics, on the prevalence of SSD among university students in China. Participants were 11,954 students, who were identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 50 universities. Individual data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire, and contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine urban and regional variations in high and moderate levels of SSD. Overall the prevalence of high SSD (individual- and city-level covariates. Students attending high-level universities also recorded the highest levels of SSD. Of the individual characteristcs, only mother's occupation and student mental health status were related to SSD. The results of this study add important insights about the role of contextual factors affecting SSD among young adults and indicate the need to take into account both past, as well as present, environmental influences to control SSD.
Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use
Ding, Ning; Ni, Bu-Qing; Zhang, Xi-Long; Huang, Han-Peng; Su, Mei; Zhang, Shi-Jiang; Wang, Hong
Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common in patients with chronic heart failure secondary to non-valvular heart disease; however, the prevalence and characteristics of SDB in patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease (RVHD) are unclear. This study was designed to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors for SDB in RVHD patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 260 RVHD patients. The following data were recorded: types of heart valve lesions, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, arterial blood gas analysis findings, baseline medication, 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance, and sleep parameters. Compared to patients with single leftsided valve lesions, patients with left- and rightsided valve lesions had a higher prevalence of SDB (46.2% vs. 31.2%, p = 0.013); the increased prevalence of SDB only involved central sleep apnea (CSA) (31.1% vs. 14.1%, p = 0.001). Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or CSA were older and had a shorter 6MWT distance, lower left ventricle ejection fraction and PaO₂, a longer lung-to-finger circulation time, and a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and hypertension (all p < 0.05) as compared with patients without SDB. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that PaO2 ≤ 85 mm Hg was the only risk factor for OSA. Male gender, AF, 6MWT distance ≤ 300 m, PaO₂ ≤ 85 mmHg, and PaCO₂ ≤ 40 mm Hg were risk factors for CSA. Patients with RVHD had a high prevalence of SDB (predominantly CSA). RVHD patients with SDB, particularly those who had CSA, manifested more severe symptoms and greater impairment of cardiac function. Assessments of clinical manifestations of cardiac dysfunction may be important for predicting the risk factors for SDB.
Full Text Available Background Sleep disturbances commonly occur in adolescents. Socioeconomic levels, lifestyle, and urban or suburban environments influence the sleep patterns of adolescents. The modernization process in urban environments is marked by the development of information technology media, and the lack of parental monitoring potentially influencing adolescent sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances may affect children's physical growth, as well as their emotional, cognitive, and social development. Objective To assess for sleep disorders in urban and suburban adolescents, and to determine the factors that influence the prevalence of sleep disturbances. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 12 to 15-year-old junior high school students in urban (n=350 and suburban (n=350 environments in the city of Medan, North Sumatera. The study was undertaken from May to June 2010 using the Sleep Disorders Scale for Children (SDSC, a set of questionnaires. The SDSC was filled out by parents based on what they remembered about their children's sleep patterns in the prior 6 months. Results In the urban group, there were 133 (38.0% subjects with sleep disturbances, 182 (52.0% were borderline, and 35 (10.0% were normal. In the suburban group, there were 132 (37.7% subjects with sleep disturbances, 180 (51.4% were borderline, and 38 (10.9% were normal. The most influential factors for sleep disturbances in urban and suburban youth were environmental noise (P=0.001 and consuming beverages that contain caffeine (P=0.001. There were three types of sleep disorders that significantly found more in urban adolescents: disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, disorders of excessive somnolence, and sleep hyperhidrosis. Conclusion The prevalence of sleep disturbances do not differ between urban and suburban adolescents. Howevet; there are significant differences in the types of sleep disorders experienced. The most influential factors on sleep disturbance in both
Javůrková, V.; Hořák, D.; Kreisinger, J.; Klvaňa, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš
Roč. 117, č. 4 (2011), s. 345-355 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB601110803; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mallard * vigilance * antipredation behaviour * incubation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2011
Niimi, Aya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Masaki; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Tohru; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Kume, Haruki; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Akishita, Masahiro; Homma, Yukio
We investigated the relationships among nocturnal polyuria, sleep apnea and body fluid volume to elucidate the pathophysiology of nocturia in sleep apnea syndrome. We enrolled 104 consecutive patients who underwent polysomnography for suspected sleep apnea syndrome. Self-assessed symptom questionnaires were administered to evaluate sleep disorder and lower urinary tract symptoms, including nocturia. Voiding frequency and voided volume were recorded using a 24-hour frequency-volume chart. Body fluid composition was estimated in the morning and at night using bioelectric impedance analysis. Frequency-volume chart data were analyzed in 22 patients after continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Patients with nocturnal polyuria showed a higher apnea-hypopnea index (33.9 vs 24.2, p = 0.03) and a larger circadian change in extracellular fluid adjusted to lean body mass (0.22 vs -0.19, p = 0.019) than those without nocturnal polyuria. These relations were more evident in patients 65 years old or older than in those 64 years or younger. A multivariate linear regression model showed an independent relationship of nocturnal polyuria with the apnea-hypopnea index and the circadian change in extracellular fluid adjusted to lean body mass (p = 0.0012 and 0.022, respectively). Continuous positive airway pressure therapy significantly improved nocturnal polyuria and nocturia only in patients with nocturnal polyuria. This study identified sleep apnea and the circadian change in extracellular fluid as independent factors for nocturnal polyuria. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iwata, Sachiko; Iwata, Osuke; Matsuishi, Toyojiro
The aim of this study was to investigate the direct relationship of sleep schedule and sleep quality variables between healthy preschool children and their parents, focusing on the influence of the difference in bedtime between each other. Forty-seven Japanese 5-year-old children and their primary parent were studied. The parents completed questionnaires including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The children wore an actigraph for one week. Although sleep patterns of children were generally independent of their parents, late sleep end time and bedtime of children were associated with parents' late sleep end time on weekends. For 87% of children and parents who shared a bedroom, sleep quality was negatively affected by a shorter difference in bedtimes between child and parent, but not by co-sleeping. Sleep behaviours of parents can influence those of their children. For parents and children who share a bedroom, the timing of bedtime rather than co-sleeping may be a key factor in modulating sleep patterns. Trying to get children asleep and subsequently falling asleep at a similar time may disturb parents' sleep quality, which may subsequently affect that of their children. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Castroflorio, Tommaso; Bargellini, Andrea; Rossini, Gabriele; Cugliari, Giovanni; Rainoldi, Alberto; Deregibus, Andrea
The aim of this article was to systematically review the literature to identify papers dealing with risk factors associated with sleep bruxism (SB) in children. A systematic search was carried out based on the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trial Register and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACs, SciELO. Studies investigating risk factors related to SB after multiple regression analysis and bruxism symptoms assessed with clinical diagnosis or specific questionnaires were searched. Six out of the 4546 initially identified studies were selected. This review was conducted according to the guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, with reporting in agreement to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Among the six analyzed articles, one randomized clinical trial (RCT) suggested the increase of SB in heavily exposed patients to second hand smoke (SHS) (OR=4.5, CI=2.2-9.4), two cross-sectional studies suggested neuroticism as determinant factor for the development of sleep bruxism (OR=1.9, CI=1.3-2.6), among children and three case-control studies suggested that children with sleep disturbances were more likely to have SB (OR=3.3, CI=1.6-6.6). Parafunctional behaviours (OR=2.3, CI=1.2-4.3) had a moderate association. SHS and sleep disturbances presented the strongest association with SB. The most recurrent source of bias was the lack of blinding procedures. Furthermore, the use of reliable SB diagnostic procedures should be recommended to increase the quality of future studies. The evidence emerged from the considered studies was clinically relevant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,
Full Text Available Non-restorative sleep (NRS was suggested to be associated with cardiovascular outcomes. However, causative factors for NRS have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to clarify factors and their relationships with NRS to better understand the clinical and epidemiological implications of NRS and to develop a score that can objectively evaluate NRS status.Study subjects consisted of 9,788 community residents (age 53.6 ± 13.4 y. Subjective NRS as well as possible clinical and lifestyle factors for NRS were investigated by questionnaires. Other clinical parameters were obtained from personal records of information obtained at the baseline examination.A total of 3,261 participants complained of NRS. Factors independently associated with subjective NRS were younger age (odds ratio = 1.43, use of a hypnotic drug (2.04, irregular sleep schedule (2.02, short sleep duration (<5 h, 11.7; 5-6 h, 4.81; 6-7 h, 2.40, frequent sleepiness (2.33, routine stress (4.63, no habitual exercise (1.61, nocturia symptoms (1.43, symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (1.44, and depression (1.46 (all P <0.001. The NRS score comprised of these 10 factors was linearly associated with the frequency of subjective NRS (Ptrend <0.001. Frequency of individuals with a high NRS score was greater in women (52.3% than in men (42.1%, P<0.001, while no clear association was observed with common risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.NRS was a phenomenon representing various clinical and lifestyle features. Careful attention should be paid to individuals with a high NRS score who might be at risk for mental fatigue and have unfavorable lifestyle factors.
Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Dinges, David F.
Many aircraft operated on long-haul commercial airline flights are equipped with on-board crew rest facilities, or bunks, to allow crewmembers to rest during the flight. The primary objectives of this study were to gather data on how the bunks were used, the quantity and quality of sleep obtained by flight crewmembers in the facilities, and the factors that affected their sleep. A retrospective survey comprising 54 questions of varied format addressed demographics, home sleep habits, and bunk sleep habits. Crewmembers from three airlines with long-haul fleets carrying augmented crews consisting of B747-100/200, B747-400, and MD-11 aircraft equipped with bunks returned a total of 1404 completed surveys (a 37% response rate). Crewmembers from the three carriers were comparable demographically, although one carrier had older, more experienced flight crewmembers. Each group, on average, rated themselves as "good" or "very good" sleepers at home, and all groups obtained about the same average amount of sleep each night. Most were able to sleep in the bunks, and about two thirds indicated that these rest opportunities benefited their subsequent flight deck alertness and performance. Comfort, environment, and physiology (e.g., being ready for sleep) were identified as factors that most promoted sleep. Factors cited as interfering with sleep included random noise, thoughts, heat, and the need to use the bathroom. These factors, in turn, suggest potential improvements to bunk facilities and their use. Ratings of the three aircraft types suggested differences among facilities. Bunks in the MD-11 were rated significantly better than either of the B747 types, and the B747-400 bunks received better ratings than did the older, B747-100/200 facilities.
Signal, T Leigh; Paine, Sarah-Jane; Sweeney, Bronwyn; Priston, Monique; Muller, Diane; Smith, Alexander; Lee, Kathryn A; Huthwaite, Mark; Reid, Papaarangi; Gander, Philippa
To compare the prevalence of self-reported abnormal sleep duration and excessive daytime sleepiness in pregnancy among Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and non-Māori women versus the general population, and to examine the influence of socio-demographic factors. Self-reported total sleep time (TST) in 24-hrs, Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores and socio-demographic information were obtained from nullipara and multipara women aged 20-46 yrs at 35-37 weeks pregnant (358 Māori and 717 non-Māori), and women in the general population (381 Māori and 577 non-Māori). After controlling for ethnicity, age, socio-economic status, and employment status, pregnant women average 30 min less TST than women in the general population. The distribution of TST was also greater in pregnant women, who were 3 times more likely to be short sleepers (≤6 h) and 1.9 times more likely to be long sleepers (>9 h). In addition, pregnant women were 1.8 times more likely to report excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Pregnant women >30 years of age experienced greater age-related declines in TST. Identifying as Māori, being unemployed, and working at night increased the likelihood of reporting abnormal sleep duration across all women population in this study. EDS also more likely occurred among Māori women and women who worked at night. Pregnancy increases the prevalence of abnormal sleep duration and EDS, which are also higher among Māori than non-Māori women and those who do night work. Health professionals responsible for the care of pregnant women need to be well-educated about the importance of sleep and discuss sleep issues with the women they care for. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Castroflorio, Tommaso; Bargellini, Andrea; Rossini, Gabriele; Cugliari, Giovanni; Deregibus, Andrea
Multiple risk factors have been associated to sleep bruxism (SB). Nevertheless, there are still many unsolved issues concerning the etiology of SB that have consequences on the clinical management strategies. Systematically review the literature to assess the relationship between risk factors and SB symptoms in adolescents (age 11-19 years). PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trial Register and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACs, and SciELO were searched to identify all peer-reviewed articles potentially relevant to the review. The risk of bias was assessed according to the guidelines from the Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions, with reporting in agreement to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Four out of the 4546 initially identified articles were selected. According to the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation assessment (GRADE), the magnitude of agreement was almost perfect for all checklist items. Sleep disturbances, and snoring in particular, headache, jaw muscle fatigue, and tooth wear seem to be associated to SB in adolescents from 11 to 19 years old. Despite the large interest of the scientific community in the field of oral parafunctions, only four articles met the eligibility criteria. Furthermore only associations and not definite cause-effect relationships were highlighted in the selected articles. Sleep disturbances presented the strongest association with SB while very few occlusal features had a moderate association. As a common sense the investigation of sleep respiratory disorders could be of great help in the management of SB in adolescents. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Watson, Liana M
To assess the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influencing job satisfaction and the perspective of frontline medical imaging staff in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The sample consisted of 359 registered radiologic technologists who were working as staff technologists in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The results of the study suggest that satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators influences overall satisfaction with the work environment and job and commitment to the employer.
Capellini, I.; Nunn, C. L.; McNamara, P.; Preston, B. T.; Barton, R. A.
Mammalian sleep is composed of two distinct states – rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep – that alternate in cycles over a sleep bout. The duration of these cycles varies extensively across mammalian species. Because the end of a sleep cycle is often followed by brief arousals to waking, a shorter sleep cycle has been proposed to function as an anti-predator strategy. Similarly, higher predation risk could explain why many species exhibit a polyphasic sleep pattern (division of ...
The major factor influencing secondary trading for the last few years has been the large contractural commitments built up by consumers for reactor programs which have proven to be unrealistic. The situation has intensified as a result of utilities needing to generate capital through inventory liquidation or reductions. The flexibilities in most contracts are inadequate to match the types of external and/or internal factors faced by the industry. This situation also suggests the need for secondary markets to help the industry adjust to unforeseen difficulties. They are very active markets at this time, but their influence in relation to the long-term method of doing business should not be exaggerated
Postuma, RB; Iranzo, A; Hogl, B; Arnulf, I; Ferini-Strambi, L; Manni, R; Miyamoto, T.; Oertel, W; Dauvilliers, Y; Ju, Y; Puligheddu, M; Sonka, K; Pelletier, A; Santamaria, J; Frauscher, B; Leu-Semenescu, S; Zucconi, M; Terzaghi, M; Miyamoto, M.; Unger, MM; Carlander, B; Fantini, ML; Montplaisir, JY
Objective To assess whether risk factors for Parkinson’s disease and Dementia with Lewy bodies increase rate of defined neurodegenerative disease in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder Methods 12 centers administered a detailed questionnaire assessing risk factors for neurodegenerative synucleinopathy to patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Variables included demographics, lifestyle factors, pesticide exposures, occupation, co-morbid conditions, medication use, family history, and autonomic/motor symptoms. After 4-years follow-up, patients were assessed for dementia or parkinsonism. Disease risk was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis, and epidemiologic variables were compared between convertors and those still idiopathic using logistic regression. Results Of 305 patients, follow-up information was available for 279, of whom 93 (33.3%) developed defined neurodegenerative disease. Disease risk was 25% at 3 years, and 41% after 5 years. Patients who converted were older (difference=4.5 years, pconversion. Although occupation was similar between groups, those who converted had a lower likelihood of pesticide exposure (occupational insecticide=2.3% vs. 9.0%). Convertors were more likely to report family history of dementia (OR=2.09), without significant differences in Parkinson’s disease or sleep disorders. Medication exposures and medical history were similar between groups. Autonomic and motor symptoms were more common among those who converted. Risk factors for primary dementia and parkinsonism were generally similar, except for a notably higher clonazepam use in dementia convertors (OR=2.6). Interpretation Patients with idiopathic RBD are at very high risk of neurodegenerative synucleinopathy. Risk factor profiles between convertors and non-convertors have both important commonalities and differences. PMID:25767079
Full Text Available Background: Executive dysfunction appears to be related to increased recidivism. Of note is that sleep disturbances, which are highly prevalent in prisons, may attenuate executive functions. Thus, improving executive functions, either directly or indirectly through the improvement of sleep, may reduce recidivism. It is hypothesised that physical exercise, in the form of Running Therapy, has a direct positive effect on executive functions as well as an indirect effect through the improvement of sleep. Methods/Design: Seventy two (N = 72 detainees in various penitentiary institutions in the Netherlands will be recruited in this study. A baseline measurement, including six neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB, an assessment of sleep quality and duration using the Actiwatch (Actiwatch 2, Philips Respironics, Murrysville, PA, USA and various other measurements will be administered before the start of the treatment. After 3 months of Running Therapy, participants will be assessed again with the same tests for neuropsychological and physical functioning. Primary outcomes are executive functioning and various sleep variables. Discussion: This study will be the first to investigate the possible influence of Running Therapy on the cognitive functioning, sleep and aggression in prisoners.
Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors. This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.
Chang, Pei-Yeh; Hung, Chih-Young; Wang, Kuei-lng; Huang, Yuan-Huei; Chang, King-Jen
Medical school graduates are the source of a country's physicians. Determining how the graduates of these schools select their areas of specialization is the key to achieving a balanced distribution of doctors among all specialties. The purposes of this study were to determine the factors that influence medical students' choice of medical specialty, and to derive the relative weight of each factor. Methods: We constructed a two-tiered analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model which was repres...
Jeffrey M Ellenbogen
Full Text Available Memories evolve. After learning something new, the brain initiates a complex set of post-learning processing that facilitates recall (i.e., consolidation. Evidence points to sleep as one of the determinants of that change. But whenever a behavioral study of episodic memory shows a benefit of sleep, critics assert that sleep only leads to a temporary shelter from the damaging effects of interference that would otherwise accrue during wakefulness. To evaluate the potentially active role of sleep for verbal memory, we compared memory recall after sleep, with and without interference before testing. We demonstrated that recall performance for verbal memory was greater after sleep than after wakefulness. And when using interference testing, that difference was even more pronounced. By introducing interference after sleep, this study confirms an experimental paradigm that demonstrates the active role of sleep in consolidating memory, and unmasks the large magnitude of that benefit.
Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.
Nov 3, 2010 ... A two-dimensional tool probing eight factors that influence partnership performance was developed, and used in conjunction with a Partnering Process Model, to guide the preparation of the case studies. The incorporation of the temporality dimension is quite novel and adds to the understanding and ...
Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad
Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a ...
de Haan, BJ; Faas, MM; de Vos, P
Adequate regulation of glucose levels by a microencapsulated pancreatic islet graft requires a minute-to-minute regulation of blood glucose. To design such a transplant, it is mandatory to have sufficient insight in factors influencing the kinetics of insulin secretion by encapsulated islets. The
Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Entrepreneurship Among Women In Fishing Communities In Ondo State, Nigeria. ... The study found that overall entrepreneurial rating of the study group is low, essential input can not be easily gotten in the area, the respondents has large household size thereby had a large dependents ...
Information and communication technology (ICT) is a veritable tool for sustainable agricultural development in Nigeria. This paper analyzed the factors that influenced ICT use by women research scientists in the Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 40 respondents per ...
The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing examination malpractice in some selected secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of one thousand two hundred (1200) students were selected across the three educational zones of Ogoja, Ikom and Calabar using stratified, random ...
V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber
Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...
Factors that influence advertising design ideation. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... inevitably, more than ever before, on advertisement to take products to the doorsteps of potential consumers. Consequently, local and global corporations employ all manner of advertising media to achieve their end.
Feb 2, 2015 ... This study assessed Factors Influencing smallholder farmers' ... percent of the population engaged in agricultural activities as a career and ... that the major source of income of the poor is agriculture and ... shown that farmers have different reasons for participation in agricultural ... 30 Dan gamau 534. 30.
Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.
Research indicates that literature circles are an authentic means for literacy development that students typically enjoy. To better understand the potential value and to add to the research base regarding literature circles, this study, involving 17 fourth graders, explores factors that may influence the quality of literature discussions,…
Adamczyk, M.; Genzel, L.K.E.; Dresler, M.; Steiger, A.; Friess, E.
Mounting evidence for the role of sleep spindles in neuroplasticity has led to an increased interest in these non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep oscillations. It has been hypothesized that fast and slow spindles might play a different role in memory processing. Here, we present a new sleep spindle
Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.
Watling, Christopher N
The purpose of traffic law enforcement is to deter risky driving behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine the individual factors of demographic, personality constructs, and attitudes for their association with perceived legitimacy of traffic law enforcement of sleep-related crashes. In total, 293 drivers completed a survey that assessed perceived legitimacy of enforcement and attitudes towards sleepy driving, as well as individual factors of demographic, personality and risk taking factors. The results demonstrate that younger drivers, drivers with higher levels of extraversion, and those with tolerant attitudes towards sleepy driving were less likely to agree that it is legitimate to charge someone if they crash due to sleepiness. The attitudes towards sleepy driving variable had the largest association with perceived legitimacy. Thus, the factors associated with perceived legitimacy of traffic law enforcement of sleep-related crashes are multifaceted. Overall, the findings have relevance with attitudinal and behaviour change programs, particularly with younger drivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Atria, Catherine Graczyk
Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.
Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.
Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.
Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia
factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence......Purpose: Enterprise social media platforms provide new ways of sharing knowledge and communicating within organizations to benefit from the social capital and valuable knowledge that employees have. Drawing on social dilemma and self-determination theory, the aim of the study is to understand what...... knowledge sharing framework helps to understand what factors impact engagement on social media. Furthermore the article suggests different types of interventions to overcome the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Originality/value: The study contributes to an understanding of factors leading...
