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Sample records for factors influencing sexual

  1. Factors Influencing the Intended Likelihood of Exposing Sexual Infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne L; Fitzgerald, Carey J

    2015-08-01

    There is a considerable body of literature on infidelity within romantic relationships. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature on factors influencing the likelihood of uninvolved individuals exposing sexual infidelity. Therefore, we devised an exploratory study examining a wide range of potentially relevant factors. Based in part on evolutionary theory, we anticipated nine potential domains or types of influences on the likelihoods of exposing or protecting cheaters, including kinship, strong social alliances, financial support, previous relationship behaviors (including infidelity and abuse), potential relationship transitions, stronger sexual and emotional aspects of the extra-pair relationship, and disease risk. The pattern of results supported these predictions (N = 159 men, 328 women). In addition, there appeared to be a small positive bias for participants to report infidelity when provided with any additional information about the situation. Overall, this study contributes a broad initial description of factors influencing the predicted likelihood of exposing sexual infidelity and encourages further studies in this area.

  2. Heritable factors influence sexual orientation in women.

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    Bailey, J M; Pillard, R C; Neale, M C; Agyei, Y

    1993-03-01

    Homosexual female probands with monozygotic cotwins, dizygotic cotwins, or adoptive sisters were recruited using homophile publications. Sexual orientation of relatives was assessed either by asking relatives directly, or, when this was impossible, by asking the probands. Of the relatives whose sexual orientation could be confidently rated, 34 (48%) of 71 monozygotic cotwins, six (16%) of 37 dizygotic cotwins, and two (6%) of 35 adoptive sisters were homosexual. Probands also reported 10 (14%) nontwin biologic sisters to be homosexual, although those sisters were not contacted to confirm their orientations. Heritabilities were significant using a wide range of assumptions about both the base rate of homosexuality in the population and ascertainment bias. The likelihood that a monozygotic cotwin would also be homosexual was unrelated to measured characteristics of the proband such as self-reported history of childhood gender nonconformity. Concordant monozygotic twins reported similar levels of childhood gender nonconformity.

  3. Factors that Influence Attitudes and Sexual Behavior among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    region, Namibia and to understand to how certain social and cultural factors ... KEYWORDS: Sexual risk behaviour, Gender, HIV prevention, Sexual and reproductive health ... million people remains one of the countries in ...... sexual risk behaviours by encouraging interaction ... education to young people in schools that.

  4. [Influence of genetic factors on human sexual orientation. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Paradisi, Irene

    2009-09-01

    Human sexual orientation is a complex trait, influenced by several genes, experiential and sociocultural factors. These elements interact and produce a typical pattern of sexual orientation towards the opposite sex. Some exceptions exist, like bisexuality and homosexuality, which seem to be more frequent in males than females. Traditional methods for the genetic study of behavior multifactorial characteristics consist in detecting the presence of familial aggregation. In order to identify the importance of genetic and environmental factors in this aggregation, the concordance of the trait for monozygotic and dizygotic twins and for adopted sibs, reared together and apart, is compared. These types of studies have shown that familial aggregation is stronger for male than for female homosexuality. Based on the threshold method for multifactorial traits, and varying the frequency of homosexuality in the population between 4 and 10%, heritability estimates between 0.27 and 0.76 have been obtained. In 1993, linkage between homosexuality and chromosomal region Xq28 based on molecular approaches was reported. Nevertheless, this was not confirmed in later studies. Recently, a wide search of the genome has given significant or close to significant linkage values with regions 7q36, 8p12 and 10q26, which need to be studied more closely. Deviation in the proportion of X chromosome inactivation in mothers of homosexuals seems to favor the presence of genes related with sexual orientation in this chromosome. There is still much to be known about the genetics of human homosexuality.

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN THE MALAYSIAN WORKPLACE

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    Lee Kum Chee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the potential risks factors associated with sexually harassing behaviors within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. The factors examined are unprofessional work environment, skewed gender ratio in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedure for sexual harassment, sexist attitudes among co-workers, privacy of workspace, physical attractiveness, dress manner of victims, job status, and sex roles. The dependent variable is incidence of sexual harassment which was evaluated using the Sexual Experience Questionnaire developed by Fitzgerald, Shullman, Bailey, Richards, Swecker, Gold, Ormerod, and Weitzman (1988. Data were collected from 657 women employees working in Malaysian organizations. The findings showed that the predictions of the four-factor model are also largely true in the case of the Malaysian workplace. The study also found that sexual harassment behaviors are fairly widespread in Malaysia.

  6. Factors Influencing the Sexual Function of Women with Urinary Incontinence

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    Miok Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeSexual function involves a complex interaction of emotions, body image, and intact physical responses. The purpose of this study was to determine the sexual functioning of women who are incontinent and to identify associated factors.MethodsFor this descriptive correlation study, data were collected from 147 women with urinary incontinence. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, and stepwise multiple regression.ResultsMean scores were 22.39 (sexual dysfunction ≤26.55 for sexual function, 13.38 (of 63 for depression, and 55.47 (range of score 17~85 for body image. Urinary symptoms and daily life symptoms averaged 36.04 (range of score 20~100 and 16.03 (range of score 8~40. Sexual function had a positive correlation with body image and negative correlation with daily life symptoms. Sexual satisfaction, daily life symptoms, marital satisfaction, and frequency of sexual intercourse were factors affecting sexual function.ConclusionStudy results indicate that urinary incontinence has a negative impact on various aspects of sexual function. Nurses should be aware of the wider consideration that needs to be made in relation to general and sexual quality of life when caring for clients suffering from urological diseases.

  7. Factors influencing sexual function of middle-aged married Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the status of women's sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women's health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women's sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea's P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and questionnaires were used. [Results] Two groups based on FSFI scores above and below a cutoff value of 25 were compared with each other, and significant differences were found in age, male friends, menstrual status, sex status, and frequency of sex, experience of forced sex, personal health, husband's health and sexual knowledge. Male friends, sex status, experience of forced sex, husband's healths and sexual knowledge explained women's sexual function. [Conclusion] The finding that women's sexual function is associated with multiple factors suggests an intervention program for improving women's sexual function should be developed to reflect the factors influencing the target groups' sexual function.

  8. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  9. Gender differences in factors influencing sexual satisfaction in Korean older adults.

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    Kim, Oksoo; Jeon, Hae Ok

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the sex lives of Korean older adults (i.e., those over 60 years) and attempts to identify gender-related factors influencing sexual satisfaction. It used data from the 2008 Korean National Survey on Older Adults conducted by the Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Families. Of the 15,146 individuals who had taken part in the 2008 study, secondary analysis was conducted with data from 3360 persons who had spouses and were willing to respond to sex-related questions in a face-to-face interview. The mean age of male and female subjects was 67.34 and 66.86 years respectively. In the male subjects, sexual frequency, followed by marital satisfaction and cognitive function, had the greatest effect on sexual satisfaction. These three variables together accounted for 21% of the male subjects' sexual satisfaction. In the female subjects, marital satisfaction, followed by frequency of sexual activity, absence of depressive symptoms, age, and length of cohabitation with spouse, had the greatest effect on sexual satisfaction. These five variables together explained 11% of their sexual satisfaction. This study indicates that sexual frequency and physical factors have the most important effects on the sex lives of older men, while older women value psychosocial and relational factors more highly. Therefore, interventions aiming to improve sexual satisfaction in older adults should take gender differences into account.

  10. Factors influencing adolescent girls' sexual behavior: a secondary analysis of the 2011 youth risk behavior survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatale, Katharine; Kelly, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Adolescence is a tumultuous and challenging time period in life. Sexual risk behavior among adolescents is a widespread topic of interest in the current literature. Two common factors that influence increased sexual risk behavior are symptoms of depression and negative body image. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body image and symptoms of depression upon sexual risk-taking in an adolescent female population. A secondary data analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used to explore girls' sexual activity, body image, and mental health. There were 7,708 high-school girls who participated in this study. Three questions were used to represent the constructs under investigation. There were significant correlations between sexual activity, body image, and symptoms of depression; only symptoms of depression were significant predictors of both sexual activity and condom usage. Body image was a predictor of sexual activity, but not condom use. Our findings support previous studies that suggested that people with depressive symptoms were more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Our study also supports the idea that a negative body image decreases sexual activity; however, other researchers have reported that negative body image leads to an increase in sexual activity.

  11. Factors Influencing Depression and Anxiety among Black Sexual Minority Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis F. Graham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationships between depression and anxiety, and ethnic and sexual identity development, and discrimination and harassment (DH among Black sexual minority men. Additional aims were to determine whether an interaction effect existed between ethnic and sexual identity and whether coping skills level moderated these relationships. Using an observational cross-sectional design, 54 participants recruited through snowball sampling completed self-administered online surveys. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used. Sixty-four percent of the variance in depression scores and 53% of the variance in anxiety scores were explained by DH and internalized homonegativity together. Thirty percent of the sample had scale scores indicating likelihood of depression and anxiety. Experience of DH and internalized homonegativity explained a large portion of the variability in depression and anxiety among Black sexual minority men. The study showed high prevalence of mental distress among this sample.

  12. Influencing factors on high-risk sexual behaviors in young people: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi-Mianrood, Hoda; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Khoori, Elham; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2017-04-19

    Background In recent years, high-risk sexual behaviors due to their negative consequences both for the individual and society have received more attention than other high-risk behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to review the influencing factors of high-risk sexual behaviors among young people from an ecological point of view. Methods This review was conducted through searching databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library with keywords such as sexual risk-taking behavior, high-risk sex, unprotected sex and unsafe sex. The relevant papers published between 1995 and 2016 were extracted. After reviewing the abstract and full text of the articles, 45 papers were used to write this article. Results From an ecological theory approach, factors which influence high-risk sexual behaviors are divided into three categories - the microsystem, the mesosystem and the macrosystem. The microsystem includes factors such as age, gender, race, marital status, place of residence, religion, level of education, personality traits, psychological problems, childhood experiences, body image and coincidence of high-risk behaviors; the mesosystem includes factors such as family structure, peers and sex education; in the macrosystem, the impact of culture and traditions of the society, economic status and the media are presented. Conclusion Given that high-risk sexual behaviors often have multiple causes, it seems that health policymakers must consider multi-dimensional interventions to influence high-risk sexual behaviors based on the ecological approach.

  13. [Factors that influence the sexuality of the elderly: an integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Danielle Lopes de; Marques, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Vieira, Júlia de Cássia Miguel

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the scientific evidence addressing the factors that influence the sexuality of the elderly. It involved an online search carried out in pairs, including original articles published between 2006 and October 2011 in Portuguese, English or Spanish, which fulfilled the requirements of the study. The MEDLINE, LILACS, CidSaúde and BDENF databases were used with the key words: sexualidade e idoso / sexuality and elderly / sexualidad y anciano. The articles selected were assessed for methodological quality using two instruments, namely CASP and the Hierarchical Classification of Evidence. After analysis, 15 articles were included in the review, which discuss the culture of asexuality of the elderly, whereby the experience of sexuality only prevails among younger people. The absence of the partner due to widowhood, attributing value to beauty standards of the young, the occurrence of disease, use of medication, and changes in sexual physiology were identified as important factors that influence the sexuality of the elderly. The conclusion drawn is that social and cultural factors, changes in body physiology, and the occurrence of disease interfere with the sexuality of the elderly, making it necessary for nursing professionals to be proactive in debunking myths and providing orientation.

  14. Sexual behavior and the influencing factors among out of school female adolescents in Mushin market, Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Onajole, Adebayo; Ogunowo, Babatunde

    2009-01-01

    High rates of adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and unsafe abortions in Nigeria indicate the need for a greater understanding of factors that affect adolescent sexuality. The sexual health needs of adolescents remain poorly known and addressed particularly among vulnerable subpopulations like out-of-school adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the sexual behavior of female out-of-school adolescents and to identify factors that influence their sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of unmarried, out-of-school female adolescents (n = 332, mean age 17 y), selected using cluster sampling, who were working in a major market (Mushin) in Lagos, Nigeria. Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaires. Many girls (43.7%) have had sexual intercourse. The mean age at initiation was 16 years. The main reason for initiation was curiosity. Risky sexual behavior and transactional sex was common. Nonconsensual sex was also reported. Sexual health knowledge was poor, and friends served as their main source of information on sexual health issues. Factors associated with the initiation of sexual activity were friends sexual behavior, the person adolescents reside with, parents marital status, availability of funds to meet basic needs, and watching pornography (p sexual behavior are exposed to sexual abuse, lack skills to resist pressure, and have limited access to credible reproductive health information. Appropriate interventions including provision of sexuality education and a supportive environment must be instituted to address their needs.

  15. Factors influencing the degree and pattern of parental involvement in play therapy for sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Although much has been written about the role of therapists in children's recovery from child sexual abuse, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of nonoffending parents. This study investigated the work of a team of therapists who sometimes included such parents in therapy sessions with children. The study sought to understand what factors were influencing the degree and pattern of parental involvement and to understand what effect these patterns of parental involvement were having on the process and outcomes of therapy. The study successfully identified a range of factors influencing the patterns of parental involvement, but more research will be needed to understand the effect on outcomes.

  16. Nonoffending Parent Expectations of Sexually Abused Children: Predictive Factors and Influence on Children's Recovery

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    Kouyoumdjian, Haig; Perry, Andrea R.; Hansen, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment,…

  17. Nonoffending Parent Expectations of Sexually Abused Children: Predictive Factors and Influence on Children's Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdjian, Haig; Perry, Andrea R.; Hansen, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment,…

  18. To tell or not to tell? factors influencing young people's informal disclosures of child sexual abuse.

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    McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

    2014-03-01

    The aim was to understand the factors influencing informal disclosure of child sexual abuse experiences, taking account of dynamics operating prior to, during, and following disclosure. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 young people who experienced child sexual abuse and 14 parents. Grounded theory methodology informed the study. The key factors identified as influencing the disclosure process included being believed, being asked, shame/self-blame, concern for self and others, and peer influence. Many young people both wanted to tell and did not want to tell. Fear of not being believed; being asked questions about their well-being; feeling ashamed of what happened and blaming themselves for the abuse, for not telling, and for the consequences of disclosure; concern for how both disclosure and nondisclosure would impact on themselves and others; and being supported by and yet pressurized by peers to tell an adult, all illustrate the complex intrapersonal and interpersonal dynamics reflecting the conflict inherent in the disclosure process. These findings build on previous studies that emphasize the dialogic and interpersonal dynamics in the disclosure process. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal influencing factors need to be taken account of in designing interventions aimed at helping children tell. The importance of asking young people about their psychological well-being and the role of peer relationships are highlighted as key to how we can help young people tell.

  19. Factors influencing sexual function of middle-aged married Korean women

    OpenAIRE

    Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the status of women’s sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women’s health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women’s sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea’s P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and q...

  20. The influence of sexual attitudes on mid- to late-life sexual well-being: age, not gender, as a salient factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Allyson S; Patrick, Julie Hicks

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sexual attitudes on sexual activity and expression has been relatively understudied in older populations. In the current study, we sought to understand the role sexual attitudes have on sexual well-being among middle-aged and young-old adults. Using a diverse sample of participants over the age of 45 (N = 384), a path model was analyzed to determine whether sexual attitudes contributed to sexual well-being. The model was then compared by gender. Results indicated: a) only age-relative sexual attitudes significantly contributed to sexual well-being; and b) the model was equally robust for both men and women, even though women held slightly more positive age-relative sexual attitudes than men. Therefore, among middle-aged and young-old adults, sexual well-being may be reduced by harboring negative ageist sexual attitudes. Efforts should be made to reduce stigma surrounding continued sexual activity and expression among the aged.

  1. Identifying Mediators of the Influence of Family Factors on Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Burt, Callie Harbin; Tambling, Rachel Blyskal

    2013-01-01

    Participation in risky sexual behaviors has many deleterious consequences and is a source of concern for parents as well as practitioners, researchers, and public policy makers. Past research has examined the effect of family structure and supportive parenting on risky sexual behaviors among emerging adults. In the present study, we attempt to…

  2. New evidence of genetic factors influencing sexual orientation in men: female fecundity increase in the maternal line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iemmola, Francesca; Camperio Ciani, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    There is a long-standing debate on the role of genetic factors influencing homosexuality because the presence of these factors contradicts the Darwinian prediction according to which natural selection should progressively eliminate the factors that reduce individual fecundity and fitness. Recently, however, Camperio Ciani, Corna, and Capiluppi (Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 271, 2217-2221, 2004), comparing the family trees of homosexuals with heterosexuals, reported a significant increase in fecundity in the females related to the homosexual probands from the maternal line but not in those related from the paternal one. This suggested that genetic factors that are partly linked to the X-chromosome and that influence homosexual orientation in males are not selected against because they increase fecundity in female carriers, thus offering a solution to the Darwinian paradox and an explanation of why natural selection does not progressively eliminate homosexuals. Since then, new data have emerged suggesting not only an increase in maternal fecundity but also larger paternal family sizes for homosexuals. These results are partly conflicting and indicate the need for a replication on a wider sample with a larger geographic distribution. This study examined the family trees of 250 male probands, of which 152 were homosexuals. The results confirmed the study of Camperio Ciani et al. (2004). We observed a significant fecundity increase even in primiparous mothers, which was not evident in the previous study. No evidence of increased paternal fecundity was found; thus, our data confirmed a sexually antagonistic inheritance partly linked to the X-chromosome that promotes fecundity in females and a homosexual sexual orientation in males.

  3. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking and sexual satisfaction among female African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica M; Smearman, Erica L; Brody, Gene H; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2013-12-01

    Sexuality-related constructs, such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction, have been related to sexual behaviours that place one at risk of adverse consequences, such as sexually transmissible infections, HIV and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors to biological and psychological predispositions, that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescents. Female African Americans aged 14-20 years were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (n=304) were used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS and sexual satisfaction. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability, whereas short serotonin transporter gene allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviours were associated with increased SSS, whereas short serotonin transporter gene allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction, whereas short serotonin transporter gene allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to the number of sex partners, the frequency of vaginal sex and the number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past 6 months. The findings emphasise the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviours, that influence sexuality constructs, which, in turn, are associated with sexual behaviours, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy

  4. The Relative Influence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Family Background Risk Factors on Adult Adversities in Female Outpatients Treated for Anxiety Disorders and Depression

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    Peleikis, Dawn E.; Mykletun, Arnstein; Dahl, Alv A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study from Norway examines the relative influence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and family background risk factors (FBRF) on the risk for current mental disorders and the quality of current intimate relationships in women with CSA treated for anxiety disorders and/or depression. Women with these disorders frequently seek treatment,…

  5. Multi-system influences on adolescent risky sexual behavior.

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    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Thompson, Elaine Adams; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2010-12-01

    We examined multi-system influences on risky sexual behavior measured by cumulative sexual risk index and number of nonromantic sexual partners among 4,465 single, sexually experienced adolescents. Hierarchical Poisson regression analyses were conducted with Wave I-II data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Individual and family factors predicted both outcome measures. Neighborhood set predicted cumulative sexual risk index only, and peer factors predicted the number of nonromantic sexual partners only. School set did not predict either outcome. There were significant associations among risky sexual behavior, drug use, and delinquent behaviors. The results highlight the need for multifaceted prevention programs that address relevant factors related to family, peer and neighborhood influence as well as individual factors among sexually active adolescents. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Televised sexual content and parental mediation: Influences on adolescent sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Walker, Samantha; Gruber, Enid L.

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of exposure to televised sexual content on adolescent sexuality or how parental intervention may reduce negative effects of viewing such content. This study uses self-report data from 1,012 adolescents to investigate the relations among exposure to sexually suggestive programming, parental mediation strategies, and three types of adolescent sexuality outcomes: participation in oral sex and sexual intercourse, future intentions to eng...

  7. Sexual deviance and psychopathy as risk factors for sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Karla Jean

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of psychopathy and sexual deviance in sexual offenders (N = 76). The relationship between psychopathy and sexual deviance was assessed in terms of their independence and whether they interacted to increase sexual recidivism significantly. The predictive values of psychopathy and sexual deviance as individual risk factors were also explored. Psychopathy and sexual deviance as general constructs were independent, although a number of specific aspects of psy...

  8. 大学生性态度及其影响因素分析%Sexual Attitude of College Students and Its Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱小爽; 曾祥龙; 周瀚; 林丹华

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the sexual attitude of college students and its influencing factors. Methods: 500 college students from ten universities in Beijing were administered a series of questionnaires. Results: Three ways interaction among gender, grades and sexual experience on the responsibility of sexual attitudes were significant; gender, sexual education before college and sexual knowledge could significantly predict self-oriented sex, and grades and sexual knowledge could significantly predict relation-oriented sex. Conclusion: The man student who had sexual experience in lower grades has the lowest responsibility. And the effect of sexual education in college was worse than before college.%目的:探讨大学生性态度的特点及其影响因素.方法:对北京市十所大学的500名大学生进行问卷调查.结果:大学生性态度中的性责任性存在性别、年级、性经验的交互作用;性别、大学前性教育、性知识对自我中心取向的性态度有预测作用,而年级、性知识对关系取向的性态度有预测作用.结论:低年级有性经验的男生性责任感最低,大学期间性教育的效果不如大学前性教育.

  9. 高校女大学生婚前性行为的影响因素%Influencing factors of premarital sexual behavior of female college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘缨; 张建芳; 张媛媛; 陈必良

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the influencing factors of premarital sexual behavior of female college students, so as to provide evidence for their reproductive health interventions. Methods An anonymous survey was conducted with self-designed questionnaires among 838 female college students aged 18-24 from 5 randomly selected universities in Xi' an. Altogether 786 effective questionnaires were collected. Results Among the students surveyed, 5. 3% students had unplanned pregnancy, 17. 1% students had sexual behavior but were not pregnant, and 77. 6% students had no sexual behavior. The correct rate of sexual knowledge of sexual behavior group ( not pregnant ) was remarkably higher than that of no-sexual behavior group (χ2=9. 317-17. 126,P =0. 000-0. 003 ), and the sexual tolerance of former group ( not pregnant ) was also remarkably higher than that of latter group( χ2 =22.497, P = 0. 000 ). In sexual attitude towards the influence of premarital sex on body and mind and future family, the cognition of sexual behavior group was remarkably lower than that of no-sexual behavior group (χ2 =7. 162-16. 876,P = 0. 000-0. 022 ). Logistic regression analysis showed that grade, knowledge of contraception,side effect of premarital sex on future family and sexual tolerance were influencing factors of premarital sex. Conclusion Sexual attitude is an important influencing factor of premarital sex of female college students.%目的 探讨影响高校女大学生婚前性行为的因素,为大学女性生殖健康干预提供有参考价值的客观数据.方法 采用自编问卷调查法,随即抽取西安5所高校的838名18~24岁的女大学生为调查对象.结果 收回786份有效问卷进行分析,结果为①5.3%的女大学生承认有计划外妊娠行为,17.1%承认有性经历但无妊娠行为,77.6%无性经历;②在性知识掌握的正确率方面,有性经历组(未妊娠)高于无性经历组(χ2=9.317~17.126,P=0.000~0.003);③在对婚前性行为的容许度方面,

  10. Sexual self-concept as influencing intended sexual health behaviour of young adolescent Taiwanese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a process model that assesses the relationship of sexual health knowledge and normative beliefs to sexual health behavioural intention, with sexual self-concept as a mediating variable. The model is intended to assist in the prediction of which adolescents would exhibit a lower intention to engage in protective sexual health behaviour. Previous research has shown that sexual-related behaviours are associated with sexual self-concept, sexual health knowledge and perceived parental/peer approval of sexual behaviour. This study is a cross-sectional research. This study was conducted with 545 adolescent girls, aged 12-15 years, from eight junior high schools in Taiwan. Participants were assessed using the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory, the Sexual Health Behavior Intention Scale, the Parental Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (PASB), the Friends' Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale and the Sexual Health Knowledge Scale. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling, with the maximum likelihood estimate determined by the LISREL 8.52 program. The model exhibited adequate fit (goodness-of-fit index = 0.96, adjusted goodness-of-fit index = 0.94, normed fit index = 0.96, comparative fit index = 0.98, standardised root mean square residual = 0.049 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.048) and the findings indicate that sexual self-concept was a significant influence on the relationship of sexual health knowledge and normative beliefs to sexual health behavioural intention. The results of this study revealed the importance of sexual self-concept for adolescent girls' sexual health behaviour. Evidence-based strategies that reinforce and clarify sexual self-concept as a mediating factor may aid in adolescent females' intention to engage in protective sexual health behaviour. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. African-American females aged 14-20 were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (N=304) was used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS, and sexual satisfaction. In multivariable linear regressions, a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviors were associated with increased SSS, and short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was also associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to number of sex partners, frequency of vaginal sex, and number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past six months. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviors, that influence sexuality constructs, which in turn are associated with sexual behaviors, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy sexuality. PMID:24262218

  12. Sex, sexual orientation, and sexism: what influence do these factors have on verdicts in a crime-of-passion case?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragatz, Laurie L; Russell, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of defendant sex, sexual orientation, and participant sex on perceptions of a crime-of-passion. An online sample of 458 individuals read a scenario describing a homicide and provided judgments of verdict, sentence length, legal elements, and sexism. We hypothesized heterosexual female defendants would most likely receive a verdict of manslaughter, be found less guilty, and receive shorter sentences. We were also interested in whether benevolent sexism would contribute to defendant culpability decisions. Lastly, perceptions of legal elements for manslaughter (e.g., great provocation) and murder (e.g., intentionality of actions) were explored. Results demonstrated heterosexual female defendants were less guilty and received the shortest sentences. Also, heterosexual defendants were most likely to meet the manslaughter legal elements. Benevolent sexism contributed significantly to guilt perceptions.

  13. Distal and Proximal Influences on Men's Intentions to Resist Condoms: Alcohol, Sexual Aggression History, Impulsivity, and Social-Cognitive Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Danube, Cinnamon L; Neilson, Elizabeth C; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2016-01-01

    Recent scientific evidence demonstrates that many young men commonly resist condom use with their female sex partners and that both alcohol intoxication and a history of sexual aggression may increase the risk of condom use resistance (CUR). Using a community sample of heterosexual male non-problem drinkers with elevated sexual risk (N = 311), this alcohol administration study examined the direct and indirect effects of intoxication and sexual aggression history on men's CUR intentions through a sexual risk analogue. State impulsivity, CUR-related attitudes, and CUR-related self-efficacy were assessed as mediators. Results demonstrated that alcohol intoxication directly increased CUR intentions, and sexual aggression history both directly and indirectly increased CUR intentions. These findings highlight the importance of addressing both alcohol use and sexual aggression in risky sex prevention programs, as well as indicate the continued worth of research regarding the intersection of men's alcohol use, sexual aggression, and sexual risk behaviors, especially CUR.

  14. 性满意度影响因素的相关研究%Review on influencing factors for sexual satisfaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗秋莎; 王海臣; 彭涛

    2013-01-01

    Sexual satisfaction is not only an important aspect of human being's sexual health,but also one crucial indicator in assessing quality of life.The findings from literature review demonstrate that few domestic research on sexual satisfaction are conducted.However,there are more studies from other countries,focusing on social-demographic,physiological and psychological influencing factors.This paper makes comprehensive analysis and evaluation on these studies with an aim to provide meaningful implications for future study in Chinese context.%性满意度不仅是性健康的重要内容,也是衡量生活质量的主要指标之一.经文献回顾发现,性满意度的相关研究在国内并未得以广泛和深入的探讨,而国外学者对其进行了诸多研究,并针对社会人口学因素、生理因素和心理因素对性满意度的影响进行了探讨.本文对相关研究结果进行了梳理,旨在为目前国内进一步开展性满意度的研究提供建设性的思考.

  15. 'Mum never loved me.' How structural factors influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health through parent-child connectedness: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Research in high income countries shows parent-child connectedness to be protective against undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes among young people. Little has been done to understand the nature of parent-child connectedness, the structural factors that impact on connectedness and parents' understanding of how connectedness affects their children's sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania in particular. Ethnographic research involved 30 days of observation in 10 households, 9 focus group discussions and 60 in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted using NVIVO qualitative data analysis software. The structural factors with greatest influence on connectedness were economic circumstances, gender, social status, state education, and globalisation. Economic circumstances impacted on parent-child connectedness through parents' ability to provide for their children's material needs, and the time their occupation allowed for them to spend with their children and monitor their activities. Appropriate parent-child interactions were shaped by gender norms and by social status in the form of respectability, adolescents' adherence to norms of respect/obedience shaping their parents' affection. State education affected parents' preferences between children but also undermined parental authority, as did broader globalisation. Connectedness was related to SRH in a bi-directional way: lack of connectedness was linked to young people's low self-esteem and risky sexual behaviour while unplanned pregnancies seriously undermined young women's connectedness with their parents. Since material provision was perceived to be a central element of parent-child connectedness, structural factors limiting provision made transactional sex more likely both through direct material pathways and emotional ones. Motives for transactional sex were said to be material needs and to feel loved and cared for. An important pathway by which structural factors shape

  16. Sexual behavior and its influencing factors among farmer workers%农民工性行为发生情况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 王学良; 李小妹

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解农民工与艾滋病相关性行为情况及其影响因素.方法 采用随机整群抽样方法,选取陕西省蓝田县3个乡6个村的820名具有外出打工史的农民为对象,通过问卷对其性行为现状进行调查.结果 农民工有婚前性行为者占36.3%,有婚外性行为者占11.7%,有≥2个性伙伴者占17.2%;初次性行为年龄女性早于男性,小年龄组早于大年龄组,轻体力劳动者早于劳动强度大者(P <0.001);性别(OR =0.36)、婚姻状况(OR =3.35)、打工地点(OR=1.93)、初次性行为年龄(OR =0.79)、每次外出打工时间(OR=1.02)因素影响多性伴人数;多性伴者在初次和既往性行为中安全套使用率高于单性伴者(P<0.05).结论 农民工高危性行为的发生与性别、婚姻状态、打工类型、打工地点及每次外出打工时间有关.%Objective To examine the prevalence of sexual behavior and its influencing factors among farmer workers. Methods Totally 820 rural-to-urban workers from 6 villages of 3 towns in Lantian county were selected with random cluster sampling and a cross-sectional survey on sexual behavior was conducted. Results Among the farmer workers, 36. 3% reported premarital sex; 11. 7% reported extramarital sex; 17. 1% reported two or more sex partners. Single factor analysis revealed that the first sexual behavior of female, youth and light manual workers was earlier than male, older and heavy manual workers( P <0. 001). Multivariate analysis revealed that factors influencing multiple sex partners were gender (odds ratio[OR] =0. 36),marriage status(OR =3. 35),distance from hometown(OR = 1.93) ,age of first sexual behavior ( OR = 0. 79 ) , and duration of working out of home town (OR = 1. 02). The ratio of using condom of the workers with multiple sex partner was higher than that of with single sexual partner (P < 0. 05). Conclusion The prevalence of risk sexual behavior is related to gender,marital status,and type,location and

  17. Unmarried sexual behavior and the influencing factors among college students%大学生非婚性行为及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向晋辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解大学生非婚性行为的发生情况及影响因素,为制定干预措施提供参考.方法 通过网络聊天群随机抽取426名在校大学生,采用自编问卷对大学生非婚性行为发生情况及相关可能影响因素进行匿名调查.结果 大学生非婚性行为的发生率为27.5%,其中男生为28.6%,女生为26.2%,差异无统计学意义(x2=0.310,P=0.578).大学生非婚性行为发生率在不同性生理成熟年龄、认识性行为途径、朋辈状况上的差异均有统计学意义(x2值分别为7.005,9.318,68.380,P值均<0.05),在不同家庭结构、家庭教养方式和学校类型上的差异均无统计学意义(x2值分别为0.378,0.963,2.745,P值均>0.05).结论 性生理成熟年龄、认识性行为途径及朋辈中发生非婚性行为的比例对大学生非婚性行为的发生率有显著影响.大学生性教育应从家庭、学校和全社会多个层面进行.%Objective To investigate the status of college students' unmarried sexual behavior, so as to provide reference for counter measure. Methods A total of 426 college students from a random selection of network chat groups accepted an anonymous survey. Results About 27. 5% of the students had unmarried sexual behavior, 28. 6% for males and 26. 2% for females(x2 = 0. 310,P=0. 578). There were significant differences of the percentage among the students with different sexual maturity stage (x2=7.005,P=0.030)or way of knowing sexual behavior(x2 =9. 318,P = 0. 025 ) or peer friends' influence(x2 =68. 380,P< 0.01), and no significant differences among the students with different family structure(x2 =0. 378,P = 0. 828 ) or parenting style (x2=0.963,P=0.618) or from different schools(x2 = 2.745, P = 0.254). Conclusion The condition of sexual maturity, the way of knowing sexual behavior and peer friends' influence are the influential factors of students' unmarried sexual behavior.

  18. 女大学生婚前性行为的影响因素%Research on influencing factors to premarital sexual behavior of female students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婉秋; 张河川

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the influencing factors to premarital sex of female students and to provide evidence for their sex education and reproductive health. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among 840 female students who collected at random form 6 universities in Yunnan. Results: ①Among the students surveyed, 5. 1% students had unwanted pregrant, 16. 2% students had sex behavior but hadn't pregrant and 78. 7% students hadn't sex behavior. ②The correct rate of sexual knowledge, the sexual behavior group remarkable higher than the no - sexual behavior group ( P = 0. 000 ~ 0. 002); In sexual tolerance, the sexual behavior group remarkable higher than no - sexual behavior group ( P = 0. 000 ); In sexual attitude about effect of premarital sex to health and future family, the sexual behavior group remarkable lower than no - sexual behavior group ( P = 0. 028/P = 0. 000 ); About of the standpoint of reproductive health that female is emphasis and male is participation activity'. the sexual behavior group remarkable lower than the no - sexual behavior group ( P = 0. 000) . ③Logistic showed that grade, knowledge of contraception, effect of premarital sex to future family and sexual tolerance were risk factors to premarital sex Conclusion: Sex attitude is important factor of premarital sex of female students. Traditional virginity value still play an impact role in the sex behavior. The education of sex moral would play an important role in our intervention of sex health and reproductive health.%目的:探讨影响女大学生婚前性行为的因素,为女大学生性健康/生殖健康干预提供有参考价值的客观数据.方法:采用自编问卷调查法,整群随机抽取云南省6所高校的840名18~25岁的女大学生为调查对象.结果:①5.1%的女大学生承认有非意愿妊娠行为,16.2%承认有性经历但无妊娠行为,78.7%报告无性经历.②在性知识掌握的正确率方面,有性经历组(未

  19. Factors That Influence Communication about Sexuality between Parents and Adolescents in the Cultural Context of Mexican Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvier, Mariel; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys; Caballero, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy among adolescents are important public health issues that can be tackled through the implementation of effective education strategies. Previous studies have documented the importance and effectiveness of parents as primary educators for their adolescents. A qualitative study based on grounded…

  20. Factors That Influence Communication about Sexuality between Parents and Adolescents in the Cultural Context of Mexican Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvier, Mariel; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys; Caballero, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy among adolescents are important public health issues that can be tackled through the implementation of effective education strategies. Previous studies have documented the importance and effectiveness of parents as primary educators for their adolescents. A qualitative study based on grounded…

  1. ‘Mum never loved me.’ How structural factors influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health through parent–child connectedness: A qualitative study in rural Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Research in high income countries shows parent–child connectedness to be protective against undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes among young people. Little has been done to understand the nature of parent–child connectedness, the structural factors that impact on connectedness and parents’ understanding of how connectedness affects their children's sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania in particular. Ethnographic research involved 30 days of observation in 1...

  2. The influence of ovarian factors on the somatostatin-growth hormone system during the postnatal growth and sexual development in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wańkowska, Marta; Polkowska, Jolanta; Misztal, Tomasz; Romanowicz, Katarzyna

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the effects of ovarian hormones on somatostatin in the hypothalamic neurons and growth hormone (GH) secretion during the postnatal growth and development of sheep. The study was performed on 9-week-old (infantile) lambs that were ovary-intact (OVI) or ovariectomized (OVX) at 39 days of age, and on 16-week-old (juvenile) lambs that were OVI or OVX at 88 days of age. Hormones in neurons and somatotropic cells were assayed with immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay. Following ovariectomy, immunoreactive somatostatin was more abundant (p0.05) between OVI and OVX lambs. In conclusion, ovarian factors may inhibit the GH secretion in infantile lambs but enhance the GH secretion in juvenile lambs. Transition to puberty, as related to the growth rate, appears to be due mainly to change in gonadal influence on the somatostatin neurosecretion. A stimulation of somatostatin output in the median eminence by gonadal factors in infancy is followed by a stimulation of somatostatin accumulation after infancy. Thus, ovarian factors modulate mechanisms within the somatotropic system of lambs to synchronize the somatic growth with sexual development.

  3. Prenatal endocrine influences on sexual orientation and on sexually differentiated childhood behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Both sexual orientation and sex-typical childhood behaviors, such as toy, playmate and activity preferences, show substantial sex differences, as well as substantial variability within each sex. In other species, behaviors that show sex differences are typically influenced by exposure to gonadal steroids, particularly testosterone and its metabolites, during early development (prenatally or neonatally). This article reviews the evidence regarding prenatal influences of gonadal steroids on human sexual orientation, as well as sex-typed childhood behaviors that predict subsequent sexual orientation. The evidence supports a role for prenatal testosterone exposure in the development of sex-typed interests in childhood, as well as in sexual orientation in later life, at least for some individuals. It appears, however, that other factors, in addition to hormones, play an important role in determining sexual orientation. These factors have not been well-characterized, but possibilities include direct genetic effects, and effects of maternal factors during pregnancy. Although a role for hormones during early development has been established, it also appears that there may be multiple pathways to a given sexual orientation outcome and some of these pathways may not involve hormones. PMID:21333673

  4. Adolescent and parent perceptions of media influence on adolescent sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay; Fitzharris, Jennifer Lynn; Morrissey, Kathleen M

    2004-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that television and other media influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. Much of the research in this area is based on surveys in which adolescents are asked to rank the relative importance of a fixed set of factors such as parents, peers, and media. We reviewed data from focus groups conducted with adolescents and their parents to examine the extent to which adolescents identify--without prompting--media as a source of influence on sexual behavior. Adolescents seemed indifferent to media influence (e.g., media influence was mentioned in only one adolescent focus group), but their parents expressed significant concern about media influence. Future research should investigate the extent to which influences exist outside of adolescents' consciousness. For now, parents and sexuality educators may need to convince adolescents that concerns about the media are valid before trying to change media-influenced behavior.

  5. ASSOCIATED FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE INITIATION OF SEXUAL ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENTS VILLA SAN FRANCISCO SCHOOL SANTA ANITA, LIMA-PERU, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra-Tenorio, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual, familiar and sociocultural factors that could associate to initiation of sexual activity in adolescents of schools of Villa San Francisco-Santa Anita, Lima-Peru in 2009 were determined. The research was quantitative, transversal, descriptive and correlational in a population of 90 school adolescents between 14 and 19 years-old of two mixed schools. A survey was applied and validated by expert judgements submitted to a pilot assay for its validity and statistical reliability. For determinate statistical significance was employed a binomial assay and Crombach Alpha coefficient. The best predictors for the initiation of sexual activity in adolescents were: at individual level (school repeating, attitude to initiation of sexual activity and self-appreciation, at familiar level (structure and familiar function and socio-cultural (lack of an adult, knowledge of sexuality and peer groups.

  6. 'Mum never loved me.' How structural factors influence adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How structural factors influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health ... Research in high income countries shows parent–child connectedness to be ... to young people's low self-esteem and risky sexual behaviour while unplanned ...

  7. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions in Premenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah; Kristensen, Ellids; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The female sexual response is complex and influenced by several biological, psychological, and social factors. Testosterone is believed to modulate a woman's sexual response and desire, because low levels are considered a risk factor for impaired sexual function, but previous studies...... the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale: impaired sexual function, sexual distress, FSD, low sexual desire, and HSDD. Serum levels of total and free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androsterone glucuronide were analyzed using mass spectrometry...... have been inconclusive. AIM: To investigate how androgen levels and psychosocial factors are associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD), including hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). METHODS: The cross-sectional study included 428 premenopausal women 19 to 58 years old who completed...

  8. Contextual factors associated with sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; Giatti, Luana; Malta, Deborah; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2013-10-01

    There are few studies about the influence of the context on sexual behavior among adolescents in developing countries, such as Brazil. Adolescent pregnancy and the high incidence of sexually transmitted disease (STDs) among Brazilian youngsters are a public health problem. The object of this study was to investigate whether factors from family and school contexts are associated with sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents. This study used data from 60,973 adolescent participants in the National Survey of School Health. The response variable was sexual behavior, described in three categories (never had sexual intercourse, had protected sexual intercourse, had unprotected sexual intercourse). The explanatory variables were grouped into sociodemographic characteristics, number of risk behavior factors (regular use of alcohol, smoking, and experimenting with illicit drugs), and family and school context. Variables associated with having protected and unprotected sexual relations in each context were identified by means of multinomial logistic regression. The reference was "never had sexual intercourse." Approximately one fourth of adolescents have already had sexual intercourse, most frequently boys. Among the adolescents who declared sexual initiation, the most part had their first sexual relation with age of 13 years or younger. Almost 21% did not use protection the last time they had sex. The greater the number of risk factors involved, the higher the incidence of protected and unprotected sex. In the family context, living with only one or with neither parent and low parental supervision increased the frequency of protected and unprotected sex. Never eating meals with the parents augmented the incidence of unprotected sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.60). In the school context, students from private schools were less likely to have had protected and unprotected sex (OR, 0.58 and 0.68). Not receiving instructions at school about pregnancy prevention increased the

  9. Influences of clonality on plant sexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Spencer C H

    2015-07-21

    Flowering plants possess an unrivaled diversity of mechanisms for achieving sexual and asexual reproduction, often simultaneously. The commonest type of asexual reproduction is clonal growth (vegetative propagation) in which parental genotypes (genets) produce vegetative modules (ramets) that are capable of independent growth, reproduction, and often dispersal. Clonal growth leads to an expansion in the size of genets and increased fitness because large floral displays increase fertility and opportunities for outcrossing. Moreover, the clonal dispersal of vegetative propagules can assist "mate finding," particularly in aquatic plants. However, there are ecological circumstances in which functional antagonism between sexual and asexual reproductive modes can negatively affect the fitness of clonal plants. Populations of heterostylous and dioecious species have a small number of mating groups (two or three), which should occur at equal frequency in equilibrium populations. Extensive clonal growth and vegetative dispersal can disrupt the functioning of these sexual polymorphisms, resulting in biased morph ratios and populations with a single mating group, with consequences for fertility and mating. In populations in which clonal propagation predominates, mutations reducing fertility may lead to sexual dysfunction and even the loss of sex. Recent evidence suggests that somatic mutations can play a significant role in influencing fitness in clonal plants and may also help explain the occurrence of genetic diversity in sterile clonal populations. Highly polymorphic genetic markers offer outstanding opportunities for gaining novel insights into functional interactions between sexual and clonal reproduction in flowering plants.

  10. Risk factors of child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Apraez-Villamarin, Genny Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To show a review of specialized literature concerning risk factors ofchild sexual abuse. Initially, the definitions of sexual abuse suggested by various authors are presented. Source and types of publications: Publications were obtained from libraries, periodicals and websites; the review includes articles, essays, books, chapters and laws. Point of view: Emphasis on risk contexts highlighting social, family and environmental characteristics, as well as personal features, whose prese...

  11. Acculturation influences on AAPI adolescent-mother interactions and adolescents' sexual initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis of data is to examine relationships among Asian American Pacific Islanders (AAPI) adolescents' level of acculturation, maternal influences, and age of sexual initiation. Selected predictive variables are based on the theoretical frameworks and literature review. The results indicate that for these adolescents speaking English at home was positively associated with maternal sexual discussion, mothers' perceptions of connectedness with their adolescents, adolescents' perceived maternal sexual expectations, and later sexual initiation at Wave 1. Adolescents' years of U.S. residency are positively associated with adolescents' level of perceived connectedness with their mothers and later sexual initiation at Wave 2. Adolescents' level of acculturation influence how they interacted with their mothers, perceived their mothers' sexual expectations, and when they decided to initiate sexual intercourse. Interventions to delay AAPI adolescents' sexual debut should consider factors related to AAPI adolescents' and their mothers' levels of acculturation.

  12. Parents, peers, and sexual values influence sexual behavior during the transition to college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Neal, Dan J; Fromme, Kim

    2010-06-01

    Several decades of research have identified the contributions of psychosocial influences on adolescent and young adult sexual behavior; however, few studies have examined parental and peer influence and sexual values during the transition from high school to college. The current study tested the influence of sexual values and perceived awareness and caring (PAC), or beliefs about how much parents and peers know and care about students' behavior, on sexual behavior during this transitional period. Using data from a longitudinal study, generalized estimating equations and the generalized linear model were used to examine the associations among sexual values, parental and peer PAC, and sexual behavior, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Participants (N = 1,847; 61% female) completed web-based surveys the summer before college matriculation and at the end of the first semester in college. Results indicated that individuals with high levels of both parental and peer PAC engaged in less frequent sexual behaviors and that PAC moderated the effect of sexual values on sexual behaviors. Furthermore, both PAC variables decreased during the transition from high school to college, and high school sexual values, parental PAC, and their interaction predicted the number of sexual partners during the first semester of college. Only sexual values and high school unsafe sexual behaviors predicted unsafe sexual behavior in college. Findings suggest that complex associations exist among perceived awareness and caring, sexual values, and sexual behaviors, and that the transition from high school to college may be an ideal time for safer-sex interventions.

  13. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  14. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V

    2011-01-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting.......Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting....

  15. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions in Premenopausal Women(∗): (∗)2016 ISSM Female Sexual Dysfunction Prize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah; Kristensen, Ellids; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Laessøe, Nanna Cassandra; Cohen, Arieh S; Hougaard, David M; Lundqvist, Marika; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    The female sexual response is complex and influenced by several biological, psychological, and social factors. Testosterone is believed to modulate a woman's sexual response and desire, because low levels are considered a risk factor for impaired sexual function, but previous studies have been inconclusive. To investigate how androgen levels and psychosocial factors are associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD), including hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). The cross-sectional study included 428 premenopausal women 19 to 58 years old who completed a questionnaire on psychosocial factors and had blood sampled at days 6 to 10 in their menstrual cycle. Logistic regression models were built to test the association among hormone levels, psychosocial factors, and sexual end points. Five different sexual end points were measured using the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale: impaired sexual function, sexual distress, FSD, low sexual desire, and HSDD. Serum levels of total and free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androsterone glucuronide were analyzed using mass spectrometry. After adjusting for psychosocial factors, women with low sexual desire had significantly lower mean levels of free testosterone and androstenedione compared with women without low sexual desire. None of the androgens were associated with FSD in general or with HSDD in particular. Relationship duration longer than 2 years and mild depressive symptoms increased the risk of having all the sexual end points, including FSD in general and HSDD in particular in multivariate analyses. In this large cross-sectional study, low sexual desire was significantly associated with levels of free testosterone and androstenedione, but FSD in general and HSDD in particular were not associated with androgen levels. Length of relationship and depression were associated with FSD including HSDD. Wåhlin-Jacobsen S, Kristensen E, Tønnes Pedersen A

  16. Influences of climacteric in female sexual activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonio Alisancharles Batista de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify complaints of sexual function related to climacteric symptoms among women in climacteric age. Methods: descriptive study. A sample of 330 women aged from 35 to 65 years old, with three previous Pap tests. We used a questionnaire developed by the researchers. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed having the central tendency of proportion and measure the average as a parameter. Results: it was evidenced that 50% were between 35-45 years, 73% were sexually active, 59.4% had decreased libido, and 58.5% reported dyspareunia. Conclusion: it is necessary that the health services and professionals are aware of the influence of climacteric on women’s health to develop strategies aimed at quality of life.

  17. Influences of climacteric in female sexual activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonio Alisancharles Batista de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify complaints of sexual function related to climacteric symptoms among women in climacteric age. Methods: this is an descritive study. A sample of 330 women aged from 35 to 65 years old, with three previous Pap tests. We used a semi-structured questionnaire developed by the researchers. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed having the central tendency of proportion and measure the average as a parameter. Results: it was evidenced that 50.0% were between 35-45 years, 73.0% were sexually active, 59.4% had decreased libido, and 58.5% reported dyspareunia. Conclusion: it is necessary that the health services and professionals are aware of the influence of climacteric on women’s health to develop strategies aimed at quality of life.

  18. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Nazarpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental–emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse.

  19. Risky sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Malaysia: a limited role of protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-03-23

    This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents' risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia.

