WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors influencing occurrence

  1. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products.

  2. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE OCCURRENCE OF HYPERTROPHIC SCARS AMONG POSTOPERATIVE PATIENTS IN GARUT, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Nugraha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertrophic scar causes physical and psychological problems. Thus understanding the factors related to the occurrence of hypertrophic scar tissue is needed. Little is known about its influencing factors in Indonesia, especially in Garut. Objective: This study aims to examine the relationships between hypertrophic scar and its influencing factors, and identify the most dominant factor of the occurrence of hypertrophic scars. Methods: This was an observational case control study using retrospective approach in Polyclinic of Surgery of Regional Public Hospital of dr. Slamet of Garut Regency. There were 40 samples recruited in this study by purposive sampling, which was divided to be case group (20 patients and control group (20 patients. Data were collected using Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale by observation and documentation of the medical records of patients. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis Results: Findings indicated that there were significant relationships between the surgical wound infection (p = 0.02, family history (p = 0.026, and type of suture (p = 0.043 with the occurrence of hypertrophic scars. The most dominant factor on the occurrence of hypertrophic scars was type of suture, acid polyglactin 910. The variables that had no significant relationships with the occurrence of hypertrophic scar tissue were age (p = 0.34, area of surgical wound (p = 0.177, and smoking habit (p = 0.479. Conclusion: There were significant relationships between infection of surgical wound, genetic history, the type of suture, and the occurrence of hypertrophic scar tissue. The most dominant factor that influenced the occurrence of hypertrophic scar tissue was the type of suture. Therefore, it is suggested to health professionals to modify the using of acid polyglactin 910 sutures, and nurses particularly need to provide the information regarding the family history and genetic-related hypertrophic scar, and prevent the

  3. Regional assessment on the influence of land use related factor on landslide occurrences in Kundasang, Sabah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharir, Kamilia; Simon, Norbert; Roslee, Rodeano

    2016-11-01

    Landslides are caused by human activities for development purposes. This study assesses the influence of land use factors on landslide occurrences in Kundasang, Sabah. This area is a well-known area that is prone to natural geohazards such as landslides and earthquake. Interpretation of aerial photographs was conducted to identify landslide distributions in three assessment years; 1984, 2009, and 2012. From the interpretation, a total of 494 landslides were identified. The land use maps for each year were produced from the same aerial photographs used for the landslide identification. The land use maps were later classified into four classes, namely, forest, barren, built up and agriculture area. Landslide density in each of the land use class was calculated and the initial finding showed that majority of landslides occurred in built up and barren classes especially in the 1984 and 2009 with 53 km2 and 50 km2 respectively. These results indicate that land use activities influence landslide occurrences and some mitigation action must be taken to minimise the impact of landslide occurrences especially in the built up class where this area is mostly occupied by residential area.

  4. ANALYSIS OF BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE OCCURRENCE OF WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTION IN TUNISIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassine, Th; Calistri, P; Ippoliti, C; Conte, A; Danzetta, M L; Bruno, R; Lelli, R; Bejaoui, M; Hammami, S

    2014-01-01

    Eco-climatic conditions are often associated with the occurrence of West Nile Disease (WND) cases. Among the complex set of biotic and abiotic factors influencing the emergence and spread of this vector-borne disease, two main variables have been considered to have a great influence on the probability of West Nile Virus (WNV) introduction and circulation in Tunisia: the presence of susceptible bird populations and the existence of geographical areas where the environmental and climatic conditions are more favourable to mosquito multiplications. The aim of this study was to identify and classify the climatic and environmental variables possibly associated with the occurrence of WNVhuman cases in Tunisia. The following environmental and climatic variables have been considered: wetlands and humid areas, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), temperatures and elevation. A preliminary analysis for the characterization of main variables associated with areas with a history of WNV human cases in Tunisia between 1997 and 2011 has been made. This preliminary analysis clearly indicates the closeness to marshes ecosystem, where migratory bird populations are located, as an important risk factor for WNV infection. On the contrary the temperature absolute seems to be not a significant factor in Tunisian epidemiological situation. In relation to NDVI values, more complex considerations should be made.

  5. Critical review of heavy metal pollution of traffic area runoff: Occurrence, influencing factors, and partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Maximilian [Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Am Coulombwall 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Welker, Antje [Fachgebiet Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Hydromechanik, Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Nibelungenplatz 1, 60318 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Helmreich, Brigitte, E-mail: b.helmreich@tum.de [Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Am Coulombwall 8, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    A dataset of 294 monitored sites from six continents (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America) was compiled and evaluated to characterize the occurrence and fate of heavy metals in eight traffic area categories (parking lots, bridges, and three types each of both roads and highways). In addition, site-specific (fixed and climatic) and method-specific (related to sample collection, preparation, and analysis) factors that influence the results of the studies are summarized. These factors should be considered in site descriptions, conducting monitoring programs, and implementing a database for further research. Historical trends for Pb show a sharp decrease during recent decades, and the median total Pb concentrations of the 21st century for North America and Europe are approximately 15 μg/L. No historical trend is detected for Zn. Zn concentrations are very variable in traffic area runoff compared with other heavy metals because of its presence in galvanized structures and crumbs of car tire rubber. Heavy metal runoff concentrations of parking lots differ widely according to their use (e.g., employee, supermarket, rest areas for trucks). Bridge deck runoff can contain high Zn concentrations from safety fences and galvanizing elements. Roads with more than 5000 vehicles per day are often more polluted than highways because of other site-specific factors such as traffic signals. Four relevant heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd) can occur in the dissolved phase. Knowledge of metal partitioning is important to optimize stormwater treatment strategies and prevent toxic effects to organisms in receiving waters. - Highlights: • Heavy metal runoff concentrations in parking lots, bridges, and roads • Large dataset of dissolved and total metal concentrations in traffic area runoff • Description of site-specific and monitoring method-specific factors • Summary of traffic-related and anthropogenic heavy metals in road runoff • Reduction in Pb

  6. Critical review of heavy metal pollution of traffic area runoff: Occurrence, influencing factors, and partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Maximilian; Welker, Antje; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    A dataset of 294 monitored sites from six continents (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America) was compiled and evaluated to characterize the occurrence and fate of heavy metals in eight traffic area categories (parking lots, bridges, and three types each of both roads and highways). In addition, site-specific (fixed and climatic) and method-specific (related to sample collection, preparation, and analysis) factors that influence the results of the studies are summarized. These factors should be considered in site descriptions, conducting monitoring programs, and implementing a database for further research. Historical trends for Pb show a sharp decrease during recent decades, and the median total Pb concentrations of the 21st century for North America and Europe are approximately 15 μg/L. No historical trend is detected for Zn. Zn concentrations are very variable in traffic area runoff compared with other heavy metals because of its presence in galvanized structures and crumbs of car tire rubber. Heavy metal runoff concentrations of parking lots differ widely according to their use (e.g., employee, supermarket, rest areas for trucks). Bridge deck runoff can contain high Zn concentrations from safety fences and galvanizing elements. Roads with more than 5000 vehicles per day are often more polluted than highways because of other site-specific factors such as traffic signals. Four relevant heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd) can occur in the dissolved phase. Knowledge of metal partitioning is important to optimize stormwater treatment strategies and prevent toxic effects to organisms in receiving waters. - Highlights: • Heavy metal runoff concentrations in parking lots, bridges, and roads • Large dataset of dissolved and total metal concentrations in traffic area runoff • Description of site-specific and monitoring method-specific factors • Summary of traffic-related and anthropogenic heavy metals in road runoff • Reduction in Pb

  7. Abiotic factors influencing the occurrence of Salicornia europaea in West Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hulisz, Piotr; Elvisto, Tina; Karasiewicz, Mirosław T.; Piernik, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of Salicornia europaea in Western Estonia (Kassari and Topu bays) is the result of complex processes occurring in the Baltic coastal zone and conditioned by such abiotic factors as topography, lithology, hydrogeology and climate. This is reflected by very high salinity level of groundwater and soils.

  8. Tendencies in human factor influence on initiating events occurrence in NPP Kozloduy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, R.

    2001-01-01

    Overview of the methods and documents concerning human factor in nuclear safety and selection of the most appropriate methods and concept for human factor assessment in the reported events in Kozloduy NPP are presented. List of human error types and statistical data (the mean time between similar errors, the human rate λ, the number of occurrences ect.) is given. Some general results from the human error behavior investigation for all units of Kozloduy NPP related to the 4 personnel categories: Management personnel, Designers, Operating personnel, Maintenance personnel are also shown. At the end the following conclusion are made:18 % operating personnel errors (for comparison for the same category personnel in similar NPPs abroad this value is between 10 % and 30%); Human errors in Kozloduy NPP tend to increase after year 1990; only for the operating personnel a maximum near year 1997 was observed, after which the error values was decreased; at the beginning of year 2000 the reliability characteristics for all units have similar values; it is necessary to be taken into account the observed tendencies to take measurements for reducing of the most important error types for Kozloduy NPP personnel

  9. Among 1,706 cases of abdominal wall reconstruction, what factors influence the occurrence of major operative complications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, John P; Wink, Jason D; Nelson, Jonas A; Kovach, Stephen J

    2014-02-01

    Abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) poses a substantial operative challenge, often in the setting of multiple failed attempts at repair in high-risk patients. Our aim was to assess risk factors for major operative morbidity after AWR using the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) patient database. A review of the ACS-NSQIP database of outcomes from 2005 to 2010 was performed to identify patients undergoing AWR utilizing Current Procedural Terminology codes for ventral hernia repair and a concomitant component separation. Independent variables included patient demographics, medical comorbidities, and operative considerations. Major operative complication (deep wound infection, graft or prosthetic loss, or unplanned return to the operating room within 30 days) was used as our dependent variable. Stepwise, multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate patient risk factors influencing the occurrence of major operative complications. We identified 1,706 patients with an average age of 55.9 ± 12.8 years with 30.1% undergoing concurrent intra-abdominal procedures and 57.1% undergoing mesh repair. Notable medical comorbidities included obesity (63.4%), smoking (24.9%), hypertension (53.1%), diabetes (19.9%), and anemia (22.6%). Average operative time was 211.7 ± 105.0 minutes. Regression analysis determined that prolonged operative time (odds ratio [OR], 2.7; P 2 (OR, 1.8; P = .009) were positively associated, whereas advanced age (OR, 0.5; P = .005) was negatively associated with the occurrence of major operative complications. Greater operative times and overall patient health are important prognostic factors for individuals undergoing AWR. The increased physiologic stress of a greater operative duration on patients who often have multiple comorbidities seems to play a significant role in predicting negative outcomes after AWR. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Species traits and catchment-scale habitat factors influence the occurrence of freshwater mussel populations and assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Heise, Ryan J.; Nichols, Robert B.; Pacifici, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of freshwater unionid mussels presents unique challenges due to their distinctive life cycle, cryptic occurrence and imperilled status. Relevant ecological information is urgently needed to guide their management and conservation.We adopted a modelling approach, which is a novel application to freshwater mussels to enhance inference on rare species, by borrowing data among species in a hierarchical framework to conduct the most comprehensive occurrence analysis for freshwater mussels to date. We incorporated imperfect detection to more accurately examine effects of biotic and abiotic factors at multiple scales on the occurrence of 14 mussel species and the entire assemblage of the Tar River Basin of North Carolina, U.S.A.The single assemblage estimate of detection probability for all species was 0.42 (95% CI, 0.36–0.47) with no species- or site-specific detection effects identified. We empirically observed 15 mussel species in the basin but estimated total species richness at 21 (95% CI, 16–24) when accounting for imperfect detection.Mean occurrence probability among species ranged from 0.04 (95% CI, 0.01–0.16) for Alasmidonta undulata, an undescribed Lampsilis sp., and Strophitus undulatus to 0.67 (95% CI, 0.42–0.86) for Elliptio icterina. Median occurrence probability among sites was management can benefit an entire assemblage, but species-specific strategies may be necessary for successful conservation. The hierarchical multispecies modelling approach revealed findings that could not be elucidated by other means, and the approach may be applied more broadly to other river basins and regions. Accurate measures of assemblage dynamics, such as occurrence and species richness, are required to create management plans for effective conservation.

  11. Risk Factors Associated with the Occurrence of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Šimić, Dubravka; Prohić, Asja; Šitum, Mirna; Zeljko Penavić, Jasna

    2010-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent malignant skin tumor, which is associated with both genetic factors and environmental influences. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with the occurrence of BCC in the inhabitants of the Western Herzegovina area. The study took place during 1997 – 2003. We examined the risk factors which are presumably associated with the occurrence of BCC: skin type, exposure to UV rays and family occurrence of BCC, supple...

  12. Factors that Influence The Occurrence of Multiple Pregnancies after Intracytoplasmic Injection Cycles with Two or Three Fresh Embryo Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Mahbubeh; Omani Samani, Reza; Hemat, Mandana; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Shabani, Fatemeh; Eskandari, Farzad; Salehi, Masoud

    2017-10-01

    Multiple pregnancies are an important complication of assisted reproductive technology (ART). The present study aims to indentify the risk factors for multiple pregnancies independent of the number of transferred embryos. This retrospective study reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in Royan Institute between October 2011 and January 2012. We entered 12 factors that affected the number of gestational sacs into the poisson regression (PR) model. Factors were obtained from two study populations-cycles with double embryo transfer (DET) and cycles that transferred three embryos (TET). We sought to determine the factors that influenced the number of gestational sacs. These factors were entered into multivariable logistic regression (MLR) to identify risk factors for multiple pregnancies. A total of 1000 patients referred to Royan Institute for ART during the study period. We included 606 eligible patients in this study. PR analysis demonstrated that the quality of transferred embryos and woman's age had a significant effect on the number of observed sacs in patients who underwent ICSI with DET. There was no significant predictive variable for multiple pregnancies according to MLR analysis. Our findings demonstrated that both regression models (PR and MLR) had the same outputs. A significant relation existed between age and fertilization rate with multiple pregnancies in patients who underwent ICSI with TET. Single embryo transfer (SET) should be considered with the remaining embryos cryopreserved to prevent multiple pregnancies in women younger than 35 years of age who undergo ICSI cycles with high fertilization rates and good or excellent quality embryos. However, further prospective studies are necessary to evaluate whether SET in women with these risk factors can significantly decrease multiple pregnancies and improve cycle outcomes. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  13. Influencing factors in the occurrence of injured coliforms in the drinking water distribution system in the city of La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, María Alejandra; Del Coco, Valeria Fernanda; Minvielle, Marta Cecilia; Basualdo, Juan Angel

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influencing factors in the occurrence of coliforms in the drinking water in La Plata (Argentina) from June 1999 to June 2001. A total of 180 samples were collected from Rio de La Plata (102 samples) and Puelche Aquifer (78 samples); 45 samples were collected for each of the four seasons. The membrane filter procedure was used for isolating bacteria, and each sample was tested for chlorine and pH. The highest percentage of samples positive for coliforms in the two tested media was obtained in summer while the highest percentage of negative samples was obtained in winter. No Escherichia coli was isolated. The percentage of injured coliforms fluctuated between 70 and 100%. The most frequently isolated bacteria was Enterobacter cloacae in summer, Enterobacter agglomerans in autumn and Klebsiella oxytoca in winter and spring. Significant correlations were observed between coliforms and the distance from the initial treatment point, and with the level of free chlorine. We conclude that drinking water contamination in La Plata occurs in the distribution system due to increased temperatures and reduced disinfectant levels, which result in bacterial regrowth.

  14. Influence of socioeconomic lifestyle factors and genetic polymorphism on type 2 diabetes occurrences among Tunisian Arab and Berber groups of Djerba Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouederni, Thouraya Baroudi; Fadiel, Ahmed; Stambouli, Nejla; Scalize, Trudy J; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Abid, Hafaona Kammoun; Bouhaha, Rim; Sanchez-Corona, Jose; Hamza, Adel; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel

    2009-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by three major metabolic abnormalities: impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissues, alterations in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and increased hepatic glucose production. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to its development. The insulin gene (INS), insulin receptor gene (INSR), and insulin receptor substrate 1 gene (IRS1), identified by polymerase chain reaction and digestion with selected restriction enzymes PstI, NsiI, and BstnI, have been proposed as T2DM candidate genes. To determine the contribution of genetic and environmental factors on the occurrence of T2DM, we examined the frequency of T2DM among two ethnically diverse populations, Arabs and Berbers, who have shared the same environment, the island of Djerba, for thousands of years. Both populations have a high prevalence of obesity,T2DM, and a high consanguinity rate. A total of 162 T2DM men and women were matched to 110 healthy male and female controls. Results showed that the NsiI polymorphism in INSR and BstnI polymorphism of IRS1 were significantly associated with T2DM only among the Berber group. The PstI polymorphism in INS, was not associated with T2DM in either group. Sedentary lifestyles, lower physical activity, and lower educational levels were associated with T2DM among the Berber group. These findings suggest that the insulin receptor gene and lifestyle factors in combination may contribute to the occurrence of T2DM in the Berber portion of this island population. PMID:23226034

  15. Risk factors influencing the duration of treatment with bisphosphonates until occurrence of an osteonecrosis of the jaw in 963 cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbert, Tatjana I; Hoffmeister, Bodo; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is an adverse effect that is associated with bisphosphonate (BP) use. Little data are available on risk factors influencing the time of treatment until an osteonecrosis occurs. From 1 Dec 2004 until 21 Sep 2012, the German Register collected all patients with validated diagnoses of ONJ (N = 1,229) that were reported to the national pharmaco-vigilance system or to the Register directly. We analysed 963 patients with cancerous disease and an ONJ during i.v. BP treatment. Duration of BP treatment until first diagnosis of ONJ and Kaplan-Meier curves of ONJ-free survival were analysed stratified by gender, type of BP and type of cancer. Main indications for BP treatment were breast cancer (36%), multiple myeloma (24%), prostate cancer (16%) and kidney cancer (4%). Men suffered from their ONJ earlier than women. A total of 780 patients (81%) had their ONJ during zoledronate treatment, 93 (10%) under pamidronate and 90 (9%) under ibandronate treatment. ONJ-free survival in single BP users was significantly longer in pamidronate-treated patients than in zoledronate or ibandronate users. Ibandronate users had the shortest median duration of treatment (17 months), similar to that of zoledronate users (21.5 months). Sequential prescription of two different BPs prolonged the period of overall BP treatment until an ONJ occurred. Time of BP treatment was shortest in patients with kidney cancer. Age or a concomitant osteoporosis did not influence the time to event of an ONJ. Systemic risk factors such as gender play a significant role in certain subgroups only. Comparative analysis of different cancer patients helps the treating oncologist/dentist to identify patients with a more imminent risk to develop an ONJ (i.e. kidney cancer, ibandronate/zoledronate use).

  16. An Analysis of the Influence of Selected Genetic and Hormonal Factors on the Occurrence of Depressive Symptoms in Late-Reproductive-Age Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jurczak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of genetic and hormonal factors on incidences of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. Methods: The study was performed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the PCR, and genetic tests of 347 healthy late-reproductive-age Polish women. Results: The relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. Increases in age and FSH levels were accompanied by a decrease in AMH level in a significant way (p < 0.05. There were no statistically significant relationships between the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the investigated polymorphisms and depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory. Conclusions: (1 The presence of the s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region and the 3/3 genotype of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A promoter region does not contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. (2 A relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone and depressive symptoms was not confirmed in the group of healthy late-reproductive-age women. (3 AMH level correlates negatively with FSH level and age, which confirms that AMH can be regarded as a factor reflecting the ovarian reserve.

  17. Occurrence and air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls at a CAWNET background site in central China: Implications for influencing factors and fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lingxi; Lin, Tian; Wang, Zuwu; Cheng, Zhineng; Zhang, Gan; Lyu, Xiaopu; Cheng, Hairong

    2017-11-01

    Ambient air and soil samples were collected between March 2012 and March 2013 at Jinsha, a regional background site in central China, to measure the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The average concentrations of total OCPs and total PCBs were 191 ± 107 and 39.4 ± 27.1 pg/m 3 in air (gaseous and particulate phase) and 0.585 ± 0.437 and 0.083 ± 0.039 ng/g in soil, respectively. The higher concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratios in the soil indicated recent p,p'-DDT input to the soil. A strong positive temperature dependence and average fugacity fraction value > 0.5 were observed for p,p'-DDT, suggesting that volatilization of residual DDT in the soil was the main influencing factor on atmospheric p,p'-DDT. Highly average fugacity fractions (>0.7) of trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC) and high TC/CC ratios both in the soil and atmosphere suggested fresh inputs. Higher gaseous concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were observed in winter and negative temperature dependence was directly attributed to the surrounding ongoing source (e.g. fuel consuming activities), especially in winter. Overall, most targeted OCPs and PCBs were influenced by long-range transport, and fugacity fraction values indicated highly volatile compounds (e.g. α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) and lower chlorinated PCBs) were volatilized and low volatility compounds (e.g. p,p'-DDE and higher chlorinated PCBs) were deposited at the air-soil interface. Knowing the source and sink of OCPs and PCBs can help to control their pollution in this area and provide a reference for other studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental Factors Affecting Brook Trout Occurrence in Headwater Stream Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoichiro Kanno; Benjamin H. Letcher; Ana L. Rosner; Kyle P. O' Neil; Keith H. Nislow

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the associations of catchment-scale and riparian-scale environmental factors with occurrence of Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in Connecticut headwater stream segments with catchment areas of 15 Brook...

  19. Risk factors of depression occurrence in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this lecture is focus on different aspects of occurerence of depression in Adolescence, especially with focus on risk factors. I introduced epidemiology of depression : causes, treatment, and prevention (Abela & Hankin,2008). The special part of the lecture was focus on etiology of depression. Adolescence is characterized by positive gains in cognitive maturity, better interpersonal skills, new experiences, increased autonomy, and hormonal changes (Feldman & Elliot, 1990). Alt...

  20. Factorizing Probabilistic Graphical Models Using Co-occurrence Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Zhemin

    2011-01-01

    Factorization is of fundamental importance in the area of Probabilistic Graphical Models (PGMs). In this paper, we theoretically develop a novel mathematical concept, \\textbf{C}o-occurrence \\textbf{R}ate (CR), for factorizing PGMs. CR has three obvious advantages: (1) CR provides a unified

  1. Floating mats: their occurrence and influence on shoreline distribution of emergent vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azza, N.; Denny, P.; Van de Koppel, J.; Kansiime, F.

    2006-01-01

    1. A study was conducted on the northern shore of Lake Victoria (Uganda) to determine the factors controlling the occurrence of floating root mats and the influence of the floating mats on the distribution of emergent vegetation. 2. Environmental conditions within 78 bays in the study area were

  2. Modeling Occurrence of Urban Mosquitos Based on Land Use Types and Meteorological Factors in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Su Kwon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are a public health concern because they are vectors of pathogen, which cause human-related diseases. It is well known that the occurrence of mosquitoes is highly influenced by meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation and land use, but there are insufficient studies quantifying their impacts. Therefore, three analytical methods were applied to determine the relationships between urban mosquito occurrence, land use type, and meteorological factors: cluster analysis based on land use types; principal component analysis (PCA based on mosquito occurrence; and three prediction models, support vector machine (SVM, classification and regression tree (CART, and random forest (RF. We used mosquito data collected at 12 sites from 2011 to 2012. Mosquito abundance was highest from August to September in both years. The monitoring sites were differentiated into three clusters based on differences in land use type such as culture and sport areas, inland water, artificial grasslands, and traffic areas. These clusters were well reflected in PCA ordinations, indicating that mosquito occurrence was highly influenced by land use types. Lastly, the RF represented the highest predictive power for mosquito occurrence and temperature-related factors were the most influential. Our study will contribute to effective control and management of mosquito occurrences.

  3. Human and biophysical influences on fire occurrence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, Todd J; Radeloff, Volker C; Stewart, Susan I; Hammer, Roger B; Keuler, Nicholas S; Clayton, Murray K

    2013-04-01

    National-scale analyses of fire occurrence are needed to prioritize fire policy and management activities across the United States. However, the drivers of national-scale patterns of fire occurrence are not well understood, and how the relative importance of human or biophysical factors varies across the country is unclear. Our research goal was to model the drivers of fire occurrence within ecoregions across the conterminous United States. We used generalized linear models to compare the relative influence of human, vegetation, climate, and topographic variables on fire occurrence in the United States, as measured by MODIS active fire detections collected between 2000 and 2006. We constructed models for all fires and for large fires only and generated predictive maps to quantify fire occurrence probabilities. Areas with high fire occurrence probabilities were widespread in the Southeast, and localized in the Mountain West, particularly in southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico. Probabilities for large-fire occurrence were generally lower, but hot spots existed in the western and south-central United States The probability of fire occurrence is a critical component of fire risk assessments, in addition to vegetation type, fire behavior, and the values at risk. Many of the hot spots we identified have extensive development in the wildland--urban interface and are near large metropolitan areas. Our results demonstrated that human variables were important predictors of both all fires and large fires and frequently exhibited nonlinear relationships. However, vegetation, climate, and topography were also significant variables in most ecoregions. If recent housing growth trends and fire occurrence patterns continue, these areas will continue to challenge policies and management efforts seeking to balance the risks generated by wildfires with the ecological benefits of fire.