Sadeh, Avi; El-Sheikh, Mona
Literature on sleep and child development is growing in novel directions across several disciplines necessitating guiding conceptual principles and methodological tools. First, this volume presents a summary of discussions from an SRCD-sponsored multidisciplinary forum on sleep and development, which includes presentation of key issues and guiding recommendations for research priorities in this fast developing field. Second, enhancing accessibility to child development researchers, state of the science sleep assessment methodologies are presented with a discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. Third, seven empirical studies conducted with "typically" developing infants and children provide examples of relations between sleep and some of the many individual and familial factors that influence and are influenced by sleep. In the presentation of empirical findings, a developmental ecological systems perspective adapted to sleep was espoused to illustrate some of the multiple levels of influence in the study of child sleep and development. Collectively, studies in this volume build significantly on the literature through: (a) illustrating linkages between various sleep parameters (e.g., quality, sleeping arrangements) and other key developmental domains (e.g., attachment, parenting); (b) demonstration of longitudinal relations connecting sleep with development, which is scarce in this field; and (c) utilization of actigraphy-based assessments of sleep duration and quality, which are underutilized in the literature yet important for a more nuanced understanding of sleep and development. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
van der Heijden, K B; Stoffelsen, R J; Popma, A; Swaab, H
Sleep problems are highly prevalent in ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Better insight in the etiology is of clinical importance since intervention and prevention strategies of sleep problems are directed at underlying mechanisms. We evaluated the association of sleep problems and sleep patterns with sleep hygiene (behavioral/environmental practices that influence sleep quality, e.g. caffeine use), access to electronic media, chronotype, and anxiety/depression in children aged 6-12 years with ADHD, ASD, or typical development (TD) using parental questionnaires. ANOVA and linear regression analyses were adjusted for age and sex. Children with ADHD and ASD showed more sleep problems (63.6 and 64.7%, vs 25.1% in TD) and shorter sleep duration than controls, while differences between ADHD and ASD were not significant. Sleep hygiene was worse in ADHD and ASD compared to TD, however, the association of worse sleep hygiene with more sleep problems was only significant in ASD and TD. There was a significant association of access to electronic media with sleep problems only in typically developing controls. Chronotype did not differ significantly between groups, but evening types were associated with sleep problems in ADHD and TD. Associations of greater anxiety/depression with more sleep problems were shown in ADHD and TD; however, anxiety/depression did not moderate the effects of chronotype and sleep hygiene. We conclude that sleep problems are highly prevalent in ADHD and ASD, but are differentially related to chronotype and sleep hygiene. In ASD, sleep problems are related to inadequate sleep hygiene and in ADHD to evening chronotype, while in TD both factors are important. Clinical implications are discussed.
Dweck, Julia S; Jenkins, Steve M; Nolan, Laurence J
Short sleep duration is associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and increased energy consumption. The present studies were conducted to determine what role emotional eating and stress might play in these relationships. The first was an exploratory questionnaire study in which sleep quality and duration were measured in conjunction with the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire in 184 women. Emotional and external eating scores were significantly higher in those who reported poor sleep quality (but were not related to sleep duration). In a second study of 64 women who were provided with snacks in the laboratory under stressed and control conditions, elevated food consumption was observed in those who scored high on emotional eating and who reported short sleep (a significant stress × emotional eating × sleep duration interaction) but not in those who reported poor sleep quality. No effects were found in liking or wanting of food and few effects were found on appetite. BMI was not related to sleep duration or sleep quality in either study. The results suggest that the relationship between short sleep and elevated food consumption exists in those who are prone to emotional eating. An external stressor elevated consumption in normal sleepers to the level observed in short sleepers, however, it did not significantly elevate consumption in short sleepers. Future examinations of the effects of sleep duration and quality on food consumption should examine emotional eating status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xu, Xianglong; Lin, Qianyi; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Runzhi; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong
Background Previous studies showed that social media is associated with sleep quality. WeChat (a native social media in China) is very popular in China, especially among the youth. In the second quarter of 2016, Tencent?s WeChat had 806 million monthly active users. The study sought to identify the influence of WeChat on the sleep quality among undergraduate students. Methods A cross-sectional survey adopted a multi-stage stratified sampling survey to investigate undergraduates in Chongqing, ...
Yetton, Benjamin D; McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Cellini, Nicola; Shelton, Christian; Mednick, Sara C
The pattern of sleep stages across a night (sleep architecture) is influenced by biological, behavioral, and clinical variables. However, traditional measures of sleep architecture such as stage proportions, fail to capture sleep dynamics. Here we quantify the impact of individual differences on the dynamics of sleep architecture and determine which factors or set of factors best predict the next sleep stage from current stage information. We investigated the influence of age, sex, body mass index, time of day, and sleep time on static (e.g. minutes in stage, sleep efficiency) and dynamic measures of sleep architecture (e.g. transition probabilities and stage duration distributions) using a large dataset of 3202 nights from a non-clinical population. Multi-level regressions show that sex effects duration of all Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) stages, and age has a curvilinear relationship for Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO) and slow wave sleep (SWS) minutes. Bayesian network modeling reveals sleep architecture depends on time of day, total sleep time, age and sex, but not BMI. Older adults, and particularly males, have shorter bouts (more fragmentation) of Stage 2, SWS, and they transition less frequently to these stages. Additionally, we showed that the next sleep stage and its duration can be optimally predicted by the prior 2 stages and age. Our results demonstrate the potential benefit of big data and Bayesian network approaches in quantifying static and dynamic architecture of normal sleep.
Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.
There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Antonio Z. Gimeno García
Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.
Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming
This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays.
Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.
Xu, Xianglong; Lin, Qianyi; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Runzhi; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong
Previous studies showed that social media is associated with sleep quality. WeChat (a native social media in China) is very popular in China, especially among the youth. In the second quarter of 2016, Tencent's WeChat had 806 million monthly active users. The study sought to identify the influence of WeChat on the sleep quality among undergraduate students. A cross-sectional survey adopted a multi-stage stratified sampling survey to investigate undergraduates in Chongqing, China. Data were collected on 1979 eligible adults, aged 20.27 (SD: 1.26) years old, using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to measure sleep quality. Respondents aged 20.27 ± 1.26 years included 535 (27.0%) males, and 1311 (66.3%) reported as having poor sleep quality. Of the 1979 participants, 1320 (66.70%) were WeChat users. In multivariable analyses, gender, grade, nationality, living costs, the student leader, the only child, type of university, WeChat usage was associated with domains of PSQI among undergraduates ( p students.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.
Michelle B Jonelis
Full Text Available Disrupted sleep is more common in older adults (OA than younger adults (YA, often co-morbid with other conditions. How these sleep disturbances affect cognitive performance is an area of active study. We examined whether brain activation during verbal encoding correlates with sleep quantity and quality the night before testing in a group of healthy OA and YA. Twenty-seven OA (ages 59-82 and twenty-seven YA (ages 19-36 underwent one night of standard polysomnography. Twelve hours post-awakening, subjects performed a verbal encoding task while undergoing functional MRI. Analyses examined the group (OA vs. YA by prior sleep quantity (Total Sleep Time (TST or quality (Sleep Efficiency (SE interaction on cerebral activation, controlling for performance. Longer TST promoted higher levels of activation in the bilateral anterior parahippocampi in OA and lower activation levels in the left anterior parahippocampus in YA. Greater SE promoted higher activation levels in the left posterior parahippocampus and right inferior frontal gyrus in YA, but not in OA. The roles of these brain regions in verbal encoding suggest, in OA, longer sleep duration may facilitate functional compensation during cognitive challenges. By contrast, in YA, shorter sleep duration may necessitate functional compensation to maintain cognitive performance, similar to what is seen following acute sleep deprivation. Additionally, in YA, better sleep quality may improve semantic retrieval processes, thereby aiding encoding.
S ARMAN; M SOLTANI
Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is design...
Barnekov, V. G.; McMillin, C. W.; Huber, H. A.
Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the work piece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist system and work piece thickness, density, and moisture content. (author)
Ajayi, Olubukola; Adewumi, Bukunmi
This study was designed to assess the psychological factors influencing life satisfaction of undergraduates. The instruments used were Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), Rosenberge Self-esteem Scale (RSS), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). A total number of 190 participants were purposively selected across various faculties in Ekiti State University. Four hypotheses were tested using Independent t-test to find the effects of perceived stres...
Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.
Naqvi, S.U.; Shahab, A.; Zia, S.; Adil, S.O.; Tariq, S.
Objectives: To determine the association of Mallampatti Score as a risk factor for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Methodology: This is a prospective questionnaire based survey included 103 individuals Results: Mean BMI of patients was 23.83+-6.03 kg/m2. There were 28 (27.2%) overweight and 22 (21.4%) obese patients. High risk on Berlin questionnaire was found in 12 (11.7%) patients. Both Berlin Questionnaire and Epworth questioner showed a negative association with Mallampati; the low risk group of these variables in our study with a p-value of 0.034 and 0.016 respectively i.e they are good for exclusion of OSA if found negative. Comparison of general characteristics with Mallampatti score and snoring showed significant association among patients with >25 years of age (p=0.02), low risk of Berlin score (p=0.034) and normal Epworth Sleep Score (p=0.016). Fifteen (14.5%) of overweight and obese individuals had higher Mallampatti score III and lV but the P-values were not significant (0.283 and 0.386). Conclusion: There is strong association between high Mallampatti score and O.S.A. Therefore we suggest that high mallampatti can be taken as a risk factor / screening tool limitation for O.S.A. (author)
Seung Ku Lee
Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is prevalent and associated with several kinds of chronic diseases. There has been evidence that a specific type of Sasang constitution is a risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases that can be found in patients with OSA, but there are no studies that address the association between the Sasang constitution type (SCT and OSA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the SCT and OSA. A total of 652 participants were included. All participants were examined for demographic information, medical history, and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on life style and sleep-related variables. Biochemical analyses were performed to determine the glucose and lipid profiles. An objective recording of OSA was done with an unattended home PSG using an Embla portable device. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI and oxygen desaturation index (ODI were significantly higher in the Tae-eum (TE type as compared to the So-eum (SE and the So-yang (SY types. Even after adjusting for confounding variables, the TE type still had a 2.34-fold (95% CI, 1.11–4.94; P=0.0262 increased risk for OSA. This population-based cohort study found that the TE constitutional type is an independent risk factor for the development of OSA.
Seda, Gilbert; Tsai, Sheila; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo
Sleep respiration is regulated by circadian, endocrine, mechanical and chemical factors, and characterized by diminished ventilatory drive and changes in Pao2 and Paco2 thresholds. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are more pronounced during rapid eye movement. Breathing is influenced by sleep stage and airway muscle tone. Patient factors include medical comorbidities and body habitus. Medications partially improve obstructive sleep apnea and stabilize periodic breathing at altitude. Potential adverse consequences of medications include precipitation or worsening of disorders. Risk factors for adverse medication effects include aging, medical disorders, and use of multiple medications that affect respiration. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Bramley, Harry; Henson, Alyssa; Lewis, Mechelle M; Kong, Lan; Stetter, Christy; Silvis, Matthew
Sleep disturbance is a common problem following concussion. A retrospective chart review was conducted at a regional concussion clinic on patients 13 to 18 years of age between 2005 and 2011. Statistical analysis evaluated sleep disturbance and duration of concussion, as well as the use and effectiveness of melatonin. A total of 417 patients met inclusion criteria. One hundred twenty-three (34%) reported disturbance in sleep. There was no difference in sleep disturbance based on age, gender, or past number of concussions. Sleep disturbance was associated with a 3- to 4-fold increase in recovery time. Non-sport-related concussions were more likely to be associated with sleep disturbance compared to sport-related concussions (45% vs 29%, P = .01). Melatonin improved sleep disturbance in 67% of the patients. Evaluating sleep disorders following concussion is an important part of the assessment. These findings will help clinicians provide anticipatory guidance and treatment for adolescents recovering from concussion.
Jennings, J. R.; Monk, T. H.; van der Molen, M. W.
Does one night of sleep deprivation alter processes of supervisory attention in general or only a specific subset of such processes? Twenty college-aged volunteers, half female, performed a choice reaction time task. A cue indicated that compatible (e.g., right button, right-pointing arrow) or incompatible (e.g., left button, right-pointing arrow) responses were to be given to a stimulus that followed 50 or 500 ms later. The paradigm assessed response inhibition, task-shifting skill, and task strategy-processes inherent in supervisory attention. Performance, along with heart rate, was assessed for 12 hr following normal sleep or a night of complete sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation altered neither preparation for task shifting nor response inhibition. The ability to use preparatory bias to speed performance did decrease with sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation appears to selectively affect this supervisory attention process, which is perceived as an active effort to cope with a challenging task.
Luyster, Faith S.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Walsh, James K.
Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health. Citation: Luyster FS; Strollo PJ; Zee PC; Walsh JK. Sleep: a health imperative. SLEEP 2012;35(6):727-734. PMID:22654183
Park, Junhee; Yun, Eunkyung; Han, Sangsook
This study was conducted to identify the factors that influence nurses' organizational citizenship behavior. A cross-sectional design was used, with a convenience sample of 547 nurses from four university hospitals in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey done from September 22 to October 10, 2008. The tools used for this study were scales on organizational citizenship behavior (14 items), self-leadership (14 items), empowerment (10 items), organizational commitment (7 items), job satisfaction (8 items) and transformational.transactional leadership (14 items). Cronbach's alpha and factor analysis were examined to test reliability and construct validity of the scale. The data collected were processed using SPSS Window 15.0 Program for actual numbers and percentages, differences in the dependent variable according to general characteristics, and means, standard deviations, correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The factors influencing nurses' organizational citizenship behavior were identified as self-leadership(beta=.247), empowerment (beta=.233), job satisfaction (beta=.209), organizational commitment (beta=.158), and transactional leadership (beta=.142). Five factors explained 42.0% of nurses' organizational citizenship behavior. The results of this study can be used to develop further management strategies for enhancement of nurses' organizational citizenship behavior.
Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, “Magna Graecia” University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, ItalyIntroduction: Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE is a common problem in developmental age with an estimated overall prevalence ranging from 1.6% to 15%, and possible persistence during adolescence. There is a growing interest in the sleep habits of children affected by PNE, which is derived from the contradictory data present in clinical literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of sleep disturbances in a population of children affected by PNE, and to identify whether PNE could be considered as a risk factor for sleep disturbances among children.Materials and methods: A total of 190 PNE children (97 males, 93 females aged 7–15 years, (mean 9.64 ± 1.35 years, and 766 typically developing children matched for age (P = 0.131 and gender (P = 0.963 were enrolled. To evaluate the presence of sleep habits and disturbances, all of the subjects’ mothers filled out the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children (SDSC, a questionnaire consisting of six subscales: Disorders in Initiating and Maintaining Sleep (DIMS, Sleep Breathing Disorders (SBD, Disorders of Arousal (DA, Sleep–Wake Transition Disorders (SWTD, Disorders of Excessive Somnolence (DOES, and Nocturnal Hyperhidrosis (SHY. The results were divided into “pathological” and “normal” scores using a cut
Jalali, Leila; Nezhad-Ahmadi, Mohammad-Reza; Gohari, Mahmood; Bigelow, Philip; McColl, Stephen
Canada's wind energy capacity has grown from approximately 137MW (MW) in 2000 to over 9700MW in 2014, and this progressive development has made Canada the fifth-largest market in the world for the installation of new wind turbines (WTs). Although wind energy is now one of the fastest growing sources of power in Canada and many other countries, the growth in both number and size of WTs has raised questions regarding potential health impacts on individuals who live close to such turbines. This study is the first published research using a prospective cohort design, with noise and sleep measurements obtained before and after installation of WTs to investigate effect of such turbines on self-reported sleep disturbances of nearby residents. Subjective assessment of sleep disturbance was conducted in Ontario, Canada through standard sleep and sleepiness scales, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Epworth daytime Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Both audible and infra-sound noises were also measured inside the bedroom. Descriptive and comparison analyses were performed to investigate the effect of WT exposure on sleep data. Results of the analysis show that participants reported poorer sleep quality if they had a negative attitude to WTs, if they had concerns related to property devaluation, and if they could see turbines from their properties. This study provides evidence for the role of individual differences and psychological factors in reports of sleep disturbance by people living in the vicinity of WTs. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.
Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C
This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gosling, John A; Batterham, Philip J; Glozier, Nick; Christensen, Helen
To determine the role of health status and social support in the relationship between job stress and sleep disturbance, for both intermittent and chronic sleep disturbance. A total of 1946 mid-life adults completed three questionnaires spanning an 8-year time frame. Sleep disturbance was assessed at each time point, and participants were classified as experiencing intermittent, chronic or no sleep disturbance across this 8-year period. Independent variables included a range of job stress measures, social support, physical and mental health, and demographic characteristics. After controlling for physical and mental health, perceived lack of job marketability increased risk of intermittent sleep disturbance (odds ratio (OR)=1.33, p=0.012). No other job stress measures were associated with either intermittent or chronic sleep disturbance after adjusting for years of education, social support, and employment status. Poorer mental and physical health status, although significantly increasing odds for intermittent sleep disturbance, represented a significantly greater increase in the odds for chronic sleep disturbance over and above intermittent disturbance (OR=0.96, pjob stress had an independent effect on chronic or intermittent sleep disturbance independent of health, social support, and education. Risk profiles for intermittent and chronic sleep disturbance did not differ with regard to job stress; however, various demographic and social support factors were distinguishing factors. Health status, both physical and mental, also showed a significantly greater impact on chronic sleep disturbance than intermittent sleep disturbance. Karasek's model of job strain had little value in predicting sleep disturbance outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Liqiang Cai,1 Luoyi Xu,1 Lili Wei,1 Yi Sun,2 Wei Chen1,3 1Department of Psychiatry, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 2Department of Electroencephalogram, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, 3Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Chinese Ministry of Health, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Objective: Overlap of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA complicates diagnosis of depressive disorder and renders antidepressant treatment challenging. Previous studies have reported that the incidence of OSA is higher in patients with depression than in the general population. The purpose of this article was to investigate clinical risk factors to predict OSA in depression disorders.Methods: A total of 115 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD and bipolar disorder (in a major depressive episode, who underwent overnight polysomnography, were studied retrospectively. They were divided into two groups: non-OSA and OSA. The patients who had apnea–hypopnea index (AHI <5 were defined as the non-OSA group, whereas the OSA group was defined as those with an AHI ≥5. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association among AHI and clinical factors, including sex, age, body mass index (BMI, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, and diagnosis (MDD or bipolar disorder [in a major depressive episode].Results: In 115 patients, 51.3% had OSA. Logistic regression analysis showed significant associations between AHI and diagnosis (MDD or bipolar disorder [in a major depressive episode], BMI, HAMD, and PSQI (P<0.05.Conclusion: The findings of our study suggested that the rate of depression being comorbid with OSA is remarkably high and revealed that there is a high rate of undetected OSA among depressive disorder patients and untreated OSA among mood
Aguirre, Claudia C
The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in our understanding of the impact sleep disturbances have on our health, with particular focus on the brain. The present review considers the influence of sleep disturbance on the neurovascular unit; the role of sleep disturbance in neurodegenerative diseases; and relevant strategies of neuro-immuno-endocrine interactions that likely contribute to the restorative power of sleep. Given the latest discoveries about the brain's waste clearance system and its relationship to neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, this review gives a brief overview on the molecular mechanisms behind sleep loss-related impairments. Recent evidence indicates that sleep plays a vital role in neuro-immuno-endocrine homeostasis. Sleep loss has been linked to elevated risks for cognitive and mood disorders, underscored by impaired synaptic transmission. The glymphatic system has been shown to be modulated by sleep and implicated in neurodegenerative disorders. Interactions between sleep quality, the immune system, and neurodegenerative disease are complex and a challenge to distil. These interactions are frequently bidirectional, because of sleep's characterization as an early symptom and as a potential factor contributing to the development and progression of mood and cognitive disorders. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms
Deak, Maryann C; Stickgold, Robert
Sleep is a complex physiologic state, the importance of which has long been recognized. Lack of sleep is detrimental to humans and animals. Over the past decade, an important link between sleep and cognitive processing has been established. Sleep plays an important role in consolidation of different types of memory and contributes to insightful, inferential thinking. While the mechanism by which memories are processed in sleep remains unknown, several experimental models have been proposed. This article explores the link between sleep and cognition by reviewing (1) the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition, (2) the influence of sleep on consolidation of declarative and non-declarative memory, and (3) some proposed models of how sleep facilitates memory consolidation in sleep. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ramsawh, Holly J; Raffa, Susan D; White, Kamila S; Barlow, David H
Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) is a temporary period of involuntary immobility that can occur at sleep onset or offset. It has previously been reported in association with both panic disorder (PD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study examined the association between ISP and several possible risk factors--anxiety sensitivity, trauma exposure, life stress, and paranormal beliefs--in a sample of African American participants with and without a history of ISP. Significant between-group differences were found for PD and PTSD diagnoses, anxiety sensitivity, life stress, and certain aspects of paranormal belief, with the ISP group being higher on all of these indices. No differences were found with regard to trauma exposure. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that PD, anxiety sensitivity, and life stress each contributed unique variance to ISP cognitive symptoms, whereas PTSD and paranormal beliefs did not. These results provide preliminary support for an association between ISP and anxiety sensitivity and corroborate previous reports of ISP's association with PD and life stress. The current trauma/PTSD findings are mixed, however, and warrant future research.
Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew
We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600 h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200 h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times over the day on two consecutive early shift days, two late days and two rest days. Sampling was scheduled at waking, waking+30 m, waking+2.5 h, waking+8 h, waking+12 h and bedtime. Waking time, sleep duration, sleep quality and working hours were also recorded. Cortisol responses were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance with shift condition (early, late, rest) and sample time (1-6) as within-subject factors. Early shifts were associated with a higher cortisol increase in response to awakening (CAR(i)), a greater total cortisol output over the day (AUC(G)) and a slower rate of decline over the day than late shifts or rest days. Early shifts were also associated with shorter sleep duration but co-varying for sleep duration did not alter the effects of shift on the cortisol rhythm. Both types of work shift were associated with more stress, tiredness and lower happiness than rest days, but statistical adjustment for mood ratings did not alter the findings. Early shift days were associated with significantly higher levels of circulating cortisol during waking hours than late shifts or rest days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time.Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting “door-to-doctor” and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients.Results: We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102% with an average of 27% boarding. Median “door-to-doctor” time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences.Conclusion: The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:10-15
Arkun, Alp; Briggs, William M; Patel, Sweha; Datillo, Paris A; Bove, Joseph; Birkhahn, Robert H
THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THOSE FACTORS, BOTH INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC TO THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT (ED) THAT INFLUENCE TWO SPECIFIC COMPONENTS OF THROUGHPUT: "door-to-doctor" time and dwell time. We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday) during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival) proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting "door-to-doctor" and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients. We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102%) with an average of 27% boarding. Median "door-to-doctor" time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences. The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital.
Han, Sang Sook; Sohn, In Soon; Kim, Nam Eun
The study was done to identify turnover intention in new nurses according to characteristics of the nurses and other factors affecting turnover and to provide data to set up a strategy to reduce the turnover. Data were collected from 1,077 new nurses who had less than 12 months employment experience and worked in one of 188 hospitals. Eight research instruments were used. Data analysis was done using SPSS WIN 15.0 program. Several factors influence new nurse turnover intention. The average score for turnover intention was 2.12. The scores for subscales were self efficacy, 3.76, nursing performance, 3.90, job satisfaction, 2.09, organization commitment, 1.28, stress, 1.32, burnout, 2.82 and nursing organizational culture, 3.29. Turnover intention was related to self efficacy, nursing performance, job satisfaction, organization commitment, stress, burnout, nursing organizational culture, duration of in-class training, duration of on the job training, number of hospital beds, length of employment and duration of employment in current workplace. The predicting factors for turnover intention were burnout, stress, duration of employment in the current workplace, self efficacy and nursing performance. Those factors explained 51.6% of turnover intention. New nurse turnover intention can be reduced by mitigating the factors affecting this intention.
Montgomery, Paul; Dunne, Danielle
Sleep disorders may affect 20-30% of young children, and include excessive daytime sleepiness, problems getting to sleep (dysomnias), or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors, and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.
Bruni, Oliveiero; Novelli, Luana
Sleep disorders may affect between 20% and 30% of young children, and include problems getting to sleep (dyssomnias) or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.
Arkun, Alp; Briggs, William M; Patel, Sweha; Datillo, Paris A; Bove, Joseph; Birkhahn, Robert H
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED) that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time. Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday) during a three-month period. V...
Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L
In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates.
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a mandibular advancement device on different grades of obstructive sleep apnea using a relatively simple test for the apnea-hypopnea index to determine if a mandibular device will be effective. Material and Methods: A total of 68 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS including, 31 with mild, 23 with moderate and 14 with severe OSAS were treated with a mandibular advancement device (MAD and monitored with polysomnography. Results: 25 of the 31 mild, 15 of the 23 moderate and 2 of the 14 severe OSAS patients were cured of their OSAS if a post treatment apnea-hypopnea index of less than 5 is regarded as cured. The odds ratios for success with MAD therapy are 3 for women over men, 14.9 for mild obstructive sleep apnea, 5.42 for moderate obstructive sleep apnea if severe obstructive sleep apnea is assigned an odds ratio of 1. Conclusions: The use of the apnea-hypopnea index alone is useful in mild and moderate disease to predict the effectiveness of mandibular advancement device. Treatment with a mandibular advancement device is very effective in treating mild and moderate obstructive sleep apnea. Conservative treatment with a mandibular advancement device can be successful in less severe grades of sleep apnea and may be an alternative for non-surgical patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea intolerant of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure management.
Wong, Shi Ngar; Halaki,Mark; Chow,Chin Moi
Shi Ngar Wong, Mark Halaki, Chin Moi ChowDiscipline of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: The sleep–wake cycle is a process not only dictated by homeostatic and circadian factors but also by social and environmental influences. Thus, the total sleep time partly reflects sleep need, which is integral to the dynamics of sleep loss recovery. This study explored the nature of the observed oscillations in total sleep time in healthy adults u...
Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi
Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)
Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh
Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.
Marcus, A.; Nichols, M.L.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.; Thurber, J.
Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance
Goddard, Kate; Roudsari, Abdul; Wyatt, Jeremy C
To investigate the rate of automation bias - the propensity of people to over rely on automated advice and the factors associated with it. Tested factors were attitudinal - trust and confidence, non-attitudinal - decision support experience and clinical experience, and environmental - task difficulty. The paradigm of simulated decision support advice within a prescribing context was used. The study employed within participant before-after design, whereby 26 UK NHS General Practitioners were shown 20 hypothetical prescribing scenarios with prevalidated correct and incorrect answers - advice was incorrect in 6 scenarios. They were asked to prescribe for each case, followed by being shown simulated advice. Participants were then asked whether they wished to change their prescription, and the post-advice prescription was recorded. Rate of overall decision switching was captured. Automation bias was measured by negative consultations - correct to incorrect prescription switching. Participants changed prescriptions in 22.5% of scenarios. The pre-advice accuracy rate of the clinicians was 50.38%, which improved to 58.27% post-advice. The CDSS improved the decision accuracy in 13.1% of prescribing cases. The rate of automation bias, as measured by decision switches from correct pre-advice, to incorrect post-advice was 5.2% of all cases - a net improvement of 8%. More immediate factors such as trust in the specific CDSS, decision confidence, and task difficulty influenced rate of decision switching. Lower clinical experience was associated with more decision switching. Age, DSS experience and trust in CDSS generally were not significantly associated with decision switching. This study adds to the literature surrounding automation bias in terms of its potential frequency and influencing factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wirtz, Veronika J; Forsythe, Steven; Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio
Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful tool to achieve this.
Aljohara S Almeneessier
Conclusions: In this preliminary report, under controlled conditions of light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep-wake schedules, intermittent fasting has no significant influence on the circadian pattern of melatonin.
Arima, Taro; Takeuchi, Tamiyo; Tomonaga, Akio; Yachida, Wataru; Ohata, Noboru; Svensson, Peter
AimThe choice of biomaterials for occlusal splints may significantly influence biological outcome. In dentistry, hard acrylic occlusal splints (OS) have been shown to have a temporary and inhibitory effect on jaw-muscle activity, such as tooth clenching and grinding during sleep, i.e., sleep bruxism (SB). Traditionally, this inhibitory effect has been explained by changes in the intraoral condition rather than the specific effects of changes in occlusion. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of another type of occlusal surface, such as a soft-material OS in addition to a hard-type OS in terms of changes in jaw-muscle activity during sleep. Materials and methodsSeven healthy subjects (mean ± SD, six men and one woman: 28.9 ± 2.7 year old), participated in this study. A soft-material OS (ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer) was fabricated for each subject and the subjects used the OS for five continuous nights. The EMG activity during sleep was compared to baseline (no OS). Furthermore, the EMG activity during the use of a hard-type OS (Michigan-type OS, acrylic resin), and hard-type OS combined with contingent electrical stimulation (CES) was compared to baseline values. Each session was separated by at least two weeks (washout). Jaw-muscle activity during sleep was recorded with single-channel ambulatory devices (GrindCare, MedoTech, Herlev, Denmark) in all sessions for five nights. ResultsJaw-muscle activity during sleep was 46.6 ± 29.8 EMG events/hour at baseline and significantly decreased during the hard-type OS (17.4 ± 10.5, P = 0.007) and the hard-type OS + CES (10.8 ± 7.1, P = 0.002), but not soft-material OS (36.3 ± 24.5, P = 0.055). Interestingly, the soft-material OS (coefficient of variance = 98.6 ± 35.3%) was associated with greater night-to-night variations than baseline (39.0 ± 11.8%) and the hard-type OS + CES (53.3 ± 13.7%, P < 0.013). ConclusionThe present pilot study in small sample showed that a soft
Ritchie, Hannah K; Burke, Tina M; Dear, Tristan B; Mchill, Andrew W; Axelsson, John; Wright, Kenneth P
Sleep inertia is affected by circadian phase, with worse performance upon awakening from sleep during the biological night than biological day. Visual search/selective visual attention performance is known to be sensitive to sleep inertia and circadian phase. Individual differences exist in the circadian timing of habitual wake time, which may contribute to individual differences in sleep inertia. Because later chronotypes awaken at an earlier circadian phase, we hypothesized that later chronotypes would have worse visual search performance during sleep inertia than earlier chronotypes if awakened at habitual wake time. We analysed performance from 18 healthy participants [five females (22.1 ± 3.7 years; mean ± SD)] at ~1, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 min following electroencephalogram-verified awakening from an 8 h in-laboratory sleep opportunity. Cognitive throughput and reaction times of correct responses were impaired by sleep inertia and took ~10-30 min to improve after awakening. Regardless whether chronotype was defined by dim light melatonin onset or mid-sleep clock hour on free days, derived from the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire, the duration of sleep inertia for cognitive throughput and reaction times was longer for later chronotypes (n = 7) compared with earlier chronotypes (n = 7). Specifically, performance for earlier chronotypes showed significant improvement within ~10-20 min after awakening, whereas performance for later chronotypes took ~30 min or longer to show significant improvement (P inertia contributes to longer-lasting impairments in morning performance in later chronotypes. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.
Rosana Marta Kolb
Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.
Ma, Chen-Chung; Samuels, Michael E; Alexander, Judith W
To examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of registered nurses (RNs). A growing recognition of job dissatisfaction among RNs in South Carolina hospitals has contributed to current problems with recruitment and retention. If administrators identify factors influencing RNs' job satisfaction in hospitals and implement strategies to address these factors, RN turnover rates will decrease and recruiting and retention rates will increase. A cross-sectional study of secondary data was designed to identify the individual, work, and geographic factors that impact nursing job satisfaction at the state level. A 27-question self-administered survey was sent to 17,500 RNs in South Carolina with postage-paid envelopes for their responses. Surveys from 3472 nurses were completed anonymously. Univariate statistics were used to describe the study sample. One-way and multivariable Analysis of Variance were used to determine which variables contributed the most to job satisfaction. For about two thirds of the RNs, job satisfaction remained the same or had lessened over the past 2 years. In addition, statistically significant differences were found between job satisfaction and years of service, job position, hospital retirement plan, and geographic area. The findings have implications for nurse managers and hospital administrators for planning and implementing effective health policies that will meet the unique needs of their staffs and organizations. Such research is particularly relevant in this difficult time of nursing shortages throughout the healthcare industry.
Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods. Objective: To study the determinants influencing contraceptive acceptance. Study design: Population based cross - sectional study. Setting: Rural area of East Delhi. Participants: Married women in the reproductive age group. Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group. Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child. Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptives Statistical Analysis: By proportions. Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception. Recommendations: (i Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention. (ii Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.
Hiller, Wolfgang; Goebel, Gerhard
To evaluate the 2 major components of tinnitus severity, loudness and annoyance, and their degree of dependence on characteristics of tinnitus manifestation, history, and etiology. Cross-sectional survey performed during the first months of 2004. Nonclinical population. A total of 4995 members of the German Tinnitus League. Comprehensive screening questionnaire, including the Klockhoff and Lindblom loudness grading system and the miniversion of the Tinnitus Questionnaire. A moderate correlation of 0.45 was found between tinnitus loudness and annoyance. Both factors were generally higher in men, those older than 50 years, those with binaural and centrally perceived tinnitus, those with increased noise sensitivity, and those who had continuous tinnitus without interruptions. Tinnitus that lasted 12 months or less had a stronger influence on annoyance (odds ratio [OR], 1.96) than on loudness (OR, 0.45), whereas the contrary was found for tinnitus of more than 5 years' duration (ORs, 0.72 and 2.11, respectively). Loudness and annoyance were increased in subjects with coexisting hearing loss, vertigo, and hyperacusis. The impact of hyperacusis on annoyance was clearly stronger than on loudness (ORs, 21.91 vs 9.47). Several clinical factors of tinnitus influence perceived loudness and annoyance. Both are distinguishable components of tinnitus severity.
Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A
Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer. This study suggests that parity, BMI, presence of
Kabrita, Colette S; Hajjar-Muça, Theresa A; Duffy, Jeanne F
Adequate, good night sleep is fundamental to well-being and is known to be influenced by myriad biological and environmental factors. Given the unavailability of sleep data about Lebanon, the cultural shifts and socioeconomic pressures that have affected many aspects of society, particularly for students and working adults, as well as our understanding of sleep in university students in other countries, we conducted a national study to assess sleep quality and factors contributing to sleep and general health in a culture-specific context. A self-filled questionnaire, inquiring about sociodemographics, health-risk behaviors, personal health, and evaluating sleep quality and chronotype using standard scales was completed by 540 students at private and public universities in Lebanon. Overall, they reported sleeping 7.95±1.34 hours per night, although 12.3% reported sleeping Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Sleep timing differed markedly between weekdays and weekends, with bedtimes and wake-up times delayed by 1.51 and 2.43 hours, respectively, on weekends. While most scored in the "neither type" category on the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), 24.5% were evening types and 7.3% were morning types. MEQ score was significantly correlated with smoking behavior and daily study onset, as well as with PSQI score, with eveningness associated with greater number of cigarettes, later study times, and poor sleep. We conclude that the prevalence of poor sleep quality among Lebanese university students is associated with reduced sleep duration and shifts in sleep timing between weekdays and weekends, especially among evening types. While chronotype and certain behavioral choices interact to affect sleep dimensions and quality, raising awareness about the importance of obtaining adequate nighttime sleep on daily performance and avoiding risky behaviors may help Lebanese students make better choices in school and work schedules.
Macdonald, C; Cawood, T
Numerous factors influence career decisions for internal medicine trainees and Fellows. There is a perception that a greater emphasis is placed on work-family balance by younger physicians. To determine the characteristics of the modern internal medicine workforce and ascertain whether job flexibility is important to career decision-making. We hypothesised that factors which reflect flexibility would be highly influential in decision-making, especially for women and those with young children. A questionnaire was mailed to 250 New Zealand internal medicine trainees and Fellows. It focused on factors, including job flexibility, interest and collegial support, and included demographic details which were primarily aimed at ascertaining family responsibilities. Response rate was 54%. The majority of female physicians are the main person responsible for their children (62%), and the majority of their partners work full-time (80%). This contrasts with male physicians, of whom only 4% are the main person responsible for their children. Flexibility was found to be more influential in women, those with young children, trainees and those working in outpatient-based subspecialties. However, contrary to our original hypothesis, flexibility was not reported to be highly influential in any group, with career choice being most influenced by interest and enjoyment, intellectual challenge and variety within the job. It is hoped that results will inform employers and those involved with training to enable them to better cater for the needs of the workforce and also encourage trainees to consider future family commitments when making career decisions. © 2012 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul; Sorensen, Helge B. D.
an automatic sleep stage detector, which can separate wakefulness, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep using only EEG and EOG. Most sleep events, which define the sleep stages, are reduced with age. This is addressed by focusing on the amplitude of the clinical EEG bands......Aging is a process that is inevitable, and makes our body vulnerable to age-related diseases. Age is the most consistent factor affecting the sleep structure. Therefore, new automatic sleep staging methods, to be used in both of young and elderly patients, are needed. This study proposes......, and not the affected sleep events. The age-related influences are then reduced by robust subject-specific scaling. The classification of the three sleep stages are achieved by a multi-class support vector machine using the one-versus-rest scheme. It was possible to obtain a high classification accuracy of 0...
Full Text Available Inter-individual differences in the phase of the endogenous circadian rhythms have been established. Individuals with early circadian phase are called morning types; those with late circadian phase are evening types. The Horne and Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ is the most frequently used to assess individual chronotype. The distribution of MEQ scores is likely to be biased by several fact, ors, such as gender, age, genetic background, latitude, and social habits. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of different social synchronizers on the sleep/wake cycle of persons with different chronotypes. Volunteers were selected from a total of 1232 UFPR undergraduate students who completed the MEQ. Thirty-two subjects completed the study, including 8 morning types, 8 evening types and 16 intermediate types. Sleep schedules were recorded by actigraphy for 1 week on two occasions: during the school term and during vacation. Sleep onset and offset times, sleep duration, and mid-sleep time for each chronotype group were compared by the Mann-Whitney U-test separately for school term and vacation. School term and vacation data were compared by the Wilcoxon matched-pair test. Morning types showed earlier sleep times and longer sleep duration compared with evening types (23:00 ± 44 and 508.9 ± 50.27 vs 01:08 ± 61.95 and 456.44 ± 59.08, for the weekdays during vacation. During vacation, the subjects showed later sleep times, except for the morning types, who did not exhibit differences for sleep onset times. The results support the idea that social schedules have an impact on the expression of circadian rhythmicity but this impact depends on the individual chronotype.
Neuli M. Tenorio
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate overall genetic damage induced by total sleep deprivation in obese, female Zucker rats of differing ages. METHOD: Lean and obese Zucker rats at 3, 6, and 15 months old were randomly distributed into two groups for each age group: home-cage control and sleep-deprived (N = 5/group. The sleep-deprived groups were deprived sleep by gentle handling for 6 hours, whereas the home-cage control group was allowed to remain undisturbed in their home-cage. At the end of the sleep deprivation period, or after an equivalent amount of time for the home-cage control groups, the rats were brought to an adjacent room and decapitated. The blood, brain, and liver tissue were collected and stored individually to evaluate DNA damage. RESULTS: Significant genetic damage was observed only in 15-month-old rats. Genetic damage was present in the liver cells from sleep-deprived obese rats compared with lean rats in the same condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with genetic damage in brain cells regardless of obesity status. DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood cells regardless of sleep condition or obesity status. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that obesity was associated with genetic damage in liver cells, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with DNA damage in brain cells. These results also indicate that there is no synergistic effect of these noxious conditions on the overall level of genetic damage. In addition, the level of DNA damage was significantly higher in 15-month-old rats compared to younger rats.
Tenorio, Neuli M; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Fracalossi, Ana Carolina C; Carlin, Viviane; Hirotsu, Camila; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L
The aim of this study was to evaluate overall genetic damage induced by total sleep deprivation in obese, female Zucker rats of differing ages. Lean and obese Zucker rats at 3, 6, and 15 months old were randomly distributed into two groups for each age group: home-cage control and sleep-deprived (N = 5/group). The sleep-deprived groups were deprived sleep by gentle handling for 6 hours, whereas the home-cage control group was allowed to remain undisturbed in their home-cage. At the end of the sleep deprivation period, or after an equivalent amount of time for the home-cage control groups, the rats were brought to an adjacent room and decapitated. The blood, brain, and liver tissue were collected and stored individually to evaluate DNA damage. Significant genetic damage was observed only in 15-month-old rats. Genetic damage was present in the liver cells from sleep-deprived obese rats compared with lean rats in the same condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with genetic damage in brain cells regardless of obesity status. DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood cells regardless of sleep condition or obesity status. Taken together, these results suggest that obesity was associated with genetic damage in liver cells, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with DNA damage in brain cells. These results also indicate that there is no synergistic effect of these noxious conditions on the overall level of genetic damage. In addition, the level of DNA damage was significantly higher in 15-month-old rats compared to younger rats.
Full Text Available Nowadays, the number of new food products has increased considerably. Nevertheless, not all new food products are accepted and understood by consumers, the innovations in the food sector are often not well received by the market, partly due to a phenomenon known as food neophobia. Food neophobia, a general aversion to try new or unfamiliar foods, has a major impact on preferences, selection and food product acceptability. The neophobic consumers tend to display negative attitudes and less pleasure in relation to new food products. Food neophobia is based on three main reasons for rejection of a food, such as: dislike of its sensory characteristics, fear of negative consequences of eating it, and disgust arising from the idea of the food’s nature or origin. Phobia towards the introduction of unfamiliar foods in the diet can occur for several different factors, such as: socio-demographic characteristics, education level and lifestyle, degree of urbanization, income level, arousal, personal experiences, advertising, fashion, advices of other persons, and habits. This review paper was designed to provide up-to-date relevant information on factors influencing food neophobia, like social factors, type of new food, education, and arousal. The scientific information presented here could help food scientists in new food development, and food companies to develop the best marketing strategies that lead to a general decrease in neophobic consumers’ behaviour. The application of appropriate marketing strategies may allow the product to reach a competitive advantage and be successful.
Haber, S.B.; O'Brien, J.N.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.
This is the first volume of a two-volume report. Volume 2 will be published at a later date. This report presents the results of a research project conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The purpose of the project was to develop a general methodology to be use in the assessment of the organizational factors which affect performance reliability (safety) in a nuclear power plant. The research described in this report includes the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (GNOMIC). This concept characterizes the organizational factors that impact safety performance in a nuclear power plant and identifies some methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on safety performance. This report is divided into two parts; Part 1 presents an overview of the development of the methodology, while Part 2 provides more details and a technical analysis of the methodological development. Specifically, the results of two demonstration studies, the feasibility of the methodology, and a specific applications for which the methodology was developed are presented
Barbara A. Sypniewska
Full Text Available The term “job satisfaction” is derived from the humanities, psychology and sociology. In the field of psychology, it is a state where an employee has an emotional perception of his situation and reacts with feelings of pleasure or pain. In sociology, it is considered a variable in different categories related to how each employee evaluates and thinks about his work. Job satisfaction is closely related to the performance and quality of work performed by an employee and, consequently, translates into the success of an organization, because a satisfied employee builds and participates in the success of any organization. This article presents the results of the research conducted by the author in 2012 on a sample of 215 people. Respondents represented different organizations. The aim of the study was to identify and assess the significance of individual factors influencing satisfaction and dissatisfaction with work and demonstrate their impact on the overall assessment of job satisfaction. The study showed that between the weight attributed to individual factors and overall job satisfaction there are many statistically significant correlations referring mainly to selected on the basis of analysis respondents’ groups. The study confirms the raised thesis concerning the validity of research in the factors affecting the general feeling of satisfaction by the employees.