  20. 沧州地区围绝经期女性性功能障碍发生率及影响因素调查研究%Theprevalence of perimenopausal sexual function disorders in Cangzhou and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏振杰; 孙金豹

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:To analyze the prevalence and types of perimenopausal sexual function disorders in Cangzhou and its influencing factors.Methods:Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI)and the Self -Rating De-pression Scale (SDS)were used to survey the perimenopausal women in Cangzhou randomly.The survey results were recorded and its influencing factors were discussed.Results:230 of the 300 questionnaires collected were ef-fective.Factors affecting female perimenopausal sexual dysfunction mainly included age,hormonal supplements and depression factors,the first two of which were significantly different (P 0.05);while SDS score ≥53 points,difference in the proportion of people with sexual dysfunction was statis-tically significant (P <0.05);for perimenopausal women of different ages,the six dimension scores of sexual desire disorder,sexual arousal disorder,vaginal lubrication,orgasm,sexual satisfaction,and sexual pain disorders were with significant differences (P <0.05);of the 230 women surveyed,156 cases suffered from FSD,a proportion of 67.8%.The proportion of people suffering from sexual desire disorder,sexual arousal disorder,vaginal lubrication, orgasm,sexual satisfaction proportion obstacles were 80.1%,70.5%,78.2%,65.4%,62.8% and 67.9% re-spectively.Conclusions:The factors affecting sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women mainly include age, supplemental hormones and depression factors.Taking results of FSFI for reference,67.8% women suffer from FSD,and the prevalence of each dimension decreases in the order of sexual desire disorder,vaginal lubrication, sexual arousal disorder,orgasmic disorder and sexual satisfaction obstacles.%目的:分析研究沧州地区围绝经期女性性功能障碍患病率及患病类型,分析影响围绝经期女性性功能障碍的因素。方法:采用随机选择的方法,使用女性性功能指数量表(Female Sexual Function In-dex,FSFI)和抑郁自评量表(Self -rating depression scale,SDS)对沧州

  1. Exploring women's postpartum sexuality: social, psychological, relational, and birth-related contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, Lauren E; Kane Low, Lisa; van Anders, Sari M

    2012-09-01

    Women's postpartum sexuality can be influenced by factors related to physical, personal, and relationship transitions after the newborn arrives. Despite this, many experiential and social factors remain unexplored. This study aims to (i) investigate a range of variables thought to influence postpartum sexuality; (ii) expand the focus beyond latency to penis-vagina intercourse; and (iii) assess positive aspects of postpartum sexuality. Via retrospective reporting on the first 3 months postpartum, 304 women completed an online questionnaire. The main outcome measures were retrospective reports of sexual desire (Sexual Desire Inventory), latency to resumption of sexual activity, and perceptions of partner's sexual desire. Other measures were birth experience (Questionnaire Measuring Attitudes About Labor and Delivery), breastfeeding status, perceptions of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and body image (Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale). Significant differences in time to resumption were found. Women performed oral sex on their partners earlier than engaging in masturbation, which was followed by intercourse and then receiving oral sex. Post hoc analyses identified birth experience, social support, importance of partner's sexual fulfillment, and perception of partner's desire as contributors to this pattern. Women's postpartum sexual desire was influenced by their perceptions of their partner's postpartum sexuality and individual's level of fatigue. Results suggested that postpartum desire was not significantly influenced by breastfeeding status, vaginal issues, or psychosocial variables including stress, body image, or social support. Results suggest that women's perceptions of their partner's sexuality impact postpartum sexuality more than the physical factors most commonly studied (e.g., vaginal trauma and breastfeeding). These results portray postpartum sexuality as a multidimensional

  2. Factors of early trauma in the development of sexual anomalies in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoselova M.L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the activities of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, in 2013 reports have been published on investigations of sexual offenses (Article 131 and 132 of the Criminal Code at 10,228 cases. [12] In 2002, 8117 cases were investigated on these articles. [3] During the decade, the number of such offenses increased by more than 20 percent. Increasing the number of sexual offenses, their frequency and risk of relapse necessitated studying the problems of people with sexual disorders. But, in spite of numerous studies, currently not all subjects in this sphere have received the same attention. The problem of sexual assault has been relatively recently considered with the use of modern achievements of psychiatry and sexuality. In this regard, the influence of factors such as early trauma is currently still poorly understood. Our paper is devoted to the study of early trauma factors and their role in the development of sexual anomalies in men. The article contains a review of contemporary Russian and foreign literature on this topic. We also carried out an analytical and theoretical study of cases of subjects who have committed crimes of a sexual nature. This review helped to assess the role of factors of early trauma and showed how these factors can influence the development of various sexual abnormalities. In addition, we revealed the main biologically conditioned factors of early trauma and traced their influence on the development of sexual paraphilias.

  3. Status and influencing factors of sexual behavior among floating unmarried youths of China%中国未婚流动青少年性行为及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林婷; 郑晓瑛

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解中国未婚流动青少年性行为的发生情况及影响因素,为开展生殖健康教育干预提供政策依据.方法:使用2009年北京大学人口研究所“中国青少年生殖健康可及性调查”调查数据.以调查时点开始至6个月为时间界限,抽取3 032名15 ~24岁未婚流动青少年进行分析.结果:36.7%的未婚流动青少年有过性经历,性经历的比例高于非流动青少年(P<0.05);21.5%的流动青少年在过去12个月内有多个性伴侣.多因素分析显示流动青少年中,年龄较大、收入水平较高、饮酒、西部地区、城镇、偶尔或经常浏览黄色网站/书籍等情况更易发生性行为.结论:中国未婚流动青少年性行为发生比例较高,而发生性行为与否受多种因素影响.%Objective: To explore the status and influencing factors of sexual behavior among unmarried floating youths, and provide a basis for reproductive health education among floating youths. Methods: This study used the first nationally representative data on sexual and reproductive health of Chinese unmarried youth. According to the time criterion, 3,032 unmarried floating youth were selected in this study. Results; 36. 7% of the studied floating youths had had sexual experience, higher than the proportion among non - floating youths group (P <0. 05); The rate of multiple sexual partners was 21. 5% among floating youth in the past 12 months; The floating youths with higher age, higher income level, drinking alcohol, living in western part of China, living in the city/town, visiting pornographic website or reading pomo occasionally/frequently were more likely to have sexual behavior than their counterparts. Conclusion; Higher incidence of the sexual behavior was found a-mong the floating youth. Multiple factors affect the floating youths having engaged in sexual behavior.

  4. The influence of sexual orientation on vowel production (L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrehumbert, Janet B.; Bent, Tessa; Munson, Benjamin; Bradlow, Ann R.; Bailey, J. Michael

    2004-10-01

    Vowel production in gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB), and heterosexual speakers was examined. Differences in the acoustic characteristics of vowels were found as a function of sexual orientation. Lesbian and bisexual women produced less fronted /u/ and /opena/ than heterosexual women. Gay men produced a more expanded vowel space than heterosexual men. However, the vowels of GLB speakers were not generally shifted toward vowel patterns typical of the opposite sex. These results are inconsistent with the conjecture that innate biological factors have a broadly feminizing influence on the speech of gay men and a broadly masculinizing influence on the speech of lesbian/bisexual women. They are consistent with the idea that innate biological factors influence GLB speech patterns indirectly by causing selective adoption of certain speech patterns characteristic of the opposite sex. .

  5. Genetic and environmental influences on risky sexual behaviour and its relationship with personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsch, B P; Verweij, K J H; Bailey, J M; Wright, M J; Martin, N G

    2010-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviour is a major health issue in society, and it is therefore important to understand factors that may predispose individuals to such behaviour. Research suggests a link between risky sexual behaviour and personality, but the basis of this link remains unknown. Hans Eysenck proposed that personality is related to sexual behaviour via biological underpinnings of both. Here we test the viability of this perspective by analysing data from identical and non-identical twins (N = 4,904) who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attitudes and behaviour as well as personality. Using genetic modelling of the twin data, we found that risky sexual behaviour was significantly positively correlated with Impulsivity (r = .27), Extraversion (r = .24), Psychoticism (r = .20), and Neuroticism (r = .09), and that in each case the correlation was due primarily to overlapping genetic influences. These findings suggest that the genetic influences that shape our personality may also predispose us to risky sexual behaviour.

  6. Psychiatric factors related to sexual functioning in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotková, Petra; Weiss, Petr

    2013-04-01

    This research deals with the topic of sexual life among people suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) and with selected factors related to sexual functioning in these patients. Parkinson's disease is a serious chronic disease whose symptoms as well as treatment substantially affect the sexual life of the patients. Despite this fact, very little published work has dealt with this topic. This research focuses on describing the structure of deterioration of sexual functions of the patients suffering from PD, and statistical analysis of the interdependence of selected factors (age, duration of the disease, subjective score of the impact of the disease, depression, anxiety) as well as the patients' sexual satisfaction. The most substantial factors influencing sexual satisfaction of men and women with PD are analysed and their impact assessed, the greatest stress being put on psychiatric factors. The research project examined a group of 103 people with PD. In order to identify the specifics of the patients' sexual lives, two questionnaire-sets were designed (separate for men and women), containing psychological (BDI-II, STAI) and sexological (FSFI, IIEF, GRISS) questionnaires. The main outcome measures were depression, state and trait anxiety, sexual satisfaction, erectile function, the Female Sexual Function Index. The acquired data was statistically elaborated using the programme SPSS. The results of the sexological questionnaires show a decrease in overall sexual functioning and the presence of sexual dysfunctions related to PD. With the help of regression models it was elicited that in case of men with this illness, the most influential factor on their sexual life is depression and their subjective scoring of the illness, in the case of women the prevailing factors are depression and anxiety. Sexuality for people suffering from Parkinson's disease is a very complex issue and psychiatric factors (depression, anxiety) have an important impact on the sexual functioning

  7. Influence of Older Siblings on Initiation of Sexual Intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Eric D.

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether older siblings (as orientational others) influence the timing of younger siblings' first intercourse. Results, based on 183 pairs of independent interviews, indicate that older brothers' sexual behavior has a significant influence on the timing of young siblings' initiation of sexual intercourse. Addresses the interaction of these…

  8. Qualitative evaluation of selected social factors that impact sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... factors that impact sexual risk-taking behaviour among African students in Kwazulu-. Natal, South ...... to attract different genders and sexual orientation. Moreover, .... Journal of Psychology in Africa, 15(1), 17–24. Peltzer, K.

  9. Influence factors of sexual life in patients with cervical cancer after operation and nursing intervention%宫颈癌患者手术后性生活质量的影响因素及护理干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence factors of sexual life in patients with cervical cancer after operation and nursing intervention.Methods To analyse the factors affecting the quality of life in 172 cases of cervical cancer patients after operation and the nursing intervention.Results Age,treatment,family economic conditions,practitioners as well as the level of education is relevant factors affecting the postoperative sex; intervention group patients orgasm,sexual arousal of sexual desire,satisfaction,vaginal lubrication,pain,and sexual life times,and satisfaction were better than the control group (P < 0.05).Conclusions Age,treatment,family economic conditions,practitioners as well as the level of education is relevant factors affecting postoperative sexual life; nursing intervention can improve the postoperative quality of life of patients with cervical cancer.%目的 探讨宫颈癌患者手术后性生活质量的影响因素及护理干预措施.方法 对172例宫颈癌患者手术后性生活质量的影响因素进行分析,采用相应的护理干预措施.结果 年龄、治疗方式、家庭经济条件、从业情况以及文化程度是影响手术后性生活质量的相关因素,干预组患者的性高潮、性兴奋、性欲望、满意度、阴道润滑、疼痛、性生活次数以及满意度等均优于对照组(P<0.05).结论 年龄、治疗方式、家庭经济条件、从业情况以及文化程度是影响术后性生活的相关因素,护理干预可提高宫颈癌患者术后性生活质量.

  10. A New Measure of the Perceived Influence of Sexually Explicit Online Media on the Sexual Behaviors of Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Pantalone, David W; Gamarel, Kristi E; Simoni, Jane M

    2016-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently consume sexually explicit online media (SEOM), yet little is known about its influence on their sexual behaviors. We describe a sequence of four studies to develop and psychometrically validate a measure of the perceived influence of sexually explicit online media (PI-SEOM) on the sexual behaviors of MSM. Study 1 involved qualitative interviews (N = 28) and a quantitative survey (N = 100) to develop a preliminary measure. Using an Internet sample of MSM (N = 1,170), we assessed its factor structure and reliability in Studies 2 and 3 as well as convergent validity and associations with HIV-related sexual risk in Study 4. Based on findings the measure was divided into two subscales: influences on (1) self and (2) other MSM. Factor analyses confirmed a two-factor model for each subscale, measuring perceived influences on (a) general sexual scripts and (b) condomless sex scripts. Survey results indicated that the more men perceived SEOM influencing their own condomless sex scripts, the more likely they were to report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. The developed measure holds promise for assessing the influence of SEOM on the sexual behaviors of MSM and may prove useful for HIV-prevention research.

  11. A Review of Affecting Factors on Sexual Satisfaction in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Gardeshi, Zeinab Hamzeh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Salehi, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sex is a complex, important and sensitive issue in human being and interwoven with the whole of human existence. Given the serious changes in attitude, function and behavior in sex, the need to address sexual function, especially sexual satisfaction, is felt completely. Sexual satisfaction has a very important role in creating marital satisfaction and any defect in sexual satisfaction is significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors, serious mental illness, social crimes and ultimately divorce. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women based on an overview in scientific database. Methods: In this narrative review the researchers searched MEDLINE database, Google Scholar and Science Direct as well as Persian database like Scientific Information Database with search terms of sexual satisfaction and sexual function, restricted to English/ Persian language, during the 20 years ago. Then those articles written by renowned experts were selected. In this regard, 57 articles have been reviewed, which 30 articles related to this research have been extracted. Results: The findings were divided in to four categories including: Demographic factors, Pathophysiological factors, Psychological factors and Sociocultural factors. Conclusions: Sexuality, especially sexual intimacy is sophisticated and yet elegant affair that the other persons has different definitions and different functions. Discrepancies in the results of the studies show that analysis of factors affecting sexual satisfaction regardless of the women’s’ sociocultural context, religious beliefs, and personal attitudes is undoubtedly inefficient, unscientific and irrational. PMID:25685081

  12. 孕中期女性性生活状况及影响因素的调查研究%Investigation on female sexual status and its influence factors during the second trimester of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文智; 邹芳亮; 黄舒蓉; 张小珍; 陈丽玲; 周静静; 张军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To survey the female sexual status and its influence factors during the second trimester of pregnancy.Methods The Chinese Version of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data of 304 women during the second trimester of pregnancy.The investigation results were analyzed.Results Most women reported a decrease in sexual desire(74.7%,227/304),intercourse frequency(90.8%,276/304) and sexual satisfaction(41.1%,125/304).FSFI all dimensions mean scores of these 304 women during the second trimester of pregnancy were less than the critical value,and total FSFI was (20.82±3.74) scores.The female sexual status during the second trimester of pregnancy were affected by age,duration of marriage,education,the way of pregnancy,F=21.974,12.288,3.345,7.748,the differences were statistically significant,P<0.05.Conclusion Pregnant women are in a low level sexual function during the relative safety stage for sexual behavior during the second trimester of pregnancy,so providing some sexual education is necessary to improve couples' sexual health.%目的 了解孕妇在孕中期阶段的性生活状况及影响因素.方法 采用中文版女性性功能量表(FSFI)及自行设计的调查表对304名孕中期女性进行问卷调查,并对调查结果进行分析.结果 孕中期74.7% (227/304)女性性欲望减少,90.8%(276/304)性交频率降低,41.1%(125/304)性生活满意度下降;本次受调查的304名孕中期孕妇FSFI各维度平均评分均小于临界值,总分为(20.82±3.74)分;年龄、婚龄、文化程度、妊娠方式是影响孕中期女性性功能水平的主要因素,F=21.974、12.288、3.345、7.748,差异有统计学意义,P<0.05.结论 孕中期作为性生活相对安全的阶段,孕妇在此阶段性功能水平较低,医务工作者有必要科学指导孕妇的围生期性保健.

  13. The exercise of sexuality among the elderly and associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Alencar,Danielle Lopes de; Marques,Ana Paula de Oliveira; Leal,Márcia Carrera Campos; Vieira, Júlia de Cássia Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To analyze factors that interfere with the exercise of sexuality among the elderly. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 235 elderly persons enrolled at the Open University of the Third Age of the Federal University of Pernambuco was carried out. The dependent variable was the exercise of sexuality, which was investigated in terms of perception of sexuality, thinking about sex, what the elderly person does when he or she has the desire for sex, sexual activity and auto-er...

  14. 深圳市未婚校外青少年性行为及影响因素分析%Characteristics and influence factors of sexual behaviors among unmarried out-of-school youths in Shenzhen city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏贞; 何桂香; 韩铁光; 邹宇华; 曹黎; 李福缘; 郭永飞

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解广东省深圳市15~24岁未婚校外青少年性行为特征并分析其影响因素,为青少年性与生殖健康教育干预提供依据.方法 采用分层随机抽样方法,在深圳市南山和宝安2个区抽取工厂、发廊、歌厅、网吧、宾馆5类场所中15 ~24岁未婚校外青少年296人,调查其生殖健康知识及行为等情况.结果 296名未婚校外青少年性行为报告率为47.30%,男、女性分别为60.26%、33.79%;有恋爱史和自慰史的分别为76.01%和40.20%,68.93%表示只要双方同意就可以发生性行为;不同性别未婚青少年性行为报告率、恋爱史、自慰史和婚前性行为态度差异均有统计学意义(均P <0.05);未婚青少年初次性行为平均年龄为(18.49±1.93)岁,初次性行为年龄≤18岁的比例占55.00%,女性初次性行为对象为恋爱对象的占97.96%,高于男性的79.12%,二者差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);多因素分析显示,男性性行为报告率主要受月收入和婚前性行为态度的影响,女性则主要受年龄和文化程度的影响.结论 深圳未婚校外青少年性行为发生率较高,初次性行为低龄化,进行生殖健康教育应考虑性别差异等因素.%Objective To describe characteristics and influencing factors of sexual behaviors among unmarried outof-school youths aged 15-24 years and to provide evidence for sexual and reproductive health education.Methods Totally 296 unmarried out-of-school youths from five different work settings were sampled with stratified random sampling in Nanshan and Baoan district for a self-administered questionnaire survey on sexual and reproductive health knowledge and sexual behaviors.Results The rate of self-reported sexual behavior in the youths was 47.30%,and the rate of the males (60.26%) was significantly higher than that of the females (33.79%,x2 = 20.975;P < 0.05).The prevalence rates of love history and masturbation history were

  15. The analysis of sexuality situation and the influencing factors in 1 732 migrants of Chongqing%重庆市1732例流动人口性生活情况调查及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞; 李玉艳; 童琦; 于传宁; 周颖; 纪红蕾; 刘俊; 李亦然; 武俊青

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the sexuality situation and the influencing factors of 1 732 cases of migrants in Chongqing , and provide the scientific basis for improving the sexual health of migrants and the service level of the relevant departments .Meth‐ods The multi stage random cluster sampling method was used to select the subjects .A total of 1 732 married and unmarried mi‐grants who had sexuality were included into the structured questionnaire survey .The SAS9 .3 software was use to statistical analy‐sis .The χ2 test and Ordinal regression analysis and Logistic regression analysis were use to univariate and multivariate analysis .Re‐sults The communication frequency of sexuality of male migrants was higher than the females ,OR=1 .53(95% CI:1 .24-1 .89);young people had the high communication frequency of sexuality ;the frequency of low education groups lower than higher .The fre‐quency of subjects worked in Hong Kong ,Taiwan ,overseas‐funded enterprises are higher than other workplace .The sexual life fre‐quency of male migrants is higher than the female ,OR=1 .84(95% CI:1 .40-2 .42);the sexual life frequency of low age group was higher than high age group ,the frequency of sexual life in factory workers was lower than the Hong Kong ,Taiwan ,overseas‐funded enterprises workers .Compared with the subjects who communicate the sexuality issues often ,the frequency of sexual depression and suppression was higher in the migrants who communicate general and rarely ,the OR was 2 .75 (95% CI:1 .71 -4 .41) and 2 .60 (95% CI:1 .45-4 .66) .Conclusion Male ,younger ,highly educated migrants have a high sexual issues communication frequency . The age and the workplace was the most important factor of the frequency of sexual life .Ease the work pressure and increase the communication of sexual issues will help to relax the sexual depression and depression .%目的:分析重庆市1732例流动人口性生活情况及其影响因素,为提高流动人口性

  16. Contextual influence of Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Neilands, Torsten B; Chan, Shu-Min; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2016-09-01

    This study examined parental, peer, and media influences on Taiwanese adolescents' attitudes toward premarital sex and intent to engage in sexual behavior. Participants included a convenience sample of 186 adolescents aged 13-15 recruited from two middle schools in Taiwan. Parental influence was indicated by perceived parental disapproval toward premarital sex and perceived peer sexual behavior was used to measure peer influence. Media influence was measured by the adolescents' perception of whether the media promotes premarital sex. We conducted structural equation modeling to test a hypothesized model. The findings suggested that the perceived sexual behavior of peers had the strongest effect on Taiwanese adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavioral intent, while parental disapproval and media influence also significantly contributed to adolescents' sexual attitudes and intent to engage in sex. School nurses are in an ideal position to coordinate essential resources and implement evidence-based sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address issues associated with the influence of parents, peers, and media.

  17. Sexual Satisfaction and Influencing Factors in Married Women of Childbearing Age in Chengdu%成都市已婚育龄妇女性生活满意度影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 李映明; 张静; 万德花; 王琼

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解成都地区不同年龄已婚育龄女性性满意现状及相关影响因素.方法 2008-06/2010-10,采用性满意度量表(女性)调查成都市601例已婚育龄女性.采用Pearson x2检验分析研究对象个人特征、性生活特征等与性满意度的相关性.结果 本研究完成有效调查601例,40岁以下女性共388人,回答“很满意”为55人(14.2%),“满意”184人(47.4%),“一般”141人(36.3%)和“不满意”8人(2.1%).40 ~49岁女性213人,分别为“很满意”26人(12.2%),“满意”106人(49.8%),“一般”70人(32.8%),“不满意”11人(5.2%).40岁以下已婚育龄女性的学历、生殖道疾病能够影响其性生活的满意度.没有生产和生产少的女性,其性生活满意度明显高于生产多的女性;性交时阴道湿润度、对性生活感兴趣程度、能坦诚地和丈夫讨论性感受程度、能体验到性高潮频率等,会影响女性性满意度(P<0.05).性生活为每周2~3次的女性性满意程度最高.结论 已婚育龄女性的性满意度受到多种因素的影响,应有针对性的把普及性知识、提高性生活质量和提倡性健康等作为妇女保健工作的一个重要环节.%Objective To investigate the sexual satisfaction and influencing factors in married women at different childbearing ages. Methods Married women in Chengdu were enrolled randomly and information of sexual satisfaction was collected with questionnaires. Pearson x2 test was applied to analyze the influencing factors. Results A total of 601 women were enrolled in this study, 388 of which were younger than 40 years. Proportions of different satisfaction degree were respectively 55 subjects (14. 2% ) "very satisfied" , 184 (47. 4% ) "satisfied" , 141 (36. 3% ) "common" and 8 (2. 1% ) "unsatisfied". An amount of 213 women were 40 -49 years old, and 26 (12.2%) were "very satisfied", 106 (49.8%) "satisfied", 70 (32.8%) "common" and 11 (5. 2% ) "unsatisfied". The

  18. Influences of mastery, spousal support, and adaptive coping on sexual drive and satisfaction among chinese gynecologic cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Lai, Beatrice P Y; Chung, Tony K H

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated sexual drive and satisfaction of Chinese gynecologic cancer survivors. It also examined the extent to which personal mastery, adaptive coping, and perceived spousal support would exert direct and/or indirect influences on sexual outcomes. The cancer survivor group included 134 Chinese women who had received treatment for gynecologic cancer, while the healthy control group included 105 Chinese women who did not have a known history or current diagnosis of cancer. Compared to healthy women, cancer survivors reported lower levels of sexual drive and sexual satisfaction. Among sexually active participants, cancer survivors relative to healthy women engaged in less masturbation, less kissing and caressing, and less sexual fantasy in the past month. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that mastery and spousal support, but not adaptive coping, had a direct influence on sexual outcomes in cancer survivors. Contrary to moderation hypotheses, the three psychological factors did not interact with each other to influence sexual drive and satisfaction. Mediation analyses showed that spousal support fully mediated the influence of mastery on sexual satisfaction. Routine assessment of sexual functioning prior to and following treatment of gynecologic cancer is suggested. Sexual rehabilitation should also aim to enhance personal mastery and spousal support.

  19. Sexuality in eating disorders patients: etiological factors, sexual dysfunction and identity issues. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lelli, Lorenzo; Ricca, Valdo; Maggi, Mario

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community appears to be less interested in sexuality of eating disorders (EDs) as compared to other psychiatric or medical comorbidities. However, a clear association between sexual problems and ED psychopathology was reported from different perspectives. The overarching goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the general approach of the scientific literature toward the topic of sexuality and EDs. In particular, four different categories of research have been individuated, encompassing the role of puberty, and sexual abuse in the pathogenesis of the disorders, sexual dysfunctions, and the association between sexual orientation and EDs psychopathology. Timing of puberty with its hormonal consequences and the changes in the way persons perceive their own body represent a crucial period of life for the onset of the disorder. Sexual abuse, and especially childhood sexual abuse are well-recognized risk factors for the development of ED, determining a worse long-term outcome. Recent research overcome the approach that considers sexual activity of EDs patients, in terms of hypersexuality and dangerous sexual behaviors, considering the sexuality of EDs persons in terms of sexual desire, satisfaction, orgasm and pain. Results from this line of research are promising, and describe a clear relationship between sexual dysfunction and the core psychopathological features of EDs, such as body image disturbances. Finally, the analysis of the literature showed an association between sexual orientation and gender dysphoria with EDs psychopathology and pathological eating behaviors, confirming the validity of research developing new models of maintaining factors of EDs related to the topic of self-identity.

  20. Freqüência da atividade sexual em mulheres menopausadas Factors related to frequency of sexual activity of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi

    2006-08-01

    frequent with lower sexual satisfaction. The climacteric symptoms correlated with sexual activity were: hot flashes (p=0.05, irritability (p=0.04, melancholy/sadness (p=0.04, arthralgia/myalgia (p<0.01 and weakness/tiredness (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Findings of this study were similar to those in literature. They agree with the hypothesis that sexuality of climacteric women is not only influenced by factors related to hypoestrogenism, but also by psychosocial and cultural aspects associated with aging itself. Nevertheless, longitudinal studies are necessary to provide more conclusive data. Special attention should be given to the sexual dysfunction of men.

  1. 女性系统性红斑狼疮患者性功能障碍状况及影响因素研究%Sexual Dysfunction Status and Influencing Factors of Female Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦毅; 顾志峰; 李立人; 桑燕

    2016-01-01

    龄、绝经与否、合并心脏病、服用非甾体类抗炎药,存在血管炎、脓尿,SF -36生理机能、生理职能、躯体疼痛、情感职能维度得分存在相关性(P <0.05)。多元线性回归分析结果显示,合并心脏病是女性 SLE 患者 FSFI 性欲、性唤起、阴道润滑度、性交疼痛维度得分的影响因素,存在血管炎是 FSFI 总分及性唤起、阴道润滑度、性高潮、性交疼痛维度得分的影响因素,SF -36生理职能维度得分是 FSFI 性唤起维度得分的影响因素,黏膜溃疡是 FSFI 阴道润滑度维度得分的影响因素,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论我国女性 SLE 患者的性功能障碍发生率较高,主要类型为性欲减退、性唤起困难,合并心脏病、存在血管炎和黏膜溃疡、生理职能缺失是其影响因素。%Objective To investigate sexual dysfunction status of Chinese female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE)and its influencing factors. Methods Eighty female SLE patients from Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from October 2014 and October 2015 were enrolled to conduct questionnaire investigation. The questionnaires included General Information Questionnaire,Female Sexual Function Index(FSFI)in Chinese Version,Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index(SLEDAI),and 36 - item Short - Form Health Survey Questionnaire(SF - 36)in Chinese version. A total of 85 questionnaires were sent out and 80 were recovered with a response rate of 94. 1% . Results There were 61 patients (76. 2% )with sexual dysfunction,including 58 ( 72. 5% ) loss of libido and 54 ( 67. 5% ) had difficulties in sexual arousal. The FSFI total scores of patients were correlated with age,years of marriage,age at menarche,menopause or not, combining with heart disease,taking nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs,presence of vasculitis and pyuria,dimensional scores of physical function,physical role function and emotional

  2. Parental factors and sexual risk-taking among young people in C& ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... parental factors and sexual risk-taking among young people using logistic regression ... with primary sexual abstinence (defined as yet to experience sexual debut), ... It is important to promote parent-child communication about sexual issues ...

  3. Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence in Sexual Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2016-03-01

    One consistent predictor of adolescents' engagement in sexual risk behavior is their belief that peers are engaging in similar behavior; however, not all youth are equally susceptible to these peer influence effects. Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence is critical to identifying adolescents at risk for negative health outcomes. The purpose of this project was to identify predictors of susceptibility to peer influence using a novel performance-based measure of sexual risk taking. Participants were 300 early adolescents (Mage = 12.6 years; 53% female; 44% Caucasian) who completed (1) a pretest assessment of demographics, sexual attitudes, and hypothetical scenarios measuring the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior and (2) a subsequent experimental procedure that simulated an Internet chat room in which youth believed that they were communicating with peers regarding these same hypothetical scenarios. In reality, these "peers" were computer-programmed e-confederates. Changes in responses to the sexual scenarios in the private pretest versus during the public chat room provided a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. In total, 78% of youth provided more risky responses in the chat room than those in pretest. The most robust predictor of this change was gender, with boys significantly more susceptible to peer influence than girls. Significant interactions also were noted, with greater susceptibility among boys with later pubertal development and African-American boys. Results confirm that not all youth are equally susceptible to peer influence. Consistent with sexual script theory, boys evidence greater susceptibility to social pressure regarding sexual behavior than girls. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does Androgen Hormone Influences Sexual Orientation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrahman Nasihun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Now days lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender are abbreviated as LGBT is the most popular word and being sensible in the world, especially in Indonesia. Based on human right principles, any person in the world including in Indonesia is free to express their gender identity and sexual orientation, even the same sex marriage, freely from unlawful discrimination and violations (Office of Personnel Management, 2015; Yogyakarta Principles, 2006. However, because of the culture and religion differences backgrounds, Indonesians have given this issue various responses. In general, Indonesian public opinion on LGBT are split into two different groups, one minority group is proponent to present of LGBT and any things related to it, and another majority groups are opponent. Objective of this editorial is to discuss how sexual orientation develop from prenatal until emerging of clinical manifestation in adulthood, by no mean to support either group. Otherwise, to give more insight about how male and female get their appropriate sexual orientations and why some of them get inappropriate sexual orientations.

  5. parental influence on adolescent sexual behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    KEY TERMS: parents, sexual behaviour, adolescent, sex, social work. a ... Nigeria is said to have one of the highest birth rate for adolescents in the world .... informed on what the research was all about and the benefits of the research to them.

  6. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  7. Female Adolescents with a History of Sexual Abuse: Risk Outcome and Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the school performance, suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, pregnancy risk, and chemical use of female teenagers with a history of sexual abuse. Found that they reported higher rates of adverse outcomes than did teenagers without a background of abuse. Lists protective factors and risk factors that influenced outcomes. (RJM)

  8. Influence of the menopause in the sexual standard: opinion of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosália Teixeira de Araújo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we objectify: to inquire the physiological modifications of the menopause that influence the sexual standard of the woman; to know if the frequency of the sexual activity changed the menopause after and to investigate the factors aggravations or extenuating circumstances in the sexual life during this phase. One is about a study of quanti-qualitative nature, had as scene the Center of Health Almerinda Lomanto, having as informing 16 women. The data had been collected using the form. The data had been submitted to the Technique of Analysis of Content of Bardin, of where categories and subcategorias had emerged: Changes observed in the sexual relationship after the menopause (Reduction of the libido, Incompreensão of the friend, did not have alteration, positive Change; Reasons that had favored the changes (physiological Alterations in the sexual act, menorragia Chronic headache nauseas fogacho/, Lack or psychological reduction of the pleasure, Alterations. We conclude that during the climatério and after the menopause, can occur physiological modifications that influence the standard of the sexual act, fits professional we while of health, to search to promote attitudes and behaviors that aim at the disruption of myths and taboos and the promotion of the sexual health.

  9. Motivational and Parental Mediation Factors Related to Kenyan Adolescents' Intake of Sexual Radio and TV Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngula, Kyalo Wa; Miller, Ann Neville; Mberia, Hellen K

    2017-04-12

    Research on the influence of media on youths' sexual behavior in sub-Saharan Africa has focused almost entirely on the effects of multimedia health communication campaigns and edutainment programming. Scholarly literature is nearly silent about the influence of the multiple hours that young people in many sub-Saharan nations spend immersed in increasingly sex-heavy entertainment programming. We surveyed a stratified cluster sample of 437 Nairobi public high school students about motivational and parental mediation factors associated with their exposure to sexual radio and TV content. Watching sexual content in the bedroom predicted higher intake of both sexual radio and TV content. Believing that parents were successful in their efforts to limit media use predicted lower intake of both sexual radio and TV content. A friend/companion motive for watching was associated with taking in higher levels of sexual TV content. For day school students, watching sexual content in the sitting room also predicted higher levels of exposure to sexual TV content.

  10. Sexual Opinion Survey: An Exploratory Factor Analysis with Helping Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Zachary D.; Gutierrez, Daniel; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2015-01-01

    Counselors and marriage and family therapists work with individuals, couples, and families on issues related to sexuality. However, clinicians may be underserving their clients by "not" having adequate training and preparation to work with clients with these presenting issues. One mitigating factor in the treatment of sexual problems is…

  11. Shared aetiology of risky sexual behaviour and adolescent misconduct: Genetic and environmental influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Zietsch, B.P.; Bailey, J.M.; Martin, N.G.

    2009-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviour (RSB) is a major risk factor for serious diseases as well as unplanned pregnancy. It is not known if RSB has a genetic basis or if it is only influenced by social and cultural conditions. Adolescent conduct disorder has previously been linked to RSB and has been found to be in

  12. Influence of cumulated sexual trauma on sexual life and relationship of a patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobański, Jerzy A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The assessment of links of accumulated traumatic events of a sexual nature, recollected from the past, with the current functioning of the patients in the area of sexual life and relationship. Material and methods. Comorbidity of memories of traumatic sexual events from childhood and puberty in patients with the features of their current partner relationships and sexual life were analyzed on the basis of Live Inventory completed by 2,582 women and 1,347 men, before treatment in day hospital (years 1980-2002. The accumulation was evaluated for a combination of two or three selected events. Results. The presence of relatively numerous traumatic events in the field of sexuality – early initiation or enforced initiation, incest or its attempt, sub-optimal sexual education and punishment for masturbation was indicated. In some patients, these events occurred simultaneously. Especially in women, the presence in the same person of two or three aggravating circumstances of life was associated with a higher risk of among others fleeting, casual sexual contacts, marriage under the influence of environment pressures, reluctance to partner. Conclusions. Increased accumulation – the presence in the same patient of more than one adverse circumstances associated with sexual development – leads to a higher incidence of interference in relationship with a partner including the elements of sexual dysfunction. The obtained results are generally consistent with clinical observations and literature despite different, simplified methodology of the study based on the analysis of single variables from questionnaire interviews. Finding fewer links in the group of men can be explained by their much lower number in the study group and less frequent burdening with certain traumatic events or different experiencing.

  13. Protective factors and recidivism in accused juveniles who sexually offended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Verena; Rettenberger, Martin; Yoon, Dahlnym; Köhler, Nora; Briken, Peer

    2015-02-01

    To date, research on juvenile sexual offender recidivism has tended to focus on risk factors rather than protective factors. Therefore, very little is known about protective factors in the population of juveniles who sexually offended. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of protective factors on non-recidivism in a sample of accused juveniles who sexually offended (N = 71) in a mean follow-up period of 47.84 months. Protective factors were measured with the Protective Factor Scale of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), and the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors for violence risk (SAPROF). Criminal charges served as recidivism data. The internal scale of the SAPROF, in particular, yielded moderate predictive accuracy for the absence of violent and general recidivism, though not for the absence of sexual recidivism. No protective factor of the SAVRY did reveal predictive accuracy regarding various types of the absence of recidivism. Furthermore, protective factors failed to achieve any significant incremental predictive accuracy beyond that captured by the SAVRY risk factors alone. The potential therapeutic benefit of protective factors in juvenile sexual offender treatment is discussed.

  14. Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male and ... workers were interviewed once; any re-interviews were excluded from analysis. ... where the only sex work-specific clinic was operational, were less likely to have ...

  15. 子宫全切手术患者性生活的影响因素分析及对策%Countermeasures and analysis on influence factors of the sexual life of patients receiving total hysterectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌云; 牟瑞丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察分析子宫全切手术患者性生活的影响因素以及探讨相关的对策。方法:选取我院从2011年3月至2013年3月收治的子宫切除患者共168例。通过调查问卷的方式调查患者在手术前后的性生活情况,以及患者的心理状态变化。结果:手术后分别有67.9%患者出现性欲下降,有52.4%的患者在性交过程中出现疼痛情况,有45.2%的患者在手术后的性交频率出现下降。入选患者在手术后其性交频率明显下降,其中每2个月有1次性交以及每月1次性交对比手术前明显有所提高;而性交频率每周1~2次则是出现下降,手术前后对比有显著性差异。入选患者在手术后SCL-90评分显著上升,而SAS评分以及SDS评分也出现明显升高,手术前后对比有显著性差异;而患者的性生活满意度,患者手术后对于性生活的满意度出现明显下降,手术前后对比有显著性差异。结论:子宫切除后影响患者性生活的原因主要是性欲下降,其次是性交疼痛干涩以及性交频率下降等。同时患者术后产生的抑郁和焦虑等心理情绪也同样影响患者的性生活质量。%Objectives:To observe and analyze the influence factors and countermeasures for sexual life of patients receiving total hysterectomy.Methods:1 68 patients receiving total hysterectomy in our hospital from March 201 1 to March 201 3 were selected.The sexual life and psychological state of patients before and after operation were investigated by the way of questionnaire.Results:After operation,there were 67.9%patients with decreased libido, 52.4%patients with pain during intercourse and 45.2%of patients with decreased intercourse frequency.The inter-course frequency of the selected patients reduced evidently after operation,whose intercourse frequency,once every two months and once every month,increased compared with that before operation.But the intercourse frequency

  16. The influence of atypical antipsychotic drugs on sexual function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Just MJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marek J Just Department of General and Endocrine Surgery, Piekary Medical Centre, Piekary Slaskie, Poland Abstract: Human sexuality is contingent upon many biological and psychological factors. Such factors include sexual drive (libido, physiological arousal (lubrication/erection, orgasm, and ejaculation, as well as maintaining normal menstrual cycle. The assessment of sexual dysfunction can be difficult due to the intimate nature of the problem and patients’ unwillingness to discuss it. Also, the problem of dysfunction is often overlooked by doctors. Atypical antipsychotic treatment is a key component of mental disorders’ treatment algorithms recommended by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence, the American Psychiatric Association, and the British Society for Psychopharmacology. The relationship between atypical antipsychotic drugs and sexual dysfunction is mediated in part by antipsychotic blockade of pituitary dopamine D2 receptors increasing prolactin secretion, although direct correlations have not been established between raised prolactin levels and clinical symptoms. Variety of mechanisms are likely to contribute to antipsychotic-related sexual dysfunction, including hyperprolactinemia, sedation, and antagonism of a number of neurotransmitter receptors (α-adrenergic, dopaminergic, histaminic, and muscarinic. Maintaining normal sexual function in people treated for mental disorders can affect their quality of life, mood, self-esteem, attitude toward taking medication, and compliance during therapy. Keywords: schizophrenia, galactorrhea, hyperprolactinemia, mood disorders, anorgasmia

  17. Sexual Minority Health and Health Risk Factors: Intersection Effects of Gender, Race, and Sexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ning; Ruther, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Although population studies have documented the poorer health outcomes of sexual minorities, few have taken an intersectionality approach to examine how sexual orientation, gender, and race jointly affect these outcomes. Moreover, little is known about how behavioral risks and healthcare access contribute to health disparities by sexual, gender, and racial identities. Using ordered and binary logistic regression models in 2015, data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (n=62,302) were analyzed to study disparities in self-rated health and functional limitation. This study examined how gender and race interact with sexual identity to create health disparities, and how these disparities are attributable to differential exposure to behavioral risks and access to care. Conditional on sociodemographic factors, all sexual, gender, and racial minority groups, except straight white women, gay white men, and bisexual non-white men, reported worse self-rated health than straight white men (pnon-white men, were more likely to report a functional limitation than straight white men (pgender, and racial minority groups. Sexual, gender, and racial identities interact with one another in a complex way to affect health experiences. Efforts to improve sexual minority health should consider heterogeneity in health risks and health outcomes among sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 黄浦区建筑工人不安全性行为及其影响因素研究%Situation and Influencing Factors of Unsafe Sexual Behaviors among Construction Workers in Huangpu District,Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒伟萍; 汪红卫; 陆瑾; 徐元; 曹祯; 方蕙; 任金马; Liviana Calzavara

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解黄浦区建筑工地工人不安全性行为现状,分析其影响因素,为性病艾滋病(STD/AIDS)区域综合防治工作的开展提供依据.[方法]采用整群抽样的方法随机抽取黄浦区6个工地的594名建筑工人进行问卷调查,内容包括一般信息、首次性行为年龄、STD/AIDS知识、对性的态度、安全套使用情况等;采集血样、尿样以检验STD/AIDS感染情况;采用SPSS 17.0进行单因素及多因素回归分析.[结果]在调查的594名建筑工人中,发生过不安全性行为者共占30.5%;其中,有过婚前性行为的占26.8%,已婚人群中有过婚外性行为的占10.2%,有商业性行为的占5.7%,有多性伴行为的占6.7%.经binary logistic多因素回归分析表明,在该区建筑工地工人中有6个相关因素对不安全性行为有影响:文化程度越高;首次性行为年龄越小;月收入越高;STD/AIDS知识得分越高;对性的态度越重视;未婚、离异或丧偶的被调查者越易发生不安全性行为.被调查者中梅毒检出率为1.5%,淋病检出率为4.4%,生殖道沙眼衣原体检出率为0.8%.[结论]建筑工地工人不安全性行为发生率较高,自我保护意识和风险意识较低,在该人群中开展行之有效的健康教育及干预尤为迫切.%[ Objective ] To investigate the level of unsafe sexual behavior of construction workers and its influencing factors in Huangpu District, and to provide a theoretical basis for comprehensive control of HIV/AIDS. [ Methods ] Construction workers of 6 construction sites were chosen by cluster sampling to be surveyed by questionnaire, which included general information, age of first sex, knowledge of venereal diseases and AIDS, sex attitudes and situation of condom use. Blood and urine samples were collected and inspected, and SPSS 17.0 was used to perform single factor and multiple factors logistic regression analyses. [ Results ] The rate of having unsafe sexual behaviors in 594 responded

  19. Verbal Sexual Coercion among a US College Sample: Patterns of Sexual Boundary Violations and Predictive Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Hadjicharalambous

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined verbal sexual coercion. The behaviors which fall under the general label verbal sexual coercion are examined in more depth and categorized in seven behaviors named 'sexual boundary violations' (SBVs. We aimed to explore patterns of SBVs and hypothesized that impulsivity and psychopathy predict SBVs. We analyzed secondary data gathered from a 2009 online survey of sexual behaviors. The participants were 430 sophomores (296 females and 134 males from an urban south-western university in the US. We ran three stages of analysis: factor analyses to detect patterns of SBVs; hierarchical regression models to determine the predictive value of the hypothesized traits; and t-tests to explore sex differences. The results showed that men used SBVs more often than women. Two factors emerged, labelled “Disguised” and “Undisguised” SBVs. Male sex, sensitivity to temptation, and poorer executive functioning predicted undisguised SBVs. We discuss how these findings can inform future interventions.

  20. 当代青少年性道德态度观影响因素的研究%Research on the Influence Factors of Contemporary Youth Sexual Morality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程静; 王进鑫

    2015-01-01

    Through empirical investigation of the sexual moral attitudes of 4 565 young people aged 17-24 in the country, the authors found that the self moral cognition and moral environment significantly influenced the formation of the juvenile sexual morality.Girl and youths who had political beliefs had more positive attitudes towards sex morality.Their place of residence, parents’ sexual morality, especially the same sex, and peer subculture, etc, had a significant influence on the formation of the sexual morality.%通过对全国17~24岁4565名青少年的性道德态度观的实证调研,发现自我道德认知和道德环境显著影响着青少年性道德态度观的形成。女性、有政治信仰的青少年具有更积极的性道德态度观。居住地、父母的性道德水平特别是同性亲子关系、同伴亚文化等显著影响着青少年性道德态度观的形成。

  1. Reduction of Influence Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Sydenham, Peter H.; Thorn, Richard

    Any measurement system has imperfections and any act of measurement is liable to errors. Measurement errors either originate from system deficiencies (for instance system noise, quantization, and drift), or are due to environmental influences such as thermal, electromagnetic, and mechanical

  2. Influence of sexually transmitted infections in a horse breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent problems in horses reproduction are generally divided into those of infectious and non infectious etiology. Common causes of infectious diseases are usual­ly viruses and bacteria, and less frequently protozoa, mykoplasma and fungi. In this work there are presented the most important fact about sexually transmitted diseases, their clinical picture, risk factors, preventive measures as well as measures to prevent and eradicate the diseases. The biggest risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases in horses are breeding stallions, both in natural mating and in artificial insemination. Therefore, in order to prevent genital infections in horses, it is essential that the stallions used for breeding are healthy (non-infected. That can be determined with certainty only if the stallions are examined (tested just before the breeding season on most frequent sexually transmitted diseases (CEM,EAV. It is well known that in most cases the clinical picture of sexually transmitted diseses is not manifested on genitals. As well, variations in clinical picture can be expected also in mares, depending on the stage of the disease and its etiology. Harms arising from sexually transmitted diseases can be divided into direct and indirect. Direct damage occurs in the form of endometritis, miscarriage, stillbirths and births of weak foals, and indirect in restricting the traffic of infected and suspicios animals, isolation of the infected ones as well as medical treatment and interrupting mating.

  3. Sexual Identity Mobility and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Analysis of Moderating Factors Among Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G; Talley, Amelia E; Hughes, Tonda L; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Johnson, Timothy P

    2016-10-01

    Sexual minority identity (bisexual, lesbian) is a known risk factor for depression in women. This study examined a facet of minority stress prevalent among women-sexual identity mobility-as an identity-related contributor to higher levels of depressive symptoms. We used three waves of data from the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study, a longitudinal study of sexual minority women (N = 306). Random effects OLS regression models were constructed to examine the effect of sexual identity changes on depressive symptoms. We found that 25.6 % of the sample reported a sexual identity change between Wave I and Wave II, and 24.9 % reported a sexual identity change between Waves II and III. Women who reported a change in sexual identity also reported more depressive symptoms subsequent to identity change. This effect was moderated by the number of years participants had reported their baseline identity and by whether the participant had initiated a romantic relationship with a male partner.

  4. Partnering to proceed: scaling up adolescent sexual reproductive health programmes in Tanzania. Operational research into the factors that influenced local government uptake and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bahati

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how to implement promising small-scale projects to reduce reproductive ill health and HIV vulnerability in young people on a large scale. This evaluation documents and explains how a partnership between a non-governmental organization (NGO and local government authorities (LGAs influenced the LGA-led scale-up of an innovative NGO programme in the wider context of a new national multisectoral AIDS strategy. Methods Four rounds of semi-structured interviews with 82 key informants, 8 group discussions with 49 district trainers and supervisors (DTS, 8 participatory workshops involving 52 DTS, and participant observations of 80% of LGA-led and 100% of NGO-led meetings were conducted, to ascertain views on project components, flow of communication and decision-making and amount of time DTS utilized undertaking project activities. Results Despite a successful ten-fold scale-up of intervention activities in three years, full integration into LGA systems did not materialize. LGAs contributed significant human resources but limited finances; the NGO retained control over finances and decision-making and LGAs largely continued to view activities as NGO driven. Embedding of technical assistants (TAs in the LGAs contributed to capacity building among district implementers, but may paradoxically have hindered project integration, because TAs were unable to effectively transition from an implementing to a facilitating role. Operation of NGO administration and financial mechanisms also hindered integration into district systems. Conclusions Sustainable intervention scale-up requires operational, financial and psychological integration into local government mechanisms. This must include substantial time for district systems to try out implementation with only minimal NGO support and modest output targets. It must therefore go beyond the typical three- to four-year project cycles. Scale-up of NGO pilot projects of this

  5. Impersonal sex orientation and multitasking influence the effect of sexual media content on involvement with a sexual character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Peter, J.; van Oosten, J.M.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether responses to sexual media content depend on personal and situational factors. Specifically, we studied the role of the personal factor impersonal sex orientation (IS) and the situational factor multitasking in the effect of sexual media content

  6. Sociosexual orientation and multitasking influence the effect of sexual media content on involvement with a sexual character

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Peter, J.; van Oosten, J.M.F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether responses to sexual media depend on personal and situational factors. Specifically, we studied the role of sociosexual orientation (i.e., personal factor) and multitasking (i.e., situational factor) in the effects of sexual media content on

  7. Genetic and environmental influences on female sexual orientation, childhood gender typicality and adult gender identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Burri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates--childhood gender typicality (CGT and adult gender identity (AGI. However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426 who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%, AGI (11% and CGT (31%. For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation.

  8. The Influence of Violence Victimization on Sexual Health Behaviors and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Jennifer; Fleckman, Julia; Wallace, Maeve; Rountree, Michele; Theall, Katherine

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the implications of a history of personal violence on health and health behaviors. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data involving adults (n = 214) from a semirural area in southern Louisiana between October 2008 and December 2010 was conducted to ascertain the association between a personal history of violence victimization and indicators of sexual health behaviors and outcomes: communication with sexual partners about HIV status, consistent condom use, and sexually transmitted infection (STI). While violence victimization is widely accepted as a risk factor for high-risk sex behavior, the mechanisms underlying violence victimization's influence on sexual health outcomes remain unclear. Bivariate analyses demonstrated a significant positive association between experience of physical abuse and lifetime history of STI. Surprisingly, respondents reporting lifetime physical violence were more than two times more likely to ask sexual partners about HIV status [odds ratio (OR) for physical attack = 2.23, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00-4.97; OR for physical injury = 4.60, 95% CI = 1.79-11.85]. Consistent condom use was not significantly associated with violence exposure in adjusted models. There was no evidence that communication with sexual partners mediated the relationship between experiences of violence and condom use. The link between personal history of violence and condom use may be mediated through alternative pathways beyond communication.