  4. Do body build and composition influence striae distensae occurrence and visibility in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Antoszewski, Bogusław

    2017-11-06

    Striae have been reported to be one of the most common skin changes and a commonly encountered esthetic problem. To analyze risk factors of striae not associated with pregnancy and verify if body build and composition influence striae distensae (SD) occurrence and visibility. Eighty female students (40 with striae (the mean age 23.9 years, SD 2.05 years) and 40 without these lesions (24.7 years, SD 6.2 years)) were included in the study. The subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire including questions concerning risk factors of SD. Body build and composition were examined using Tanita SC-331S Body Composition Analyzer. Women without striae more often reported a history of intended weight loss (P family history of striae was negative or unknown (P = .01). Multivariate analysis including body build and composition parameters indicated BMI as risk factor of SD (P = .021; OR =1.155, 95% CI 1.006; 1.325). History of contraceptives intake and a family history of striae are risk factors of SD occurrence, while weight loss can reduce the risk of these lesions. BMI appeared to be the risk factor of striae visibility, especially in abdomen, but not on the buttocks. Further clinical researches are needed to examine the pathophysiology of this condition and to inform patients about the possibility to reduce the risk of striae occurrence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Influence of Label Co-occurrence and Semantic Similarity on Children’s Inductive Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J Matlen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Semantically-similar labels that co-occur in child-directed speech (e.g., bunny-rabbit are more likely to promote inductive generalization in preschoolers than non-co-occurring labels (e.g., lamb-sheep. However, it remains unclear whether this effect stems from co-occurrence or other factors, and how co-occurrence contributes to generalization. To address these issues, preschoolers were exposed to a stream of semantically-similar labels that don’t co-occur in natural language, but were arranged to co-occur in the experimental setting. In Experiment 1, children exposed to the co-occurring stream were more likely to make category-consistent inferences than children in two control conditions. Experiment 2 replicated this effect and provided evidence that co-occurrence training influenced generalization only when the trained labels were categorically-similar. These findings suggest that both co-occurrence information and semantic representations contribute to preschool-age children’s inductive generalization. The findings are discussed in relation to the developmental accounts of inductive generalization.

  6. Human factors influencing decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    This report supplies references and comments on literature that identifies human factors influencing decision making, particularly military decision making. The literature has been classified as follows (the classes are not mutually exclusive): features of human information processing; decision making models which are not mathematical models but rather are descriptive; non- personality factors influencing decision making; national characteristics influencing decision makin...

  7. Factors Influencing Army Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Harz (1981), reports the results of questioning largc- numbers of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) involved in the maintenance process. The second type of...identified maintenance problems (e.g., Kokenes, 1987; Harz , 1981). The second step was the identificatl i of demand factors that affect the actual...Kokenes, 1987; Harz , 1981). Second, if any of the data on which allocations are based are faulty, or budgetary decisions require a cutback in

  8. Prevalence and Analysis of Factors Related to Occurrence of Pulp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pulp stone, though of an unclear aetiology, is clinically common. It potentially poses procedural difficulty to the endodontist and may also be a marker of an underlying systemic condition. Objectives: The study investigated pulp stone occurrence in adult restorative patients. It also ighlighted the relationship ...

  9. Climatic factors interference with the occurrence of Beauveria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Description of method and recommendation of laboratory and field procedures for the isolation of soil borne entomopathogenic fungi (specifically Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae) is presented. Baiting technique method was used for screening of occurrence of indigenous populations of entomopathogenic ...

  10. Prevalence and Analysis of Factors Related to Occurrence of Pulp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    between pulp stone and pristine posterior teeth, chronic periodontitis and posterior teeth with abrasion, as well as the effect of age and gender on pulp stone occurrence. Method: Three hundred subjects, aged 18-60 years participated in the cross sectional study. Pristine teeth, teeth with chronic periodontitis and those with ...

  11. Factors affecting the occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis depending on the haemorrhage definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledzińska-Dźwigał, M; Sobolewski, Piotr; Szczuchniak, W

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH) remains the most feared complication of systemic thrombolysis in patients with ischaemic stroke. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of different factors on the occurrence of sICH, depending on definition used. We retrospectively evaluated the influence of several factors on the occurrence of sICH (according to definitions used in ECASS2, SITS-MOST and NINDS studies) in 200 patients treated with systemic thrombolysis from 2006 to 2011. Multivariate analysis of impact of individual variables on the occurrence of haemorrhagic transformation (HT) and parenchymal haemorrhage type 2 (PH2) were performed. Haemorrhagic transformation occurred in 35 cases (17.5%). SICH was found in 10 cases according to ECASS2, in 7 cases according to SITS and in 13 cases according to NINDS. Older age was related to higher risk of sICH, regardless which definition was used (ECASS2: p = 0.014, SITS-MOST: p = 0.048, NINDS: p = 0.008), and female sex was related to higher risk of sICH according to NINDS and ECASS2 definition (p = 0.002 and p = 0.04, respectively). Blood glucose level and high NIHSS score (> 14 pts) were found as risk factor of sICH in ECASS2 definition (p = 0.044 and p = 0.03, respectively). In multivariate logistic regression higher NIHSS scores were associated with HT independent of age, gender and glucose level (p = 0.012). Multivariate analysis showed no impact of age, gender, severity of stroke and glucose level on presence of PH2. Definition of sICH can determine variables that are related to a high risk of this complication. In our study most factors correlated with sICH using the ECASS2 definition.

  12. The Occurrence of Lower Crossed Syndrome in Sprinters and the Possibilities of Influencing it in Physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zikmundová, Naďa

    2015-01-01

    Title: The Occurrence of Lower Crossed Syndrome in Sprinters and the Possibilities of Influencing it in Physiotherapy Objectives: To determine the prevalence of lower crossed syndrome in specific group of sprinters and compare it with control group. To compare occurrence especially in men and women in sprint. Methods: To obtain informations from the research were used clinical tests- muscle test by Janda for testing muscle strength of m. rectus abdominis (trunk flexion test), m. gluteus maxim...

  13. Factors Influencing Heart Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Sammito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement and analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, which is based on the variation between consecutive NN intervals, has become an established procedure over the past two decades. A decrease in HRV has been shown to correlate with an increase in mortality. HRV is influenced by a number of physiological factors such as various diseases. Awareness of these mediators or confounders is of great importance in the analysis and assessment of HRV both in scientific studies and in clinical practice. This document, which is based on a selective survey of references and supplemented by information from national and international guidelines, presents the main endogenous, exogenous and constitutional factors. A decrease in HRV has been observed not only in connection with non-influenceable physiological factors such as age, gender and ethnic origin, but also in conjunction with a large number of acute and chronic diseases. Numerous lifestyle factors have both a positive and a negative influence on HRV. There are also physical influences that affect HRV. They must on no account be disregarded. Although the list of the factors is long and not all of them have yet been fully studied, awareness of them is of crucial importance in the measurement of HRV (both under laboratory conditions and during medical practice, its analysis and its assessment. More research also needs to be carried out to close knowledge gaps.

  14. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in University Students: Occurrence and Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Attlee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and its association with body composition among students in University of Sharjah (UOS. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included a total sample size of 50 female students registering in undergraduate programs at the University of Sharjah using convenience sampling technique. A pretested interview schedule was administered to elicit information pertaining to personal background and medical history related to PCOS. A diagnostic ultrasound scan was performed for determining PCOS along with a body composition analysis using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA technology. Results: Twenty percent (10 out of 50 participants were diagnosed with PCOS, of whom only 4 individuals were previously diagnosed with PCOS and aware of their conditions, while the reports showed 16% with oligomenorrhea, 4% with polymenorrhea, and none with amenorrhea. A positive family history was indicated as reported by 22% of the total participants. Significant difference between the body weights of participants having PCOS (66.7 kg and those without it (58.8 kg were noted (p=0.043, t=2.084. On the other hand, the body composition related variables including waist-hip ratio (WHR, fat-free mass (FFM, percent body fat (PBF and visceral fat area (VFA were relatively higher in participants having PCOS than those without it. However, there was no statistical significance of differences. Comparatively, the participants with PCOS had lower bone mineral density (BMD than those without it, whereas the difference was statistically non-significant. Conclusion: The occurrence of PCOS in the present study is consistent with the global prevalence. Comparatively, the body composition of PCOS females is different from the normal females. Further studies are required in the Middle East region on larger sample sizes and broader aspects of health including lifestyle and dietary

  15. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...

  16. Factors influencing bone scan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)

  17. Factors Influencing Donor Partnership Effectiveness

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    (UN Global Compact Office, 2007); and “an alliance between organizations from two or more ... programs related to the environment, global health, and ..... partnering process and the factors of influence, drawing on an example of a flagship initiative with a bilateral donor for an environment-focused program. As in most joint ...

  18. Climatic and weather factors affecting fire occurrence and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall P. Benson; John O. Roads; David R. Weise

    2009-01-01

    Weather and climate have a profound influence on wildland fire ignition potential, fire behavior, and fire severity. Local weather and climate are affected by large-scale patterns of winds over the hemispheres that predispose wildland fuels to fire. The characteristics of wildland fuels, especially the moisture content, ultimately determine fire behavior and the impact...

  19. Risk factor profile and the occurrence of microvascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Type 2 diabetes has a long pre-clinical period before diagnosis, during which there may be development of complications, both of microvascular and macrovascular types. Objective: To determine the risk factor profile of hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in patients with short-term (=/< 2 years) ...

  20. Co-Occurrence of Diabetes and Hypertension: Pattern and Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    independently associated with order of diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension. Conclusion : There could be significant differences in some clinical characteristics of hypertensive diabetics and diabetic hypertensives, and use of table salt may be an important risk factor contributing to coexistence of both conditions.

  1. Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Complications in the Early Stages After Dental Implant Placement: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Toshihiro; Hoshi, Keika; Fukada, Kenji; Kataoka, Toshiyuki; Kumasaka, Akira; Kaibuchi, Nobuyuki; Fukuzawa, Satoshi; Ando, Tomohiro

    2018-03-19

    To evaluate the background factors related to the occurrence of complications in the early stages after dental implant placement. A total of 289 outpatients who received dental implants were retrospectively evaluated for the presence or absence of complications. Background factors, including age, sex, implant width, implant length, implant site, number of implants placed, Periotest values at the time of implant placement, presence/absence of systemic disease (particularly diabetes), and the use of anticoagulation therapy, were compared between patients with and without complications. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant risk factors for the occurrence of complications after dental implant placement. Complications in the early stages after dental implant placement occurred in 25 (8.65%) patients. The patients with complications were older than those without complications (P = 0.003). In addition, the incidence of complications was significantly higher in patients with systemic diseases (P = 0.004) and in those receiving anticoagulation therapy (P = 0.005). Logistic regression analysis revealed that age was a significant risk factor (P = 0.025) for early-stage complications, whereas the number of implants, presence of diabetes, and the use of anticoagulation therapy were not significant risk factors. Our results show that age is a significant factor influencing the occurrence of complications in the early stages after dental implant placement. Therefore, clinicians should consider this factor when developing their treatment strategies.

  2. Factors Influencing New Business Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Oana Iacobuţă

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence the creation of new businesses and to point out both the differences and the similarities existing between countries and groups of countries in terms of these influencing factors. We are mainly interested in the place Romania and Bulgaria have among the countries of the world from the perspective of entrepreneurial spirit and its influencing factors. To capture the level of business formation we use New business density from World Bank Doing business. Drawing on the existing literature we consider for our analysis several indicators related to economic environment such as GDP per capita, unemployment rate, inflation rate, the level of taxes, foreign direct investments and public debt and indicators describing the quality of governance. The research uses 2014 data for 67 countries, from all development categories, collected from Heritage Foundation database. The research results obtained with principal components analysis show that good governance results in higher levels of GDP per capita and income taxes and the increase of the level of business formation. Also, good governance leads to a decrease in inflation and unemployment. Furthermore, the hierarchical cluster analysis is used to identify groups of countries and to outline similarities and differences between them.

  3. Factors affecting the occurrence of canine parvovirus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carla; Carvalheira, Júlio; Parrish, Colin R; Thompson, Gertrude

    2015-10-22

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important enteric virus infecting canids worldwide. The purpose of this study was to detect CPV in naturally infected dogs from several veterinary clinics distributed throughout Portugal between 2012 and 2014 and to identify risk factors associated with CPV infection. From 209 dogs suspected of being infected with CPV, historical data and clinical signs were collected. Fecal samples were screened for CPV by PCR assay and those positive were confirmed by sequencing. The data was analyzed using logistic regression to investigate associations between each of the predisposing factors and CPV status. Of the samples collected, 77.5% tested CPV-positive. Statistical analysis showed that animals in the three age categories (p<0.001) were at list 12 times more likely to be CPV-positive than older animals. The anthelminthic treatment [OR=0.45, p=0.04] and the rectal temperature (hypothermia, [OR=0.12, p=0.004]) contributed to decrease the likelihood of the dogs be infected with CPV. On the other hand, clinical signs such as depression [OR=4.4, p=0.02] and dehydration status [OR=2.38, p=0.001] made dogs more likely to be CPV-infected. The results indicate that although having a high morbidity, only 18% of the Portuguese dog population died in the study. Some of the risk factors identified in this study have not been commonly reported, yet they are easy to obtain and can be used as prognostic indicators in the veterinary practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. College factors that influence drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cheryl A; Meilman, Philip W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the aspects of collegiate environments, rather than student characteristics, that influence drinking. Unfortunately, the existing literature is scant on this topic. A literature review of articles primarily published within the last 10 years, along with some earlier "landmark" studies of collegiate drinking in the United States, was conducted to determine institutional factors that influence the consumption of alcohol. In addition, a demonstration analysis of Core Alcohol and Drug Survey research findings was conducted to further elucidate the issues. Several factors have been shown to relate to drinking: (1) organizational property variables of campuses, including affiliations (historically black institutions, women's institutions), presence of a Greek system, athletics and 2- or 4-year designation; (2) physical and behavioral property variables of campuses, including type of residence, institution size, location and quantity of heavy episodic drinking; and (3) campus community property variables, including pricing and availability and outlet density. Studies, however, tend to look at individual variables one at a time rather than in combination (multivariate analyses). Some new analyses, using Core Alcohol and Drug Survey data sets, are presented as examples of promising approaches to future research. Given the complexities of campus environments, it continues to be a challenge to the field to firmly establish the most compelling institutional and environmental factors relating to high-risk collegiate drinking.

  5. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  6. Review of the occurrences and influencing factors of landslides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    to have been triggered by heavy rainfalls include debris/earth slides, debris/earth flows and, and medium to large-scale rockslides. ... this review paper was made. 2. THE HIGHLANDS OF ETHIOPIA ...... Ethiopia is embarking massive road construction which links the different Kebeles in the country. Many of these road pass ...

  7. Review of the occurrences and influencing factors of landslides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Problems and prospects in responding to the environment-poverty challenge. International. Journal of Education development, 22: 35-46. Berakhi, O & Brancaccio, L. 1993. Some reflections on the origin and land use of pediments on the Ethiopian highlands. Geographia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria,16: 101-106. Berakhi ...

  8. Review of the occurrences and influencing factors of landslides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    U.1997. Geomorphological and sedimentary records of Holocene climatic changes and human impacts in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. In: Federici PR (ed.), 4 th. Int. Conf. Geomorphology – Abstracts. Geographia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria, Supplement 3,. Vol. T1,77p. Bell, F.G.1999. Landslides associated with ...

  9. Review of the occurrences and influencing factors of landslides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hilly and mountainous terrains of the highlands of Ethiopia are frequently affected by rainfall-induced landslides of different types and sizes. The major types of landslides reported to have been triggered by heavy rainfalls include debris/earth slides, debris/earth flows and, and medium to large-scale rockslides. Though ...

  10. Factors mediating co-occurrence of an economically valuable introduced fish and its native frog prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rosemary; Pope, Karen; Lawler, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    Habitat characteristics mediate predator-prey coexistence in many ecological systems but are seldom considered in species introductions. When economically important introduced predators are stocked despite known negative impacts on native species, understanding the role of refuges, landscape configurations, and community interactions can inform habitat management plans. We measured these factors in basins with introduced trout (Salmonidae) and the Cascades frog (Rana cascadae) to determine, which are responsible for observed patterns of co-occurrence of this economically important predator and its native prey. Large, vegetated shallows were strongly correlated to co-occurrence, and R. cascadae larvae occur in shallower water when fish are present, presumably to escape predation. The number of nearby breeding sites of R. cascadae was also correlated to co-occurrence, but only when the western toad (Anaxyrus boreas) was present. Because A. boreas larvae are unpalatable to fish and resemble R. cascadae, they may provide protection from trout via Batesian mimicry. Although rescue-effect dispersal from nearby populations may maintain co-occurrence, within-lake factors proved more important for predicting co-occurrence. Learning which factors allow co-occurrence between economically important introduced species and their native prey enables managers to make better-informed stocking decisions. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu SSX

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim

  12. Influence of hormonal contraceptives and the occurrence of stroke: integrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Adman Câmara Soares; Martins, Larissa Castelo Guedes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Araújo, Thelma Leite de; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; Moura, Escolástica Rejane Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify scientific evidence regarding the influence of hormonal contraceptive use and the occurrence of stroke. Method: Integrative review of the literature, through database search using the descriptors "contraceptive agents", "contraceptive devices", "contraceptives, Oral" and "Stroke". Original studies in Portuguese, Spanish and English, published in full and available online were included. Studies that did not answer our guiding questions and duplicated studies w...

  13. Organizational influence on the occurrence of work accidents involving exposure to biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Cenzi, Camila Maria; dos Santos, Heloisa Ehmke Cardoso; Trovó, Marli Elisa Mendes

    2013-01-01

    to analyze work accidents involving exposure to biological materials which took place among personnel working in nursing and to evaluate the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of these accidents. a retrospective, analytical study, carried out in two stages in a hospital that was part of the Network for the Prevention of Work Accidents. The first stage involved the analysis of the characteristics of the work accidents involving exposure to biological materials as recorded over a seven-year period by the nursing staff in the hospital studied, and registered in the Network databank. The second stage involved the analysis of 122 nursing staff members' perception of the institutional culture, who were allocated to the control group (workers who had not had an accident) and the case group (workers who had had an accident). 386 accidents had been recorded: percutaneous lesions occurred in 79% of the cases, needles were the materials involved in 69.7% of the accidents, and in 81.9% of the accident there was contact with blood. Regarding the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of accidents, the results obtained through the analysis of the two groups did not demonstrate significant differences between the average scores attributed by the workers in each organizational value or practice category. It is concluded that accidents involving exposure to biological material need to be avoided, however, it was not possible to confirm the influence of organizational values or practices on workers' behavior concerning the occurrence of these accidents.

  14. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  15. Dyslipidaemia as a risk factor in the occurrence of stroke in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: stroke is a major public health problem worldwide. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia and smoking are some of the common modifiable risk factors in the occurrence of stroke. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the prevalence and patterns of dyslipidaemia among individuals with acute ...

  16. Occurrence of risk factors for zoonoses in Kisumu City, Kenya: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the occurrence of risk factors amongst farmers keeping livestock in Kisumu municipality, Kenya. Methods: Thirty four contact house-holds involved in livestock keeping constituted the study group. The head of the household was interviewed using a structured questionnaire relating to public health ...

  17. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitor treatment and occurrence of anterior uveitis in ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Elisabeth; Lindström, Ulf; Zverkova-Sandström, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitor (TNFi) treatment has been shown to reduce the rates of anterior uveitis (AU) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Our objective was to compare the effect of adalimumab (ADA), etanercept (ETN) and infliximab (IFX) on AU occurrence in AS, using...

  18. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  19. Risk factors and the occurrence of cerebral palsy in high risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyo Handryastuti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence of cerebral palsy (CP has increased due to better survival rates of high-risk babies. Early detection and time to the occurrence of CP in the first year of life is important in order to provide early intervention. Objectives To determine the proportion of CP in high-risk babies, the time to the occurrence of CP in the first year, and assess possible associations between risk factors of CP and time to the occurrence of CP. Methods A prospective cohort study was done on 150 high-risk babies up to the age of 12 months. We obtained history of motor ability and assessed primitive reflexes and postural reactions of subjects at the ages of 4 and 6 months. The diagnosis of CP was established at 6 and 12 months of age. Results The proportion of CP was 26% at 6 months and 24% at 12 months of age. Significant risk factors associated with CP at 6 and 12 months of age were cerebral ultrasound abnormalities, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and intracranial hemorrhage. In 88.7% of subjects with CP, CP was detected in the first 6 months. Mean age at the occurrence of CP was 9.99 months (95%CI 9.46 to 10.53. Risk factors that significantly affected the time to the occurrence of CP by survival analysis were ultrasound abnormalities and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Conclusions Cerebral palsy can be detected as early as the first 6 months of life. Cerebral ultrasound abnormalities and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy are the risk factors associated with CP.

  20. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  1. Postoperative complications of mesh hernioplasty for incisional hernia repair and factors affecting the occurrence of complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Vir Singh Rana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Incisional hernia is one of the common postoperative complications of abdominal surgery. Mesh hernioplasty represents the standard of care for incisional hernia repair. Aims: We report our experience with the use of mesh for hernia repair, with respect to the postoperative complications and factors affecting the occurrence of complications. Settings and Design: Fifty four cases of incisional hernia presenting to the institute between April 2008 and September 2010 were included in the study. Materials and Methods: The predisposing risk factors were identified. Mesh hernioplasty was done by the onlay technique and the patients followed up for at least 6 months. Statistical Analysis Used: An association of complications with various risk factors was explored with chi-square test and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results: Twenty four patients developed at least one complication, the most common being seroma (12 cases and surgical site infection (9 cases. The factors that showed a significant relationship with the occurrence of complications were diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, hypoproteinemia, advanced age, size of fascial defects, and number of defects. The recurrence rate was 3.7% (mean follow up: 13.05 months. Conclusions: Mesh hernioplasty gives acceptable results for incisional hernia repair. A sound understanding of the factors affecting the occurrence of complications and recurrence is required to improve the results of the procedure.

  2. Trihalomethanes in Lisbon indoor swimming pools: occurrence, determining factors, and health risk classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Zelinda Isabel; Rebelo, Maria Helena; Silva, Manuela Manso; Alves, Ana Martins; Cabral, Maria da Conceição; Almeida, Ana Cristina; Aguiar, Fátima Rôxo; de Oliveira, Anabela Lopes; Nogueira, Ana Cruz; Pinhal, Hermínia Rodrigues; Aguiar, Pedro Manuel; Cardoso, Ana Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of water quality from indoor swimming pools, using chorine-based disinfection techniques, was performed during a 6-mo period to study the occurrence, distribution, and concentration factors of trihalomethanes (THM). Several parameters such as levels of water THM, water and air chloroform, water bromodichloromethane (BDCM), water dibromochloromethane (DBCM), water bromoform (BF), free residual chlorine (FrCl), pH, water and air temperature, and permanganate water oxidizability (PWO) were determined in each pool during that period. Chloroform (CF(W)) was the THM detected at higher concentrations in all pools, followed by BDCM, DBCM, and BF detected at 99, 34, and 6% of the samples, respectively. Water THM concentrations ranged from 10.1 to 155 μg/L, with 6.5% of the samples presenting values above 100 μg/L (parametric value established in Portuguese law DL 306/2007). In this study, air chloroform (CF(Air)) concentrations ranged from 45 to 373 μg/m³ with 24% of the samples presenting values above 136 μg/m³ (considered high exposure value). Several significant correlations were observed between total THM and other parameters, namely, CF(W), CF(Air), FrCl, water temperature (T(W)), and PWO. These correlations indicate that FrCl, T(W) and PWO are parameters that influence THM formation. The exposure criterion established for water THM enabled the inclusion of 67% of Lisbon pools in the high exposure group, which reinforces the need for an improvement in pool water quality.

  3. Factors affecting the occurrence of enteritis in 10- to 12-month-old eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Nobuhide; Tanaka, Sohei; Wada, Yuko; Sato, Sumito

    2018-02-16

    Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) younger than 19 months at Kanazawa Zoological Gardens, Japan, frequently died of enteritis. The main cause of death was coccidiosis. This study aimed to reveal retrospectively the clinical features of enteritis and factors contributing to its high occurrence. In addition, haematological and serum biochemical parameters in kangaroos younger than 24 months were analyzed. The findings suggested that enteritis occurrence was higher in 10- to 12-month-old kangaroos than other ages and during seasons with high temperature and humidity than during seasons with low temperature and humidity. The haematological and serum biochemical analyses showed decreases in glucose, total cholesterol, calcium, and triglyceride levels at approximately 10 months of age. Joeys emerge from their mother's pouch at 8 months of age and permanently leave it at approximately 10 months of age. Subsequently, the joeys are exposed to the external environment and infectious agents. Although the joeys continue suckling until 13-19 months of age, the joeys start to eat the similar feed to the adult and their nutritional status may change at approximately 10 months of age. Seasonal influences, species behavior, and shifts in dietary composition are proposed to be contributory to the increased occurrence of enteritis between 10 and 12 months of age. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Environmental Factors Influencing Epidemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993

  5. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  6. Factors involved in the occurrence of bleeding complications after enucleation for cornea donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Marja J; Nijenhuis, Matthijs V; Dorrepaal, Caroline A; Bokhorst, Arlinke G

    2009-10-01

    To identify risk factors for the occurrence of bleeding complications after enucleation for cornea donation, in order to develop preventive activities to reduce the occurrence of bleeding complications and especially the development of ocular hematomas. From all Dutch cornea donors deceased in the year 2006, donor characteristics, retrieval characteristics, and bleeding complication data were collected. First, univariate relations between donor and retrieval factors and bleeding complications were determined. Then, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors significantly associated with bleeding complications. In 114 of the 1173 cornea donors (9.7%), bleeding complications occurred, with ocular hematomas developing in 39 (3.3% of all cornea donors). Donor factors significantly associated with bleeding complications were age [odds ratio (OR) 0.96 (95% CI 0.94-0.97)], weight [OR 1.03 (1.02-1.04)], heart failure [OR 2.10 (1.12-3.94)], thrombocyte aggregation inhibitor use [OR 1.64 (1.02-2.64)], and chronic alcoholic liver disease [OR 2.85 (1.11-7.31)]. The most significant factor associated with bleeding complications was the retrieval sequence. If cornea donation was followed by any other tissue retrieval, the risk of bleeding complications was strongly increased. : This study shows that the tissue retrieval sequence in multitissue donors is the most important factor associated with the occurrence of bleeding complications. The risk of bleeding and ocular hematoma is lower if cornea donation is performed after all other retrievals. However, if the tissue retrieval sequence is altered, the effect of prolonged postmortem time on corneal quality must be taken into account.