Full Text Available Shi Ngar Wong, Mark Halaki, Chin Moi ChowDiscipline of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: The sleep–wake cycle is a process not only dictated by homeostatic and circadian factors but also by social and environmental influences. Thus, the total sleep time partly reflects sleep need, which is integral to the dynamics of sleep loss recovery. This study explored the nature of the observed oscillations in total sleep time in healthy adults under spontaneous living conditions. Actigraph-measured sleep data for 13 healthy young male adults were collected over 14 consecutive days and analyzed for habitual sleep duration. The total sleep time periodicity was modeled using the cosinor method for each individual across the 14 days. The findings confirm the existence of periodicity in habitual sleep duration as there were clear periodic patterns in the majority of the participants. Although exclusive to each individual, the observed oscillations may be a resultant response of homeostatic sleep need, circadian timing, and/or social and environmental influences. These findings instigate further indepth studies into the periodicity of sleep duration in healthy individuals to provide a better understanding of sleep need in short versus long sleepers, in predicting work performance, and reducing sleepiness-related accidents following shift work, and how this periodicity may impact sleep treatment outcome in clinical populations.Keywords: sleep regulation, homeostasis, habitual sleep, spontaneous living, healthy males
Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.
Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour
Habitat factors influencing the distribution of Cymbopogon validus in Mkambati Game Reserve, Transkei. ... disturbance; game reserve; grassland; grasslands; habitat conditions; habitat factors; mkambati game ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan
Bioavailability can be defined as the rate and range of active ingredient absorption, when it becomes available in the systemic circulation or at the desired site of drug action, respectively. Drug bioavailability after oral administration is affected by anumber of different factors, including physicochemical properties of the drug, physiological aspects, the type of dosage form, food intake, biorhythms, and intra- and interindividual variability of the human population. This article is the first from the series dealing with the bioavailability and methods leading to its improvement. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of aspects influencing the rate of bioavailability after oral administration of the active ingredient. Subsequentarticles will provide detailed descriptions of methods used for dug bioavailability improvement, which are here only summarized.
Ekwo, E E; Dusdieker, L B; Booth, B M
We used the critical incidence method to study factors motivating 33 primigravidas and 39 multigravidas to initiate breast-feeding of their infants. Women chose breast-feeding because they believed that it would provide protection to the infant against infection, establish maternal-infant bonding, was convenient, provided better nutrition than cow's milk formula, was emotionally satisfying, and was the natural way to feed infants. The decision to breast-feed was made well in advance of pregnancy by primigravidas and shortly before pregnancy by multigravidas. Friends who had successfully nursed infants were as influential as immediate family members in influencing our study subjects in their decision to breast-feed. Prenatal counseling, though important, may not be the optimal period for motivating women to breast-feed.
Chow, Meyrick C M
Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of "being there" in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users' attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.
Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.
El-Sheikh, Mona; Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.
We examined two sleep-wake parameters as moderators of the associations between exposure to family stressors and adolescent cognitive functioning. Participants were 252 school-recruited adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66% European American, 34% African American). Youths reported on three dimensions of family stress: marital conflict, harsh parenting, and parental psychological control. Cognitive functioning was indexed through performance on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Sleep minutes and efficiency were measured objectively using actigraphy. Towards identifying unique effects, path models controlled for two family stress variables while estimating the third. Analyses revealed that sleep efficiency moderated the associations between negative parenting (harsh parenting and parental psychological control) and adolescents’ cognitive functioning. The highest level of cognitive performance was predicted for adolescents with higher levels of sleep efficiency in conjunction with lower levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control. The effects of sleep were more pronounced at lower levels of negative parenting where adolescents with higher sleep efficiency performed better than their counterparts with poorer sleep. At higher levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control, similar levels of cognitive performance were observed regardless of sleep. Results are discussed in comparison to other recent studies on interrelations among family stress, sleep, and cognitive performance in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25329625
Lee, Austin F; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Kazis, Lewis E; Li, Nien Chen; Rose, Mary; Liang, Matthew H; Wang, Chao; Palmieri, Tina; Meyer, Walter J; Pidcock, Frank S; Reilly, Debra; Sheridan, Robert L; Tompkins, Ronald G
Restorative sleep is an important component of quality of life. Disturbances in sleep after burn injury were reported but all based on uncontrolled or nonstandardized data. The occurrence and the effect of long-term sleep problems in young adult burn survivors have not been well defined. This 5-year (2003-2008) prospective multicenter longitudinal study included adults with burn injuries ages 19 to 30 years who completed the Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire (YABOQ) up to 36 months after injury. The items measured 15 patient-reported outcomes including physical, psychological, and social statuses and symptoms such as itch and pain. Scores of these 15 YABOQ outcome domains were standardized to a mean of 50 and a SD of 10 based on an age-matched nonburned reference group of young adults. Sleep quality was assessed using the item 'How satisfied are you now with your sleep,' rated by a 5-point Likert scale. Patients responding with very and somewhat dissatisfied were classified as having sleep dissatisfaction and the remaining as less or not dissatisfied. The associations between sleep dissatisfaction (yes/no) and YABOQ outcome domains were analyzed longitudinally using mixed-effect generalized linear models, adjusted for %TBSA burned, age, gender, and race. Generalized estimating equations were used to take into account correlated error resulting from repeated surveys on each patient over time. One hundred and fifty-two burn survivors participated in the YABOQ survey at baseline and during the follow-up who had at least one survey with a response to the sleep item. Among them, sleep dissatisfaction was twice as prevalent (76/152, 50%) when compared with the nonburned reference group (29/112, 26%). The likelihood of a burn survivor being dissatisfied with sleep was reduced over time after the burn injury. Sleep dissatisfaction following burns was significantly associated, in a dose-dependent manner, with increasing burn size (P = .001). Better sleep was associated
Kalmbach, David A.; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J. Todd; Anderson, Jason R.; Drake, Christopher L.
Objectives To test for sensitization of the sleep system in response to insomnia development and major life stress. In addition, to evaluate the impact on depression and anxiety associated with sleep system sensitization. Methods A longitudinal study with three annual assessments. The community-based sample included 262 adults with no history of insomnia or depression who developed insomnia 1 year after baseline (67.6% female; 44.0±13.4y). Measures included the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test to assess sleep reactivity, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Insomnia classification was based on DSM-IV criteria. Sleep system sensitization was operationally defined as significant increases in sleep reactivity. Results Sensitization of the sleep system was observed from baseline to insomnia onset at 1-y follow-up among insomniacs with low premorbid vulnerability (pinsomnia remission (pinsomnia onset. The impact of sensitization on depression was stable at 2-y follow-up (p=.01). Conclusions Evidence supports sensitization of the sleep system as consequence of insomnia development and major life stress among individuals with low premorbid sleep reactivity. Sleep system sensitization may serve as a mechanism by which insomnia is perpetuated. Harmful effects of the sensitization process may increase risk for insomnia-related depression and anxiety. PMID:27448474
Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Anderson, Jason R; Drake, Christopher L
To test for sensitization of the sleep system in response to insomnia development and major life stress. In addition, to evaluate the impact on depression and anxiety associated with sleep system sensitization. A longitudinal study with three annual assessments. The community-based sample included 262 adults with no history of insomnia or depression who developed insomnia one year after baseline (67.6% female; 44.0 ± 13.4 yr). Measures included the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test to assess sleep reactivity, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Insomnia classification was based on DSM-IV criteria. Sleep system sensitization was operationally defined as significant increases in sleep reactivity. Sensitization of the sleep system was observed from baseline to insomnia onset at 1-yr follow-up among insomniacs with low premorbid vulnerability (p insomnia remission (p insomnia onset. The impact of sensitization on depression was stable at 2-yr follow-up (p = 0.01). Evidence supports sensitization of the sleep system as a consequence of insomnia development and major life stress among individuals with low premorbid sleep reactivity. Sleep system sensitization may serve as a mechanism by which insomnia is perpetuated. Harmful effects of the sensitization process may increase risk for insomnia-related depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jacobs, Marie L; Dauvilliers, Yves; St Louis, Erik K; McCarter, Stuart J; Romenets, Silvia Rios; Pelletier, Amélie; Cherif, Mahmoud; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ronald B
Numerous large-scale studies have found diverse risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), including caffeine non-use, non-smoking, head injury, pesticide exposure, and family history. These studies assessed risk factors for PD overall; however, PD is a heterogeneous condition. One of the strongest identifiers of prognosis and disease subtype is the co-occurrence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD).In previous studies, idiopathic RBD was associated with a different risk factor profile from PD and dementia with Lewy bodies, suggesting that the PD-RBD subtype may also have a different risk factor profile. To define risk factors for PD in patients with or without associated RBD. In a questionnaire, we assessed risk factors for PD, including demographic, medical, environmental, and lifestyle variables of 189 PD patients with or without associated polysomnography-confirmed RBD. The risk profile of patients with vs. without RBD was assessed with logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, and disease duration. PD-RBD patients were more likely to have been a welder (OR = 3.11 (1.05-9.223), and to have been regular smokers (OR = 1.96 (1.04-3.68)). There were no differences in use of caffeine or alcohol, other occupations, pesticide exposure, rural living, or well water use. Patients with RBD had a higher prevalence of the combined family history of both dementia and parkinsonism (13.3% vs. 5.5% , OR = 3.28 (1.07-10.0). The RBD-specific subtype of PD may also have a different risk factor profile.
Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher
The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to
Gascoyne, M.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Sargent, F.P.
The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes
Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000872.htm Teenagers and sleep To use the sharing features on this page, ... need. What Makes it Hard for Teens to Sleep? Several factors make it hard for teens to ...
Liu, Jean C J; Verhulst, Silvan; Massar, Stijn A A; Chee, Michael W L
We examined how sleep deprivation alters physiological responses to psychosocial stress by evaluating changes in skin conductance. Between-subjects design with one group allocated to 24 h of total sleep deprivation and the other to rested wakefulness. The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants were 40 healthy young adults recruited from a university. Sleep deprivation and feedback. Electrodermal activity was monitored while participants completed a difficult perceptual task with false feedback. All participants showed increased skin conductance levels following stress. However, compared to well-rested participants, sleep deprived participants showed higher skin conductance reactivity with increasing stress levels. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation augments allostatic responses to increasing psychosocial stress. Consequentially, we propose sleep loss as a risk factor that can influence the pathogenic effects of stress. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Canto, Cathrin B; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; De Zeeuw, Chris I
We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology, cerebro-cerebellar interactions during sleep, or the contributions of sleep to cerebellum-dependent memory consolidation. Likewise, we do not understand why cerebellar malfunction can lead to changes in the sleep-wake cycle and sleep disorders. In this review, we evaluate how sleep and cerebellar processing may influence one another and highlight which scientific routes and technical approaches could be taken to uncover the mechanisms underlying these interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bueno, Clarissa; Menna-Barreto, Luiz
Photic and non-photic environmental factors are suggested to modulate the development of circadian rhythms in infants. Our aim is to evaluate the development of biological rhythms (circadian or ultradian) in newborns in transition from Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) to home and along the first 6 months of life, to identify masking and entraining environment factors along development. Ten newborns were evaluated in their last week inside the NICU and in the first week after being delivered home; 6 babies were also followed until 6 months of corrected age. Activity, recorded with actimeters, wrist temperature and observed sleep and feeding behavior were recorded continuously along their last week inside the NICU and in the first week at home and also until 6 months of corrected age for the subjects who remained in the study. Sleep/wake and activity/rest cycle showed ultradian patterns and the sleep/wake was strongly influenced by the 3 h feeding schedule inside the NICU, while wrist temperature showed a circadian pattern that seemed no to be affected by environmental cycles. A circadian rhythm emerges for sleep/wake behavior in the first week at home, whereas the 3 h period vanishes. Both activity/rest and wrist temperature presented a sudden increase in the contribution of the circadian component immediately after babies were delivered home, also suggesting a masking effect of the NICU environment. We found a positive correlation of postconceptional age and the increase in the daily component of activity and temperature along the following 6 months, while feeding behavior became arrhythmic.
Background: Several factors, such as cost, branding, packaging and family influence, had been implicated as influencing the choice of toothpastes and toothbrushes by individuals. Media advertisement is also considered a very strong factor influencing consumer's choice. Aim: To assess the extent to which some factors ...
Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Narusyte, Jurgita; Alexanderson, Kristina; Svedberg, Pia
A number of studies have shown a U-shaped association between sleep duration and mortality. Since sleep duration is partly genetically determined, it seems likely that its association with mortality is also genetically influenced. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence on heredity on the association between sleep duration and mortality. We used a cohort of 14267 twins from the Swedish Twin Registry. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusted for a number of covariates, confirmed a clear U shape with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.34 and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.57 for a sleep duration of ≤6.5 hours and HR = 1.18 (CI = 1.07-1.30) for sleep of ≥9.5 hours. Reference value was 7.0 hours. A co-twin analysis of 1942 twins discordant on mortality showed a HR = 2.66 (CI = 1.17-6.04) for long (≥9.5 hours) sleep in monzygotic twins and an HR = 0.66 (CI = 0.20-2.14) for short (sleep. In dizygotic twins, no association was significant. The heritability for mortality was 28% for the whole group, while it was 86% for short sleepers and 42% for long sleepers. Thus, the link with mortality for long sleep appears to be more due to environmental factors than to heredity, while heritability dominates among short sleepers. We found that both long and short sleep were associated with higher total mortality, that the difference in mortality within twin pairs is associated with long sleep, and that short sleep has a higher heritability for mortality, while long sleep is associated with more environmental influences on mortality. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail email@example.com.
Fang, J; Fishbein, W
Previously, we reported that paradoxical sleep (PS) is sexually dimorphic in mice and rats. Since some early studies indicate that PS is suppressed during proestrus night, it is important to know whether the estrus cycle and accompanying circulating ovarian hormones could explain the sexual dimorphism of PS. To examine this, sleep patterns of male rats were compared with those of normal cycling female rats and ovariectomized females in a 12:12 h light/dark cycle. Slow wave sleep and total sleep time are indistinguishable between the males, cycling females and ovariectomized females. However, normal males display significantly more PS than cycling females during both daytime and nighttime (average of all estrus stages). On the other hand, while ovariectomy has no visible effect on daytime sleep--the sexual dimorphism of PS is unchanged by ovariectomy--during nighttime, ovariectomy produces a selective increase of PS, eliminating the sex difference during the night. In sum, normal cycling females show no change in daytime sleep patterns across the estrus cycle, but have significantly less PS during proestrus nights than during metestrus and diestrus nights. The results indicate that the sex difference in nighttime PS is due to the suppression of PS by ovarian hormones during proestrus and, to a less extent, estrus nights. The sex difference in daytime PS, on the other hand, appears to be independent of circulating ovarian hormones.
Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse different views on interpersonal relations and team composition among managers and medical professionals with respect to the transition of professional roles in healthcare in Poland. To achieve that goal, a description based on a quantitative and qualitative questionnaire was conducted. Since the questionnaire covered various areas of health care, only its small fraction was used for the analysis. The main result is that most of the medical professionals and medical managers consider technology to be the single most important external factor influencing the team work efficiency and team composition in health care, and the managers consider skillset as the crucial factor determining whether a person would be a good team member. Based on the literature on professional roles in health care and their evolution in recent years, one can assume that constant development and lifelong learning would play a significant role in the healthcare systems reform. The findings are an important contribution to the discussion of the healthcare reform and its possible directions in future years as well a reference point for policy makers.
Full Text Available Startup assistance organizations, and especially business accelerators have gained a lot of traction in the last years, captioning not only the attention of the public, but most importantly that of investors and other stakeholders. It has become a challenge for many all around the world to develop such programs, but many have failed or did not have their expected results, meaning medium to long-term sustainable and profitable alumni start-ups. As high amounts of resources, both human and financial, are being invested in the design and development of such programs, it is important to understand what sets apart the successful business acceleration programs from the ones that fail. The current paper is reviewing the up-to-date theoretical literature and studies on the matter at hand, in order to identify the most relevant factors influencing startup assistance organizations’ performance. The objective behind identifying these factors is to get a better understanding of best practices of such successful programs and set the basis for future research regarding the development of a set of metrics for more accurately measuring their performance.
Sufrinko, Alicia; Johnson, Eric W; Henry, Luke C
Typically, the effects of sleep duration on cognition are examined in isolation. This study examined the effects of restricted sleep and related symptoms on neurocognitive performance. Baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) and postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS) were administered to athletes (N = 7,150) ages 14-17 (M = 15.26, SD = 1.09) prior to sport participation. Three groups of athletes were derived from total sleep duration: sleep restriction (≤5 hours), typical sleep (5.5-8.5 hours), and optimal sleep (≥9 hours). A MANCOVA (age and sex as covariates) was conducted to examine differences across ImPACT/PCSS. Follow-up MANOVA compared ImPACT/PCSS performance among symptomatic (e.g., trouble falling asleep, sleeping less than usual) adolescents from the sleep restriction group (n = 78) with asymptomatic optimal sleepers (n = 99). A dose-response effect of sleep duration on ImPACT performance and PCSS was replicated (Wilk's λ = .98, F2,7145 = 17.25, p sleep restricted adolescents (n = 78) had poorer neurocognitive performance: verbal memory, F = 11.60, p = .001, visual memory, F = 6.57, p = .01, visual motor speed, F = 6.19, p = .01, and reaction time (RT), F = 5.21, p = .02, compared to demographically matched controls (n = 99). Girls in the sleep problem group performed worse on RT (p = .024). Examining the combination of sleep-related symptoms and reduced sleep duration effectively identified adolescents at risk for poor neurocognitive performance than sleep duration alone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Torres-Gimeno, Ana; Martínez-Costa, Lucía; Ayala, Guillermo
To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue), graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis), and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain). The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women) presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.
Gandotra, Kamal; Golish, Joseph; Rosenberg, Carl; Strohl, Kingman
We present a case of a patient with dissociative identity disorder and symptomatic sleep apnea who was treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). CPAP use depended upon which personality the patient exhibited but apnea reduction did not. This case illustrates in one individual how personality can positively or negatively affect CPAP adherence. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Meerlo, Peter; Havekes, Robbert; Steiger, Axel; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted
Sleep problems are a common complaint in the majority of people suffering from depression. While sleep complaints were traditionally seen as a symptom of mood disorders, accumulating evidence suggests that in many cases the relationship may be reverse as well. A long list of longitudinal studies
Full Text Available Gunilla M Liedberg,1 Mathilda Björk,2 Björn Börsbo31Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, 2Rehabilitation Centre and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, 3Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH, Linköping University, Linköping, SwedenPurpose: The purpose of this study was: 1 to determine variables that might characterize good or bad sleep; and 2 to describe the relationship between sleep, impairment of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life based on quality of sleep in women with fibromyalgia (FM. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study included 224 consecutive patients diagnosed at a specialist center. These patients were mailed a questionnaire concerning sleep, body functions, personal factors, and health-related quality of life. In total, 145 completed questionnaires were collected. Results: Using sleep variables (sleep quality, waking up unrefreshed, and tiredness when getting up, we identified two subgroups – the good sleep subgroup and the bad sleep subgroup – of women with FM. These subgroups exhibited significantly different characteristics concerning pain intensity, psychological variables (depressed mood, anxiety, catastrophizing, and self-efficacy, impairments of body functions, and generic and health-related quality of life. The good sleep subgroup reported a significantly better situation, including higher employment/study rate. The bad sleep subgroup reported a greater use of sleep medication. Five variables determined inclusion into either a good sleep or a bad sleep subgroup: pain in the evening, self-efficacy, anxiety, and according to the Short Form health survey role emotional and physical functioning. Conclusion: This study found that it was possible to identify two subgroups of women with FM based on quality of sleep variables. The two subgroups differed significantly with respect to pain, psychological
Misonoh, Jun; Ojima, Mitsuaki; Yonezawa, Morio
Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)
Baiardi, Simone; Cirignotta, Fabio; Cicolin, Alessandro; Garbazza, Corrado; D'Agostino, Armando; Gambini, Orsola; Giordano, Alessandra; Canevini, Mariapaola; Zambrelli, Elena; Marconi, Anna Maria; Mondini, Susanna; Borgwardt, Stefan; Cajochen, Christian; Rizzo, Nicola; Manconi, Mauro
Perinatal depression (PND) has an overall estimated prevalence of roughly 12 %. Untreated PND has significant negative consequences not only on the health of the mothers, but also on the physical, emotional and cognitive development of their children. No certain risk factors are known to predict PND and no completely safe drug treatments are available during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Sleep and depression are strongly related to each other because of a solid reciprocal causal relationship. Bright light therapy (BLT) is a well-tested and safe treatment, effective in both depression and circadian/sleep disorders. In a 3-year longitudinal, observational, multicentre study, about 500 women will be recruited and followed-up from early pregnancy (10-15 gestational week) until 12 months after delivery. The primary aim of the present study is to systematically explore and characterize risk factors for PND by prospective sleep assessment (using wrist actigraphy, polysomnography and various sleep questionnaires) and bloodbased analysis of potential markers during the perinatal period (Life-ON study). Secondary aims are to explore the relationship between specific genetic polymorphisms and PND (substudy Life-ON1), to investigate the effectiveness of BLT in treating PND (substudy Life-ON2) and to test whether a short term trial of BLT during pregnancy can prevent PND (substudy Life-ON3). The characterization of specific predictive and risk factors for PND may substantially contribute to improve preventive medical and social strategies for the affected women. The study results are expected to promote a better understanding of the relationship between sleep disorders and the development of PND and to confirm, in a large sample of women, the safety and efficacy of BLT both in prevention and treatment of PND. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02664467 . Registered 13 January 2016.
Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C
In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
It has been recognized that improved methods of verifying radiation field placement in external beam radiotherapy are required in order to make frequent checks of field placement feasible. As a result, a large number of electronic portal imaging systems have been developed as possible replacements for film. These developments have produced digital systems with faster acquisition and improved display contrast, however, the quality of the images acquired with such systems is still disappointing. This presentation examines many of the fundamental factors which limit the quality of radiographs obtained with a megavoltage radiotherapy beam. The size and shape of the radiation sources (focal and extra-focal) in radiotherapy machines and their influence on the spatial resolution of portal images are examined. Monte Carlo simulations of x-ray interactions within the patient determined that a significant fraction of the x-ray scatter generated in the patient is due to bremsstrahlung and positron annihilation. Depending on the detector, the scatter signal can reduce the differential signal-to-noise by 20%. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo study of the interaction of x-rays within typical fluoroscopic imaging detectors (metal plate/phosphor screen) demonstrates the degrading effect of energy absorption noise on the detective quantum efficiency of fluoroscopic based imaging systems. Finally, the spatial frequency content in the x-ray shadowgram is demonstrated to change with x-ray energy, resulting in images that appear to have reduced spatial resolution at megavoltage energies. The relative magnitude of each of these factors will be presented and recommendations for the next generation of portal imaging systems will be made
Comasco, Erika; Gulinello, Maria; Hellgren, Charlotte; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Sylven, Sara; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger
The postpartum period is characterized by a post-withdrawal hormonal status, sleep deprivation, and susceptibility to affective disorders. Postpartum mothering involves automatic and attentional processes to screen out new external as well as internal stimuli. The present study investigated sensorimotor gating in relation to sleep duration, depression, as well as catecholaminergic and oxytocinergic genotypes in postpartum women. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex and startle reactivity were assessed two months postpartum in 141 healthy and 29 depressed women. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met, and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) rs237885 and rs53576 polymorphisms were genotyped, and data on sleep duration were collected. Short sleep duration (less than four hours in the preceding night) and postpartum depression were independently associated with lower PPI. Also, women with postpartum depression had higher startle reactivity in comparison with controls. The OXTR rs237885 genotype was related to PPI in an allele dose-dependent mode, with T/T healthy postpartum women carriers displaying the lowest PPI. Reduced sensorimotor gating was associated with sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms during the postpartum period. Individual neurophysiological vulnerability might be mediated by oxytocinergic genotype which relates to bonding and stress response. These findings implicate the putative relevance of lower PPI of the startle response as an objective physiological correlate of liability to postpartum depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Manjunath, N K; Telles, Shirley
Sleep in older persons is characterized by decreased ability to stay asleep, resulting in fragmented sleep and reduced daytime alertness. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia in older persons is associated with hazardous side effects. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the effects of Yoga and Ayurveda on the self rated sleep in a geriatric population. Of the 120 residents from a home for the aged, 69 were stratified based on age (five year intervals) and randomly allocated to three groups i.e., Yoga (physical postures, relaxation techniques, voluntarily regulated breathing and lectures on yoga philosophy), Ayurveda (a herbal preparation), and Wait-list control (no intervention). The groups were evaluated for self-assessment of sleep over a one week period at baseline, and after three and six months of the respective interventions. The Yoga group showed a significant decrease in the time taken to fall asleep (approximate group average decrease: 10 min, P<0.05), an increase in the total number of hours slept (approximate group average increase: 60 min, P< 0.05) and in the feeling of being rested in the morning based on a rating scale (P<0.05) after six months. The other groups showed no significant change. Yoga practice improved different aspects of sleep in a geriatric population.
Watson, Emily J; Coates, Alison M; Banks, Siobhan; Kohler, Mark
This study aimed to compare sugar intake in Australian children with current guidelines and determine if total sugar consumption as a percentage of energy (sugar %E) exacerbates the relationship between sleep and behaviour. A sample of 287 children aged 8-12 years (boys 48.8%, age: 10.7 ± 1.3 years), and their parents/guardians completed a battery of questionnaires. Children completed a food frequency questionnaire, and parents completed demographic, sleep, and behaviour questionnaires. Average sugar intake was 134.9 ± 71.7 g per day (sugar %E 26.0 ± 7.0%), and only 55 (19%) participants did not exceed the recommended sugar intake limit. Correlations and logistical regressions indicated that sugar %E was not associated with sleep or behavioural domains (r range = -0.07-0.08; p range = .173-.979) nor contributed to the prediction of sleep behaviour problems (p range = .16-.80). Whilst a high proportion of children consumed above the recommended amount of daily total sugar, total sugar consumption was not related to behavioural or sleep problems, nor affected the relationship between these variables.
Castroflorio, Tommaso; Bargellini, Andrea; Rossini, Gabriele; Cugliari, Giovanni; Deregibus, Andrea
The aim of this article was to systematically review the literature to assess the relationship between risk factors and sleep bruxism (SB) in adults (age ≥18 years). A systematic search of the following databases was carried out: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trial Register and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACs and SciELO. Nine out of the 4583 initially identified articles were selected. This review was conducted according to the guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, with reporting in agreement to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Among the nine analyzed articles, associations between SB and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR=6.6, CI=1.4-30.9) was found in one randomized clinical trial (RCT). Four cross-sectional studies suggested history of SB during childhood (OR=8.1 CI=5.4-12-2), age (OR=3.1, CI=2.3-4.1) and chronic migraine (OR=3.8, C.I=1.8-7.8) as determinant factors for the development of SB. In one case-control study, patients with genetic polymorphisms were more likely to present SB (OR=4.3, CI=1.6-11.3). Smoking (OR=2.8, CI=2.2-3.5) and alcohol intake (OR=1.9, CI=1.2-2.8) showed moderate association in two case-control studies. History of SB during childhood, gastro-esophageal reflux disease and genetic polymorphisms seem to be important risk factors associated to SB in adults. Dry mouth on awakening seems to be a protective factor. Association does not infer with causality. Even if the evidence emerged from the considered studies was clinically relevant, further studies are requested to better understand the biological mechanisms behind the described associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holdsworth, S.R.; Askins, M.; Baker, A.; Gariboldi, E.; Holmstroem, S.; Klenk, A.; Ringel, M.; Merckling, G.; Sandstrom, R.; Schwienheer, M.; Spigarelli, S.
During the course of the EU-funded Advanced-Creep Thematic Network, ECCC-WG1 reviewed the applicability and effectiveness of a range of model equations to represent the accumulation of creep strain in various engineering alloys. In addition to considering the experience of network members, the ability of several models to describe the deformation characteristics of large single and multi-cast collations of ε(t,T,σ) creep curves have been evaluated in an intensive assessment inter-comparison activity involving three steels, 21/4 CrMo (P22), 9CrMoVNb (Steel-91) and 18Cr13NiMo (Type-316). The choice of the most appropriate creep model equation for a given application depends not only on the high-temperature deformation characteristics of the material under consideration, but also on the characteristics of the dataset, the number of casts for which creep curves are available and on the strain regime for which an analytical representation is required. The paper focuses on the factors which can influence creep model selection and model-fitting approach for multi-source, multi-cast datasets
Walsh, Audrey; Taylor, Claudette; Brennick, Debbie
Background Young adult university students living on campus are at an increased risk of developing lifestyle habits that encourage unintentional weight gain. Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify the individual and contextual factors that influence campus dwelling university students' facility to practice healthy living guidelines that reduce their risk of unintentional weight gain. Lifestyle practices included nutrition, physical activity, and sleep. Methods For seven days, 48 campus dwelling students recorded their activities and reflected on how closely they were able to follow recommended healthy living guidelines. Recorded data were supplemented by follow-up focus groups. All data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Students described multiple factors and conditions that influenced their facility to practice healthy living guidelines for nutrition, activity, and sleep. Many students' lifestyle practices put them at an increased risk of unintentional weight gain. Conclusions The campus environment challenges student's facility to practice healthy living guidelines. Nurses can intervene to build individual student capacity and to advocate for environmental polices that increase students' facility to choose lifestyle practices that promote health, lessen their risk of unintentional weight gain, and reduce their risk of developing chronic illness.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ≥14 days during the past 30 days, obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged ≥ 18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity. Results The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p Conclusions Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health.
Full Text Available Liang-Wen Hang,1,2 Jeng-Yuan Hsu,3 Chee-Jen Chang,4 Hao-Chien Wang,5,6 Shih-Lung Cheng,7,8 Ching-Hsiung Lin,9 Ming-Cheng Chan,3 Chin-Chou Wang,10 Diahn-Warng Perng,11 Chong-Jen Yu5,6 On behalf of the Taiwan COPD Consortium 1Department of Respiratory Therapy, College of Health Care, China Medical University, 2Sleep Medicine Center, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, 4Biostatistical Center for Clinical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Branch, Guishan Township, Taoyuan County, 5Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, 6Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University, College of Medicine, Taipei, 7Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, 8Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li City, Taoyuan County, 9Division of Chest Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua City, Changhua County, 10Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, 11Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Background and objectives: COPD and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA share similar pathological processes and cardiovascular sequelae. Coexisting OSA in COPD – “overlap syndrome” – has worse prognosis than either condition alone, and appropriate treatment improves survival. Our objectives were to ascertain the frequency at which COPD coexists with the risk of OSA in Taiwan and to compare the risk factors, COPD symptoms, and life quality metrics between COPD subgroups with versus without risk of OSA. Methods: We conducted a random cross-sectional national telephone survey of adults >40 years old in Taiwan. Participants fulfilling an epidemiological case definition of COPD completed a
Ramlee, Fatanah; Sanborn, Adam N; Tang, Nicole K Y
We conceptualized sleep quality judgment as a decision-making process and examined the relative importance of 17 parameters of sleep quality using a choice-based conjoint analysis. One hundred participants (50 good sleepers; 50 poor sleepers) were asked to choose between 2 written scenarios to answer 1 of 2 questions: "Which describes a better (or worse) night of sleep?". Each scenario described a self-reported experience of sleep, stringing together 17 possible determinants of sleep quality that occur at different times of the day (day before, pre-sleep, during sleep, upon waking, day after). Each participant answered 48 questions. Logistic regression models were fit to their choice data. Eleven of the 17 sleep quality parameters had a significant impact on the participants' choices. The top 3 determinants of sleep quality were: Total sleep time, feeling refreshed (upon waking), and mood (day after). Sleep quality judgments were most influenced by factors that occur during sleep, followed by feelings and activities upon waking and the day after. There was a significant interaction between wake after sleep onset and feeling refreshed (upon waking) and between feeling refreshed (upon waking) and question type (better or worse night of sleep). Type of sleeper (good vs poor sleepers) did not significantly influence the judgments. Sleep quality judgments appear to be determined by not only what happened during sleep, but also what happened after the sleep period. Interventions that improve mood and functioning during the day may inadvertently also improve people's self-reported evaluation of sleep quality. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].
Cheyne, Susan M; Höing, Andrea; Rinear, John; Sheeran, Lori K
Primates spend a significant proportion of their lives at sleeping sites: the selection of a secure and stable sleeping tree can be crucial for individual survival and fitness. We measured key characteristics of all tree species in which agile gibbons slept, including exposure of the tree crown, root system, height, species and presence of food. Gibbons most frequently slept in Dipterocarpaceae and Fabaceae trees and preferentially chose trees taller than average, slept above the mean canopy height and showed a preference for liana-free trees. These choices could reflect avoidance of competition with other frugivores, but we argue these choices reflect gibbons prioritizing avoidance of predation. The results highlight that gibbons are actively selecting and rejecting sleeping trees based on several characteristics. The importance of the presence of large trees for food is noted and provides insight into gibbon antipredatory behaviour. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Banks, Gareth; Heise, Ines; Starbuck, Becky; Osborne, Tamzin; Wisby, Laura; Potter, Paul; Jackson, Ian J; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N; Nolan, Patrick M
The circadian system is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via retinal photoreceptors and regulates numerous aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep. These processes are all key factors in healthy aging showing a gradual decline with age. Despite their importance, the exact mechanisms underlying this decline are yet to be fully understood. One of the most effective tools we have to understand the genetic factors underlying these processes are genetically inbred mouse strains. The most commonly used reference mouse strain is C57BL/6J, but recently, resources such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium have started producing large numbers of mouse mutant lines on a pure genetic background, C57BL/6N. Considering the substantial genetic diversity between mouse strains we expect there to be phenotypic differences, including differential effects of aging, in these and other strains. Such differences need to be characterized not only to establish how different mouse strains may model the aging process but also to understand how genetic background might modify age-related phenotypes. To ascertain the effects of aging on sleep/wake behavior, circadian rhythms, and light input and whether these effects are mouse strain-dependent, we have screened C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, C3H-HeH, and C3H-Pde6b+ mouse strains at 5 ages throughout their life span. Our data show that sleep, circadian, and light input parameters are all disrupted by the aging process. Moreover, we have cataloged a number of strain-specific aging effects, including the rate of cataract development, decline in the pupillary light response, and changes in sleep fragmentation and the proportion of time spent asleep. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schlafer, O; Wenzel, V; Högl, B
Sleep disorders in physicians who perform shift work can result in increased risks of health problems that negatively impact performance and patient safety. Even those who cope well with shift work are likely to suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss possible causes, contributing factors and consequences of sleep disorders in physicians and to identify measures that can improve adaptation to shift work and treatment strategies for shift work-associated sleep disorders. The risk factors that influence the development of sleep disorders in physicians are numerous and include genetic factors (15 % of the population), age (> 50 years), undiagnosed sleep apnea,, alcohol abuse as well as multiple stress factors inherent in clinical duties (including shift work), research, teaching and family obligations. Several studies have reported an increased risk for medical errors in sleep-deprived physicians. Shift workers have an increased risk for psychiatric and cardiovascular diseases and shift work may also be a contributing factor to cancer. A relationship has been reported not only with sleep deprivation and changes in food intake but also with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Nicotine and alcohol consumption are more frequent among shift workers. Increased sickness and accident rates among physicians when commuting (especially after night shifts) have a socioeconomic impact. In order to reduce fatigue and to improve performance, short naps during shiftwork or naps plus caffeine, have been proposed as coping strategies; however, napping during adverse circadian phases is less effective, if not impossible when unable to fall asleep. Bright and blue light supports alertness during a night shift. After shiftwork, direct sunlight exposure to the retina can be avoided by using dark sunglasses or glasses with orange lenses for commuting home. The home environment for daytime sleeping after a night shift should be
There was significant difference between male and female career influencing factors. There was no significant difference regarding the influence exercised by parent in the students' choice of Business Education. There is significant difference between male and female in the influence exerted by external factors in their ...
Dickerson, Suzanne S; Klingman, Karen J; Jungquist, Carla R
The study's purpose was to understand the common meanings and shared practices related to good and bad sleep from narratives of a sample of healthy participants. Interpretive phenomenology was the approach to analyze narratives of the participants' everyday experiences with sleep. Participants were interviewed and asked to describe typical good and bad nights' sleep, what contributes to their sleep experience, and the importance of sleep in their lives. Team interpretations of narratives identified common themes by consensus. Medium sized city in New York State (upper west region). A sample of 30 healthy participants were from a parent study (n=300) on testing the sleep questions from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interpretations of good and bad sleep. Participants described similar experiences of good and bad sleep often directly related to their ability to schedule time to sleep, fall asleep, and maintain sleep. Worrying about life stresses and interruptions prevented participants from falling asleep and staying asleep. Yet, based on current life priorities (socializers, family work focused, and optimum health seekers), they had differing values related to seeking sleep opportunities and strategizing to overcome challenges. The participants' priorities reflected the context of their main concerns and stresses in life that influenced the importance given to promoting sleep opportunities. Public health messages tailored to life priorities could be developed to promote healthy sleep practices. Copyright © 2016 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ahrberg, K; Dresler, M; Niedermaier, S; Steiger, A; Genzel, L
Sleep quality has significant effects on cognitive performance and is influenced by multiple factors such as stress. Contrary to the ideal, medical students and residents suffer from sleep deprivation and stress at times when they should achieve the greatest amount of learning. In order to examine the relationship between sleep quality and academic performance, 144 medical students undertaking the pre-clinical board exam answered a survey regarding their subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index, PSQI), grades and subjective stress for three different time points: semester, pre- and post-exam. Academic performance correlated with stress and sleep quality pre-exam (r = 0.276, p quality and high stress), however not with the stress or sleep quality during the semester and post-exam. 59% of all participants exhibited clinically relevant sleep disturbances (PSQI > 5) during exam preparation compared to 29% during the semester and 8% post-exam. This study shows that in medical students it is not the generally poor sleepers, who perform worse in the medical board exams. Instead students who will perform worse on their exams seem to be more stressed and suffer from poor sleep quality. However, poor sleep quality may negatively impact test performance as well, creating a vicious circle. Furthermore, the rate of sleep disturbances in medical students should be cause for intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimerâs experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent disease and is recognised as a major public health burden. Large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated an independent relationship between OSAS and various cardiovascular disorders. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in OSAS is not completely understood but a multifactorial aetiology is likely. Inflammatory processes have emerged as critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis at all stages of atheroma formation. Increased levels of various circulating markers of inflammation including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 6 (IL6), IL-8 and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been reported as associated with future cardiovascular risk. There is increasing evidence of elevated inflammatory markers in OSAS with a significant fall after effective treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. This evidence is particularly strong for TNFalpha, whereas studies on IL6 and CRP have yielded conflicting results possibly due to the confounding effects of obesity. Cell culture and animal studies have significantly contributed to our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the association between OSAS and inflammation. Intermittent hypoxia, the hallmark of OSAS, results in activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein (AP)-1. These promote activation of various inflammatory cells, particularly lymphocytes and monocytes, with the downstream consequence of expression of pro-inflammatory mediators that may lead to endothelial dysfunction. This review provides a critical analysis of the current evidence for an association between OSAS, inflammation and cardiovascular disease, discusses basic mechanisms that may be responsible for this association and proposes future research possibilities.
Cristina Batista Miamoto
Full Text Available Studies have found a higher prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB in individuals with cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with the clinical manifestation of SB in children with and without cognitive impairment. The sample was made up of 180 individuals: Group 1 - without cognitive impairment; Group 2 - with Down syndrome; Group 3 - with cerebral palsy. Malocclusions were assessed based on the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI; lip competence was assessed based on Ballard's description. The bio-psychosocial characteristics were assessed via a questionnaire and clinical exam. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05 and multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of bruxism was 23%. There were no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.970. Individuals with sucking habits (OR [95% CI] = 4.44 [1.5 to 13.0], posterior crossbite (OR [95% CI] = 3.04 [1.2 to 7.5] and tooth wear facets (OR [95% CI] = 3.32 [1.2 to 8.7] had a greater chance of exhibiting SB. Sucking habits, posterior crossbite and tooth wear facets were identified as being directly associated with the clinical manifestations of bruxism.
Gagnadoux, Frédéric; Le Vaillant, Marc; Goupil, François; Pigeanne, Thierry; Chollet, Sylvaine; Masson, Philippe; Humeau, Marie-Pierre; Bizieux-Thaminy, Acya; Meslier, Nicole
Long-term adherence is a major issue in patients receiving home continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). In a multicenter prospective cohort (the Institut de Recherche en Santé Respiratoire des Pays de la Loire [IRSR] sleep cohort) of consecutive OSAHS patients in whom CPAP had been prescribed for at least 90 days, we studied the impact on long-term treatment adherence of socioeconomic factors, patients and disease characteristics prior to CPAP initiation. Among 1,141 patients in whom CPAP had been prescribed for an average of 504±251 days (range: 91 to 1035), 674 (59%) were adherent with a mean daily use of CPAP≥4 h (mean: 6.42±1.35 h). Stepwise regression analysis identified 4 independent factors of CPAP adherence including apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (OR: 1.549, 95%CI 1.163 to 2.062 for AHI≥30 vs. AHIstatus (OR: 1.414, 95%CI 1.097-1.821 for retired vs. employed; p = 0.007) and marital status (OR: 1.482, 95%CI 1.088-2.019 for married or living as a couple vs. living alone; p = 0.01). Age, gender, Epworth sleepiness scale, depressive syndrome, associated cardiovascular morbidities, educational attainment and occupation category did not influence CPAP adherence. Marital status and employment status are independent factors of CPAP adherence in addition to BMI and disease severity. Patients living alone and/or working patients are at greater risk of non-adherence, whereas adherence is higher in married and retired patients. These findings suggest that the social context of daily life should be taken into account in risk screening for CPAP non-adherence. Future interventional studies targeting at-risk patients should be designed to address social motivating factors and work-related barriers to CPAP adherence.
Vargas, Perla A
The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decade. Although an imbalance between caloric intake and physical activity is considered a key factor responsible for the increase, there is emerging evidence suggesting that other factors may be important contributors to weight gain, including inadequate sleep. Overall research evidence suggests that inadequate sleep is associated with obesity. Importantly, the strength and trajectory of the association seem to be influenced by multiple factors including age. Although limited, the emerging evidence suggests young adults might be at the center of a "perfect health storm," exposing them to the highest risk for obesity and inadequate sleep. Unfortunately, the methods necessary for elucidating the complex relationship between sleep and obesity are lacking. Uncovering the underlying factors and trajectories between inadequate sleep and weight gain in different populations may help to identify the windows of susceptibility and to design targeted interventions to prevent the negative impact of obesity and related diseases.
Fan, Liangxin; Gai, Lingtong; Tong, Yan; Li, Ruihua
Factors that affect water consumption should be identified to develop effective public policies. However, factors influencing domestic water consumption in cities in China, particularly on a national scale, are unclear. In this study, urban water consumption and its influencing factors in 286
None of the male students but 12 of the female students (30%) considered gender distribution to be a factor influencing their career choice (p=0.046). Conclusion. This study indicates that paediatrics is popular among female students and that several factors influence choice of this specialty. Understanding these factors may ...