  9. 子宫颈癌患者性生活质量影响因素分析%The influencing factors of female sexual function in the patients with cervical caner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莲清; 刘华云; 谌永毅; 汤新辉; 刘翔宇; 王玉花; 沈波涌

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the level and inlfuencing factors of female sexual function in the patients with cervical caner. Methods:Totally 215 patients with cervical caner were investigated with a demographic questionnaire and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results:The score of FSFI was 20.65±4.77. Multiple regression analysis showed that the inlfuencing factors of female sexual function were radiation therapy, patients' occupation, tumor stage and residence which explained 21.7%variation in the female sexual function . Conclusion:The sexual function of patients with cervical caner were at the female sexual disfunction levels. Nursing staff should take action to improve the patients' female sexual function and quality of life.%目的:调查子宫颈癌患者的性生活质量现状,并探讨其影响因素,为今后的护理干预提供依据。方法:采用女性性功能量表(FSFI)对215例子宫颈癌住院患者进行调查。结果:子宫颈癌患者的性生活指数得分为(20.65±4.77)分,多元线性回归结果显示,化疗、职业、分期和居住地是子宫颈癌患者性生活质量的预测因子。结论:子宫颈癌患者的性生活状况总体处于障碍水平;影响因素分析可以为护理人员采取相应措施提供参考,以有效改善子宫颈癌患者性生活质量,从而提高患者的生命质量。

  10. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  11. Environmental factors influencing asexual reproductive processes in echinoderms

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenov, Pv

    1996-01-01

    This review provides a brief update of the occurrence and adaptive significance of asexual reproduction in echinoderms. It then focuses on the state of knowledge of biotic and abiotic factors that influence asexual processes in this group, particularly factors that may play a role in regulating the expression and relative proportion of asexual versus sexual phenotypes within populations of species, as well as factors modulating and triggering asexual processes. The information presented in th...

  12. Maternal Influences on Asian American–Pacific Islander Adolescents’ Perceived Maternal Sexual Expectations and Their Sexual Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Maternal influences on adolescents’ sexual initiation have been examined over two time points in 433 Asian American–Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents in a secondary analysis of the Add Health data set using structural equation modeling. A longitudinal model built on a preliminary qualitative study is used to examine the fit between data and model. Maternal perceived connectedness and adolescents’ perceived maternal sexual expectations in sexual timing are found to be protective for delaying...

  13. Predictors of premarital sexual activity among unmarried youth in Vientiane, Lao PDR: the role of parent-youth interactions and peer influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychareun, Vanphanom; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Hansana, Visanou; Chaleunvong, Kongmany; Kounnavong, Sengchan; Sawhney, Monika; Durham, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that adolescents in low-income countries have an early sexual debut and engage in risky sexual behaviours. Few studies in low-income countries however, have explored the factors that influence young people's sexual behaviours. This study examined individual, family and peer-level factors associated with premarital sexual behaviours in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with unmarried youth aged 18 to 24 years (N = 1200) in Vientiane Capital City. Logistic regression models, controlling for confounding variables, were employed to test for the contribution of factors influencing premarital sexual activity. Most respondents held positive attitudes towards premarital sex, with males having more liberal attitudes than females (mean score of 2.68 vs. 2.32, p sexual activity was higher among males than females (44.7% and 19.2%, respectively). Predictors of premarital sex for males were age, sexual attitudes, perceived parental expectations regarding sex, dating and peer influence. For females, predictors were father's level of education, parent-youth sexual communication, peer influence and liberal sexual attitudes. The results highlight the role of parent-youth interaction and peer influence. The results suggest the need for a range of strategies at the individual, peer and family level, as well as a gender-specific focus.

  14. Factors Associated with Sexual Behavior among Adolescents: A Multivariate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S. Marie; Spigner, Clarence

    1995-01-01

    A self-administered survey examining multiple factors associated with engaging in sexual intercourse was completed by 1,026 high school students in a classroom setting. Findings suggest that effective interventions to address teenage pregnancy need to utilize a multifaceted approach to the prevention of high-risk behaviors. (JPS)

  15. Factores que Influencian la Adquisición de Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual y VIH en Mujeres Jóvenes Chilenas que Participaron en la Intervención Online I-STIPI (Factors That Influence the Acquisition of Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV in Chilean Young Women Who Participated in the Online Intervention I-STIPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Natalia; Cianelli, Rosina; Santisteban, Daniel; Lara, Loreto; Vargas, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to investigate the following factors associated with sexually transmitted infections and human immunodeficiency virus prevention: (a) knowledge, (b) attitudes, (c) self-efficacy, (d) vulnerability, (e) risky behaviors, (f) preventive behaviors, and (g) internet use among 40 Chilean women between 18 and 24 years who participated in the pilot of an Internet based STI/HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI). A structured questionnaire available in a secure website was used for data collection and it included questions related to STI and HIV prevention. The results of the study indicated that young women are at risk of acquiring STIs and HIV and have special needs for prevention. Familiarity and frequency of use of internet in this population can be used for STIs and HIV prevention. © 2016. All rights reserved.

  16. Sexual life status and influencing factors of migrant population in Beijing%北京市流动人口性生活状况调查及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪红蕾; 李玉艳; 韩颖; 于传宁; 赵瑞; 孙亚坤; 周颖; 李亦然; 武俊青

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:To investigate the frequency of sex life and communication with partners about sex-related topics among migrant population in Beijing both married and unmarried but having sex experiences and to analyze the influencing factors.Methods:From Sep.to Nov.201 3,we chose 4 factories,4 construction sites,4 entertainment sites and 4 foreign companies which gathered lots of migrant population in Beijing.All the employees in the workplaces that met the inclusion criteria were selected.Face -to -face questionnaire survey was done for each subject by uniformly trained investigators.Results:2077 subjects were analyzed.60.67% of the subjects didn’t communicate much with their partners about sex related topics.1 4.5% of the subjects felt sexually repressed or depressed.The average frequency of sex life among migrant population was 4 times monthly.Multivariate logistic regression models showed that male migrant population who were 20 -29 years old with higher household income had higher sex frequency;female migrant population who lived in the dormitory communicated less with their partners a-bout sex related topics.Conclusion:The frequency of sex life among migrant population is low and sex communica-tion with partners is inadequate.Strengthening the sex education,raising the income levels and improving the living conditions of migrant population are significant to promote harmonious sexual life.%目的:调查北京市已婚和未婚有性生活的流动人口性生活频率和性相关话题交流情况,并分析其影响因素。方法:2013年9至11月在北京市流动人口集中的区域内选择工厂、建筑工地、服务娱乐场所和外企各4个,纳入场所内全部符合条件的流动人口,并进行面对面问卷调查。结果:共分析2077名研究对象。60.67%的研究对象与性伴交流性相关问题情况一般。14.5%的研究对象感到性压抑或性郁闷。流动人口平均每月的性生活次数为4

  17. A Question of Love and Trust? The Role of Relationship Factors in Adolescent Sexual Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Sarah W Feldstein; Bryan, Angela D

    2015-10-01

    While representing only 25% of the sexually active population, 50% of all new sexually transmitted infections occur among young people mostly because of inconsistent condom use. Critically, the majority of adolescent sexual activity takes place in the context of romantic relationships; thus, it is important to understand how relationship factors may influence decision making about the use of protection. We used a mixed-method approach to investigate the extent to which relationship length, degree of trust or love in the relationship, and frequency of intercourse influence both perceptions of the probability of condom use and self-reported condom use in the context of relationships among a diverse sample of high-risk adolescents (age 12-19 yr). Participants were least likely to use condoms if they were in relationships with high trust or love and high frequency of intercourse. Importantly, sexual experience status was a strong moderator of primary effects. The perspective of motivated cognition provides a useful theoretical framework to better understand adolescent decision making about condom use, particularly for sexually experienced youth.

  18. Perceived Discrimination, Peer Influence and Sexual Behaviors in Mexican American Preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Hamilton, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Both discrimination and sexual health disparities have significant negative health implications for Latina/o preadolescent youth, including negative mental health outcomes, STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, and ongoing poverty. Studying these links within this population, therefore, has significant public health relevance, both in terms of promoting sexual health in general as well as serving the specific needs of Latina/o youth. This study explored the relationship between perceived discrimination, peer influence and sexual behaviors among 438 Mexican American preadolescents in the Southwest United States (55.3 % male). Additionally, this study examined whether psychological distress, substance use, and sexual motives mediated and whether gender moderated these relations. A multiple-group path analysis of the analytical model was performed to examine the hypothesized relations between perceived discrimination, peer influence, psychological distress, substance use, sexual motives and sexual behaviors. The findings indicated that perceived discrimination was directly linked to sexual behaviors among participants and indirectly linked via substance use. The findings also indicated that peer influence was indirectly linked to sexual behaviors via substance use among participants and via sexual motives among boys. This study underscores the importance of substance use in the perceived discrimination, peer influence and sexual behavior link in Mexican American preadolescents. Additionally, it highlights the importance of sexual motives in the link between peer influence and sexual behaviors of Mexican American boys.

  19. [Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk frequently, and adolescents with heterosexual behavior and none of the risk factors investigated. More of the risk factors were found in adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior compared with those with heterosexual behavior. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior were more likely to talk about their positive personal experiences and negative relationship experiences that

  20. Sexual Victimization among Spanish College Women and Risk Factors for Sexual Revictimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Sexual revictimization is frequent among victims of child sexual abuse. Several variables, such as sexual experience, substance abuse, and sexual assertiveness, have been proposed to explain the link between child sexual abuse and adolescent and adult sexual victimization, although they have typically been tested separately. The main objective of…

  1. Life history factors, personality and the social clustering of sexual experience in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent sexual behaviour may show clustering in neighbourhoods, schools and friendship networks. This study aims to assess how experience with sexual intercourse clusters across the social world of adolescents and whether predictors implicated by life history theory or personality traits can account for its between-individual variation and social patterning. Using data on 2877 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we ran logistic multiple classification models to assess the clustering of sexual experience by approximately 17.5 years in schools, neighbourhoods and friendship networks. We examined how much clustering at particular levels could be accounted for by life history predictors and Big Five personality factors. Sexual experience exhibited substantial clustering in friendship networks, while clustering at the level of schools and neighbourhoods was minimal, suggesting a limited role for socio-ecological influences at those levels. While life history predictors did account for some variation in sexual experience, they did not explain clustering in friendship networks. Personality, especially extraversion, explained about a quarter of friends' similarity. After accounting for life history factors and personality, substantial unexplained similarity among friends remained, which may reflect a tendency to associate with similar individuals or the social transmission of behavioural norms. PMID:27853543

  2. Sexual selection is influenced by both developmental and adult environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Stephanie R; Scarlett Tudor, M; Moore, Allen J; Miller, Christine W

    2014-12-01

    Sexual selection is often assumed to be strong and consistent, yet increasing research shows it can fluctuate over space and time. Few experimental studies have examined changes in sexual selection in response to natural environmental variation. Here, we use a difference in resource quality to test for the influence of past environmental conditions and current environmental conditions on male and female mate choice and resulting selection gradients for leaf-footed cactus bugs, Narnia femorata. We raised juveniles on natural high- and low-quality diets, cactus pads with and without ripe cactus fruits. New adults were again assigned a cactus pad with or without fruit, paired with a potential mate, and observed for mating behaviors. We found developmental and adult encounter environments affected mating decisions and the resulting patterns of sexual selection for both males and females. Males were not choosy in the low-quality encounter environment, cactus without fruit, but they avoided mating with small females in the high-quality encounter environment. Females were choosy in both encounter environments, avoiding mating with small males. However, they were the choosiest when they were in the low-quality encounter environment. Female mate choice was also context dependent by male developmental environment. Females were more likely to mate with males that had developed on cactus with fruit when they were currently in the cactus with fruit environment. This pattern disappeared when females were in the cactus without fruit environment. Altogether, these results experimentally demonstrate context-dependent mate choice by both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrate that simple, seasonal changes in resources can lead to fluctuations in sexual selection. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. The SEM Risk Behavior (SRB) Model: A New Conceptual Model of how Pornography Influences the Sexual Intentions and HIV Risk Behavior of MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Iantaffi, Alex; Smolenski, Derek J; Brady, Sonya S; Horvath, Keith J; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon

    2012-01-01

    While the effects of sexually explicit media (SEM) on heterosexuals' sexual intentions and behaviors have been studied, little is known about the consumption and possible influence of SEM among men who have sex with men (MSM). Importantly, conceptual models of how Internet-based SEM influences behavior are lacking. Seventy-nine MSM participated in online focus groups about their SEM viewing preferences and sexual behavior. Twenty-three participants reported recent exposure to a new behavior via SEM. Whether participants modified their sexual intentions and/or engaged in the new behavior depended on three factors: arousal when imagining the behavior, pleasure when attempting the behavior, and trust between sex partners. Based on MSM's experience, we advance a model of how viewing a new sexual behavior in SEM influences sexual intentions and behaviors. The model includes five paths. Three paths result in the maintenance of sexual intentions and behaviors. One path results in a modification of sexual intentions while maintaining previous sexual behaviors, and one path results in a modification of both sexual intentions and behaviors. With this model, researchers have a framework to test associations between SEM consumption and sexual intentions and behavior, and public health programs have a framework to conceptualize SEM-based HIV/STI prevention programs.

  4. Genetic and environmental influences on sexual orientation and its correlates in an Australian twin sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J M; Dunne, M P; Martin, N G

    2000-03-01

    We recruited twins systematically from the Australian Twin Registry and assessed their sexual orientation and 2 related traits: childhood gender nonconformity and continuous gender identity. Men and women differed in their distributions of sexual orientation, with women more likely to have slight-to-moderate degrees of homosexual attraction, and men more likely to have high degrees of homosexual attraction. Twin concordances for nonheterosexual orientation were lower than in prior studies. Univariate analyses showed that familial factors were important for all traits, but were less successful in distinguishing genetic from shared environmental influences. Only childhood gender nonconformity was significantly heritable for both men and women. Multivariate analyses suggested that the causal architecture differed between men and women, and, for women, provided significant evidence for the importance of genetic factors to the traits' covariation.

  5. Young parents' relationship characteristics, shared sexual behaviors, perception of partner risks, and dyadic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Huang, Rong; Lesser, Janna; Gonzalez-Figueroa, Evelyn; Takayanagi, Sumiko; Cumberland, William G

    2009-01-01

    Rising rates of heterosexually transmitted HIV among youth and young adults, particularly from ethnic minorities, create an urgent need to understand risk factors and perceptions of risk within the context of couple relationships. This study examined reports of young mothers and fathers (predominantly Latino) about background characteristics, relationship quality and length, HIV-related risk factors, and perceptions of partners' behaviors and personal history. Higher concordance was found for relationship characteristics and partners' personal history (e.g., incarceration) than on shared sexual behaviors. Most males and females stated that they were monogamous; however, those whose partners reported concurrency were unaware of this. Many were unaware of their partners' HIV testing status. Relationship quality was higher when females accurately perceived their partners' self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Length of the relationship did not influence concordance. Findings support the need for HIV prevention programs to promote open discussion about condom use and HIV testing within sexual partnerships.

  6. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...

  7. Parent and Family Influences on Young Women's Romantic and Sexual Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Parents can play an important role in reducing their children's risk for teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, and in promoting sexual health during adolescence. The purpose of this study was to explore communication between parents, family members and young people and how it influences their romantic and sexual behaviours.…

  8. Parent and Family Influences on Young Women's Romantic and Sexual Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Parents can play an important role in reducing their children's risk for teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, and in promoting sexual health during adolescence. The purpose of this study was to explore communication between parents, family members and young people and how it influences their romantic and sexual behaviours.…

  9. Factors that mediate treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J A; Mannarino, A P

    1996-10-01

    The role of demographic, developmental, and familial mediating factors on treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children was evaluated. Sixty-seven sexually abused preschool children and their parents were evaluated shortly after disclosure of sexual abuse and then were provided with one of two treatment interventions. At the completion of treatment, the parents and their children were reevaluated. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory, and the Weekly Behavior Report to measure a variety of emotional and behavioral symptoms in children. Parents also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-III, the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire, the Parental Support Questionnaire, and the Maternal Social Support Index. Children completed the Preschool Symptom Self-Report to assess self-reported affective symptoms and the Battelle Developmental Inventory and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test to assess developmental level. Correlational analyses were conducted to analyze the relationships between the hypothesized mediating variables and the outcome measures at posttreatment across the two treatment groups. Multiple regression analyses were also performed. Both parental depression and parental emotional distress correlated significantly with several of the child outcome measures. Battelle scores were significantly negatively correlated with several outcome measures. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire remained a highly significant predictor of treatment outcome. The findings indicate a strong correlation between parental emotional distress related to the abuse and treatment outcome in sexually abused preschool children, independent of the type of treatment provided. The findings indicate the importance of addressing parental distress related to the abuse in providing effective treatment to sexually abused

  10. Factors Associated with HIV/AIDS Sexual Risk Among Young Women Aged 15-24 Years in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidoa, Chinekwu A; M'Lan, Cyr E; Schensul, Stephen L

    2012-03-07

    The growing rate of sexual risk-taking among young people contributes significantly to the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. This study, explores the influence of socio-demographic, HIV/AIDS awareness and female empowerment on the sexual risk behaviors of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24. The data presented in this paper was drawn from the 2003 Nigeria National Demographic and Health Survey. The sample consisted of unmarried women aged 15-24 in the dataset. Data was collected through a structured and interviewer administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the most important predictors of sexual risk behaviors. Sexual risk-taking is relatively high among unmarried young women. Among those who are sexually active, 80% indicated that they did not use a condom during their first sexual encounter. Regression analysis revealed that younger age, lower HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission knowledge, lower knowledge of where to obtain condoms, lower material standard of living and greater intimate partner violence were significantly associated with sexual risk-taking in this population. Findings revealed that the sexual behavior of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24 is influenced by a complex matrix of factors. Identifying specific processes and contexts that promote the concentration of risk among sub-sections of young unmarried women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria should be a research and intervention priority.

  11. Factors associated with HIV/AIDS sexual risk among young women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinekwu A. Obidoa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing rate of sexual risk-taking among young people contributes significantly to the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. This study, explores the influence of socio-demographic, HIV/AIDS awareness and female empowerment on the sexual risk behaviors of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24. The data presented in this paper was drawn from the 2003 Nigeria National Demographic and Health Survey. The sample consisted of unmarried women aged 15-24 in the dataset. Data was collected through a structured and interviewer administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the most important predictors of sexual risk behaviors. Sexual risk-taking is relatively high among unmarried young women. Among those who are sexually active, 80% indicated that they did not use a condom during their first sexual encounter. Regression analysis revealed that younger age, lower HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission knowledge, lower knowledge of where to obtain condoms, lower material standard of living and greater intimate partner violence were significantly associated with sexual risk-taking in this population. Findings revealed that the sexual behavior of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24 is influenced by a complex matrix of factors. Identifying specific processes and contexts that promote the concentration of risk among sub-sections of young unmarried women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria should be a research and intervention priority.

  12. 医护人员性健康指导知信行状况及其影响因素%Investigation of current status of the knowledge, attitude and practice of medical staff on sexual health guidance and analysis of influence factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何平; 张安琴; 张蒙

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of medical staff among different clinic unit on sexual health guidance,and analyze the influence factors. Methods A self-devetoped KAP questionnaire for medical staff was used, and 460 medical personnel in Chengdu city were investigated. The data were statistically analyzed. Results The scores of KAP of sexual health guidance were tow. There was a significant difference in KAP among different clinic units ( F = l. 063 , 6.746,7.618 for knowledge,attitude and practice,respectively;all P<0. 001) with the best in the department of gynaecotogy. The primary influence factor for guidance behavior was that the patients lacked consulting knowledge. The secondary factor was that medical staff lacked sexual knowledge. Conclusion The most clinical medical staff lack knowledge of sexual health guidance and ignore patients' sexual health problems. The guidance behavior is also limited. Therefore,it will be a tong way for sexual health guidance.%目的 了解医护人员对患者性健康指导现状,分析性健康指导知信行的影响因素.方法 自行设计问卷调查表,调查460名临床医护人员的性健康指导知信情况,并对数据进行分析统计.结果 医护人员对患者性健康指导的知信行分值均偏低;不同科室医护人员在性健康指导知识、态度和行为方面存在差异(F值分别为7.063、6.746和7.618,均P<0.001),妇科在性健康指导方面做得最好(P<0.01);影响健康指导行为的首要因素是没有患者咨询性知识,其次为医护人员性知识缺乏.结论 临床科室医护人员普遍存在性健康指导知识缺乏、忽视患者性健康问题、健康行为受限的诸多问题.性健康教育任重道远.

  13. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Victor H H; Tong, Terry Y Y

    2011-07-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men.

  14. Characteristics and precipitant factors associated with sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Beltrán Dulcey

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A documentary review about investigations published between 1995and the year 2005 was made, oriented to measuring characteristicsof sexual abuse taking the following categories as reference: familiar factors, social and demographic factors, characteristics of the sexual abuse, behaviour of the parents and history of the mothers. A sample of 8,187 people of different ages was analyzed in 16 studies. There was an increase in the number of publications in the last three years (37%, fi nding the United States as the country where more publications are realized related to the included variables (69%. The average age of the sexual abuse was 7.9 for a minimal value of 4.9 and maximum of 11.5; the duration in years was 4.28 and the percentage of abuse was between 10.4% and 29.4% withan average of 20.14% in investigations made in population studies.In relation to the perpetrator-victim tie, it was found that 62.16 % of the cases the perpetrator was a family member; of these, 30.27%was the biological father. It is concluded that sexual abuse is nota problem that obeys to only one cause nor possesses only onecharacteristic. The variables that were more associated with sexualabuse were: 1. Chaotic familiar structure; where difficulties appear in the interpersonal relations, 2. Presence of violent or marital conflict, 3. Behaviours of the parents inclined towards alcohol or drug abuse, and in minor presence, 4. History of sexual abuse in the mothers of victims of abuse. Signifi cant affi liations were not in the social and demographic variables as socio-economic level, educational level of the parents, type of house or the presence of unemployment of any of the parents.

  15. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, and risk factor for sexual health of adolescents, Medellín, Colombia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas-Castaño, Aracelly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in a group of adolescents in Medellín, Colombia, and the most frequent risk factors for acquiring them. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study, between 2010 and 2013, in 569 students who had started sexual intercourse. A questionnaire was applied, and screening was done for the following infections: hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, HPV, gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and nongonococcal urethritis in men. Results: Women had the following frequencies of infections: HPV 28.1 %; Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4 %; bacterial vaginosis 42.7 %; candidiasis 14.1 %. Nongonococcal urethritis was found in 6.2 % of men. Hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, and gonococcal infections were not found. The most frequent risk factors were as follows: to have started sexual relations before the age of 15 (59.9 %; not to use condom (58.2 %; not to have utilized condom in the last sexual intercourse (41.7 %; to lack adequate knowledge on sexual health (39.1 %; to have had three or more sexual partners (30.6 %; to have had sexual partners 10 or more years older than themselves (20.4 %, and to have sexual relations with persons different from the formal partner (18.8 %. Conclusions: The high prevalence of STIs in teenagers that are just starting sexual life must be an alert to implement high impact sexual health programs.

  16. [Relations between self-discrimination of MSM and sexual behavior and psychological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Hong-bo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Guang-gui; Yang, Hong-wu; Fan, Jing

    2010-07-01

    To understand the self-discrimination experience of MSM and its relationship with sexual behavior and psychological factors. By respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method, a call-for action and anonymous self-administration questionnaire investigation was carried out in Mianyang city on experience of self-discriminations, sexual partners and behaviors and depression symptom, etc. The first 12 qualified people were designated as the "root" in the whole investigation from different MSM subgroups. Every "root" would get 3 recruit cards after their own investigation, then cards could be promoted to another 3 qualified people who were willing to accept questionnaires. And this process would go on till the sample size was accomplished. χ(2) test, rank correlation and contingency coefficient would be applied for the statistical analysis. In total, 201 persons were investigated. Within the past 6 months, 59.2% (119/201) persons felt they did harm to their family or made the family down as gays, 79.6% (160/201) had to disguise their real sexual orientation in avoidance of being discriminated, 39.3% (79/201) were humiliated for having gay sex. It showed correlation between humiliation or harm to family and frequency to disco balls/night clubs (r = 0.196, χ(2) = 7.95, P sexual partners (r = 0.265, χ(2) = 11.422, P sexual behavior in the past 6 months (r = 0.513, χ(2) = 7.442, P sexual orientation in avoidance of being discriminated and the frequency of show up in the cybercafé (r = 0.272, χ(2) = 15.932, P sexual partners. Meanwhile, the pressure was rising when depression was checked out. Self-discrimination was prevalent among MSM, which had brought critical influence on the individual behavior, MSM psychological health and prevalence of AIDS.

  17. The prevalence of female sexual dissatisfaction and the dominant risk factors that may impair sexual satisfaction in Malaysian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatta Sidi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aims were to investigate the prevalence of sexual dissatisfaction and the potential risk factors. This was a cross-sectional study on women attending primary care setting in Malaysia over a period of March to June 2005, and used a non-probability sampling method. A validated questionnaire for sexual function was used. A total of 230 married women aged 21 – 62 years old participated in this study. The ressults show that the majority of the respondents were less than 45 years old, predominantly Malays, and with higher academic achievement. We noted that 52.2% (120/230 study subjects had sexual dissatisfaction. Race, salary, education level, medical problems, dysmenorrhea, and menacrhe were likely not correlated with sexual dissatisfaction. The dominant risk factor related to sexual dissatisfaction was age of husband. In additional, sexual dissatisfaction was moderately (P = 0.077 related to sexual per month. The subjects who had their husbands aged 43-75 years compared with 24-42 years had 68% increased risk to experience sexual dissatisfaction [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.15 - 2.44]. In term of sexual frequency per month, those who had 1-3 times per month than 4-5 times per month had two-fold increased risk to experience sexual dissatisfaction (RRa = 2.03; 95% CI = 0.93-4.42; p = 0.077. In conclusion, the prevalence of sexual dissatisfaction was very high in Malaysian primary care population and it was strongly associated with women who married to an older husband and with infrequent sexual activity. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:187-94 Keywords: sexual dissatisfaction, age of husbands, malaysian women

  18. Relationship Power, Sociodemographics, and Their Relative Influence on Sexual Agreements Among Gay Male Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicholas S; Huebner, David M; Baucom, Brian R; Hoff, Colleen C

    2016-06-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary relationships engage in condomless sex both within and outside their relationships and a majority of HIV transmission risk may actually occur within primary relationships. Sexual agreements regarding non-monogamy are a critical component to understanding HIV prevention in male couples. Relationship factors have been associated with how sexual agreements function and power is one dyadic construct likely to affect couple's maintenance of non-monogamy agreements. Multilevel modeling was used in a cross-sectional study of gay male couples (N = 566 couples) to examine associations between partners' demographic characteristics traditionally used to define relationship power, a scale of decision-making power, and outcomes related to sexual agreements, including investment, agreement breaks, and break disclosure. Results indicated that decision-making power relative to one's partner was not associated with any agreement outcome, contrary to hypotheses. However, controlling for decision-making power, demographic bases of power were variably associated with sexual agreements' functioning. Younger partners were less invested in and more frequently broke their agreements. Lower-earning partners broke their agreements more frequently, but also disclosed breaks more often. White men in white-minority relationships broke their agreement more often than their partners. Concordant HIV-positive couples were less invested in their agreements and HIV-positive men disclosed breaks more frequently. HIV prevention efforts for same-sex couples must attend to the social, developmental, and cultural influences that affect their agreements around non-monogamy.

  19. Explanations for religious influence on adolescent sexual behavior in Brazil: direct and indirect effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Andrade Verona

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Religion is becoming an important and highly present factor in the lives of many adolescents and young adults in Brazil. In addition to creating more space for them to maintain close relationships and participate actively in a religious environment, some religions have promoted the dissemination of clearer standards and objectives, as well as punitive sanctions, with respect to many aspects of their younger followers' lives, including their sexual behavior. This article examines how religion can affect, direct and indirectly, the sexual behavior of Brazilian adolescents. The main objective of this study is to look for a connection between Christian Smith's theoretical framework, which suggests several mechanisms through which religion can influence the lives of American adolescents, and ethnographic studies conducted in Brazil, as well as quantitative works that have brought attention to social and demographic consequences of recent religious transformations. Even though there is limited empirical evidence as to how the mechanisms of religious involvement work in Brazil, this study concludes that each of Smith's pathways can also be used to explain potential effects of religion on sexual behavior of Brazilian adolescents. This research should encourage empirical studies on such effects in Brazil. Besides the importance of examining the impact of the recent transformations in Brazil religious landscape on demographic phenomena, this topic deserves further consideration from Brazilian demographers because religion is a primary socialization agent of adolescents, and sexual activity is a sphere of human behavior of high importance in its religious applicability.

  20. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  1. Factors Associated with the Sexual Experiences of Underprivileged Mexican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Franco, Raquel; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes that sexual activity was strongly associated with age, knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases, and attitudes toward sexuality. Positive affective responsiveness in the family was associated with sexual activity and number of sexual partners. Use of contraceptives was negatively related to affective involvement between parents.…

  2. 农村绝经后妇女性生活满意度及其影响因素分析%Sexual satisfaction and its influencing factors of postmenopausal women in rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景秀; 杨继高; 刘俊; 张丽华

    2014-01-01

    To explore the factors affecting women’s sexual satisfaction after menopause in ru-ral areas,thus to provide scientific evidence for elder women’s health,the authors used a multi-stage random sampling method on postmenopausal women in rural areas from five areas of Chongqing from March to August 2012. We adopted a unified approach questionnaire and physical examination. The results showed that the proportion of rural postmenopausal women’s sexual satisfaction and dissatisfaction accounted for 83.7%and 16.3%,respectively. The uni-variate analysis showed that postmenopausal women’s sexual satisfaction was correlated with 12 variables (P<0.05) including their marital status,education level,household income,fami-ly structure,whether suffering from gynecological diseases,genital tract discomfort last two weeks,living way,the need for sex,frequency of sexual life,sexual health knowledge of ge-rontism,perceived physical condition and conscious living conditions. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the separation methods (odds ratio (OR) =1.711,95 % confi-dence interval (CI) is 1.334~2.194),a high frequency of sexual life (OR=1.694,95 % CI is 1.334~2.152),poor performance status conscious (OR=1.281,95%CI is 1.018~1.613) were risk factors,while the high household income (OR=0.651,95%CI is 0.512~0.826) and a his-tory of gynecological diseases (OR=0.689,95 % CI is 0.486~0.977) were protective factors. Therefore,there were varieties of relevant factors affecting rural postmenopausal women’s sex-ual satisfaction. Postmenopausal women should be paid attention to sex education so as to im-prove their life quality.%为了探索影响农村绝经后妇女性生活满意度的因素,从而为开展老年妇女保健提供科学依据,笔者于2012年3-8月采用多阶段随机抽样方法对重庆市5个区县农村绝经后妇女采用统一方法进行问卷调查和体检。结果显示,重庆市农村绝经后妇女对目前性生活

  3. Sexual dysfunction and its influencing factors of male rectal cancer after radiotherapy%男性直肠癌患者放疗后性功能状况及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 易峰涛; 涂希平; 涂仁标

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:To investigate the sexual function of male rectal cancer after radiotherapy and ana-lyze enabling factors and explore countermeasures.Methods:A questionnaire survey was designed.62 patients with rectal cancer according with our qualification were inquired.The sexual function pre -and after psychological re -education was compared.Result:After radiotherapy,there were 29 (46.8%)patients of hypophrodisia,20 (32.3%)patients of erectile disfunction,sum accounting for 79.1%.After psychological re -education,the pa-tients of hypophrodisia and ones of erectile disfunction were 19 (30.6%)and 16 (25.8%)respectively.It was significantly different,P 0.9 and P >0.5).However,physical status had a significant impact on sexual dysfunction (P <0.05).In the patients with sexual dysfunction,factors affecting sexual activity included hindering rehabilita-tion of body (42,85.7%);inducing recurrence of rectal cancer (40,81.6%);worrying infection to their wives (28,57.1%);feeling weakness of body not to finish sexual activity (32,65.3%).Conclusions:79.1% pa-tients have experienced changed sexual function after radiotherapy.For these patients,erroneous subjective percep-tion is common,which may play an important role in their sexual dysfunction.Therefore,psychological re -educa-tion after radiotherapy should be paid more attention to.%目的:调查男性直肠癌患者放疗后性功能状况,分析发生性功能变化的可能因素,探讨防治性功能障碍的对策。方法:采用问卷调查方式,对62例符合条件的直肠癌患者进行调查,并将心理干预前后患者性功能状况进行了比对,统计学方法采用χ2检验。结果:直肠癌患者放疗后性欲减退者29人,占46.8%;勃起功能障碍者20人,占32.3%,两者合计达到79.1%。经过心理干预后,性欲减退和勃起障碍的患者均显著减少,分别为19人(30.6%)和16人(25.8%),在统计学上有显著差异,P <0.025。从客

  4. The sexual function and influence of urinary incontinence questionnaire (SF-IUIQ) - assessing sexual function of urinary incontinent women in south Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrechtsen, F. A. C. P.; van Rensburg, J. A.; Steyn, P. S.; Grove, D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To develop and psychometrically validate a questionnaire that assesses sexual function of urinary incontinent women in South Africa and the influence of incontinence on their sexual function. Design. A prospective descriptive study. Setting. Urogynaecology and gynaecology outpatient clini

  5. Synaesthesia and Sexuality: The influence of synaesthetic perceptions on sexual experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina eNielsen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Synaesthesia is a phenomenon in which a certain stimulus induces a concurrent sensory perception; it has an estimated prevalence of 4 %. Sexual arousal as an inducer for synaesthetic perceptions is rarely mentioned in the literature but can be found sometimes in case reports about subjective orgasmic experiences.Aims. To examine whether synaesthetic perceptions during sexual intercourse have an impact on the sexual experience and the extent of sexual trance compared to non-synaesthetes.Methods. In total, 19 synaesthetes with sexual forms of synaesthesia (17 female; 2 male were included as well as corresponding control data of 36 non-synaesthetic subjects (n = 55. Two questionnaires were used to assess relevant aspects of sexual function and dysfunction (a German adaption of the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning, KFSP as well as the occurrence and extent of sexual trance (german version of the Altered States of Consciousness Questionnaire, OAVAV. Additionally qualitative interviews were conducted in some subjects to further explore the nature of sexual experiences in synaesthetes.Main Outcome Measures. Sexual experience and extent of sexual trance during intercourse.Results. Synaesthetes depicted significantly better overall sexual function on the KFSP with increased scores for the subscale sexual appetence but coevally significant lower subscale scores for sexual satisfaction. Sexual dysfunction was not detected in this sample. Synaesthetes depicted significantly higher levels of the subscales oceanic boundlessness and visionary restructuralization than controls using the OAVAV. Qualitative interviews revealed varying synaesthetic perceptions during the different states of arousal. Furthermore, synaesthetes reported an unsatisfactory feeling of isolation caused by the idiosyncratic perceptions. Conclusions. Synaesthetes with sexual forms of synaesthesia seem to experience a deeper state of sexual trance without, however,

  6. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Park

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

  7. Pathways to adult sexual revictimization: direct and indirect behavioral risk factors across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargo, Jamison D

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate direct and indirect social and behavioral risk factors for adult sexual revictimization. Participants include 147 adult, predominantly African American (88%) women, 59% of whom had a documented history of child sexual abuse. Participants are interviewed in adulthood about adolescent and adult sexual victimization as well as other background and lifestyle characteristics. Structural equation modeling indicates that the relationship between child and adolescent sexual victimization is indirect, mediated by adolescent risk-taking behavior. The relationship between adolescent and adult sexual victimization is also indirect, mediated by risky sexual behavior. The residual effects of early childhood family environment and childhood physical abuse also indirectly predict sexual revictimization. Results provide empirical support for the general supposition that the relationship between child and adult sexual victimization is complex and that many intermediary factors differentially affect risk for a heightened vulnerability to sexual revictimization.

  8. Influences on Women's Perceptions of Climate for Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytell, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    Organizational tolerance of sexual harassment has been repeatedly touted as an important antecedent of sexual harassment. Yet, not much is known about the antecedents of perceptions of organizational tolerance. Based on theories from the sexual harassment, organizational justice, and psychological climate literatures, individuals were hypothesized…

  9. Parental Influence on Adolescent Sexuality: Implications for Parents as Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Carol A.; Hicks, Mary W.

    1982-01-01

    Positive and negative sexual messages are communicated by parents to their children, verbally and nonverbally. The impact of parental messages upon the sexuality of youth appears relatively straightforward for males but quite complex for females. Educational approaches are suggested to be used to recycle early parental sexual messages. (Author/PN)

  10. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  11. Sociodemographic and clinical factors affecting body image, sexual function and sexual satisfaction in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Fernanda Dorneles; Freitas-Junior, Ruffo; Rahal, Rosemar Macedo Sousa; Gonzaga, Carolina Maciel Reis

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of sociodemographic and clinical factors on body image, sexual function and sexual satisfaction in women following breast cancer treatment. Women with breast cancer may experience a wide range of symptoms associated with body image and sexuality that can severely affect their quality of life. Therefore, the health care professional's ability to understand the patient's complaints and her sexual history is highly relevant in specialised multidisciplinary care. A cross-sectional survey. Seventy-seven participants were included. Body image, sexual function and sexual satisfaction were evaluated using the EORTC QLQ-BR23 questionnaire. Results were shown as means, standard deviations, frequencies and percentages. Cronbach's alpha was calculated. Spearman's correlation test, the chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis, conducted using the spss statistical software package, version 17.0. Low scores were found in the desire (34·63), frequency (32·03) and sexual satisfaction (45·91) domains, while body image scores were higher (63·57). No strong correlation was found between body image and any of the other domains. Patients without a steady partner experienced more sexual desire (p women with a higher education level and in those using aromatase inhibitors. Sexual function and satisfaction were affected to a greater extent than body image. No association was found between body image and sexual performance. The effect of marital status and education level on sexual function merits particular attention. A well-trained multidisciplinary team should be available to evaluate women's need for support and to provide information on the disease, its treatment and its impact on their lives and on their sexuality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sexual and natural selection both influence male genital evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa M House

    Full Text Available Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on the genital-arch lobes of male Drosophila simulans. Replicate populations were forced to evolve under lifetime monogamy (relaxed sexual selection or lifetime polyandry (elevated sexual selection and two temperature regimes, 25°C (relaxed natural selection or 27°C (elevated natural selection in a fully factorial design. We found that natural and sexual selection plus their interaction caused genital evolution. Natural selection caused some aspects of genital form to evolve away from their sexually selected shape, whereas natural and sexual selection operated in the same direction for other shape components. Additionally, sexual and natural selection tended to favour larger genitals. Thus we find that the underlying selection driving genital evolution is complex, does not only involve sexual selection, and that natural selection and sexual selection do not always act antagonistically.

  13. Older Women's Sexual Desire Problems: Biopsychosocial Factors Impacting Them and Barriers to Their Clinical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Michelle; Laganà, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Sexual desire is a major component of sexuality at any age, and inhibited desire is one of the main sexual dysfunctions reported by older women. Nonetheless, in medical settings, for a variety of reasons discussed herein, its assessment—as well as the assessment of older women's sexual health in general—is typically avoided or conducted by asking a single sex question. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature (most of which is preliminary in nature) regarding the main psychosocial and health factors that could impact older women's sexual desire, as well as potential obstacles to the assessment and treatment of this geriatric sexual issue. It is certainly advisable that medical care providers who are uncomfortable discussing older women's sexual concerns be prepared to make appropriate referrals to clinicians who possess the proper training to accurately assess and treat sexual challenges (and female sexual interest problems in particular) in this neglected patient population. PMID:24995267

  14. Factors predicting the probability of initiating sexual intercourse by context and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøntvedt, Trond Viggo; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Despite men initiating sex more than women there is considerable variance within the sexes. This study is the first to consider the impact of multiple predictors from the literature, and investigates how factors, such as relationship length, sociosexuality, and different aspects of self-perceived mate value among others, independently and interactively predict initiation of sexual intercourse in both short-term sexual and long-term romantic mating contexts, testing predictions from Sexual strategies theory. For long-term relationships, positive partner bond increased initiative to sexual intercourse for women. For men, self-perceived independence increased probability of taking the initiative, while relationship attachment decreased probability. For short-term relations, the desire component of the sociosexual orientation inventory increased probability of initiation for both sexes, while male initiative was increased by pleasure reasons for sex. The impact of individual predictors on initiating intercourse is influenced by being included in a multidimensional model, and relationship context affects the impact of the predictors.

  15. Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo Helen P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the child. Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Methods Data are from a nationwide online survey with 829 fathers and 1,113 mothers of children aged 10 to 14. For each of the four gender groups (fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughters, we calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing (1 parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and (2 factors associated with that communication. We used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. Results With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did. Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex (e.g., lower self-efficacy and lower expectations that talking to their children about sex would have positive outcomes. Compared with parents of sons, parents of daughters (both mothers and fathers talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age. Conclusions Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from previous studies showing gender differences in parent

  16. Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ellen K; Koo, Helen P

    2010-12-14

    In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the child. Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Data are from a nationwide online survey with 829 fathers and 1,113 mothers of children aged 10 to 14. For each of the four gender groups (fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughters), we calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing (1) parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and (2) factors associated with that communication. We used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did. Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex (e.g., lower self-efficacy and lower expectations that talking to their children about sex would have positive outcomes). Compared with parents of sons, parents of daughters (both mothers and fathers) talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age. Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from previous studies showing gender differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics and identifies gender differences in

  17. The Influence of Parental Communication and Perception of Peers on Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Carl D; Tan, Huey Peing; Meyer, Jacob C

    2015-08-01

    The authors used the theory of planned behavior to examine the influence of parents and peers on early adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Adolescents (N = 212) provided self-reports of their perception of parent and peer attitudes regarding sexual behavior. The authors used bivariate and regression analyses to examine the relation between parent and peer attitudes with adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and behavioral intentions to have vaginal intercourse. Although there were gender differences, the analyses revealed the importance of both parents and peers on adolescent sexual attitudes, self-efficacy to limit sexual behavior, and intentions to have vaginal sex in the next year.

  18. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu SSX

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim

  19. Unwanted Sexual Activity among Peers during Early and Middle Adolescence: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Stephen A.; Kerns, Donell

    1993-01-01

    Assessed incidence and risk factors of unwanted sexual activity initiated by peers for 1,149 adolescent females. Twenty percent of sample reported some type of unwanted sexual contact in past year. Over one-third of this group reported having been forced to have sexual intercourse. Boyfriends were most commonly reported perpetrators followed by…

  20. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Male Sexual Abuse: The Case of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…

  1. Latino cultural values as protective factors against sexual risks among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mindy; Malcolm, Lydia R; Diaz-Albertini, Kristine; Klinoff, Vera A; Leeder, Elisa; Barrientos, Sohani; Kibler, Jeffrey L

    2014-12-01

    The study objective was to examine the associations between cultural values and sexual risk factors among Latino youth. A sample of 226 Latino adolescents ages 13-16 completed a survey on cultural and sexual variables. Results indicate higher levels of Latino cultural orientation were related to greater sexual self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners for female adolescents and greater condom use self-efficacy for both males and females. Greater endorsement of simpatia (belief in interpersonal relationship harmony) was associated with sexual abstinence and greater sexual self-efficacy for all adolescents, and with being older at sexual debut for females. Stronger endorsement of respeto (respect towards parents and other authority figures) was correlated with a lower intention to have sex during secondary school and greater condom use self-efficacy. American cultural orientation was associated with less condom use. Our findings indicate Latino cultural values may serve as protective factors against sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth.

  2. The Interaction of Sexual Identity With Sexual Behavior and Its Influence on HIV Risk Among Latino Men: Results of a Community Survey in Northern San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Jennifer A.; Sañudo, Fernando; Fernández-Cerdeño, Araceli; Sipan, Carol L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Carrillo, Héctor

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the sexual behavior, sexual identities, and HIV risk factors of a community sample of Latino men to inform efforts to reduce Latinos' HIV risk. Methods. In 2005 and 2006, 680 Latino men in San Diego County, California, in randomly selected, targeted community venues, completed an anonymous, self-administered survey. Results. Most (92.3%) respondents self-identified as heterosexual, with 2.2%, 4.9%, and 0.6% self-identifying as bisexual, gay, or other orientation, respectively. Overall, 4.8% of heterosexually identified men had a lifetime history of anal intercourse with other men. Compared with behaviorally heterosexual men, heterosexually identified men who had sex with both men and women were more likely to have had a sexually transmitted infection, to have unprotected sexual intercourse with female partners, and to report having sex while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. Bisexually identified men who had sex with men and women did not differ from behaviorally heterosexual men in these risk factors. Conclusions. Latino men who have a heterosexual identity and bisexual practices are at greater risk of HIV infection, and efforts to reduce HIV risk among Latinos should target this group. PMID:19008512

  3. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: multi-nutrient supplements; survey; children; women's decisions. Factors influencing .... associations between level of education and various factors influencing women's ..... Social marketing improved the use of multivitamin and ...

  4. Adolescent and Parent Perceptions of Media Influence on Adolescent Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay; Fitzharris, Jennifer Lynn; Morrissey, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that television and other media influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. Much of the research in this area is based on surveys in which adolescents are asked to rank the relative importance of a fixed set of factors such as parents, peers, and media. We reviewed data from focus groups conducted with adolescents…

  5. Adolescent and Parent Perceptions of Media Influence on Adolescent Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay; Fitzharris, Jennifer Lynn; Morrissey, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that television and other media influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. Much of the research in this area is based on surveys in which adolescents are asked to rank the relative importance of a fixed set of factors such as parents, peers, and media. We reviewed data from focus groups conducted with adolescents…

  6. The influence of religion on sexual HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stacey A; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-08-01

    This systematic review examines the relationship between religion and sexual HIV risk behavior. It focuses primarily on how studies have conceptualized and defined religion, methodologies, and sexual risk outcomes. We also describe regions where studies were conducted and mechanisms by which religion may be associated with sexual risk. We included 137 studies in this review, classifying them as measuring: (1) only religious affiliation (n = 57), (2) only religiosity (n = 48), and (3) both religious affiliation and religiosity (n = 32). A number of studies identified lower levels of sexual HIV risk among Muslims, although many of these examined HIV prevalence rather than specific behavioral risk outcomes. Most studies identified increased religiosity to be associated with lower levels of sexual HIV risk. This finding persists but is weaker when the outcome considered is condom use. The paper reviews ways in which religion may contribute to increase and reduction in sexual HIV risk, gaps in research, and implications for future research on religion and HIV.

  7. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  8. Prenatal Influences on Sexual Orientation: Digit Ratio (2D:4D and Number of Older Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katariina Kangassalo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal androgen levels are suggested to influence sexual orientation in both sexes. The 2D:4D digit ratio has been found to associate with sexual orientation, but published findings have often been contradictory, which may partly be due to the large ethnic diversity between and within studied populations. In men, number of older brothers has been found to correlate positively with homosexuality. This phenomenon has been explained with a maternal immune reaction, which is provoked only by male fetuses and which gets stronger after each pregnancy. Here we assessed the relationship of sexual orientation to 2D:4D ratios and number of older siblings in Finland, where the population is found to be genetically relatively homogeneous. As in many previous studies, heterosexual men had lower 2D:4D than non-heterosexual men, which supports the notion that non-heterosexual men experience higher androgen levels in utero than population norms. Contrary to previous reports, non-heterosexual women had higher 2D:4D than heterosexual women. Non-heterosexual men had more older brothers and older sisters than heterosexual men. The greater number of older sisters in non-heterosexual men indicates that there are other factors that contribute to the higher birth order of homosexual men than the maternal immunization.

  9. Maternal Influences on Asian American-Pacific Islander Adolescents' Perceived Maternal Sexual Expectations and Their Sexual Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Maternal influences on adolescents' sexual initiation have been examined over two time points in 433 Asian American-Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents in a secondary analysis of the Add Health data set using structural equation modeling. A longitudinal model built on a preliminary qualitative study is used to examine the fit between data and…

  10. Growth in Adolescent Self-Regulation and Impact on Sexual Risk-Taking: A Curve-of-Factors Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, AliceAnn; Magnusson, Brianna M; Novilla, M Lelinneth B

    2017-06-29

    Adolescent self-regulation is increasingly seen as an important predictor of sexual risk-taking behaviors, but little is understood about how changes in self-regulation affect later sexual risk-taking. Family financial stress may affect the development of self-regulation and later engagement in sexual risk-taking. We examined whether family financial stress influences self-regulation in early adolescence (age 13) and growth in self-regulation throughout adolescence (from age 13-17 years). We then assessed the effects of family financial stress, baseline self-regulation, and the development of self-regulation on adolescent sexual risk-taking behaviors at age 18 years. Using a curve-of-factors model, we examined these relationships in a 6-year longitudinal study of 470 adolescents (52% female) and their parents from a large northwestern city in the United States. Results indicated that family financial stress was negatively associated with baseline self-regulation but not with growth in self-regulation throughout adolescence. Both baseline self-regulation and growth in self-regulation were predictive of decreased likelihood of engaging in sexual risk-taking. Family financial stress was not predictive of later sexual risk-taking. Intervening to support the development of self-regulation in adolescence may be especially protective against later sexual risk-taking.

  11. Couple Reports of the Perceived Influences of a College Human Sexuality Course: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Dayna S.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the effects of college sexuality education has been largely quantitative in nature and has focused on changes in individual attitudes, behaviours and knowledge. This study sought to explore, qualitatively, the influences of enrolment in a human sexuality course on relationships. Eight couples from an undergraduate human sexuality…

  12. Assessing the Influence of Social Networking Material on Adolescents' Sexual Behavior in Kampala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaddya, Ritah; Kiconco, Sylvia; Komuhangi, Alimah; Akugizibwe, Pardon; Atuhairwe, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Social media has been used to promote risky sexual behavior in form of unsolicited photos, videos and text from peers and strangers that is not regulated by parents or guardians. Therefore, it's important to investigate the influence of social networking material on adolescents' sexual behavior in Ugandan in order to close the…

  13. The Influence of Parental Support, Depressed Affect, and Peers on the Sexual Behaviors of Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used longitudinal data from 76 adolescent girls and their parents to investigate effects of parental warmth and supportiveness on adolescents' depressed affect, attitudes about sexuality, peer influence, and sexual experience. Girls with more emotionally distant parents were more likely to manifest symptoms of depression. Depressed affect was…

  14. Technological advancements and Internet sexuality: does private access to the Internet influence online sexual behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneback, Kristian; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Ross, Michael W

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether demographic characteristics and sexual behavior online and offline were associated with private, respectively, nonprivate access to the Internet in a Web sample of people who use the Internet for sexual purposes. A total of 1,913 respondents completed an online questionnaire about Internet sexuality, and 1,614 reported using the Internet for sexual purposes. The majority of these respondents reported having access to an Internet-connected computer no one else had access to (62 percent women and 70 percent men). The results showed that it is possible to differentiate between those who have access to an Internet-connected computer no one else has access to and those who have shared access to an Internet-connected computer. Not only did they differ in demographic characteristics, but also in the sexual activities they engaged in on the Internet. Different patterns were found for women and men. For example, men who had private access to Internet-connected computers were more likely than those who had shared access to seek information about sexual issues. Thus, having access to Internet computers no one else has access to may promote sexual knowledge and health for men. The results of this study along with the technological development implies that in future research, attention should be paid to where and how people access the Internet in relation to online behavior in general and online sexual behavior in particular.