  7. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cut‑off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in ...

  8. Factors Influencing Livelihood Diversification among Rural Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was set out to analyze factors influencing rural farmer's engagement in livelihood diversification in the study area. The specific objectives were; to identify the different levels of farmers' engagement in livelihood diversification, determine the socio-demographic factors or forces that influence farmers' ...

  9. Factors influencing customer satisfaction with reference and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines factors influencing customer satisfaction with reference and information services in an academic environment. The paper identifies types of reference services in libraries, factors influencing customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction with reference and information services and suggested the way forward ...

  10. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors influencing substance abuse amongundergraduate students in Osun State; Nigeria. A sample of 1, 200undergraduate students were randomly selected from three tertiaryinstitution in Osun State. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse Questionnaire (FISA) was developed by the researcher ...

  11. Influence of skin cold sensation threshold in the occurrence of dental sensitivity during dental bleaching: a placebo controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Vanessa; Gallinari, Marjorie de Oliveira; Barbosa, Juliana Stuginski; Martins-Junior, Reynaldo Leite; Santos, Paulo Henrique Dos; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Briso, André Luiz Fraga

    2018-01-18

    This study verified the occurrence of dental sensitivity in patients submitted to a 35% hydrogen peroxide based product (Whiteness HP Maxx 35% - FGM), skin cold sensation threshold (SCST) and its influence on dental sensitivity. Sixty volunteers were divided into 4 groups (n = 15), according to SCST (low: GI and GIII, and high: GII and IV) and bleaching treatment (hydrogen peroxide: GI and GII, and placebo: GIII and GIV). SCST was determined in the inner forearm for 6 different times using a neurosensory analyzer, the TSA II (Medoc Advanced Medical Systems, Ramat Yishai, Northern District, Israel). Dental sensitivity measurements were performed 10 different times using a thermal stimulus and an intraoral device attached to TSA II, positioned in the buccal surface of the upper right central incisor. Spontaneous dental sensitivity was also determined using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Data were submitted to Student's t-test and Pearson's Correlation Test (α=0.05). SCST remained the same during bleaching treatment. Distinct responses of dental sensitivity were found in patients with low and high SCST during the first and third bleaching session (p≤0.05). The teeth submitted to the bleaching treatment became more sensitive to cold than those treated with placebo. Moreover, data obtained with TSA and VAS presented moderate correlation. Bleaching treatment increased dental sensitivity and skin cold sensation threshold might represent a determining factor in this occurrence, since low and high SCST patients had different responses to the thermal stimulus in the teeth.

  12. Eimeria species occurrence varies between geographic regions and poultry production systems and may influence parasite genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengat Prakashbabu, B; Thenmozhi, V; Limon, G; Kundu, K; Kumar, S; Garg, R; Clark, E L; Srinivasa Rao, A S R; Raj, D G; Raman, M; Banerjee, P S; Tomley, F M; Guitian, J; Blake, D P

    2017-01-15

    Coccidiosis is one of the biggest challenges faced by the global poultry industry. Recent studies have highlighted the ubiquitous distribution of all Eimeria species which can cause this disease in chickens, but intriguingly revealed a regional divide in genetic diversity and population structure for at least one species, Eimeria tenella. The drivers associated with such distinct geographic variation are unclear, but may impact on the occurrence and extent of resistance to anticoccidial drugs and future subunit vaccines. India is one of the largest poultry producers in the world and includes a transition between E. tenella populations defined by high and low genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with the prevalence of Eimeria species defined by high and low pathogenicity in northern and southern states of India, and seek to understand factors which vary between the regions as possible drivers for differential genetic variation. Faecal samples and data relating to farm characteristics and management were collected from 107 farms from northern India and 133 farms from southern India. Faecal samples were analysed using microscopy and PCR to identify Eimeria occurrence. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied to transform correlated putative risk factors into a smaller number of synthetic uncorrelated factors. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify poultry farm typologies, revealing three distinct clusters in the studied regions. The association between clusters and presence of Eimeria species was assessed by logistic regression. The study found that large-scale broiler farms in the north were at greatest risk of harbouring any Eimeria species and a larger proportion of such farms were positive for E. necatrix, the most pathogenic species. Comparison revealed a more even distribution for E. tenella across production systems in south India, but with a lower overall occurrence. Such a polarised region- and

  13. Basic fibroblast growth factor predicts cardiovascular disease occurrence in participants from the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B Zimering

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to test whether plasma basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF levels predict future cardiovascular disease (CVD occurrence in adults from the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial. Methods: Nearly four- hundred veterans, 40 years of age or older, having a mean baseline diabetes duration of 11.4 years were recruited from outpatient clinics at six geographically distributed sites in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT. Within the VADT, they were randomly assigned to intensive or standard glycemic treatment, with follow-up as much as seven and one-half years. Cardiovascular disease occurrence was examined at baseline in the patient population and during randomized treatment. Plasma bFGF was determined with a sensitive, specific two-site enzyme-linked immunoassay at the baseline study visit in all 399 subjects. Results: One hundred-five first cardiovascular events occurred in these 399 subjects. The best fit model of risk factors associated with the time to first cardiovascular disease occurrence (in the study over a seven and one-half year period had as significant predictors: prior cardiovascular event, (hazard ratio [HR] 3.378; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 3.079- 3.807; P < .0001, baseline plasma bFGF (HR 1.008; 95% CI 1.002-1.014; P =.01, age, (HR 1.027; 95% CI 1.004-1.051; P =.019, baseline plasma triglycerides, (HR 1.001; 95% CI 1.000-1.002; P =.02 and diabetes duration-treatment interaction (P =.03. Intensive glucose-lowering was associated with significantly decreased hazard ratios for CVD occurrence (0.38-0.63 in patients with known diabetes duration of 0-10 years, and non-significantly increased hazard ratios for CVD occurrence (0.82-1.78 in patients with longer diabetes duration. Conclusion: High level ofplasma basic fibroblast growth factor is a predictive biomarker of future cardiovascular

  14. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  15. Soil moisture and biogeochemical factors influence the distribution of annual Bromus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne Belnap; John M. Stark; Benjamin M. Rau; Edith B. Allen; Susan Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic factors have a strong influence on where annual Bromus species are found. At the large regional scale, temperature and precipitation extremes determine the boundaries of Bromus occurrence. At the more local scale, soil characteristics and climate influence distribution, cover, and performance. In hot, dry, summer-rainfall-dominated deserts (Sonoran, Chihuahuan...

  16. [Nutritional and psychological factors associated with the occurrence of pica in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeta, Ana Carolina; Cunha, Ana Cristina Barros da; Heidelmann, Sonaly Petronilho; Saunders, Cláudia

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the nutritional and psychological factors associated with the occurrence of the practice of pica in pregnant women attending a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was based on a descriptive design with exploratory features, and conducted on 13 adult and adolescent pregnant women aged 16 to 40 years with a diagnosis of pica in the current pregnancy. Pica was diagnosed by a nutritionist in a standardized interview situation, when questions about the occurrence and frequency of pica, and types of substance ingestion were investigated. After signing the Informed Consent Form (ICF), all participants were evaluated by a nutritionist and seven of them were submitted to psychological assessment with standardized instruments to evaluate stress and anxiety, and to assess coping strategies. The type of pica most frequently reported was pagophagia (30.8%) and the consumption of fruit with salt (30.8%). The most prevalent coping strategies were "religious practice-focused" and "seeking social support", both presented by 42% of the pregnant women. We observed the occurrence of some degree of stress and anxiety in all pregnant women, as well as comorbidities (69.2%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (84.6%). Considering that pica may be associated with increased perinatal risk, it is very important to investigate this disorder during prenatal care, and to dopt obstetric, psychological and nutritional preventive practices to reduce the complications for mother and fetus.

  17. On the factors controlling occurrence of F-region coherent echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Danskin

    Full Text Available Several factors are known to control the HF echo occurrence rate, including electron density distribution in the ionosphere (affecting the propagation path of the radar wave, D-region radio wave absorption, and ionospheric irregularity intensity. In this study, we consider 4 days of CUTLASS Finland radar observations over an area where the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar has continuously monitored ionospheric parameters. We illustrate that for the event under consideration, the D-region absorption was not the major factor affecting the echo appearance. We show that the electron density distribution and the radar frequency selection were much more significant factors. The electron density magnitude affects the echo occurrence in two different ways. For small F-region densities, a minimum value of 1 × 1011 m-3 is required to have sufficient radio wave refraction so that the orthogonality (with the magnetic field lines condition is met. For too large densities, radio wave strong "over-refraction" leads to the ionospheric echo disappearance. We estimate that the over-refraction is important for densities greater than 4 × 1011 m-3. We also investigated the backscatter power and the electric field magnitude relationship and found no obvious relationship contrary to the expectation that the gradient-drift plasma instability would lead to stronger irregularity intensity/echo power for larger electric fields.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities; auroral ionosphere

  18. On the factors controlling occurrence of F-region coherent echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Danskin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Several factors are known to control the HF echo occurrence rate, including electron density distribution in the ionosphere (affecting the propagation path of the radar wave, D-region radio wave absorption, and ionospheric irregularity intensity. In this study, we consider 4 days of CUTLASS Finland radar observations over an area where the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar has continuously monitored ionospheric parameters. We illustrate that for the event under consideration, the D-region absorption was not the major factor affecting the echo appearance. We show that the electron density distribution and the radar frequency selection were much more significant factors. The electron density magnitude affects the echo occurrence in two different ways. For small F-region densities, a minimum value of 1 × 1011 m-3 is required to have sufficient radio wave refraction so that the orthogonality (with the magnetic field lines condition is met. For too large densities, radio wave strong "over-refraction" leads to the ionospheric echo disappearance. We estimate that the over-refraction is important for densities greater than 4 × 1011 m-3. We also investigated the backscatter power and the electric field magnitude relationship and found no obvious relationship contrary to the expectation that the gradient-drift plasma instability would lead to stronger irregularity intensity/echo power for larger electric fields.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities; auroral ionosphere

  19. The occurrence and predictive factors of sleep paralysis in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lišková, Monika; Janečková, Denisa; Klůzová Kráčmarová, Lucie; Mladá, Karolína; Bušková, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence and predictive factors of sleep paralysis (SP) in Czech university students. Our sample included 606 students who had experienced at least one episode of SP. The participants completed an online battery of questionnaires involving questionnaires focused on describing their sleep habits and SP episodes, the 18-item Boundary Questionnaire (BQ-18), the Modified Tellegen Absorption Scale (MODTAS), the Dissociative Experience Scale Taxon, the Beck Depression Inventory II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The strongest predictive factor for the frequency of SP episodes was nightmares. The strongest predictive factor for the intensity of fear was dream occurrences. In our study sample, SP was more common in women than in men. Those who scored higher in BQ-18 experienced more often pleasant episodes of SP and those who scored higher in MODTAS were more likely to experience SP accompanied with hallucinations. While 62% of respondents answered that their SP was accompanied by intense fear, 16% reported that they experienced pleasant feelings during SP episodes. We suggest that not only the known rapid eye movement sleep dysregulation but also some personality variables may contribute to the characteristics of SP.

  20. Factors influencing the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-06

    Factors influencing the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhoea amongst Abia State university medical students, South Eastern Nigeria. ... From February 6, 2012 to February 12, 2012, 132 consenting female medical students completed an anonymous questionnaire administered by research assistants at the hostels.

  1. Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fungicides, pruning and fermentation were cocoa technologies adopted by farmers. The significant factors influencing adoption of cocoa technologies included age, educational level, household size, no of farm family assisting on the farm, ...

  2. factors influencing condom use among nigerian undergraduates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... unanticipated sexual intercourse”. Conversely, the influence of alcohol/social drugs on condom use was ranked low. Conclusion: The study showed that students had the perception that various factors influenced condom use but these perceptions varied between young men and women. It may therefore be ...

  3. Factors Influencing Number of Physiotherapy Treatment Sessions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the influence of physiotherapists' characteristics and treatment modalities on the number of treatment sessions in Nigeria. This study was designed to evaluate the factors influencing the number of treatment sessions for patients with low back pain (LBP). Three hundred and eleven practising ...

  4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Zizi GOSCHIN; Gheorghe ZAMAN

    2006-01-01

    Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use), renewable combustible and waste (% of total), energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  5. Do Surrogates of Injury Severity Influence the Occurrence of Heterotopic Ossification in Fractures of the Acetabulum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    dʼHeurle, Albert; Archdeacon, Michael T; Hiratzka, Shannon; Casstevens, Christopher; Finnan, Ryan; McCoy, Brett

    2016-04-01

    To determine the relationship between injury severity surrogates and other patient factors with the development and severity of heterotopic ossification (HO) following open reduction internal fixation of acetabular fractures treated with a posterior approach. Retrospective review. Academic level 1 trauma center. Two hundred forty-one patients who were treated through a posterior approach with a minimum of 6-month radiographic follow-up were identified from an acetabular fracture database. None. The occurrence and severity (Brooker Grade III/IV) of HO 6 months postsurgery. Length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU), non-ICU LOS >10 days, and HO prophylaxis with external radiation beam therapy (XRT) were significantly associated with the development of HO in a multivariate model [ICU LOS: 1-2 days, odds ratio (OR) = 4.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-18.25; 3-6 days, OR = 4.1, 95% CI, 1.27-13.27; >6 days, OR = 11.7, 95% CI, 3.24-42.22; non-ICU LOS >10 days (vs. 0-6 days): OR = 7.6, 95% CI, 2.6-22.25; XRT HO prophylaxis: OR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.10-0.85]. Other variables evaluated in multivariate modeling not significantly associated with development and severity of HO included age, gender, mechanism of injury, injury severity score, presence of neurologic injury, Letournel fracture type, occurrence of hip dislocation, interval from injury to surgery, operative time, and estimated blood loss. Surrogates of injury severity, including days in the ICU and non-ICU hospital LOS >10 days, were associated with the development of HO in our cohort of acetabular fracture patients. Prophylaxis with XRT was significantly protective against the development of HO, and the ability to provide prophylaxis is very likely related to the severity of injury. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. Woodland Ponds as an Important Habitat of Hippeutis Complanatus (Linnaeus 1758 Occurrence - Effect of Environmental Factors and Habitat Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyra Aneta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spyra A. Woodland ponds as an important habitat of Hippeutis complanatus (Linnaeus 1758 occurrence - effect of environmental factors and habitat preferences. Ekológia (Bratislava, Vol. 33, No. 2, p. 101-115, 2014.

  7. Some individual psychological characteristics as protective or risk factors for occurrence of conduct disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jasminka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study included 30 pairs of siblings aged 12-18 years; one sibling with and one without conduct disorder in each pair. The aim of the study was to assess individual characteristics of those siblings, i.e. to determine differences in psychological characteristics of the siblings with regard to locus of control, stress coping strategies and frequency and structure of behavioral problems and emotions. The results suggested significant differences in individual characteristics of children with conduct disorder and their healthy siblings. These results mainly confirm previous results of foreign research on a sample of our population. Exception of findings was related to strategies for coping with stress: religious behavior that didn’t turn out as a protective factor and avoiding confrontation and withdrawal which are shown as a protective factor. These results suggest the importance of individual psychological characteristics for the occurrence of conduct disorders and have implications in therapy and in preventive work with adolescents.

  8. Co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in adolescents: Prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Silva Dias de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To examine the prevalence of the behavioral risk factors – both isolated and clustered – for chronic diseases, among adolescents. Additionally, its association with various social and demographic variables was estimated. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 1,039 high school students, from public and private schools, elected for convenience, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, as well as crude and adjusted ordinal logistic regression were used to assess the association between the variables. Results The most frequently observed risk factors were sedentary behavior (68.8%, alcohol consumption (36.8%, and overweight (26.8%. The clustering of risk factors was observed in 67.5% of the students. Being a girl (OR=1.28; 95%CI=1.01–1.63, Caucasian (OR=1.35; 95%CI=1.06–1.72 or private school student (OR=1.46; 95%CI=1.12–1.88 increased the chance of the clustering of risk factors. The co-occurrence of risk factors was predominantly observed in the case of smoking (OR=4.94; 95%CI=1.46–16.75, alcohol consumption (OR=1.43; 95%CI=1.09–1.88, high consumption of ultra-processed foods (OR=1.57; 95%CI=1.19–2.07, and sedentary behavior (OR=1.40; 95%CI=1.07–1.82. Conclusion The co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors was observed to be higher among girls, Caucasian adolescents, and private school students, as well as, among smokers, alcohol users and adolescents with sedentary habits and a high consumption of ultra-processed foods.

  9. Contraction of Abdominal Wall Muscles Influences Incisional Hernia Occurrence and Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Samuel C.; Hu, Yaxi; Wollstein, Adi; Franz, Michael G.; Patel, Shaun P.; Kuzon, William M.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Incisional hernias are a complication in 10% of all open abdominal operations and can result in significant morbidity. The purpose of this study is to determine if inhibiting abdominal muscle contraction influences incisional hernia formation during laparotomy healing. We hypothesize that reducing abdominal musculature deformation reduces incisional hernia occurrence and size. Study Design Using an established rat model for incisional hernia, a laparotomy through the linea alba was closed with one mid-incision, fast-absorbing suture. Three groups were compared: a SHAM group (SHAM; n = 6) received no laparotomies while the Saline Hernia (SH; n = 6) and Botox Hernia (BH; n = 6) groups were treated once with equal volume saline or Botulinum Toxin (Botox®, Allergan) before the incomplete laparotomy closure. On post-operative day 14, the abdominal wall was examined for herniation and adhesions and contractile forces were measured for abdominal wall muscles. Results No hernias developed in SHAM rats. Rostral hernias developed in all SH and BH rats. Caudal hernias developed in all SH rats, but in only 50% of the BH rats. Rostral hernias in the BH group were 35% shorter and 43% narrower compared to those in the SH group (p abdominal muscles compared to the SHAM and SH groups (p abdominal muscles reduces the number and size of incisional hernias. These results confirm abdominal wall muscle contractions play a significant role in the pathophysiology of incisional hernia formation. PMID:25817097

  10. Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence Susceptibility to HIV Infection Among Female Sex Workers in Kenya. Understanding the complex factors that can lead ... Related content ... on women's paid work. Policy in Focus publishes a special issue profiling evidence to empower women in the labour market.

  11. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Attitudes Towards Internet Piracy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated psychosocial factors influencing attitude towards internet piracy among Nigerian University students. The ex-post factor research design was adopted. In all a total of two hundred and fifty participants were drawn through accidental sampling technique for this study. Their age ranged between 19-48 ...

  12. Estimating the risk of cyanobacterial occurrence using an index integrating meteorological factors: application to drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, Mouhamed; Bird, David; Nguyen-Quang, Tri; de Boutray, Marie-Laure; Zamyadi, Arash; Vinçon-Leite, Brigitte; Lemaire, Bruno J; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    The sudden appearance of toxic cyanobacteria (CB) blooms is still largely unpredictable in waters worldwide. Many post-hoc explanations for CB bloom occurrence relating to physical and biochemical conditions in lakes have been developed. As potentially toxic CB can accumulate in drinking water treatment plants and disrupt water treatment, there is a need for water treatment operators to determine whether conditions are favourable for the proliferation and accumulation of CB in source waters in order to adjust drinking water treatment accordingly. Thus, a new methodology with locally adaptable variables is proposed in order to have a single index, f(p), related to various environmental factors such as temperature, wind speed and direction. The index is used in conjunction with real time monitoring data to determine the probability of CB occurrence in relation to meteorological factors, and was tested at a drinking water intake in Missisquoi Bay, a shallow transboundary bay in Lake Champlain, Québec, Canada. These environmental factors alone were able to explain a maximum probability of 68% that a CB bloom would occur at the drinking water treatment plant. Nutrient limitation also influences CB blooms and intense blooms only occurred when the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to total phosphorus (TP) mass ratio was below 3. Additional monitoring of DIN and TP could be considered for these source waters prone to cyanobacterial blooms to determine periods of favourable growth. Real time monitoring and the use of the index could permit an adequate and timely response to CB blooms in drinking water sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of skin cold sensation threshold in the occurrence of dental sensitivity during dental bleaching: a placebo controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rahal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study verified the occurrence of dental sensitivity in patients submitted to a 35% hydrogen peroxide based product (Whiteness HP Maxx 35% – FGM, skin cold sensation threshold (SCST and its influence on dental sensitivity. Material and Methods Sixty volunteers were divided into 4 groups (n = 15, according to SCST (low: GI and GIII, and high: GII and IV and bleaching treatment (hydrogen peroxide: GI and GII, and placebo: GIII and GIV. SCST was determined in the inner forearm for 6 different times using a neurosensory analyzer, the TSA II (Medoc Advanced Medical Systems, Ramat Yishai, Northern District, Israel. Dental sensitivity measurements were performed 10 different times using a thermal stimulus and an intraoral device attached to TSA II, positioned in the buccal surface of the upper right central incisor. Spontaneous dental sensitivity was also determined using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Data were submitted to Student's t-test and Pearson's Correlation Test (α=0.05. SCST remained the same during bleaching treatment. Results Distinct responses of dental sensitivity were found in patients with low and high SCST during the first and third bleaching session (p≤0.05. The teeth submitted to the bleaching treatment became more sensitive to cold than those treated with placebo. Moreover, data obtained with TSA and VAS presented moderate correlation. Conclusions Bleaching treatment increased dental sensitivity and skin cold sensation threshold might represent a determining factor in this occurrence, since low and high SCST patients had different responses to the thermal stimulus in the teeth.

  14. Influence of hormonal contraceptives and the occurrence of stroke: integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Adman Câmara Soares; Martins, Larissa Castelo Guedes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Araújo, Thelma Leite de; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; Moura, Escolástica Rejane Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    To identify scientific evidence regarding the influence of hormonal contraceptive use and the occurrence of stroke. Integrative review of the literature, through database search using the descriptors "contraceptive agents", "contraceptive devices", "contraceptives, Oral" and "Stroke". Original studies in Portuguese, Spanish and English, published in full and available online were included. Studies that did not answer our guiding questions and duplicated studies were excluded. Women using combined oral contraceptives have higher risk of stroke, even with a lower hormonal dosage and different types of progestogen, regardless of the duration of use. The use of contraceptives associated with smoking, hypertension, migraine, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and sedentary lifestyle increases the chance of stroke. Contraceptive patch and vaginal ring are associated to increased risk. Use of combined hormonal contraceptives, except for the injectable and the transdermal ones, increases the chance of occurrence of the event. Progestogen-only contraceptives were considered safe. Identificar evidências científicas acerca da influência do uso de anticoncepcionais hormonais na ocorrência do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Revisão integrativa da literatura, com pesquisa em bases de dados, utilizando os descritores "contraceptive agents", "contraceptive devices", "contraceptives, Oral" e "stroke". Foram incluídos artigos originais nos idiomas português, espanhol e inglês, publicados na íntegra e disponíveis eletronicamente. Foram excluídos artigos que não respondiam às questões norteadoras e repetidos. Usuárias de anticoncepcional oral combinado apresentam risco maior de AVC, mesmo com dosagem hormonal menor e diferentes tipos de progestágeno, independente do tempo de uso. A presença associada de tabagismo, hipertensão arterial, enxaqueca, hipercolesterolemia, obesidade e sedentarismo aumenta a chance desse desfecho. Adesivo anticoncepcional e anel vaginal s

  15. The occurrence and predictive factors of sleep paralysis in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lišková M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Monika Lišková,1,2 Denisa Janečková,1 Lucie Klůzová Kráčmarová,3 Karolína Mladá,1 Jitka Bušková1,2 1Institute of Sleep Medicine, National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, 2Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, 3Olomouc University Social Health Institute, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence and predictive factors of sleep paralysis (SP in Czech university students. Our sample included 606 students who had experienced at least one episode of SP. The participants completed an online battery of questionnaires involving questionnaires focused on describing their sleep habits and SP episodes, the 18-item Boundary Questionnaire (BQ-18, the Modified Tellegen Absorption Scale (MODTAS, the Dissociative Experience Scale Taxon, the Beck Depression Inventory II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The strongest predictive factor for the frequency of SP episodes was nightmares. The strongest predictive factor for the intensity of fear was dream occurrences. In our study sample, SP was more common in women than in men. Those who scored higher in BQ-18 experienced more often pleasant episodes of SP and those who scored higher in MODTAS were more likely to experience SP accompanied with hallucinations. While 62% of respondents answered that their SP was accompanied by intense fear, 16% reported that they experienced pleasant feelings during SP episodes. We suggest that not only the known rapid eye movement sleep dysregulation but also some personality variables may contribute to the characteristics of SP. Keywords: sleep paralysis, absorption, personality boundaries, dissociation, nightmares

  16. Ecological traits influence the phylogenetic structure of bird species co-occurrences worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnagaud, J.-Y.; Kissling, W.D.; Sandel, B.; Eiserhardt, W.L.; Şekercioğlu, Ç.H.; Enquist, B.J.; Tsirogiannis, C.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which species’ ecological and phylogenetic relatedness shape their co-occurrence patterns at large spatial scales remains poorly understood. By quantifying phylogenetic assemblage structure within geographic ranges of >8000 bird species, we show that global co-occurrence patterns are

  17. Factors driving semi-aquatic predator occurrence in traditional cattle drinking pools: conservation issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Manenti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In several cases, human impact on water bodies and on their freshwater communities is detrimental, but in some cases the human activity may favour and enhance the biodiversity of small water bodies, as traditional cattle drinking pools. Despite their small size, small water bodies may constitute hot spot of biodiversity often representing the only lentic aquatic biotope in landscapes where superficial water lacks or flows in lotic environments like creeks and streams. Predators are good indicators of biodiversity in ponds and give information of food chain web complexity. In particular, semi-aquatic predators like amphibians and dragonflies may account for a substantial percentage of energy flow between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the conservation value of traditional cattle drinking pools building by assessing the factors determining the occurrence and distribution of the semi-aquatic predators. From April to August 2015, we investigated 30 distinct pools recording several abiotic and biotic environmental variables. We detected 4 semi-aquatic predators: Salamandra salamandra larvae, Triturus carnifex, Aeshna sp. larvae and Libellula sp. larvae. Abiotic features played a major role in shaping the predator community that resulted linked to stable, with no dryness period, and large drinking pools. Invertebrate prey biomass was not particularly important, while vegetation cover and occurrence of unpalatable tadpoles were the most important biotic features of the pools. Our study provides novel evidence on the importance of cattle drinking pools management to preserve biodiversity especially in areas where traditional pastoral activity is disappearing.