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investigate factors that influence malaria prevention and control practices among pregnant ... treatment of clinical cases and the promotion of ... influence their decision regarding malaria ..... have the ability to purchase anti-malaria drugs that.
Factors influencing the adoption of mobile financial services in the unbanked population. ... Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences ... the influences of the adoption behaviour at different level of market maturity and points of time.
Objective: To examine factors which influence the use of different types of malaria prevention ... risk areas, religion, education and income influenced ITN usage, whereas only age, malaria .... the uptake of IPTp given that the person would not.
Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari processing among ... Result of probit model analysis at 5% significance level shows an R value ... Marital status (2.236**) and respondents' cultural influences (1.960**) were ...
Cristina, Romeo T.
Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.
Mnerie, Dumitru; Anghel, Gabriela Victoria; Mnerie, Alin Vasile; Cheveresan, Constantin
The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...
Suran Guo; chang liu; wenmei sun; siwei wu
The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in Chinese undergraduate students. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey with 631 Chinese undergraduate students was conducted, and the questionnaire package included a measure of demographic characteristics, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Chinese editions of Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, State- Trait Anxiety Inventory, Rumination Response Scale, and Perceived ...
Brychta, Robert J; Arnardóttir, Nanna Ýr; Jóhannsson, Erlingur
Study Objectives: To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. Methods: A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 +/- 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger...
Marcussen, Lillian; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Thygesen, Torben
Student's t test and the Wilcoxon signed rank test, and mixed-model analyses were performed adjusting for sleep apnea severity, type 2 diabetes, body mass index, gender, and age. RESULTS: A total of 44 patients (31 men and 13 women, age 50 ± 13 years, body mass index 31 ± 5.6 kg/m(2)) completed the trial...
Ohmure, H; Oikawa, K; Kanematsu, K; Saito, Y; Yamamoto, T; Nagahama, H; Tsubouchi, H; Miyawaki, S
The aim of this cross-over, randomized, single-blinded trial was to examine whether intra-esophageal acidification induces sleep bruxism (SB). Polysomnography with electromyogram (EMG) of masseter muscle, audio-video recording, and esophageal pH monitoring were performed in a sleep laboratory. Twelve healthy adult males without SB participated. Intra-esophageal infusions of 5-mL acidic solution (0.1 N HCl) or saline were administered. The frequencies of EMG bursts, rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) episodes, grinding noise, and the RMMA/microarousal ratio were significantly higher in the 20-minute period after acidic infusion than after saline infusion. RMMA episodes including SB were induced by esophageal acidification. This trial is registered with the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, UMIN000002923. ASDA, American Sleep Disorders Association; EMG, electromyogram; GER, gastroesophageal reflux; LES, lower esophageal sphincter; NREM, non-rapid eye movement; REM, rapid eye movement; RMMA, rhythmic masticatory muscle activity; SB, sleep bruxism; SD, standard deviation; UES, upper esophageal sphincter.
Hou, F. Z.; Li, F. W.; Wang, J.; Yan, F. R.
Based on a visibility-graph algorithm, complex networks were constructed from very short-term heart rate variability (HRV) during different sleep stages. Network measurements progressively changed from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep to light sleep and then deep sleep, exhibiting promising ability for sleep assessment. Abnormal activation of the cardiovascular controls with enhanced 'small-world' couplings and altered fractal organization during REM sleep indicates that REM could be a potential risk factor for adverse cardiovascular event, especially in males, older individuals, and people who are overweight. Additionally, an apparent influence of gender, aging, and obesity on sleep was demonstrated in healthy adults, which may be helpful for establishing expected sleep-HRV patterns in different populations.
Lee, Wang-Tso; Huang, Hui-Ling; Wong, Lee Chin; Weng, Wen-Chin; Vasylenko, Tamara; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Ho, Shinn-Ying
Tourette syndrome (TS) is associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric comorbidities. However, the relationship between TS and sleep disorders in children is less investigated. This nationwide population-based case-control study aimed to determine the correlation of TS and sleep disorders in children. Patients aged less than 18 years with newly diagnosed TS from 2001 to 2007 were collected (n = 1124) using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database and were compared with a comparison cohort (n = 3372). The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for developing sleep disorders was calculated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. TS was more prevalent in boys, with a male to female ratio of 3.16:1. TS group also had significantly higher urbanization level of residence than controls (p < .001). The overall incidence rate of sleep disorders was 7.24‰ in children with TS, compared to 3.53‰ in controls. The TS group was associated with a significantly higher rate of sleep disorders, with a crude HR of 2.05 (95% confidence inerval [CI] = 1.43-2.95, p < .001). Among the comorbidities of TS, anxiety disorder was associated with the highest risk for sleep disorders (crude HR = 3.26, 95% CI = 1.52-7.00, p < .001). The aHR for TS cohort to develop sleep disorders was 1.72 (95% CI = 1.16-2.53, p = .007). The increased risk of sleep disorders in children with TS cannot be fully attributed to its comorbidities, and TS is an independent risk factor for sleep disorders in children. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Masud, E. [ed.
This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)
Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.
Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the
Dec 1, 2012 ... Nigeria. Study design: Both qualitative (focus group discussions) and quantitative (cross-sectional ... Keywords: Condom, unsafe sex, HIV, gender, undergraduates. ..... QUESTIONS: the following may influence condom.
Batterink, Laura J; Creery, Jessica D; Paller, Ken A
Slow oscillations during slow-wave sleep (SWS) may facilitate memory consolidation by regulating interactions between hippocampal and cortical networks. Slow oscillations appear as high-amplitude, synchronized EEG activity, corresponding to upstates of neuronal depolarization and downstates of hyperpolarization. Memory reactivations occur spontaneously during SWS, and can also be induced by presenting learning-related cues associated with a prior learning episode during sleep. This technique, targeted memory reactivation (TMR), selectively enhances memory consolidation. Given that memory reactivation is thought to occur preferentially during the slow-oscillation upstate, we hypothesized that TMR stimulation effects would depend on the phase of the slow oscillation. Participants learned arbitrary spatial locations for objects that were each paired with a characteristic sound (eg, cat-meow). Then, during SWS periods of an afternoon nap, one-half of the sounds were presented at low intensity. When object location memory was subsequently tested, recall accuracy was significantly better for those objects cued during sleep. We report here for the first time that this memory benefit was predicted by slow-wave phase at the time of stimulation. For cued objects, location memories were categorized according to amount of forgetting from pre- to post-nap. Conditions of high versus low forgetting corresponded to stimulation timing at different slow-oscillation phases, suggesting that learning-related stimuli were more likely to be processed and trigger memory reactivation when they occurred at the optimal phase of a slow oscillation. These findings provide insight into mechanisms of memory reactivation during sleep, supporting the idea that reactivation is most likely during cortical upstates. Slow-wave sleep (SWS) is characterized by synchronized neural activity alternating between active upstates and quiet downstates. The slow-oscillation upstates are thought to provide a
Sato, Shin; Hasegawa, Makoto; Okuyama, Megumi; Okazaki, Junko; Kitamura, Yuji; Sato, Yumi; Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Sato, Yasunori; Isono, Shiroh
Depending on upper airway patency during anesthesia induction, tidal volume achieved by mask ventilation may vary. In 80 adult patients undergoing general anesthesia, the authors tested a hypothesis that tidal volume during mask ventilation is smaller in patients with sleep-disordered breathing priorly defined as apnea hypopnea index greater than 5 per hour. One-hand mask ventilation with a constant ventilator setting (pressure-controlled ventilation) was started 20 s after injection of rocuronium and maintained for 1 min during anesthesia induction. Mask ventilation efficiency was assessed by the breath number needed to initially exceed 5 ml/kg ideal body weight of expiratory tidal volume (primary outcome) and tidal volumes (secondary outcomes) during initial 15 breaths (UMIN000012494). Tidal volume progressively increased by more than 70% in 1 min and did not differ between sleep-disordered breathing (n = 42) and non-sleep-disordered breathing (n = 38) patients. In post hoc subgroup analyses, the primary outcome breath number (mean [95% CI], 5.7 [4.1 to 7.3] vs. 1.7 [0.2 to 3.2] breath; P = 0.001) and mean tidal volume (6.5 [4.6 to 8.3] vs. 9.6 [7.7 to 11.4] ml/kg ideal body weight; P = 0.032) were significantly smaller in 20 sleep-disordered breathing patients with higher apnea hypopnea index (median [25th to 75th percentile]: 21.7 [17.6 to 31] per hour) than in 20 non-sleep disordered breathing subjects with lower apnea hypopnea index (1.0 [0.3 to 1.5] per hour). Obesity and occurrence of expiratory flow limitation during one-hand mask ventilation independently explained the reduction of efficiency of mask ventilation, while the use of two hands effectively normalized inefficient mask ventilation during one-hand mask ventilation. One-hand mask ventilation is difficult in patients with obesity and severe sleep-disordered breathing particularly when expiratory flow limitation occurs during mask ventilation.
Lo Catherine MH
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbance is a complex health problem in ageing global populations decreasing quality of life among many older people. Geographic, cultural, and ethnic differences in sleep patterns have been documented within and between Western and Asian populations. The aim of this study was to explore sleep problems among Hong Kong seniors by examining the prevalence of poor sleep quality, the relationship between sleep quality and health-related quality of life, and associated factors of good sleepers in different age groups. Methods This cross-sectional study used convenience sampling and gathered data during face-to-face interviews. Older community-dwelling individuals (n = 301 were recruited in community centres in 2010. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 were used to measure sleep quality and health-related quality of life. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 domain scores were compared between good and bad sleepers and between long and short sleepers using Hotelling’s T-Square test. SF-36 domain scores were placed into a logistic regression model that controlled for significant demographic variables (gender, educational level, perceived health. Results Most (77.7% participants were poor sleepers. Participants who had global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores Conclusions This study found a strong negative association between sleep deprivation (poor quality, short duration and health-related quality of life. Associated factors for good sleep quality in later life differ among age groups in relation to universal age-related changes, and should be addressed by social policies and health-care programmes.
Full Text Available A novel framework for joint detection of sleep spindles and K-complex events, two hallmarks of sleep stage S2, is proposed. Sleep electroencephalography (EEG signals are split into oscillatory (spindles and transient (K-complex components. This decomposition is conveniently achieved by applying morphological component analysis (MCA to a sparse representation of EEG segments obtained by the recently introduced discrete tunable Q-factor wavelet transform (TQWT. Tuning the Q-factor provides a convenient and elegant tool to naturally decompose the signal into an oscillatory and a transient component. The actual detection step relies on thresholding (i the transient component to reveal K-complexes and (ii the time-frequency representation of the oscillatory component to identify sleep spindles. Optimal thresholds are derived from ROC-like curves (sensitivity versus FDR on training sets and the performance of the method is assessed on test data sets. We assessed the performance of our method using full-night sleep EEG data we collected from 14 participants. In comparison to visual scoring (Expert 1, the proposed method detected spindles with a sensitivity of 83.18% and false discovery rate (FDR of 39%, while K-complexes were detected with a sensitivity of 81.57% and an FDR of 29.54%. Similar performances were obtained when using a second expert as benchmark. In addition, when the TQWT and MCA steps were excluded from the pipeline the detection sensitivities dropped down to 70% for spindles and to 76.97% for K-complexes, while the FDR rose up to 43.62% and 49.09% respectively. Finally, we also evaluated the performance of the proposed method on a set of publicly available sleep EEG recordings. Overall, the results we obtained suggest that the TQWT-MCA method may be a valuable alternative to existing spindle and K-complex detection methods. Paths for improvements and further validations with large-scale standard open-access benchmarking data sets are
Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...
Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children\\'s ... they had selected a children's multi-nutrient supplement with the intention of buying it. ... Price, performance and brand loyalty, affect and normative factors were most ...
Factors influencing the pattern of malnutrition among acutely ill children presenting in ... height/length) measurements and z-scores calculated for the individual nutritional ... The factors associated with malnutrition included early introduction of ...
Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.
This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.
Influence of serial electrical stimulations of perifornical and posterior hypothalamic orexin-containing neurons on regulation of sleep homeostasis and sleep-wakefulness cycle recovery from experimental comatose state and anesthesia-induced deep sleep.
Chijavadze, E; Chkhartishvili, E; Babilodze, M; Maglakelidze, N; Nachkebia, N
The work was aimed for the ascertainment of following question - whether Orexin-containing neurons of dorsal and lateral hypothalamic, and brain Orexinergic system in general, are those cellular targets which can speed up recovery of disturbed sleep homeostasis and accelerate restoration of sleep-wakefulness cycle phases during some pathological conditions - experimental comatose state and/or deep anesthesia-induced sleep. Study was carried out on white rats. Modeling of experimental comatose state was made by midbrain cytotoxic lesions at intra-collicular level.Animals were under artificial respiration and special care. Different doses of Sodium Ethaminal were used for deep anesthesia. 30 min after comatose state and/or deep anesthesia induced sleep serial electrical stimulations of posterior and/or perifornical hypothalamus were started. Stimulation period lasted for 1 hour with the 5 min intervals between subsequent stimulations applied by turn to the left and right side hypothalamic parts.EEG registration of cortical and hippocampal electrical activity was started immediately after experimental comatose state and deep anesthesia induced sleep and continued continuously during 72 hour. According to obtained new evidences, serial electrical stimulations of posterior and perifornical hypothalamic Orexin-containing neurons significantly accelerate recovery of sleep homeostasis, disturbed because of comatose state and/or deep anesthesia induced sleep. Speed up recovery of sleep homeostasis was manifested in acceleration of coming out from comatose state and deep anesthesia induced sleep and significant early restoration of sleep-wakefulness cycle behavioral states.
Mainul Haque; Nor Azlina A Rahman; Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder; Nor Iza A Rahman; Seraj Zohurul Haque; Zainal Zulkifli; Halyna Lugova; Rabiu Muazu Musa; Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi
Background: Physical and mental comfort is known to have a crucial influence on health and performance amongst medical students. Very often, medical students suffer from poor quality of life (QOL) related to the work-life balance due to the lack of sleep, nutritional and dietary disorders and low physical activity, resulting in a negative impact on their academic performance. This study aims to determine the potential academic/non-academic factors and extra-curricular activities influencing t...
Chen, Xiaoli; Gelaye, Bizu; Velez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Gorman, Sara; Barbosa, Clarita; Zafonte, Ross D; Redline, Susan; Williams, Michelle A
Children with disabilities are more likely to have sleep disturbances than children without disabilities. Identifying attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and perceptions of caregivers and health professionals is essential in developing effective intervention programs to improve disabled children's sleep health. However, no such qualitative data about adults who have key roles in the life and daytime activities of children with disabilities are available. This qualitative study aimed to understand attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and perceptions about disabled children's sleep hygiene among caregivers and rehabilitation providers of children with disabilities. Twenty seven adults, including nine primary caregivers and eighteen rehabilitation providers, participated in five focus group discussions between September and December 2012 at the Rehabilitation Center in Punta Arenas, Chile. A trained facilitator guided focus group discussions using a semi-structured script. Audiotapes and transcripts of focus group discussions were reviewed and analyzed for recurrent themes. Participants identified seven themes related to children's sleep hygiene: lifestyle behaviors, family factors, children's disabilities and/or comorbidities, environmental factors, adults' responsibilities for children's sleep, perception of good sleep, and parental distress about children's sleep problems. While both caregivers and rehabilitation providers recognized the importance of sleep for children's health and functioning, they differed in their understanding of how sleep hygiene practices influence sleep. Rehabilitation providers recognized the negative influence of electronics on sleep and the positive influence of sleep routines. In contrast, caregivers reported use of television/movie watching and stimulants as coping strategies for managing children's sleep problems. Caregivers may benefit from better understanding the influence of electronics and stimulant use on child sleep health. Rehabilitation
Albani, Giovanni; Raspelli, Simona; Carelli, Laura; Priano, Lorenzo; Pignatti, Riccardo; Morganti, Francesca; Gaggioli, Andrea; Weiss, Patrice L; Kizony, Rachel; Katz, Noomi; Mauro, Alessandro; Riva, Giuseppe
In the early-middle stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), polysomnographic studies show early alterations of the structure of the sleep, which may explain frequent symptoms reported by patients, such as daytime drowsiness, loss of attention and concentration, feeling of tiredness. The aim of this study was to verify if there is a correlation between the sleep dysfunction and decision making ability. We used a Virtual Reality version of the Multiple Errand Test (VMET), developed using the NeuroVR free software (http://www.neurovr2.org), to evaluate decision-making ability in 12 PD not-demented patients and 14 controls. Five of our not-demented 12 PD patients showed abnormalities in the polysomnographic recordings associated to significant differences in the VMET performance.
Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martín
In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575).
Kirschen, Gregory W; Jones, Jason J; Hale, Lauren
The athletic advantage of sleep, although commonly touted by coaches, trainers, and sports physicians, is still unclear and likely varies by sport, athletic performance metric, and length of sufficient or insufficient sleep. Although recent literature reviews have highlighted circadian and nutritional factors that influence different aspects of athletic performance, a systematic summary of the effects of sleep duration and sleep quality on performance among competitive athletes is lacking. Here we systematically review the relationship between sleep duration and sleep quality and objective athletic performance among competitive athletes across 19 studies representing 12 sports. Taken holistically, we find that the sports requiring speed, tactical strategy, and technical skill are most sensitive to sleep duration manipulations. Furthermore, longer-term sleep manipulations are more likely than acute sleep manipulations (whether deprivation or extension) to affect athletic performance. Thus, the importance of sleep for competitive athletes to achieve high performance is dependent on the demands of the sport as well as the length of sleep interventions. In light of the limited number of studies investigating sleep quality and performance, the potential relevance of subjective sleep quality remains an interesting question for future work.
Al-kalemji, Abir; Petersen, Karin Dam; Sørensen, Jan
INTRODUCTION: The quality of life (QOL) in persons with asthma is reduced and different factors such as demography, asthma severity and psychiatric comorbidity play an influential role. However, little is known about the interplay of these factors. OBJECTIVE: To describe QOL in relation to asthma...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature trigger seasonal adaptations in the physiology and behaviour of many species, including the Djungarian hamster. Exposure of the hamsters to a short photoperiod and low ambient temperature leads to a reduction of the polyphasic distribution of sleep and waking over the light and dark period. In contrast, a long photoperiod enhances the daily sleep-wake amplitude leading to a decline of slow-wave activity in NREM sleep within the light period. It is unknown whether these changes can be attributed specifically to photoperiod and/or ambient temperature, or whether endogenous components are contributing factors. The influence of endogenous factors was investigated by recording sleep in Djungarian hamsters invariably maintained at a low ambient temperature and fully adapted to a short photoperiod. The second recording was performed when they had returned to summer physiology, despite the maintenance of the 'winter' conditions. Results Clear winter-summer differences were seen in sleep distribution, while total sleep time was unchanged. A significantly higher light-dark cycle modulation in NREM sleep, REM sleep and waking was observed in hamsters in the summer physiological state compared to those in the winter state. Moreover, only in summer, REM sleep episodes were longer and waking bouts were shorter during the light period compared to the dark period. EEG power in the slow-wave range (0.75–4.0 Hz in both NREM sleep and REM sleep was higher in animals in the summer physiological state than in those in the 'winter' state. In winter SWA in NREM sleep was evenly distributed over the 24 h, while in summer it decreased during the light period and increased during the dark period. Conclusion Endogenous changes in the organism underlie the differences in sleep-wake redistribution we have observed previously in hamsters recorded in a short and long photoperiod.
Signal, T Leigh; Gander, Philippa H; van den Berg, Margo J; Graeber, R Curtis
To assess the amount and quality of sleep that flight crew are able to obtain during flight, and identify factors that influence the sleep obtained. Flight crew operating flights between Everett, WA, USA and Asia had their sleep recorded polysomnographically for 1 night in a layover hotel and during a 7-h in-flight rest opportunity on flights averaging 15.7 h. Layover hotel and in-flight crew rest facilities onboard the Boeing 777-200ER aircraft. Twenty-one male flight crew (11 Captains, mean age 48 yr and 10 First Officers, mean age 35 yr). N/A. Sleep was recorded using actigraphy during the entire tour of duty, and polysomnographically in a layover hotel and during the flight. Mixed model analysis of covariance was used to determine the factors affecting in-flight sleep. In-flight sleep was less efficient (70% vs. 88%), with more nonrapid eye movement Stage 1/Stage 2 and more frequent awakenings per h (7.7/h vs. 4.6/h) than sleep in the layover hotel. In-flight sleep included very little slow wave sleep (median 0.5%). Less time was spent trying to sleep and less sleep was obtained when sleep opportunities occurred during the first half of the flight. Multivariate analyses suggest age is the most consistent factor affecting in-flight sleep duration and quality. This study confirms that even during long sleep opportunities, in-flight sleep is of poorer quality than sleep on the ground. With longer flight times, the quality and recuperative value of in-flight sleep is increasingly important for flight safety. Because the age limit for flight crew is being challenged, the consequences of age adversely affecting sleep quantity and quality need to be evaluated.
Kalinić, Zoran; Ranković, Vladimir; Kalinić, Ljubina
In this paper, an overview of current state of e-commerce development in Serbia is presented. Also, some important factors influencing e-commerce diffusion are discussed. The factors are divided into four groups: technical factors, which cover e- commerce telecommunication and logistics infrastructure; legal factors, i.e. necessary laws and regulations on e-commerce; economic factors, and psychological factors and local culture. The study showed very strong correlation between broadband inter...
van der Mei, S.F.; Groothoff, J.W.; van Sonderen, E.L.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.; de Jong, P.E.; van Son, W.J.
Background. Little information is available on the degree of actual social functioning after successful kidney transplantation. Moreover, information on factors that influence participation in social activities is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of clinical factors on
R. Bruce Anderson
Evaluation of the factors that influence the selection of office furniture by large corporations and universities shows that quality, appearance, and purchase price have the most important influence on the purchase decision. The intended use of the furniture and the appearance of the furniture were the key factors in the purchase of wooden furniture.