  15. Using the Integrative Model to Explain How Exposure to Sexual Media Content Influences Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…

  16. Sexuality and intimacy among people living with serious mental illnesses: Factors contributing to sexual activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, Kelsey A.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Wright, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Limited research has focused on sexuality for those diagnosed with a severe mental illness. We aimed to extend existing work by exploring relationships between mastery (perception of control of one's life and future), sexual self-esteem (perceptions of one's capacity to engage in healthy sexual behavior), sexual attitudes (permissive ideas about sexuality), and perceived importance of relationships/sexuality and number of sexual partners. Methods A secondary analysis of survey data from adult participants living with a severe mental illness (N=401) in the Indiana Mental Health Services and HIV-Risk Study (Perry & Wright, 2006) was conducted. Analysis of covariance (controlling for marital status) compared those with zero partners, one partner, or multiple partners over the past three months on the dependent variables of mastery, sexual self-esteem, sexual attitudes, and perceived importance. Results Participants with more permissive attitudes, greater perceived importance, and higher mastery were more likely to be sexually active with multiple partners. Self-esteem did not differentiate groups. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Given the key role of sexual satisfaction in quality of life and the high rates of sexual risk behavior in this population, it is important that clinicians systematically assess mastery, perceived importance, and attitudes about sexuality when working with consumers diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Individually tailoring existing interventions based on consumers' levels of mastery, related to self-efficacy for implementing changes in life, could improve long-term outcomes for these programs. Future research should examine other constructs that may account for more variance in sexual activity, such as perceptions of risk, intentions for sexual safety, or romantic relationship functioning. PMID:25664756

  17. Sexuality and intimacy among people living with serious mental illnesses: Factors contributing to sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, Kelsey A; Firmin, Ruth L; Salyers, Michelle P; Wright, Eric R

    2015-09-01

    Limited research has focused on sexuality for those diagnosed with a severe mental illness. We aimed to extend existing work by exploring relationships between mastery (perception of control of one's life and future), sexual self-esteem (perceptions of one's capacity to engage in healthy sexual behavior), sexual attitudes (permissive ideas about sexuality), and perceived importance of relationships/sexuality and number of sexual partners. A secondary analysis of survey data from adult participants living with a severe mental illness (N = 401) in the Indiana Mental Health Services and HIV-Risk Study (Perry & Wright, 2006) was conducted. Analysis of covariance (controlling for marital status) compared those with 0 partners, 1 partner, or multiple partners over the past 3 months on the dependent variables of mastery, sexual self-esteem, sexual attitudes, and perceived importance. Participants with more permissive attitudes, greater perceived importance, and higher mastery were more likely to be sexually active with multiple partners. Self-esteem did not differentiate groups. Given the key role of sexual satisfaction in quality of life and the high rates of sexual risk behavior in this population, it is important that clinicians systematically assess mastery, perceived importance, and attitudes about sexuality when working with consumers diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Individually tailoring existing interventions on the basis of consumers' levels of mastery, related to self-efficacy for implementing changes in life, could improve long-term outcomes for these programs. Future research should examine other constructs that may account for more variance in sexual activity, such as perceptions of risk, intentions for sexual safety, or romantic relationship functioning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Influence of HIV positive status on sexual behavior among males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Filipe, E M; Newman, S P

    1998-12-01

    To compare HIV seronegative (HIV-) and HIV seropositive (HIV+) males in terms of sexual behavior with female and male partners of different types. Cross-sectional study. From August 1994 to February 1995, a sample of 236 respondents (150 HIV- and 86 HIV+) recruited from public health centers in the State of S. Paulo (Brazil), answered a questionnaire, including questions on demographic aspects, HIV and AIDS related knowledge, sexual orientation, use of alcohol and other drugs, sexual behavior with regular and casual female and male partners, and perceived risk of HIV infection. Sexual behavior with regular and casual female and male partners within the previous three months, was investigated. A lower proportion of HIV+ engaged in sexual contact with regular female partners (p sexual activity (p sexual practices (p sexual behavior was identified, however, especially with regular partners, suggesting that some men were continuing to practice unsafe sex. The high level of condom use identified suggests that safer sex advice has been taken up. Condom use was not universal, however, and some men continue to place themselves at risk, especially with regular partners. Prevention programs should strive not only to encourage HIV- to practice safer sex, but also to encourage HIV+ to do so in order to prevent further transmission of the virus.

  19. Early Sexual Exploitation as an Influence in Prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, Mimi H.; Pines, Ayala M.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed 200 female street prostitutes to determine whether they were sexually exploited during childhood. Results showed 60 percent of the subjects were sexually exploited. The few girls who discussed their abuse with others were met with shame and most often inaction. Only 10 percent were abused by strangers. (JAC)

  20. Parental Influences on Young People's Sexual Behaviour: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Daniel; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Both family structure and processes have been associated with young people's sexual behaviour, but most studies are cross-sectional and focus on only one outcome: age at first intercourse. This paper uses longitudinal data from a survey of Scottish teenagers (N=5041) to show how low parental monitoring predicts early sexual activity for both sexes…

  1. Sexual orientation and sexual behavior: results from the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2002-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Susan M; Rothman, Emily F; Zhang, Zi

    2007-01-01

    Few population-based surveys in the United States include sexual orientation as a demographic variable. As a result, estimating the proportion of the U.S. population that is gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) is a substantial challenge. Prior estimates vary widely, from 1-21%. In 2001, questions on sexual orientation and sexual behavior were added to the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (MA BRFSS) and have been asked continually since that time. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of adults in Massachusetts identifying as GLB and providing a demographic description of this group. The study also examined the correlation of reported sexual behavior and sexual identity within this group. Overall, 1.9% of Massachusetts adults identified as gay or lesbian and 1.0% of Massachusetts adults identified as bisexual. Of those identifying as gay or lesbian, 95.4% reported sexual behavior concordant with this identification, and 99.4% of respondents identifying as heterosexual reported behavior concordant with heterosexual sexual orientation. Among those reporting a GLB sexual orientation, men were more likely than women to identify as gay, and women were more likely than men to identify as bisexual. Younger adults (18-25 years old) were more likely than people in other age groups to identify as bisexual. Respondents with 4 or more years of education were more likely to identify as gay or lesbian than those in all other education categories. The addition of sexual orientation to population-based surveys will allow for research on the health of GLB adults and provide critical information for those charged with the creation of public policy regarding sexual orientation.

  2. Conflict and expectancies interact to predict sexual behavior under the influence among gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brooke E; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit

    2014-07-01

    As the mechanisms of the associations between substance use and risky sex remain unclear, this study investigates the interactive roles of conflicts about casual sex and condom use and expectancies of the sexual effects of substances in those associations among gay men. Conflict interacted with expectancies to predict sexual behavior under the influence; low casual sex conflict coupled with high expectancies predicted the highest number of casual partners, and high condom use conflict and high expectancies predicted the highest number of unprotected sex acts. Results have implications for intervention efforts that aim to improve sexual decision-making and reduce sexual expectancies. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Influence of Parental Factors on Sex-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Unmarried Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian CUI; Min-xiang LI; Ai-ping TIAN; Li XIE; Shi-yuan LUO; Xiao-qin CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of parental factors on sexual and reproductive health awareness,attitudes to pre-marital sex, and pre-marital sexual activity among unmarried youth Methods Data were collected by anonymous self-completed questionnaire survey among eligible unmarried youth aged 15~22 in Chengdu City, Southwest China during 1998~1999 and the study comprised of 3 307 valid subjects.Results Awareness of safe sex and contraception among unmarried youth was limited and their attitudes towards pre-marital sexual activity appeared to be positive. Large proportions of dating subjects were sexually active and reported ever-using contraceptives, regular or appropriate use of contraceptives was likely to be limited. About two thirds of adolescents had communication with their parents frequently, but fewer had communicated with their parents on sex-related issues. But they did influence the sexual behaviours of adolescents. In fact, it appeared that coresidence and extensive communication with parents on sex-related issues could delay sexual activity among adolescents, and the sexually active youth co-resided with their parents were more likely to take contraceptive measures.Conclusion Programmes are needed not only for youth to encourage them to communicate with their parents on sex-related issues, but also for parents to know the current sexual health status of youth and realize the necessity to communicate with their adolescent children about sexual and reproductive health issues.

  4. Early sexual experience as a factor in prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J; Meyerding, J

    1978-01-01

    Using the literature of the early sexual histories of "normal" women and two recent studies on the sexual histories of prostitutes, this article examines the pattern of early sexual experience among prostitutes and how it differs from that common to nonprostitute women. Some significant differences found between the samples of prostitutes and the samples of "normal" women were that the prostitute samples, on the whole, learned less about sex from parents and more from personal experiences, as children experienced more sexual advances by elders, were more victimized by incest, generally initiated sexual activity at a younger age, more often had no further relationship with their first coital partner, and experienced a higher incidence of rape. The analysis of these data on early sexual history concentrates on abusive sexual experiences such as incest and rape. The authors believe that an abusive sexual self-identity relates to the development of an adult female pattern of occupational deviance such as prostitution.

  5. [Study of the Sociodemographic Factors and Risky Behaviours Associated with the Acquisition of Sexual Transmitted Infections by Foreign Exchange Students in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravata, Andreia; Castro, Rita; Borges-Costa, João

    2016-06-01

    Sexual transmitted infections are a main cause of morbidity, being a public health problem due to its reproductive complications, mostly observed in teenagers and young adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sociodemographic factors and risky behaviours associated with sexual transmitted infections acquisition and to assess personal awareness of risky behaviour and the knowledge about Chlamydia trachomatis infection between foreign exchange students in Portugal. The main instrument for data collection was a questionnaire, applied to foreign students in university exchange in Portugal, during the years 2012/2013, 2013/2014 e 2014/2015 Results: Three hundred and thirty eight (338) questionnaires were evaluated, being 58.3% female students, aged between 17 and 30 years old. Mean age for the beginning of the sexual activity was 17.5 years old and the mean number of lifetime sexual partners was 6.9. Concerning the answers given: 11.8% mentioned a sexual relationship with the same gender, 9.5% mentioned that they have never done oral sex and 29% assumed they had practiced anal sex; 82.1% mentioned alcohol/drugs consumption; 21% did not know that Sexual transmitted infections can be transmitted through oral sex and 42.3% did not recognize Chlamydia trachomatis as an Sexual transmitted infections agent. Although sexual transmitted infections can affect individuals of all ages, races and sexual orientation, various demographic, social and behavioral factors have revealed influence in their prevalence rates. Despite knowing about sexual transmitted infections, these students maintain sexual risky behaviours, mainly early age for starting sexual activity, multiple sexual partners and the absence of protection during sexual activities.

  6. British-born Chinese teenagers: the influence of Chinese ethnicity on their attitudes towards sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Juping

    2007-03-01

    This paper explores the influence of ethnicity on attitudes towards sexual behavior of British-born Chinese teenagers. Using an ethnographic approach and snowball sampling, data were collected through in-depth interviews with 20 British-born Chinese teenagers and 20 Chinese-born parents. The parents highlighted the influence of Chinese culture and religion on their sexual values and wanted to convey these values to their children. Although direct communication about sex-related topics was rare within these families because of a number of barriers, the parents used other strategies to pass on their values. The paper concludes that sexual values within families and the influence of culture need to be considered in order to provide culturally competent health services. Chinese parents need extra support and help to discuss sex-related topics and pass on their values, which encourage teenage sexual abstinence. Considering the fundamental influence of the parents, this support will be crucial.

  7. Relations among media influence, body image, eating concerns, and sexual orientation in men: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2010-09-01

    The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population.

  8. Neurohormonal aspects of sexual drive in women

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Mazurkevich; T. A. Firsova

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a modern view on women,s sexual health. The reasons for the modern sexual revolution are explained. Various aspects and functional features of the body affecting the quality of sexual life of women are examined. The classification of female sexual disorders is presented. Influence of psychosocial factors on female sexual drive, as well as the role of sex steroids in the coordination of the anatomical and functional relationships of structures responsible for sexual functi...

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Claudia MOISĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

  10. [Sexual harassment among students - prevalence, developmental factors and potential ways of intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allroggen, M; Rau, T; Fegert, J M

    2014-01-01

    Sexual harassment among adolescents has long been neglected in Germany though it is frequent and leads to significant strain for the victims. In international studies, the prevalence of sexual harassment ranges from 10 to 80 % among students. For the development of sexual harassment individual as well as school based factors play a role. Different pathways lead to this problematic behaviour. The effect of new media in the development of sexual harassment cannot be estimated so far. Frequent consequences of sexual harassment in addition to school associated difficulties are unspecific somatic complaints. General practitioners and pediatricians are frequently consulted tn the first place. Recommendations for consultation and interventions are presented.

  11. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  12. Risk Factors for Sexual Offending in Men Working With Children: A Community-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Hoyer, Juergen; Schmidt, Alexander F; Klein, Verena; Briken, Peer

    2016-10-01

    Identifying risk factors for sexual abuse in men who work with children and who have already abused a child could lead to more appropriate screening and prevention strategies and is thus of major scientific and societal relevance. A total of 8649 German men from the community were assessed in an extensive anonymous and confidential online survey. Of those, 37 (0.4 %) could be classified as child sexual abusers working with children, 90 (1.0 %) as child sexual abusers not working with children, and 816 (9.4 %) as men who work with children and who have not abused a child. We assessed the impact of working with children as an individual risk factor for self-reported child sexual abuse and compared personal factors, pedophilic sexual fantasies, deviant sexual behaviors, antisocial behaviors, and hypersexuality among the three groups. Most interestingly, working with children was significantly associated with a self-reported sexual offense against children; however, it explained only three percent of its variance. Child sexual abusers working with children admitted more antisocial and more sexually deviant behaviors than child sexual abusers not working with children and than men working with children who have not abused a child. Our findings support some of the suggestions made by other researchers concerning factors that could be considered in applicants for child- or youth-serving institutions. However, it has to be pointed out that the scientific basis still seems premature.

  13. Contributing Factors to High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among Iranian Adolescent Girls: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoradi, Zainab; Kariman, Nourossadat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Adolescence is a period of overwhelming changes and challenges, which expose the adolescents to high-risk behaviors. Risky sexual relationship is one of these behaviors that entails physical risks and psychosocial harms. Various factors have been recognized to shape sexual behaviors in adolescents. This paper is an attempt to investigate the factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods: A literature review of the research published by Iranian authors, in Farsi or English language in local and foreign journals, was conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, IranDoc, and Google Scholar. The search in each database included all the years covered at that time using keywords such as “sexual, adolescents, and Iran”, and continued using other keywords such as “sexual behavior, high-risk behavior, sexual risk and reproductive behavior” individually and in combination Results: Sixteen published articles were identified. Factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in girls can be divided into four general groups including personal, family, peer, school and community. Conclusion: Regarding the identified risk and protective factors, appropriate individual, family and school-based interventions can be designed and implemented to strengthen protective factors. While individual and family factors are considered more in research, factors related to peers, school and community have received less attention. Since social values, beliefs and norms are important factors in formation of sexual behaviors, further research regarding these factors is suggested. PMID:28097173

  14. Multiple dimensions of peer influence in adolescent romantic and sexual relationships: a descriptive, qualitative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Deardorff, Julianna

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents undergo critical developmental transformations that increase the salience of peer influence. Peer interactions (platonic and romantic) have been found to have both a positive and negative influence on adolescent attitudes and behaviors related to romantic relationships and sexual behavior. This study used qualitative methodology to explore how peers influence romantic and sexual behavior. Forty adolescents participated in individual semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. The concept of peer influence on romantic relationships and sexual behavior emerged as a key theme. Youth described that platonic peers (friends) influenced their relationships and sexual behavior including pressuring friends into relationships, establishing relationships as currency for popularity and social status, and creating relationship norm and expectations. Romantic peers also motivated relationship and sexual behavior as youth described engaging in behavior to avoid hurting and successfully pleasing their partners. Future research should explore multiple types of peer influence in order to better inform interventions to improve the quality of adolescents' romantic and sexual relationships.

  15. Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-09-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving "e-confederates" who endorsed sexual risk behaviors. Changes in participants' responses to risk scenarios before versus during the "chat room" were used as a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Participants reported their perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and self-reported their number of sexual intercourse partners at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later. Susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between perceptions of popular peers' number of sexual intercourse partners and trajectories of adolescents' own numbers of partners. High perceptions of the number of popular peers' sexual intercourse partners combined with high peer influence susceptibility predicted steeper longitudinal trajectories of adolescents' number of partners. Results provide novel preliminary evidence regarding the importance of peer influence susceptibility in adolescents' development of sexual behaviors.

  16. Adolescents’ emotions prior to sexual activity and associations with sexual risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Christopher; Swenson, Rebecca; Donenberg, Geri; Papino, Andrew; Emerson, Erin; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the link between the emotional context of sexual situations and sexual risk, specifically by examining the relationship of teens’ recall of their affective states prior to sex with their sexual risk behaviors and attitudes. Adolescents (ages 13-19) attending therapeutic schools due to emotional and behavioral difficulties (n=247) completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews regarding sexual behavior, including ratings of their emotions prior to last sexual activity. Positive emotions were most commonly endorsed (43-57% of participants), however, significant proportions (8-23%) also endorsed negative emotions prior to last sex. Both positive and negative emotions were significantly related to risk attitudes and behavior in regression analyses. The affective contexts of sexual experiences may be important predictors of risk in adolescence. PMID:24558097

  17. Genetic and environmental influences on risky sexual behaviour and its relationship with personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zietsch, B.P.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Bailey, J.M.; Wright, M.J.; Martin, N.G.

    2010-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviour is a major health issue in society, and it is therefore important to understand factors that may predispose individuals to such behaviour. Research suggests a link between risky sexual behaviour and personality, but the basis of this link remains unknown. Hans Eysenck proposed

  18. Family Influences on Adolescents’ Birth Control and Condom Use, Likelihood of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Manczak, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among personal factors, family structure and family function, adolescents’ self-efficacy for safe sex, and sexual behaviors among sexually active adolescents. A subset sample from the first three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) was selected for this exploratory…

  19. Family Influences on Adolescents’ Birth Control and Condom Use, Likelihood of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Manczak, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among personal factors, family structure and family function, adolescents’ self-efficacy for safe sex, and sexual behaviors among sexually active adolescents. A subset sample from the first three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) was selected for this exploratory…

  20. Influence of HIV positive status on sexual behavior among males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira M. Ventura-Filipe

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare HIV seronegative (HIV- and HIV seropositive (HIV+ males in terms of sexual behavior with female and male partners of different types. METHOD: Cross-sectional study. From August 1994 to February 1995, a sample of 236 respondents (150 HIV- and 86 HIV+ recruited from public health centers in the State of S. Paulo (Brazil, answered a questionnaire, including questions on demographic aspects, HIV and AIDS related knowledge, sexual orientation, use of alcohol and other drugs, sexual behavior with regular and casual female and male partners, and perceived risk of HIV infection. Sexual behavior with regular and casual female and male partners within the previous three months, was investigated. RESULTS: A lower proportion of HIV+ engaged in sexual contact with regular female partners (p < .01 and in vaginal intercourse with this type of partner (p < .01. A lower proportion of HIV+ engaged in overall sexual activity (p < .001 and reported lower frequency of penetrative sexual practices (p < .05. A high level of condom use with female and male partners was identified with no significant differences being found between the two serostatus groups. Some risky sexual behavior was identified, however, especially with regular partners, suggesting that some men were continuing to practice unsafe sex. CONCLUSIONS: The high level of condom use identified suggests that safer sex advice has been taken up. Condom use was not universal, however, and some men continue to place themselves at risk, especially with regular partners. Prevention programs should strive not only to encourage HIV- to practice safer sex, but also to encourage HIV+ to do so in order to prevent further transmission of the virus.

  1. Influence of HIV positive status on sexual behavior among males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventura-Filipe Elvira M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare HIV seronegative (HIV- and HIV seropositive (HIV+ males in terms of sexual behavior with female and male partners of different types. METHOD: Cross-sectional study. From August 1994 to February 1995, a sample of 236 respondents (150 HIV- and 86 HIV+ recruited from public health centers in the State of S. Paulo (Brazil, answered a questionnaire, including questions on demographic aspects, HIV and AIDS related knowledge, sexual orientation, use of alcohol and other drugs, sexual behavior with regular and casual female and male partners, and perceived risk of HIV infection. Sexual behavior with regular and casual female and male partners within the previous three months, was investigated. RESULTS: A lower proportion of HIV+ engaged in sexual contact with regular female partners (p < .01 and in vaginal intercourse with this type of partner (p < .01. A lower proportion of HIV+ engaged in overall sexual activity (p < .001 and reported lower frequency of penetrative sexual practices (p < .05. A high level of condom use with female and male partners was identified with no significant differences being found between the two serostatus groups. Some risky sexual behavior was identified, however, especially with regular partners, suggesting that some men were continuing to practice unsafe sex. CONCLUSIONS: The high level of condom use identified suggests that safer sex advice has been taken up. Condom use was not universal, however, and some men continue to place themselves at risk, especially with regular partners. Prevention programs should strive not only to encourage HIV- to practice safer sex, but also to encourage HIV+ to do so in order to prevent further transmission of the virus.

  2. Influence of Exposure to Sexually Explicit Films on the Sexual Behavior of Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeleye, Olubunmi; Ajuwon, Ademola J

    2015-01-01

    Young people in secondary schools who are prone to engage in risky sexual behaviors spend considerable time watching Television (TV) which often presents sex scenes. The influence of exposure to sex scenes on TV (SSTV) has been little researched in Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to determine the perceived influence of exposure to SSTV on the sexual behavior of secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area. A total of 489 randomly selected students were surveyed. Mean age of respondents was 14.1 ± 1.9 years and 53.8% were females. About 91% had ever been exposed to sex scenes. The type of TV program from which most respondents reported exposure to sexual scenes was movies (86.9%). Majority reported exposure to all forms of SSTV from secondary storage devices. Students whose TV watching behavior was not monitored had heavier exposures to SSTV compared with those who were. About 56.3% of females and 26.5% of males affirmed that watching SSTV had affected their sexual behavior. Predictor of sex-related activities was exposure to heavy sex scenes. Peer education and school-based programs should include topics to teach young people on how to evaluate presentations of TV programs.

  3. Psychological, Cultural and Family Factors in Incest and Family Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews clinical experience and research evidence about father-daughter incest and family sexual abuse, and suggests six factors important in its etiology: the personal characteristics of the offender; the role of the mother; a milieu of abandonment; subcultural isolation; poor family sexual boundaries; and opportunity factors. (Author)

  4. The influence of urban literature on African-American adolescent girls' sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2011-07-01

    Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon.

  5. Multiple Levels of Social Influence on Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Decision-Making and Behaviors in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Sneha; Manu, Abubakar; Morhe, Emmanuel; Dalton, Vanessa K; Loll, Dana; Dozier, Jessica; Zochowski, Melissa K; Boakye, Andrew; Adanu, Richard; Hall, Kelli Stidham

    2017-03-15

    Little is known about the multi-level social determinants of adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) that shape the use of family planning (FP) among young women in Africa. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured, qualitative interviews with 63 women aged 15-24 years in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana. We used purposive, stratified sampling to recruit women from community-based sites. Interviews were conducted in English or local languages, recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Grounded theory-guided thematic analysis identified salient themes. Three primary levels of influence emerged as shaping young women's SRH experiences, decision-making, and behaviors. Interpersonal influences (peers, partners, and parents) were both supportive and unsupportive influences on sexual debut, contraceptive (non)use, and pregnancy resolution. Community influences included perceived norms about acceptability/unacceptability of adolescent sexual activity and its consequences (pregnancy, childbearing, abortion). Macro-social influences involved religion and abstinence and teachings about premarital sex, lack of comprehensive sex education, and limited access to confidential, quality SRH care. The willingness and ability of young women in our study to use FP methods and services were affected, often negatively, by factors operating within and across each level. These findings have implications for research, programs, and policies to address social determinants of adolescent SRH.

  6. Genetic influences on adolescent sexual behavior: Why genes matter for environmentally oriented researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-03-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and early sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of quasi experiment: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of Gene × Environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally oriented theory and research.

  7. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Why Genes Matter for Environmentally-Oriented Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K. Paige

    2013-01-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and “early” sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically-informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of “quasi-experiment”: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically-informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of gene × environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally-oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958

  8. Getting the 'blues': the existence, diffusion and influence of pornography on young peoples' sexual health in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    While substantial research has examined the effects of pornography on young people in developed societies, existing studies fall short in addressing how sexually-explicit material affects young people in developing countries. The importance of such knowledge increases as the globalising effects of technology expand young peoples' access and exposure to pornography. During the summer of 2012, a study was undertaken in Sierra Leone examining factors affecting young peoples' sexual and reproductive health. The research assessed the influence of HIV knowledge, communication about sex, civil war and contraception myths on sexual behaviours, while remaining open to unanticipated factors. During data collection, respondents identified pornography, also called blues, as an influential factor, detailing its newfound accessibility driven by improved access to information and communication technologies in the country. Respondents also addressed several presumed ways in which pornography impacts young peoples' decisions about sexual health. The following study examines perceived effects of young peoples' exposure to pornography based on existing literature. It then outlines the findings of research conducted in Sierra Leone, drawing on primary data from the respondents and relevant published literature and concludes with proposals for addressing its negative effects.

  9. A systematic review on identifying risk factors associated with early sexual debut and coerced sex among adolescents and young people in communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Regina Lai Tong; Yuen Loke, Alice; Hung, Tsz Man Tommy; Sobel, Howard

    2017-06-21

    To review literature on identifying the risk factors associated with early sexual coerced debut with the aim to facilitate the health care workers' planning of relevant health services to improve intervention strategies for delaying of early coerced sexual debut or forced sexual debut (CSD/FSD) in the communities. Identifying the risk factors associated with coercion at first sex is crucial for developing appropriate sexual and reproductive health information and health promotion in response. However, current knowledge about the risk factors associated with coercion, sexual debut (SD), and delayed SD among young people is limited. Health information programs are important during adolescence, when young people are developing their values and beliefs about sexual activity and sexual norms. However, little is known about those risk factors on initiation of early sexual debut in order to plan relevant interventions that can delay SD and prevent coerced sexual debut or forced sexual debut (CSD/FSD) in this population. A systematic review. An extensive literature search using Medline (PubMed), Nursing Journals (PubMed), Web of Science, PsychINFO and CINAHL. The search generated 39 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty-two articles passed the quality appraisal and were selected. This review identified six domains of risk factors, categorized as: (1) the individual domain, (2) the family domain, (3) the partner/peer domain, (4) the school domain, (5) the community domain, and (6) the cultural domain. These factors highlight the influences on sexual decision-making among adolescents and young people and the timing of their first sexual intercourse. It is important to utilize the outcome of this review's categorization of identified risk factors to facilitate the health care workers and plan relevant sexual and reproductive health programs more accessible to adolescents, especially young females and their parents. There is a need to evaluate

  10. Sexual Crime in India: Is it Influenced by Pornography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Viswanath, Biju; Maroky, Ami Sebastian; Kumar, Naveen C.; Cherian, Anish V.; Nirmala, Maria Christine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Studies on whether pornography poses a greater risk for sexually aggressive behavior have revealed conflicting results. This study aims to examine the relationship between the consumption of pornography and the subsequent increase in sexual violence, thus testing the hypothesis that increase in consumption of pornography is related to increased sexual crime, in the Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: The current study explored the association between reported incidence of crime over a period of four decades - 1971-2008 (time periods being divided into: Pre-liberalization and post-liberation - India adopted liberalization policy in 1992) and availability of pornography over internet with a particular focus on crime against women (such as rape, sexual harassment, and crime against women). Results: Comparison of pre-liberalization and post-liberalization growth of rape rates was not significant. Though there were statistically significant positive correlations between the number of internet users and sexual crime rates, the association was non-significant after controlling for the effects of population growth using regression analysis. Conclusion: Results presented needs to be interpreted with extreme care and caution. Nevertheless, the results from this study suggest that easy access to pornography did not have a significant impact on rape rates and crime rate against women. PMID:24860215

  11. The Influence of Community Disadvantage and Masculinity Ideology on Number of Sexual Partners: A Prospective Analysis of Young Adult, Rural Black Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Barton, Allen W; Duprey, Erinn B; Hicks, Megan R; Brown, Geoffrey L

    2017-01-01

    Young, rural Black men are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), a consequence, in part, of multiple sexual partnerships. We conducted a prospective study that examined the influence of masculinity ideology on changes in numbers of sexual partners in this population. We focused on a set of high-risk attitudes termed reputational masculinity. Community disadvantage during young adulthood was examined as a risk factor for reputational masculinity ideology, and vocational commitment was examined as a potential protective factor. The sample included 505 African American men ages 19 to 22 from high-poverty rural communities. Men reported their numbers of sexual partners during the past three months, masculinity ideology, community disadvantage, and vocational commitment. Follow-up data were collected 18 months after baseline assessment. Negative binomial modeling was used to test study hypotheses. Results indicated that community disadvantage was associated with increases in reputational masculinity during early adulthood, which in turn were linked to increases in numbers of sexual partners. Vocational commitment interacted with reputational masculinity to forecast numbers of sexual partners, attenuating the influence of reputational masculinity. Reputational masculinity and promotion of engagement with the workplace may be important targets for interventions designed to reduce sexual risk behavior.

  12. The influence of older classmates on adolescent sexual behavior in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, David; Marteleto, Letícia J; Ranchhod, Vimal

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the influence of exposure to older within-grade peers on sexual behavior among students in urban South Africa. Data are drawn from the Cape Area Panel Study, a longitudinal survey of young people conducted in metropolitan Cape Town from 2002 to 2006. The combination of early sexual debut, high rates of school enrollment into the late teens, and grade repetition create an environment in which young people who progress through school ahead of many in their cohort interact with classmates who may be several years older. We construct a measure of cumulative exposure to classmates who are at least two years older and show that such exposure is statistically significantly associated with early sexual initiation among adolescent girls. This exposure also increases the age difference between these girls and their first sexual partner, and helps explain a significant proportion of the earlier sexual debut of African girls, compared with colored and white girls in Cape Town.

  13. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  14. Follower-Centric Influences on Sexual Decision Making in a Pentecostal Church Faith Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Mpofu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized participatory action research approaches to construct a follower-centric framework for measuring influences on sexual decision making by youth members of a church organization. Participants were Batswana Pentecostal church members self-reporting on their engagement in pre-marital sex (n = 68, females = 62%; age range 15–23 years; median age = 20.3 years from eight of 26 randomly selected congregations. They completed a multi-stage concept mapping process that included free listing of statements of potential influences on their sexual decisions. They then sorted the statements into groupings similar in meaning to them, and rated the same statements for relative importance to their sexual decisions. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis of the data yielded a five cluster solution in which church teachings emerged as most salient to the teenagers’ sexual decision making followed by future orientation, community norms, knowledge about HIV/AIDS and prevention education. While the youth believed to be influenced by religion teachings on primary sexual abstinence, they self-reported with pre-marital sex. This suggests a need for secondary abstinence education with them to reduce their risk for STIs/HIV and unwanted pregnancies. Concept mapping is serviceable to construct frameworks and to identify content of follower-centric influences on sexual decision making by church youth members.

  15. Human sexual response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The human sexual response to sexually arousing stimuli is a motivational incentive-based cycle comprising subjective experience and physiologic changes. Clinical and empirical data support a circular model of overlapping phases of variable order. Brain imaging data of sexual arousal identify areas of cerebral activation and inhibition reflecting a complex network of cognitive, motivational, emotional, and autonomic components. Psychologic and biologic factors influence the brain's appraisal and processing of sexual stimuli to allow or disallow subsequent arousal. The sexual and non-sexual outcomes influence motivation to future sexual intimacy. Variability is marked both between individuals and within a person's sexual life, influenced by multiple factors, including stage of life cycle, mental health, and relationship happiness. Neurologic disease can interrupt the cycle at many points: by limiting motivation, reducing ability to attend to and feel sexual stimuli, and accomplishing the movements needed to stimulate and experience intercourse. Impairments to genital congestion, penile erection, and orgasm may also occur. Disease-associated changes to the interpersonal relationship and self-image plus frequently comorbid depression will tend to lessen motivation and temper the brain's appraisal of sexual stimuli, so precluding arousal. Therapy begins by explaining the sexual response cycle, clarifying the points of interruption in the patient's own cycle so as to guide treatment.

  16. The wills of older people: risk factors for undue influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisah, C; Finkel, S; Shulman, K; Melding, P; Luxenberg, J; Heinik, J; Jacoby, R; Reisberg, B; Stoppe, G; Barker, A; Firmino, H; Bennett, H

    2009-02-01

    As people live longer, there is increasing potential for mental disorders to interfere with testamentary distribution and render older people more vulnerable to "undue influence" when they are making a will. Accordingly, clinicians dealing with the mental disorders of older people will be called upon increasingly to advise the courts about a person's vulnerability to undue influence. A Subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to establish consensus on the definition of undue influence and the provision of guidelines for expert assessment of risk factors for undue influence. International jurisdictions differ in their approach to the notion of undue influence. Despite differences in legal systems, from a clinical perspective, the subcommittee identified some common "red flags" which might alert the expert to risk of undue influence. These include: (i) social or environmental risk factors such as dependency, isolation, family conflict and recent bereavement; (ii) psychological and physical risk factors such as physical disability, deathbed wills, sexual bargaining, personality disorders, substance abuse and mental disorders including dementia, delirium, mood and paranoid disorders; and (iii) legal risk factors such as unnatural provisions in a will, or provisions not in keeping with previous wishes of the person making the will, and the instigation or procurement of a will by a beneficiary. This review provides some guidance for experts who are requested by the courts to provide an opinion on the risk of undue influence. Whilst international jurisdictions require different thresholds of proof for a finding of undue influence, there is good international consensus on the clinical indicators for the concept.

  17. Risky Sexual Behaviors and Associated Factors among Male and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in risk sexual behavior due to insufficient knowledge of reproductive health and family ... The level of risks and sexual behaviors are different between male and ... Female students who consumed alcohol were 7 times more likely to be at risk ...

  18. Dormancy and the Influence of photoperiod and temperature on sexual maturity in Nicrophorus nepalensis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbe Hwang; Shiuh-Feng Shiao

    2011-01-01

    Carrion beetles (Nicrophorus spp.) use small vertebrate carcasses for food and reproduction. Their ecology and behaviors are highly affected by the availability of carcasses and the surrounding environmental conditions. Our results revealed that in subtropical Fushan, northern Taiwan, N. nepalensis was mainly active in spring (February to May), and could also be found in autumn (October and November); but there was no capture record in summer (June to September) and winter (December and January). A laboratory temperature tolerance study indicated that N. nepalensis adults become inactive at temperatures above 26°C, and had the highest mortality when the temperature was raised from 27℃ to 28℃. Furthermore, N. nepalensis became sexually mature at 20℃, depending on the photoperiod: the longer the day, the lower the percentage of sexually mature 2-week-old females after emergence. In another experiment, N. nepalensis virgins were paired under three possible conditions at Fushan. At 15℃ and 20℃, if carcasses were presented to the pairs within 3 days after emergence, all laid eggs in the second week after emergence. If carcasses were presented 1 week after emergence, most began to reproduce at 20℃ with 12.5 h of daylight. However, at 15℃ with 11 h of daylight, the carrion beetles hibernated first, and reproduced in the ninth week after emergence. At 25℃ with 14 h of daylight, carrion beetles did not bury the mouse carcasses, the females did not lay eggs, and the adult lifespan was only one-third of that at 20℃. This study revealed that both photoperiod and temperature influence the time needed to reach the sexual maturity of N. nepalensis; and also implied that the narrow temperature tolerance range and dormancy behavior of carrion beetles are highly regulated by those environmental factors.

  19. Cryptic Sexuality Influences Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance as well as pathogens and toxin producers. Recent studies report A. fumigatus to be heterothallic and possibly undergoing sexual reproduction. We therefore investigated whether compatible mat...

  20. Media Influence on Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use: A Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Federal Capital Territory Primary Health Care Development Board, Abuja, Nigeria1; Measurement, Learning & Evaluation. Project ... elles utilisaient une méthode contraceptive moderne au moment de l'enquête. Environ ...... safe sex and FP messages through mobile phone ... sexual behaviours due to cultural and societal.

  1. Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors of Sexual Behavior among Migrants in Transition from Mexico to the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alejandro Guerra-Ordoñez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHuman immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the border region of Mexico due to the flow of migrants under desperate conditions, encouraging casual and unprotected sex. Since this has become a binational public health problem, it is important to understand the factors that predict these sexual behaviors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the facilitators and inhibitors of transition in the sexual behavior of migrants from two border regions on the Mexico–United States (US border.MethodsThis was a predictive and cross-sectional study. A sample of 256 migrants in shelters for migrants on the border between Mexico and US were selected through systematic random sampling. Predictor variables investigated for effect on the safe sexual behavior (SSB of the migrant were reasons for having sex; sexual attitudes; sexual machismo; knowledge about HIV; access to health services; and social discrimination.ResultsThe sample was predominantly male (89.5%, with 46.1% reporting being single. The average age was 33.38 years (SD = 9.73 and the average number of years of education reported was 8.05 (SD = 3.37. A permissive sexual attitude and sexual machismo both correlated with condom use (rs = 0.130, p < 0.01 and rs = −0.174, p < 0.01, respectively. Regression analysis showed that a permissive sexual attitude decreased the practice of safe sex (β = 0.17, t = 4.16, p < 0.001, as did sexual machismo (β = −0.28, t = −4.83, p < 0.001 and HIV knowledge (β = −0.11, t = −2.62, p = 0.006.DiscussionIt was found that access to health services did not influence the SSB of migrants, as suggested by the literature. However, a permissive sexual attitude, sexual machismo, and HIV knowledge were all variables capable of predicting SSB. It is recommended that the study is extended to study migrant

  2. 农村儿童应对性侵犯能力现况及其影响因素分析%Status and influencing factors of child sexual abuse prevention skills of elementary school pupils in rural ar-ea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁博成; 王迎春; 金春玉

    2014-01-01

    To understand the status of child sexual abuse prevention skills of elementary school pupils in rural area and explore its influential factors,to provide scientific basis for the prevention of child sexual a-buse.Methods:1345 pupils from three rural areas of grade 3 to 6 from 6 schools in Hebei province were surveyed by questionnaires which were Social Anxiety Scale for Children,Children’s Loneliness Scale,Children’s self-concept Scale and anonymous collective self-administered questionnaire.Results:Rural children had low vigilance against familiar people and liker;only 29.2% of them knew the liker may also touch them in unpleasant ways. When sexual assault occurred,they seldom turned to the people not in their family,for only 42.6% of them knew that they could also turn to people outside the family for help.Multivariate analysis showed that loneliness,junior grade and long-time away from their mother were main influence factors for sexual abuse prevention ability of rural children.Conclusion:The child sexual abuse prevention ability of rural children still needs to be improved,and factors such as loneliness,junior grade and long-time away from their mother have important effects on the ability. Therefore,related work should be conducted with focus and plan,to achieve comprehensive control and focused in-tervention.%目的:了解农村儿童应对性侵犯能力现况并探索其影响因素,为预防儿童性侵犯提供科学依据。方法:抽取河北省3个农村地区6所小学3~6年级学生1345名,采用儿童社交焦虑量表、儿童孤独量表、Piers-Harris儿童自我意识量表及自编问卷进行集体匿名问卷调查。结果:农村儿童对熟悉的人和喜欢的人警惕性较低,仅29.2%的学生知道喜欢的人也可能用让人感觉不好的方式接触自己的身体。遇到性侵犯发生时,除了家人外较少求助家庭以外的人,仅42.6%的学生知道可以向家庭以外的人求助。多因素

  3. Factores de riesgo relacionados con la salud sexual en los jóvenes europeos

    OpenAIRE

    Calatrava, M. (María); Lopez-del-Burgo, C. (Cristina); Irala, J. (Jokin) de

    2012-01-01

    En Europa, seguimos asistiendo a un aumento de la transmisión sexual del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). Para priorizar estrategias de salud sexual, resulta importante identificar los factores sexuales de riesgo presentes en los jóvenes europeos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de artículos científicos y estudios de instituciones oficiales europeas. En total, fueron identificados 21 artículos y 10 estudios. Los datos sugier...

  4. Hyperthyroidism: a risk factor for female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atis, Gokhan; Dalkilinc, Ayhan; Altuntas, Yuksel; Atis, Alev; Gurbuz, Cenk; Ofluoglu, Yilmaz; Cil, Esra; Caskurlu, Turhan

    2011-08-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a common hormonal disorder in women that may cause female sexual dysfunction (FSD). To assess sexual function in women with hyperthyroidism. A total of 40 women with clinical hyperthyroidism and 40 age-matched voluntary healthy women controls were included in the study. All the subjects were evaluated with a detailed medical and sexual history, including a Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire for sexual status and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for psychiatric assessment. The levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid hormones, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (tT), free testosterone (fT), prolactin, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone were measured. The mean total FSFI scores were 24.2 ± 9.96 in the hyperthyroidic group and 29 ± 10.4 in the control group (P hyperthyroidism. The mean BDI score for hyperthyroidic patients was significantly greater than the score for the control group (P hyperthyroidic group was found to be significantly higher than the level in the controls (P hyperthyroidic group was lower than in the control group (P hyperthyroidism had sexual dysfunction. Increased depressive symptoms, increased SHBG level, and decreased fT levels were all found to be associated with FSD in clinical hyperthyroidism. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Actor-Partner Interdependence Model Analysis of Sexual Communication and Relationship/Family Planning Factors Among Immigrant Latino Couples in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yui

    2017-05-01

    The Latino population in the United States is quickly growing, and its unintended pregnancy rate is increasing. To decrease unintended pregnancies, couples must mutually agree on family planning. Communication between partners is one key factor identified in successful family planning for couples. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine sexual communication and its associations with sexual relationship power, general communication, and views on family planning. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to analyze dyadic influences of the chosen variables. Forty immigrant Latino couples were recruited from prenatal care clinics. The study results were grouped according to the three types of power structures: exhibition of men's traditional machismo values, exhibition of women's increased power in their relationships, and exhibition of men's and women's own empowerment with sexual communication. There was a negative association between men's views on family planning and women's sexual communication (exhibition of machismo values); a negative association between women's sexual relationship power and their partners' sexual communication (exhibition of women's increased power); and positive associations between men's and women's general communication and sexual communication (exhibition of men's and women's own empowerment). Dyadic influences of sexual communication and associated variables need to be incorporated into interventions to facilitate family planning for couples.

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse Severity Reconsidered: A Factor Structure of CSA Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, T. Lorraine; Riggs, Matt; Robinson, Jill L.

    2011-01-01

    To address the lack of empirically grounded measures of childhood sexual abuse severity, a survey of self-report items was developed following a thorough review of the childhood sexual abuse literature. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data collected from a convenience sample of college students that included 275 females and…

  7. A preliminary mapping of individual, relational, and social factors that impede disclosure of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; De La Sablonnière-Griffin, Mireille; Palmer, Andrea M; Milne, Lise

    2015-05-01

    Uncovering the pathways to disclosures of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors influencing the willingness of victims to talk about the abuse is paramount to the development of powerful practice and policy initiatives. Framed as a long interview method utilizing a grounded theory approach to analyze data, the objective of the current study was to provide a preliminary mapping of the barriers to CSA disclosures through an ecological systemic lens, from a sample of 67 male and female CSA adult survivors, all of whom had recently received counselling services. The current project led to the identification of three broad categories of barriers that were each comprised of several subthemes, namely: Barriers from Within (internalized victim-blaming, mechanisms to protect oneself, and immature development at time of abuse); Barriers in Relation to Others (violence and dysfunction in the family, power dynamics, awareness of the impact of telling, and fragile social network); and Barriers in Relation to the Social World (labelling, taboo of sexuality, lack of services available, and culture or time period). This study points to the importance of using a broad ecological framework to understand the factors that inhibit disclosure of CSA, as barriers to disclosure do not constrain solely the victims. Results are discussed in light of their implications for research, prevention and intervention programs, and social policies and media campaigns, as the burden is on the larger community to create a climate of safety and transparency that makes the telling of CSA possible.

  8. Sexual Dysfunctions of HIV-Positive Men: Associated Factors, Pathophysiology Issues, and Clinical Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco de Tubino Scanavino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunctions in HIV-positive men are associated with an increase in risky sexual behavior and decreased adherence to antiretroviral drug regimens. Because of these important public health issues, we reviewed the literature on the pathophysiology, associated factors and clinical management of sexual dysfunction in HIV-positive men. The goal was to investigate the current research on these issues. Literature searches were performed in June 2011 on PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycInfo databases with the keywords “AIDS” and “sexual dysfunction” and “HIV” and “sexual dysfunction”, resulting in 54 papers. Several researchers have investigated the factors associated with sexual dysfunction in HIV-positive men. The association between sexual dysfunction and antiretroviral drugs, particularly protease inhibitors, has been reported in many studies. The lack of standardized measures in many studies and the varying study designs are the main reasons that explain the controversial results. Despite some important findings, the pathophysiology of sexual dysfunction in the HAART era still not completely understood. Clinical trials of testosterone replacement therapy have shown the treatment to be beneficial to the improvement of sexual dysfunctions related to hypogonadism. However, there are not enough psychological intervention studies to make conclusions regarding the therapeutic effects of psychotherapy.

  9. Online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth: associations to background factors, behaviours and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Linda S; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-10-01

    Sexual activity online may result in positive experiences for young people, or lead them to engage in risky behaviours possibly resulting in sexual assault or abuse. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth and background factors as well as aspects of well-being. The behaviours investigated were: having sex online with a contact met online, having sex with an online contact offline, posting sexual pictures online, and selling sex online. We used data from a representative sample of 3,432 Swedish youth who were asked about their lifetime experiences as well as their experiences within the previous year. We hypothesized that more advanced online sexual behaviours were associated with more problematic background factors, worse psychosocial well-being and riskier behaviours in general. Bivariate relationships were evaluated followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Our data suggested that most Swedish youth do not perform any of the assessed online sexual behaviours. Young people who reported online sexual behaviour showed a more problematic background, rated their health as poorer, had a more sexualized life and had experienced more sexual or physical abuse. Professionals who work with young people need to help them better evaluate potential risks online and offer support when needed. Youths who sell sex online are especially at risk and need extra attention, as they might be in greater need of protection and therapeutic support.

  10. Evolution of sexual traits influencing vectorial capacity in anopheline mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sara N.; Kakani, Evdoxia G.; South, Adam; Howell, Paul I.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2015-01-01

    The availability of genome sequences from 16 anopheline species provides unprecedented opportunities to study the evolution of reproductive traits relevant for malaria transmission. In Anopheles gambiae, a likely candidate for sexual selection is male 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Sexual transfer of this steroid hormone as part of a mating plug dramatically changes female physiological processes intimately tied to vectorial capacity. By combining phenotypic studies with ancestral state reconstructions and phylogenetic analyses, we show that mating plug transfer and male 20E synthesis are both derived characters that have coevolved in anophelines, driving the adaptation of a female 20E-interacting protein that promotes oogenesis via mechanisms also favoring Plasmodium survival. Our data reveal coevolutionary dynamics of reproductive traits between the sexes likely to have shaped the ability of anophelines to transmit malaria. PMID:25722409

  11. Drugs, alcohol and sexual health: opportunities to influence risk behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Alcohol and drug consumption can affect judgment and may contribute towards an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour. In this cross sectional survey of clients attending STI services levels of drug and alcohol use were assessed using two standardised drug and alcohol screening instruments (the PAT and the SDS). Findings The rates of hazardous alcohol consumption were similar to those found among patients attending A&E departments. Approximately 15% of ...

  12. Androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism independently influences recovery of male sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy in postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, Giacomo; Delli Muti, Nicola; Corona, Giovanni; Maggi, Mario; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    Few and contradictory studies have evaluated the possible influence of androgen receptor (AR) gene CAG repeat polymorphism on male sexual function. In this study we evaluated the role of AR gene CAG repeat polymorphism in the recovery of sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition which is often associated with hypopituitarism and in which the sexual benefits of TRT must be distinguished from those of pituitary-function replacement therapies. Fifteen men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were retrospectively assessed before and after TRT. Main outcome measures included sexual parameters as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire, levels of pituitary dependent hormones (total testosterone, free T3, free T4, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], prolactin), and results of genetic analysis (AR gene CAG repeat number). Plasma concentrations of free T3, free T4, cortisol, and prolactin did not vary significantly between the two phases, while testosterone and IGF-1 increased significantly after TRT. A significant improvement in all sexual parameters studied was found. The number of CAG triplets was negatively and significantly correlated with changes in all the sexual parameters, while opposite correlations were found between changes in sexual parameters and changes in testosterone levels; no correlation of change in IGF1 with change in sexual parameters was reported. On multiple linear regression analysis, after correction for changes in testosterone, nearly all the associations between the number of CAG triplets and changes in sexual parameters were confirmed. Shorter length AR gene CAG repeat number is associated with the recovery of sexual function after TRT in postsurgical male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, independently of the effects of concomitant pituitary-replacement therapies. © 2014 International Society

  13. Postcopulatory sexual selection influences baculum evolution in primates and carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    The extreme morphological variability of the baculum across mammals is thought to be the result of sexual selection (particularly, high levels of postcopulatory selection). However, the evolutionary trajectory of the mammalian baculum is little studied and evidence for the adaptive function of the baculum has so far been elusive. Here, we use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods implemented in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework to reconstruct baculum evolution across the mammalian class and investigate the rate of baculum length evolution within the primate order. We then test the effects of testes mass (postcopulatory sexual selection), polygamy, seasonal breeding and intromission duration on the baculum in primates and carnivores. The ancestral mammal did not have a baculum, but both ancestral primates and carnivores did. No relationship was found between testes mass and baculum length in either primates or carnivores. Intromission duration correlated with baculum presence over the course of primate evolution, and prolonged intromission predicts significantly longer bacula in extant primates and carnivores. Both polygamous and seasonal breeding systems predict significantly longer bacula in primates. These results suggest the baculum plays an important role in facilitating reproductive strategies in populations with high levels of postcopulatory sexual selection. PMID:27974519

  14. Influences on loneliness, depression, sexual-risk behaviour and suicidal ideation among Thai transgender youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadegarfard, Mohammadrasool; Ho, Robert; Bahramabadian, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of age, education level and number of sex partners on levels of loneliness, depression, suicidal ideation and sexual-risk behaviour in Thai male-to-female transgender youth. A total of 190 participants filled in the study's questionnaire, designed to tap the primary variables of age, level of education, number of sex partners, loneliness, depression, suicidal ideation and sexual-risk behaviour. Results reveal that level of education has a significant influence on depression and loneliness, the number of sex partners has a significant influence on sexual-risk behaviour and suicidal ideation and age has a significant influence on sexual-risk behaviour and suicidal ideation. Participants with higher levels of education reported more loneliness than participants who did not graduate from high school. In addition, participants who did not graduate from high school reported more depression than participants with some university credit. Furthermore, participants aged 15 to 19 years, compared with those of 20 to 25 years, reported higher level of sexual-risk behaviour and higher levels of suicidal ideation.