  18. Occurrence of C3 nephritic factor and C4 nephritic factor in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, H; Yasugi, T

    1994-01-01

    One hundred patients diagnosed with hypocomplementaemic MPGN (C3 nephritic factor (C3NeF) and/or C4 nephritic factor (C4NeF). Of those studied, 12 were C3NeF-positive, nine were C4NeF-positive and 10 were positive for both C3NeF and C4NeF. In the 10 patients both C3NeF- and C4NeF-positive, a marked decrease in C3 and C5 levels and a decrease in levels of late components from C6 to C9 were observed. This observation was in contrast to that seen in patients who were either C3NeF- or C4NeF-positive. Patients positive for both C3NeF and C4NeF continued to exhibit hypocomplementaemia after therapy. Immunofluorescent findings revealed heavy C3 immunoglobulin deposits in the 10 patients who were both C3NeF- and C4NeF-positive, whereas no such deposits were found in those patients who were either C3NeF- or C4NeF-positive only. When those patients who were both C3NeF- and C4NeF-positive were compared with those who were either C3NeF- or C4NeF-positive, nephritic syndrome and a poor prognosis were observed more frequently. This study demonstrates a correlation between clinical outcome and hypocomplementaemic MPGN. Further investigations of MPGN as an autoimmune disease are necessary. PMID:8306508

  19. Factors influencing job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Liana M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influencing job satisfaction and the perspective of frontline medical imaging staff in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The sample consisted of 359 registered radiologic technologists who were working as staff technologists in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The results of the study suggest that satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators influences overall satisfaction with the work environment and job and commitment to the employer.

  20. Analysis of factors important for the occurrence of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Heuer, Ole Eske; Sørensen, Anna Irene Vedel

    2013-01-01

    of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks. The study was based on a large data set consisting of Campylobacter positive status for nearly 6000 broiler flocks and 43 explanatory variables. Data were obtained from the Danish Campylobacter surveillance programme in poultry and from the responses to a standardized...... of positive flocks/total number of flocks delivered over the 2-year period).The following factors were found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of Campylobacter in the broiler flocks: old broiler houses, late introduction of whole wheat in the feed, relatively high broiler age at slaughter....... The results concerning chimneys may be explained by the easier access that flies have to the broiler houses, which seems in agreement with recent Danish studies on the significance of fly-screens to reduce Campylobacter in broiler flocks. The results of this study may be used in identification of effective...

  1. [The influence of climate and vegetation cover on the occurrence of dengue cases (2001-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Ballesta, Angye; Gónima, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the spatio-temporal relationship regarding the occurrence of cases of dengue in Colombia's Córdoba Department and the temperature, rainfall and the phenological state of vegetation (vigor and density). A statistical and cartographical study of spatio-temporal distribution regarding the occurrence of cases of dengue was studied in 30 selected municipalities. Simple and multiple statistical regressions were used for analyzing disease occurrence and the aforementioned climatic variables. The statistical relationship between dengue cases and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was calculated using satellite images. A linear multiple relationship between the occurrence of dengue cases and temperature, rainfall and NDVI was calculated. Accordingly to the pertinent cartography, the disease extends over 32 % of the department; 89.7 % of the reported cases of dengue occurred in 13 of the 22 selected municipalities, Monteria being the municipality having the greatest occurrence (37.8 %). Analysis and evaluation of the statistical regressions showed that the selected climatic variables and vegetation state were significantly related to the occurrence of dengue, both separately and simultaneously. The statistical validity of the relationships calculated between the variables studied here supported the conclusion that an increase in the occurrence of cases of dengue was also directly related to a simultaneous increase in temperature, decreased rainfall and deterioration of vegetation cover (vigor and density) in the area being studied.

  2. Analysis of vulnerability factors that control nitrate occurrence in natural springs (Osona Region, NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menció, Anna; Boy, Mercè; Mas-Pla, Josep

    2011-07-15

    Nitrate pollution is one of the main concerns of groundwater management in most of the world's agricultural areas. In the Osona region of NE Spain, high concentrations of nitrates have been reported in wells. This study uses the occurrence of this pollutant in natural springs as an indicator of the sub-surface dynamics of the water cycle and shows how groundwater quality is affected by crop fertilization, as an approach to determine the aquifer vulnerability. Nitrate concentration and other hydrochemical parameters based on a biannual database are reported for approximately 80 springs for the period 2004-2009. The background concentration of nitrate is first determined to distinguish polluted areas from natural nitrate occurrence. A statistical treatment using logistic regression and ANOVA is then performed to identify the significance of the effect of vulnerability factors such as the geological setting of the springs, land use in recharge areas, sampling periods, and chemical parameters like pH and EC, on groundwater nitrate pollution. The results of the analysis identify a threshold value of 7-8 mg NO(3)(-)/L for nitrate pollution in this area. Logistic regression and ANOVA results show that an increase in EC or a decrease in pH values is linked to the possibility of higher nitrate concentrations in springs. These analyses also show that nitrate pollution is more dependent on land use than the geological setting of springs or sampling periods. Indeed, the specific geological and soil features of the uppermost layers in their recharge areas do not contribute to the buffering of nitrate impacts on aquifers as measured in natural springs. Land use, and particularly fertilization practices, are major factors in groundwater vulnerability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Contraction of abdominal wall muscles influences size and occurrence of incisional hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Samuel C; Hu, Yaxi; Wollstein, Adi; Franz, Michael G; Patel, Shaun P; Kuzon, William M; Urbanchek, Melanie G

    2015-07-01

    Incisional hernias are a complication in 10% of all open abdominal operations and can result in substantial morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether inhibiting abdominal muscle contraction influences incisional hernia formation during the fascial healing after laparotomy. We hypothesized that decreasing the deformation of the abdominal musculature would decrease the size or occurrence of an incisional hernia. Using an established rat model for incisional hernia, a laparotomy through the linea alba was closed with 1 mid-incision, fast-absorbing suture. Three groups were compared: a sham group (sham; n = 6) received no laparotomy, and the saline hernia (SH; n = 6) and Botox hernia (BH; n = 6) groups were treated once with equal volumes of saline or botulinum toxin (Botox, Allergan) before the incomplete laparotomy closure. On postoperative day 14, the abdominal wall was examined for herniation and adhesions, and contractile forces were measured for abdominal wall muscles. No hernias developed in the sham rats. Rostral hernias developed in all SH and BH rats. Caudal hernias developed in all SH rats, but in only 50% of the BH rats. Rostral hernias in the BH group were 35% shorter and 43% narrower compared with those in the SH group (P abdominal muscles compared with the sham and SH groups (P abdominal muscles decreases the number and size of incisional hernias. These results suggest that contractions of the abdominal wall muscle play a role in the pathophysiology of the formation of incisional hernias. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Overview of factors influencing the secondary market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleistine, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The major factor influencing secondary trading for the last few years has been the large contractural commitments built up by consumers for reactor programs which have proven to be unrealistic. The situation has intensified as a result of utilities needing to generate capital through inventory liquidation or reductions. The flexibilities in most contracts are inadequate to match the types of external and/or internal factors faced by the industry. This situation also suggests the need for secondary markets to help the industry adjust to unforeseen difficulties. They are very active markets at this time, but their influence in relation to the long-term method of doing business should not be exaggerated

  5. Prevalence of risk factors for the occurrence of strokes in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Souza Pinho Costa

    Full Text Available Introduction Stroke (CVA is a multifactorial disease, where the combination of risk factors may be associated with and contribute to its development. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of risk factors for stroke in the physically independent elderly in the city of Londrina, Brazil. Materials and methods This study was composed of the elderly individuals participating in the EELO project (Age and Ageing Study, Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil. In order to identify the risk factors for stroke, one used a structured questionnaire with information about socio-demographic and anthropometric data as well as lifestyle variables, such as physical inactivity and smoking, presence of comorbidities, and laboratory tests for diagnosis of diabetes and dyslipidemia. Results The study included 454 elderly with mean age of 69.7 years. There was a significant relationship between the number of risk factors and gender (p = 0.01, with higher prevalence among women. In separate analysis, the elderly between 60 and 69 years had a higher incidence of obesity (p = 0.03 and dyslipidemia (p = 0.04. Regarding gender, obesity (p = 0.01, smoking (p = 0.0001, vascular disease (p = 0.0001 and heart disease in the family (p = 0.01 higher incidence was shown in females, according toChi Square’s test. Conclusions It is concluded that elderly people aged less than 70 years and older women were those with the highest number of risk factors for CVA. Therefore, it may be suggested the development of primary care programs in order to promote information on the prevention of these risk factors and thus reduce the occurrence of stroke.

  6. Frequent occurrence of nonprimate hepacivirus infections in Thoroughbred breeding horses - A cross-sectional study for the occurrence of infections and potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Claudia; Campe, Amely; Walter, Stephanie; Pfaender, Stephanie; Welsch, Kathrin; Ruddat, Inga; Sieme, Harald; Feige, Karsten; Steinmann, Eike; Cavalleri, Jessika M V

    2017-05-01

    Recently, several new hepaciviruses have been identified of which the nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV) - the closest relative to hepatitis C virus (HCV) discovered to date - is highly prevalent in horses. However, potential risk factors for the transmission of NPHV among horses remain still unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of NPHV infections in Thoroughbreds in northern and western Germany and to identify potential risk factors associated with NPHV infections. Using a cross-sectional study design, a total of 733 serum samples from Thoroughbred broodmares and stallions from northern and western Germany were analyzed for the presence of anti-NPHV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) antibodies and NPHV RNA using the luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) and a quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Information regarding signalment, stud farm, breeding history and international transportation history of each horse were collected and evaluated. A frequent occurrence of NPHV was found in the study population with 453 seropositive horses (61.8%) and 134 horses (18.3%) carrying NPHV RNA. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed that the probability of being infected decreased for horses with a transportation history with increasing age by 20% each year. For horses that stayed in Germany no association between age and infection could be observed. In conclusion, the high occurrence of NPHV infections in breeding Thoroughbreds suggests circulating NPHV infections, endemic herds or persistent shedding in these animals and revealed the association of age and international transportation as risk factor for NPHV infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk factors with the occurrence of parasites and coliform in vegetables from an agroindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Martins Soto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, we evaluated the risk factors associated with the occurrence of total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and intestinal parasite eggs in vegetables from an agroindustry in the city of Ibiúna - SP, Brazil. A questionnaire with 17 questions was applied to 24 producers to carry out a diagnosis of the risk factors and their posterior association or not with total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and intestinal parasite eggs. The questions addressed mainly the production system, fertilizer used, source of the water used for irrigation, sanitization of the vegetables, and form of transport. For the investigation of total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and intestinal parasite eggs, the samples were processed at the microbiology and parasitology laboratory of the Federal Institute of São Paulo, São Roque Campus. The results revealed that total coliforms were found in 100% of the investigated samples and thermotolerant coliforms were detected in 95.83% of the samples. There was a significant statistical association for the risk factor use of reservoir water, where there was release of wastewater and absence of sanitization of the vegetables at the moment of harvest in relation to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms. Intestinal parasite eggs were found in 33.33% of the samples.

  8. Severe maternal morbidity and factors associated with the occurrence of abortion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Rodrigo S; Santana, Danielly S; Cecatti, José G; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Tedesco, Ricardo P; Melo, Elias F; Sousa, Maria H

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the reported occurrence of spontaneous and induced abortion, and abortion-associated severe maternal morbidity in Brazil. A secondary analysis of the 2006 Brazilian Demographic Health Survey was conducted. Interview data on women's experience of spontaneous/induced abortion and associated factors were analyzed overall and by geographic region. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to identify factors independently associated with abortion. The risk of associated severe maternal morbidity was estimated. The reported lifetime rates of spontaneous and induced abortion were 13.3% and 2.3%, respectively, and were highest in the north (4.3%) and northeast (3.5%). The rate of spontaneous abortion was higher among women aged 40-49 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.30) and among those with 0 or 1 children or delivery (OR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.36-2.85 vs OR 1.98; 95% CI, 1.37-2.86). Induced abortion was not associated with sociodemographic factors. Abortion significantly increased the risk of complications (hemorrhage and infection). Spontaneous abortion was significantly associated with parity and maternal age. Abortion in general carried a higher risk of severe maternal complications. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR LEASING MARKET CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors. This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.

  10. Factors Influencing Medical Students' Choice of Specialty

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Pei-Yeh; Hung, Chih-Young; Wang, Kuei-lng; Huang, Yuan-Huei; Chang, King-Jen

    2006-01-01

    Medical school graduates are the source of a country's physicians. Determining how the graduates of these schools select their areas of specialization is the key to achieving a balanced distribution of doctors among all specialties. The purposes of this study were to determine the factors that influence medical students' choice of medical specialty, and to derive the relative weight of each factor. Methods: We constructed a two-tiered analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model which was repres...

  11. Factors influencing implementation of integrated management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intern

    A semi-structured questionnaire was developed for the purpose of obtaining information on factors influencing community based treatment of childhood illness. The questionnaire had two sections; the first section was directed to Council Health Management Team members and aimed to collect information about health.

  12. Exploring Factors That Influence Quality Literature Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Research indicates that literature circles are an authentic means for literacy development that students typically enjoy. To better understand the potential value and to add to the research base regarding literature circles, this study, involving 17 fourth graders, explores factors that may influence the quality of literature discussions,…

  13. Sociodemographic factors influencing adherence to antenatal iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sociodemographic factors influencing adherence to antenatal iron supplementation recommendations among pregnant women in Malawi: Analysis of data from ... Focusing on education interventions that target populations with low rates of iron supplement intake, including campaigns to increase the number of women who ...

  14. factors influencing the decision to participate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Development Studies Volume 3, Number 2, November 2006. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ... farm income, number of micro—credit institutions, level of education and distance of micro—credit institutions ... threshold theory of decision making, in which a reaction occurs only after the strength of the stimuli ...

  15. Factors influencing HIV seroprevalence rate among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a ...

  16. Factors Influencing Examination Malpractice in Secondary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing examination malpractice in some selected secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of one thousand two hundred (1200) students were selected across the three educational zones of Ogoja, Ikom and Calabar using stratified, random ...

  17. Factors influencing insulin secretion from encapsulated islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, BJ; Faas, MM; de Vos, P

    2003-01-01

    Adequate regulation of glucose levels by a microencapsulated pancreatic islet graft requires a minute-to-minute regulation of blood glucose. To design such a transplant, it is mandatory to have sufficient insight in factors influencing the kinetics of insulin secretion by encapsulated islets. The

  18. Factors influencing children's interpretation and acquisition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adopting Systemic Functional Linguistics, the study investigated factors that influence idiom interpretation and acquisition in children. Semantic analysability, idiom structure and idiom modification were investigated in 20 native Chichewa speaking children aged between 4 – 14 years. Three experiments were conducted to ...

  19. Factors influencing immunisation coverage among children under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background This article explores the hypothesis that predisposing and enabling factors of households influence the vaccination status of the children under the age of five in Khartoum State, Sudan. Method The study was a cross-sectional survey among a representative sample of 410 male and female children under five ...

  20. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Entrepreneurship Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Entrepreneurship Among Women In Fishing Communities In Ondo State, Nigeria. ... The study found that overall entrepreneurial rating of the study group is low, essential input can not be easily gotten in the area, the respondents has large household size thereby had a large dependents ...

  1. Institutional Factors Influencing Crop Farmers Adoption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the institutional factors influencing adoption of recommended agrochemical practices (RAPs) among crop farmers in Nigeria. A total of 260 crop farmers who have sustained the use of agrochemicals for at least five years were selected for the study using multi-stage sampling technique. Data were ...

  2. Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigated factors influencing beneficiary participation in Fadama II project in Niger State. Three LGAs out of eleven LGAs that benefited in Fadama II project were randomly selected for the study. To this end, one Fadama Community Association (FCA) and five Fadama User Groups (FUGs) were randomly ...

  3. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  4. Information accessibility and utilizatoin as factors influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated information accessibility and utilization as factors influencing decision-making of managers in commercial banks in Nigeria. Single stage random sampling with equal allocation method was used to select 550 managers from the 66 licensed commercial banks. The study revealed that there was a ...

  5. Factors Influencing Information and Communication Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is a veritable tool for sustainable agricultural development in Nigeria. This paper analyzed the factors that influenced ICT use by women research scientists in the Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 40 respondents per ...

  6. Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to determine factors influencing adoption of cocoa technologies disseminated by Olam organization to cocoa farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected from thirty cocoa farmers (Olam's model farmers) through the use of structured interview schedule. Data were analyzed ...

  7. Psychosocial factors influencing attitude towards abortion among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the psychosocial factors capable of influencing abortion among university undergraduates in Nigeria. Two hundred (200) students consisted of 63(31.5%) males and 137(68.5%) females participated in the survey. The study adopted ex-post facto design. Their age ranged between 16 to 40 years with ...

  8. Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selected for the study. To this end, one Fadama Community Association (FCA) and five Fadama User. Groups (FUGs) ... factor that significantly influenced participation (P < 0.05) in Fadama II project in the study area. Keywords: Fadama II Project, ... the provision of marketing infrastructure, improving mechanism of conflict ...

  9. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall objective of this study was to determine factors influencing the knowledge and practice of Exclusive Breast Feeding1 (EBF) among lactating mothers with infants aged zero2 to six months at Ahero Sub District Hospital in Nyando District, Kenya. A cross- sectional design was conducted to 117 breastfeeding ...

  10. Factors influencing the use of Information Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the advent of information and communication technologies (ICT), college libraries struggle to maintain credibility in the provision of library materials for research, teaching and learning through the acceptance and use of information technology. This study therefore investigated the factors influencing the use of ICT by ...

  11. 122 Factors Influencing Information and Communication Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yemi Olojede

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is a veritable tool for sustainable agricultural development in Nigeria. This paper analyzed the factors that influenced. ICT use by women research scientists in the Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 40 respondents per ...

  12. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  13. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Ohene, Lilian Akorfa; Norman, Linda; Mireku, Michael Osei; Karikari, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals’ target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal. Methods ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review. Results Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence), family income (wealth/poverty) and high dependency (multiparousity). These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices. Conclusions Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother’s health knowledge is emphasised. PMID:26745277

  14. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  15. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  16. Risk factors for the occurrence of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Serbia is less than one per 100,000 citizens, which classifies it as a region with low incidence for this disease. Objective. The aim of this study was to test some hypotheses of the risk factors for undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT in the low incidence population. Methods. A case-control study was used for the research. The study included 45 cases with histopathological diagnosis of UCNT and 90 controls. Cases and the controls were individually matched by sex, age (±3 years, and place of residence (city-village. Data were gathered about sociodemographic characteristics, occupational exposure to harmful agents, habits, diet, personal history, and family history. In the analysis of the data, conditional univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied. Results. According to the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis UCNT was significantly positively associated with 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, frequent consumption of industrially manufactured food additives for enhancing flavour and frequent consumption of white bread. UCNT was significantly negatively associated with frequent consumption of margarine, olive oil and cornbread. Conclusion. In our low incidence population, an independent risk factor for the occurrence of UCNT was 'passive smoking' of tobacco in the family during childhood, use of industrially manufactured food with additives for enhancing flavour and consumption of white bread. Multicentric study enrolling a greater number of cases would be desirable.

  17. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilda Pečarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  18. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  19. Temporal occurrence of two morpho butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): influence of weather and food resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Geraldo; Nascimento, André Rangel; Malinov, Ivan Konstantinov; Diniz, Ivone R

    2014-04-01

    The seasonality of fruit-feeding butterflies is very well known. However, few studies have analyzed the influence of climatic variables and resource availability on the temporal distributions of butterflies. Morpho helenor achillides (C. Felder and R. Felder 1867) and Morpho menelaus coeruleus (Perry 1810) (Nymphalidae) were used as models to investigate the influences of climatic factors and food resources on the temporal distribution of these Morphinae butterflies. These butterflies were collected weekly from January 2005 to December 2006 in the Parque Nacional de Brasília (PNB). In total, 408 individuals were collected, including 274 of M. helenor and 134 of M. menelaus. The relative abundance of the two species was similar in 2005 (n = 220) and 2006 (n = 188). Of the variables considered, only the relative humidity and resource availability measured in terms of phenology of zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants explained a large proportion of the variation in the abundance of these butterflies. Both of the explanatory variables were positively associated with the total abundance of individuals and with the abundances of M. helenor and M. menelaus considered separately. The phenology of anemochorous fruits was negatively associated with butterfly abundance. The temporal distribution of the butterflies was better predicted by the phenology of the zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants than by the climatic predictors.

  20. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  1. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup.

  3. Factors that influence nurses' customer orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, D N; Daniel, K

    1999-09-01

    Hospital care mostly involves complex processes that are continuously adjusted to match individual client needs. As most patients cannot evaluate the technology used, they focus on personal interactions with care providers when making judgements about the care received. Nurses are the care team members that primarily provide ongoing care. This study aims to further understand factors that influence the way nursing staff relate to their patients. A model is presented of the contextual and self-perceptual factors that influence the level of customer/client orientation of nursing services in an Australian hospital setting along with details of a quantitative study. Nurses completed an anonymous questionnaire, which was then mailed directly to the researchers. Analysis of the data included factor analysis, regression and path analysis. The results show that contextual elements such as management commitment to service quality and self-perceptual factors such as role stress impact on the nurses' client service orientation. However, the variables being studied commonly have both direct and indirect effects with feelings about commitment to the organization having a notable mediating influence. The scales adapted from use in other industries are able to measure the perceptual and outcome variables in a health institutional setting. The managerial implications are that both a comprehensive programme of organizational culture and individual staff member development is needed if an enhanced customer orientation and the consequent improvement in client satisfaction with nursing care is to occur.

  4. The influence of soyfibre supplemented tube feeding on the occurrence of diarrhoea in postoperative patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruif, J T; Vos, A

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence of diarrhoea in postoperative patients on tube feeding, with or without soyfibre supplementation. The patients also received antibiotic treatment. 60 postoperative patients were assigned to either a fibre free formula diet (FFF) or a soyfibre supplemented formula diet

  5. Ranking different factors influencing flight delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Kazemi Asfe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flight interruption is one of the most important issues in today’s airline industry. Every year, most airlines spend significant amount of money to compensate flight delays. Therefore, it is important to detect important factors influencing on flight delays. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors on this issue. The study also asks some decision makers to make pairwise comparison and ranks various factors using the art of analytical hierarchy process. The study determines that technical defects and delayed entry were among the most important factors to blame for flight delays. In addition, announcing the postponement, replacement aircraft and path replacement are among the most important decisions facing managers in the aviation industry during the disruption of the flight.

  6. Factors that influence peripheral nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...... predictors. Thus, nerve gap distance and repair type exert their influence through time to muscle reinnervation. These findings emphasize that factors that control early axonal outgrowth influence the final level of recovery attained years later. They also highlight that a time window exists within which...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...

  7. Investigations on the Occurrence and Associated Risk Factors of Avian Coccidiosis in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shola David Ola-Fadunsin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of poultry mortalities worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and associated risk factors of avian coccidiosis in Osun State, Nigeria. Fecal samples were collected and examined from 5,544 avian species that were brought for treatment at the state veterinary hospitals over a 10-year period. Parameters such as age, sex, season, and species of birds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. Overall prevalence of 41.3% was recorded. The year specific rate for avian coccidiosis was highest in 2007 (97.9% and lowest in 2006 (0.4%, while the month-specific rate was highest in November (85.7% and lowest in July 2006 (13.3%. There was a significantly (P<0.05 higher prevalence in young birds compared to adults, in males compared to females, and during the wet season compared to the dry season. Broilers (99.8% and cockerels (81.0% were the bird types with the highest prevalence rate. The high prevalence of avian coccidiosis in the study area shows that the disease is endemic and there is need to embark on a radical preventive measure to curtail the disease.