Factors Influencing Pregnancy Desires among HIV Positive Women in Sibande District in Mpumalanga, South Africa. ... Gender and Behaviour ... The objective of the study is to present findings on factors influencing pregnancy desires amongst HIV positive women that have participated in Prevention of Mother to child ...
In all a total of two hundred and fifty participants were drawn through accidental sampling technique for this study. Their age ranged between 19-48 ... In the same view, consumers ethnic group was not found to significantly influence attitude towards Internet piracy (F(3,246) = .404, P> .05). Reasons were given why the ...
Nutrition, health education and measles immunization are crucial components of preventive eye health services in the prevention of corneal blindness. This study explores ... The interplay between nutrition and corneal blindness was unknown to mothers in this study. The strong influence ... effectiveness and sustainability.
Degradation of methylmercaptans by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m was influenced by pH of the reaction medium. Ratios of headspace concentrations in empty vials and those of acidified buffer solutions were less than 1.0. 95% of the H2S was in headspace with the remaining 5% in solution upon acidification. The values for ...
The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level ...
Erlacher, Daniel; Ehrlenspiel, Felix; Adegbesan, Olufemi A; El-Din, Hamdi Galal
Sleep is generally regarded as a valuable resource for psychological and physiological well-being. Although the effects of sleep on athletic performance have been acknowledged in sport science, few studies have investigated the prevalence of sleep problems and their effects on elite athletes before a sport event. In this study, 632 German athletes from various sports were asked about their sleep habits during the night(s) before an important competition or game. The findings indicate that 65.8% of the athletes experienced poor sleep in the night(s) before a sports event at least once in their lives and a similarly high percentage (62.3%) had this experience at least once during the previous 12 months. Athletes of individual sports reported more sleep difficulties than athletes of team sports. The main sleep problem was not being able to fall asleep. Internal factors such as nervousness and thoughts about the competition were rated highest for causing sleep problems. Most athletes stated that disturbed sleep had no influence on their athletic performance; however, athletes also reported effects such as a bad mood the following day, increased daytime sleepiness, and worse performance in the competition or game. The differences between individual and team sports indicate that athletes in some sports need more help than those in other sports in managing sleep problems.
Ashleigh J Filtness
Full Text Available Sleep disruption strongly influences daytime functioning; resultant sleepiness is recognised as a contributing risk-factor for individuals performing critical and dangerous tasks. While the relationship between sleep and sleepiness has been heavily investigated in the vulnerable sub-populations of shift workers and patients with sleep disorders, postpartum women have been comparatively overlooked. Thirty-three healthy, postpartum women recorded every episode of sleep and wake each day during postpartum weeks 6, 12 and 18. Although repeated measures analysis revealed there was no significant difference in the amount of nocturnal sleep and frequency of night-time wakings, there was a significant reduction in sleep disruption, due to fewer minutes of wake after sleep onset. Subjective sleepiness was measured each day using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale; at the two earlier time points this was significantly correlated with sleep quality but not to sleep quantity. Epworth Sleepiness Scores significantly reduced over time; however, during week 18 over 50% of participants were still experiencing excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Score ≥12. Results have implications for health care providers and policy makers. Health care providers designing interventions to address sleepiness in new mothers should take into account the dynamic changes to sleep and sleepiness during this initial postpartum period. Policy makers developing regulations for parental leave entitlements should take into consideration the high prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness experienced by new mothers, ensuring enough opportunity for daytime sleepiness to diminish to a manageable level prior to reengagement in the workforce.
El-Sheikh, Mona; Koss, Kalsea J.; Kelly, Ryan J.; Rauer, Amy J.
We examined longitudinal relations between interpartner constructive (negotiation) and destructive (psychological and physical aggression) conflict strategies and couples’ sleep over 1 year. Toward explicating processes of effects, we assessed the intervening role of internalizing symptoms in associations between conflict tactics and couples’ sleep. Participants were 135 cohabiting couples (M age = 37 years for women and 39 years for men). The sample included a large representation of couples exposed to economic adversity. Further, 68% were European American and the remainder were primarily African American. At Time 1 (T1), couples reported on their conflict and their mental health (depression, anxiety). At T1 and Time 2, sleep was examined objectively with actigraphs for 7 nights. Three sleep parameters were derived: efficiency, minutes, and latency. Actor–partner interdependence models indicated that husbands’ use of constructive conflict forecasted increases in their own sleep efficiency as well as their own and their wives’ sleep duration over time. Actor and partner effects emerged, and husbands’ and wives’ use of destructive conflict strategies generally predicted worsening of some sleep parameters over time. Several mediation and intervening effects were observed for destructive conflict strategies. Some of these relations reveal that destructive conflict is associated with internalizing symptoms, which in turn are associated with some sleep parameters longitudinally. These findings build on a small, albeit growing, literature linking sleep with marital functioning, and illustrate that consideration of relationship processes including constructive conflict holds promise for gaining a better understanding of factors that influence the sleep of men and women. PMID:25915089
... of primary dysmenorrhoea amongst Abia State university medical students, South ... its impact on school and social activities and the students' management strategies. ... is high, and not consistently associated with demographic risk factors.
Understanding the complex factors that can lead to HIV infection is crucial to addressing the problem among vulnerable ... Related content ... Policy in Focus publishes a special issue profiling evidence to empower women in the labour market.
... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...
... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...
Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta
Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...
Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D
median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...... to earliest muscle reinnervation) on the final recovery of the outcome measures. Nerve gap distance and the repair type, individually and concertedly, strongly influenced the time to earliest muscle reinnervation, and only time to reinnervation was significant when all three variables were included as outcome...
Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M
The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Donlea, Jeffrey M
Sleep is necessary for survival, and prolonged waking causes a homeostatic increase in the need for recovery sleep. Homeostasis is a core component of sleep regulation and has been tightly conserved across evolution from invertebrates to man. Homeostatic sleep regulation was first identified among insects in cockroaches several decades ago, but the characterization of sleep rebound in Drosophila melanogaster opened the use of insect model species to understand homeostatic functions and regulation of sleep. This review describes circuits in two neuropil structures, the central complex and mushroom bodies, that influence sleep homeostasis and neuromodulatory systems that influence the accrual of homeostatic sleep need. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Locke, James; Leveton, Lauren; Keeton, Kathryn; Whitmire, Alexandra
Astronauts report significant difficulties with sleep during Space missions. Psychological, physiological, and habitability factors are all thought to play a role in spaceflight insomnia. Crewmembers gain experience with the spaceflight sleep environment as their missions progress, but this knowledge is not formally collected and communicated to subsequent crews. This lack of information transfer prevents crews from optimizing their capability to sleep during mission, which leads to fatigue and its potentially deleterious effects. The goal of this project is astronauts with recent spaceflight experience to gather their knowledge of and insights into sleep in Space. Structured interviews consisting of standardized closed and open-ended questionnaires are administered to astronauts who have flown on the Space Shuttle since the Columbia disaster. It is hoped that review and analysis of the pooled responses to the interview questions will lead to greater understanding of the sleep environment during short duration spaceflight, with attention placed on problem aspects and their potential solutions.
Ritter, Philipp S; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea; Beesdo-Baum, Katja
There is ample data suggesting that individuals with bipolar disorder more frequently suffer from disturbed sleep even when euthymic. Since sleep is a process that is crucial for affective homeostasis, disturbed sleep in healthy individuals may be a risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Utilizing data from a large cohort of adolescents and young adults, this study tests the hypothesis that disturbed sleep constitutes a risk factor for the later onset of bipolar disorder. A representative community sample of N = 3021 adolescents and young adults (baseline age 14-24) was assessed using the standardized Composite International Diagnostic Interview and followed-up prospectively up to 3 times over up to 10 years. Disturbed sleep at baseline was quantified utilizing the corresponding items from the self-report inventory SCL-90-R. The compound value (insomnia-score) as an ordinal parameter for the severity of sleep disturbances was used to assess associations with the incidence of bipolar disorder among participants free of major mental disorder at baseline (N = 1943) using odds ratios (OR) from logistic regressions. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, parental mood disorder and lifetime alcohol or cannabis dependence. Poor sleep quality significantly increased the risk for the subsequent development of bipolar disorder (OR = 1.75; p = 0.001). Regarding individual sleep items, trouble falling asleep and early morning awakening were predictive for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Disturbed sleep in persons otherwise free of major mental disorders appears to confer an increased risk for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conclusions: There are high prevalence of inadequate sleep patterns, insufficient sleep and insomnia among Portuguese adolescents. Insufficient sleep is associated with sleep patterns and social and behavioural factors. These results add to our knowledge of adolescent sleep worldwide.
Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on ado...
Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der, I.A.; Frewer, L.J.
Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...
Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.
Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...
Diana Ioana POPA
The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the...
Full Text Available Seyed Ramin Jalal, Abdirahman Osman, Saeed Azizi Faculty of Medicine, St George’s Hospital Medical School, London, UK We have read the recent review article by Kahn et al1 with great interest. The original article was detailed and informative, and we felt it would be helpful to expand on the factors affecting resident satisfaction and dissatisfaction. As senior medical students in clinical years, we spend a significant portion of our time shadowing specialist trainees. Thus, we can offer a unique perspective on the factors affecting trainee satisfaction and well-being. View the original paper by Kahn and colleagues.
Full Text Available Preethi Rajan, Harly Greenberg Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Hofstra-North Shore LIJ School of Medicine, New Hyde Park, NY, USA Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is independently associated with cardiovascular and cardiometabolic risk in several large epidemiologic studies. OSA leads to several physiologic disturbances such as intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation, and increase in autonomic tone. These disturbances have been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in animal and human studies. Studies also suggest a bidirectional relationship between OSA and T2DM whereby T2DM itself might contribute to the features of OSA. Moreover, successful treatment of OSA may reduce these risks, although this is controversial. The purpose of this article is to review 1 the links and bidirectional associations between OSA and T2DM; 2 the pathogenic mechanisms that might link these two disease states; 3 the role of continuous positive airway pressure therapy in improving glucose tolerance, sensitivity, and resistance; and 4 the implications for clinical practice. Keywords: Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, sleep disordered breathing, intermittent hypoxia
Mayer, Pierre; Heinzer, Raphael; Lavigne, Gilles
Sleep bruxism (SB) consists of involuntary episodic and repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by occasional tooth grinding or jaw clenching during sleep. Prevalence decreases from 20% to 14% in childhood to 8% to 3% in adulthood. Although the causes and mechanisms of idiopathic primary SB are unknown, putative candidates include psychologic risk factors (eg, anxiety, stress due to life events, hypervigilance) and sleep physiologic reactivity (eg, sleep arousals with autonomic activity, breathing events). Although certain neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, noradrenalin, histamine) have been proposed to play an indirect role in SB, their exact contribution to rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) (the electromyography marker of SB) genesis remains undetermined. No specific gene is associated with SB; familial environmental influence plays a significant role. To date, no single explanation can account for the SB mechanism. Secondary SB with sleep comorbidities that should be clinically assessed are insomnia, periodic limb movements during sleep, sleep-disordered breathing (eg, apnea-hypopnea), gastroesophageal reflux disease, and neurologic disorders (eg, sleep epilepsy, rapid eye movement behavior disorder). SB is currently quantified by scoring RMMA recordings in parallel with brain, respiratory, and heart activity recordings in a sleep laboratory or home setting. RMMA confirmation with audio-video recordings is recommended for better diagnostic accuracy in the presence of neurologic conditions. Management strategies (diagnostic tests, treatment) should be tailored to the patient's phenotype and comorbidities. In the presence of sleep-disordered breathing, a mandibular advancement appliance or CPAP treatment is preferred over single occlusal splint therapy on the upper jaw. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
single parenting, inadequate antenatal care, ethnicity and negative belief in vaccination to low immunisation uptake around the ... the maternal sociodemographic factors that are associated with child ... mothers <18 years old (odds ratio (OR) 0.53; confidence interval (CI) 0.34 - 0.84) and mothers residing in the northern ...
Conclusion: This study found that personal intelligence/ability preference and career opportunities were more important factors to the current generation of students in choosing a specialty. Knowledge of these students' attitudes could form the basis for the development of strategies to enhance the attractiveness of specialties facing the problem of a shortage of manpower.
Women Research Scientists in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria ... recommends that researchers should restructure their work schedule to accommodate ICT practice and use in order to enhance ICT use. Keywords: Factors of ICT ... potential to reduce poverty and improve livelihoods by empowering users with timely.
Anemia in pregnancy is a common problem especially in developing countries. and has been linked with feotal and maternal complications. Taking iron supplements could reduce anaemia in pregnancy but some pregnant women do not adhere to this. The study identified some factors associated with non adherence ...
Our findings support other studies which found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school progress and performance. Contrary to most research findings mother tongue instruction did not eme1rge as an important explanatory factor on school progress and performance, however; home ...
This study findings show primarily - amongst the biodemographic and health seeking services factors, delivery-related maternal health complicacies, blindness, higher order births, twin births, lower household size and interaction effect of higher order live births and male child are significantly correlated with higher neonatal ...
May 11, 2010 ... internal factors for low school performance, this study focused on the learners ... Namibia. Although numerous studies have confinned socio-economic ... Many studies support the view that family background is the strongest single predictor of ..... Windhoek is clearly stratified, mainly following income levels.
The study identified the environmental factors affecting artisanal fishing in. Eastern Obolo local government area of Akwa ... colonial administration (Anko &Eyo, 2003). According to Olomola (1998), artisanal ... The problems faced by artisanal fishers in Nigeria are not far from what is experienced by artisanal fishermen in ...
Airhihenbuwa, C O; Iwelunmor, J I; Ezepue, C J; Williams, N J; Jean-Louis, G
The aim of this study was to synthesize the literature on the cultural aspects of sleep and their relevance to behavioral sleep research. A narrative synthesis of the existing literature on sleep was conducted with a focus on its biological, sociological, political, and anthropological aspects. This synthesis was guided by the PEN-3 cultural model, developed by the primary author. The findings highlight the cross-cultural contexts within which people sleep and the role of varied sleeping arrangements in influencing sleep behavior and perspectives. Furthermore, the contexts in which sleep occurs, coupled with the influence of the family, and the positive aspects of sleep helped illustrate why cultural aspects of sleep are vital for a broader understanding of sleep. The authors conclude by highlighting the need to integrate studies on the biological, sociological, and political aspects of sleep. Our examination of the literature strongly suggests that careful assessment of epidemiological and clinical sleep data should consider the cultural aspects of sleep as well as the context in which sleep occurs, the role of the family, and positive aspects of sleep. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Long, Xi; Fonseca, Pedro; Aarts, Ronald M; Yang, Jie; Weysen, Tim; Haakma, Reinder; Foussier, Jérôme
Polysomnography (PSG) has been extensively studied for sleep staging, where sleep stages are usually classified as wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, or non-REM (NREM) sleep (including light and deep sleep). Respiratory information has been proven to correlate with autonomic nervous activity that is related to sleep stages. For example, it is known that the breathing rate and amplitude during NREM sleep, in particular during deep sleep, are steadier and more regular compared to periods of wakefulness that can be influenced by body movements, conscious control, or other external factors. However, the respiratory morphology has not been well investigated across sleep stages. We thus explore the dissimilarity of respiratory effort with respect to its signal waveform or morphology. The dissimilarity measure is computed between two respiratory effort signal segments with the same number of consecutive breaths using a uniform scaling distance. To capture the property of signal morphological dissimilarity, we propose a novel window-based feature in a framework of sleep staging. Experiments were conducted with a data set of 48 healthy subjects using a linear discriminant classifier and a ten-fold cross validation. It is revealed that this feature can help discriminate between sleep stages, but with an exception of separating wake and REM sleep. When combining the new feature with 26 existing respiratory features, we achieved a Cohen’s Kappa coefficient of 0.48 for 3-stage classification (wake, REM sleep and NREM sleep) and of 0.41 for 4-stage classification (wake, REM sleep, light sleep and deep sleep), which outperform the results obtained without using this new feature. (paper)
Ji, Y Q; Li, S; Wang, C; Wang, J; Liu, X M
Objective: To investigate occupational stress in assembly line workers in electronics manu-facturing service (EMS) and related influencing factors. Methods: From June to October, 2015, a cross-sectional survey was performed for 5 944 assembly line workers in EMS (observation group) and 6 270 workers from other posts (non-assembly line workers and management personnel; control group) using the self-made questionnaire for basic information, job demand-control (JDC) model questionnaire, and effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaire to collect respondents' basic information and occupational stress. Results: The observation group had significantly lower work autonomy, social support, and work reward scores than the control group (2.72 ± 0.63/3.64 ± 0.68/4.06 ± 0.80 vs 3.00 ± 0.67/3.83 ± 0.68/4.24 ± 0.75, t =23.53, 15.41, and 12.70, all P occupational stress determined by JDC and ERI models than the control group (64.5%/12.7% vs 52.6%/9.9%, χ 2 =182.26 and 23.41, both P 60 hours/week, and sleeping time occupational stress in JDC model; education background of Bachelor's degree or above, working time >60 hours/week, and sleeping timeoccupational stress in ERI model, while female sex and a high monthly income reduced the risk of occupational stress in ERI model. Conclusion: Assembly line workers in EMS are a relatively vulnerable group and have a high degree of occupational stress. Working time >60 hours/week and sleeping time occupational stress.
Full Text Available Colette S Kabrita,1 Theresa A Hajjar-Muça,2 Jeanne F Duffy31Department of Sciences, 2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Notre Dame University – Louaize, Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon; 3Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Adequate, good night sleep is fundamental to well-being and is known to be influenced by myriad biological and environmental factors. Given the unavailability of sleep data about Lebanon, the cultural shifts and socioeconomic pressures that have affected many aspects of society, particularly for students and working adults, as well as our understanding of sleep in university students in other countries, we conducted a national study to assess sleep quality and factors contributing to sleep and general health in a culture-specific context. A self-filled questionnaire, inquiring about sociodemographics, health-risk behaviors, personal health, and evaluating sleep quality and chronotype using standard scales was completed by 540 students at private and public universities in Lebanon. Overall, they reported sleeping 7.95±1.34 hours per night, although 12.3% reported sleeping <6.5 hours and more than half scored in the poor-sleeper category on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Sleep timing differed markedly between weekdays and weekends, with bedtimes and wake-up times delayed by 1.51 and 2.43 hours, respectively, on weekends. While most scored in the "neither type" category on the Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ, 24.5% were evening types and 7.3% were morning types. MEQ score was significantly correlated with smoking behavior and daily study onset, as well as with PSQI score, with eveningness associated with greater number of cigarettes, later study times, and poor sleep. We conclude that the prevalence of poor sleep quality among Lebanese university students is associated
Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark
The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The ...
Full Text Available Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995. In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........
Family, especially maternal, factors play a role in determining eating attitudes. Peer and media (television) factors are not significantly influential. The findings provide preliminary data on factors that influence eating attrtudes in a group at risk for the development of eating disorders. The findings have implications for the ...
Chun Yan Liu
Full Text Available Permeable pavement (PP is used worldwide to mitigate surface runoff in urban areas. Various studies have examined the factors governing the hydrologic performance of PP. However, relatively little is known about the relative importance of these governing factors and the long-term hydrologic performance of PP. This study applied numerical models—calibrated and validated using existing experimental results—to simulate hundreds of event-based and two long-term rainfall scenarios for two designs of PP. Based on the event-based simulation results, rainfall intensity, rainfall volume, thickness of the storage layer and the hydraulic conductivity of the subgrade were identified as the most influential factors in PP runoff reduction. Over the long term, PP performed significantly better in a relatively drier climate (e.g., New York, reducing nearly 90% of runoff volume compared to 70% in a relatively wetter climate (e.g., Hong Kong. The two designs of PP examined performed differently, and the difference was more apparent in the relatively wetter climate. This study generated insights that will help the design and implementation of PP to mitigate stormwater worldwide.
Pit, S W; Hansen, V
The Australian general practice workforce is ageing. This and a trend towards higher exit intentions and earlier retirement make it increasingly important to identify those work and personal factors affecting intention to leave, which are amenable to change. To assess the various work, occupational and individual health factors associated with early retirement intentions among Australian rural general practitioners (GPs) that may be amenable to intervention. A cross-sectional study of GPs practising in rural Australia. Odds ratios of early retirement intentions across work, occupational and individual health factors were calculated. There were 92 participants (response rate 56%), and 47% of responders intended to retire before 65. GPs with medium to high burnout levels had higher odds of intending to retire. Increased job satisfaction and work ability scores were associated with decreased retirement intentions, whereas increased physical and mental work ability demands were associated with an increase in retirement intentions. Absenteeism was not related to retirement intentions but presenteeism was. GPs reporting any work-related sleep problems were found to have a 3-fold increase in the odds of early retirement intentions. The odds of early retirement intentions also increased with higher psychological distress, worsening general health and longer working hours. From a health policy reform perspective, the greatest impact on reducing early retirement intentions among ageing GPs could potentially be made by intervening in areas of working hours, burnout and work-related sleep issues, followed by job satisfaction, psychological distress, health, general workability and mental and physical work ability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii
Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.
Full Text Available Notion almost unknown before 1950, labor productivity is now commonly used by economists, engineers, sociologists and politicians alike, influencing all the important issues of the time. Under these circumstances, if it is accepted that labor productivity is the driving variable that generates economic progress, it is justified that people need to increase their efforts to enhance, its value through various means. This article presents the findings of a theoretical research literature regarding landmarks in the evolution of labor productivity. Arguments justifying such an approach have been given by the fact that the labor issue presents an interest not only at the micro level, individual (the consequences it has on the individual work, but also at the macro level, societal (employment relations on the market labor, insurance systems and the offer educational services on the market today.
Silker, W.B.; Rogers, V.C.