  15. Sexualidade na adolescência: análise da influência de fatores culturais presentes no contexto familiar Sexualidad en la adolescencia: análisis del influjo de factores culturales presentes en el contexto familiar The influence of family cultural beliefs on adolescent's sexual behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilane Barbosa de Sousa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Compreender a complexidade da influência de elementos culturais, presentes no contexto familiar, sobre o comportamento sexual do adolescente. MÉTODOS: Este trabalho foi produzido a partir de um estudo de caso realizado com a família de uma adolescente, fundamentado nos preceitos da teoria do cuidado transcultural. RESULTADOS: Verificamos concepções errôneas e escrúpulos sem fundamentos sobre sexualidade, presentes no contexto familiar, que exerceram significativa influência no comportamento da adolescente. Entre eles a crença de que conversar sobre sexo pode induzir a filha a iniciar a prática sexual. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: Percebemos a importância da realização de atividades de educação sexual direcionadas para o esclarecimento de conceitos que possam prejudicar a saúde e a qualidade de vida de adolescentes.OBJETIVO: Comprender la complejidad de la influencia de elementos culturales, presentes en el contexto familiar, sobre el comportamiento sexual del adolescente. MÉTODOS: Este trabajo fue producido a partir de un estudio de caso realizado con la familia de una adolescente, fundamentado en los preceptos de la teoría del cuidado transcultural. RESULTADOS: Verificamos concepciones erróneas y escrúpulos sin fundamentos sobre sexualidad presentes en el contexto familiar que ejercieron influencia significativa en el comportamiento de la adolescente. Entre ellos la creencia de que conversar sobre sexo puede inducir a la hija a iniciar la práctica sexual. CONSIDERACIONES FINALES: Percibimos la importancia de la realización de actividades de educación sexual orientadas a aclarar conceptos que puedan perjudicar la salud y la calidad de vida de adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To understand the complexity of the influence of family cultural beliefs on adolescent's sexual behavior. METHOD: The transcultural care theory guided this case study of family members of a female adolescent. RESULTS: Family members'misconceptions and

  16. 长沙市某综合大学学生性态度、性行为及相关因素研究%Investigation on Status and Influencing Factors of Sexual Attitudes and Bahaviors Among College Students in Changsha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彬彬; 席光湘; 晏强; 颜艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the status of sexual attitude and behavior and its relevant factors among college students. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 1823 college students chosen from a comprehensive college in Changsha by multistage random cluster sampling. Results: 232 (12.7%) students had sexual intercourse, but only 119 (52.0%) students had taken contraceptive methods of which condom, ejaculation outside, taking contraceptive drugs and safe period contraception accounted for 71.6%, 33.0%, 27.0% and 21.3% respectively. The mean age of the first sexual behavior was 19.0?.7, while the minimum was 13 and the maximum was 22. The proportion of students' approval of masturbation, premarital sexual behaviour was higher, accounting for 59.0% and 42.8%. Logistic regression analysis showed that smoking (0R=1.677) .drinking (OR=1.314) and the high degree of per capita family income (OR=2.143) could positively predict college students' sexual attitude; open degree of sexual ath'tude(OR=3.910Klove(OR= 23.666),smoking(OR=2.492),drinking(OR=1.868) could positively predict college students' sexual intercourse, while living with parents before enrolling in college (OR=0.634) could negatively predict college students' sexual behavior. Conclusion: The rate of college students who accept premarital sex is high; family background > sexual attitude Jove .and bad habits have important influence on sexual behavior of college students.%目的:了解在校大学生性态度、性行为现状及其主要相关因素,为高校针对性地进行性健康教育提供参考依据.方法:采用自行编制的大学生性态度、性行为现况调查问卷,以多阶段随机整群抽样方法,对长沙市某综合性高校在校大学生进行调查.结果:共调查在校大学生1832名,232人(12.7%)发生过插入性行为,其中119人(51.3%)曾采取避孕措施,避孕方法主要以避孕套(71.6%)为主,其次为体外射精(33.0

  17. Psychosocial and Cultural Factors Related to Risky Sexual Behavior Leading to HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Kiylioglu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from adolescence, importance of sexuality increases in the lives of young people. When done without necessary prevention measures, sexuality may lead to deadly infections in health. Of them, perhaps the most important is HIV/AIDS. Although resulting from sexual behavior the probability of HIV transmission is low, AIDS can be deadly. The aim of this study is to review psycho-social and cultural factors claimed to explain and related with risky sexual behavior that can lead to HIV/AIDS. These factors are gender roles, religiosity, sexual sensation seeking, self-efficacy for AIDS prevention, and HIV/AIDS knowledge. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 367-379

  18. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  19. The influence of pornography on sexual scripts and hooking up among emerging adults in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Coulson, Gwen; Keddington, Krista; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    The explosive growth in access to the Internet has led to a commensurate increase in the availability, anonymity, and affordability of pornography. An emerging body of research has shown associations between pornography and certain behaviors and attitudes; yet, how pornography actually influences these outcomes has not been documented. In two studies (Study 1 N = 969; Study 2 N = 992) we examined the hypothesis that pornography influences potentially risky sexual behavior (hooking up) among emerging adults via sexual scripts. Our results demonstrate that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with a higher incidence of hooking up and a higher number of unique hook up partners. We replicated these effects both cross-sectionally and longitudinally while accounting for the stability of hook ups over the course of an academic semester. We also demonstrated that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with having had more previous sexual partners of all types, more one occasion sexual partners ("one night stands"), and plans to have a higher number of sexual partners in the future. Finally, we provided evidence that more permissive sexual scripts mediated the association between more frequent pornography viewing and hooking up. We discuss these findings with an eye toward mitigating potential personal and public health risks among emerging adults.

  20. Role of risk and protective factors in risky sexual behavior among high school students in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Poudel, Krishna C; Yasuoka, Junko; Palmer, Paula H; Yi, Songky; Jimba, Masamine

    2010-08-12

    In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male and female adolescents in Cambodia. From October 2007 to January 2008, we collected data from 1,049 students aged 14 to 20 years. Risky sexual behavior was measured using a scale consisting of four items: sexual intercourse during the past three months, number of sex partners during the past three months, age at first experience of sexual intercourse, and use of condom in last sexual intercourse. The risk factors examined included substance use, depression, peer delinquency, family violence, and community violence. Studied protective factors included family support function, frequency of family dinner, and school attachment. Of the 1,049 students surveyed, 12.7% reported sexual intercourse during the past three months. Out of those sexually active students, 34.6% reported having two or more sex partners over the same period, and 52.6% did not use a condom during their last sexual intercourse. After controlling for other covariates, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated among male participants with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of peer delinquency, and higher family income. In contrast, risky sexual behavior did not retain its associations with any of the measured protective factors among male participants. Among female participants, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of community-violence witnessing, and lower levels of family support. The findings suggest the importance of considering gender-related differences in the effects of risk and protective factors

  1. Role of risk and protective factors in risky sexual behavior among high school students in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Siyan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male and female adolescents in Cambodia. Methods From October 2007 to January 2008, we collected data from 1,049 students aged 14 to 20 years. Risky sexual behavior was measured using a scale consisting of four items: sexual intercourse during the past three months, number of sex partners during the past three months, age at first experience of sexual intercourse, and use of condom in last sexual intercourse. The risk factors examined included substance use, depression, peer delinquency, family violence, and community violence. Studied protective factors included family support function, frequency of family dinner, and school attachment. Results Of the 1,049 students surveyed, 12.7% reported sexual intercourse during the past three months. Out of those sexually active students, 34.6% reported having two or more sex partners over the same period, and 52.6% did not use a condom during their last sexual intercourse. After controlling for other covariates, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated among male participants with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of peer delinquency, and higher family income. In contrast, risky sexual behavior did not retain its associations with any of the measured protective factors among male participants. Among female participants, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of community-violence witnessing, and lower levels of family support. Conclusions The findings suggest the importance of considering

  2. Harry and Sally Revisited: The Influence of Spirituality and Education on Sexual Tension in Cross-Sex Friendships in Secular and Christian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Darren; Adalikwu-Obisike, Justina; Boyko, Jesse; Johnson, Jay; Boscanin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    A sample of 406 subjects completed a questionnaire testing the influence of personal spirituality, education and several other factors on sexual tension in cross-sex friendships (CSF Tension). The subjects included 143 students from a Christian university (CU), 137 from a secular junior college (JC), and 127 non-students (NS). The primary…

  3. Creative work environments in sport organizations: the influence of sexual orientation diversity and commitment to diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, George B

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from creative capital theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which sexual orientation diversity and commitment to diversity were predictive of workplaces that fostered creativity. Data were collected from 653 senior level athletic administrators and aggregated to the athletic department level of analysis (n = 199). Moderated regression indicated that sexual orientation diversity did not influence the presence of a creative work environment. There was however, a significant sexual orientation diversity × commitment to diversity interaction. When commitment to diversity was high, there was a positive association between sexual orientation diversity and a creative work environment; on the other hand, when commitment to diversity was low, the aforementioned relationship was negative. Results provide support for the notion that all diversity forms can be a source of enrichment and understanding, thereby benefiting the workplace.

  4. "A question of love and trust? The role of relationship factors in adolescent sexual decision-making"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Objective While representing only 25% of the sexually active population, 50% of all new STI infections occur among young people, mostly due to inconsistent condom use. Critically, the majority of adolescent sexual activity takes place in the context of romantic relationships, thus it is important to understand how relationship factors may influence decision-making about the use, or not, of protection. Method We utilized a mixed method approach to investigate the extent to which relationship length, degree of trust or love in the relationship, and frequency of intercourse influence both perceptions of the probability of condom use and self-reported condom use in the context of relationships among a diverse sample of high risk adolescents (ages 12–19). Results Participants were least likely to use condoms if they were in relationships with high trust/love and high frequency of intercourse. Importantly, sexual experience status was a strong moderator of primary effects. Conclusion The perspective of motivated cognition provides a useful theoretical framework to better understand adolescent decision-making about condom use, particularly for sexually experienced youth. PMID:26114614

  5. The Influence of Presession Factors in the Assessment of Deviant Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession…

  6. Minireview: Hormones and Human Sexual Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex...

  7. Thymic Output: Influence Factors and Molecular Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Jin; Jun Zhang; Weifeng Chen

    2006-01-01

    Thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, able to generate mature T cells that eventually colonize secondary lymphoid organs, and is therefore essential for peripheral T cell renewal. Recent data showed that normal thymocyte export can be altered by several influence factors including several chemokines,sphingosinel-phosphate (S1P),transcription factors such as Foxjl, Kruppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2) and antigen stimulation, etc. In this review, we summarized the recent reports about study strategies, influence factors and possible molecular mechanisms in thymic output.

  8. 31. FACTORS INFLUENCING UTILIZATION OF INTERMITTENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    treatment of malaria during pregnancy(IPTp), effective IPTp service utilization ... effective case management of malaria. Despite the ... Factors influencing IPTp utilization identified in the study included; educational status of a woman,. Medical ...

  9. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Factors Influencing Performance and Progress of Primary School Pupils in ... found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school ... on school progress and performance, however; home language did play a role.

  10. Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers among Tertiary ... role stereotype and common business practices on media self employment in ... Sex, Psycho-social Characteristics, self Employment, Providing Media Services.

  11. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  12. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human beings are ... Key words: Mursik, Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), probiotic, Preschoolers, Focus group

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING AS A. PROFESSION ... Colleges of Health Technology undergoing external ... questionnaire requested information on age ... individual with good communication skills and ...

  14. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING SUSTAINED MANAGERIAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Marius RIZESCU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effectiveness is learnable in economic theory and practice with various forms of manifestation of the results obtained by the managers, such as profitability, the productivity of factors of production, capital efficiency, cost savings, etc. Regarded as the organizing principle and driving activity in the market economy, it has a much richer content and also favorable results of generalizing all derived by managers. Choosing effective in meeting needs with limited resources or powerlessness to maximize resource needs under restrains, are expressions through which efficiency is situated at the heart of economic theory and practice.

  16. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  17. Views on social and cultural influence on sexuality and sexual health in groups of Ugandan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råssjö, Eva-Britta; Kiwanuka, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Sexual problems such as forced and transactional sex are common among adolescents, especially in developing countries. The objective of the present study was to describe how young people respond to their social living conditions and why they marry early, have early pregnancies, experience forced sex and involve themselves in transactional sex. Young people, 15-24 years old, participated in focus group discussions that were tape recorded, translated into English, transcribed and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Six groups were mixed, with both women and men, while two groups had only men and one group only women as participants. The two study sites were located in a slum area in Kampala and in a village in Wakiso district, near a trading centre. The following topics were discussed: Forced sex, early marriage, contraception, teenage pregnancy and transactional sex. The participants described how young people are affected by harmful cultural practices, by power imbalance, especially due to gender-based inequity, and by lack of information and life skills. This study also showed that young people perceive themselves as a resource and are prepared to help other less advantaged youth to get knowledge about reproductive health issues. Enforcement of laws that can protect children and youth was suggested. Government and community should work against harmful traditional practices and introduce sexual education in primary school.

  18. 中国城市独生子女与非独生子女婚前性行为及影响因素研究%Status and influencing factors of premarital sexual behaviour among youth in the cities of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和红; 曹桂

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore differences in the status and influencing factors of premarital sexual behaviours between only children and children with siblings in the cities of China, and provide a basis for health education among youth. Methods; An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among 3 282 youth in four cities in 2009, and the premarital sexual behaviour of 1 631 unmarried youth were analysed. Results; The proportion of the premarital sexual behaviour was 23.7% for only children and 26.3% for children with siblings group, showing no significant difference ( P > 0.05). The average age of the first premarital sex was 21.27 ± 2. 466 years old for all youth, 21. 39 ± 2. 771 years old for only children group, and 21. 15 ± 2.138 years old for children with siblings group, showing no significant difference (P >0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that men, older persons, and someone with low education level, having boy/girl friend, no job, and living with parents were inclined to have premarital sexual behaviours (P <0.05). Conclusion; High proportion of the premarital sexual behaviour a-mong youth of the cities in China, whether or not the only child, is found. It maybe associated with the current social environment of modern China. Systematic and comprehensive reproductive health education should be provided to them.%目的:了解中国城市独生子女与非独生子女婚前性行为发生状况及影响因素,为开展城市青年健康教育提供科学依据.方法:2009年11 ~12月,采用多阶段随机抽样的方法对北京、保定、西安和黄石等4个城市中年龄20~34岁的1 474名独生子女和l 808名非独生子女进行入户问卷调查,选取其中1 631名未婚者进行分析.结果:①发生婚前性行为比例独生子女为23.6%,非独生子女为27.0%,差异无统计学意义;②初次婚前性行为的年龄为21.27±2.47岁,其中独生子女为21.39±2.77岁,非独生子女为21.15±2.14岁,差异无统计学意义

  19. Variation properties of ionospheric eclipse factor and ionospheric influence factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunmei; YUAN Yunbin; OU Jikun; CHEN Jinping

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and calculation methods of ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) and ionospheric influence factor (IFF) are further illustrated. The temporal and spacial variation properties of IEF and IFF are studied, which shows that the properties are influenced by the geographic position and season. The possibility of improving the precision of using GPS data to determine ionospheric delay based on the above variation properties is also analysed.

  20. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPOSTING POULTRY WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kopeć

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic recycling of waste, taking into account sanitary safety, should be a fundamental method for recovering the nutrients present in the waste for plants and organic matter. It also refers to by-products of animal origin, which are not intended for consumption by humans. In the present research , composting of hydrated poultry slaughterhouse waste with maize straw was carried out. A combination with fodder yeast and post-cellulose lime was also introduced, which modified chemical and physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. The experiment was carried out by recording the biomass temperature for 110 days in 1.2×1.0×0.8 m reactors with perforated bottoms enabling active aeration. The following parameters were taken into consideration in the composted material: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, respiratory activity, microorganisms, fractions of compost obtained after washing on sieves. Small amounts of fodder yeast favoured the development of microorganisms and caused a sanitary risk in the final product. At the initial stage, the temperature of raw compost in that object was several degrees lower than in the case of the composted mass without yeast addition. The addition of post-cellulose lime at ratios 6.5:1:6.5 (maize straw: poultry slaughterhouse waste: post-cellulose lime caused a change in the time of microbiological activity, and led to its inhibition in the final process. In comparison to objects with poultry waste, the highest degree of hygienization was found in the compost with post-cellulose lime (with pH close to neutral. By adjusting the ratios of substrates we can influence the microbiological activity, but the amounts of individual substrates should be determined taking into account the quality of the obtained compost.

  1. Assessing God Locus of Control as a Factor in College Students' Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erin W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study explored God locus of control beliefs (ie, God's control over behavior) regarding their influence on alcohol use and sexual behavior as an alternative religiosity measure to religious behaviors, which does not capture perceived influence of religiosity. Additionally, demographic differences in religious beliefs were…

  2. The Influence of Living Situations on Family Therapy Involvement Among Youth Adjudicated of a Sexual Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jamie R

    2016-04-01

    Clinical and research professionals working with youth who have sexually offended have increasingly advocated for community-based care. However, other scholars have noted the appropriateness of residential placements for many youth. Research is inconclusive concerning the degree to which youth with sexually harmful behaviors receive family services, particularly family therapy in either community-based care settings or residential settings, and has yet to thoroughly identify how placement influences family therapy involvement. This study reviews the files of youth who have been adjudicated of a sexual crime (N = 85) to quantitatively identify how living situations influence family therapy involvement. Using bivariate estimations, findings reveal that youth living out of the home and those who change placements were more involved in family therapy than those treated in their own communities or homes. Implications and future research directions are considered. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Risk and associated factors of female sexual orgasmic disorder in women with hypertension in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Latif, Rozimah; Muhamad, Rosediani; Kanagasundram, Sharmilla; Sidi, Hatta; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Midin, Marhani; Das, Srijit; Ng, Chong Guan

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the risk of female sexual orgasmic disorder among a group of women with hypertension in Malaysia. The associated factors were also examined. This cross-sectional study involved 348 hypertensive women attending the primary care or hypertension clinic in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. Female sexual orgasmic disorder was assessed using the Orgasmic subscale of the Malay Version of the Female Sexual Function Index (MVFSFI). Basic socio-demographic data of the subjects was collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Medical records were reviewed to gather patients' medical information. The risk of female sexual orgasmic disorder among hypertensive women was 14.1%. Univariate analysis found that older age, longer duration of marriage, lower educational level, and menopause were associated with higher risk of female sexual orgasmic disorder. These factors were not significant in multivariate analysis. The risk of female sexual orgasmic disorder was relatively low in Malaysian women with hypertension. No risk factors were associated with female sexual orgasmic disorder in the current study. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Factors Influencing the Quality of Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin ZAMFIROIU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications are becoming increasingly used. Mobile devices are becoming indispensable for the user. In the material are claiming the sales of mobile devices internationally and the use of mobile applications compared to traditional internet use on desktop systems for the United States. Are presented influences the quality of mobile applications and based on these influencing factors built a model of choice for optimal application of mobile applications and traditional desktop application. At the end of the material presented methods to increase quality by tracking the influence factors during the development of mobile applications.

  5. Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Bilodeau, Stéphanie; Langlois, Geneviève; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2011-07-01

    Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity.

  6. Factors associated with self-reported first sexual intercourse in Scottish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is continuing concern about high pregnancy rates and increasing numbers of sexually transmitted infections being detected in Scottish adolescents. Consistent evidence about factors associated with risky sexual behaviours, including early first sexual intercourse, may help to identify adolescents at risk and help improve interventions. This study aimed to provide detailed analysis of the evidence of the associations between individual factors and early sexual intercourse using cross-sectional questionnaire data from 4,379 Scottish adolescents who participated in a sexual health intervention evaluation. Findings Multivariate secondary analysis showed that aspects of family and school life such as decreasing parental monitoring (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.24–1.70 and decreasing enjoyment of school (OR 2.55, 95% CI 2.15–3.03 were associated with reporting previous sexual intercourse. Furthermore, females were more likely to report previous sexual intercourse than males (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.14–1.91. Several factors commonly used to inform sexual health intervention design, such as socioeconomic status, self-esteem and religion, were not independently associated. Conclusion These results contribute to the evidence base for the association of several factors with early initiation of sexual activity. The findings suggest that interventions aiming to delay first intercourse may need to consider targeting aspects of individuals' connection to their school and family. Furthermore, the results do not support the need to consider socio-economic background, religion or self-esteem of the individuals in intervention design.

  7. Perceived interpersonal discrimination and depressive symptoms among sexual minority youth: Is religious affiliation a protective factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattis, Maurice N.; Woodford, Michael R.; Han, Yoonsun

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. Midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depression relationship among self-identified sexual minority (n = 393) and heterosexual youth (n = 1,727). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, religious affiliation was found to moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among sexual minorities. Specifically, the results indicated that the harmful effects of discrimination among sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations that endorsed same-sex marriage were significantly less than those among peers who affiliated with denominations opposing same-sex marriage, as well as those among peers who identified as secular. In contrast, religious affiliation with gay-affirming denominations did not moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among heterosexual participants. The findings suggest that although religion and same-sex sexuality are often seen as incompatible topics, it is important when working with sexual minority clients for clinicians to assess religious affiliation, as it could be either a risk or a protective factor, depending on the religious group’s stance toward same-sex sexuality. To promote the well-being of sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations opposed to same-sex marriage, the results suggest these faith communities may be encouraged to reconsider their position and/or identify ways to foster youth’s resilience to interpersonal discrimination. PMID:25119387

  8. Psychosocial factors associated with sexual behaviour in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, O.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; Klein, D.; Jarcuska, P.; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare the psychosocial characteristics of sexually inexperienced adolescents with those of youths who had had sex, whether safe or unsafe. Methods We gathered information on self-esteem, well-being, social support, family structure, educational aspiration, parental education and sexu

  9. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  10. Psychosocial factors associated with sexual behaviour in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, O.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; Klein, D.; Jarcuska, P.; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    Objectives To compare the psychosocial characteristics of sexually inexperienced adolescents with those of youths who had had sex, whether safe or unsafe. Methods We gathered information on self-esteem, well-being, social support, family structure, educational aspiration, parental education and

  11. Psychosocial factors associated with sexual behaviour in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, O.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; Klein, D.; Jarcuska, P.; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare the psychosocial characteristics of sexually inexperienced adolescents with those of youths who had had sex, whether safe or unsafe. Methods We gathered information on self-esteem, well-being, social support, family structure, educational aspiration, parental education and sexu

  12. Cognitive Factors in Sexual Arousal: The Role of Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, James H.; Fuhr, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Four groups of male undergraduates were instructed to perform complex cognitive operations when randomly presented single digits of a dichotic listening paradigm. An erotic tape recording was played into the nonattended ear. Sexual arousal varied directly as a function of the complexity of the distracting cognitive operations. (Author)

  13. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  14. Drugs, alcohol and sexual health: opportunities to influence risk behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keaney Francis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol and drug consumption can affect judgment and may contribute towards an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour. In this cross sectional survey of clients attending STI services levels of drug and alcohol use were assessed using two standardised drug and alcohol screening instruments (the PAT and the SDS. Findings The rates of hazardous alcohol consumption were similar to those found among patients attending A&E departments. Approximately 15% of clients indicated possible dependence on alcohol or other drugs, and these clients were likely to cite their substance use as related to their attendance, and to accept the offer of help or advice. Conclusion The use of brief screening instruments as part of routine clinical practice is recommended. The STI clinic is well placed to identify substance use and to offer advice and/or onward referral to specialist services.

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING UNINTENDED PREGNANCY AND ABORTION AMONG UNMARRIED YOUTH IN VIETNAM: A LITERATURE REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Nguyen Thi; Tuan, Pham Cong

    2015-12-01

    Unintended pregnancy and abortion among unmarried youths arepublic health issues in Vietnam. This review aims to analyse factors influencing unintended pregnancy and abortion among unmarried youths using published and unpublished literatures. An ecological model was used as the conceptual framework with five levels of factors to guide the analysis. The intrapersonal factors include increasing permissive attitudes and practices of premarital sex, lack of knowledge on contraception, andlow self-efficacy among females. The interpersonal factors include poor communication among partners and between parents and youths on sexuality-related issues, and peer-influence. The organizational factors include inadequate sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for youths. The contextual factors include gender inequality, cultural norms, and migration. The final level is lack of separate policy on youth SRH. The findings point out four major determinants of unintended pregnancy and abortion among unmarried youths, including: 1) cultural norms, which consider premarital sex is a taboo; 2) lack and inadequate quality of sexuality education in the schools; 3) lack of youth-friendly SRH services; and 4) no separate policy addressing youth SRH.

  16. Patient factors that influence warfarin dose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pamela J

    2010-06-01

    Warfarin has long been the mainstay of oral anticoagulation therapy for the treatment and prevention of venous and arterial thrombosis. The narrow therapeutic index of warfarin, and the complex number of factors that influence international normalized ratio (INR) response, makes optimization of warfarin therapy challenging. Determination of the appropriate warfarin dose during initiation and maintenance therapy requires an understanding of patient factors that influence dose response: age, body weight, nutritional status, acute and chronic disease states, and changes in concomitant drug therapy and diet. This review will examine specific clinical factors that can affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin, as well as the role of pharmacogenetics in optimizing warfarin therapy.

  17. Autonomy and intimacy in the family as risk factors for sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Repič

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the level of two risk factors (autonomy and intimacy for healthy functional family among sexually abused and sexually non-abused individuals. Autonomy and intimacy were measured with Family-of-Origin Scale (FOS; Hovestadt, Anderson, Piercy, Cochran, & Fine, 1985. 261 participants (194 girls and 67 boys completed the FOS, average age was 25 years (SD = 7. Among all participants 18% were sexually abused (N = 46, approximately every fifth (5.7 girl and every seventh (6.7 boy. There were 78% girls and 22% boys among sexually abused participants. Families of sexually abused participants in comparison with the families of sexually non-abused showed many statistically significant differences in elements of autonomy (clarity of expressing emotions, responsibility, respect for others, openness to others, and acceptance of separation and loss and intimacy (encouraging expression of a range of feelings, creating a warm atmosphere in the home, dealing with conflict resolution without undue stress, promoting empathy among family members, trust and developing trust. In general the sexually abused group had a statistically significantly lower level of autonomy and intimacy in comparison with sexually non-abused group.

  18. Sexual violence and associated factors among women in HIV discordant and concordant relationships in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Faisal M B; Ehiri, John E; Jolly, Pauline; Zhang, Qionghui; Emusu, Donath; Ngu, Julius; Foushee, Herman; Katongole, Drake; Kirby, Russell; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred

    2012-01-01

    HIV serodiscordance is a sexual partnership in which one partner is infected with HIV while the other is not. Managing emotional and sexual intimacy in HIV serodiscordant unions can be difficult due to concerns about HIV transmission and the challenge of initiating and maintaining safe sex. In situations where couples are jointly aware of their HIV status, women in serodiscordant unions may face increased risk of partner violence. We conducted an investigation to assess risk factors for HIV serodiscordance and determine if HIV serodiscordance is associated with incident sexual violence among a cohort of women attending HIV post-test club services at three AIDS Information Centers (AICs) in Uganda. Using a prospective study of 250 women, we elicited information about sexual violence using structured face-to-face interviews. Sexual violence and risk factors were assessed and compared among HIV positive women in HIV discordant unions, HIV negative women in discordant unions, and HIV negative women in negative concordant unions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between participants' serostatus and sexual violence. HIV negative women in serodiscordant relationships (36.1±11.1 years, range: 19-65 years) were significantly older than either HIV positive women in serodiscordant relationships (32.2±9.0 years, range: 18-56 years), or HIV negative women in concordant relationships (32.3±11.0 years, range: 18-62), (p=0.033). Early age at sexual debut was associated with a 2.4-fold increased risk of experiencing sexual violence (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.27-4.65). Based on unadjusted analysis, HIV positive women in discordant relationship were at highest risk for sexual violence compared to HIV negative women in discordant unions, and HIV negative women in negative concordant unions. HIV negative women in discordant relationships and those in concordant negative relationships showed no increased risk for sexual violence. However, couples' HIV

  19. Study on Hetero- and Homo- Sexual Behaviors and Influencing Factors in Unmarried Out-of-school Youth Aged 15 to 24 Years%15~24岁校外未婚青年异/同性间性行为发生状况及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡塔静; 左霞云; 廉启国; 王子亮; 余春艳; 涂晓雯; 程艳; 楼超华

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解15~24岁校外未婚青年与异性/同性发生性行为的状况及其影响因素,为向该人群提供性与生殖健康教育和服务提供依据。方法:在中国6个省的城市和农村地区,对1113人校外未婚青年进行计算机辅助的自填匿名问卷调查。结果:15~18岁组和19~24岁组男性异/同性间性行为发生率均高于女性(P<0.05)。异性间性行为时,15~18岁组7.14%的女性报告首次性行为属被迫发生;15~18岁组和19~24岁组男、女性首次性行为安全措施的使用率为66.67%和40.00%及58.82%和49.11%,男性报告使性伴怀孕和女性报告怀孕的比例接近(30.00%);19~24岁组性伴个数2名及以上男性报告率高于女性(P<0.01)。同性间性行为时,15~18岁组男、女性报告平均年龄仅14岁;19~24岁组15.79%的男性报告首次性行为属被迫发生,46.15%的男性和33.33%的女性报告有2名以上性伴。多因素分析显示,男、女性与异性发生性行为共同的危险因素为看黄色制品和年龄较大(OR男分别为3.51和3.81,OR女分别为6.41和3.58);与赞成婚前性行为相比,本人不能接受婚前性行为(OR=0.18)、父母不能接受婚前性行为(OR=0.37)和朋友持无所谓态度(OR=0.47)是男性的保护因素;与赞成婚前性行为相比,自己认为婚前性行为不好(OR=0.14)和不能接受(OR=0.06)、朋友不能接受婚前性行为(OR=0.16)和不清楚朋友态度(OR=0.21)是女性的保护因素,父母持无所谓态度是女性的危险因素(OR=12.56)。结论:校外未婚青年与异性/同性的性行为及危险性行为发生率较高,并与接触过黄色制品、个人及父母/同伴的开放态度呈正相关。%Objective:To explore heterosexual and homosexual behaviors, and influencing factors, in those unmarried out-of-school young people aged 15 to 24 years, so as to provide the basis on

  20. The association of sexual interest and sexual behaviors among adolescent women: A daily diary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Hensel, Devon J.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical linkages of adult women’s sexual interest and sexual behaviors are relatively well-established, but few data address similar issues in adolescent women. This paper reviews data from published reports of associations of adolescent women’s sexual interest and various sexual behaviors. All of the papers reported data collected from a single longitudinal cohort of young women. The primary source of data collection was daily diaries, allowing close temporal pairing of sexual interest with sexual behaviors. Young women’s sexual interest on a given day was consistently and independently associated with sexual activity on that day, whether the behavior was first lifetime coitus, coitus, fellatio, cunnilingus, anal intercourse, or coitus during menses. We also found no evidence of influence of hormonal contraceptives on young women’s sexual interest. Taken together, these data demonstrate the relevance of sexual interest as a key factor in young women’s sexuality and sexual behavior. PMID:21397605

  1. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Jitse P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.

  2. The Influence of the Family on Adolescent Sexual Experience: A Comparison between Baltimore and Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmari, Kristin; Kalamar, Amanda M; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Venables, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to understand the role of the family on the sexual experiences of adolescents from urban, disadvantaged settings in Baltimore and Johannesburg. Data were collected as part of the WAVE study, a global study of disadvantaged youth in five cities. Qualitative data were based on key informant interviews, a Photovoice exercise, community mapping, focus groups and in-depth interviews with adolescents. Quantitative data were gathered from an ACASI survey that was administered to approximately 450-500 adolescents per site. Results from the qualitative data revealed that while parents were viewed as important sources of information for sexual and reproductive health, they were often not present in the adolescents' lives. This lack of parental presence was perceived to result in adolescents feeling an overall lack of adult support and guidance. The impact of parental presence and support on adolescent sexual experience was further examined from the quantitative data and revealed a complex picture. In both Baltimore and Johannesburg, female adolescents who were raised by other relatives were less likely to report having had sex compared to those raised by two biological parents, which was not observed for males. In Johannesburg, female adolescents who were paternal orphans were less likely to have had sex compared to non-orphans; the opposite was true among males. Finally, in both sites, female adolescents who had been exposed to violence were more likely to have had sex compared to those who had not; for males, there was no significant relationship. The study demonstrates the powerful influence of both context and gender for understanding the influences of the family on adolescent sexual behaviors. Programs aiming to reduce adolescent sexual risk behaviors the need to understand the complex influences on risk behaviors in different settings and in particular, the role of mothers and fathers. Prevention strategies need to also understand

  3. Factores asociados a síntomas depresivos en trabajadoras sexuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Mercedes Bohórquez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las condiciones de trabajo y la violencia ejercida contra las trabajadoras sexuales han sido relacionadas con el incremento de las tasas de infecciones de transmisión sexual. Sin embargo, también se encuentran enfermedades que afectan su salud mental. Objetivos: Determinar la magnitud de síntomas depresivos y factores asociados en trabajadoras sexuales. Diseño: Estudio transversal-analítico. Lugar: Centro de salud referencial para la prevención y control de infecciones de transmisión sexual. Participantes: Trabajadoras sexuales. Intervenciones: A 117 trabajadoras sexuales, que fueron atendidas durante los meses de mayo y junio del 2010, se aplicó el test de Beck para medir la sintomatología depresiva y una encuesta para medir los siguientes factores: socio-demográficos, sociales (antecedentes de maltrato físico, psicológico y sexual en el trabajo y hábitos nocivos: alcohol y drogas, conductas sexuales de riesgo y características del trabajo (edad de inicio, años de trabajo, satisfacción con el trabajo. Principales medidas de resultados: Porcentaje de síntomas depresivos y fuerza de asociación entre los factores y la presencia de síntomas depresivos. Resultados: El 56,4% de las trabajadoras sexuales presentó algún nivel de sintomatología depresiva. El nivel de síntomas depresivos graves estuvo presente en 23,9%. Los factores que se encontraron asociados a depresión, independiente del nivel, fue el antecedente de maltrato físico frecuente, con OR=9,46, IC95% 1,05 a 85,07; p=0,045. Los factores asociados a nivel de síntomas depresivos graves fueron: ingreso económico menor a S/. 1 000.00, tener hijos, haberse iniciado en el trabajo sexual antes de los 18 años y consumo de drogas (p<0,05. Conclusiones: Más de 50% de trabajadoras presentó algún nivel de síntomas depresivos, que estuvieron asociados al antecedente de maltrato físico. Para el nivel síntomas depresivos graves, los factores asociados

  4. Influential Factors of Puerto Rican Mother-Child Communication About Sexual Health Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Maria Idalí; Granberry, Phillip; Person, Sharina; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros; Rustan, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    Introduction Latina mothers play a central role in raising and socializing their children; however, few studies have examined the cultural, socio-cognitive and neighborhood-related variables influencing the level of communication between Puerto Rican mothers and their children about sexuality and sexual health. This cross-sectional study sought to examine these influences. Methods Puerto Rican mothers with children aged 10-19 years (n = 193) were selected randomly for an ethnographic interview as part of a community participatory action research project in a U.S. urban northeastern community. Results Bivariate analyses found statistically significant associations between the child's age (p = 0.002), the mother's past communication about traditional gender role norms of women (marianismo) (p marianismo as a framework within which Puerto Rican mothers communicate sexual health information as well as the need to improve mothers' confidence discussing sexual health issues with their children. Future public health interventions to promote communication about sexuality and sexual health among Puerto Rican mothers should consider addressing this issue as a part of comprehensive neighborhood improvement projects.

  5. Frequency of sexual dysfunction and its causative factors among diabetic women in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Duman, Nuriye Buyukkayaci

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of sexual dysfunction and its causative factors among the diabetic women. Methods: The sample of the research was made up of 200 diabetic women selected using simple-random sampling who went to endocrinology poly clinics for counseling and treatment. The data were gathered with Data Collection Form for Women’s Descriptive Characteristics designed by the researchers using the information in literature, Female Sexual Function Index and Beck Depression Inven...

  6. Sexual activity and cardiac risk: is depression a contributing factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose, S P; Seidman, S N

    2000-07-20

    There is a well-documented association between depression, ischemic heart disease, and cardiovascular mortality. This association has a number of dimensions including: (1) depressed patients have a higher than expected rate of sudden cardiovascular death; (2) over the course of a lifetime, patients with depression develop symptomatic and fatal ischemic heart disease at a higher rate compared with a nondepressed group; and (3) depression after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with increased cardiac mortality. Depression is also associated with sexual dysfunction, particularly erectile dysfunction. If depression is the primary illness, then erectile dysfunction can be considered a symptom of the depressive illness. However, if the erectile dysfunction is primary, men may develop a depressive syndrome in reaction to the loss of sexual function. Regardless of whether erectile dysfunction is a symptom of depression or depression is a consequence of erectile dysfunction, these conditions are frequently comorbid. Thus, the patient with ischemic heart disease who is depressed is more likely to have erectile difficulties. An attempt by this patient to engage in sexual activity is therefore more likely to be unsuccessful and, given the increase in cardiac mortality associated with depression, it may result in a serious cardiac event.

  7. [Sexual behavior and associated factors among Korean junior high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyuyoung; Song, Seunghun

    2015-01-01

    The study purpose was to identify the sexual behavior and associated factors of Korean junior high school students. Raw data from the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey were used. Among the data from 72,435 students, 36,530 junior high school students were analyzed. Complex sample frequency analysis and complex sample chi-square were used to identify the condition of sexual behavior, and complex sample logistic regression was used to examine the factors related to sexual behavior. Among the students, 3.8% responded that they had experienced sexual intercourse, and the prevalence of sexual intercourse was higher among male students (5.0%) compared to female students (2.5%). Among male students, those who had the following were more likely to have had sexual intercourse: perceived high economic status, living with a relative, experience with a partti-me job, a foreign father, experience with smoking and drinking during the past month, experience with drug use, and depression during the past 12 months. Among the female students who were more likely to have had sexual intercourse, the following were ascertained: higher grades, perceived high economic status, living with a relative or in childcare facilities, experience with a part-time job, a foreign father or mother, experience with smoking and drinking during the past month, and experience with drug use. The results suggest that it is important to develop a comprehensive approach program not only focused on sexual behavior but also including mental health or other health behaviors to effectively reduce the likelihood of sexual intercourse among Korean junior high school students.

  8. Factors associated with attitude toward premarital sexual activities among school-going adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Azriani Abdul; Rahman, Razlina Abdul; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Ali, Siti Hawa; Salleh, Halim; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors associated with the attitudes toward premarital sexual activities among school-going adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. It was conducted among 1032 secondary school students using a self-administered validated questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the risk factors for having permissive attitudes toward practice of premarital sexual activities were male students (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34-2.48), being less religious (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.49-2.73), and younger age group of students (13 to 14 years old; OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.05-1.92). Having good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health was a protective factor against permissive sexual attitude (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.20-0.36). In conclusion, male and young adolescents were at risk of having permissive attitudes toward sexual behaviors, but good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health and being more religious may protect them from it. © 2012 APJPH.

  9. 慢性肾衰竭男性患者血液透析后性功能障碍的影响因素分析%Influencing Factors for Sexual Dysfunction in Patients with ℅hronic Renal Failure after Hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵佳; 张华锋; 蔡国梅

    2014-01-01

    behavior exists)and group B(102 cases,sexual behavior does not exist). Sexual function,depression and life quality of patients were investigated by using International Index of Erectile Function(IIEF-5),Beck depression self-reported questionnaire(BDI)and Health questionnaire(SF-36). The clinical data and the result of questionnaire survey were compared between two groups of patients,the influence factors for ED was assessed by using binomial Logistic regression analy-sis.Results Thereweresignificantdifferencesinage,serumcreatininebeforethedialysis,calciumlevel,phosphoruslevel, urea clearance index(spKt/V)and plasma iPTH level between two groups of patients(P<0. 05). The degree of ED and de-pression in group A were significantly lower than those in group B(P <0. 05);The scores of BP,VT/FG,REP and total scores of SF-36 in group A were significantly higher than those in group B,EH score in group A was significantly lower than that in group B(P<0. 05). According to results of Logistic regression analysis,there were remarkable regression relationships be-tween age,diabetes,BDI scores and erectile function,intercourse satisfaction,total scores of sexual orgasm and sexual function (P<0. 05). There were remarkable regression relationships between BDI score,serum levels of creatinine,calcium,urea ni-trogenandcomprehensivedegreeofsatisfaction(P<0.05).℅onclusion Olderage,depressionanddiabeteswereriskfactors for sexual dysfunction in patients with chronic renal failure after hemodialysis.

  10. Family and Friend Influence on Urban-Dwelling American Indian Adolescent Girl's Sexual Risk Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftner, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    Previous research with American Indian (AI) adolescent sexual risk behavior primarily focused on reservation-dwelling youth despite 70% of AIs living off Native lands. Using grounded theory methodology, I sampled 20 adolescent AI girls via talking circles and interviews to explore the perceptions of AI adolescent girls living in an urban, Midwest area about the influence of family and friends on their sexual behavior. Similar to research with other racial groups, participants cited their family and friends as a major influence. Five unique themes emerged related to family and friend influence. Urban-dwelling AI girls rely on their female family members and peers for information related to sex and receive varying messages from their networks of family and friends, which often overlap. AI youth have unique family groups yet have some similarities to other ethnic groups with regard to family and friend relationships that may allow for enhanced intervention development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The influence of sexual hormones on lipogenesis and lipolysis in rat fat cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Mølgård; Fahmy, N; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1980-01-01

    synthesis and the lipolysis oscillated considerably more in fat cells from female rats than in fat cells from male rats. This was found to be due to the oestrous cycle, since the fatty acid synthesis was high in prooestrus and low in both oestrus and dioestrus, while the lipolysis was higher in oestrus....... Since these rats were fasted three hours before the experiments, the results were not due to differences in food intake. It is concluded that fat cell metabolism is influenced by sexual hormones. The results are compatible with the hypothesis that the variation in food intake due to sexual hormones......The insulin-stimulated conversion of glucose to fatty acids (fatty acid synthesis) and the maximally norepinephrine-stimulated lipolysis were studied in isolated fat cells from normal male and female rats, ovariectomized rats and sexual hormone-treated normal and ovariectomized rats. The fatty acid...

  12. Influencing factors in MMR immunisation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Marie C; Cox, Carol L

    Immunisation decision making is not a straightforward process for parents. Many factors influence parental decision making on whether they immunise their child with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The feasibility study described in this article provides insight into influencing factors associated with decisions regarding the immunisation of children by parents. The study findings suggest that the practice nurse is a credible source of information for parents seeking informed decision making. At a time when the incidence of measles and mumps is rising in the UK, the provision of appropriate information by the practice nurse has the potential to increase uptake of the MMR vaccine.

  13. Structural factors associated with an increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection transmission among street-involved youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoveller Jean A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among street-involved youth greatly exceed that of the general adolescent population; however, little is known regarding the structural factors that influence disease transmission risk among this population. Methods Between September 2005 and October 2006, 529 street-involved youth were enroled in a prospective cohort known as the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS. We examined structural factors associated with number of sex partners using quasi-Poisson regression and consistent condom use using logistic regression. Results At baseline, 415 (78.4% were sexually active, of whom 253 (61.0% reported multiple sex partners and 288 (69.4% reported inconsistent condom use in the past six months. In multivariate analysis, self-reported barriers to health services were inversely associated with consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.25 – 1.07. Structural factors that were associated with greater numbers of sex partners included homelessness (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.11 – 2.14 and having an area restriction that affects access to services (aIRR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.28 – 4.18. Being searched or detained by the police was significant for males (aIRR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.02 – 1.81. Conclusion Although limited by its cross-sectional design, our study found several structural factors amenable to policy-level interventions independently associated with sexual risk behaviours. These findings imply that the criminalization and displacement of street-involved youth may increase the likelihood that youth will engage in sexual risk behaviours and exacerbate the negative impact of resultant health outcomes. Moreover, our findings indicate that environmental-structural interventions may help to reduce the burden of these diseases among street youth in urban settings.

  14. Prevalence of and risk factors for sexual victimization in college women in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Vivian L; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Oyarzún, Pamela B

    2007-12-01

    To date, no quantitative studies have examined the prevalence or correlates of sexual violence among college students in Chile. An anonymous survey with questions on gender-based violence, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and childhood experiences with violence was administered to students at a major public university in Santiago. Descriptive statistics were generated to determine the prevalence and context of sexual victimization experienced by female students, and ordered logit models were used to identify associated risk factors. Nine percent of subjects reported that the most severe form of undesired sexual contact they had experienced since age 14 was rape; 6% indicated attempted rape and 16% another form of sexual victimization. Seventeen percent of subjects reported having experienced some form of undesired sexual contact in the past 12 months alone. Alcohol or other drugs had been used in most cases of rape or attempted rape, by the victim (6%), the perpetrator (9%) or both (56%). In four sequential models, factors associated with increased odds of victimization included low parental education (Model 1) and childhood sexual abuse (Models 3 and 4); the association between witnessing domestic violence and victimization attained marginal significance (Model 2). Attending religious services during adolescence was associated with reduced odds of victimization (Models 1 and 2). Childhood sexual abuse was the only factor associated with victimization when all variables were included. A substantial proportion of young women in the sample reported experiences of rape, attempted rape or other forms of forced sexual contact, indicating a need for further attention to this public health problem in Chile.

  15. Masturbation among women: associated factors and sexual response in a Portuguese community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Leal, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Masturbation is a common sexual practice with significant variations in reported incidence between men and women. The goal of this study was to explore (a) the age at initiation and frequency of masturbation, (b) the associations of masturbation with diverse variables, (c) the reported reasons for masturbating and associated emotions, and (d) the relation between frequency of masturbation and different sexual behavioral factors. Participants were 3,687 women who completed a web-based survey of previously pilot-tested items. The results reveal a high reported incidence of masturbation practices among this convenience sample of women. Among the women in this sample, 91% indicated that they had masturbated at some point in their lives, and 29.3% reported having masturbated within the past month. Masturbation behavior appears to be related to a greater sexual repertoire, more sexual fantasies, and greater reported ease in reaching sexual arousal and orgasm. Women reported many reasons for masturbation and a variety of direct and indirect techniques. A minority of women reported feeling shame and guilt associated with masturbation. Early masturbation experience might be beneficial to sexual arousal and orgasm in adulthood. Further, this study demonstrates that masturbation is a positive component in the structuring of female sexuality.

  16. INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR LEASING MARKET CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors. This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.

  17. Influence of Sexual Values on Perceived Risk of Interfaith Marriage Among Unmarried Urban Students in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juneman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of interfaith marriage has been analyzed with the approach of theology, sociology, law, politics, and public policy. The original contribution of this study is its effort and aim to approach this phenomenon with psychological perspective. This study placed the level of one’s identification towards sexual values as predictors for his/her perceived risk of interfaith marriage, of which the values cannot be separated from metropolitan culture. This research is a quantitative research by employing predictive correlational design. The samples were 271 students (99 men, 172 women; Mage = 20.59 years, SDage = 1.67 years from five campuses in and around Jakarta. Research data analyses, by using multiple linear regression, show results which indicate that there is interaction between the gender with sexual values in influencing the risk perception. There are differences between men and women in terms of correlation between the two variables. In men, sexual values are not able to predict the perceived risk. In the Moslem women, two sexual values, i.e. absolutism and hedonism, are able to predict it. The results provide new insights regarding the relationship between sexuality with religion and marriage, particularly in urban areas in Indonesia.

  18. Influence of gender, sexual orientation, and need on treatment utilization for substance use and mental disorders: Findings from the California Quality of Life Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mays Vickie M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has shown a higher prevalence of substance use and mental disorders among sexual minorities, however, the influence of sexual orientation on treatment seeking has not been widely studied. We use a model of help-seeking for vulnerable populations to investigate factors related to treatment for alcohol or drug use disorders and mental health disorders, focusing on the contributions of gender, sexual orientation, and need. Methods Survey data were obtained from a population-based probability sample of California residents that oversampled for sexual minorities. Logistic regression was used to model the enabling, predisposing, and need-related factors associated with past-year mental health or substance abuse treatment utilization among adults aged 18–64 (N = 2,074. Results Compared with individuals without a diagnosed disorder, those with any disorder were more likely to receive treatment. After controlling for both presence of disorder and other factors, lesbians and bisexual women were most likely to receive treatment and heterosexual men were the least likely. Moreover, a considerable proportion of sexual orientation minorities without any diagnosable disorder, particularly lesbians and bisexual women, also reported receiving treatment. Conclusion The study highlights the need to better understand the factors beyond meeting diagnostic criteria that underlie treatment utilization among sexual minorities. Future research should also aim to ascertain the effects of treatment provided to sexual minorities with and without diagnosable disorders, including the possibility that the provision of such treatment may reduce the likelihood of their progression to greater severity of distress, disorders, or impairments in functioning.