  8. Investigations on the Occurrence and Associated Risk Factors of Avian Coccidiosis in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of poultry mortalities worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and associated risk factors of avian coccidiosis in Osun State, Nigeria. Fecal samples were collected and examined from 5,544 avian species that were brought for treatment at the state veterinary hospitals over a 10-year period. Parameters such as age, sex, season, and species of birds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. Overall prevalence of 41.3% was recorded. The year specific rate for avian coccidiosis was highest in 2007 (97.9%) and lowest in 2006 (0.4%), while the month-specific rate was highest in November (85.7%) and lowest in July 2006 (13.3%). There was a significantly (P coccidiosis in the study area shows that the disease is endemic and there is need to embark on a radical preventive measure to curtail the disease. PMID:29138693

  9. Factors Associated with the Occurrence of Distoclusion in the Primary Dentition: A Hierarchical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Martins, Renata Prestes; Maciel, Renata Rocha; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Kramer, Paulo Floriani

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the occurrence of distoclusion among preschool children in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1026 children aged two to five years enrolled at public preschools in the city of Canoas, Southern Brazil. Interviews were held with parents/caregivers to acquire demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral data. Six examiners who had undergone a training and calibration exercise performed the oral examinations. Distoclusion was recorded when the cusp of the maxillary canine was in an anterior relation to the distal surface of the mandibular canine during centric occlusion. Statistical analysis involved simple and multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. The prevalence of distoclusion was 36.5% (375/1026). This condition was more frequent in younger children, those classified as white or brown, those who were breastfed for a shorter period of time, those who used a pacifier and those who were bottle fed. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the likelihood of exhibiting distoclusion was greater among two-year-olds (P=0.038), three-year-olds (P=0.023), those classified as white (P=0.016), those who used a pacifier (Ppacifier (Ppacifier use could contribute toward reducing the prevalence of distoclusion and its consequences in preschool children.

  10. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  11. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, N Venkata Naga; Prasanna, P Muthu; Sakarkar, Suhas Narayan; Prabha, K Surya; Ramaiah, P Seetha; Srawan, G Y

    2010-05-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the quality preservation techniques of sensitive substances and a method for production of materials with new valuable properties. Microencapsulation is a process of enclosing micron-sized particles in a polymeric shell. There are different techniques available for the encapsulation of drug entities. The encapsulation efficiency of the microparticle or microsphere or microcapsule depends upon different factors like concentration of the polymer, solubility of polymer in solvent, rate of solvent removal, solubility of organic solvent in water, etc. The present article provides a literature review of different microencapsulation techniques and different factors influencing the encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulation technique.

  12. Psychological Factors Influencing Life Satisfaction of Undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, Olubukola; Adewumi, Bukunmi

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the psychological factors influencing life satisfaction of undergraduates. The instruments used were Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), Rosenberge Self-esteem Scale (RSS), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). A total number of 190 participants were purposively selected across various faculties in Ekiti State University. Four hypotheses were tested using Independent t-test to find the effects of perceived stres...

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    S ARMAN; M SOLTANI

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is design...

  14. Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ceccon,Eliane; Huante,Pilar; Rincón,Emanuel

    2006-01-01

    Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succes...

  15. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes; Sandra Adriana Neves Nunes; José Vasconcelos Raposo; Helder Miguel Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n6p705 The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i) investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence); and ii) investigate the effects of gen...

  16. Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceccon Eliane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.

  17. A Review of Factors Influencing Health Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Almaspoor Khanghah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : Inequity in health is a universal term which is used for showing current differences, variations and inequalities of people in accessing to health services. The current study aimed to assess the factors influencing health inequalities to present the results to the researchers and health care professionals. Material and Methods : In this review, several databases including PubMed, Proquest, Scopus, Google Scholar search engine, SID and IranDoc were searched within 2000-2014 period. We found 746 articles and refined them step by step according to the aim of the study by reviewing the titles, abstracts and full texts. Finally, 16 articles were selected for further study Results: In the present study, identified determinants in health inequalities were as follows: 1- Economic and income factors 2- Political factors, social and public policy 3- Cultural and social values 4- social and demographic factors 5- Behavioral, psychological and biological factors. Although, other factors like governmental, international, social cohesion, incidents and even the health system itself were involved in health inequalities, but the listed determinants were among the most important determinants in health inequalities in the conducted studies. Conclusion : Given the importance of people's health and inequalities in health, the approach should focus on reducing the inequalities in all policies and development programs and the role of these factors should be taken into consideration by managers and policy-makers

  18. Occurrence of risk factors for dental erosion in the population of young adults in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmyhr, Øyvind; Grytten, Jostein; Holst, Dorthe

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of risk factors for dental erosion for a group of young adults who are particularly susceptible to erosion. Another aim was to describe the awareness of erosion and distribution of risk factors according to the educational background of the parents. The sample (n = 2004 individuals) was randomly drawn from the population of 19-20-year-old Norwegians. The data were collected using telephone interviews. We measured awareness about erosion using the following question: 'Have you ever heard about dental erosion?' We obtained information about the frequency of intake of the following risk factors: soft drinks with and without sugar, and juice. Soft drinks with sugar included lemonade (Coca-Cola, Solo, Pepsi, Mozell and ice tea) and sport drinks (XL1, Maxim). Soft drinks without sugar included Cola light, Zero, PepsiMax, Solo light and ice tea light. Juice included orange, grapefruit, apple and kiwi juice. The parents' level of education was based on the Norwegian school system, which has three levels: compulsory schooling (10 years), upper secondary school education (up to 13 years) and university/college education. The data were analysed using logistic regressions analyses. Awareness of erosion was high - 93.5% of respondents were aware of the problem. The majority of respondents believed that erosion can be prevented - altogether 84.9%. They also believed that soft drinks with and without sugar are equally important for the development of erosion. 17.5% of respondents drank soft drinks with sugar daily or several times a day. The corresponding figures for soft drinks without sugar and juice were 4.9% and 34.1%, respectively. Young adults with mothers with high education drank soft drinks both with and without sugar less frequently than those who had mothers with low education. This pattern was the opposite for juice. Consumption of soft drinks and juice is high, even though awareness and knowledge about the causes

  19. [Factors influencing nurses' organizational citizenship behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junhee; Yun, Eunkyung; Han, Sangsook

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to identify the factors that influence nurses' organizational citizenship behavior. A cross-sectional design was used, with a convenience sample of 547 nurses from four university hospitals in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey done from September 22 to October 10, 2008. The tools used for this study were scales on organizational citizenship behavior (14 items), self-leadership (14 items), empowerment (10 items), organizational commitment (7 items), job satisfaction (8 items) and transformational.transactional leadership (14 items). Cronbach's alpha and factor analysis were examined to test reliability and construct validity of the scale. The data collected were processed using SPSS Window 15.0 Program for actual numbers and percentages, differences in the dependent variable according to general characteristics, and means, standard deviations, correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The factors influencing nurses' organizational citizenship behavior were identified as self-leadership(beta=.247), empowerment (beta=.233), job satisfaction (beta=.209), organizational commitment (beta=.158), and transactional leadership (beta=.142). Five factors explained 42.0% of nurses' organizational citizenship behavior. The results of this study can be used to develop further management strategies for enhancement of nurses' organizational citizenship behavior.

  20. CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Jozsef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.

  1. Influence of climate and geography on the occurrence of Legionella and amoebae in composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conza, Lisa; Casati Pagani, Simona; Gaia, Valeria

    2014-11-24

    The incidence of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in southern Switzerland is three times higher than in northern Switzerland. Climatic and geographic factors may be potential causes for this difference.We studied the prevalence of Legionella and free-living amoebae (FLA) in compost and bioaerosol in two Swiss regions to understand the role of climate and geography in the transmission of LD. We also tried to investigate whether or not compost storage duration would influence the composition of Legionella and FLA communities. A larger proportion of compost heaps in facilities from southern Switzerland harbor more diverse Legionella compared to the north (P=0.0146). FLA were isolated from composts in northern facilities at slightly higher rates (88.2% vs. 69.2%) and at lower rates from bioaerosols (6.3% vs. 13%) than in southern Switzerland. The diversity of FLA was higher in northern than in southern Switzerland (80% vs. 65%). A general decrease in the presence and variety of species was observed with decreasing compost storage time length. A discriminant model showed that values of vapour pressure, relative humidity and temperature distinguish the two regions, which were also characterised by different contamination rates by FLA and Legionella. The duration of outdoor storage may favour contamination of the compost by Legionella, and may increase the number and isolation of Legionella naturally occurring in compost. The climate in the south seems to favour higher Legionella contamination of compost heaps: this could explain the higher incidence of LD in southern Switzerland.

  2. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  3. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors associated with the occurrence of MRSA CC398 in herds of fattening pigs in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alt Katja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA in herds of fattening pigs in different regions of Germany, and to determine factors associated with the occurrence of this pathogen. For this purpose pooled dust samples were collected, and a questionnaire covered information regarding herd characteristics and management practices. Samples were pre-enriched in high-salt medium followed by selective enrichment containing cefoxitin/aztreonam, and culturing. Presumptive colonies were confirmed by multiplex-PCR targeting nuc-, mecA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Isolates were spa- and SCCmec-, and in selected cases, multilocus sequence-typed. Susceptibilities to 13 antimicrobials were determined by broth microdilution. Statistical analysis was carried out using backward stepwise logistic regression to calculate odds ratios with the MRSA test result as the outcome and herd characteristics as categorical covariates. Results Overall, 152 of 290 (52% fattening pig farms tested positive for MRSA. The prevalence in the east, north- and south-west of Germany ranged from 39 to 59%. t011 (66% and t034 (23% were the most commonly identified spa-types, and 85% of isolates carried SCCmec Type V. Identified spa-types were all associated with clonal complex CC398. Susceptibility testing revealed that all isolates were resistant to tetracycline. High resistance rates were also found for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (40%, and quinupristin/dalfopristin (32%. In addition, 83% of strains displayed multidrug resistant (> 3 substance classes phenotypes. Logistic regression revealed herd size (large farms OR: 5.4; CI: 2.7-11.2; p Conclusions MRSA CC398 is widely distributed among herds of fattening pigs in Germany. Farm management plays a crucial role in the dissemination of MRSA with herd size, and production type representing potential major indicators.

  5. Factors associated with the occurrence of MRSA CC398 in herds of fattening pigs in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Katja; Fetsch, Alexandra; Schroeter, Andreas; Guerra, Beatriz; Hammerl, Jens A; Hertwig, Stefan; Senkov, Natalja; Geinets, Anna; Mueller-Graf, Christine; Braeunig, Juliane; Kaesbohrer, Annemarie; Appel, Bernd; Hensel, Andreas; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois

    2011-11-10

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA in herds of fattening pigs in different regions of Germany, and to determine factors associated with the occurrence of this pathogen. For this purpose pooled dust samples were collected, and a questionnaire covered information regarding herd characteristics and management practices. Samples were pre-enriched in high-salt medium followed by selective enrichment containing cefoxitin/aztreonam, and culturing. Presumptive colonies were confirmed by multiplex-PCR targeting nuc-, mecA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Isolates were spa- and SCCmec-, and in selected cases, multilocus sequence-typed. Susceptibilities to 13 antimicrobials were determined by broth microdilution. Statistical analysis was carried out using backward stepwise logistic regression to calculate odds ratios with the MRSA test result as the outcome and herd characteristics as categorical covariates. Overall, 152 of 290 (52%) fattening pig farms tested positive for MRSA. The prevalence in the east, north- and south-west of Germany ranged from 39 to 59%.t011 (66%) and t034 (23%) were the most commonly identified spa-types, and 85% of isolates carried SCCmec Type V. Identified spa-types were all associated with clonal complex CC398. Susceptibility testing revealed that all isolates were resistant to tetracycline. High resistance rates were also found for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (40%), and quinupristin/dalfopristin (32%). In addition, 83% of strains displayed multidrug resistant (> 3 substance classes) phenotypes.Logistic regression revealed herd size (large farms OR: 5.4; CI: 2.7-11.2; p pig operations. MRSA CC398 is widely distributed among herds of fattening pigs in Germany. Farm management plays a crucial role in the dissemination of MRSA with herd size, and production type representing potential major indicators.

  6. Factors influencing thermal tolerances of individual organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, V.H.

    1976-01-01

    The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms

  7. Environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present an overview of recent findings on the environmental and behavioral factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis. The authors primarily concentrated on deliberations of possibile main causes of the damage of the endothelium. At the same time the following pathogenic mechanisms as cellular dysfunction, inflammation and coagulation disorders have been enumerated. The links between the state of the vascular endothelium and life style have been emphasized. It is also important to note that the primary causes of the endothelial damage should be traced as originally suggested many years ago viewing such factors as anger, hostility, aggression, impulsiveness and depression but with a new approach. The authors supplement the comments, on the environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis, with basic data on family predisposition to the development of this disease. They highlight that current genetic research have not determined genes responsible for atheroscelosis. According to the authors the considerations and conclusions presented in this overview are important for the educational purposes related to the most frequent disease process resulting in many diseases in medical disciplines.

  8. [New nurse turnover intention and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Sook; Sohn, In Soon; Kim, Nam Eun

    2009-12-01

    The study was done to identify turnover intention in new nurses according to characteristics of the nurses and other factors affecting turnover and to provide data to set up a strategy to reduce the turnover. Data were collected from 1,077 new nurses who had less than 12 months employment experience and worked in one of 188 hospitals. Eight research instruments were used. Data analysis was done using SPSS WIN 15.0 program. Several factors influence new nurse turnover intention. The average score for turnover intention was 2.12. The scores for subscales were self efficacy, 3.76, nursing performance, 3.90, job satisfaction, 2.09, organization commitment, 1.28, stress, 1.32, burnout, 2.82 and nursing organizational culture, 3.29. Turnover intention was related to self efficacy, nursing performance, job satisfaction, organization commitment, stress, burnout, nursing organizational culture, duration of in-class training, duration of on the job training, number of hospital beds, length of employment and duration of employment in current workplace. The predicting factors for turnover intention were burnout, stress, duration of employment in the current workplace, self efficacy and nursing performance. Those factors explained 51.6% of turnover intention. New nurse turnover intention can be reduced by mitigating the factors affecting this intention.

  9. Role of environmental, climatic risk factors and livestock animals on the occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in newly emerging focus in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatee, Mohammad Amin; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Kooreshnia, Fatemeh; Kanannejad, Zahra; Parisaie, Zafar; Karamian, Mehdi; Moshfe, Abdolali

    2017-12-26

    Occurrence of leishmaniasis is affected by various biological and environmental factors. Kohgiluye and Boyerahmad (K-B) province is an emerging focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Southwest Iran. To elucidate some angles of occurrence of CL in this province, climatic and environmental factors and close proximity to livestock were studied by univariate and two multivariate logistic regression models. The dwelling addresses of 275 CL patients were obtained from Health Centers records for a 5 years period. The effect of mean annual temperature, minimum mean annual temperature, maximum mean annual temperature, mean annual rainfall, slope, elevation, land covers and close proximity to cattle and sheep/goat sheds on the occurrence of CL were analysed using geographical information systems (GIS) approach. CL occurred in all counties with the most cases in Northwest, West and South semi-arid and warm regions. Land cover, slope, elevation and close proximity to cattle sheds, were the most effective factors. Urban, dry farm and thin rangeland were found as the most important land covers. Slope and elevation decreased the probability of disease. Close proximity to cattle sheds notably increased the chance of CL. The importance of other factors such as rainfall, temperature and close proximity to sheep/goat sheds only were shown when their effects were evaluated independently from other factors. So regions with urban, dry farm and thin rangeland covers with lower slope and altitude where in close proximity of cattle sheds seems to be potentially most high risk areas. Distribution of CL cases is influenced by combination of environmental, ecological factors and close proximity to livestock sheds but control programs should be focused on cities and villages in the above-mentioned most high risk regions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevaccination epidemiology of herpes zoster in Denmark: Quantification of occurrence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sigrun A J; Vestergaard, Mogens; Baggesen, Lisbeth M; Pedersen, Lars; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2017-10-09

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a vaccine-preventable disease caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus. Unfortunately, formulation of recommendations on routine immunization is hampered by a lack of data on disease burden, since most countries do not record cases of HZ in the general population. We developed and validated an algorithm to identify HZ based on routinely collected registry data and used it to quantify HZ occurrence and risk factors in Denmark prior to marketing of the HZ vaccine. We included patients aged ≥40years with a first-time systemic Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, or Famciclovir prescription or a hospital-based HZ diagnosis in the Danish nationwide health registries during 1997-2013. In a validation substudy (n=176), we computed the proportion of persons with HZ among patients who redeemed antiviral prescriptions. In a cohort study, we computed age-specific rates of HZ (45,297,258 person-years). In a case-control study, we then computed odds ratios (ORs) for common chronic diseases and immunosuppressive factors among HZ cases (n=189,025) vs. matched population controls (n=945,111). Medical record review confirmed HZ in 87% (95% confidence interval: 79-93%) of persons ≥40years who dispensed antivirals at doses recommended for HZ. HZ rates increased from 2.15/1000 person-years in 40-year-olds to 9.45/1000 person-years in 95-year-olds. Rates were highest in women. HZ was diagnosed during hospitalization among 3.5%. As expected, persons with severe immunosuppressive conditions had the highest ORs of HZ (between 1.82 and 4.12), but various autoimmune diseases, asthma, chronic kidney disease, and inhaled glucocorticoids were also associated with increased ORs (between 1.06 and 1.64). This algorithm is a valid tool for identifying HZ in routine healthcare data. It shows that HZ is common in Denmark, especially in patients with certain chronic conditions. Prioritized vaccination of such high-risk patients might be an option in countries considering

  11. [Factors influenceing the activity of oral anticoagulants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Caamaño, A; Díaz Barreiro, L A

    1976-01-01

    Anticoagulants are drugs capable to retard or even cancell the process of blood coagulation. They are many factors who influences the intensity and duration of oral anticoagulant acitivity, such as drugs, body constitution, physical agents, diseases, etc. The oral anticoagulants interacts with other drugs at differents levels: at the gut, at the plasma, modiffing the protein binding or the metabolism of such drugs, at the enzimatic induction or inhibition, or at unknown places with many other drugs. These paper deals with the description of such interactions.

  12. A survey on factors influencing city branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.

  13. Extensive occurrence and genesis of authigenic carbonates from Krishna-Godavari offshore basin (Bay of Bengal): Possible influence of methane hydrates occurrences.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kocherla, M.; Pillai, S.; Patil, D.J.

    We report here the extensive occurrences of authigenic carbonate nodules/concretions from gas hydrate bearing sediments. Bulk mineralogical compositions by X-Ray diffractometry and EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrum) analysis revealed...

  14. Automation bias: empirical results assessing influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Kate; Roudsari, Abdul; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the rate of automation bias - the propensity of people to over rely on automated advice and the factors associated with it. Tested factors were attitudinal - trust and confidence, non-attitudinal - decision support experience and clinical experience, and environmental - task difficulty. The paradigm of simulated decision support advice within a prescribing context was used. The study employed within participant before-after design, whereby 26 UK NHS General Practitioners were shown 20 hypothetical prescribing scenarios with prevalidated correct and incorrect answers - advice was incorrect in 6 scenarios. They were asked to prescribe for each case, followed by being shown simulated advice. Participants were then asked whether they wished to change their prescription, and the post-advice prescription was recorded. Rate of overall decision switching was captured. Automation bias was measured by negative consultations - correct to incorrect prescription switching. Participants changed prescriptions in 22.5% of scenarios. The pre-advice accuracy rate of the clinicians was 50.38%, which improved to 58.27% post-advice. The CDSS improved the decision accuracy in 13.1% of prescribing cases. The rate of automation bias, as measured by decision switches from correct pre-advice, to incorrect post-advice was 5.2% of all cases - a net improvement of 8%. More immediate factors such as trust in the specific CDSS, decision confidence, and task difficulty influenced rate of decision switching. Lower clinical experience was associated with more decision switching. Age, DSS experience and trust in CDSS generally were not significantly associated with decision switching. This study adds to the literature surrounding automation bias in terms of its potential frequency and influencing factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of demagnetizing factors in the occurrence of vortex avalanches in Nb thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colauto, F; Ortiz, W A [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, C P 676, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Patino, E J; Aprilli, M, E-mail: fcolauto@df.ufscar.b [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud, C.N.R.S., 91405 Orsay cedex (France)

    2009-03-01

    Under specific circumstances, magnetic flux penetrates into superconducting thin films as dendritic flux jumps. The phenomenon has a thermomagnetic origin, where flux motion generates heat that suppresses flux pining and facilitates further flux motion. We have studied the thickness influence on the flux stability for very thin Nb films, 20, 40, 60, and 80 nm, through dc-magnetometry. The thicker the film; the higher is the threshold field where instabilities first take place. Due to the demagnetizing factor in a perpendicular geometry, the effective magnetic field at the border of the film is largely amplified. For thin specimens, a linear dependence between the threshold field and the thickness is expected and has been actually observed. When normalized by the sample aspect ratio, the effective threshold magnetic field is nearly the same for all specimens studied.

  16. Patch size, functional isolation, visibility and matrix permeability influences neotropical primate occurrence within highly fragmented landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Goulart da Silva

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are among the major current extinction causes. Remaining fragments are mostly small, isolated and showing poor quality. Being primarily arboreal, Neotropical primates are generally sensitive to fragmentation effects. Furthermore, primates are involved in complex ecological process. Thus, landscape changes that negatively interfere with primate population dynamic affect the structure, composition, and ultimately the viability of the whole community. We evaluated if fragment size, isolation and visibility and matrix permeability are important for explaining the occurrence of three Neotropical primate species. Employing playback, we verified the presence of Callicebus nigrifrons, Callithrix aurita and Sapajus nigritus at 45 forest fragments around the municipality of Alfenas, Brazil. We classified the landscape and evaluated the metrics through predictive models of occurrence. We selected the best models through Akaike Selection Criterion. Aiming at validating our results, we applied the plausible models to another region (20 fragments at the neighboring municipality of Poço Fundo, Brazil. Twelve models were plausible, and three were validated, two for Sapajus nigritus (Area and Area+Visibility and one for Callicebus nigrifrons (Area+Matrix. Our results reinforce the contribution of fragment size to maintain biodiversity within highly degraded habitats. At the same time, they stress the importance of including novel, biologically relevant metrics in landscape studies, such as visibility and matrix permeability, which can provide invaluable help for similar studies in the future and on conservation practices in the long run.

  17. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  18. Factors that influence nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen-Chung; Samuels, Michael E; Alexander, Judith W

    2003-05-01

    To examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of registered nurses (RNs). A growing recognition of job dissatisfaction among RNs in South Carolina hospitals has contributed to current problems with recruitment and retention. If administrators identify factors influencing RNs' job satisfaction in hospitals and implement strategies to address these factors, RN turnover rates will decrease and recruiting and retention rates will increase. A cross-sectional study of secondary data was designed to identify the individual, work, and geographic factors that impact nursing job satisfaction at the state level. A 27-question self-administered survey was sent to 17,500 RNs in South Carolina with postage-paid envelopes for their responses. Surveys from 3472 nurses were completed anonymously. Univariate statistics were used to describe the study sample. One-way and multivariable Analysis of Variance were used to determine which variables contributed the most to job satisfaction. For about two thirds of the RNs, job satisfaction remained the same or had lessened over the past 2 years. In addition, statistically significant differences were found between job satisfaction and years of service, job position, hospital retirement plan, and geographic area. The findings have implications for nurse managers and hospital administrators for planning and implementing effective health policies that will meet the unique needs of their staffs and organizations. Such research is particularly relevant in this difficult time of nursing shortages throughout the healthcare industry.

  19. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods.Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance.Study design: Population based cross - sectional study.Setting: Rural area of East DelhiParticipants: Married women in the reproductive age group.Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample.Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group.Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child.Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptivesStatistical Analysis: By proportions.Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception.Recommendations:(i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention.(ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  20. Surgical factors influencing mesiodistal implant angulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Michael; Kirmeier, Robert; Jakse, Norbert; Pertl, Christof; Wegscheider, Walther; Lorenzoni, Martin

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to identify relevant surgical parameters influencing the mesiodistal angular deviation of dental implants. Pilot drillings of 2 mm diameter were performed in bovine ribs with a parallelometer. The subsequent preparation of the implant socket was performed freehand. Utilizing six different implant systems, at least 80 drillings per system of different diameters were performed. The pilot drillings were marked with 2 mm steel pins and cephalometric radiographs were taken. The mesiodistal angle between the longitudinal implant axis and the marked pilot drillings was measured and evaluated by a blinded investigator. To evaluate the influence of the surgeons' experience, their drillings were compared with those of a group of unexperienced surgeons. Additionally, the influence of drilling speed and size of bur steps on drilling accuracy were evaluated. The difference between the lowest value of 0.91 degrees of mesiodistal angular deviation found for 3i implants and the highest of 1.36 degrees for Ankylos implants was of low statistical significance (P=0.065). Drillings of experienced surgeons showed less deviation compared with those of a beginners group (P<0.0001). Higher deviations were measured when a bur size was skipped. Drillings performed at high speed showed significantly higher deviations than those with fewer rewinds per minute. In order to achieve precise implant angulation, all bur diameters available should be used. Utilizing low drilling speeds results in less mesiodistal deviation. The surgeon's experience seems to be the most relevant factor in precise implant placement.