The US NRC, in its Generic Environmental Impact Statement on uranium milling has specified that the radon flux escaping a uranium mill tailings pile will be reduced to pCi/m 2 s by application of covering layers of soils and clays. These covers present a radon diffusion barrier, which sufficiently increases the time required for radon passage from the tailings to the atmosphere to allow for decay of 222 Rn within the cover. The depth of cover necessary to reduce the escaping radon flux to the prescribed level is to be determined by calculation, and requires precise knowledge of the radon diffusion coefficient in the covering media. A Radon Attenuation Test Facility was developed to determine rates of radon diffusion through candidate cover materials. This paper describes this facility and its application for determining the influence of physical properties of the soil column on the radon diffusion coefficient
Kreckler, S; Catchpole, K; McCulloch, P; Handa, A
To evaluate the process of incident reporting in a surgical setting. In particular: the influence of event outcome on reporting behaviour; staff perception of surgical complications as reportable events. Anonymous web-based questionnaire survey. General Surgical Department in a UK teaching hospital. Of 203 eligible staff, 55 (76.4%) doctors and 82 (62.6%) nurses participated. Knowledge and use of local reporting system; propensity to report incidents which vary by outcome (harm, no harm, harm prevented); propensity to report surgical complications; practical and psychological barriers to reporting. Nurses were significantly more likely to know of the local reporting system and to have recently completed a report than doctors. The level of harm (F(1.8,246) = 254.2, pvs 53%, z = 4.633, psystems.
Gerhart, James I; Burns, John W; Post, Kristina M; Smith, David A; Porter, Laura S; Burgess, Helen J; Schuster, Erik; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Fras, Anne Marie; Keefe, Francis J
Poor sleep quality among people with chronic low back pain appears to be related to worse pain, affect, poor physical function, and pain catastrophizing. The causal direction between poor sleep and pain remains an open question, however, as does whether sleep quality exerts effects on low back pain differently across the course of the day. This daily diary study examined lagged temporal associations between prior night sleep quality and subsequent day pain, affect, physical function and pain catastrophizing, the reverse lagged temporal associations between prior day pain-related factors and subsequent night sleep quality, and whether the time of day during which an assessment was made moderated these temporal associations. Chronic low back pain patients (n = 105) completed structured electronic diary assessments five times per day for 14 days. Items included patient ratings of their pain, affect, physical function, and pain catastrophizing. Collapsed across all observations, poorer sleep quality was significantly related to higher pain ratings, higher negative affect, lower positive affect, poorer physical function, and higher pain catastrophizing. Lagged analyses averaged across the day revealed that poorer prior night sleep quality significantly predicted greater next day patient ratings of pain, and poorer physical function and higher pain catastrophizing. Prior poorer night sleep quality significantly predicted greater reports of pain, and poorer physical function, and higher pain catastrophizing, especially during the early part of the day. Sleep quality × time of day interactions showed that poor sleepers reported high pain, and negative mood and low function uniformly across the day, whereas good sleepers reported relatively good mornings, but showed pain, affect and function levels comparable to poor sleepers by the end of the day. Analyses of the reverse causal pathway were mostly nonsignificant. Sleep quality appears related not only to pain intensity
Hjelm, Carina; Strömberg, Anna; Arestedt, Kristofer; Broström, Anders
Chronic heart failure (CHF) and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are often co-existing problems among the elderly. Apnoeic events may cause cognitive impairment. The aim of the study was to compare sleep and wake patterns, insomnia, daytime sleepiness, and cognitive function in community-dwelling CHF patients, with and without SDB, and to investigate the association between sleep-related factors and cognitive dysfunction. In this cross-sectional observational study, SDB was measured with an ApneaLink device and defined as an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥15/h of sleep. Sleep and wake patterns were measured with actigraphy for 1 week. Insomnia was measured with the Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale, daytime sleepiness with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and cognitive function with a neuropsychological test battery. A total of 137 patients (68% male, median age 72 years, 58% NYHA functional class II) were consecutively included. Forty-four per cent had SDB (AHI ≥15). The SDB group had significantly higher saturation time below 90%, more difficulties maintaining sleep, and lower levels of daytime sleepiness compared with the non-SDB group. Cognitive function and sleep and wake patterns did not differ between the SDB and the non-SDB group. Insomnia was associated with decreased global cognition. The prevalence of cognitive dysfunction was low in this population with predominantly mild to moderate CHF. This might have influenced the lack of associations between cognitive function and SDB. Insomnia was the only sleep-related factor significantly influencing cognition.
Rojatz, Daniela; Merchant, Almas; Nitsch, Martina
Although workplace health promotion (WHP) has evolved over the last 40 years, systematically collected knowledge on factors influencing the functioning of WHP is scarce. Therefore, a qualitative systematic literature review was carried out to systematically identify and synthesize factors influencing the phases of WHP interventions: needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Research evidence was identified by searching electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, ERIC, IBBS and PsycINFO) from 1998 to 2013, as well as by cross-checking reference lists of included peer-reviewed articles. The inclusion criteria were: original empirical research, description of WHP, description of barriers to and/or facilitators of the planning, implementation and/or evaluation of WHP. Finally, 54 full texts were included. From these, influencing factors were extracted and summarized using thematic analysis. The majority of influencing factors referred to the implementation phase, few dealt with planning and/or evaluation and none with needs assessment. The influencing factors were condensed into topics with respect to factors at contextual level (e.g. economic crisis); factors at organizational level (e.g. management support); factors at intervention level (e.g. quality of intervention concept); factors at implementer level (e.g. resources); factors at participant level (e.g. commitment to intervention) and factors referring to methodological and data aspects (e.g. data-collection issues). Factors regarding contextual issues and organizational aspects were identified across three phases. Therefore, future research and practice should consider not only the influencing factors at different levels, but also at different phases of WHP interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio; Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; de Olalla, Patricia García; Caylà, Joan A
According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with TB. In spite of the political, economical, research and community efforts, TB remains a major global health problem worldwide. Moreover, in this new century, new challenges such as multidrug-resistance extension, migration to big cities and the new treatments with anti-tumour necrosis alpha factor for inflammatory diseases have emerged and threaten the decreasing trend in the global number of TB cases in the last years. We must also be aware about the impact that smoking and diabetes pandemics may be having on the incidence of TB. The existence of a good TB Prevention and Control Program is essential to fight against TB. The coordination among clinicians, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others, and the link between surveillance, control and research should always be a priority for a TB Program. Each city and country should define their needs according to the epidemiological situation. Local TB control programs will have to adapt to any new challenge that arises in order to respond to the needs of their population.
Vera, Julie; Brulez, Anne-Catherine; Contraires, Elise; Larochette, Mathieu; Trannoy-Orban, Nathalie; Pignon, Maxime; Mauclair, Cyril; Valette, Stéphane; Benayoun, Stéphane
In recent years, there has been increased interest in producing and providing high-precision plastic parts that can be manufactured by microinjection molding: gears, pumps, optical grating elements, and so on. For all of these applications, the replication quality is essential. This study has two goals: (1) fabrication of high-precision parts using the conventional injection molding machine; (2) identification of robust parameters that ensure production quality. Thus, different technological solutions have been used: cavity vacuuming and the use of a mold coated with DLC or CrN deposits. AFM and SEM analyses were carried out to characterize the replication profile. The replication quality was studied in terms of the process parameters, coated and uncoated molds and crystallinity of the polymer. Specific studies were processed to quantify the replicability of injection molded parts (ABS, PC and PP). Analysis of the Taguchi experimental designs permits prioritization of the impact of each parameter on the replication quality. A discussion taking into account these new parameters and the thermal and spreading properties on the coatings is proposed. It appeared that, in general, increasing the mold temperature improves the molten polymer fill in submicron features except for the steel insert (for which the presence of a vacuum is the most important factor). Moreover, the DLC coating was the best coating to increase the quality of the replication. This result could be explained by the lower thermal diffusivity of this coating. We noted that the viscosity of the polymers is not a primordial factor of the replication quality.
Dubner, D.L.; Spinella, M.R.; Bof, E.
The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors) [es
Yao Hong; Zhang Zhanwen; Huang Yong; Li Bo; Li Sai
The polyimide (PI) films of pyromellitic dianhydride-oxydiamiline (PMDA-ODA) were fabricated using vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) method under high vacuum pressure of 10-4 Pa level. The influence of equipment, substrate temperature, the process of heating and deposition ratio of monomers on the surface roughness of the PI films was investigated. The surface topography of films was measured by interferometer microscopy and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and the surface roughness was probed with atomic force microscopy(AFM). The results show that consecutive films can be formed when the distance from steering flow pipe to substrate is 74 cm. The surface roughnesses are 291.2 nm and 61.9 nm respectively for one-step heating process and multi-step heating process, and using fine mesh can effectively avoid the splash of materials. The surface roughness can be 3.3 nm when the deposition rate ratio of PMDA to ODA is 0.9:1, and keeping the temperature of substrate around 30 degree C is advantageous to form a film with planar micro-surface topography. (authors)
Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction and objective: In muscle dysmorphia (MD the patient thinks he is smaller and less muscular than he really is. As in other addictive diseases, its prevention and early diagnosis are the key to avoid associated disorders. It is established as an objective to determine if there are associated socio-demographic factors. Material and methods: Cross-sectional observational study of 140 men, between 16-45 years old, who practice bodybuilding in gyms of different socioeconomic levels, at least 6 months prior to the study, 4 days / week, 1 hour / day, who signed the informed consent and without chronic illness. The main variable was the presence of symptoms of DM using the muscle appearance satisfaction scale (44 patients and the secondary variables were age, coexistence, children, educational level and monthly income. Frequencies were used in the qualitative variables, and averages and standard deviations in the quantitative variables, in the bivariate analysis of the Chisquare test and the t-student test respectively and the binary logistic regression (presence / absence of MD to eliminate confounding factors, the probabilities were calculated associated Results: The gymnasts have an average age of 26.1 (SD = 7.1 years; the majority live with their parents (56.4%; they do not have children (89.3%; the academic levels are balanced and the economic income is mostly low / medium (79.3%. In the bivariate analysis, is observed a higher risk at a younger age (p = 0.027 and when they live with their parents (limit of significance. Significance is not observed with the variables having children, educational level or economic income. In the binary logistic regression these meanings are lost, although the graphic representation of the probability in relation with age seems to be a risk factor, as well as living with the parents or as a couple. Conclusion: Among men who practice bodybuilding, it is usually a risk to suffer MD, to be younger
Pyrke, Ryan J L; McKinnon, Margaret C; McNeely, Heather E; Ahern, Catherine; Langstaff, Karen L; Bieling, Peter J
The primary aim of the present study was to compare sleep characteristics pre- and post-move into a state-of-the-art mental health facility, which offered private sleeping quarters. Significant evidence points toward sleep disruption among psychiatric inpatients. It is unclear, however, how environmental factors (e.g., dorm-style rooms) impact sleep quality in this population. To assess sleep quality, a novel objective technology, actigraphy, was used before and after a facility move. Subjective daily interviews were also administered, along with the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Actigraphy revealed significant improvements in objective sleep quality following the facility move. Interestingly, subjective report of sleep quality did not correlate with the objective measures. Circadian sleep type appeared to play a role in influencing subjective attitudes toward sleep quality. Built environment has a significant effect on the sleep quality of psychiatric inpatients. Given well-documented disruptions in sleep quality present among psychiatric patients undergoing hospitalization, design elements like single patient bedrooms are highly desirable.
Verrillo, Elisabetta; Bizzarri, Carla; Cappa, Marco; Bruni, Oliviero; Pavone, Martino; Cutrera, Renato
Laron syndrome (LS), known as growth hormone (GH) receptor deficiency, is a rare form of inherited GH resistance. Sleep disorders were described as a common feature of adult LS patients, while no data are available in children. Bi-directional interactions between human sleep and the somatotropic system were previously described, mainly between slow wave sleep and the nocturnal GH surge. To analyze the sleep macro- and microstructure in LS and to evaluate the influence of substitutive insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) therapy on it. Two young LS females underwent polysomnography; the first study was performed during IGF-1 therapy, the second one after a 3-month wash-out period. In both patients, the sleep macrostructure showed that time in bed, sleep period time, total sleep time, sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement (REM) percentage were all increased during wash-out. The sleep microstructure (cyclic alternating pattern: CAP) showed significantly higher EEG slow oscillations (A1%) in NREM sleep, both during IGF-1 therapy and wash-out. Sleep macrostructure in LS children is slightly affected by substitutive IGF-1 therapy. Sleep microstructure shows an increase of A1%, probably related to abnormally high hypothalamic GHRH secretion, due to GH insensitivity. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Fallowing many papers, related to different breeding systems of the Chinchilla l., wirenetting floor and bedding cage, which results that there are no significant differencesoverview the growth indices and implicit the forage intake, we where studied thebreed’s behavior to explain all these. Adopting one of the breeding systems involvessmaller or bigger investment, this being the principal aim of this paper. Knowing thatChinchilla has an inactive period of 71,02% from 24 h, they are resting 54,05% and16,97% so-called sleeping in 24 h. From our studies results that most of inactive time(rest and sleeping they are sitting on the dust bath tray, no matter the floor type. Thatexplains there are no significant differences in outputs depending on the adoptedtechnology.
Full Text Available The present article presents the research results of an applied study regarding the impact of work style and organizational climate on teachers' intention to leave their workplace in the foreseeable future. A sample of 150 teachers aged 21-56, employees of 10 schools from Bucharest, Romania has been the focus of the research, aiming to identify the differences between the group of participants that expressed their intent to leave the organization (called the turnover group and the ones that stated their intention to remain employed in the school (non-fluctuation group regarding work style and its factors and the perceived traits of the organizational climate for the schools employing them at the time of the study. Teachers included in the turnover group revealed a more dynamic work style and a significantly more negative perception of the organizational climate.
Marcus, A.; Nichols, M.L.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.; Thurber, J.
Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of current study was to investigate the relationship between the problematic use of mobile phone and Big Five personality traits among students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A total number of 120 students (80 females and 40 males were selected by applying proportional randomized classification sampling method from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS and demographic questionnaire were used to gather data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Analysis of gathered data showed that gender, neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience had positive correlation with the problematic use of mobile phone, whereas conscientiousness and agreeableness were not correlated with the problematic use of mobile phone. Conclusion: The evaluation of Big Five personality traits would be a reliable factor for predicting the problematic use of mobile phone among students.
Vitor Francisco Dalla Corte
Full Text Available A change in the profile of food consumption is occurring because of the new context of demographic growth, the increase of income in developing economies, and urbanization. In Brazil, consumption patterns have trended from fresh to processed food and internal and external growth in demand has led to opportunities that require new and higher levels of technological innovation and associated managerial skill. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of innovation on a key Brazilian food industry: wheat product markets. Results showed that while most firms did not innovate in the past year, new investments in R&D were important for innovation to occur compared to other factors such as the size of the company, the integration in supply chain, and the age of the company. These results demonstrate that innovation is not a random or unpredictable process, but a complex and diverse process that may be specific to each industry.
Antonio Sánchez Ramírez
Full Text Available There are factors which impel or slow down the knowledge processes into the organizations which in turn affect the completion of its vision as an ideal planning. The organizational memory, repetition of unconscious acts and the extended practice plays an important role in the meaning of the action and the goal to transform the plans into attainment through the manifest knowledge which turns into conclusion and makes a systematic knowing infused with values as an important core source for the firm. They conceive maturity stages of development within the companies which interact mutually, starting with the organizational memory which embodies the past and present successes, passing towards unconscious acts which can risk the true knowledge content to an extended practice stage based in years of experience.
Zheng, Zeyu; Yang, Huancheng; Fu, Yang; Fu, Dianzheng; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene
Online social networks strongly impact our daily lives. An internet user (a "Netizen") wants messages to be efficiently disseminated. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) dissemination model is the traditional tool for exploring the spreading mechanism of information diffusion. We here test our SIR-based dissemination model on open and real-world data collected from Twitter. We locate and identify phase transitions in the message dissemination process. We find that message content is a stronger factor than the popularity of the sender. We also find that the probability that a message will be forwarded has a threshold that affects its ability to spread, and when the probability is above the threshold the message quickly achieves mass dissemination.
Kara, K. A.; Dolzhenko, A. V.; Zharikov, I. S.
Construction of facilities of cast in-situ reinforced concrete poses additional requirements to quality of material, peculiarities of the construction process may sometimes lead to appearance of lamination planes and inhomogeneity of concrete, which reduce strength of the material and structure as a whole. Technology compliance while working with cast in-situ concrete has a significant impact onto the concrete strength. Such process factors as concrete curing, vibration and compaction of the concrete mixture, temperature treatment, etc., when they are countered or inadequately followed lead to a significant reduction in concrete strength. Here, the authors experimentally quantitatively determine the loss of strength in in-situ cast concrete structures due to inadequate following of process requirements, in comparison with full compliance.
Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M; Halpern, Michael T; Kane, Heather L; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey
Predicted shortages in the supply of neurologists may limit patients' access to and quality of care for neurological disorders. Retaining neurologists already in practice provides one opportunity to support the overall supply of practicing neurologists. Understanding factors associated with professional life satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) and implementing policies to enhance satisfaction may encourage neurologists to remain in clinical practice. In this paper, we present results from the first study examining factors associated with professional life satisfaction among a large sample of U.S, neurologists. We collaborated with the AAN to survey a sample of U.S. neurologists about their professional life satisfaction. Analyses examined the association of physician and practice characteristics with aspects of professional life satisfaction, including satisfaction with their career in medicine, medical specialty, current position, relationship with colleagues, relationship with patients, work/life balance, and pay. The study population consisted of 625 neurologists. In multivariate regression analyses, no single group or population stratum indicated high (or low) responses to all aspects of satisfaction. Older neurologists reported higher satisfaction with career, specialty, and relationship with patients than younger neurologists. Female neurologists had significantly lower satisfaction with pay than male neurologists. Neurologists who spent more time in research and teaching had greater satisfaction with specialty, relationship with colleagues, and relationship with patients than those spending no time in research. Neurologists who practiced in small cities/rural areas reported lower satisfaction across multiple dimensions than those practicing in large urban areas. Neurologists in solo practice had greater satisfaction with the relationship with their patients, but lower satisfaction with pay. Satisfaction is a multidimensional construct that is associated with
Hollway, Jill A.; Aman, Michael G.
Sleep disturbance is a significant problem in the general pediatric population, and it occurs even more frequently in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Much time and energy have been spent examining the characteristics that predispose children to insomnia and it is likely that equivalent factors influence sleep in PDDs.…
Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael
In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life.
Mehmet Ferit Can
Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.
This study assessed the factors influencing the attainment of household food security in Ikwuano ... Data analysis utilized descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, ... had no access to credits, 71.7% had no contact with extension service.
The Influence of Psychological Factors in Meniere's Disease. ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... probably through disorders of the autonomic nervous system occasioned by the increased levels of stress‑related hormones.
The influence of bioregion and important environmental factors in South Africa ... the production efficiency of cows through the implementation of management ... genetic component was not separated from the environmental components.
J. Lyn Haskins
factors influencing recruitment and retention of three categories of HPs in KwaZulu-Natal and has ...... tion, with good career opportunities which were similar in both urban and rural .... attract nurses to rural areas: A multicountry discrete choice.
Factors that influence doctors in the assessment of applicants for disability grant. ... and the usefulness of the committees were important in decision making. ... assessment of applicants for a disability grant is a subjective and emotional task.
Evaluation of some genetic factors influencing the phenotypic severity of β thalassemia Egyptian patients. Ibtessam R Hussein, Amina M Medhat, Samir F Zohny, Alice K Abd El-Aleem, Ghada Y El-Kammah, Bardees M Foda ...
Social Cultural Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Sports as Perceived by Female Students of the University of Ilorin. ... sports competition while mass media should organize enlightenment programmes that will mitigate the ...
Physico-chemical and biotic factors influencing microalgal seed culture propagation for inoculation of a ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... used to inoculate an open raceway pond for large scale biomass production for biodiesel production.
Morse, George W.
In this Note I explore the factors which influence the demand side of program participation, or the willingness to pay (WTP). The WTP estimates can help you determine how many people will participate in an event at each fee level.
Jan 17, 2014 ... Original Research: Factors influencing adherence to dietary guidelines. 76. 2014 Volume ..... eat, because they dik (tired) of giving you special food. Then they go .... patients in this study were satisfied with the advice received ...
The study investigated the factors that influence iron ... approaches employed for promotion of girl-child education and prevention of adolescent .... purchase food items rich in haem iron such as ... decision making, life style options, and control.
In the public sector ... Objectives: This study aimed to assess the factors influencing choice and satisfaction with health service providers among local ... the consumer of healthcare services cannot control. ..... Acquisition of Stable Food.
Factors influencing the adoption of smartphones by undergraduate students at ... ha ve thus far c oncentrated on the adoption of mobile technologies especially ... who may also want to explore the implementation of mobile learning systems, ...
Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Consent For Research In Nigeria: Lessons ... for Health Research Ethics in enforcing researchers' compliance with ethical standards in ... Genuine respect for human dignity requires deeper understanding of ...
adherence to exclusive breast feeding among HIV positive ... Despite its benefits, the practice of EBF among HIV positive mothers is low in Ethiopia. Objective: This study is intended to assess factors influencing adherence to exclusively breast ...
In Nigeria however, young infants may not benefit from such a practice as a ... The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing breastfeeding practices in Edo State, Nigeria. ... Only 20 per cent practiced exclusive breastfeeding.
Factors Influencing Student Nurses' Performance in the Final Practical Examination ... Staff development courses can be held to coordinate the work of the school ... to authentic individual nursing care of patients so that they use the individual ...
Vermeer, A. J. M.; van Assema, P.; Hesdahl, B.; Harting, J.; de Vries, N. K.
We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health
Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.
This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of hydrosphere; (2) Radioactive contamination of hydrosphere