  19. Sexual Orientation and Alcohol Use among College Students: The Influence of Drinking Motives and Social Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Jana L.; Ford, Jason A.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence indicates GLB individuals may be at greater risk for high rates of alcohol consumption; however, few studies have identified specific factors explaining why differences exist. Using data from the 2001 College Alcohol Study, we examined the ability of drinking motives and social norms to explain the relationship between sexual orientation…

  20. Rape Myth Acceptance, Efficacy, and Heterosexual Scripts in Men's Magazines: Factors Associated With Intentions to Sexually Coerce or Intervene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hust, Stacey J T; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; Ebreo, Stephanie; Stefani, Whitney

    2016-06-12

    Sexual coercion has gained researchers' attention as an underreported form of sexual abuse or harm. The percentage of male and female college students who reported engaging in sexual coercion was as high as 82% for verbally coercive behaviors over the course of a year. Guided by heterosexual scripting theory and the integrated model of behavioral prediction, we examine potential factors associated with college students' intentions to sexually coerce or to intervene when friends plan to sexually coerce (bystander intention). Factors included young college students' beliefs about rape myth acceptance, perceived norms, efficacy to reduce sexual-assault risk, and exposure to men's and women's magazines. As predicted, results indicate rape myth acceptance was positively associated with intentions to sexually coerce, and negatively associated with bystander intentions to intervene. Students' efficacy to reduce sexual-assault risk was negatively associated with intentions to sexually coerce, and positively associated with bystander intentions. Exposure to the heterosexual scripts in men's magazines, which connect sexual prowess to masculinity, was associated with intentions to sexually coerce. Exposure to magazines was not associated with bystander intentions to intervene. Overall, an understanding of the independent contribution of these factors toward sexual coercion and intervention has implications for dating violence prevention programming. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Comparison of childhood sexual histories in subjects with pedophilia or opiate addiction and healthy controls: is childhood sexual abuse a risk factor for addictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Forman, Howard; Steinfeld, Matthew; Fradkin, Yuli; Frenda, Steven; Galynker, Igor

    2010-11-01

    Given the recent interest in the concept of sexual addictions, it is instructive to study subjects with pedophilia alongside chemically addicted individuals and non-addicted controls in order to help identify which factors may determine the objects of people's respective addictions, as well as any factors that may predispose people to developing an addictive disorder. In this study, we considered whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a specific risk factor for pedophilia as opposed to other types of addictive disorders by comparing the childhood sexual histories of 48 pedophilic sex offenders, 25 subjects with opiate addiction in remission, and 61 healthy controls. CSA was assessed with The Sexual History Questionnaire and the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Compared with both opiate addicted subjects and healthy controls, subjects with pedophilia were more likely to report experiencing adult sexual advances when they were children and a first sexual contact by age 13 with a partner at least 5 years older. Although both subjects with pedophilia and those with opiate addiction first had sex at a younger age than healthy controls, opiate addicted subjects, compared with healthy controls, reported neither increased reception of sexual advances as children nor increased rates of first sexual contact before age 13 with a partner at least 5 years older. Further, subjects with pedophilia but not those with opiate addiction scored significantly higher than healthy controls on the CTQ. Sexual abuse in childhood may be a specific risk factor for sexual addictions such as pedophilia but may not be a specific risk factor for chemical addictions.

  2. Risky Sexual Behaviors and Associated Factors Among Male and Female Students in Jimma Zone Preparatory Schools, South West Ethiopia: Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Mamo, Abebe

    2014-01-01

    Background Youth engage in risk sexual behavior due to insufficient knowledge of reproductive health and family planning. Youth sexual behavior is important not only because of the possible reproductive outcomes, but also because of sexually transmitted infections. The level of risks and sexual behaviors are different between male and female youth due to sexual exposure and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to compare risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among male an...

  3. Prenatal sex ratios influence sexual dimorphism in a reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uller, Tobias; Olsson, Mats

    2003-02-01

    The prenatal environment influences offspring traits in a variety of ways and in a wide range of taxa. For example, maternal allocation of steroids to the eggs influences offspring traits in birds, and in some mammals the intrauterine position influences morphological, behavioural, and physiological traits due to sex-related steroid transfer between sibling fetuses. We show that similar phenomena occur in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara), a viviparous reptile. Females developing in male-biased clutches had a more masculine allometry (relatively larger heads) at parturition than females developing in female-biased clutches. Males were correspondingly feminized in female-biased clutches. The effects could either be due to diffusion of steroids produced by the offspring or by a general tendency for females to allocate steroids according to the sex ratio of her clutch. Subsequent to parturition, the sexes differed in their growth trajectories depending on sex ratio environment. In males, the difference in allometry between sex ratio environments remained over time, whereas in females the corresponding effect disappeared. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  5. Early Sexual Debut and Associated Factors among In-school Adolescents in Six Caribbean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K; Pengpid, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This report examines early sexual debut (< age 15 years) among 15-year old in-school adolescents in six Caribbean countries. Subjects and Methods: The total sample included 9948 school children aged primarily 13–16 years from nationally representative samples from six Caribbean countries. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between early sexual debut and substance use, unintentional injuries and violence, mental distress, physical activity, protective factors and socio-economic status variables. Results: Approximately one-fourth of the sample (26.9%) had experienced sexual debut before age 15 years, 37.2% among boys and 16.9% among girls. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, it was found that male gender, substance use (smoking and alcohol use), having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months, sedentary behaviour, truancy and lack of parental or guardian attachment were associated with early sexual debut. Conclusion: This study found a high prevalence of early sexual debut. The risk factors identified were consistent with the Problem Behaviour Theory, which can be incorporated into broader sexual health promotion programmes. PMID:26624586

  6. The influence of urinary incontinence in the sexual satisfaction and quality of life in women weather.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Fernandez Frigo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: The loss of urinary incontinence can affect up to 50% of women at some stage of their lives and about 60 % of women over 60 and this may influence sexual satisfaction. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of urinary incontinence and sexual satisfaction before the quality of life in menopausal women. Methods: The sample consisted of 28 women in climacteric period aged 43 to 70 years of age. These were submitted to three questionnaires to assess sexual satisfaction, type of UI and quality of life, the QS-f, physiotherapeutic evaluation forms in urogynecology and SF-36, respectively. Results: In 46.42% of women met the UI of the mixed type, 50% of respondents had changes in your sex life, 42.85% reported never feel like having sex, thereby also affecting the quality of social life. Conclusion: The present study highlights the importance of a treatment that achieves positive results in reducing the symptoms of urinary incontinence, thus benefiting the quality of life and sexuality of these women. KEYWORDS: Urinary Incontinence. Quality of life. Climacteric.

  7. On factors influencing students’ listening abilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡天秀

    2012-01-01

    As we all know,listening,speaking,reading,and writing are four basic skills in language teaching and learning.Listening plays an important role in improving other skills.There are some factors influencing students’ listening abilities.So it’s important for teachers to improve students’ listening abilities.

  8. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  9. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1986-01-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...

  10. Factors influencing the process of farm liquidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dudek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the logit analysis was used in order to define the factors influencing farm liquidation. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its regional differences were analysed. Significant and negative impact of the number of people in a family farm and the number of machinery and technical equipment, as well as the positive impact of the farmer’ age are reported.

  11. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  12. Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.

  13. Partner's Sexual Behaviora are an Important Risk Factor for Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection among STD Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yunhua(邓云华); CHEN Xingping(陈兴平); ZHOU Liyi(周礼义); CHEN Yinling(陈映玲); WAN Mufen(万沐芬)

    2002-01-01

    Summary: Risk factors for genitourinary Chlamydiatrachomatis (Ct) infection were investigated using an STDrelative risk factor questionnaire among 176 patients and theirregular sexual partners. Twenty-four independent variableswere selected for analysis, nine of which were confirmed asfactors associated with C. trachomatis. Four of the nine factorswere significantly correlated to infection using a multifactorialunconditional logistic regression model which included: levelof education ( odds ratios [ORs]: 2.144 for below junior middleschool ), number of sexual partners ( ORs: 4.503 for ≥5 ),number of regular partner's sexual partner ( ORs: 16.333 for≥5 ), STD history of regular partner ( ORs: 18.417 for theirSTD history ). These data demonstrate that regular partner'ssexual behaviors are also an important risk factor for Ctinfection among STD clinic clients.

  14. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  15. Protective and risk factors of early sexual initiation in youth subcultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobakova, Daniela; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Klein, Daniel; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between subculture affiliation (Hip-hop, Technoscene, Metal, Punk, Skinheads) and early sexual initiation, and whether gender, family affluence, peer influence, lack of parental bonding and lack of parental monitoring explain this association. Methods We collecte

  16. Uncovering Factors Influencing Interpersonal Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Lennie; Jansen, Carel; Hoeks, John

    2017-01-01

    Talking to friends, family, or peers about health issues might, among other things, increase knowledge of social norms and feelings of self-efficacy in adopting a healthier lifestyle. We often see interpersonal health communication as an important mediating factor in the effects of health campaigns on health behavior. No research has been done so far, however, on factors that influence whether and how people talk about health issues without being exposed to a health campaign first. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 12 participants about their communication behavior concerning six different health themes, like smoking and exercising. The results suggest that at least four types of interpersonal health communication can be distinguished, each influenced by different factors, like conversational partner and objective of the conversation. Future research should take this diversity of interpersonal health communication into account, and focus on designing health campaigns that aim to trigger dialogue within target populations.

  17. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilda Pečarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  18. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Enterprise social media platforms provide new ways of sharing knowledge and communicating within organizations to benefit from the social capital and valuable knowledge that employees have. Drawing on social dilemma and self-determination theory, the aim of the study is to understand what...... factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence...... knowledge sharing framework helps to understand what factors impact engagement on social media. Furthermore the article suggests different types of interventions to overcome the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Originality/value: The study contributes to an understanding of factors leading...

  19. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  20. Sexual behaviours and associated factors among students at Bahir Dar University: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-12-06

    Sexual behaviour is the core of sexuality matters in adolescents and youths. Their modest or dynamic behaviour vulnerable them to risky sexual behaviours. In Ethiopia, there is scarcity of multicentered representative data on sexual behaviours in students to have a national picture at higher education. This study therefore conducted to assess sexual behaviours and associated factors at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among Bahir Dar University students from December to February 2013. Multistage sampling and self administered questionnaires were employed. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and mean were used to describe the study participants in relation to relevant variables. Multivariate analysis was carried for those variables that had a p-value of ≤ 0.2 in the bivariate analysis to identify the predictor variables. Of the 817 study participants, 297 (36.4%) students had ever had sex. The mean age at first sexual practice was 18.6 years. Unprotected sex, having multiple sex partners, sex with commercial sex workers and sex for the exchange of money was practiced by 184 (62%), 126 (42.7%), 22 (7.4%) and 12 (4%) of sexually active students, respectively. The proportion of attending night clubs and watching porn videos was 130 (15.8%) and 534 (65.4%), respectively. Male respondents had significant positive association with watching porn videos (AOR = 4.8, CI = 3.49 - 6.54) and attending night clubs (AOR = 3.9, CI = 2.3 - 6.7). Watching porn videos, attending night clubs, khat chewing and taking alcohol frequently were significantly associated for ever had sex and having multiple sexual partners. Khat chewing practice (AOR = 8.5, CI =1.31 - 55.5) and attending night clubs (AOR = 4.6, CI = 1.8 - 11.77) had statistical significant association with the purpose of sexual intercourse for the sake of money and for having sex with commercial sex workers, respectively. Significant number of students had different risky sexual

  1. 上海和成都市HIV阳性MSM人群性传播危险行为及其影响因素%Risky sexual transmission behavior and its influencing factors among HIV-positive MSM population in Shanghai and Chengdu in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何欢; 张洪波; 丁凡; 林小杰; 周易; 肖剑; 陈芳; 黄文; 董燕燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sexual transmission behaviors among HIV-positive MSM population engaging in unprotected sexual behaviors,as well as the relationship with health conditions and partner notification.Methods A total of 308 HIV-positive MSM participants engaged in unprotected sexual behaviors were recruited by "snowballing" sampling in Shanghai and Chengdu.The questionnaire covered such items as the time of HIV infection diagnosis,CD4+ T cells count,viral load,antiviral therapy,anxiety and depressive symptoms,sexual partner types and sexual behaviors in the past six months,disclosure to fixed sexual partners and casual sexual partners among others.Results Of the 308 participants surveyed,the report rate of those having at least one-time sexual transmission behaviors during the past 6 months was 70.1% (216/308).Participants who had primary sexual partners and casual sexual partners following their HIV infection diagnosis accounted for 89.0% (274/308) and 68.2% (210/308) respectively.Of the aforementioned participants,59.1% (162/274) and 94.3% (198/210) respectively had not disclosed their HIV infection to primary and casual sexual partners.Of thoes who did not disclose their HIV infection to primary sexual partners,91.9% (147/162) reported sexual transmission behaviors.Of thoes who did not disclose their HIV infection to casual sexual partners,89.9% (178/198) continue sexual transmission.As found in a multi-factor analysis,the infection risk exposure of those with heterosexual sexual orientation and engagement in sexual transmission behaviors was six times higher than those with homosexual orientation (aOR=5.896,95%CI:1.808-19.232).For those who did not,or partially disclose their HIV infection to male casual sexual partners or commercial sexual partners,the risk exposure of further transmission was 29 times and 19 times higher than those disclose it to their sexual partners (no disclosure:aOR=28.957,95%CI:7.511-65.004; partial disclosure

  2. PREVALENCIA DEL DESEO SEXUAL INHIBIDO EN MUJERES EN EDAD FÉRTIL Y FACTORES RELACIONADOS

    OpenAIRE

    CHARNAY REBOLLEDO,MÓNICA; HENRIQUEZ FIERRO,ELENA

    2003-01-01

    Estudio descriptivo correlacional cuyo objetivo fue conocer la magnitud del deseo sexual inhibido y factores que lo influyen, en mujeres en edad fértil usuarias del Sistema Municipalizado de Salud de la comuna de Concepción. La muestra estudiada correspondió a 367 mujeres. Se aplicó un cuestionario elaborado por la autora que mide las variables biosociodemográficas y factores que influyen en la presencia de deseo sexual inhibido y un instrumento de Master, Johnson y Kolodny, "Autovaloración d...

  3. Elaborations on sexual assault on dates among Israeli students: risk, detrimental effect, and resilience factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory Bitton, Mally; Ben-David, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    The current study of 668 Israeli male and female students examines the prevalence of gendered risk factors for sexual assault (SA) on dates, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a detrimental effect of SA, and self-efficacy as resiliency to refuse unwanted sex following SA. Two different sets of risk factors that increased the likelihood of SA on dates emerged from the hierarchical regression. Sexual experience, use of drugs, and private location increased the risk of being SA victims among males, whereas sexual experience, perceived provocative behavior, and alcohol use increased the risk among females. In addition, PTSD and self-efficacy to refuse unwanted sex following SA on dates were predicted by the extent of coercive sexual victimization. PTSD was also predicted by subjective perception of sexual behavior and rape myths, whereas efficacy was predicted by private location. The findings contribute to the literature by showing the contribution of various risk factors to experiencing SA, and by showing SA effect on PTSD and self-efficacy.

  4. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  6. Presuming the influence of the media: teenagers' constructions of gender identity through sexual/romantic relationships and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate

    2014-06-01

    Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers' alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's 'presumed media influence' theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers' constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers' drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships.

  7. Self-perception of sexual life and associated factors: a population study conducted in women aged 50 or more years

    OpenAIRE

    Valadares,Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Machado,Vanessa de Souza Santos; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Osis, Maria José; Sousa, Maria Helena; Pinto-Neto,Aarão Mendes

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of women aged 50 years or more who are sexually active and their self-perception with respect to their sexual lives. Associated factors were also assessed. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based, self-reported household survey involving 622 Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. Sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral factors were evaluated. The sexual life self-perception was classified as very good, good, fair, poor, or very poor. Data were analy...

  8. SUBSTANCE USE AND SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIOR AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HIV TRANSMISSION IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likawunt Samuel and Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo*

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidences notify that most of higher learning students rush to range of maladaptive high-risk activities like, substance and sexual abuse which predispose to HIV. More often this is unrecognized and not well researched. Objective: To determine magnitude of substance use and risky sexual behavior for HIV transmission among students in Hosanna Health Science College from December 1, 2010 to December 30, 2010.Methods and Materials: Cross sectional study undertaken among statistically determined (n =428 and randomly selected Students from all departments and years of study in Hossana Health Science College. Piloted and self-administered questionnaire were used to collect data. Summary measures like mean, chi-square and regression were utilized to quantify magnitude and identify independently associated factors. Results: Majority 267 (63.1% of study participants were female, and 379 (89.5% in age group (17-24. From 423 participants, 330(78.0% were, sexually experienced. Khat (27.7% and Alcohol (21.7% were the commonly used substances and having multiple sexual partners (47.6%, inconsistent condom use (20.0% were common sexual risk behaviors for HIV transmission. Female [AOR=1.5], fresh students [OR=2.4] and alcohol users [OR=3.5] were more likely to engage in sexual risk practices. Conclusions: Substance use and risky sexual practices were significantly higher among study participants. Practicing sex with multiple partners, inconsistent condom use and commencing sex with female commercial sex workers, which were highly risky sexual behaviors for HIV infection transmission among study participants, were commonly practiced among study participants.

  9. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: from HPV to HTLV--clinical profile and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Fabíola Suris da; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health recommends the performance of serological tests in patients with clinical signs of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. However, data are lacking to affirm the necessity of testing these patients for human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 or type 2. This is a cross-sectional study with 120 patients seen at the Sexually Transmitted Diseases unit of the Sanitary Dermatology Outpatient Clinic of Rio Grande do Sul. The serum from none of the patients was positive for human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 or type 2. Viral warts were the most frequent diagnosis. Drug use was confirmed as a risk factor and high educational levels were found to be a protective factor against Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

  10. Factors influencing the feasibility of laparoscopy colectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhiyun; Zhang Zhongtao

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective was to review the factors affecting the feasibility of performing successful laparoscopic colectomy.Data sources The literatures about the risk factors closely related to the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy on different surgical diseases of the colon cited in this review were obtained from PubMed published in English from 2006 to 2012.Study selection Original articles regarding the risk factors that affect the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy were selected.Results Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,advanced age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of developing serious complications such as hemorrhage,anastomotic leak,and skin and soft tissue infections following laparoscopic colectomy.These factors also increase the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.In this study,we reviewed the recent original articles about the relationship of laparoscopic colectomy with these risk factors.We also describe some strategies that limit the likelihood of these complications and the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.Conclusions Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of either serious complications or conversion to open operation with laparoscopic colectomy.Evaluation of these risk factors preoperatively should influence the decision to perform colectomy using laparoscopic techniques.

  11. Sexual and physical violence victimization among senior high school students in Ghana: Risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohene, Sally-Ann; Johnson, Kiana; Atunah-Jay, Sarah; Owusu, Andrew; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2015-12-01

    Violence in all forms poses a concern because of associations with multiple adverse effects including injuries and mental health problems. There is however limited data on violence in general and youth violence in particular in Ghana. To explore the nature and scope of youth violence in Ghana, we used the nationwide Global School-based Health Survey, conducted among senior high school students in Ghana, to explore risk and protective factors at the individual, family, and environmental levels associated with sexual and physical violence victimization. A fifth of these students reported being forced to have sex in their lifetime while two out of five had been a victim of a physical attack in the year preceding the survey. In final multivariate analysis, for sexual violence victimization, history of sexual activity with or without condom use at last sex, feeling sad or hopeless, and being a victim of bullying and electronic bullying were identified as risk factors, while having friends who were not sexually active was protective. Independent risk factors for physical violence victimization were attempting suicide in the last year, alcohol use in the past month, and bullying other students in the past month. Parent respect for privacy just reached significance as a protective factor for physical violence victimization in the final model. Recognition of the magnitude of violence victimization among Ghanaian students and associated factors must be used to guide development and implementation of appropriate concrete measures to prevent and address the problem.

  12. Factores motivacionales en una muestra de hombres españoles que pagan por servicios sexuales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Meneses

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los motivos para pagar por sexo fueron estudiados en una muestra de 138 clientes españoles mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado. Desde el análisis factorial se han identificado seis factores como razones para pagar servicios sexuales, que aglutinan el 80,4% de la varianza y que han sido etiquetados como Compañía, Necesidad, Distracción, Riesgo, Dominar y Rapidez. Cuatro de estos factores son significativos y explican, a través de un análisis de regresión, el número de veces que pagan por sexo: Compañía, Rapidez, Riesgo y Dominar. Algunas características de los clientes se relacionan con estos factores: la edad, edad del primer pago de servicios sexuales, la orientación sexual y el tipo de pareja en los últimos seis meses. Solo una de las prácticas sexuales, sexo anal insertito y receptivo, se relaciona con los factores motivacionales, en concreto con los factores Necesidad, Riesgo y Dominar.

  13. Factors that Influence Male Involvement in Sexual and Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    a local nongovernmental organization, Kisumu Medical and Education Trust ... status of male involvement in reproductive health services in western Kenya and ..... vulnerabilities and expose any reproductive health secrets, exposures that ...

  14. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  15. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  16. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, N Venkata Naga; Prasanna, P Muthu; Sakarkar, Suhas Narayan; Prabha, K Surya; Ramaiah, P Seetha; Srawan, G Y

    2010-05-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the quality preservation techniques of sensitive substances and a method for production of materials with new valuable properties. Microencapsulation is a process of enclosing micron-sized particles in a polymeric shell. There are different techniques available for the encapsulation of drug entities. The encapsulation efficiency of the microparticle or microsphere or microcapsule depends upon different factors like concentration of the polymer, solubility of polymer in solvent, rate of solvent removal, solubility of organic solvent in water, etc. The present article provides a literature review of different microencapsulation techniques and different factors influencing the encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulation technique.

  17. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarkoti, Bishal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...

  18. FACTORS INFLUENCING BENDING RIGIDITY OF SUBMERGED VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Long-hua; YANG Xiao-li

    2011-01-01

    The bending rigidity of submerged vegetation is closely related with vegetative drag force.This work aims at determining the effects of flow conditions and characteristics of vegetation on the bending rigidity of submerged vegetation.Based on the dimensional analysis method,the factors influencing the bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation were analyzed.The relationship between the relative bending rigidity and its influencing factors was investigated by experimental observation,and a relative bending rigidity expression for submerged vegetation was obtained by means of multiple linear regression method.The results show that the submerged vegetation has three states under different inflow conditions,and the each critical relative bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation was determined for the different states of submerged vegetation.

  19. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  20. Sexual Education of Young University Students: Some Key Factors and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Preinfalk-Fernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In general terms, higher education institutions not only face the challenge of teaching some discipline to their students, but also of strengthening their life skills. Since university students are majorly young, the desire to provide them with comprehensive training is particularly relevant, since it is at this stage of life when they model their behavior for adulthood. In this training challenge, sex education plays a decisive role. This research paper aims to show that factors such as information gaps, unsafe sexual practices, myths, prejudices and stereotypes persist in the university student population and do not allow them to live sexuality safely and pleasurable. Moreover, these factors show Costa Rica’s need for higher education institutions to strengthen their actions in sex education. A brief tour is made from various angles through the sexual experiences of the university student population, namely: their perceptions about the training requirements they face, their main concerns, their unsafe sexual practices, their inability to negotiate sexual and reproductive health care, their knowledge and preventive practices in terms of sexual and reproductive health, the existence of forms of violence within university life, among others. The findings set out are part of a larger research, based on contributions from the theory of gender and social constructionism. Such data derives from the application of a questionnaire to a sample stratified by unequal conglomerates composed of 766 regular students of undergraduate courses, enrolled in the first cycle of 2011, at Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica. The margin of error is 1.5% and the confidence level, 95%. The data was tabulated using the software CSPRO and analyzed with software R. After obtaining the results of the instrument’s application, a focus group was created with the participation of professionals who teach sexuality courses in this university, and two other groups with

  1. Factors Influencing Impulse Buying in Retail Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgadze, Nino

    2014-01-01

    Impulse buying is a widely pervasive phenomenon. Statistics shows that more and more shoppers are experiencing irresistible urge to purchase unplanned and in most cases unnecessary product. Existing researches fall short in identifying most suitable tools that marketers can adopt in order to promote impulsive sales. Therefore, this thesis provides deep analysis of those, controllable factors that influence impulse buying. Particularly four external cues are examined: product display, promotio...

  2. Major Factors influences the 2008 Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2007 was an unusual year for China's stock market, as the index climbed from 2675 points up to 6124 by the end of the year, setting new records again and again throughout 2007. What will happen to the stock market in the coming 2008? Let's havea look at some of the main factors that will influence the stock market this year, perhaps we can find out if 2008 will be another memorable year full of surprises.

  3. Factors influencing the eicosanoids synthesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefel, Jarosław; Kruszewski, Wiesław Janusz; Sobczak, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    External factors activate a sequence of reactions involving the reception, transduction, and transmission of signals to effector cells. There are two main phases of the body's reaction to harmful factors: the first aims to neutralize the harmful factor, while in the second the inflammatory process is reduced in size and resolved. Secondary messengers such as eicosanoids are active in both phases. The discovery of lipoxins and epi-lipoxins demonstrated that not all arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives have proinflammatory activity. It was also revealed that metabolites of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins also take part in the resolution of inflammation. Knowledge of the above properties has stimulated several clinical trials on the influence of EPA and DHA supplementation on various diseases. However, the equivocal results of those trials prevent the formulation of guidelines on EPA and DHA supplementation. Prescription drugs are among the substances with the strongest influence on the profile and quantity of the synthesized eicosanoids. The lack of knowledge about their influence on the conversion of EPA and DHA into eicosanoids may lead to erroneous conclusions from clinical trials.

  4. Child Maltreatment and Women’s Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Unique Risk Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated (a) whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior, after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment, and (b) whether there were additive or interactive effects of different types of maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior. Participants were 414 women (M age = 28 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic. All women completed a computerized survey assessing childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, psychological abuse, and neglect) and sexual risk behavior. Analyses showed that sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect were associated with adult sexual risk behavior. Multivariate analyses that controlled for all other forms of child maltreatment showed that only CSA was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior (i.e., percentage of episodes of unprotected sex in the past 3 months and number of lifetime partners). We found little support for an additive or an interactive model of the effects of different types of childhood maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior; CSA alone was the best predictor of adult sexual risk behavior. Sexual risk reduction interventions are needed for women who were sexually abused as children. Continued research on the effects of multi-type maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior is needed. PMID:20930181

  5. Eye color, hair color, blood type, and the rhesus factor: exploring possible genetic links to sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Ficek, Christopher; Burke, Donald; Das, Shyamal

    2008-02-01

    The present study sought to expand the limited evidence that sexual orientation is influenced by genetic factors. This was accomplished by seeking statistical differences between heterosexuals and homosexuals for four traits that are known to be genetically determined: eye color, natural hair color, blood type, and the Rhesus factor. Using a sample of over 7,000 U.S. and Canadian college students supplemented with additional homosexual subjects obtained through internet contacts, we found no significant differences between heterosexuals and homosexuals regarding eye color or hair color. In the case of blood type and the Rh factor, however, interesting patterns emerged. Heterosexual males and females exhibited statistically identical frequencies of the A blood type, while gay men exhibited a relatively low incidence and lesbians had a relatively high incidence (p homosexuals of both sexes were Rh- when compared to heterosexuals (p < .06). The findings suggest that a connection may exist between sexual orientation and genes both on chromosome 9 (where blood type is determined) and on chromosome 1 (where the Rh factor is regulated).

  6. A Review of Factors Influencing Health Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Almaspoor Khanghah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : Inequity in health is a universal term which is used for showing current differences, variations and inequalities of people in accessing to health services. The current study aimed to assess the factors influencing health inequalities to present the results to the researchers and health care professionals. Material and Methods : In this review, several databases including PubMed, Proquest, Scopus, Google Scholar search engine, SID and IranDoc were searched within 2000-2014 period. We found 746 articles and refined them step by step according to the aim of the study by reviewing the titles, abstracts and full texts. Finally, 16 articles were selected for further study Results: In the present study, identified determinants in health inequalities were as follows: 1- Economic and income factors 2- Political factors, social and public policy 3- Cultural and social values 4- social and demographic factors 5- Behavioral, psychological and biological factors. Although, other factors like governmental, international, social cohesion, incidents and even the health system itself were involved in health inequalities, but the listed determinants were among the most important determinants in health inequalities in the conducted studies. Conclusion : Given the importance of people's health and inequalities in health, the approach should focus on reducing the inequalities in all policies and development programs and the role of these factors should be taken into consideration by managers and policy-makers

  7. Predicting Homophobic Behavior among Heterosexual Youth: Domain General and Sexual Orientation-Specific Factors at the Individual and Contextual Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Scheer, Jillian R.

    2013-01-01

    As a form of bias-based harassment, homophobic behavior remains prominent in schools. Yet, little attention has been given to factors that underlie it, aside from bullying and sexual prejudice. Thus, we examined multiple domain general (empathy, perspective-taking, classroom respect norms) and sexual orientation-specific factors (sexual…

  8. Parental Influence on Their Adult Children's Sexual Values: A Multi-National Comparison Between the United States, Spain, Costa Rica, and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negy, Charles; Velezmoro, Rodrigo; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Smith-Castro, Vanessa; Livia, Jose

    2016-02-01

    We examined the influence of perceived parental sexual values, religiosity, and family environment on young adults' sexual values from the United States (n = 218), Spain (n = 240), Costa Rica (n = 172), and Peru (n = 105). On average, and across the four national groups, the messages young adults received from their parents about broad domains of sexual behaviors (masturbation, non-intercourse types of heterosexual sexual activity, premarital sex, same-sex activity, and cohabiting) were unequivocally restrictive. By contrast, across the four groups, young adults on average held rather permissive sexual values and their values differed significantly from those of their parents. Moreover, the nature of perceived parental sexual values (restrictive vs. permissive) was not associated significantly with young adults' sexual values, age of sexual debut, or number of sexual partners. Comparatively, Spanish young adults held the most permissive sexual values, whereas US young adults held the most restrictive sexual values. Religiosity was the strongest predictor of young adults' sexual values, followed by perceived parental sexual values and influence. In conclusion, it appears that despite having perceived restrictive parental messages about sex, these young adults currently hold permissive sexual attitudes, thus calling into question the influence parents actually have on their adult children's sexual values.

  9. Role of occupation as a risk factor for sexually transmitted disease: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shendre Mohan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a major public health problem. The epidemiology of STDs is distinctive because of common behavioral and biological features. Occupation is one of the socio-demographic factors, which not only act as a risk factor for acquiring STDs but also as a factor for the spread of the acquired infection. The information was collected about the nature of the occupation and it was categorized as unskilled, semi-skilled, skilled, professional and housewives. Most of the subjects belonged to sexually active group. Male to female ratio was found to be 10.9:1. The majority of the cases of sexually transmitted diseases belonged to unskilled profession and most of these were unemployed. They also had twice higher risk of having STDs as compared to controls (OR=2; 95% CI= 1.01-3.95. The analysis of statistical parameters suggested that in this study 28% of the total cases of STD could be attributed to the unskilled profession and 50% to the job requiring frequent travel. Similarly, 15% of the total STD in population can be attributed to the unskilled profession; while only 5% can be attributed to the job requiring frequent travel. It can be concluded that occupation can be considered as a significant risk factor for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. The unskilled and unemployed on one hand and those employed in occupations, which require frequent travel outside the place of residence, constitute the high-risk groups.

  10. Contextual Predictive Factors of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…

  11. Contextual Predictive Factors of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…

  12. Assessing the Factors Associated with Sexual Harassment among Young Female Migrant Workers in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Mahesh; Cleland, John

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the extent of, and factors associated with, sexual harassment of young female migrant workers in the carpet and garment factories in Kathmandu Valley. Information is drawn from a survey of 550 female workers aged 14 to 19 and 12 in-depth case histories. Bivariate and multivariate techniques were applied to identify the…

  13. Increased sexually transmitted infection incidence in a low risk population: identifying the risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shiely, Frances

    2010-04-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.

  14. Cultural Protective and Risk Factors: Professional Perspectives about Child Sexual Abuse in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Carol A.; Njuguna, Wambui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore perspectives on cultural risks and protective factors among professionals in Kenya. Method: An exploratory/descriptive survey of Kenyan professionals working to prevent or intervene with child sexual abuse was undertaken to determine their perspectives on how tribal culture impacts vulnerability to…

  15. Factors influencing excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Souza Vilela

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Sleep deprivation in adolescents has lately become a health issue that tends to increase with higher stress prevalence, extenuating routines, and new technological devices that impair adolescents' bedtime. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the excessive sleepiness frequency and the factors that might be associated to it in this population. Methods: The cross-sectional study analyzed 531 adolescents aged 10–18 years old from two private schools and one public school. Five questionnaires were applied: the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire; the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children; the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria; the General Health and Sexual Maturation Questionnaire; and the Physical Activity Questionnaire. The statistical analyses were based on comparisons between schools and sleepiness and non-sleepiness groups, using linear correlation and logistic regression. Results: Sleep deprivation was present in 39% of the adolescents; sleep deficit was higher in private school adolescents (p < 0.001, and there was a positive correlation between age and sleep deficit (p < 0.001; r = 0.337. Logistic regression showed that older age (p = 0.002; PR: 1.21 [CI: 1.07–1.36] and higher score level for sleep hyperhidrosis in the sleep disturbance scale (p = 0.02; PR: 1.16 [CI: 1.02–1.32] were risk factors for worse degree of sleepiness. Conclusions: Sleep deficit appears to be a reality among adolescents; the results suggest a higher prevalence in students from private schools. Sleep deprivation is associated with older age in adolescents and possible presence of sleep disorders, such as sleep hyperhidrosis.

  16. Personal and environmental factors contributing to participation in romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegerink, Diana J H G; Stam, Henk J; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Roebroeck, Marij E

    2012-01-01

    To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP, 76% GMFCS level I, 85% MACS level I). All participants were of normal intelligence. Romantic relationships, sexual activity (outcome measures), personal and environmental factors (associated factors) were assessed. Associations were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. More females than males with CP were in a current romantic relationship. Self-esteem, sexual esteem and feelings of competence regarding self-efficacy contributed positively to having current romantic relationships. A negative parenting style contributed negatively. Age and gross motor functioning explained 20% of the variance in experience with intercourse. In addition, sexual esteem and taking initiative contributed significantly to intercourse experience. For young adults with CP personal factors (20-35% explained variances) seem to contribute more than environmental factors (9-12% explained variances) to current romantic relationships and sexual experiences. We advice parents and professionals to focus on self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem in development of young adults with CP. [ • The severity of gross motor functioning contributed somewhat to sexual activities, but not to romantic relationships.• High self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem can facilitate involvement in romantic and sexual relationships for young adults with CP.

  17. Prevention nearby: the influence of the presence of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Benoit; Smallbone, Stephen; Wortley, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of a potential guardian on the severity of child sexual abuse. Using data obtained on crime events from adult child sexual offenders incarcerated in Queensland (Australia), mixed-effects logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of potential guardianship on the severity of abuse. Controlling for victim and situational characteristics, the analyses showed that the presence of a potential guardian reduced the duration of sexual contact and the occurrence of penetration. Presence of a potential guardian decreased the risk of sexual penetration by 86%. The study highlights the importance of the presence of a potential guardian for reducing the severity of child sexual abuse, and suggests more broadly that guardianship may be an important protective factor in sexual offending. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Sex and death: the effects of innate immune factors on the sexual reproduction of malaria parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo S Ramiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites must undergo a round of sexual reproduction in the blood meal of a mosquito vector to be transmitted between hosts. Developing a transmission-blocking intervention to prevent parasites from mating is a major goal of biomedicine, but its effectiveness could be compromised if parasites can compensate by simply adjusting their sex allocation strategies. Recently, the application of evolutionary theory for sex allocation has been supported by experiments demonstrating that malaria parasites adjust their sex ratios in response to infection genetic diversity, precisely as predicted. Theory also predicts that parasites should adjust sex allocation in response to host immunity. Whilst data are supportive, the assumptions underlying this prediction - that host immune responses have differential effects on the mating ability of males and females - have not yet been tested. Here, we combine experimental work with theoretical models in order to investigate whether the development and fertility of male and female parasites is affected by innate immune factors and develop new theory to predict how parasites' sex allocation strategies should evolve in response to the observed effects. Specifically, we demonstrate that reactive nitrogen species impair gametogenesis of males only, but reduce the fertility of both male and female gametes. In contrast, tumour necrosis factor-α does not influence gametogenesis in either sex but impairs zygote development. Therefore, our experiments demonstrate that immune factors have complex effects on each sex, ranging from reducing the ability of gametocytes to develop into gametes, to affecting the viability of offspring. We incorporate these results into theory to predict how the evolutionary trajectories of parasite sex ratio strategies are shaped by sex differences in gamete production, fertility and offspring development. We show that medical interventions targeting offspring development are more likely

  19. Feeling good in your own skin: the influence of complimentary sexual stereotypes on risky sexual attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Jamieson L; Oser, Carrie B; Mooney, Jenny; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2013-01-01

    Although negative racial stereotypes may affect the mental and physical health of African Americans, little research has examined the influence of positive or complimentary racial stereotypes on such outcomes. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between African American women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and attitudes/behaviors that have been associated with sexual risk. Data were gathered from 206 African American women as part of the Black Women in the Study of Epidemics project. Multivariate regression models were used to examine associations between women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and selected sex-related attitudes and behaviors. Participants' endorsement of complimentary sexual stereotypes was significantly positively associated with beliefs that having sex without protection would strengthen their relationship (B = .28, SE = .10, p stereotypes and the number of casual sexual partners women reported in the past year (B = .29, SE = .15, p = .05) as well as their willingness to have sex in exchange for money or drugs during that time (B = .78, OR = 2.18, p stereotypes by African American women can lead to increased risk behavior, particularly relating to possible infection with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections.

  20. CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Jozsef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.

  1. [Sexual function and sexual life quality of chronic prostatitis patients: a clinical investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Hai; Mei, Ru-Bing; Zhao, Sheng-Tian; Zhang, Jing

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the sexual function and the quality of sexual life in patients with chronic prostatitis (CP), and to analyze the correlated factors and their influence on the quality of life (QOL) of the CP patients. We randomly selected 148 CP patients as the CP group and 71 healthy men as controls, asked them to fill out a questionnaire on sexual function and the quality of sexual life, obtained their scores on NHI-CPSI, and comparatively analyzed the results. We also made analyses on the influence of age, disease course, CP symptom scores and EPS level on sexual function and the quality of sexual life, as well as the impact of CP symptoms, sexual dysfunction and sexual life quality on the QOL of the CP patients. No retro-ejaculation was found in either of the two groups. The mean score on sexual function and sexual life quality was 38.1 +/- 7.9 and 47.8 +/- 3.1 in the CP and the control group, respectively, with statistically significant differences (P patients showed significantly decreased scores on libido, erectile function, ejaculation, orgasm frequency, self-confidence in sexual life, sexual satisfaction, and the partners' orgasm frequency and sexual satisfaction (P prostatic fluid. The age of the patients was significantly correlated with the score of libido but not with other indexes of sexual function. CP symptoms, including pain, micturition and reduced sexual function and sexual life quality, along with the decreased orgasm frequency and sexual satisfaction of the patients' spouses, remarkably influenced the patients' QOL. CP symptoms significantly decrease the indexes of sexual function of the patients and, in turn, their sexual life quality and QOL. Sexual dysfunction and reduced sexual life quality of CP patients are significantly correlated with CP symptoms, but not with the course of the disease, the age of the patient and the results of EPS detection.

  2. Erythrocyte diameter of zebu Nelore cattle: influence of age factors, sex factors and Nelore breed lines Diâmetro eritrocitário de zebuínos da raça Nelore: influência de fatores etários, sexual e do tipo racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Roque de Barros Filho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The erythrocyte diameter of zebu Nelore cattle raised in the State of São Paulo were determined with aim of the analyzing the influence of age factors, sex factors and breed lines factors. In order to get up the subject, blood samples from 170 healthy animals free of blood parasites were collected and submitted to standard hematological techniques and mensuration of the erythrocyte diameter by blood smears glass with Rosenfeld color. To evaluate the influence of age, 140 Nelore Standard were divided into seven age groups, from birth to over 72 month, including 20 animals for each groups. The influence of sex factors, were evaluated using 80 adult animals: 40 male and 40 female. The influence of the breed lines factors, were evaluated using 60 zebus, 15 animals of different varieties or strain, the Nelore: Standard, Lemgruber, “Mocho” and Kuleia. The results demonstrated significant differences (p< 0,05 into the age group: the erythrocyte diameter increase, from the group of calves neonates up to three months (4,72 ± 0,29µm to the group formed by adult animal above of 72 months (5,45 ± 0,17µm. No had influence of the sex and breed lines factors in this study. The average standard values of the erythrocyte diameter of the Nelore cattle were 5,24 ± 0,62µm and the range from 3,5 to 7,5µm. The results demonstrated the influence of age on the erythrocyte diameter of zebu Nelore cattle.O diâmetro eritrocitário (DME de zebuínos da raça Nelore, criados no Estado de São Paulo, foi determinado avaliando-se a influência de fatores relacionados à idade, ao sexo e ao tipo racial. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 170 animais sadios, livre de hemoparasitas, realizando-se o eritrograma e os esfregaços corados com o corante Rosenfeld. A influência de fatores etários foi realizada utilizando-se 140 esfregaços de Nelore do tipo Padrão, distribuídos em sete grupos etários, compostos cada um deles por 20 animais, incluindo-se esfrega

  3. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

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    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  4. The structural influence of family and parenting on young people's sexual and reproductive health in rural northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel; Remes, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the structural role of the family and parenting in young people's sexual and reproductive health. The study involved eight weeks of participant observation, 26 in-depth interviews, and 11 group discussions with young people aged 14-24 years, and 20 in-depth interviews and 6 group discussions with parents/carers of children in this age group. At an individual level, parenting and family structure were found to affect young people's sexual behaviour by influencing children's self-confidence and interactional competence, limiting discussion of sexual health and shaping economic provision for children, which in turn affected parental authority and daughters' engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Sexual norms are reproduced both through parents' explicit prohibitions and their own behaviours. Girls are socialised to accept men's superiority, which shapes their negotiation of sexual relationships. Interventions to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health should recognise the structural effects of parenting, both in terms of direct influences on children and the dynamics by which structural barriers such as gendered power relations and cultural norms around sexuality are transmitted across generations.

  5. Prevalence of Sexual Experience and Initiation of Sexual Intercourse Among Adolescents, Rakai District, Uganda, 1994-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santelli, John S; Song, Xiaoyu; Larsen Holden, Inge Kristine

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors and time trends for sexual experience and sexual debut in rural Uganda. METHODS: Using population-based, longitudinal data from 15- to 19-year olds in Rakai, Uganda, we examined temporal trends in the prevalence of sexual experience...... youth in Rakai was associated with social factors particularly school enrollment. Changes in these social factors also appear to influence change over time in sexual experience....

  6. The parallels between undue influence, domestic violence, stalking, and sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Bonnie; Heisler, Candace J; Stiegel, Lori A

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of undue influence (UI) have many similarities with domestic violence, stalking, and grooming behavior used by some sexual predators. This article will help practitioners-particularly law enforcement investigators and prosecutors-better recognize UI as a pattern of behaviors, not an isolated incident. Understanding the dynamics of UI will enhance professionals' appreciation of the responses of victims and the manipulative nature of exploiters. Strategies that have been used effectively with domestic violence, stalking, and some sexual abuse cases may provide remedies for victims of UI and criminal justice options for holding perpetrators accountable. Enhanced awareness of these dynamics should lead to improved investigations, more effective strategies when interviewing and working with victims, and more successful prosecutions of perpetrators who use UI to financially exploit an older person.

  7. Qualitative evaluation of selected social factors that impact sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and AIDS continues to be a source of great concern within universities in South Africa. ... Students in the age group of 15–24 years are at a greater risk of HIV ... Results: The study highlights peer pressure among students as an influence in ...

  8. Qualitative evaluation of selected social factors that impact sexual risk-taking behaviour among African students in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndumiso Daluxolo Ngidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of HIV and AIDS continues to be a source of great concern within universities in South Africa. Furthermore, university students constitute an important community in the intervention against the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Students in the age group of 15–24 years are at a greater risk of HIV infection than any other group in the country; yet, little is known about why they continue to engage in risky sexual practices. Objectives: This study was designed to explore the sexual behaviour of students in a metropolitan Durban University of Technology in KwaZulu-Natal to understand the social factors underlying their risk of HIV infection. Methods: This is a qualitative study that used cluster sampling where the population was stratified by campus and faculty. The study population was selected using a standard randomization technique. This was a part of a multi-phased research project aimed at providing a sero-prevalence baseline and an analysis of risk-taking behaviour at a Durban University of Technology in the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality area. Results: The study highlights peer pressure among students as an influence in promoting high-risk sexual behaviour. Within this context, the findings revealed that university students lack the ability to negotiate risk-aware decisions especially regarding sexual relationships. Conclusion: This study draws attention to the perspectives of African university students regarding their risk-taking sexual practices and selected factors which influence such behaviour. The findings are not exhaustive in exploring contextual antecedents that shape students’ sexual practices. However, they provide an important basis in understanding key factors which expose students to HIV infections. The study provides insights into opportunities for further studies as well as preventative implications.

  9. Qualitative evaluation of selected social factors that impact sexual risk-taking behaviour among African students in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngidi, Ndumiso Daluxolo; Moyo, Sibusiso; Zulu, Thobile; Adam, Jamila Khatoon; Krishna, Suresh Babu Naidu

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of HIV and AIDS continues to be a source of great concern within universities in South Africa. Furthermore, university students constitute an important community in the intervention against the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Students in the age group of 15-24 years are at a greater risk of HIV infection than any other group in the country; yet, little is known about why they continue to engage in risky sexual practices. This study was designed to explore the sexual behaviour of students in a metropolitan Durban University of Technology in KwaZulu-Natal to understand the social factors underlying their risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study that used cluster sampling where the population was stratified by campus and faculty. The study population was selected using a standard randomization technique. This was a part of a multi-phased research project aimed at providing a sero-prevalence baseline and an analysis of risk-taking behaviour at a Durban University of Technology in the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality area. The study highlights peer pressure among students as an influence in promoting high-risk sexual behaviour. Within this context, the findings revealed that university students lack the ability to negotiate risk-aware decisions especially regarding sexual relationships. This study draws attention to the perspectives of African university students regarding their risk-taking sexual practices and selected factors which influence such behaviour. The findings are not exhaustive in exploring contextual antecedents that shape students' sexual practices. However, they provide an important basis in understanding key factors which expose students to HIV infections. The study provides insights into opportunities for further studies as well as preventative implications.

  10. FACTORES DE RIESGO RELACIONADOS CON LAS INFECCIONES DE TRANSMISIÓN SEXUAL

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    María Ángeles Pérez-Morente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conocer los factores determinantes en Infecciones de Transmisión sexual (ITS es necesario para evaluar y diseñar medidas efectivas para su prevención y tratamiento. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los factores de riesgo relacionados con la sexualidad de sujetos atendidos en un centro de control de Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual y analizar si hubo diferencias en función del sexo. Método: Estudio transversal utilizando como fuente de información 496 historias clínicas correspondientes al periodo 2010-2014, de sujetos que acudieron al Centro de Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual y Orientación Sexual de la provincia de Granada por sospecha de ITS. Se recogieron datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y relacionados con pautas sexuales. Se realizó análisis descriptivo y análisis bivariante mediante comparación de proporciones con test de la chi-cuadrado. Resultados: El 56% de los sujetos eran hombres y el 44% mujeres. La edad media fue de 29,01 años (DT=9,07. El 85,9% estaban solteros. El 54,2% presentaba un nivel de estudios superior. Las infecciones más prevalentes fueron el virus del papiloma humano (18,8%, Molluscum contagioso (5,6% y candidiasis (3,8%. Se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas por sexo con la variable conducta sexual, hallando 89 hombres homosexuales y 4 mujeres, así como 22 hombres bisexuales frente a 7 mujeres(p<0,001.También se hallaron diferencias entre sexo y vida sexual, encontrando mayor prevalencia de hombres con entre 10-20 parejas (n=23 y más de 20 parejas (n=20 que mujeres (n=10, n= 4, respectivamente (p<0,001. Conclusiones: El perfil es el de una persona joven, soltera, con estudios superiores. La infección más prevalente es el virus del papiloma humano. Los hombres siguen constituyendo la población más vulnerable para contraer infecciones de transmisión sexual debido a sus prácticas sexuales.

  11. The influence of sexually explicit internet material on sexual risk behavior: a comparison of adolescents and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study had three goals: first, to investigate whether sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) affects sexual risk behavior; second, to study whether these effects differ between adolescents and adults; and third, to analyze, separately for adolescents and adults, whether gender and age

  12. Medical and social factors influencing reproduction in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šulović Vojin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present results of researches whose aim was to determine the factors that may substantially influence population reproduction in the Republic of Serbia, taking into consideration all specific factors, like cultural background, economic situation, health education, health service organization, religious and historical factors, etc. The research was based on the population census from 1981. Seventeen regions of the inner part of the Republic of Serbia, Vojvodina and Kosovo were included in this research. Stratification was made according to the place of living (village, town age, occupation (farmer, housewife, non and half-qualified, qualified and highly qualified workers and education (without education, with unfinished or finished primary school, with secondary school, with college or university degree. In this way 2,141 women were questioned with 101 questions by the method of interview. Interviews were conducted exclusively by doctors - gynaecologists. We determined the frequency of the use of contraceptives, intentional abortions, spontaneous abortions, pre-term deliveries, marriage infertility and term deliveries. Thus, 57.4% of women had basic knowledge of contraception, but only 15.9% of them used it; 58.9% of women had intentional abortions; 16.2% of women had spontaneous abortions, 5.1% of them had pre-term deliveries, and 67% of women had term deliveries. Marriage infertility was found in 8.6% of women. When evaluating population health and behavior, we obtained some information and data concerning addicted diseases (alcohol, smoking, drugs, tranquilizers homosexuality and ways of sexual intercourse. It was concluded that enormous differences existed among certain regions in the Republic of Serbia, which were conditioned by the diversity of the above mentioned influences. Proposals for the measures to be undertaken in the Republic of Serbia in order to regulate population policy, are given.