  1. The effects of meteorological factors on the occurrence of Ganoderma sp. spores in the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2011-03-01

    Ganoderma sp. is an airborne fungal spore type known to trigger respiratory allergy symptoms in sensitive patients. Aiming to reduce the risk for allergic individuals, we analysed fungal spore circulation in Szczecin, Poland, and its dependence on meteorological conditions. Statistical models for the airborne spore concentrations of Ganoderma sp.—one of the most abundant fungal taxa in the area—were developed. Aerobiological sampling was conducted over 2004-2008 using a volumetric Lanzoni trap. Simultaneously, the following meteorological parameters were recorded: daily level of precipitation, maximum and average wind speed, relative humidity and maximum, minimum, average and dew point temperatures. These data were used as the explaining variables. Due to the non-linearity and non-normality of the data set, the applied modelling techniques were artificial neural networks (ANN) and mutlivariate regression trees (MRT). The obtained classification and MRT models predicted threshold conditions above which Ganoderma sp. appeared in the air. It turned out that dew point temperature was the main factor influencing the presence or absence of Ganoderma sp. spores. Further analysis of spore seasons revealed that the airborne fungal spore concentration depended only slightly on meteorological factors.

  2. Building defects in Danish construction: project characteristics influencing the occurrence of defects at handover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Casper Siebken; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Bonke, Sten

    2015-01-01

    characteristics are the planning of budgetary conditions, time schedules and early, continuous quality control. Furthermore, this study also indicates collaboration between stakeholders plus skills and safety initiatives as having a positive influence on the performance measured as defects at handover....

  3. Gestational diabetes mellitus: risk factors development, occurrence, diagnostics and treatment (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostenko I.V.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes is defined as a violation of carbohydrate metabolism resulting in hyperglycemia of varying severity, firstly revealed or developed during the pregnancy. The article presents current data on the occurrence, etiology and pathogenesis of gestational diabetes, as well as methods for screening and diagnostics of disorders of carbohydrate metabolism during pregnancy. It explains the basic principles of diet therapy

  4. A multivariate decision tree analysis of biophysical factors in tropical forest fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey S. Ofren; Edward Harvey

    2000-01-01

    A multivariate decision tree model was used to quantify the relative importance of complex hierarchical relationships between biophysical variables and the occurrence of tropical forest fires. The study site is the Huai Kha Kbaeng wildlife sanctuary, a World Heritage Site in northwestern Thailand where annual fires are common and particularly destructive. Thematic...

  5. Factors influencing wood mobilization in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Eric; Finlay, Jacques; Johnson, Lucinda; Newman, Raymond; Stefan, Heinz; Vondracek, Bruce

    2010-10-01

    Natural pieces of wood provide a variety of ecosystem functions in streams including habitat, organic matter retention, increased hyporheic exchange and transient storage, and enhanced hydraulic and geomorphic heterogeneity. Wood mobilization is a critical process in determining the residence time of wood. We documented the characteristics and locations of 865 natural wood pieces (>0.05 m in diameter for a portion >1 m in length) in nine streams along the north shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. We determined the locations of the pieces again after an overbank stormflow event to determine the factors that influenced mobilization of stationary wood pieces in natural streams. Seven of 11 potential predictor variables were identified with multiple logistic regression as significant to mobilization: burial, effective depth, ratio of piece length to effective stream width (length ratio), bracing, rootwad presence, downstream force ratio, and draft ratio. The final model (P r2 = 0.39) indicated that wood mobilization under natural conditions is a complex function of both mechanical factors (burial, length ratio, bracing, rootwad presence, draft ratio) and hydraulic factors (effective depth, downstream force ratio). If stable pieces are a goal for stream management then features such as partial burial, low effective depth, high length relative to channel width, bracing against other objects (e.g., stream banks, trees, rocks, or larger wood pieces), and rootwads are desirable. Using the model equation from this study, stewards of natural resources can better manage in-stream wood for the benefit of stream ecosystems.

  6. FACTORS INFLUENCING FOOD NEOPHOBIA. A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOICA Maricica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the number of new food products has increased considerably. Nevertheless, not all new food products are accepted and understood by consumers, the innovations in the food sector are often not well received by the market, partly due to a phenomenon known as food neophobia. Food neophobia, a general aversion to try new or unfamiliar foods, has a major impact on preferences, selection and food product acceptability. The neophobic consumers tend to display negative attitudes and less pleasure in relation to new food products. Food neophobia is based on three main reasons for rejection of a food, such as: dislike of its sensory characteristics, fear of negative consequences of eating it, and disgust arising from the idea of the food’s nature or origin. Phobia towards the introduction of unfamiliar foods in the diet can occur for several different factors, such as: socio-demographic characteristics, education level and lifestyle, degree of urbanization, income level, arousal, personal experiences, advertising, fashion, advices of other persons, and habits. This review paper was designed to provide up-to-date relevant information on factors influencing food neophobia, like social factors, type of new food, education, and arousal. The scientific information presented here could help food scientists in new food development, and food companies to develop the best marketing strategies that lead to a general decrease in neophobic consumers’ behaviour. The application of appropriate marketing strategies may allow the product to reach a competitive advantage and be successful.

  7. Factors influencing wood mobilization in Minnesota streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Eric; Finlay, Jacques; Johnson, Lucinda; Newman, Raymond; Stefan, Heinz; Vondracek, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    Natural pieces of wood provide a variety of ecosystem functions in streams including habitat, organic matter retention, increased hyporheic exchange and transient storage, and enhanced hydraulic and geomorphic heterogeneity. Wood mobilization is a critical process in determining the residence time of wood. We documented the characteristics and locations of 865 natural wood pieces (>0.05 m in diameter for a portion >1 m in length) in nine streams along the north shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. We determined the locations of the pieces again after an overbank stormflow event to determine the factors that influenced mobilization of stationary wood pieces in natural streams. Seven of 11 potential predictor variables were identified with multiple logistic regression as significant to mobilization: burial, effective depth, ratio of piece length to effective stream width (length ratio), bracing, rootwad presence, downstream force ratio, and draft ratio. The final model (P< 0.001, r2 = 0.39) indicated that wood mobilization under natural conditions is a complex function of both mechanical factors (burial, length ratio, bracing, rootwad presence, draft ratio) and hydraulic factors (effective depth, downstream force ratio). If stable pieces are a goal for stream management then features such as partial burial, low effective depth, high length relative to channel width, bracing against other objects (e.g., stream banks, trees, rocks, or larger wood pieces), and rootwads are desirable. Using the model equation from this study, stewards of natural resources can better manage in-stream wood for the benefit of stream ecosystems.

  8. Evaluation of Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Sypniewska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term “job satisfaction” is derived from the humanities, psychology and sociology. In the field of psychology, it is a state where an employee has an emotional perception of his situation and reacts with feelings of pleasure or pain. In sociology, it is considered a variable in different categories related to how each employee evaluates and thinks about his work. Job satisfaction is closely related to the performance and quality of work performed by an employee and, consequently, translates into the success of an organization, because a satisfied employee builds and participates in the success of any organization. This article presents the results of the research conducted by the author in 2012 on a sample of 215 people. Respondents represented different organizations. The aim of the study was to identify and assess the significance of individual factors influencing satisfaction and dissatisfaction with work and demonstrate their impact on the overall assessment of job satisfaction. The study showed that between the weight attributed to individual factors and overall job satisfaction there are many statistically significant correlations referring mainly to selected on the basis of analysis respondents’ groups. The study confirms the raised thesis concerning the validity of research in the factors affecting the general feeling of satisfaction by the employees.

  9. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing large African herbivore movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour

  10. Influence of abusive vocal habits, hydration, mastication, and sleep in the occurrence of vocal symptoms in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Leslie Piccolotto; de Oliveira Latorre, Maria do Rosario Dias; Pinto Giannini, Susana Pimentel; de Assis Moura Ghirardi, Ana Carolina; de Fraga e Karmann, Delmira; Silva, Eliana Egerland; Figueira, Silmara

    2010-01-01

    Some vocal disorders in teachers are associated with occupational factors, but there are few studies that analyze the influence of vocal habits, fluid intake, mastication, and sleep on these disorders. The objective was to analyze the occurrence of vocal fatigue, hoarseness, and dry throat in elementary and high school teachers and their association with vocal habits, fluid intake, mastication, and sleep. A sample of 422 elementary and secondary school teachers was studied using a specific questionnaire. The multiple regression analysis showed that hoarseness was associated with absence of water intake (odds ratio (OR)=1.7; P=0.047), yelling/speaking loudly (OR=1.6; P=0.058), jaw-opening limitations (OR=3.8; P=0.003), average of 6 hours of sleep/night (OR=1.7; P=0.039), and waking-up feeling replenished (OR=2.0; P=0.020). The presence of vocal fatigue was significantly associated with yelling/speaking loudly (OR=2.2; P=0.013), speaking excessively (OR=2.4; P=0.023), difficulty to open the mouth to masticate (OR=6.6; P=0.003), less than 6 hours of sleep (OR=4.0; P=0.008), and waking-up feeling replenished (sometimes OR=2.8; P=0.003; or never OR=3.3; P=0.002). The presence of dry throat was associated with being a former smoker (OR=3.3; P=0.011) and having jaw-opening limitations (OR=3.9; P=0.021). In recent years, speech and hearing interventions with teachers have focused on health-care promotion actions and prevention of vocal disorders, prioritizing issues related with hydration and healthy vocal use habits. However, the findings in the present study show the need to further focus on lifestyle habits related to sleep and eating habits. Copyright 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The distribution and co-occurrence of physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders in a general working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausto, Johanna; Miranda, Helena; Pehkonen, Irmeli; Heliövaara, Markku; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2011-10-01

    There is growing evidence that physical and psychosocial exposures at work increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution and co-occurrence of these risk factors in the working population. We used data from the Health 2000 survey carried out in Finland in 2000-2001. The sample of our study consisted of 2,491 men and 2,613 women who had been actively working during the year preceding the survey. Logistic regression and exploratory factor analysis were used to analyze the co-occurrence of the work-related risk factors. Exposure to high physical work load and several co-occurring work load factors was more prevalent among men than women. In women, as opposed to men, the highest exposure to most physical work load factors was found in their later work life. Gender and age showed weak associations with psychosocial work load factors. Low socioeconomic position, in both genders, was related to an increased risk of being exposed to several co-occurring physical or psychosocial factors. Physical exposures most frequently co-occurred with high job demands and low job control in men. Among women, physical exposures were found to co-occur with high job demands, low job control and job insecurity. This study provides novel information on the occupational exposures in general working population. It appears that co-occurrence of physical and psychosocial exposures should be considered in research and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. In addition, a broader set of occupational factors, e.g., work organization, are suggested to be included in future studies to cover all the relevant determinants.

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S ARMAN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

  13. Factors that influence peripheral nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    Regeneration in the peripheral nervous system is often incomplete though it is uncertain which factors, such as the type and extent of the injury or the method or timing of repair, determine the degree of functional recovery. Serial electrophysiological techniques were used to follow recovery from...... median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...

  14. Factors influencing career choice in anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student′s stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky′s 13-point sense of coherence scale. Methods: Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky′s sense of coherence (SOC scale. Results: Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%, while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor−patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55 (25 th percentile was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60 in the survey. Conclusion: Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student′s personality.

  15. The influence of forest cover on landslide occurrence explored with spatio-temporal information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaltz, Elmar M.; Steger, Stefan; Glade, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Multi-temporal landslide inventories in widely forested landscapes are scarce and further studies are required to face the challenges of producing reliable inventories in woodland areas. An elaboration of valuable empirical relationships between shallow landslides and forest cover based on recent remote sensing data alone is often hampered due to constant land cover changes, differing ages of landslides within a landslide inventory and the fact that usage of different data sets for mapping might lead to various systematic mapping biases. Within this study, we attempted to overcome these difficulties in order to explore the effect of forest cover on shallow landslide occurrences. Thus, forest dynamics were examined on the basis of 9 orthophoto series from 1950s to 2015, distinguishing 3 forest classes, based on the wood type. These classes were furthermore distinguished in 12 subclasses, considering stand density and age. A multi-temporal landslide inventory was compiled for the same period based on the aerial photography, 2 airborne LiDAR imageries, 8 field surveys and archive data. We derived topographical parameters (slope, topographical positioning index and convergency index) from the digital elevation model for areal correction and accounting for topographical confounders within a logistic regression model. Empirical relationships were assessed by means of (a) areal changes of forests and logged areas, (b) spatio-temporal distribution of shallow translational landslides, (c) frequency ratios and (d) logistic regression analysis. The findings revealed that forests increased by 16.2% from 1950s to 2015. 311 landslides of 351 in total that where mapped in total could be assigned to the observed time series and were considered for our analyses. Frequency ratios and odds ratios indicated a stabilising effect of all forest classes on landslide occurrences. Odds ratios observed for the models based on aggregated data sets (3 forest classes) indicated provided

  16. Factors influencing degradation of pesticides in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Melanie; Beulke, Sabine; Brown, Colin D

    2007-05-30

    Degradation and sorption of six acidic pesticides (2,4-D, dicamba, fluroxypyr, fluazifop-P, metsulfuron-methyl, and flupyrsulfuron-methyl) and four basic pesticides (metribuzin, terbutryn, pirimicarb, and fenpropimorph) were determined in nine temperate soils. Results were submitted to statistical analyses against a wide range of soil and pesticide properties to (i) identify any commonalities in factors influencing rate of degradation and (ii) determine whether there was any link between sorption and degradation processes for the compounds and soils studied. There were some marked differences between the soils in their ability to degrade the different pesticides. The parameters selected to explain variations in degradation rates depended on the soil-pesticide combination. The lack of consistent behavior renders a global approach to prediction of degradation unrealistic. The soil organic carbon content generally had a positive influence on degradation. The relationship between pH and degradation rates depended on the dominant mode of degradation for each pesticide. There were positive relationships between sorption and rate of degradation for metsulfuron-methyl, pirimicarb, and all acidic pesticides considered together (all P pesticides.

  17. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  18. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-09-01

    The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to

  19. Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Sargent, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes

  20. Factors influencing choice of oral hygiene products by dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several factors, such as cost, branding, packaging and family influence, had been implicated as influencing the choice of toothpastes and toothbrushes by individuals. Media advertisement is also considered a very strong factor influencing consumer's choice. Aim: To assess the extent to which some factors ...

  1. Temperature factors effect on occurrence of stress corrosion cracking of main gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, M. N.; Akhmetov, R. R.; Krainov, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the article is to analyze and compare the data in order to contribute to the formation of an objective opinion on the issue of the growth of stress corrosion defects of the main gas pipeline. According to available data, a histogram of the dependence of defects due to stress corrosion on the distance from the compressor station was constructed, and graphs of the dependence of the accident density due to stress corrosion in the winter and summer were also plotted. Data on activation energy were collected and analyzed in which occurrence of stress corrosion is most likely constructed, a plot of activation energy versus temperature is plotted, and the process of occurrence of stress corrosion by the example of two different grades of steels under the action of different temperatures was analyzed.

  2. Influence of Sociodemographic Factors on Job Burnout and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Job dissatisfaction and burn out are not an uncommon occurrences among hospital workers. The two phenomena may be related to each other and to demographic variables. Aim: The present investigation was planned to determine the influence of job burnout, sex, age and marital status on job satisfaction ...

  3. Factors related to the occurrence of precocious menarche in female primary school students in Makassar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renjani, Rizky Swastika; Mappaware, Nasrudin A.; Nontji, Werna; Marniati

    2017-09-01

    Precocious menarche currently affects 1 in 5000 girls and likely to occur as many as 10 times and possess greater risk to the emergence of cancer in women. The aim of this research is to determine the relationship of nutrition status and lipid profile with precocious menarche occurrence onstudents of primary school in Makassar city. The design of this research was cross sectional design. The samples werethe students of grades IV, V and VI who have already menarche occurrence as many as 20 studentscollected with purposive sampling. The data were analyzed with Mann Whitney U test. The results indicate that there are 17 students (85%) do not undergoprecocious menarche, normal nutrition status is 11 persons (55%), normal cholesterol levelis 12 persons (60%), and level of normal LDL = 19 persons (95%). While the respondents who undergo precocious menarche is 3 persons (15%), fat nutrition status is 9 persons (45%), cautious cholesterol level is 8 persons (40%) and cautious LDL level is 1 person (5%). Based on Mann Whitney U test, there is relationship between nutrition status and precocious menarche occurrence (p = 0.043) and there is correlation of total cholesterol and LDLcholesterollevelswith precocious menarche (p = 0.025) and (p = 0.017). The decrease of knowledge about health of reproduction can be promoted in school by making cooperation with nutritionist to give information to parents and students of primary schools about good and healthy food.

  4. Factors Influencing Teamwork in Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijal Michał

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse different views on interpersonal relations and team composition among managers and medical professionals with respect to the transition of professional roles in healthcare in Poland. To achieve that goal, a description based on a quantitative and qualitative questionnaire was conducted. Since the questionnaire covered various areas of health care, only its small fraction was used for the analysis. The main result is that most of the medical professionals and medical managers consider technology to be the single most important external factor influencing the team work efficiency and team composition in health care, and the managers consider skillset as the crucial factor determining whether a person would be a good team member. Based on the literature on professional roles in health care and their evolution in recent years, one can assume that constant development and lifelong learning would play a significant role in the healthcare systems reform. The findings are an important contribution to the discussion of the healthcare reform and its possible directions in future years as well a reference point for policy makers.

  5. Factors influencing performance within startup assistance organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceaușu Ioana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Startup assistance organizations, and especially business accelerators have gained a lot of traction in the last years, captioning not only the attention of the public, but most importantly that of investors and other stakeholders. It has become a challenge for many all around the world to develop such programs, but many have failed or did not have their expected results, meaning medium to long-term sustainable and profitable alumni start-ups. As high amounts of resources, both human and financial, are being invested in the design and development of such programs, it is important to understand what sets apart the successful business acceleration programs from the ones that fail. The current paper is reviewing the up-to-date theoretical literature and studies on the matter at hand, in order to identify the most relevant factors influencing startup assistance organizations’ performance. The objective behind identifying these factors is to get a better understanding of best practices of such successful programs and set the basis for future research regarding the development of a set of metrics for more accurately measuring their performance.

  6. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  7. Factors Influencing Students’ Perceptions of Online Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falls

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.

  8. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Gimeno Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  9. Influence of satellite-derived rainfall patterns on plague occurrence in northeast Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimaro Didas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the tropics, rainfall data are seldom accurately recorded, and are often discontinuous in time. In the scope of plague-research in northeast Tanzania, we adapted previous research to reconstruct rainfall patterns at a suitable resolution (1 km, based on time series of NDVI: more accurate satellite imagery was used, in the form of MODIS NDVI, and rainfall data were collected from the TRMM sensors instead of in situ data. First, we established a significant relationship between monthly rainfall and monthly composited MODIS NDVI. The established linear relationship was then used to reconstruct historic precipitation patterns over a mountainous area in northeastern Tanzania. Results We validated the resulting precipitation estimates with in situ rainfall time series of three meteorological stations located in the study area. Taking the region's topography into account, a correlation coefficient of 0.66 was obtained for two of the three meteorological stations. Our results suggest that the adapted strategy can be applied fruitfully to estimate rainfall variability and seasonality, despite the underestimation of overall rainfall rates. Based on this model, rainfall in previous years (1986 is modelled to obtain a dataset with which we can compare plague occurrence in the area. A positive correlation of 82% is obtained between high rainfall rates and plague incidence with a two month lag between rainfall and plague cases. Conclusions We conclude that the obtained results are satisfactory in support of the human plague research in which this study is embedded, and that this approach can be applied in other studies with similar goals.

  10. Factors influencing induction of adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misonoh, Jun; Ojima, Mitsuaki; Yonezawa, Morio

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)

  11. Identifying factors linked to the occurrence of alien gastropods in isolated woodland water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyra, Aneta; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    Biological invasions are a significant component of human-caused global change and is widely regarded as one of the main threats to natural biodiversity. Isolated anthropogenic water bodies created in the areas that are deprived of natural freshwater habitats allow the survival and reproduction of alien species on newly settled sites. They are often small with water level fluctuations causing frequent environmental disturbances. The colonisation success may be the result of the rate of their degradation. The aims of the study were to determine the environmental conditions that affect the existence of alien species of gastropods in this type of aquatic environment and to examine whether the occurrence of non-native species affects the community structure of the native species. This study made it possible to group woodland ponds according to the occurrence of the three invasive species in snail communities and discuss the environmental conditions present in these pond types. Analysis of water properties emphasised the distinctiveness of the selected pond types. In ponds of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum type, we found the highest values of some parameters mainly hardness, conductivity, and content of calcium and chlorides, in contrast with the Physella acuta type, which were characterised by the lowest values except for phosphates and nitrites. In the Ferrissia fragilis type, we found the highest nitrate content. Data on the occurrence of alien species in different water environments play an important role in actions which are taken to prevent new invasions and spread of non-native species as well as to reduce future impacts of invaders.

  12. Invasion of a mined landscape: what habitat characteristics are influencing the occurrence of invasive plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Lemke; I.A. Tazisong; Y. Wang; J.A. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, the invasion of alien plants is an increasing threat to native biodiversity. Invasion is especially prevalent in areas affected by land transformation and anthropogenic disturbance. Surface mines are a major disturbance, and thus may promote the establishment and expansion of invasive plant communities. Environmental and habitat factors that may...

  13. Influência dos fatores abióticos e da disponibilidade de presas sobre comunidade de serpentes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul Influence of abiotic factors and availability of prey on the occurrence of snakes in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Zanella

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A influência dos fatores abióticos sobre a disponibilidade de presas e a dieta das espécies de serpentes mais abundantes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudada em duas áreas: floresta e campo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido utilizando serpentes coletadas com os métodos: procura limitada por tempo, encontros ocasionais, armadilhas de interceptação e queda, e serpentes depositadas na coleção de répteis da Universidade de Passo Fundo. Foram registradas as guildas alimentares das seis espécies mais abundantes: anurófagas (n = 2: Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 e Thamnodynates cf. strigatus (Günther, 1858; rodentívoras (n = 1: Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; moluscófagas (n = 1: Tomodon dorsatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 e generalistas (n = 2: Liophis poecilogyrus (Wied-Neuwied, 1825 e Philodryas patagoniensis (Girard, 1858. Dos fatores abióticos analisados, a abundância de serpentes foi mais relacionada à temperatura máxima (R² = 0,66 e não apresentou relação significativa com a pluviosidade. A abundância de anfíbios apresentou relação positiva com a pluviosidade (R² = 0,54 e não foi significativa com a temperatura mínima. A abundância de serpentes não foi correlacionada com a abundância de anfíbios e roedores.The influence of abiotic factors on the availability of prey and on the diet of the most abundant snake species in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul was studied in two areas: forest and field. Snakes captured using time-constrained search, occasional encounters and pitfall traps and snakes deposited in the reptile collection of the University of Passo Fundo were studied. The feeding guilds of the six most abundant species were recorded: anurophagous (n = 2: Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 and Thamnodynates cf. strigatus (Günther, 1858; rodent-eating (n = 1: Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; molluscophagous (n = 1: Tomodon

  14. Influence of Low-Dose Ionising Radiation on the Occurrence of Chromosomal Aberrations in Horse Lymphocytes after In vitro Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukavina, D.; Hasanbasic, D.; Haveric, A.; Haveric, S.; Ajanovic, A.; Katica, A.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that ionising radiation affect the chromosomal aberrations that have been used as a reliable criteria in biological dosimetry. Many studies confirm that the increase of radiation doses is related to the increase of mutation number and that even low doses could induce the mutations. Thus in this study we analysed the influence of low-dose ionising radiation to the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood of 12 horses after in vitro X-irradiation. To gain metaphase plates the method of cultivation periphery blood lymphocytes was employed. The observed aberrations were recorded and classified according to the International System of Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN). The results showed that the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in irradiated blood (0.1 Gy and 0.2 Gy) was higher relative to the controlled samples of nonirradiated blood.(author)

  15. Stream fish occurrence in response to impervious cover, historic land use, and hydrogeomorphic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J.; Peterson, James T.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, Byron J.; Homans, D. David

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated competing models explaining the occurrence of five stream fishes in an urbanizing watershed to determine the relative importance of (a) impervious surface and other indicators of current land use, (b) historic land use (e.g., agriculture, impoundments), and (c) hydrogeomorphic characteristics (e.g., stream size, elevation, geology). For four of five species, the best-supported models were those that included both current effective impervious cover and historic land use predictor variables, although models with only effective impervious cover were equally well supported for two of those species. For the best-supported models for three species, occurrence probability was predicted to approach zero at levels of development equivalent to about 2%–4% effective impervious cover in the surrounding region. Data were drawn from 357 fish collections made in the Etowah River basin, Georgia, USA, between 1998 and 2003 and analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression accounting for imperfect species detection. This is the first study we know of to examine the response of individual fish species to both increasing impervious cover and historic land use. Such individual species assessments will be increasingly necessary to guide policies for managing urban effects and preventing extirpations of sensitive species.