  13. Environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis

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    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present an overview of recent findings on the environmental and behavioral factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis. The authors primarily concentrated on deliberations of possibile main causes of the damage of the endothelium. At the same time the following pathogenic mechanisms as cellular dysfunction, inflammation and coagulation disorders have been enumerated. The links between the state of the vascular endothelium and life style have been emphasized. It is also important to note that the primary causes of the endothelial damage should be traced as originally suggested many years ago viewing such factors as anger, hostility, aggression, impulsiveness and depression but with a new approach. The authors supplement the comments, on the environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis, with basic data on family predisposition to the development of this disease. They highlight that current genetic research have not determined genes responsible for atheroscelosis. According to the authors the considerations and conclusions presented in this overview are important for the educational purposes related to the most frequent disease process resulting in many diseases in medical disciplines.

  14. Associated Risk Factors of STIs and Multiple Sexual Relationships among Youths in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Chialepeh N

    Full Text Available Having unprotected sex with multiple sexual partners (MSP is the greatest risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs among youths. Young people with MSPs are less likely to use a condom and the greater the risk for STIs. This study examines the associated risk factors of STIs and multiple sexual partnerships among youths aged 15-24 years.The Malawi Demographic Health Survey 2010 data was used. Out of a sample of 2,987 males and 9,559 females aged 15-24 years, 2,026 males and 6,470 females were considered in the study. Chi square test and logistic regression techniques were performed. Analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22.The results indicate that 1,399 (69.0% males and 2,290 (35.4% females reported multiple sexual partnerships (MSP. Within the rural area, females (n = 1779 were more likely to report MSP than males (n = 1082 and within the urban areas, a higher proportion of females (n = 511 still reported MSP, with males (n = 316. About 78% rural females aged 20-24 years, and about 79% rural males aged 15-19 years reported MSP. The likelihood of MSP was higher among females in the poorest households (OR = 1.31, being married (OR = 5.71 and Catholic males (OR = 1.63, who were married (OR = 1.59. Catholic males (OR = 1.82 in the rural areas, who were married (OR = 1.80 and rural females in the northern region (OR = 1.26 were more likely to have MSP. The odds ratios were higher among urban females in the poorest (OR = 3.45 households who were married (OR = 4.22.Having more than one sexual partner increases the risk of STIs and sexuality education programs should be introduced that emphasize the danger that surrounds MSP.

  15. Heterosexual Women's Causal Attributions Regarding Impairment in Sexual Function: Factor Structure and Associations with Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kyle R; Meston, Cindy M

    2016-11-01

    Theory and interventions for female sexual dysfunction typically emphasize the role of cognitions, including the perceived causes of impaired sexual function (causal attributions). Although causal attributions have been extensively studied in the context of mood disorders and relational distress, research in the area of sexual dysfunction has been limited. The current study explored the factor structure of women's causal attributions regarding their impaired sexual function and the association between these attributions and multiple indicators of subjective well-being. Women in heterosexual relationships reporting current impairments in sexual function (N = 147) completed self-report scales assessing 13 distinct causal attributions, sexual function, and subjective well-being. Results suggested moderately reliable patterns of attributions regarding responsibility (e.g., self vs. partner), specificity to sexual activity, and the degree to which women could effectively address the causes of their difficulties. Beliefs that impaired sexual function was the fault of one's self or one's partner, caused by wider issues in the relationship, and difficult to effectively address were generally associated with lower well-being over and above severity of functional impairment. These findings support multiple theories of sexual dysfunction, and highlight the potential importance of cognitive factors in understanding and treating female sexual dysfunction.

  16. Contextual factors influencing research use in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Contextual factors are perceived to be significant barriers to research-utilisation-related activity, but little is known about how context impacts on specific research-based decisions, or how the individual interacts with the organisation in the requirement for research-based change. This study describes the impact of contextual factors on the practical reasoning of nurse specialists in the construction of policy for practice. Three groups of clinical nurse specialists were observed during a series of meetings convened to construct evidence-based guidelines for nursing practice. Transcripts of the meetings were analysed to identify and categorise the physical, social, political, and economic influences on 31 nursing issues. Multiple contextual factors influenced each decision made, with decisions about nursing practice bounded by setting and system considerations, relationships with others in the care team, and resource constraints. Practitioners were involved in weighing up alternative scenarios, contexts, and contingencies for each decision, requiring strategies to adapt and reconstruct the nature of care, to influence others, and to affect organisational decision-making processes. The practical accomplishment of evidence-based practice required diverse skills: translating between evidence and practice; mediating the values, preferences, and working practices of multiple stakeholders; negotiating organisational complexity and the management of boundaries; and coordinating inter-organisational and inter-agency working. Nurse specialists in this study had a significant role in instigating, fuelling, and coordinating policy review, predominantly by communication across professional and organisational boundaries. Clinical specialists acting as organisational boundary spanners require skills in the informal cultural work of organising, facilitating, and maintaining links across professional, team, and organisational boundaries. If their role in the negotiation of

  17. Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

  18. Factores socio-culturales asociados a la actividad sexual de los adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Atehortua-Puerta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar los factores socioculturales asociados a la actividad sexual de los adolescentes. Materiales y Métodos: estudio cuantitativo-descriptivo, con muestreo probabilístico de tipo aleatorio simple, en una población de adolescentes escolarizados entre 13 y 19 años de los sectores público y privado. Para la realización de este estudio los investigadores realizaron una adaptación y modificación de un instrumento usado en un estudio similar, previa notificación y autorización de uso a la autora. Resultados: en los factores sociales asociados a la actividad sexual de los adolescentes, sobresalen el alto porcentaje de conocimiento sobre sexualidad y planificación familiar en los dos sectores, con un bajo uso en los métodos (50%, el aumento en la comunicación con los padres y la convivencia con estos, también se encontró la escasa información brindada por la escuela sobre sexualidad y el desconocimiento de los adolescentes con relación a los servicios amigables. En cuanto a los factores culturales, se observó que la virginidad hace parte de un mito, que por el modernismo y la globalización, esta cultura no es un impedimento moral para las mujeres, considerando su vida sexual como un derecho que pueden ejercer. Conclusiones: los adolescentes de los colegios estudiados, inician relaciones sexuales antes de alcanzar la mayoría de edad, considerándose como factores causales el uso inadecuado de la información que los adolescentes adquieren de los medios masivos de comunicación, colegio y familia, y las diversas influencias culturales que ven las relaciones sexuales como una actividad natural en la adolescencia.

  19. Factors Influencing Body Image in Women with Breast Cancer: A Comprehensive Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Maedeh; Elyasi, Forouzan; Janbabai, Ghasem; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2016-10-01

    Many psycho-socioeconomic and other types factors associated with cancer, the treatment process, and changes in patients' physical appearance and sexual function influence the body image of women with breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors influence the body image of women with breast cancer. A narrative literature review was conducted. Electronic databases, including Google Scholar, SID, Magiran, IranDoc, Barekat, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Scopus, and PubMed, including Medline, were searched to retrieve articles published from 1993 to 2016 using the keywords breast cancer, treatment, body image, and related factors. The quality of selected studies was appraised using a checklist adapted from Samadaee-Gelehkolaee (2016). Of 690 articles retrieved in the search, 190 articles were selected for full text appraisal. Finally, 44 articles were selected for data analysis. The results were classified under three headings: bio-psycho-socioeconomic factors, factors associated with the disease and treatment processes, and physical appearance and sexual function. The findings of this review showed that many factors can influence the body image of women suffering from breast cancer. These factors were predictors of patients' inter-personal and intra-personal relationships with their partners and others who influenced various other aspects of their lives, possibly leading to many life's issues. These factors must be identified and considered to make the most appropriate decisions for patients. The strength of this study lies in the exploration of factors influencing the body image of women with breast cancer which earlier studies did not consider. Moreover, the authors believe that this research has addressed nearly all the factors that are real concerns in the body image of women with breast cancer.

  20. Factors Influencing Body Image in Women with Breast Cancer: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Maedeh; Elyasi, Forouzan; Janbabai, Ghasem; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Context Many psycho-socioeconomic and other types factors associated with cancer, the treatment process, and changes in patients’ physical appearance and sexual function influence the body image of women with breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors influence the body image of women with breast cancer. Data Collection A narrative literature review was conducted. Electronic databases, including Google Scholar, SID, Magiran, IranDoc, Barekat, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Scopus, and PubMed, including Medline, were searched to retrieve articles published from 1993 to 2016 using the keywords breast cancer, treatment, body image, and related factors. The quality of selected studies was appraised using a checklist adapted from Samadaee-Gelehkolaee (2016). Results Of 690 articles retrieved in the search, 190 articles were selected for full text appraisal. Finally, 44 articles were selected for data analysis. The results were classified under three headings: bio-psycho-socioeconomic factors, factors associated with the disease and treatment processes, and physical appearance and sexual function. Conclusions The findings of this review showed that many factors can influence the body image of women suffering from breast cancer. These factors were predictors of patients’ inter-personal and intra-personal relationships with their partners and others who influenced various other aspects of their lives, possibly leading to many life’s issues. These factors must be identified and considered to make the most appropriate decisions for patients. The strength of this study lies in the exploration of factors influencing the body image of women with breast cancer which earlier studies did not consider. Moreover, the authors believe that this research has addressed nearly all the factors that are real concerns in the body image of women with breast cancer. PMID:28184329

  1. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... big part of being human. Love, affection and sexual intimacy all play a role in healthy relationships. ... both men and women. Factors that can affect sexual health include Fear of unplanned pregnancy Concerns about ...

  2. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  3. The prevalence of the components of low sexual function and associated factors in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadares, Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Pinto-Neto, Aarão Mendes; de Souza, Maria Helena; Osis, Maria José Duarte; da Costa Paiva, Lúcia Helena Simões

    2011-10-01

    Female sexual function depends on biological, psychological, and sociocultural contexts. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of low levels of functioning in each of the sexual function domains (desire, arousal, and orgasm) and the factors associated with these phenomena, as well as to assess the frequency of sexual activity in this same sample population. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted using an anonymous self-response questionnaire completed by 378 Brazilian-born women of 40-65 years of age with 11 years or more of formal education. The evaluation instrument was based on the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire. The prevalence of low sexual desire was 60.6%; low arousal, 37%; and low orgasmic function, 31.1%. Multiple regression analysis showed that having a sexual partner (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.69, confidence interval [CI] = 0.53-0.90) and nervousness (PR = 1.33, CI = 1.01-1.75) were factors associated with low sexual desire. Aging (PR = 1.04, CI = 1.02-1.06), having a sexual partner (PR = 0.57, CI = 0.41-0.81), feeling well/excellent (PR = 0.59, CI = 0.41-0.85), and having hot flashes (PR = 1.47, CI = 1.01 = 2.15) were factors found to be associated with low sexual arousal. Having a sexual partner (PR = 0.55, CI = 0.42-0.71), feeling well/excellent (PR = 0.68, CI = 0.49-0.94), and having hot flashes (PR = 2.08, CI = 1.43 = 3.04) were factors found to be associated with low sexual orgasmic function. Having a sexual partner (PR = 0.47, CI = 0.38-0.58), feeling well/excellent (PR = 0.78, CI = 0.69-0.89), and having hot flashes (PR = 1.15, CI = 1.05-1.26) were factors found to be associated with a frequency of sexual activity of once a week or less. In this sample of middle-aged women, low sexual desire was the most prevalent sexual problem. These results highlight the importance of identifying and treating factors associated with each individual component of low female sexual function. © 2011

  4. When parsimony is not enough: considering dual processes and dual levels of influence in sexual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, H Jonathon

    2015-10-01

    The literature on sexual decision making that has been used to understand behaviors relevant to HIV and STI risk has relied primarily on cognitive antecedents of behavior. In contrast, several prominent models of decision making outside of the sexual behavior literature rely on dual process models, in which both affective and cognitive processing are considered as important precursors to behavior. Moreover, much of the literature on sexual behavior utilizes individual-level traits and characteristics to predict aggregated sexual behavior, despite decision making itself being a situational or event-level process. This article proposes a framework for understanding sexual decision making as the result of dual processes (affective and cognitive) operating at dual level of influence (individual and situational). Finally, this article ends with a discussion of the conceptual and methodological benefits and challenges to its use and future directions for research.

  5. "Who can you tell?" Features of Arab culture that influence conceptualization and treatment of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haboush, Karen L; Alyan, Hala

    2013-01-01

    The literature on child sexual abuse reflects growing recognition of the manner in which culture impacts the conceptualization, experience, and treatment of such cases. Despite heightened visibility of Arab Americans within the United States, population due to recent media attention, little empirical research exists on the occurrence of child sexual abuse within this population. Arab culture is often characterized by an emphasis on collectivism and familial obligations, and such features may prove to either facilitate or impede assessment and treatment of child sexual abuse, depending on how they are manifested. In terms of reporting child sexual abuse, cultural values pertaining to shame and honor as well as the stigma attached to mental health problems may influence the response to abuse. As such, enhancing the cultural competence of the therapist is key to facilitating effective cultural practice. Empirical research is required to investigate and substantiate these concepts as they relate to child sexual abuse in Arab-American populations.

  6. When parsimony is not enough: Considering dual processes and dual levels of influence in sexual decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, H. Jonathon

    2015-01-01

    The literature on sexual decision making that has been used to understand behaviors relevant to HIV and STI risk has relied primarily on cognitive antecedents of behavior. In contrast, several prominent models of decision making outside of the sexual behavior literature rely on dual process models, in which both affective and cognitive processing are considered important precursors to behavior. Moreover, much of the literature on sexual behavior utilizes individual-level traits and characteristics to predict aggregated sexual behavior, despite decision making itself being a situational or event-level process. This paper proposes a framework for understanding sexual decision making as the result of dual processes (affective and cognitive) operating at dual level of influence (individual and situational). Finally, the paper ends with a discussion of the conceptual and methodological benefits and challenges to its use and future directions for research. PMID:26168978

  7. Factors associated with child sexual abuse in Tanzania: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    perpetrators of child sex abuse in selected regions of Tanzania. Methods: Key ... embarrassment faced by the affected children and parents. The causes of ..... The sleeping of adults and children in the same room was cited as a risk factor that ...

  8. Factors that Hinder Parents from the Communicating of Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adolescents is one of the strategies that could encourage ... testing and the most discouraging issue is that most parents don't want ... variability) at the 95% confidence level of Z-score of 1.96 ..... from teachers, radio and peers, hence they were informed .... Mpairwe A. Factors affecting Parent-Child Communication on.

  9. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-02-01

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  10. A survey on factors influencing city branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.

  11. Preventing adolescent pregnancy: biological, social, cultural, and political influences on age at first sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Raquel; Araújo-Pedrosa, Anabela; Pereira, Joana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2014-08-01

    Age at first sexual intercourse (AFSI) is the initial factor related to adolescents' sexual life that may increase the risk of adolescent pregnancy. We explored the biological, social, cultural, and political predictors of AFSI addressing several gaps that prevent us from generalizing the results of past research to adolescent pregnancy prevention. We also explored the moderating effects of cultural variables on the links between social and political predictors and AFSI. Our sample consisted of 889 Portuguese female adolescents aged 12-19. Earlier age at menarche, non-intact family structure, maternal history of adolescent pregnancy, lower maternal emotional warmth, absence of religious involvement, and living in Portugal's mainland and in a legal context penalizing abortion predicted earlier AFSI. School attendance predicted earlier AFSI among adolescents of European ethnic origin; adolescents of non-European ethnic origin presented the opposite, but non-significant, pattern. These findings suggest that, in addition to isolated characteristics, factors from different ecological contexts should be considered when planning interventions designed to foster healthy and informed transitions to sexual initiation and prevent the related risks of unwanted outcomes. We discuss implications for future research and practice.

  12. Multivariate Analysis of the Factors Associated With Sexual Intercourse, Marriage, and Paternity of Hypospadias Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Akihiro; Higuchi, Yoshihide; Tanaka, Shiro; Hashimoto, Takahiko; Nojima, Michio; Yamamoto, Shingo

    2016-10-01

    Patients with hypospadias are treated surgically during childhood, which has the intention of enabling a satisfactory sexual life in adulthood. However, it is unclear whether patients with corrected hypospadias can lead a satisfactory sexual life and sustain a marital relationship and produce offspring. To evaluate factors associated with achievement of sexual intercourse, marriage, and paternity in patients with hypospadias who have reached adulthood. Self-completion questionnaires were mailed in April 2012 to patients with hypospadias at least 18 years old who had been treated at our institution during childhood from 1973 through 1998 by a single surgeon and the same surgical policy. Assessments included the International Prostate Symptom Score, the International Index for Erectile Function-5, and non-validated questions related to current social and physical status and sexual, marital, and paternity experiences. Candidate factors were extracted from patients' neonatal data, surgical findings and results, and current physical and social status obtained by the questionnaires. Candidate factors associated with heterosexual intercourse, marriage, and paternity experiences were analyzed using univariate and multivariate proportional hazard models and log-rank test of Kaplan-Meier curves. Of the 518 patients contacted, 108 (age = 18-50 years, median = 28 years) met the inclusion criteria. Two- and one-stage repairs were performed as the initial treatment in 79 and 12, respectively, and 17 of the analyzed cases were reoperations for patients initially treated elsewhere. Fifty-seven patients had the milder type (31 glandular, 26 penile), 36 had the proximal type (13 penoscrotal, 23 scrotal-perineal), and 15 had an unknown type. Multivariate analyses by Cox proportional hazard model and log-rank tests confirmed that experience of sexual intercourse was associated with the milder type of hypospadias (P = .025 and .0076 respectively), marriage was associated with stable

  13. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  14. Sexual behaviors and associated factors among antiretroviral treatment attendees in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demissie K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kassahun Demissie,1 Shifera Asfaw,2 Lakew Abebe,2 Getachew Kiros2 1Addis Ababa Regional Laboratory, Ethiopia; 2Department of Health Education and Behavioral Science, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Ethiopia Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome is one of the major public health problems throughout the world. Nowadays, antiretroviral treatment (ART is available in health institutions and HIV-positive individuals who are eligible for ART are taking it. But studies show reinfection of HIV is occurring in them for unknown reasons. Purpose: This study aimed to assess risky sexual practice and associated factors among HIV-positive ART attendees. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was employed in ten randomly selected health centers in Addis Ababa, between October 05 and November 05, 2013. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select 376 respondents for face-to-face interviews from ART registration book. After the data collection process, data were entered and analyzed using the SPSS version 20 statistical package. Then the effect of each variable was observed by regression analysis to identify the predictors for risky sexual practice at a significant level of P<0.05. Results: A total of 376 respondents were included in the study, with 100% response rate. The mean age of the total respondents was 35.28±8.94 (standard deviation. Of the 376 respondents, 30.4% had a history of risky sexual practice, which was inconsistent condom use in the last 3 months prior to the study period. Factors associated with risky sexual practice included alcohol consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.01, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.77, being single (AOR =0.29, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.59 and widowed (AOR =0.32, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.77 respondents, and the gender of the respondents, with an AOR of 1.55 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.33, shows a significant relationship with risky sexual behavior. Conclusion

  15. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods.Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance.Study design: Population based cross - sectional study.Setting: Rural area of East DelhiParticipants: Married women in the reproductive age group.Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample.Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group.Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child.Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptivesStatistical Analysis: By proportions.Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception.Recommendations:(i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention.(ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  16. Landslide forecasting and factors influencing predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Gigli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Forecasting a catastrophic collapse is a key element in landslide risk reduction, but it is also a very difficult task owing to the scientific difficulties in predicting a complex natural event and also to the severe social repercussions caused by a false or missed alarm. A prediction is always affected by a certain error; however, when this error can imply evacuations or other severe consequences a high reliability in the forecast is, at least, desirable. In order to increase the confidence of predictions, a new methodology is presented here. In contrast to traditional approaches, this methodology iteratively applies several forecasting methods based on displacement data and, thanks to an innovative data representation, gives a valuation of the reliability of the prediction. This approach has been employed to back-analyse 15 landslide collapses. By introducing a predictability index, this study also contributes to the understanding of how geology and other factors influence the possibility of forecasting a slope failure. The results showed how kinematics, and all the factors influencing it, such as geomechanics, rainfall and other external agents, are key concerning landslide predictability.

  17. Factors associated with physical violence by a sexual partner among girls and women in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Deborah A; Pan, Yi; Otieno, Fred; Hayes, Tameka; Omoro, Tereza; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Odongo, Fred; Otieno, George O

    2017-12-01

    Intimate partner physical violence increases women's risk for negative health outcomes and is an important public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to determine 1) the proportion of girls (≤18 years) and women (>18 years) who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner, and 2) factors (including self-reported HIV infection) associated with girls and women who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner. Cross-sectional surveys conducted in the Gem Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in Siaya County, western Kenya in 2011-2012 (Round 1) and 2013-2014 (Round 2). Among 8003 unique participants (582 girls and 7421 women), 11.6% reported physical violence by a sexual partner in the last 12 months (girls: 8.4%, women: 11.8%). Three factors were associated with physical violence by a sexual partner among girls: being married or cohabiting (nearly 5-fold higher risk), low education, and reporting forced sex in the last 12 months (both with an approximate 2-fold higher risk). Predictive factors were similar for women, with the addition of partner alcohol/drug use and deliberately terminating a pregnancy. Self-reported HIV status was not associated with recent physical violence by a sexual partner among girls or women. Gender-based physical violence is prevalent in this rural setting and has a strong relationship with marital status, low education level, and forced sex among girls and women. Concerted efforts to prevent child marriage and retain girls in school as well as implementation of school and community-based anti-violence programs may help mitigate this risk.

  18. Sexual activity of Polish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. Material and method. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15–49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company – TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI interviews were carried out. Results. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15, and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion. There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.

  19. Low School Engagement and Sexual Behaviors among African American Youth: Examining the Influences of Gender, Peer Norms, and Gang Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Neilands, Torsten B

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether negative peer influences (i.e., norms favoring risky sex and drug use and gang involvement) mediated the relationship between school engagement (i.e., grade point averages [GPAs] obtained from school records and student-teacher connectedness) and sexual behaviors (i.e., sexual début, sex without condoms, group sex, and sex while using drugs) among African American high school adolescents, and whether these relationships varied by gender. Five hundred sixty-three high school adolescents (ages 13 to 19) completed self-administered questionnaires that assessed school engagement markers (GPAs obtained from student records, and student-teacher connectedness), peer influences, sexual début, and risky sex (sex without condoms, group sex, and sex while using drugs). Major findings for boys indicate that GPA was negatively associated with both sexual début and risky sex. Additionally, the relationship between student-teacher connectedness and risky sex was mediated by gang involvement. For girls, higher GPAs were associated with fewer norms favoring risky sex and drug use and such norms were associated with sexual début. Moreover, the relationship between GPA, sexual début and risky sex was mediated by risky peer norms. Intervention programs to delay sexual début and reduce risky sex among youths should attend to the gendered ways through which such behaviors occur.

  20. Which are the male factors associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseroli, E; Fanni, E; Mannucci, E; Fambrini, M; Jannini, E A; Maggi, M; Vignozzi, L

    2016-09-01

    It has been generally assumed that partner's erectile dysfunction, premature, and delayed ejaculation play a significant role in determining female sexual dysfunction (FSD). This study aimed to evaluate the role of the male partner's sexual function, as perceived by women, in determining FSD. A consecutive series of 156 heterosexual women consulting our clinic for FSD was retrospectively studied. All patients underwent a structured interview and completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). FSFI total score decreased as a function of partner's age, conflicts within the couple, relationship without cohabitation and the habit of engaging in intercourse to please the partner; FSFI total score increased as a function of frequency of intercourse, attempts to conceive and fertility-focused intercourse. FSFI total score showed a negative, stepwise correlation with partner's perceived hypoactive sexual desire (HSD) (r = -0.327; p premature and delayed ejaculation. In an age-adjusted model, partner's HSD was negatively related to FSFI total score (Wald = 9.196, p = 0.002), arousal (Wald = 7.893, p = 0.005), lubrication (Wald = 5.042, p = 0.025), orgasm (Wald = 9.293, p = 0.002), satisfaction (Wald = 12.764, p premature, and delayed ejaculation of the partner may not act as a primary contributing factor to FSD, as determined by FSFI scores; conversely, women's sexuality seems to be mostly impaired by the perceived reduction in their partner's sexual interest.

  1. Parents, peers and pornography: the influence of formative sexual scripts on adult HIV sexual risk behaviour among Black men in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussen, Sophia A; Bowleg, Lisa; Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Malebranche, David J

    2012-01-01

    Black men in the USA experience disproportionately high rates of HIV infection, particularly in the Southeastern part of the country. We conducted 90 qualitative in-depth interviews with Black men living in the state of Georgia and analysed the transcripts using Sexual Script Theory to: (1) characterise the sources and content of sexual scripts that Black men were exposed to during their childhood and adolescence and (2) describe the potential influence of formative scripts on adult HIV sexual risk behaviour. Our analyses highlighted salient sources of cultural scenarios (parents, peers, pornography, sexual education and television), interpersonal scripts (early sex- play, older female partners, experiences of child abuse) and intrapsychic scripts that participants described. Stratification of participant responses based on sexual-risk behaviour revealed that lower- and higher-risk men described exposure to similar scripts during their formative years; however, lower-risk men reported an ability to cognitively process and challenge the validity of risk-promoting scripts that they encountered. Implications for future research are discussed.

  2. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing large African herbivore movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour o

  3. Stable Dynamic Risk Factors in Child Sexual Abusers: the Incremental Predictive Power of Narcissistic Personality Traits beyond the Static-99/Stable-2007 Priority Categories on Sexual Reoffense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Eher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A group of hands on child sexual abusers were diagnosed according to DSM-IVR criteria within a routinely performed risk assessment process in the Austrian prison system. Actuarials showed moderate to good predictive accuracy, and a combination of static and stable risk factors (Static-99 and Stable-2007 significantly improved the predictive power for sexual reoffense.In addition, the clinical diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder significantly added incremental validity once the Static-99/Stable-2007 factors were accounted for. Clinical diagnoses of an exclusive pedophilia, exhibitionism, voyeurism and a paranoid personality disorder - although linked to sexual recidivism - failed to add predictive utility beyond the Static-99/Stable-2007 priority factors.

  4. The structural influence of family and parenting on young people's sexual and reproductive health in rural northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Wamoyia, Joyce; Wight, Daniel; Remes, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the structural role of the family and parenting in young people's sexual and reproductive health. The study involved eight weeks of participant observation, 26 in-depth interviews, and 11 group discussions with young people aged 14–24 years, and 20 in-depth interviews and 6 group discussions with parents/carers of children in this age group. At an individual level, parenting and family structure were found to affect young people's sexual behaviour by influencing children's...

  5. The prevalence of risk factors for general recidivism in female adolescent sexual offenders: A comparison of three subgroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    To our knowledge, there are no former studies in which subgroups of female adolescent sexual offenders are studied. Therefore, we examined differences in risk factors for general recidivism between female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense against a younger child (CSO, n = 25),

  6. The prevalence of risk factors for general recidivism in female adolescent sexual offenders: A comparison of three subgroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    To our knowledge, there are no former studies in which subgroups of female adolescent sexual offenders are studied. Therefore, we examined differences in risk factors for general recidivism between female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense against a younger child (CSO, n = 25), f

  7. Sexual Orientation-Based Disparities in School and Juvenile Justice Discipline: A Multiple Group Comparison of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.; Chong, Eddie S. K.

    2016-01-01

    There is little data on whether school discipline or juvenile justice sanctions are directed disproportionately toward sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; LGBQ) compared with heterosexual youth and even less on factors that may relate to such disparities. We tested for sexual orientation-based disparities in school…

  8. Sexual Orientation-Based Disparities in School and Juvenile Justice Discipline: A Multiple Group Comparison of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.; Chong, Eddie S. K.

    2016-01-01

    There is little data on whether school discipline or juvenile justice sanctions are directed disproportionately toward sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; LGBQ) compared with heterosexual youth and even less on factors that may relate to such disparities. We tested for sexual orientation-based disparities in school…

  9. The prevalence of risk factors for general recidivism in female adolescent sexual offenders: A comparison of three subgroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    To our knowledge, there are no former studies in which subgroups of female adolescent sexual offenders are studied. Therefore, we examined differences in risk factors for general recidivism between female adolescents who have committed a felony sexual offense against a younger child (CSO, n = 25), f

  10. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole.

  11. Factors associated with sexuality in later life: An exploratory study in a group of Greek married older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaharitou, S; Nakopoulou, E; Kirana, P; Giaglis, G; Moraitou, M; Hatzichristou, D

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate factors associated with sexual interest and behaviors in married older adults. The study recruited older adults from the Open Protection Centers for Elderly. A 30-items questionnaire addressing sexuality, emotional and physical intimacy, demographics, and background data was constructed. Dichotomous responses were used for intimacy and sexuality items. Data were analyzed using Chi-square tests, Pearson's correlation coefficient and Independent samples t-test. The sample consisted of 454 married participants (age range: 60-90, mean: 69.0+/-6.5). More than 50% reported having sexual desire and intercourse's average frequency of 4/month. Increasing age and marriage's years related significantly to decreased frequency of sexual intercourse (parranged marriages (p=0.031). Gender, age, income, married out of love and being still in love with the partner were all significantly associated with sexual interest and behaviors (p<0.05). This study demonstrates that older adults remain sexually active and a range of personal, socio-economic and interpersonal factors are associated with sexual interest. Therefore, sexual expression should be a well-informed individual's choice and not the result of societal myths or health professionals' misconceptions.

  12. The influence of social constructs of hegemonic masculinity and sexual behaviour on acceptability of vaginal microbicides in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweemba, Oliver; Dixey, Rachael; Bond, Virginia; White, Alan

    2017-06-12

    Vaginal microbicides are heralded as a woman's HIV prevention method. This study, conducted in a microbicide clinical trial setting in Zambia, explored how the social construction of masculinity and sexual behaviour influenced the acceptability of vaginal microbicides. The data were generated from 18 In-depth Interviews and 8 Focus Group Discussions. The data were analysed thematically. The study found that hegemonic masculinity influenced the use of vaginal microbicides positively and negatively, in multiple ways including: decision to initiate gel use, autonomous use of the gel, and consistent use of the gel. Men were seen as heads of households and decision-makers who approved their partners' intentions to initiate gel use. Autonomous gel use by women was not supported because it challenged men's dominant position in sexual matters and at a family level. The socially accepted notion that men engaged in multiple sexual relationships also influenced women's decision to use the gel. Sustained gel use depended on the perceived effect of the gel on men's sexual desires, sexual performance, fertility, and sexual behaviour. This study suggests that acceptability of microbicides partially lies within the realm of men, with use constrained and dictated by cultural constructs and practice of masculinity and gender.

  13. [Eating disorders and sexual function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravvariti, V; Gonidakis, Fr

    2016-01-01

    Women suffering from eating disorders, present considerable retardation and difficulties in their psychosexual development during adolescence. This leads to primary or secondary insufficiencies in their adult sexual life. The cause of these difficulties seems to be a series of biological, family and psychosocial factors. The majority of the research findings indicate that eating disorders have a negative impact on the patient's sexual function. The factors related to eating disorders symptomatology that influence sexuality are various and differ among each eating disorder diagnostic categories. Considering anorexia nervosa, it has been reported that women have negative attitudes to sexual issues and their body. Their sexual motivation increases when they engage in psychotherapy and their body weight is gradually restored. Starvation and its consequences on the human physiology and especially on the brain function seem to be the main factor that leads to reduced sexual desire and scarce sexual activity. Moreover, personality traits that are common in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa such as compulsivity and rigidity are also related with difficulties initiating and retaining romantic and sexual relationships. Usually patients suffering from anorexia nervosa report impaired sexual behavior and lack of interest to engage in a sexual relationship. Considering Bulimia Nervosa, impulsivity and difficulties in emotion regulation that are common features of the individuals that suffer from bulimia nervosa are also related to impulsive and sometimes self-harming sexual behaviors. Moreover women sufferers often report repulsion, anger and shame towards their body and weight, mainly due to the distorted perception that they are fat and ugly. It is interesting that a number of research findings indicate that although patients suffering from bulimia nervosa are more sexually active and have more sexual experiences than patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, both

  14. [Sexual Abuse and Neglect Situations as Risk Factors for Adolescent Pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo Martínez, Miguel; Trujillo Numa, Laura; Restrepo Bernal, Diana; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Sierra, Gloria

    In Colombia, one out of five women between the ages of 15 and 19 years have been pregnant. Almost two-thirds (64%) of these pregnancies were unplanned. To examine the socio-demographic, psychosocial and clinical risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy. An analytical prevalence study was performed using secondary data from the First Demographic Study of Mental Health in Medellin, Colombia. Female adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age were included in the study. The population was evaluated using the Composite International Diagnosis Interview, a structured interview developed by the World Health Organization, which establishes diagnoses according to the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. A sample of 499 female adolescents was obtained, in which 135 adolescent pregnancies were identified, representing a prevalence of 21.5%. The large majority (84.4%) were between 16 and 19 years old. The median age was 17 years, with an interquartile range of 2 years. Almost two-thirds (61.2%) of female adolescents had initiated sexual activity at the age of 15 or later. Almost one-third (31.9%) reported being physically abused during childhood, and 6.7% sexually abused. Of those who were pregnant, 66.7% reported previous sexual abuse. A bivariate analysis showed that sexual abuse (OR=7.68), childhood negligence (OR=4.33), and having a partner (OR=6.31) were factors associated with an adolescent pregnancy. Negligence and sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence can be prevented, and adolescent pregnancies can be decreased. This finding has important implications for clinical management and prognosis, and requires public preventive policies. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol: common for men in substance abuse treatment and associated with high-risk sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Donald A; Cousins, Sarah J; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Mandler, Raul; Doyle, Suzanne R; Woody, George

    2010-01-01

    Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol is associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Heterosexual men (n = 505) in substance abuse treatment completed a computer-administered interview assessing sexual risk behaviors. Most men (73.3%) endorsed sex under the influence in the prior 90 days, and 39.1% endorsed sex under the influence during their most recent sexual event. Sex under the influence at the most recent event was more likely to involve anal intercourse, sex with a casual partner, and less condom use. Patients might benefit from interventions targeting sexual behavior and substance use as mutual triggers. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-9).

  16. Sex Under the Influence of Drugs or Alcohol: Common for Men in Substance Abuse Treatment and Associated with High Risk Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Donald A.; Cousins, Sarah J.; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Mandler, Raul; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Woody, George

    2010-01-01

    Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol is associated with high risk sexual behavior. Heterosexual men (n=505) in substance abuse treatment completed a computer administered interview assessing sexual risk behaviors. Most men (73.3%) endorsed sex under the influence in the prior 90 days, and 39.1% endorsed sex under the influence during their most recent sexual event. Sex under the influence at the most recent event was more likely to involve anal intercourse, sex with a casual partner, and less condom use. Patients might benefit from interventions targeting sexual behavior and substance use as mutual triggers. PMID:20163383

  17. Hepatitis B virus infection risk factors and immunity among sexually transmitted disease clinic clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Weisbord, Joanna S; Zhang, Guoyan; Brewer, Toye

    2003-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a sexually transmitted infection that can be prevented with hepatitis B vaccination. The goal was to determine prevalence and risk factors for HBV infection and immunity among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic clients. In this cross-sectional study, consenting adult STD clinic clients were interviewed regarding HBV risk factors and vaccination history, and blood was drawn for HBV serologic testing. Of the 682 participants, 154 (22.6%) had antibody to hepatitis B core antigen, indicating previous infection, and 64 (9.4%) had only antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen, indicating immunity as a result of hepatitis B vaccination. Only 130 (19.1%) of all participants reported receiving at least one dose of hepatitis B vaccine. The majority of clients were susceptible to HBV, were at high risk for HBV infection, and would benefit from hepatitis B vaccination.

  18. Influence of family type and parenting behaviours on teenage sexual behaviour and conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, C; Allen, E; Strange, V; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Johnson, A; Stephenson, J

    2006-01-01

    Background Longitudinal data were used to explore relations between teenage pregnancy, sexual behaviour, and family type. The study examined whether students from lone parent and/or teenage mother initiated families more commonly report sex, lack of contraception at first sex, and/or conceptions by age 15/16, and whether such associations can be explained by low parental strictness, difficult parent‐child communication, and/or low parental input into sex education. Up to date longitudinal UK research on family influences on conceptions is lacking, as is longitudinal research on family influences on sexual behaviour. No previous studies have comprehensively examined effects of parenting behaviours. Unlike previous research, this study tested theories suggesting that parenting deficits among lone parent and teenage initiated families increase risk of teenage pregnancy among their children. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a trial of sex education. Results Girls and boys from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born were more likely to report sex but not lack of contraception at first sex by age 15/16. Girls and boys with mothers having them as teenagers, and boys but not girls from lone parent families, were more likely to report being involved in conceptions by age 15/16. Only the association between teenage mother family and girls' conceptions was reduced by adjusting for a parenting behaviour measure. Conclusions Students from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born are more likely to report early sexual debut and conceptions by age 15/16, but this is not generally explained by parenting style. PMID:16698980

  19. Influence of family type and parenting behaviours on teenage sexual behaviour and conceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, C; Allen, E; Strange, V; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Johnson, A; Stephenson, J

    2006-06-01

    Longitudinal data were used to explore relations between teenage pregnancy, sexual behaviour, and family type. The study examined whether students from lone parent and/or teenage mother initiated families more commonly report sex, lack of contraception at first sex, and/or conceptions by age 15/16, and whether such associations can be explained by low parental strictness, difficult parent-child communication, and/or low parental input into sex education. Up to date longitudinal UK research on family influences on conceptions is lacking, as is longitudinal research on family influences on sexual behaviour. No previous studies have comprehensively examined effects of parenting behaviours. Unlike previous research, this study tested theories suggesting that parenting deficits among lone parent and teenage initiated families increase risk of teenage pregnancy among their children. Secondary analysis of data from a trial of sex education. Girls and boys from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born were more likely to report sex but not lack of contraception at first sex by age 15/16. Girls and boys with mothers having them as teenagers, and boys but not girls from lone parent families, were more likely to report being involved in conceptions by age 15/16. Only the association between teenage mother family and girls' conceptions was reduced by adjusting for a parenting behaviour measure. Students from lone parent families or having mothers who were teenagers when they were born are more likely to report early sexual debut and conceptions by age 15/16, but this is not generally explained by parenting style.

  20. A 10-year interval study to compare the prevalence and risk factors of female sexual dysfunction in Korea: the Korean internet sexuality survey (KISS) 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H; Min, B; Park, J; Son, H

    2016-12-08

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is defined as disturbances in sexual desire and the psychophysiological changes that characterize the sexual response cycle, which cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. Female sexual dysfunction is strongly related to socio-cultural characteristics of a certain region and can change over time. Authors previously reported the features of FSD in Korea through an analysis of an internet-based survey conducted in 2004. This time, we designed a 10-year interval study to compare the prevalence of and risk factors of FSD through the Korean Internet Sexuality Survey (KISS) 2014. The internet-based survey was targeted towards 20-59-year-old women, who were asked to answer the questionnaire only if they were sexually active. In total, 516 responses were analyzed and the mean age of the subjects was 38.1±10.3 years. We defined FSD as having a total FSFI score of under 25.0, and resulted in a prevalence of FSD of 46.7%. The prevalence of FSD in each age group increased with age from 23.7, 45.4, 51.4 to 72%, for those in their 20, 30, 40 and 50s, respectively. Among the 50s age group, lubrication and pain domain dysfunctions were highly prevalent. The risk factors for FSD were identified as constipation, depression, incontinence, age of first intercourse, number of sexual partners and the use of oral contraceptive pills. Although the some demographic features of this study was different with those of the 2004 repot, the prevalence of FSD was similar with that reported previously in 2004 and a few risk factors of FSD was consistently significant in these interval studies.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 8 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ijir.2016.41.

  1. Factors influencing career choice in anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student′s stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky′s 13-point sense of coherence scale. Methods: Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky′s sense of coherence (SOC scale. Results: Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%, while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor−patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55 (25 th percentile was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60 in the survey. Conclusion: Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student′s personality.

  2. Factors influencing nurses' perceptions of occupational safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Menevse; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-01-02

    To determine nurses' perceptions of occupational safety and their work environment and examine the sociodemographic traits and job characteristics that influence their occupational safety, we studied a sample of 278 nurses. According to the nurses, the quality of their work environment is average, and occupational safety is insufficient. In the subdimensions of the work environment scale, it was determined that the nurses think "labor force and other resources" are insufficient. In the occupational safety subdimensions "occupational illnesses and complaints" and "administrative support and approaches," they considered occupational safety to be insufficient. "Doctor-nurse-colleague relationships," "exposure to violence," and "work unit" (eg, internal medicine, surgical, intensive care) are the main factors that affect occupational safety. This study determined that hospital administrations should develop and immediately implement plans to ameliorate communication and clinical precautions and to reduce exposure to violence.

  3. Factors Influencing Sulfinatodehalogenation Reactions of Perhalocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU,Kai(吴恺); CHEN,Qing-Yun(陈庆云)

    2004-01-01

    The study on the factors influencing sulfinatodehalogenation of perfluorohexyl chloride plus octene-1 by using Na2S2O4/NaHCO3 discovered that among the various solvents tested(e.g.Me2SO,NMP,DMAc,CH3CN,CH3CN/H2O)at different temperatures,Me2SO was found to be the most suitable solvent and the conversion of the chloride was very dependent on the reaction temperature.When Me2SO was used in the reaction of perfluoroalkyl iodides,the reaction temperature could be decreased by 20℃ as compared with that carried out in CH3CN/H2O to reach the comparable yields.

  4. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Meyrick C M

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of "being there" in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users' attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

  5. Sexual Behaviors and Other Risk Factors for Oral Human Papillomavirus Infections in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Robert L.; Thompson, Erika L.; Kelso, Natalie E.; Friary, John; Hosford, Jennifer; Barkley, Phillip; Dodd, Virginia J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Ajinkya, Shaun; Obesso, Peter Daniel; Rashid, Mohammed H.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with a rising incidence of certain head and neck cancers, and oral sex has been associated with oral HPV. This study sought to identify more specific patterns of oral sexual activity, including self-inoculation, that are associated with oral HPV infections in young women. Methods A total of 1010 women attending a large university completed a computer-based questionnaire and provided oral specimens that were tested for any oral HPV using a Linear Array assay that detects any HPV as well as 37 HPV genotypes. Twenty-seven women provided additional samples up to 12 months after enrollment. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify oral sexual patterns and other risk factors associated with prevalent oral HPV. Results Nineteen women had prevalent oral HPV (1.9%), with 10 women (1%) having a type-specific infection. Oral HPV was significantly associated with lifetime coital sex partnership numbers (P = 0.03), lifetime and yearly oral sex partnership numbers (P lipstick, or toothbrushes (P < 0.05 for each), with an apparent dose-response for alcohol use and smoking behavior, stratified by number of sexual partners. Of 7 women with prevalent HPV who provided follow-up samples, none had evidence of a persistent type-specific infection. Conclusions These data provide additional evidence of transmission of oral HPV from oral sexual activity and also suggest possible transmission from self-inoculation or sharing of oral products. PMID:25013976

  6. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Genital and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Married Women of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadnia, Elahe; Kharaghani, Roghieh; Maleki, Azam; Avazeh, Azar; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh; Sedaghatpisheh, Tahereh; Jalilvand, Ahmad; Molae, Behnaz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4 274 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province from 2012 to 2013. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results. Results The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were 20.1% and 7.4%, respectively. The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8.5%, and the most common sexually transmitted infection was Trichomonas vaginalis (1.4%). The use of the intrauterine device (IUD) as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab. Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse consequences in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas. PMID:27974960

  7. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Genital and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Married Women of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ahmadnia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4 274 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province from 2012 to 2013. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results. Results: The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were 20.1% and 7.4%, respectively. The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8.5%, and the most common sexually transmitted infection was Trichomonas vaginalis (1.4%. The use of the intrauterine device (IUD as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab. Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse consequences in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas.

  8. Factores asociados con la aparición de disfunciones sexuales en una población femenina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Guibert Reyes

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio explicativo para determinar la frecuencia de las disfunciones sexuales y algunos de los factores biológicos, psicosociales, culturales y ambientales asociados con la aparición de éstas en el período de 1 año, a partir de agosto de 1993 en Alamar. Se expresa que la muestra está compuesta por 48 mujeres mayores de 15 años, un grupo de estudio de 24, e igual cantidad de controles. Se les aplica una encuesta de 30 preguntas, cuyos resultados se muestran en 5 tablas y se utiliza el cálculo porcentual para estimar la frecuencia y odds ratio con intervalo de confianza al 95 %, para valorar fuerza de asociación entre las variables. Se encuentra que las difunciones sexuales femeninas de mayor frecuencia son el deseo sexual inhibido y la anorgasmia, que las variables ingestión de fármacos, ausencia de salud física, poco deseo sexual, comunicación deficiente de pareja y no recibir educación sexual, son factores de riesgo que están fuertemente asociados con la aparición de disfunciones sexuales en nuestras mujeres y tienen relación causal con ellas. Se señala que los factores ambientales no se asocian con la aparición de disfunciones sexualesAn explanatory study was conducted to determine the frequency of sexual dysfunctions and some of the biological, psychosocial, cultural and environmental factors associated with the appearance of these disorders from August, 1993, to August, 1994, in Alamar. The sample was composed of 48 women over 15, a case-base study consisting of 24 women, and the same number of controls. A survey with 30 questions was applied and the results were shown in 5 tables. Percentage was calculated to estimate the frequency and odds ratio with a confidence interval at 95 % so as to assess the force of association among the variables. It was found that the most frequent female sexual dysfunctions are the inhibited sexual desire and the anorgasmy, and that drug taking, the absence of physical health

  9. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  10. Factors influencing women's decision making in hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Monika; Armfield, Nigel R; Page, Katie; Kerr, Gayle; Kurz, Suzanne; Jackson, Graeme; Currie, Jason; Weaver, Edward; Yazdani, Anusch; Obermair, Andreas

    2017-09-12

    To explore factors influencing how well-informed women felt about hysterectomy, influences on their decision making, and on them receiving a less-invasive alternative to open surgery. Online questionnaire, conducted in 2015-2016, of women who had received a hysterectomy in Australia, in the preceding two years. Questionnaires were completed by 2319/6000 women (39% response). Most women (n=2225; 96%) felt well-informed about hysterectomy. Women were more aware of the open abdominal approach (n=1798; 77%), than of less-invasive vaginal (n=1552; 67%), laparoscopic (n=1540; 66%), laparoscopic-assisted (n=1303; 56%), and robotic approaches (n=289; 12%). Most women (n=1435; 62%) reported their gynaecologist was the most influential information source. Women who received information about hysterectomy from a GP (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.15-1.90), or from a gynaecologist (OR=1.3; 95% CI 1.06-1.58), were more likely to feel better informed (p<0.01). This study is important because it helps clinicians, researchers and health policy makers to understand why many women still receive an open abdominal approach despite many learned societies recommending to avoid it if possible. Additional information, or education about avoiding open abdominal approach where possible may lead to a greater number of women receiving less-invasive types of hysterectomy in the future. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Influence of neonatally administered gonadotropin on the sexual function of adult rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, F; Vedder, I; Dörner, G

    1975-02-01

    Male and female rats were daily injected with 10 IU HCG plus 10 IU FSH from the 1st to 14th day of life in order to investigate the influence of neonatal gonadotrophin administration on the sex-specific differentiation of the brain. When adult, the males showed hypogonadism associated with approximately normal sexual activity. In the females, precocious puberty, indicated by premature vaginal opening and spontaneous estrus, occurred. Furthermore, bisexuality with a tendency towards more male behavioural patterns was observed, but no impairment of ovarian cyclicity. Thus, hypergonadotrophic hypergonadism during the hypothalamic differentiation phase gave rise to bisexual behaviour in adult female rats associated with normal ovarian cycles. The question of a direct or indirect influence of gonadotrophins on the sex-specific brain differentiation is discussed.

  12. The influence of early sexual debut and pubertal timing on psychological distress among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Ksobiech, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of early sexual debut (ESD) and pubertal timing on psychological distress from adolescence to young adulthood in Taiwan, a non-Western society with a distinct cultural and family context. Data were from a cohort sample of 15-year-olds (N = 2595) first interviewed in 2000, with four follow-ups during a 7-year period. Psychological distress was assessed by a reduced form of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised. ESD was defined by first intercourse at age 15 or younger. Multivariate analyses via growth curve modeling found a greater increase in psychological distress over time in adolescents with ESD (β = .28, p influence of both ESD and pubertal timing on distress trajectories, independent of parental and family characteristics.