  16. Factors that influence recurrent lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, M E; Kazancı, A; Yaman, N D; Baş, F; Ayberk, G

    2017-06-01

    The most common cause of poor outcome following lumbar disc surgery is recurrent herniation. Recurrence has been noted in 5% to 15% of patients with surgically treated primary lumbar disc herniation. There have been many studies designed to determine the risk factors for recurrent lumbar disc herniation. In this study, we retrospectively analysed the influence of disc degeneration, endplate changes, surgical technique, and patient's clinical characteristics on recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Patients who underwent primary single-level L4-L5 lumbar discectomy and who were reoperated on for recurrent L4-L5 disc herniation were retrospectively reviewed. All these operations were performed between August 2004 and September 2009 at the Neurosurgery Department of Ataturk Education and Research Hospital in Ankara, Turkey. During the study period, 126 patients were reviewed, with 101 patients underwent primary single-level L4-L5 lumbar discectomy and 25 patients were reoperated on for recurrent L4-L5 disc herniation. Preoperative higher intervertebral disc height (Pdisc herniation had preoperative higher disc height and higher body mass index. Modic endplate changes had a higher tendency for recurrence of lumbar disc herniation. Well-planned and well-conducted large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm this and enable convenient treatment modalities to prevent recurrent disc pathology.

  17. Cellular and Molecular Factors Influencing Tendon Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgam, Sushmitha; Stewart, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    Tendons are complex connective tissues that transmit tensile forces between muscles and tendons. Tendon injuries are among the most common orthopedic problems with long-term disability as a frequent consequence due to prolonged healing time. Furthermore, the repair tissue is of inferior quality, predisposing patients to high rates of recurrence following initial injury. Coordinated cellular processes and biological factors under the influence of mechanical loading are involved in tendon healing and our understanding of these events lags behind other musculoskeletal tissues. Tendons are relatively hypocellular and hypovascular, with little or no intrinsic regenerative capacity. Studies have documented fatty degeneration, chondrogenic dysplasia, and ectopic ossification within tendon repair tissue. The underlying pathogenesis for these metaplastic changes that compromise the quality of tendon repair tissue is poorly understood. The purpose of this review is to compile literature reporting molecular processes that regulate/control the phenotype of cells responsible for abnormal matrix deposition at repair site. In addition, recent studies reporting the interplay of mechanotransduction and cellular responses during tendon repair are summarized. Identifying the links between cellular, biological, and mechanical parameters involved in tendon repair is paramount to develop successful therapies for tendon healing.

  18. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n6p705 The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  19. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  20. Influence of panel reactive antibodies (PRA) on perioperative course in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery procedures, and impact of these procedures on PRA occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakliczyński, Michał; Pyka, Lukasz; Trybunia, Dominika; Krynicka, Anna; Wilczek, Piotr; Maruszewski, Marcin; Nadziakiewicz, Paweł; Herdyńska-Was, Mirosława; Przybylski, Roman; Zembala, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac surgery is supposed to be a risk factor of PRA formation, however the role of PRA presence in non-transplant subjects is not known. Aim of the study was to assess PRA occurrence in patients undergoing elective cardiosurgery procedures and to evaluate its influence on the perioperative course. Blood samples were obtained before operation in 44 subjects (36M/8F; 55.9 +/- 8.1 y/o) undergoing primary elective cardiosurgery procedures--CABG (n = 30), CABG + valve (n = 2) or valve procedure (n = 12). PRA results were obtained after the discharge, and patients were retrospectively divided into: Group A (n = 18) with PRA > 1%, and Group B (n = 26) with PRA. PRA screening was repeated 3 months after the procedure in 41 subjects. They were divided into Group I (n = 13) with PRA > 1%, and Group II (n = 28) with PRA PRA titers was observed in 10 subjects (3 pts. /17% from Group A, and 7 pts. /27% from Group B), exceeding 10% in 2 females after valve replacement. 6 months after procedure, detectable PRA was still observed in 7 patients. Cardiac surgery is not a strong causative factor of PRA formation. The presence of perceptible PRA level may be associated with increased incidence of complications and consequently prolonged in-hospital stay. Influence of PRA on peri-operative course is not dependent on the source of its increased level.

  1. Factors affecting the occurrence of algae on the Sopot beach (Baltic Sea

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    Anna Filipkowska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was financed by the EU CosCo project ("Regional cycle development through coastal co-operation - sea grass and algae focus" - INTERREG IIIC 2N00251 and the statutory IO PAS programme.AbstractThe occurrence of algae on the Sopot beach was investigated from 2004 to 2006 from the beach management point of view. Various methods were applied in an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying the accumulation of algae on the shoreline. They included daily observations of the occurrence of macrophyta on the beach, absorption measurements of acetone extracts of the particulate matter in the seawater, the collection of macrophyta and phytoplankton samples for biomass and taxonomic identification, and determination of the degree of decomposition on the basis of chloropigment analyses. The results were related to the environmental conditions: meteorological data and the physico-chemical parameters of the seawater. The biomass recorded on the beach consisted mainly of macroalgae and a small proportion of sea grass (Zostera marina. The phytoplankton biomass consisted mainly of dinoflagellates, diatoms, cyanobacteria, euglenoids and cryptophytes. The conclusions to be drawn from this work are that the occurrence of huge amounts of macrophyta amassing on the Sopot beach depends on the combined effect of high solar radiation in spring and summer, high-strength (velocity × frequency south-westerly winds in May-September, followed by northerly winds, bringing the macrophyta from Puck Bay on to the Sopot beach. At the same time, their abundance along the beach varies according to the shape and height of the shore, the wind strength and the local wind-driven seawater currents. According to estimates, from 2.2-4.4 × 102 tons (dry weight of macrophyta can be moved on to the Sopot beach in one hour. In October, strong south-easterly winds can also transport huge amounts of decomposing biomass onshore. The phytoplankton content in the total biomass is

  2. Factors associated with the occurrence of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in rural localities of Central-West Brazil

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    Juliana Chedid Nogared Rossi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the factors of artificial environments (houses and peridomestic areas associated with Triatoma sordida occurrence. Manual searches for triatomines were performed in 136 domiciliary units (DUs in two rural localities of Central-West Brazil. For each DU, 32 structural, 23 biotic and 28 management variables were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify statistically significant variables associated with occurrence of T. sordida in the study areas. A total of 1,057 specimens (99% in peridomiciles, mainly chicken coops of T. sordida were collected from 63 DUs (infestation: 47%; density: ~8 specimens/DU; crowding: ~17 specimens/infested DU; colonisation: 81%. Only six (0.6% out of 945 specimens examined were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The final adjusted logistic regression model indicated that the probability of T. sordida occurrence was higher in DU with wooden chicken coops, presence of > 30 animals in wooden corrals, presence of wood piles and presence of food storeroom. The results show the persistence of T. sordida in peridomestic habitats in rural localities of Central-West Brazil. However, the observed low intradomestic colonisation and minimal triatomine infection rates indicate that T. sordida has low potential to sustain high rates of T. cruzi transmission to residents of these localities.

  3. Factors associated with the occurrence of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in rural localities of Central-West Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared; Duarte, Elisabeth C; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates the factors of artificial environments (houses and peridomestic areas) associated with Triatoma sordida occurrence. Manual searches for triatomines were performed in 136 domiciliary units (DUs) in two rural localities of Central-West Brazil. For each DU, 32 structural, 23 biotic and 28 management variables were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify statistically significant variables associated with occurrence of T. sordida in the study areas. A total of 1,057 specimens (99% in peridomiciles, mainly chicken coops) of T. sordida were collected from 63 DUs (infestation: 47%; density: ~8 specimens/DU; crowding: ~17 specimens/infested DU; colonisation: 81%). Only six (0.6%) out of 945 specimens examined were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The final adjusted logistic regression model indicated that the probability of T. sordida occurrence was higher in DU with wooden chicken coops, presence of > 30 animals in wooden corrals, presence of wood piles and presence of food storeroom. The results show the persistence of T. sordida in peridomestic habitats in rural localities of Central-West Brazil. However, the observed low intradomestic colonisation and minimal triatomine infection rates indicate that T. sordida has low potential to sustain high rates of T. cruzi transmission to residents of these localities. PMID:25946242

  4. Influence of negative social factors on modern family development

    OpenAIRE

    Kasantseva D. B.

    2011-01-01

    The social changes which have occurred in Russia have led to negative social factors, characteristic for transformation societies, and to an aggravation of social problems. The complex psychological conditions promote absence of understanding, occurrence of disputed situations, that leads to disintegration of families, and origin in them of criminal moods.

  5. Factors associated with pastoral community knowledge and occurrence of mycobacterial infections in Human-Animal Interface areas of Nakasongola and Mubende districts, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biffa Demelash

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are emerging opportunistic pathogens whose role in human and animal disease is increasingly being recognized. Major concerns are their role as opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS infections. The role of open natural water sources as source and livestock/wildlife as reservoirs of infections to man are well documented. This presents a health challenge to the pastoral systems in Africa that rely mostly on open natural water sources to meet livestock and human needs. Recent study in the pastoral areas of Uganda showed infections with same genotypes of NTM in pastoralists and their livestock. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental, animal husbandry and socio-demographic factors associated with occurrence and the pastoral community knowledge of mycobacterial infections at the human-environment-livestock/wildlife interface (HELI areas in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda. Methods Two hundred and fifty three (253 individuals were subjected to a questionnaire survey across the study districts of Nakasongola and Mubende. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Humans sharing of the water sources with wild animals from the forest compared to savannah ecosystem (OR = 3.3, the tribe of herding pastoral community (OR = 7.9, number of rooms present in household (3-5 vs. 1-2 rooms (OR = 3.3 were the socio-demographic factors that influenced the level of knowledge on mycobacterial infections among the pastoral communities. Tribe (OR = 6.4, use of spring vs. stream water for domestic use (OR = 4.5, presence of sediments in household water receptacle (OR = 2.32, non separation of water containers for drinking and domestic use (OR = 2.46, sharing of drinking water sources with wild animals (OR = 2.1, duration of involvement of >5 yrs in cattle keeping (OR = 3.7 and distance of household to animal night shelters (>20 meters (OR = 3

  6. Determination of effective factors on the occurrence of digitated gully erosion in the AghEmam(2 watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mohammad Ebrahimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil erosion by water is one of the most important processes of land degradation, especially in semi-arid areas. Among different types of the soil erosion, gully erosion accounts as one of the most critical processes which can cause soil destruction, changes in landscape and water resources filling of reservoir of dams,decrease in water transport capacity of rivers and agricultural lands destruction in the lowland areas. Based on the Posen definition, gully is a river with high slope walls and an erosive high slope and active head which occurs by erosion resulted from the surface flow (usually during or after high density rainfalls. Different factors play role in occurrence and development of gullies and sediment production resulted of this kind of erosion which includes slope, amount and distribution of rainfall intensity, construction operations, vegetable cover destruction, land-use change, unsuitable utilization, and susceptibility of bed materials to the erosion and flood. Considering the importance of gully erosion and the way of its occurrence and development and its control, more comprehensive studies are needed to be done. Although, some studies have done in this subject that some of them are depicted below: Rinkez et al showed that gully erosion is further occurred in soils with high exchangeable sodium percentage and sodium absorption ratio and they depicted that these two factors are important indices for soil diffusion amount in gullies. Buma and imson investigated factors such as electricity conductivity, calcium carbonate percentage, and the type of clay mineral in white, brown, and gray samples of marl in the Peter area, Spain. According to their results, factors such as electrical conductivity and sodium absorption ratio had high correlation with erosivity of the Bad Lands. Material and Methods: Agh Emam(2 watershed is located between 55º 42´ 53˝ to 55º 45´ 43˝ eastern longitudes and 37º 41´ 01˝ to 37º 46

  7. Lithological Influences on Occurrence of High-Fluoride Waters in The Central Kenya Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaka, L. A.; Musolff, A.; Mulch, A.; Olago, D.; Odada, E. O.

    2013-12-01

    Within the East African rift, groundwater recharge results from the complex interplay of geology, land cover, geomorphology, climate and on going volcano-tectonic processes across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. The interrelationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, reliability and quality. The hydrochemical evolution of the waters is further complex due to the different climatic regimes and geothermal processes going on in this area. High fluoridic waters within the rift have been reported by few studies, while dental fluorosis is high among the inhabitants of the rift. The natural sources of fluoride in waters can be from weathering of fluorine bearing minerals in rocks, volcanic or fumarolic activities. Fluoride concentration in water depends on a number of factors including pH, temperature, time of water-rock formation contact and geochemical processes. Knowledge of the sources and dispersion of fluoride in both surface and groundwaters within the central Kenya rift and seasonal variations between wet and dry seasons is still poor. The Central Kenya rift is marked by active tectonics, volcanic activity and fumarolic activity, the rocks are majorly volcanics: rhyolites, tuffs, basalts, phonolites, ashes and agglomerates some are highly fractured. Major NW-SE faults bound the rift escarpment while the rift floor is marked by N-S striking faults We combine petrographic, hydrochemistry and structural information to determine the sources and enrichment pathways of high fluoridic waters within the Naivasha catchment. A total of 120 water samples for both the dry season (January-February2012) and after wet season (June-July 2013) from springs, rivers, lakes, hand dug wells, fumaroles and boreholes within the Naivasha catchment are collected and analysed for fluoride, physicochemical parameters and stable isotopes (δ2 H, δ18 O) in order to determine the origin and evolution of the waters. Additionally, 30 soil and

  8. Urban water consumption and its influencing factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Liangxin; Gai, Lingtong; Tong, Yan; Li, Ruihua

    2017-01-01

    Factors that affect water consumption should be identified to develop effective public policies. However, factors influencing domestic water consumption in cities in China, particularly on a national scale, are unclear. In this study, urban water consumption and its influencing factors in 286

  9. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  10. Factors that influencing veterinary drug’s metabolisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Romeo T.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.

  11. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mnerie, Dumitru; Anghel, Gabriela Victoria; Mnerie, Alin Vasile; Cheveresan, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  12. Occurrence and removal of antibiotics and the corresponding resistance genes in wastewater treatment plants: effluents' influence to downstream water environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Cheng, Weixiao; Xu, Like; Jiao, Yanan; Baig, Shams Ali; Chen, Hong

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the occurrence of 8 antibiotics [3 tetracyclines (TCs), 4 sulfonamides, and 1 trimethoprim (TMP)], 12 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) (10 tet, 2 sul), 4 types of bacteria [no antibiotics, anti-TC, anti-sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and anti-double], and intI1 in two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were assessed and their influences in downstream lake were investigated. Both WWTPs' effluent demonstrated some similarities, but the abundance and removal rate varied significantly. Results revealed that biological treatment mainly removed antibiotics and ARGs, whereas physical techniques were found to eliminate antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARBs) abundance (about 1 log for each one). UV disinfection did not significantly enhance the removal efficiency, and the release of the abundantly available target contaminants from the excess sludge may pose threats to human and the environment. Different antibiotics showed diverse influences on the downstream lake, and the concentrations of sulfamethazine (SM2) and SMX were observed to increase enormously. The total ARG abundance ascended about 0.1 log and some ARGs (e.g., tetC, intI1, tetA) increased due to the high input of the effluent. In addition, the abundance of ARB variation in the lake also changed, but the abundance of four types of bacteria remained stable in the downstream sampling sites.

  13. The Association between Cariogenic Factors and the Occurrence of Early Childhood Caries in Children from Salem District of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Arokiaraj; Krishnan, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Various aetiological factors for Early Childhood Caries (ECC) have been suggested in literature, but the role of each factor has been disputed in various studies. Aim To evaluate the association between ECC and its related factors in children between three to six years of age, from rural, semi-urban and urban schools in the district of Salem (India). Materials and Methods The study consisted of children between three to six years of age, selected randomly from schools in semi-urban, urban and rural schools at Salem. Questionnaire (comprising of the factors associated with ECC) and parental consent forms were sent to each of the parents of the school children. Filled questionnaires and parental consent forms were obtained from a total of 2771 children, out of which 1771 were boys and 1000 were girls. Clinical examination for ECC was carried out according to the WHO criteria, by a single examiner and an assistant to eliminate inter-examiner variability. Statistical analysis was carried out using the student’s independent t-test and ANOVA (one way analysis of variance). Results Out of a total of 2771 children examined, only 443 (315 boys and 128 girls) children were found to have ECC (16 %). Significant correlations were found between the occurrence of ECC and various factors like age of parents, number of siblings, on-demand breast feeding and bottle feeding habits and sweetened pacifier use. However, factors such as age and gender of the child, type of birth and duration of pregnancy, had no significant correlation with the occurrence of ECC. Conclusion The need for educating parents on the ill effects of improper breast feeding and bottle feeding habits is important. PMID:28893046

  14. Co-occurrence patterns of trees along macro-climatic gradients and their potential influence on the present and future distribution of Fagus sylvatica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, E.S.; Edwards, T.C.; Kienast, Felix; Dobbertin, M.; Zimmermann, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim During recent and future climate change, shifts in large-scale species ranges are expected due to the hypothesized major role of climatic factors in regulating species distributions. The stress-gradient hypothesis suggests that biotic interactions may act as major constraints on species distributions under more favourable growing conditions, while climatic constraints may dominate under unfavourable conditions. We tested this hypothesis for one focal tree species having three major competitors using broad-scale environmental data. We evaluated the variation of species co-occurrence patterns in climate space and estimated the influence of these patterns on the distribution of the focal species for current and projected future climates.Location Europe.Methods We used ICP Forest Level 1 data as well as climatic, topographic and edaphic variables. First, correlations between the relative abundance of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and three major competitor species (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur) were analysed in environmental space, and then projected to geographic space. Second, a sensitivity analysis was performed using generalized additive models (GAM) to evaluate where and how much the predicted F. sylvatica distribution varied under current and future climates if potential competitor species were included or excluded. We evaluated if these areas coincide with current species co-occurrence patterns.Results Correlation analyses supported the stress-gradient hypothesis: towards favourable growing conditions of F. sylvatica, its abundance was strongly linked to the abundance of its competitors, while this link weakened towards unfavourable growing conditions, with stronger correlations in the south and at low elevations than in the north and at high elevations. The sensitivity analysis showed a potential spatial segregation of species with changing climate and a pronounced shift of zones where co-occurrence patterns may play a major role

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    and personal preferences), and educational attainment1. It is also influenced by personal interests. Personal characteristics and motives of the students are known to play a major role in shaping their career preferences. Parents and/or relations are known to have great influence on the career choice of their children and.

  16. Was the French clinical surveillance system of bovine brucellosis influenced by the occurrence and surveillance of other abortive diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Touratier, Anne; Gache, Kristel; Sala, Carole; Calavas, Didier

    2015-03-01

    The bovine brucellosis clinical surveillance system implemented in France aims to detect early any case of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification of every bovine abortion. Following the spread of the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in France in 2012 and 2013, and the implementation in 2012 of a clinical surveillance programme of Q fever based on abortion notifications in ten pilot départements, our objective was to study whether these two events influenced the brucellosis clinical surveillance system. The proportion of notifying farmers was analyzed over each semester from June 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013 according to the size and production type of herds, SBV status of départements and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance. Our analysis showed a slight increase in the proportion of notifying farmers as départements became infected by SBV, and after the implementation of Q fever surveillance (during the first semester of 2013). These variations might be explained by an increase in abortion occurrence (congenital deformities in newborns, due to SBV) and/or by an increase in farmers' and veterinarians' awareness (due to the spread of SBV and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance). These results highlight the difficulties in interpreting variations in the proportion of notifying farmers as a consequence of an increase in abortion occurrence. As bovine abortion surveillance can play an important role in the early warning for several diseases, there is a need to explore other ways to monitor abortions in cattle, such as syndromic surveillance using the dates of artificial insemination or calving data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of environment and climate on occurrence of the cixiid planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus, the vector of the grapevine disease 'bois noir'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panassiti, Bernd; Breuer, Michael; Marquardt, Stacey; Biedermann, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs), which are well established in many fields of biological research, are still uncommon in the agricultural risk analysis of pest insects. To exemplify the use of SDMs, we investigated the influence of environmental factors on the occurrence of Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). The planthopper is the only known vector of the grapevine yellows disease 'bois noir'. The study was conducted in 145 locations in the Baden region of southwest Germany. The planthopper was surveyed on host plant patches, consisting of stinging nettle and/or bindweeds. We used a stratified modelling framework where (1) species presence-absence data were related to an extensive environmental dataset using logistic regressions; and (2) different types of average models were developed based on an information theoretic method. The results show that the incidence of H. obsoletus is associated to above- as well as below-ground environmental factors, particularly to the amount of fine soil and average annual precipitation. This result was consistent across all average models. The relative importance of other environmental variables was dependent upon the average model under consideration and thus may vary according to their intended use, either the explanation of habitat requirements or the prediction and mapping of occurrence risks. The study showed that SDMs offer a quantification of species' habitat requirements and thus, could represent a valuable tool for pest management purposes. By providing examples of current issues of grapevine pests in viticulture, we discuss the use of SDMs in agricultural risk analysis and highlight their advantages and caveats.

  18. Falls in institutions for older adults: characterization of fall occurrences and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rosa Soares Lavareda Baixinho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Falls are the main accident for older adults, with consequences on functionality. Older adults impose restrictions or have restrictions imposed on their activities for fear of new falls. This prospective longitudinal study was conducted with 104 institutionalized older adults during six months with the following goals: to determine the prevalence of falls, to characterize the falls according to place, time, resulting injuries, supervision of the older adult, action performed at the time of the fall, and to relate the occurrence of the fall to the risk of falling, medical diagnoses, number of medications in use, type of medication, degree of dependency, age, and gender. The prevalence of falls was 37.5%, and they happened mostly in the bedroom, while walking after getting up from the bed. Those under risk in the Morse Fall Scale (p=0.034 and on sedatives (p=0.007 face a higher prevalence of falls. This study enables the possibility of making suggestions for practice, training and investigation.

  19. Co-occurrence of addictive behaviours: personality factors related to substance use, gambling and computer gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Birte; Morgenstern, Matthis; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    To investigate co-occurrence and shared personality characteristics of problematic computer gaming, problematic gambling and substance use. Cross-sectional survey data were collected from 2,553 German students aged 12-25 years. Self-report measures of substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis), problematic gambling (South Oaks Gambling Screen - Revised for Adolescents, SOGS-RA), problematic computer gaming (Video Game Dependency Scale, KFN-CSAS-II), and of twelve different personality characteristics were obtained. Analyses revealed positive correlations between tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use and a smaller positive correlation between problematic gambling and problematic computer gaming. Problematic computer gaming co-occurred only with cannabis use, whereas problematic gambling was associated with all three types of substance use. Multivariate multilevel analyses showed differential patterns of personality characteristics. High impulsivity was the only personality characteristic associated with all five addictive behaviours. Depression and extraversion were specific to substance users. Four personality characteristics were specifically associated with problematic computer gaming: irritability/aggression, social anxiety, ADHD, and low self-esteem. Problematic gamblers seem to be more similar to substance users than problematic computer gamers. From a personality perspective, results correspond to the inclusion of gambling in the same DSM-V category as substance use and question a one-to-one proceeding for computer gaming. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Occurrence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and factors associated with transmission in broiler chickens and laying hens in different raising systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. Millar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence and identify the risk factors associated with transmission of T. gondii to chickens raised in different systems (free-ranged and confined to produce eggs or meat. The 810 animals were allocated in two experimental groups according to the production system purpose: 460 broiler chickens (Group 1 and 350 layer chickens (Group 2. In order to analyze the possible factors involved in T. gondii infection in the chickens, an epidemiological questionnaire was developed for all properties.The serological detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was performed by Indirect Immunofluorescence (IFAT and by Enzime Linked Imunossorbent Assay (ELISA. Since the agreement index (kappa between these two serological techniques was considered high, 21.2% of the 810 animals were considered reactive. In Group 1, 12.2% (56/460 were positive, while in the Group 2 the positivity rate was 33.1% (116/350. The production system may be influencing the seropositivity of the animals in both groups. However, only in Group 2 it was possible to notice a statistically significant relationship between the breeding system and the frequency of positive sera. This result indicates that, at least for laying hens, the production system is directly involved in T. gondii infection. The contact with cats in Group 1 did not influence the distribution of seroreactive animals, but in Group 2 a significant relationship was observed. The occurrence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was high in both groups (broiler and posture chickens. Free-ranged chickens raised for egg production proved to be the most exposed group to the T. gondii infection. This can be related to the fact that these animals stay for longer periods in the farms, in direct contact with possibly contaminated soil by the presence of domestic cats.

  1. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  2. Factors associated with the occurrence of hearing loss after pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Brandt, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    Background. On the basis of a nationwide registration during a 5-year period (1999-2003), the frequency and severity of hearing loss was investigated retrospectively in 343 consecutive Danish patients who survived pneumococcal meningitis, to identify important risk factors (including the pneumoco...... is common after pneumococcal meningitis, and audiometry should be performed on all those who survive pneumococcal meningitis. Important risk factors for hearing loss are advanced age, female sex, severity of meningitis, and bacterial serotype......Background. On the basis of a nationwide registration during a 5-year period (1999-2003), the frequency and severity of hearing loss was investigated retrospectively in 343 consecutive Danish patients who survived pneumococcal meningitis, to identify important risk factors (including...... the pneumococcal serotype) for development of hearing loss. Methods. Results of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biochemistry, bacterial serotyping, follow-up audiological examinations, and medical records were collected, and disease-related risk factors for hearing loss were identified. The mean pure...