  13. Risky Sexual Behaviors and Associated Factors among Jiga High School and Preparatory School Students, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Degu, Genet; Yitayew, Meseret; Misganaw, Worku; Muche, Mikiyas; Demelash, Tiguaded; Mesele, Meless; Ayehu, Melat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Young people constitute a large number of population worldwide, and majority of this population group lives in developing countries. They are at high risk of engaging in risky sexual behaviors. These risk sexual behaviors predispose youths to several sexual and reproductive health problems like STIs, HIV, unwanted pregnancy, and abortion. So, this study was conducted to assess the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among Jiga high school and preparatory school students, northwest Ethiopia. Methodology. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted among Jiga town high school and preparatory school students. A total of 311 students were included in the study. Systematic random sampling method was used to select study participants. Data was entered using EpiData version 3.1 and it was exported to SPSS version 22 for further analysis. Descriptive analysis and bivariate and multivariate analysis were also calculated to determine factors associated with risky sexual behavior. Result. Forty-eight (16%) of respondents reported that they had sexual intercourse. From those who start sex, 44 (14.7%) were involved in risky sexual behavior which could predispose them to sexual and reproductive health problems. More than half, 27 (56.3%), of respondents first sexual intercourse was before their eighteenth birthday. The mean age and SD of fist sexual initiation were 17.2 years old and 1.35 years, respectively. Factors associated with risky sexual behavior include respondents between the ages of 20 and 23 (AOR: 5, 95%, CI: 1.59–15.98), drinking alcohol (AOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.13–5.41), and having poor knowledge towards HIV/AIDS (AOR: 4.53, 95%, CI: 2.06–9.94). Conclusion. A large number of in-school youths are involved in risky sexual behaviors like early sexual initiation, having multiple sexual partners, inconsistence use of condom, and having sex with high risk partner (CSWs). Age of respondents, alcohol drinking, and

  14. Parental Influence on Their Adult Children’s Sexual Values: A Multi-National Comparison Between the United States, Spain, Costa Rica, and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Negy, Charles; Velezmoro, Rodrigo; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Smith-Castro, Vanessa; Livia, Jose

    2016-01-01

    We examined the influence of perceived parental sexual values, religiosity, and family environment on young adults’ sexual values from the United States (n = 218), Spain (n = 240), Costa Rica (n = 172), and Peru (n = 105). On average, and across the four national groups, the messages young adults received from their parents about broad domains of sexual behaviors (masturbation, non-intercourse types of heterosexual sexual activity, premarital sex, same-sex activity, and cohabiting) were unequ...

  15. Sexual activity among Malaysian school-going adolescents: what are the risk and protective factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, NoorAni; Awaluddin, S Maria; Ismail, Hasimah; Samad, Rahama; NikAbdRashid, NikRubiah

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to identify risk and protective factors associated with sexual activity among Malaysian adolescents. Data from the World Health Organization Global School-based Student Health Survey 2012 were analyzed. A total of 23 645 students aged 12 to 17 years responded using self-administered validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of reported ever-had sex was 8.3%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that ever-had sex was positively significantly associated with ever-used drugs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.51-9.13), and to a lesser extent, ever-smoked (aOR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.62-2.07) and ever-consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.15-2.53). Protective factors against ever-had sex were having a close friend (aOR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.50-0.81), parental bonding (aOR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.65-0.81), supportive peers (aOR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.69-0.86), and parental connectedness (aOR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.78-0.99). Although the prevalence of sexual activity among school-going adolescents in Malaysia is relatively low, identifying the risk and protective factors is crucial toward developing an integrated multiple approach to preventing sexual-related problems.

  16. A review of risk and protective factors for adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmari, Kristin; Sabherwal, Simran

    2013-11-01

    To conduct a literature review of studies that examined risk and protective factors related to adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries. A literature search was conducted using multiple databases, including PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, JSTOR, and the Interagency Youth Working Group. Review criteria included publications that: were conducted in a low- or middle-income country; had a sample size of at least 100 young people aged 10-24 years, and used multivariate analysis. All studies that were identified were also conducted between 1990 and 2010, a 20-year time frame. The literature search and initial review yielded a total of 244 studies that met the criteria and analyzed risk and protective factors related to the following outcomes: sexual initiation, number of sexual partners, condom use, contraceptive use, pregnancy and early childbearing, human immunodeficiency virus, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual coercion. Most studies that were conducted on adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries were largely focused in Sub-Saharan African contexts, and primarily examined factors related to sexual initiation and condom use. Most factors that examined an adolescent sexual and reproductive health outcome were also focused on the individual level, although an increasing number of studies within the past 10 years have focused on family-level factors. Few studies examined factors at the community or neighborhood level, which, to date, has largely been ignored in developing country contexts. The review not only summarizes what is currently known in terms of risk and protective factors that relate to adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries, but also highlights the gaps. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Methodological Review of Exploratory Factor Analysis in Sexuality Research: Used Practices, Best Practices, and Data Analysis Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaluk, John K; Short, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    Sexuality researchers frequently use exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to illuminate the distinguishable theoretical constructs assessed by a set of variables. EFA entails a substantive number of analytic decisions to be made with respect to sample size determination, and how factors are extracted, rotated, and retained. The available analytic options, however, are not all equally empirically rigorous. We discuss the commonly available options for conducting EFA and which options constitute best practices for EFA. We also present the results of a methodological review of the analytic options for EFA used by sexuality researchers in more than 200 EFAs, published in more than 160 articles and chapters from 1974 to 2014, in a sample of sexuality research journals. Our review reveals that best practices for EFA are actually those least frequently used by sexuality researchers. We introduce freely available analytic resources to help make it easier for sexuality researchers to adhere to best practices when conducting EFAs in their own research.

  18. Global lessons on healthy adolescent sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Atsuko; Corliss, Heather L; Santelli, John S

    2009-08-01

    Examining global trends of adolescent sexual behavior is essential to inform clinical practice as well as for developing interventions and educational strategies to ensure healthy sexual development in young people. Most young people begin sexual activity in their teenage years. Extensive research has been conducted to elucidate risk and protective factors for sexual activity in adolescence and to evaluate the success of different sex education programs in influencing these factors. Some risk and protective factors were similar globally, whereas others differed by sex and community. Research findings suggest that comprehensive sex education, which includes skills-based interventions, is effective in changing youth behavior. In addition, research points towards the importance of addressing larger structural and contextual issues such as gender equality, poverty, and education in improving the sexual health of adolescents. Adolescents begin their sexual lives in their teen years; therefore, clinicians need to focus on positive ways to help teenagers develop healthy relationships while providing guidance around reducing risky sexual behaviors.

  19. The Influence of Trauma History and Relationship Power on Latinas' Sexual Risk for HIV/STIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Mary E; Gamble, Heather L; Buscemi, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of Latinas completed surveys that included measures of sexual abuse and intimate partner violence history, relationship power, negotiating power regarding condom use, perceived HIV/STI risk of sexual partner, and sexual behavior. Over half of the women reported a history of intimate partner violence in the past year and/or sexual abuse in their lifetime. Intimate partner violence was correlated with lower overall sexual relationship power scores, while sexual abuse was correlated with lower condom use negotiating power. More extensive intimate partner violence had the strongest association with higher HIV/STI risk, controlling for relationship status, sexual abuse, and relationship power.

  20. Factors Influencing Students’ Perceptions of Online Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falls

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.

  1. Variation in human mate choice: simultaneously investigating heritability, parental influence, sexual imprinting, and assortative mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsch, Brendan P; Verweij, Karin J H; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-05-01

    Human mate choice is central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, but the basis of variation in mate choice is not well understood. Here we looked at a large community-based sample of twins and their partners and parents ([Formula: see text] individuals) to test for genetic and family environmental influences on mate choice, while controlling for and not controlling for the effects of assortative mating. Key traits were analyzed, including height, body mass index, age, education, income, personality, social attitudes, and religiosity. This revealed near-zero genetic influences on male and female mate choice over all traits and no significant genetic influences on mate choice for any specific trait. A significant family environmental influence was found for the age and income of females' mate choices, possibly reflecting parental influence over mating decisions. We also tested for evidence of sexual imprinting, where individuals acquire mate-choice criteria during development by using their opposite-sex parent as the template of a desirable mate; there was no such effect for any trait. The main discernible pattern of mate choice was assortative mating; we found that partner similarity was due to initial choice rather than convergence and also at least in part to phenotypic matching.

  2. Features and the influencing factors of the sexual behaviors in last 6 months among MSM in Mianyang City%绵阳市男男性行为者近6月性行为特征及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 徐杰; 李志军; 张光贵; 李六林; 樊静

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解绵阳市男男性行为者(MSM)近6月性行为特征,分析影响因素.方法 采用同伴推动抽样法(RDS),在MSM活动场所定时、定点进行性行为特征及相关因素的招募和寻问式匿名现场调查,多因素分析采用Logistic回归.结果 共调查400人,近6个月性伴数为1~5人占89.0%,性伴是男朋友(BF)占48.0%、男性商业性伴(MB)占4.5%、一夜情(419)占40.3%、妻子占3.3%、女朋友占7.3%、女性商业性伴和其他各占0.8%.认识性伴场所为酒吧等占16.3%、浴室等占1.5%、公园等占16.0%、互联网占64.3%、家里占6.3%、其他占9.3%.近6月发生肛交做“1”、做“0”、口交、阴道交安全套使用率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),安全套坚持使用率依次分别为47.8%、41.5%、9.9%、22.1%.近6月做“1”肛交安全套使用与公园认识性伴、性伴主要来自”一夜情”、不知道性伴健康状况呈负关联(OR分别为0.278、0.440、0.015,P<0.01),近6月阴道交安全套使用与双向性取向、近6月性伴数>5、近6月男男肛交安全套使用率呈正关联(OR分别为3.577、4.739、19.976,P<0.05),与高中及以上文化呈负关联(OR为0.320,P>0.05).近6月发生过群交占3.3%,与近6月男男肛交数、浴室认识性伴呈正关联(OR分别为2.864、9.866,P< 0.05).结论 绵阳市MSM人群大多性关系复杂,性伴认识以网络、公园等高危场所为主,安全套使用率较低,艾滋病传播高危因素普遍存在,因此应针对性加大干预力度.%OBJECTIVE To find out the current situation of the sexual act among MSM (men who have sex with men) in the last 6 months, and to analyze the influencing factors. METHODS Adopted the Respondent-driven Sampling (RDS), surveyed MSM about the features of their sexual act periodically and anonymously. RESULTS Within the 400 people surveyed, 89% of them had a number of sex partners of 1 to 5, and 48.0% of the sex

  3. Influence of sexual performance anxiety on Erectile Dysfunction%性操作焦虑对阴茎勃起障碍的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明矾

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To understand psychological factors involved in erectile dysfunction. Methods: The erectile dysfunction rating scale (EDRS), State-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), and sexual psychological questionnaire (self-designed) were administered to 74 cases (30 psychogenic ED patients and 44 normal control objects).Results: High levels of sexual performance anxiety were found to affect patients' self-evaluation and coping responses. Sexual performance anxiety, deficient sexual sensitivity and poor communication techniques were the major contributing factors of psychogenic erectile dysfunction.Conclusion: Sexual performance anxiety constitutes a significant factor of erective dysfunction.

  4. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Gimeno Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  5. Prospective association between negative life events and initiation of sexual intercourse: the influence of family structure and family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K; Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K; Aspy, Cheryl B; Tolma, Eleni L; John, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We examined the prospective association between negative life events and time to initiation of sexual intercourse and the influence of family structure and family income on this association. We followed up a randomly selected sample (n=649) of ethnically diverse parents and their children aged 12 to 17 years over a 5-year period. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to examine the relation between negative life events and time to initiation of sexual intercourse. Family structure and family income were assessed as confounders. Negative life events were significant predictors of time to initiation of sexual intercourse in adolescents. After controlling for demographic variables, youths reporting 1 negative life event had a hazard of initiation of sexual intercourse 1.40 times greater and youths reporting 2 or more negative life events had a hazard of initiation of sexual intercourse 1.61 times greater compared with youths reporting no negative life events. Family structure and family income were not significant confounders of the relation between initiation of sexual intercourse and negative life events. Interventions to prevent initiation of sexual intercourse should focus on youths with recent negative life events, regardless of family income and structure.

  6. Neurohormonal aspects of sexual drive in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mazurkevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a modern view on women,s sexual health. The reasons for the modern sexual revolution are explained. Various aspects and functional features of the body affecting the quality of sexual life of women are examined. The classification of female sexual disorders is presented. Influence of psychosocial factors on female sexual drive, as well as the role of sex steroids in the coordination of the anatomical and functional relationships of structures responsible for sexual function of women are described. Complex influence of sex hormones and neurotransmitters on sexual function of women; influence of effective hormonal oral contraception on female sexual drive are described. Intake of modern hormonal contraceptives saves reproductive health, enables family planning, and is also identified with the effect of wellbeing and comfort, including sexual. Analysis of the various mechanisms of combined oral contraceptives, effect on sexual activity of women is carried out. It is noted that progestogens in combined oral contraception have a unique specific effect on various tissues and systems of the body, including the sexual function. An assessment of the impact of the amount of estrogen in combined oral contraceptives on sexual function of women is performed. The data are presented on selective antiandrogenic action of chlormadinone acetate – gestogen included in the Belara combined oral contraceptive and not affecting the libido. 

  7. Neurohormonal aspects of sexual drive in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mazurkevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a modern view on women,s sexual health. The reasons for the modern sexual revolution are explained. Various aspects and functional features of the body affecting the quality of sexual life of women are examined. The classification of female sexual disorders is presented. Influence of psychosocial factors on female sexual drive, as well as the role of sex steroids in the coordination of the anatomical and functional relationships of structures responsible for sexual function of women are described. Complex influence of sex hormones and neurotransmitters on sexual function of women; influence of effective hormonal oral contraception on female sexual drive are described. Intake of modern hormonal contraceptives saves reproductive health, enables family planning, and is also identified with the effect of wellbeing and comfort, including sexual. Analysis of the various mechanisms of combined oral contraceptives, effect on sexual activity of women is carried out. It is noted that progestogens in combined oral contraception have a unique specific effect on various tissues and systems of the body, including the sexual function. An assessment of the impact of the amount of estrogen in combined oral contraceptives on sexual function of women is performed. The data are presented on selective antiandrogenic action of chlormadinone acetate – gestogen included in the Belara combined oral contraceptive and not affecting the libido. 

  8. Sexual intercourse among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: a study of individual and parenting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ninive; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine a range of individual, parenting, and family factors associated with sexual intercourse among a community sample of youth and their families in Santiago, Chile. Methods Data were taken from the first wave of the Santiago Longitudinal Study conducted in January 2008–November 2009. Participants were 766 youth (mean age = 14.03 years, 51% male) from municipalities of low-to mid-socioeconomic status. Variables included emotional and behavioral subscales from the Child Behavior Checklist’s Youth Self Report, parental monitoring, family involvement, parental control and autonomy, relationship with each parent, and sexual activity. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the odds of sexual intercourse initiation. Results Seventy (9.14%) youth reported having had sex in their lifetime; the average age of first sexual intercourse among this group was 13.5 years (Standard Deviation [SD] = 1.74) for males and 14.08 (SD = 1.40) for females. Having sex was inversely associated with withdrawn-depressed symptoms (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.84, Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–0.97), but positively associated with somatic complaints (OR = 1.20, CI = 1.04–1.38) and rule breaking behavior (OR = 1.21, CI = 1.08–1.36), after adjusting for demographic and other individual and parenting variables. The majority (80%) of the youth who had had sex reported using protection at the time of last intercourse. Conclusions Findings highlight the role that mental health problems—some of them not commonly associated with onset of sexual activity—may play in a youth’s decision to have sex. The potential protective effects of several parenting and family characteristics disappeared with youth age and youth behavioral problems. PMID:21152714

  9. Older Women’s Sexual Desire Problems: Biopsychosocial Factors Impacting Them and Barriers to Their Clinical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Maciel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual desire is a major component of sexuality at any age, and inhibited desire is one of the main sexual dysfunctions reported by older women. Nonetheless, in medical settings, for a variety of reasons discussed herein, its assessment—as well as the assessment of older women’s sexual health in general—is typically avoided or conducted by asking a single sex question. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature (most of which is preliminary in nature regarding the main psychosocial and health factors that could impact older women’s sexual desire, as well as potential obstacles to the assessment and treatment of this geriatric sexual issue. It is certainly advisable that medical care providers who are uncomfortable discussing older women’s sexual concerns be prepared to make appropriate referrals to clinicians who possess the proper training to accurately assess and treat sexual challenges (and female sexual interest problems in particular in this neglected patient population.

  10. Protective factors in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending: a comparison between three subgroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Asscher, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the presence and impact of dynamic protective factors for delinquency in male adolescents with a history of sexual and/or violent offending. Bipolar factors (factors with risk and protective factors being the ends of the same continuum) were examined in male adolescents w

  11. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting rabbit doe sexual receptivity as estimated from one generation of divergent selection

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    M. Theau.Clément

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual receptivity of rabbit does at insemination greatly influences fertility and is generally induced by hormones or techniques known as “biostimulation”. Searching for more sustainable farming systems, an original alternative would be to utilise the genetic pathway to increase the does’receptivity. The purpose of the present study was to identify genetic and non-genetic factors that influence rabbit doe sexual receptivity, in the context of a divergent selection experiment over 1 generation. The experiment spanned 2 generations: the founder generation (G0 consisting of 140 rabbit does, and the G1 generation comprising 2 divergently selected lines (L and H lines with 70 does each and 2 successive batches from each generation. The selection rate of the G0 females to form the G1 lines was 24/140. The selection tests consisted of 16 to 18 successive receptivity tests at the rate of 3 tests per week. On the basis of 4716 tests from 275 females, the average receptivity was 56.6±48.2%. A batch effect and a test operator effect were revealed. The contribution of females to the total variance was 20.0%, whereas that of bucks was only 1.1%. Throughout the experiment, 18.2% of does expressed a low receptivity (< 34%, 50.7% a medium one and 33.1% a high one (>66%. Some does were frequently receptive, whereas others were rarely receptive. The repeatability of sexual receptivity was approximately 20%. The results confirmed the high variability of sexual receptivity of non-lactating rabbit does maintained without any biostimulation or hormonal treatment. A lack of selection response on receptivity was observed. Accordingly, the heritability of receptivity was estimated at 0.01±0.02 from an animal model and at 0.02±0.03 from a  sire and dam model. The heritability of the average receptivity of a doe was calculated as 0.04. In agreement with the low estimated heritability, the heritability determined was no different from zero

  12. Testicular radiation dose after multimodal curative therapy for locally advanced rectal cancer. Influence on hormone levels, quality of life, and sexual functioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennies, S.; Wolff, H.A.; Rave-Fraenk, M.; Hess, C.F. [University Medicine Goettingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Jung, K. [University Medicine Goettingen (Germany). Dept. of Medical Statistics; Gaedcke, J.; Ghadimi, M.; Becker, H. [University Medicine Goettingen (Germany). Dept. of General Surgery; Hermann, R.M. [University Medicine Goettingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Aerztehaus an der Ammerlandklinik, Westerstede (Germany). Radiotherapy; Christiansen, H. [University Medicine Goettingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Hannover Medical School (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the current work was to prospectively measure the influence of testicular radiation dose on hormone levels, quality of life (QoL), and sexual functioning following multimodal therapy (neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy) for rectal cancer. Patients and methods: From November 2007 to November 2009, 83 male patients were treated at the University of Goettingen with radiochemotherapy (RCT) for locally advanced rectal cancer [total dose 50.4 Gy, concomitant chemotherapy with two cycles of 5-fluorouracil (FU) or 5-FU and oxaliplatin]. Testicular radiation doses were analyzed and correlated with hormone levels [luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), total testosterone and free androgen index (FAI) serum levels], QoL, and sexual functioning, which were determined before and up to 1 year after RCT. Results: Mean dose at the testes was 3.9 Gy (range 0.28-11.98 Gy). It was higher for tumors located < 6 cm from the anocutaneous line (p < 0.05). One year after therapy, testosterone, the testosterone/LH ratio, and the FAI/LH ratio were significantly decreased (3.5-3.0 {mu}g/l, 0.9-0.4, 7.9-4.5, respectively) while LH and FSH (4.2-8.5 IU/l, 6.0-21.9 IU/l) were increased. QoL and sexual functioning were significantly impaired. However, there was no statistical correlation between testicular radiation dose and changes in hormone levels, QoL, or sexual functioning. Conclusion: Multimodal treatment for rectal cancer including RCT leads to hormone level changes and to impaired QoL and sexual functioning. However, because there was no apparent correlation between the analyzed parameters, QoL is probably also influenced by other factors, e.g., psychosocial aspects. (orig.)

  13. Doenças sexualmente transmissíveis na adolescência: estudo de fatores de risco Sexually transmitted diseases in adolescence: study of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella R. Taquette

    2004-06-01

    drug abuse, sexual abuse and the habit of not using condoms during sexual intercourse. The results indicate multiple Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors in adolescence, and the failure to use condoms is the factor which is most possibly influenced by programs run by health workers.

  14. Sexual partner types and related sexual health risk among out-of-school adolescents in rural south-west Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobelius, A.; Kalina, B.; Pool, R.; Whitworth, J.; Chesters, J.; Power, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on ‘sexual debut’ among out-of-school youth in Masaka District, Uganda, factors influencing its timing and assistance young people feel they need to delay sexual initiation. Data were drawn from a sexual health needs assessment using applied anthropological techniques with young p

  15. THE SEXUAL ORIENTATION OF A PARENT AS A FACTOR WHEN CONSIDERING CARE

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    Chantelle Feldhaus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Section 28(2 of the Constitution states that a child's best interest is of paramount importance in every matter concerning the child. Section 9 further provides that every person is considered equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law. Several grounds are listed relating to the unfair discrimination of persons, including their sexual orientation. The concept of care is incorporated in the Children's Act, and it entails a comprehensive description of parents' daily life regarding children and the powers and duties expected to ensure the general protection, well-being and best interests of the child.The aim of this contribution is to discuss the sexual orientation of a parent as a factor when considering care and the extent to which courts may give consideration to such a factor. The article will also address the question of whether or not the role of a parent's sexual orientation in determining the best interests of the child has changed since the common law concept of custody was replaced by the concept of care in the Children's Act. In this article, care and the best interests of the child will be discussed first. International law will be considered thereafter, followed by a discussion on the approach of our courts, pre- and post-1994, in order to come to a conclusion and make recommendations.

  16. FACTORS AND ATTITUDES AFFECTING SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND SEX PRACTICES AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ENUGU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate factors and attitudes affecting sexual behaviour and sex practices of secondary school students, and to suggest changes necessary for preventing and/or reducing HIV transmission among them. 1009 multi-staged sampled secondary school students aged 10-20 years completed the anonymous interviews. 973(96.4% were Christians and 711(70.5% day students. Premarital sex was approved of by185(18.3% of the respondents while 596(59.1% claimed they would continue to abstain till they get married; 252(25.0% will abstain for some years while 136(13.5% will abstain for months. 181(17.9% believed that abstaining from sex is an abnormal behavior, that HIV/AIDS was a hoax. 573(56.8% agreed that HIV/AIDs is a disease from which they could protect themselves while 387(38.4% thought otherwise. Only 581(57.6% of the respondents would seek advice if they found they were HIV positive. 797(79% of the respondents were afraid of HIV infection while 520(351.5% said that someone in their family might become infected. Attitudinal factors showed statistically significant variation with gender, age, school and class of the respondents. A good number also practice homosexuality and lesbianism. Appropriate information about sexuality education and the negative consequences of early sexual exposure, STIs/HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy should be provided in public schools.

  17. Remarks on the physical factor influencing the individual language learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨君

    2015-01-01

    individual language learner as a subject of learning can be influenced by many factors such as physical factor,cognitive factor,and affective factor.All of which play an important role in language learning.These three factors are worthy of our research and physical factor will be discussed in this essay.

  18. Longitudinal pathways linking family factors and sibling relationship qualities to adolescent substance use and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L; Khoo, Siek Toon

    2005-12-01

    This 3-wave, 5-year longitudinal study tested the contributions of family contextual factors and sibling relationship qualities to younger siblings' substance use, sexual risk behaviors, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted disease. More than 220 non-White families participated (67% Latino and 33% African American), all of which involved a younger sibling (133 girls and 89 boys; mean age = 13.6 years at Time 1) and an older sister (mean age = 17 years at Time 1). Results from structural equation latent growth curve modeling indicated that qualities of the sibling relationship (high older sister power, low warmth/closeness, and low conflict) mediated effects from several family risks (mothers' single parenting, older sisters' teen parenting, and family's receipt of aid) to younger sibling outcomes. Model results were generally stronger for sister-sister pairs than for sister-brother pairs. Findings add to theoretical models that emphasize the role of family and parenting processes in shaping sibling relationships, which, in turn, influence adolescent outcomes.

  19. Evidence to suggest that women's sexual behavior is influenced by hip width rather than waist-to-hip ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Victoria J; Brewer, Gayle; Hendrie, Colin A

    2014-10-01

    Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is an important ornament display that signals women's health and fertility. Its significance derives from human development as a bipedal species. This required fundamental changes to hip morphology/musculature to accommodate the demands of both reproduction and locomotion. The result has been an obstetric dilemma whereby women's hips are only just wide enough to allow the passage of an infant. Childbirth therefore poses a significant hip width related threat to maternal mortality/risk of gynecological injury. It was predicted that this would have a significant influence on women's sexual behavior. To investigate this, hip width and WHR were measured in 148 women (M age = 20.93 + 0.17 years) and sexual histories were recorded via questionnaire. Data revealed that hip width per se was correlated with total number of sexual partners, total number of one night stands, percentage of sexual partners that were one night stands, number of sexual partners within the context of a relationship per year sexually active, and number of one night stands per year sexually active. By contrast, WHR was not correlated with any of these measures. Further analysis indicated that women who predominantly engaged in one night stand behavior had wider hips than those who did not. WHR was again without effect in this context. Women's hip morphology has a direct impact on their risk of potentially fatal childbirth related injury. It is concluded that when they have control over this, women's sexual behavior reflects this risk and is therefore at least in part influenced by hip width.

  20. Risk and protective factors for sexual aggression and dating violence: common themes and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Martie P

    2014-10-01

    The primary aims of this article are to expand on three themes from the conference articles on risk and protective factors for dating and sexual violence and to offer suggestions that can guide future research. The first theme is the co-occurrence of sexual and dating violence with other forms of violence and other campus health issues. A second topic is the value of prospective studies in revealing temporal patterns of victimization and perpetration. A third theme is the role of peer norms in violence among college students. Suggestions for translating these ideas into research and action are discussed and include the need for comprehensive prevention approaches, more longitudinal research spanning the years before, during, and after college, and the application of social media technology in our interventions strategies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Risk factors, healthcare-seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with genital ulcers in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makasa Mpundu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital ulcers (GU are associated with an increased risk of HIV transmission. Understanding risk factors for genital ulcers and sexual behaviour patterns after onset of symptoms and health seeking behaviour among GU-patients can provide useful information to aid design effective prevention strategies for genital ulcers. We investigated risk factors of self-reported GUs and care-seeking in the general population, and assessed GU patients regarding past care-seeking, recent sexual behaviour and partner awareness of the disease. Methods We analysed national data on genital ulcers from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, and data from a cross-sectional survey of genital ulcer patients from primary health care facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. Results The prevalence of GU in 2007 in the general population of Lusaka was 3.6%. Important predictors for genital ulcers were age 25–29 years, being widowed/separated/divorced and having a high number of life-time sexual partners. No differences in care-seeking were observed by residence, wealth and gender, and 60% of the respondents sought care from public health facilities. Among patients with GUs in Lusaka, 14% sought care >2 weeks after symptom onset. Forty-two percent were not aware of their HIV status, 57% reported sex after onset of symptoms and only 15% reported consistent condom use. Conclusions Low awareness of HIV status despite high probability of being infected and low condom use after onset of genital ulcer symptoms leads to a high potential for transmission to sexual partners. This, combined with the fact that many patients with GUs delayed seeking care, shows a need for awareness campaigns about GUs and the importance of abstinence or use of condoms when experiencing such symptoms.

  2. Influence of age, sexual maturation, anthropometric variables and body composition on flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Donassolo Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Since flexibility is an important component of health-related physical fitness at all ages, this parameter should be evaluated in chi ldren and adolescent s because the abi l ity to acquire and maintain levels of flexibility is greater in this age group. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate body weight, height, BMI and flexibility according to chronological age and sexual maturat ion and to determine the influence of these var iables on flexibi l ity in student s f rom publ ic and private schools. A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted. The sample consisted of 2604 girls aged 8 to 17 years. Body weight, height, BMI, sexual maturation, and flexibility were evaluated. The data were analyzed descriptively using the following inferential tests: two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by the Tukey post-hoc test, Pearson’s and Spearman’s simple correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The SPSS® 13.0 program was used for all statistical analyses, with a level of significance of p<0.05. Significant differences with increasing age and maturation stage were observed for the variables body weight, height and BMI when compared to the subsequent year. In conclusion, body wei-ght and height increased with increasing age, especially between 8 and 13 years, and flexibility remained stable throughout childhood and adolescence.

  3. Hydrolysis kinetics of atrazine and influence factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The hydrolysis kinetics of atrazine in distilled water and leaching water from soil, and their influence factors were studied by incubation at 35℃ and HPLC analysis method in this paper. The kinetic process of atrazine hydrolysis can be described by the first-order reaction law. The results showed that the hydrolysis rate constants k in leaching water and distilled water were 1.606x10-3/d and 1.055x10-3/d, respectively; the half-life of atrazine hydrolysis in distilled water at pH 3, pH 4.5 and pH 8 were 373 days, 522 days and 657 days respectively. The results also showed that the proton in reaction solution can catalyze the atrazine hydrolysis; humic acid and NH4+ etc. substances in aqueous solution can facilitate atrazine hydrolysis; rate constants of atrazine hydrolysis with humic acid and NH4NO3 were 2.431x10-3/d and 1.498x10-3/d respectively which were 2.3 and 1.42 times of control(1.055x10-3/d); anion NO3- can inhibit catalysis of humic acid to atrazine hydrolysis.

  4. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  5. Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoshi,Ko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

  6. Discrimination and depressive symptoms among sexual minority youth: is gay-affirming religious affiliation a protective factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattis, Maurice N; Woodford, Michael R; Han, Yoonsun

    2014-11-01

    Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depression relationship among self-identified sexual minority (n = 393) and heterosexual youth (n = 1,727). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, religious affiliation was found to moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among sexual minorities. Specifically, the results indicated that the harmful effects of discrimination among sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations that endorsed same-sex marriage were significantly less than those among peers who affiliated with denominations opposing same-sex marriage or who identified as secular. In contrast, religious affiliation with gay-affirming denominations did not moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among heterosexual participants. The findings suggest that, although religion and same-sex sexuality are often seen as incompatible topics, it is important when working with sexual minority clients for clinicians to assess religious affiliation, as it could be either a risk or a protective factor, depending on the religious group's stance toward same-sex sexuality. To promote the well-being of sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations opposed to same-sex marriage, the results suggest these faith communities may be encouraged to reconsider their position and/or identify ways to foster youth's resilience to interpersonal discrimination.

  7. The unprotected sexual behaviors and its influencing factors among HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Shanghai, China%男男性行为人群HIV感染者无保护性行为状况及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何欢; 汪敏; 张洪波; 宋丹丹; 佘敏; 董振鑫; 屈昱煌; 隋鑫

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sexual partners and sexual behaviors among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) and to examine the factors related with high risky sexual behaviors.Methods A total of 200 HIV-positive MSM participants were recruited using "snowballing" sampling from June to December in 2010 in Shanghai.Participants completed the questionnaire which included social demographic characteristics,sexual behaviors with male and female sexual partners in the past 6 months,alcohol consumption,alkyl nitrite use,illegal substances use and depression and anxiety symptoms,etc.Results Of the 200 HIV-positive MSM participants,45.0% (90/200) of participants' ages ranged from 26 to 35,and 30.0% (60/200) of the respondents were married.Participants living with a male partner and living with a female partner accounted for 17.0% (34/200) and 9.0% (18/200),respectively.A total of 57.5% (115/200) had anal sex with male and 13.5 % (27/200) had sex with female in the past 6 months.The percentage of participants who had 2 or more male anal sexual partners was 36.5% (73/200).During last six months,participants who didn't use condom consistently during anal sexes with men and vaginal sexes with women accounted for 16.0% (32/200) and 3.5% (7/200),respectively.The rate of risky sexual behaviors (any unprotected sex with male or female) during past 6 months was 17.5% (35/200).Factors associated with risky sexual behaviors included getting drunk before last sex (OR =4.270,90% CI:1.676-10.881 ),using alkyl nitrite( OR =3.397,90% CI:1.564-7.377 ) and having casual male partners ( OR =2.951,90% CI:1.278-5.252 ) during past six months,getting HIV infection diagnosis in half year ( OR =4.181,90% CI:1.939-9.013 ).Conclusion There were high rates of unprotected anal sex with men and vaginal sex with women among HIV positive MSM and alcohol and substance use before sex could increase the risk of having unprotected sex.%目的 了解男男性行为者( MSM

  8. The influence of sexually explicit online media on sex: do men who have sex with men believe they "do what they see"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Leickly, Emily; Yang, Joyce P; Pereira, Andrew; Simoni, Jane M

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, men who have sex with men (MSM) have engaged in increasing consumption of MSM-specific sexually explicit online media (i.e., online pornography). Furthermore, the amount of MSM-specific sexually explicit online media portraying unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) has increased, raising concerns about HIV transmission among the actors and the potential encouragement of risky sex among consumers. The influence of sexually explicit online media on sexual risk-taking, at present largely understudied, could lead to new avenues for innovative HIV-prevention strategies targeting at-risk MSM. In this preliminary assessment, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 MSM in the Seattle area to elucidate MSM's perceptions about the influence of sexually explicit online media on their own and other MSM's sexual behaviors. Participants reported that sexually explicit online media: (1) plays an educational role, (2) increases comfort with sexuality, and (3) sets expectations about sexual behaviors. While participants overwhelmingly reported not feeling personally influenced by viewing UAI in sexually explicit online media, they believed viewing UAI increased sexual risk-taking among other MSM. Specifically, participants reported that the high prevalence of UAI in sexually explicit online media sends the message, at least to other MSM, that (1) engaging in UAI is common, (2) UAI is acceptable and "ok" to engage in, and (3) future partners will desire or expect UAI. Overall, this preliminary assessment indicates that sexually explicit online media exposure may have both positive (e.g., helping MSM become more comfortable with their sexuality) and negative (e.g., normalizing UAI) impacts on the sexual health of MSM and may be useful in the development of novel HIV-prevention interventions.

  9. Colocalization of Mating-Induced Fos and D2-Like Dopamine Receptors in the Medial Preoptic Area: Influence of Sexual Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Nutsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine in the medial preoptic area (mPOA stimulates sexual activity in males. This is evidenced by microdialysis and microinjection experiments revealing that dopamine receptor antagonists in the mPOA inhibit sexual activity, whereas agonists facilitate behavior. Microdialysis experiments similarly show a facilitative role for dopamine, as levels of dopamine in the mPOA increase with mating. While the majority of evidence suggests an important role for dopamine receptors in the mPOA in the regulation of male sexual behaviors, whether sexual activity or sexual experience influence dopamine receptor function in the mPOA has not been previously shown. Here, we used immunohistochemical assays to determine whether varying levels of sexual activity or experience influence the number of cells containing Fos or D2 receptor immunoreactivity. Results show that sexual experience facilitated subsequent behavior, namely experience decreased latencies. Moreover, the number of cells with immunoreactivity for Fos or D2 correlated with levels of sexual experience and sexual activity. Sexual activity increased Fos immunoreactivity. Sexually experienced animals also had significantly more D2-positive cells. Sexually inexperienced animals copulating for the first time had a larger percentage of D2-positive cells containing Fos, when compared to sexually experienced animals. Finally, regardless of experience, animals that had sex prior to sacrifice had significantly more D2-positive cells that contained Fos, versus animals that did not copulate. These findings are noteworthy because sexually experienced animals display increased sexual efficiency. The differences in activation of D2 and changes in receptor density may play a role in this efficiency and other behavioral changes across sexual experience.

  10. Urban water consumption and its influencing factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Liangxin; Gai, Lingtong; Tong, Yan; Li, Ruihua

    2017-01-01

    Factors that affect water consumption should be identified to develop effective public policies. However, factors influencing domestic water consumption in cities in China, particularly on a national scale, are unclear. In this study, urban water consumption and its influencing factors in 286

  11. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  12. Factors Associated With Self-Efficacy for Condom Use and Sexual Negotiation Among South African Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Pettifor, Audrey; Wong, Mitchell D.; MacPhail, Catherine; Lee, Sung-Jae; Hendriksen, Ellen; Rees, Helen V.; Coates, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To use logistic regression modeling to identify factors associated with high self-efficacy for sexual negotiation and condom use in a sample of South African youth. Methods The Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit (RHRU) National Youth Survey examined a nationally representative sample of 7409 sexually active South African youth aged 15 to 24 years. We used logistic regression modeling in this sample to identify factors associated with the main outcome of high self-efficacy. Results Among female respondents (n = 3890), factors associated with high self-efficacy in the adjusted model were knowing how to avoid HIV (odds ratio [OR] = 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 5.00), having spoken with someone other than a parent or guardian about HIV/AIDS (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.10), and having life goals (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.48). Not using condoms during their first sexual encounter (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.76), a history of unwanted sex (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.86), and believing that condom use implies distrust in one’s partner (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.86) were factors associated with low self-efficacy among female respondents. Male respondents (n = 3519) with high self-efficacy were more likely to take HIV seriously (OR = 4.03, 95% CI: 1.55 to 10.52), to believe they are not at risk for HIV (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.70), to report that getting condoms is easy (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.23 to 2.77), and to have life goals (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.54). Not using condoms during their first sexual experience (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.67), a history of having unwanted sex (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.64), believing condom use is a sign of not trusting one’s partner (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.87), and refusing to be friends with HIV-infected persons (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.85) were factors associated with low self-efficacy among male respondents in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions We used the

  13. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela-victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  14. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population. ... in influencing food choices and thus food intake of the elderly people in Mauritius. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in different regions around the island ...

  15. Factors of Influence on Receivables and Payables and Their Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin Oleg Ye.; Volovich Yelena B.

    2013-01-01

    The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups - macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.

  16. Adolescent Self-Esteem and Gender: Exploring Relations to Sexual Harassment, Body Image, Media Influence, and Emotional Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kliewer, Wendy; Kilmartin, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated self-reported influences on self-esteem involving the media, sexual harassment, body image, family and peer relationships, and emotional expression for 93 boys and 116 girls in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results generally supported a pattern in which boys and girls were most similar in late childhood and again in late adolescence. Discusses…

  17. The Influence of Dating Anxiety on Normative Experiences of Dating, Sexual Interactions, and Alcohol Consumption among Canadian Middle Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Andrea M.; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents tend to consume alcohol and find romantic and sexual partners in mixed-group settings that are unmonitored by adults. Relatively little is known about the influence that dating anxiety may have with these social interactions. A sample of 163 high school students (aged 14-17 years) completed online surveys assessing dating, sex, and…

  18. Estrogen-mediated downregulation of AIRE influences sexual dimorphism in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragin, Nadine; Bismuth, Jacky; Cizeron-Clairac, Géraldine; Biferi, Maria Grazia; Berthault, Claire; Serraf, Alain; Nottin, Rémi; Klatzmann, David; Cumano, Ana; Barkats, Martine; Le Panse, Rozen; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Autoimmune diseases affect 5% to 8% of the population, and females are more susceptible to these diseases than males. Here, we analyzed human thymic transcriptome and revealed sex-associated differences in the expression of tissue-specific antigens that are controlled by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a key factor in central tolerance. We hypothesized that the level of AIRE is linked to sexual dimorphism susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. In human and mouse thymus, females expressed less AIRE (mRNA and protein) than males after puberty. These results were confirmed in purified murine thymic epithelial cells (TECs). We also demonstrated that AIRE expression is related to sexual hormones, as male castration decreased AIRE thymic expression and estrogen receptor α-deficient mice did not show a sex disparity for AIRE expression. Moreover, estrogen treatment resulted in downregulation of AIRE expression in cultured human TECs, human thymic tissue grafted to immunodeficient mice, and murine fetal thymus organ cultures. AIRE levels in human thymus grafted in immunodeficient mice depended upon the sex of the recipient. Estrogen also upregulated the number of methylated CpG sites in the AIRE promoter. Together, our results indicate that in females, estrogen induces epigenetic changes in the AIRE gene, leading to reduced AIRE expression under a threshold that increases female susceptibility to autoimmune diseases.

  19. Sexual risk behavior in young adulthood: broadening the scope beyond early sexual initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A; Manhart, Lisa E; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

    2014-01-01

    A robust link between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking behavior is reported in previous studies. The relationship may not be causal, however, as the effect of common risk factors is often not considered. The current study examined whether early initiation was a key predictor of risky sexual behavior in the 20s and 30s, over and above co-occurring individual and environmental factors. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel of 808 youth. Early predictors (ages 10 to 15) and sexual risk taking (ages 21 to 24 and 30 to 33) were assessed prospectively. Early sexual initiation (before age 15) was entered into a series of probit regressions that also included family, neighborhood, peer, and individual risk factors. Although a positive bivariate relation between early sexual initiation and sexual risk taking was observed at both ages, the link did not persist when co-occurring risk factors were included. Behavioral disinhibition and antisocial peer influences emerged as the strongest predictors of sexual risk over and above early sexual initiation. These results suggest that early sexual initiation must be considered in the context of common antecedents; public health policy aimed at delaying sexual intercourse alone is unlikely to substantially reduce sexual risk behavior in young adulthood.

  20. The Influence of Misogynous Rap Music on Sexual Aggression against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barongan, Christy; Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama

    1995-01-01

    Results from 54 college men who heard misogynous or neutral rap music and then selected neutral, sexual-violent, or assaultive film vignettes to show a female companion suggest that misogynous music facilitates sexually aggressive behavior and support a relationship between cognitive distortions concerning women and sexual aggression. (SLD)

  1. The Influence of School Climate on Students' Experiences of Peer Sexual Harassment in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Early studies on the prevalence of peer sexual harassment in schools have left little doubt that it is a serious problem, often with negative consequences. Research indicates that sexual harassment is a subjective and gendered phenomenon, and peer sexual harassment is further complicated by the developmental changes associated with adolescence.…

  2. Young people's parental discussion about sexual and reproductive health issues and its associated factors in Awabel woreda, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayehu, Atitegeb; Kassaw, Teketo; Hailu, Getachew

    2016-03-08

    In Ethiopia besides the very low health seeking behavior of young people, they do not have access to sexual and reproductive health information and even the existing health services are adult-centered. Furthermore, health providers are not well equipped in addressing young people sexual and reproductive health needs. Therefore, parent-young people discussion about sexual and reproductive health issues are crucial in increasing their awareness and reduces their risky sexual behaviors. This study was aimed to assess young people's parental discussion about sexual and reproductive health issues and its associated factors in Awabel woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 781 young people aged 10-24 years in Awabel Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. A pre-tested structured interview administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. The collected data were entered using Epi Data 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 21. In the past 6 months, about one quarter, 25.3% of young people had a parental discussion about sexual and reproductive health issues. Young people who reside in urban areas were more likely to discuss on sexual and reproductive health issues with their parents [AOR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.54-3.89]. Similarly, being male was more likely to have a parental discussion about sexual and reproductive health issues than females [AOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.11-2.38]. Furthermore, the odds of parent-young people discussion about SRH matters was more likely among young people aged 20-24 years [AOR = 4.57, 95% CI: 2.13-9.82], living with fathers [AOR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.20-5.04] and had attained a primary level of education [AOR = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.22-6.87]. Parents lack of interest to discuss, feeling ashamed and culturally not acceptable to talk about sexual matters were found to deter young people's in discussing sexual and reproductive health matters. Parent-young people discussion about sexual

  3. [Risk assessment in young people living in Bobo Dioulasso: analysis of factors associated with sexual precocity and multiple partners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adohinzin, Clétus Come; Meda, Nicolas; Belem, Adrien Marie Gaston; Ouédraogo, Georges Anicet; Sombie, Issiaka; Berthe, Abdramane; Fond-Harmant, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Despite health education efforts, young people continue to adopt risky sexual behaviors which may have a significant impact on their health. This study aims to analyze the factors associated with sexual precocity and multiple partners among young people aged 19-24 years living in Bobo-Dioulasso. We conducted a quantitative, cross-sectional study. Survey data were collected from 573 young people aged 15-24 years in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) in December 2014. The respondents were selected using two stages cluster sampling. Risk factors for sexual precocity and multiple partners were analyzed using Stata 13 IC software. We used Pyoung people to delay sexual debut and to better assess risks are of utmost importance. Enhancing parents, teachers and carers capabilities is essential to improve the quality of their relationships with young people.

  4. Sexuality and maternity as additional factors of discrimination (and violence in women with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Gomiz Pascual

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two of the numerous variables that affect women with disabilities, exposing them to processes intersectional discrimination, are associated with the still prevailing traditional patriarchal society models: sexuality and motherhood. Sometimes these factors are so severe that violate the fundamental rights of the persons in this social group, threatening their status as full citizens and contributing occasionally to their social exclusion. In this paper we present some of the findings related to these aspects, from an empirical study that analyzed the existing violence against women with disabilities, in order to visualize the specific vulnerability of the members of this social group.

  5. Factores socio-culturales asociados a la actividad sexual de los adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    William Atehortua-Puerta,; Ruth Esperanza Caicedo-Fonseca; Edwin Abdel Ariza-Mendoza; Jeimy Johana Meza-Flórez

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: identificar los factores socioculturales asociados a la actividad sexual de los adolescentes. Materiales y Métodos: estudio cuantitativo-descriptivo, con muestreo probabilístico de tipo aleatorio simple, en una población de adolescentes escolarizados entre 13 y 19 años de los sectores público y privado. Para la realización de este estudio los investigadores realizaron una adaptación y modificación de un instrumento usado en un estudio similar, previa notificación y autorización de u...

  6. Internalized Homophobia Influences Perceptions of Men's Sexual Orientation from Photos of Their Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2017-04-01

    Although researchers have explored the perceiver characteristics that make people accurate at identifying others' sexual orientations, characteristics of the targets remain largely unexplored. In the current study, we examined how individual differences in internalized homophobia among gay men can affect perceptions of their sexual orientation by asking 49 individuals to judge the sexual orientations of 78 gay men from photos of their faces. We found that gay men reporting higher levels of internalized homophobia were less likely to have come out of the closet and were, in turn, less likely to be perceived as gay. Thus, internalized homophobia and the concealment of one's sexual minority status can impact perceptions of sexual orientation.

  7. Factors associated with sexual orientation and gender disparities in chronic pain among U.S. adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sabra L. Katz-Wise; Bethany Everett; Scherer, Emily A.; Holly Gooding; Milliren, Carly E.; S. Bryn Austin

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated factors associated with sexual orientation disparities in chronic pain frequency among youth. Data were analyzed from 4534 female and 3785 male youth from Waves I–IV (1995–2009) of the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Gender-stratified weighted logistic regression models controlled for sociodemographic characteristics and included sexual orientation (primary predictor) and frequency of three types of chronic pain (outcomes). Models wit...

  8. 南宁市良庆区老年人艾滋病高危性行为影响因素调查及应对策略探索%Investigation on the Influencing Factors of AIDS High Risk Sexual Behavior among the Elderly in the Area of Nanning City and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌洪习

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查分析老年人艾滋病高危性行为影响因素探索对策。方法对居住在南宁市良庆区调查时年龄≥50岁仍然存活的艾滋病感染者/患者,并以1∶3的比例随机抽取病例居住地附近人口学特征匹配的健康且年龄≥50岁的老年人,按遵循知情、自愿原则,进行面对面问卷调查。采用Excel 2003建立数据库,对资料进行描述性分析,运用spss 16.0进行统计分析。结果共完成508例调查艾滋病感染者/患者和一般老年人调查,对艾滋病患病有影响因素为婚姻(χ2=29.5,P=0.000,OR=0.04)、户籍(χ2=11.003,P=0.001,OR值=1.772)、个人每个月可支配数额(χ2=22.166,P=0.000,OR=0.525)、劳动(χ2=7.314,P=0.007,OR=0.600)、个人爱好(χ2=7.292,P=0.007,OR=1.399)。结论婚姻、户籍、劳动、个人每个月可支配金钱数额、爱好等因素对老年人高危性行为有影响。老年人艾滋病疫情防控策略:大力弘扬传统文化、强调艾滋病的危害、加强社区和村屯的文娱活动、推广避孕套(安全套)使用、以基本公共卫生服务项目慢病防治做切入口,让老年人接受防艾滋病干预时不尴尬。%Objective To investigate and analyze the influencing factors of the high risk behaviors of AIDS among the elderly. Methods For living in Nanning City, LIANG Qing district investigation age is more than or equal to 50 years old still alive in AIDS infection / patient, and to 1:3 proportion of randomly selected cases residence near demographic characteristics matching the health and age is more than or equal to 50 year old elderly, according to informed, voluntary principle, face-to-face questionnaire survey. Using Exce2003 to establish a database, the data were descriptive analysis, the use of SPSS16.0 statistical analysis. Results A total of 508 patients with HIV / AIDS and the general survey, the prevalence of AIDS factors for marriage (χ2

  9. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Minimally Invasive Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of institutional, patient and surgeon-related factors ... Surgical site infections ... Factors influencing choice of open procedures over MIS are summarized in Table 1. The main .... written with pharmaceutical products in mind (25). ... JAMA Intern.

  10. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  11. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The independent variables were maternal education, marital status, both ... maternal employment status, health factors (place of delivery and maternal chronic illness) ... It was evident that family support is a key factor in the success of EBF with ...

  12. Fear of cancer recurrence in survivor and caregiver dyads: differences by sexual orientation and how dyad members influence each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Tripodis, Yorghos; Bazzi, Angela R; Winter, Michael; Clark, Melissa A

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify explanatory factors of fear of recurrence (FOR) in breast cancer survivors of different sexual orientations and their caregivers and to assess the directionality in the survivor and caregiver dyads' FOR. We recruited survivors of non-metastatic breast cancer of different sexual orientations and invited their caregivers into this study. Using a telephone survey, we collected data from 167 survivor and caregiver dyads. Using simultaneous equation models and a stepwise selection process, we identified the significant determinants of survivors' and caregivers' FOR and determined the directionality of survivors' and caregivers' FOR. Weighting the model by the inverse propensity score ensured that differences by sexual orientation in age and proportion of life in the caregiver-survivor relationship were accounted for. Caregivers' FOR predicted survivors' FOR, and sexual orientation had a significant effect on survivors' FOR, in that sexual minority women reported less FOR than heterosexual women. Other determinants of survivors' FOR included their medical characteristics, coresidence with caregivers, and caregivers' social support and use of counseling. Caregivers' FOR was related to their social support and survivors' medical characteristics. This study suggests a need for caregiver interventions. Because survi