  3. The occurrence of Ganoderma spores in the air and its relationships with meteorological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grinn-Gofroń

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a recent study, Ganoderma may be the third genus, after Alternaria and Cladosporium, whose spores cause symptoms of allergy and whose levels are directly related to meteorological factors. There are only few articles from different parts of the world about the relationships between Ganoderma spore count and meteorological factors. The aim of the study was to review all available publications about airborne Ganoderma spores and to compare the results in a short useful form.

  4. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the

  5. Handling milking as a risk factor in the occurrence of microorganisms in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Picoli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk is naturally a good provider of a whole range of nutrients, however an inadequate milking may significantly interfere on its nutritional and microbiological quality. The main purpose of this study was to isolate and identify microorganisms from bulk tanks of southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil and establish a correlation between animal management and presence of pathogens in the milk. To this end, raw milk samples were collected from different dairy herds and submitted to microbiological analyses. Mean bacterial counts were Staphylococcus sp. (5,32x106 CFU/mL, S. aureus (1,33x105 CFU/mL and enterobacteria (1,82x107 CFU/mL. The major pathogens isolated and their respective frequency were Escherichia coli (27.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae (6.2%, S. dysgalactiae (37.2%, S. uberis (16.8%, Candida sp. (15.7%, Aspergillus sp. (5.8%, Trichosporum sp. (3.6% and Cryptococcus sp. (1.5%. In addition, it was identified an Odds Ratio of 3.2 for S. agalactiae regarding manual milking and 3.1 when a single cloth towel was used for drying the udder. For S. bovis the Odds Ratio was 2.8 in properties milking their animals in stalls wood. Somatic cell count (SCC was significantly higher (p=0,003 in milk samples manually extracted in comparison with machine milking. Likewise, manual milking resulted in the increase in S. aureus counts (p=0.04. Pre-dipping practice have contributed for a significant reduction (p=0.04 in the Staphylococcus sp. counts. Taken together, our results show that the adoption of poor management practices can negatively interfere in the microbiological quality of milk increasing the risks of occurrence of pathogens and their counts.

  6. Effect of premedication and other factors on the occurrence of acute transfusion reactions in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Joshua A; Kriese-Anderson, Lisa; Bruce, Ashley M; Pittman, Jennifer R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of premedication on transfusion reactions (TRs) within 24 hours after blood product transfusions in dogs. Retrospective study between 2008 and 2011. Private veterinary referral hospital. Nine hundred and thirty-five transfusion events in 558 dogs. None. Medical records of dogs receiving blood product transfusions were reviewed. Information collected included signalment, weight, transfusion product type, reason for transfusion, first or subsequent transfusion, whether an acute reaction occurred, type of reaction, whether the reaction was treated, premedication prior to the transfusion and the premedication used, other medications the animal was given, whether the animal had an immune-mediated process, and whether the transfusion was administered in the perioperative period. A total of 144 (15%) acute TRs were documented in 136 dogs. The most common TRs were fever alone (77/144 [53%]) and vomiting alone (26/144 [18%]). Six dogs died due to the TR (4%). TR was not associated with age (P = 0.257), sex (P = 0.754), weight (P = 0.829), or premedication (P = 0.312). The type of blood product transfused (P reactions were documented following transfusions given in the perioperative period (P = 0.023). While most TRs were mild, there were some serious reactions observed including hemolysis, dyspnea, and 6 deaths. Immune-mediated disease was associated with development of a TR, while transfusion during the perioperative period was associated with lower likelihood of reaction. Packed RBC transfusions were associated with development of acute TRs. Overall occurrence of TR was not significantly altered with premedication; however, when evaluated alone, antihistamines decreased the incidence of acute allergic reactions. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  7. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  8. Modelling long-term fire occurrence factors in Spain by accounting for local variations with geographically weighted regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, J.; Chuvieco, E.; Koutsias, N.

    2013-02-01

    Humans are responsible for most forest fires in Europe, but anthropogenic factors behind these events are still poorly understood. We tried to identify the driving factors of human-caused fire occurrence in Spain by applying two different statistical approaches. Firstly, assuming stationary processes for the whole country, we created models based on multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression to find factors associated with fire density and fire presence, respectively. Secondly, we used geographically weighted regression (GWR) to better understand and explore the local and regional variations of those factors behind human-caused fire occurrence. The number of human-caused fires occurring within a 25-yr period (1983-2007) was computed for each of the 7638 Spanish mainland municipalities, creating a binary variable (fire/no fire) to develop logistic models, and a continuous variable (fire density) to build standard linear regression models. A total of 383 657 fires were registered in the study dataset. The binary logistic model, which estimates the probability of having/not having a fire, successfully classified 76.4% of the total observations, while the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model explained 53% of the variation of the fire density patterns (adjusted R2 = 0.53). Both approaches confirmed, in addition to forest and climatic variables, the importance of variables related with agrarian activities, land abandonment, rural population exodus and developmental processes as underlying factors of fire occurrence. For the GWR approach, the explanatory power of the GW linear model for fire density using an adaptive bandwidth increased from 53% to 67%, while for the GW logistic model the correctly classified observations improved only slightly, from 76.4% to 78.4%, but significantly according to the corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc), from 3451.19 to 3321.19. The results from GWR indicated a significant spatial variation in the local

  9. Importance of genetic factors in the occurrence of epilepsy syndrome type: a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corey, Linda A; Pellock, John M; Kjeldsen, Marianne J

    2011-01-01

    Syndromes. Concordance rates were significantly increased in monozygotic versus dizygotic pairs for all major syndrome groups except localization-related cryptogenic epilepsy. Among generalized epilepsies, genetic factors were found to play an important role in the determination of childhood absence...... not appear to play an important role in determining risk for frontal, occipital or temporal lobe epilepsy. These results suggest that, while genetic factors contribute to risk for major syndrome types, determined when possible, their contribution to risk for localization-related syndrome sub...

  10. Secreted aspartate proteinases, a virulence factor of Candida spp.: Occurrence among clinical isolates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamal, P.; Dostál, Jiří; Raclavský, V.; Krylová, M.; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2004), s. 491-496 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MZd NI6485 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Candida spp. * aspartate proteinases * RAPD typing Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.034, year: 2004

  11. Risk factors for occurrence and recurrence of diabetic foot ulcers among Iraqi diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer I. Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies that discuss the medical causes for diabetic foot (DF ulcerations in Iraq, one of them in Wasit province. The aim of our study was to analyze the medical, therapeutic, and patient risk factors for developing DF ulcerations among diabetic patients in Baghdad, Iraq.

  12. Risk factors in the occurrence of molar-incisor hypomineralization amongst a group of Iraqi children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanim, Aghareed; Manton, David; Bailey, Denise; Mariño, Rodrigo; Morgan, Michael

    2013-05-01

    BACKGROUND.  Despite the worldwide increasing interest in the prevalence studies of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), there is still insufficient evidence to verify the aetiological factors of this condition. AIMS.  To investigate risk factors involved in the development of MIH in a group of school-aged Iraqi children. DESIGN.  Seven- to nine-year-old school children (823 of 1000 eligible, response rate of 82.3%) had their first permanent molars and incisors evaluated using the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry evaluation criteria for MIH. Mothers completed a medical history questionnaire-based interview performed in the schools by a trained examiner. RESULTS.  For children with MIH, 6% reported no relevant medical history; the remaining 94% reported various medical conditions putatively associated with MIH compared with 70% for the non-affected group. Post-natal medical conditions (33.3%) were most frequently reported. When data were split into the possible risk effect groups, maternal psychological stress (OR, 3.24), frequent exposure to ultrasonic scans during the last gestational trimester (OR, 2.51) and birth order as a fourth sibling or later (OR, 3.17 and 5.73, respectively) were previously unreported significant risk factors and postulated as contributing to, or causing the defect. CONCLUSIONS.  Children with MIH had experienced a greater number of medical conditions than their unaffected peers with no single health event identified as a risk factor. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.

  13. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Without disregard of the numerous school and child internal factors for low school performance, this study focused on the learners socioeconomic background and home language and to what extent these factors may encourage or discourage school progress and pe1formance among learners in Windhoek, Namibia.

  14. Maternal sociodemographic factors that influence full child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. With vaccine-preventable disease accounting for many <5-year deaths in most developing countries, it is imperative to determine the factors responsible for poor immunisation coverage in these countries. Objective. To identify maternal sociodemographic factors associated with child immunisation uptake in ...

  15. Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gyuk et al.

    examine the demographic and socioeconomic factors of malaria incidence in Calabar, Cross ... environmental hygiene in order to reduce the incidence of malaria in the area. Keywords: Malaria, Incidence, Prevalence and Socioeconomic factors .... were young people who are conscious of their health and are more likely to ...

  16. The occurrence of calcium in pharyngeal tonsils of children dependent on gender, living place and influence of passive smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of occurrence calcium content in pharyngeal tonsils from 60 girls and 90 boys living in 9 region of Upper Silesia is presented in this article. Analysis of content of Ca in pharyngheal tonsils was observed in four groups of children: girls and boys exposed to tobacco smoke and unexposed to tabacco smoke, influence parameters environments on contents Ca in tissue tonsil and the cross-correlation analysis between content of ion Ca and other metals Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mg, Ba, showed repeating co-dependences between Ca in girls from Cd, Al., Zn, Ni, Pb. In case of boys colective dependence was been dependence Ca in Mg, Cd, Zn. Arithmetic mean of calcium in pharyngeal tonsils from exposed girls was 1345.00 µg/g, in comparison to unexposed girls 1292.88 µg/g, in exposed to tobacco smoke boys- 1832.63 µg/g and unexposed boys 565.05 µg/g. It turned out that gender perform important part in absorbed calcium and here noticeable was been big ability to concentrate toxic metals in girls

  17. Factors that Influence Information Seeking Behaviour of Sandwich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors that influence the information seeking behavior of sandwich students in selected Nigerian Univ ersities. Questionnaire was used to collect data with a response rate of (97.30%). Among the factors that influence information seeking is availability of internet resources in or near the library; ...

  18. Factors that Influence Information Seeking Behaviour of Sandwich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors that influence the information seeking behavior of sandwich students in selected Nigerian Universities. Questionnaire was used to collect data with a response rate of (97.30%). Among the factors that influence information seeking is availability of internet resources in or near the library; ...

  19. Teachers' Perception of Factors Influencing Internet Use in English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also found no significant relationship between gender and teachers' perception of factors influencing internet use in English language teaching; teachers' qualification has no effect on their perception of factors influencing internet use in English language; no significant relationship exists between the teachers' ...

  20. Perceived factors influencing the choice of leadership styles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived factors influencing the choice of leadership styles of heads of academic libraries in Delta State. ... Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... Findings revealed that generally, all the items on perceived factors influencing heads of libraries' leadership styles were accepted.

  1. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...

  2. Perceptions of Child Caregivers About Factors Influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition, health education and measles immunization are crucial components of preventive eye health services in the prevention of corneal blindness. This study explores ... The interplay between nutrition and corneal blindness was unknown to mothers in this study. The strong influence ... effectiveness and sustainability.

  3. Letters and Viewpoints Some Factors Influencing Natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor regeneration of valuable timber species under closed forest canopy is a major problem affecting regeneration of tree species in Kenyan moist and Afromontane natural forests. This study was conducted in 1998 – 1999 to investigate the influence of shade tolerance, seed sources and insect herbivory on the ...

  4. Factors Influencing Degradation of Mercaptans by Thiobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Degradation of methylmercaptans by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m was influenced by pH of the reaction medium. Ratios of headspace concentrations in empty vials and those of acidified buffer solutions were less than 1.0. 95% of the H2S was in headspace with the remaining 5% in solution upon acidification. The values for ...

  5. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing. (Afr J Reprod Health 2015; 19[1]: 14-24). Keywords: birth ..... 25-38 months (reference), 39-59 months, and > 60 months. Figures presented are Relative Risk Ratio of birth interval category relative to 25-38 months, associated 95% Confidence Intervals,.

  6. 330 Factors Influencing Substance Abuse among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... hallucinating drugs such as Indian hemp and cocaine. These drugs will intoxicate the cult members and it will make them to be bold, and under the influence of drug they can kill or destroy their mates or lecturers. Tobacco is another substance that it is easily been abused by many undergraduates and it has ...

  7. Factors associated with the occurrence of hearing loss after pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Brandt, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    Background. On the basis of a nationwide registration during a 5-year period (1999-2003), the frequency and severity of hearing loss was investigated retrospectively in 343 consecutive Danish patients who survived pneumococcal meningitis, to identify important risk factors (including...... the pneumococcal serotype) for development of hearing loss. Methods. Results of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biochemistry, bacterial serotyping, follow-up audiological examinations, and medical records were collected, and disease-related risk factors for hearing loss were identified. The mean pure......-tone hearing threshold levels were compared with normative data. Results. Of 240 patients examined by use of audiometry, 129 (54%) had a hearing deficit, and 50 (39%) of these 129 patients were not suspected of hearing loss at discharge from hospital. Of the 240 patients, 16 (7%) had profound unilateral...

  8. [Risk factors for the occurrence of cardiovascular system diseases in students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Dusica; Visnjić, Aleksandar; Mitrović, Vladimir; Stojanović, Miodrag

    2009-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death in the majority of developed, as well as in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine cardiovascular risk factors in student population and to suggest possible measures for prevention. The study was carried out during 2007-2008 at the School of Medicine, University of Nis. It included 824 students in their final year (220 males, 604 females). There was no significant difference in prevalence of hypertension among the male (1.81%) and female students (0%). The prevalence of obesity (Body Mass Index - BMI > 30 kg/m2) was significantly higher (p cardiovascular risk factors, it was determined that in the male student population systolic blood pressure correlated significantly with diastolic blood pressure, BMI and waist size, whereas age correlated with sistolic blood pressure, waist size and smoking. In the female students sistolic blood pressure correlated with diastolic blood pressure, BMI and waist size; diastolic blood pressure correlated with BMI and physical inactivity; cigarette smoking correlated with alcohol consumption and age. Cardiovascular risk factors are present in the final-year students of the School of Medicine, University of Nis. It is necessary to insist on decreasing obesity prevalence, cigarette and alcohol consumption, and on increasing physical activity of students in order to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Factors influencing quality of life in asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-kalemji, Abir; Petersen, Karin Dam; Sørensen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The quality of life (QOL) in persons with asthma is reduced and different factors such as demography, asthma severity and psychiatric comorbidity play an influential role. However, little is known about the interplay of these factors. OBJECTIVE: To describe QOL in relation to asthma...... gender and smoking were associated with reduced QOL, suggesting that these factors play an independent role on lowering QOL. Depression did not inflate the relationship between asthma severity and worse QOL, suggesting that asthma severity plays an independent role on everyday life regardless...

  10. Numerical Investigation of Injection Timing Influence on Fuel Slip and Influence of Compression Ratio on Knock Occurrence in Conventional Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sremec

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compressed natural gas can be used in diesel engine with great benefits, but because of its low reactivity it is usually used in a so called dual fuel combustion process. Optimal parameters for dual fuel engines are not yet investigated thoroughly which is the motivation for this work. In this work, a numerical study performed in a cycle simulation tool (AVL Boost v2013 on the influence of different injection timings on fuel slip into exhaust and influence of compression ratio on knock phenomena in port injected dual fuel engine was conducted. The introduction of natural gas into the intake port of a diesel engine usually results in some fuel slipping into the exhaust port due to valve overlap. By analysing the simulation results, the injection strategy that significantly decreases the natural gas slip is defined. The knock occurrence study showed that the highest allowed compression ratio that will result in knock free operation of the presented engine is 18 for ambient intake condition, while for charged intake conditions the compression ratio should be lowered to 16.

  11. Factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Sowmya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the measures developed by Mowday; Steers and Porter, the researchers have exploited Factor analysis by Principle Component Methodto identify the factors influencing the organizational commitment of employees of PSBs and NPSBs.

  12. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...

  13. Can socioeconomic trajectories during the life influence periodontal disease occurrence in adulthood? Hypotheses from a life-course perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, H S; Peres, K G; Do, L G; Peres, M A

    2015-06-01

    Chronic periodontal disease (CPD) is a highly prevalent, multifactorial, bacterially induced inflammatory disease, characterized by pathologic loss of periodontal attachment and alveolar bone with onset mostly in adulthood. While cross-sectional data have demonstrated significant associations between adverse socioeconomic position (SEP) and poor periodontal conditions, there is a gap in the literature on the understanding of how SEPs in different life stages impact on the occurrence of this disease later on. Life-course epidemiology offers different theoretical models to study the pathway of health and illness during the lifespan, and the hypothesis of the present study is that the relationship between SEP and CPD can be explained based on different life-course epidemiology theories: (a) critical period model; (b) critical period with modifier effect model; (c) accumulation of risk model; (d) chain-of-risk model. Under the first theoretical model, the association between SEP and CPD may be explained by an inflammatory hypothesis, considering that childhood adverse socioeconomic backgrounds alter the immunoinflammatory response that leads to disease in adulthood regardless of conditions later in life. The second model postulates that the early life SEP modifies the host immunoinflammatory response, and the risk of disease will be modified over the life-course by socio-behavioural influences. The third, "accumulation of risk model", may explain such relationship taking into account exposures during different periods of life. However, this model does not consider the moment when the exposure occurred, only taking into consideration the number of episodes during the life cycle. Finally, the potential explanation to the role of socioeconomic position on chronic periodontal disease, using a chain-of-risk model, is that early low SEP may cause social stress related to social hierarchies, what may, in turn, trigger endocrine, neural and immune changes, that reflect on

  14. Factors influencing EB curing of epoxy matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fengmei; Bao Jianwen; Chen Xiangbao; Bao Huaying; Wang Huiliang

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of electron beam (EB) curing of epoxy resins was found to be influenced by catalyst. In the presence of iodonium salt (diaryl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate, C3), the EB curing of epoxy resin is easier than in the presence of triaryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate (C1), or triaryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate (C2), or iron arene containing cationic catalyst (Irgacure 261). The epoxy 616 (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and 648 (diglycidyl ether of phenolic novolacs) can be cured by the above onium salts catalysts C1-C3. The epoxy with glycidyl amino epoxide group (such as AG 80; AFG 90) could not be cured by onium salts catalyst. The influence of irradiation dose, temperature and the effect of impurities on curing reaction were investigated

  15. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Kolb, Rosana Marta; Pilon, Natashi Aparecida Lima; Durigan, Giselda

    2016-01-01

    Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i) recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii) under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii)...

  16. The Occurrence of Diseases and Related Factors in a Center for Asylum Seekers in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firenze, Alberto; Aleo, Nicola; Ferrara, Clara; Maranto, Marianna; LA Cascia, Caterina; Restivo, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Italy is the main recipient of asylum seekers in the European region, and Sicily is their first point of arrival. This geographical position creates a large job for Health Authorities to identify and deal with the health of immigrants. This study evaluates the prevalence of disease among asylum seekers, assessing which are associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyse demographic and clinical data in an Acceptance Centres for Asylum Seekers from February 2012 to May 2013. All variables that were found to be significant on unvariable analysis for the most frequent pathologies were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. Post-traumatic stress disorders with 17.4% and major depression with 7.3% were the most frequent diseases. The factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorders among asylum seekers were: major depression diagnosis (OR=2.91, p=0.004), Pakistan as a country of origin (OR=3.88, pasylum seekers needs special attention, and interventions should be done to prevent the consolidation of psychiatric morbidity. A short psychological screening after the arrival might prove helpful here. Moreover, carefully designed longitudinal studies should be carried out when political recommendations try to change the organization of psychological and healthcare services.

  17. The Occurrence of Diseases and Related Factors in a Center for Asylum Seekers in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    FIRENZE, Alberto; ALEO, Nicola; FERRARA, Clara; MARANTO, Marianna; LA CASCIA, Caterina; RESTIVO, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Italy is the main recipient of asylum seekers in the European region, and Sicily is their first point of arrival. This geographical position creates a large job for Health Authorities to identify and deal with the health of immigrants. This study evaluates the prevalence of disease among asylum seekers, assessing which are associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyse demographic and clinical data in an Acceptance Centres for Asylum Seekers from February 2012 to May 2013. All variables that were found to be significant on unvariable analysis for the most frequent pathologies were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. Results Post-traumatic stress disorders with 17.4% and major depression with 7.3% were the most frequent diseases. The factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorders among asylum seekers were: major depression diagnosis (OR=2.91, p=0.004), Pakistan as a country of origin (OR=3.88, pasylum seekers needs special attention, and interventions should be done to prevent the consolidation of psychiatric morbidity. A short psychological screening after the arrival might prove helpful here. Moreover, carefully designed longitudinal studies should be carried out when political recommendations try to change the organization of psychological and healthcare services. PMID:27647085

  18. Social, contextual, and individual factors affecting the occurrence and acoustic structure of drumming bouts in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babiszewska, Magdalena; Schel, Anne Marijke; Wilke, Claudia; Slocombe, Katie E.

    2015-01-01

    The production of structured and re petitive sounds by striking objects is a behavior found not only in humans, but also in a variety of animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In this study we examined individual and social factors that may influence the frequency with which

  19. Current issues in ALS epidemiology: Variation of ALS occurrence between populations and physical activity as a risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, J; Logroscino, G; Couratier, P; Marin, B

    2017-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare neurodegenerative disease with a fatal outcome. This review aims to report key epidemiological features of ALS in relation to the hypothesis of variation between populations, to summarize environmental hypothesis and to highlight current issues that deserve much considerations. Epidemiological ALS studies have shown a variation of incidence, mortality and prevalence between geographical areas and different populations. These data could support the notion that genetic factors, especially populations' ancestries, along with environmental and lifestyle factors, play a significant role in the occurrence of the disease. To date, there is no strong evidence to confirm an association between a particular environmental factor and ALS. Physical activity (PA) has been extensively evaluated. Recent studies support with the best evidence level that PA in general population is not a risk factor for ALS. However, further research is needed to clarify the association of PA in some occupations and some athletic activities. Epidemiological research based on multicenter international collaboration is essential to provide new data on ALS especially in some regions of the world that are to date poorly represented in the ALS literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors determining the occurrence of anthropogenic materials in nests of the white stork Ciconia ciconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagiello, Zuzanna A; Dylewski, Łukasz; Winiarska, Dominika; Zolnierowicz, Katarzyna M; Tobolka, Marcin

    2018-03-13

    Birds have been using anthropogenic materials for nest construction for the past few decades. However, there is a trade-off between the use of new nesting material, which is often linked to greater breeding success, and the higher risk of nestling mortality due to entanglement or ingestion of debris. Here, we investigate the incorporation of anthropogenic materials into nests of the white stork Ciconia ciconia, based on a long-term study of a population in Western Poland. We recorded at least one item of debris in 50 and 42% of nests at the egg and nestling stages, respectively. More debris was found in nests located in territories with higher number of anthropogenic material in the surrounding environment. We found a relationship between the age of females, the number of debris in the area surrounding a nest, and the number of debris in the nest. We found no significant effect of the total number of debris in nests on clutch size, number of fledglings, or breeding success. Studies on the influence of the age and sex of individuals in understanding this behaviour and its drivers in bird populations should be continued.

  1. Risk factors for the occurrence of cardovascular system diseases in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Dušica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death in the majority of developed, as well as in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine cardiovascular risk factors in student population and to suggest possible measures for prevention. Methods. The study was carried out during 2007-2008 at the School of Medicine, University of Niš. It included 824 students in their final year (220 males, 604 females. Results. There was no significant difference in prevalence of hypertension among the male (1.81% and female students (0%. The prevalence of obesity (Body Mass Index - BMI > 30 kg/m2 was significantly higher (p < 0.001 in the male (7.27% than in the female population (1.32%. Abdominal obesity was also more frequently encountered (p < 0.01 in the male (9.09% than in female population (1.32%. Every fourth student smoked cigarettes with no significant difference between the male and female students. Alcohol consumption was a significantly higher problem (p < 0.001 in the male population (18.18% than in the female one (2.65%. Physical inactivity was more often found (p < 0.001 in the female students (65.56%, than in male ones (36.36%. By the bivariate correlation of cardiovascular risk factors, it was determined that in the male student population systolic blood pressure correlated significantly with diastolic blood pressure, BMI and waist size, whereas age correlated with sistolic blood pressure, waist size and smoking. In the female students sistolic blood pressure correlated with diastolic blood pressure, BMI and waist size; diastolic blood pressure correlated with BMI and physical inactivity; cigarette smoking correlated with alcohol consumption and age. Conclusion. Cardiovascular risk factors are present in the final-year students of the School of Medicine, University of Niš. It is necessary to insist on decreasing obesity prevalence, cigarette and alcohol consumption, and on increasing physical activity

  2. OCCURRENCE OF MENTAL DISORDERS IN POPULATION AFFECTED BY RADIATION ACCIDENT: STRUCTURE, DYNAMICS, RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Rumyantseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of damage to mental health of individuals born after theChernobylaccident remains of high interest, especially in the regions which have been subjected to significant contamination as a result of the accident. The article analyzes the dynamics of psychiatric morbidity in population of contaminated and non-contaminated areas of theBryanskregion according to state statistics and to files of neuropsychiatric ambulatory institutions. The incidence rates in the contaminated areas are found to be significantly different from those in the non-contaminated areas. Dynamics of mentally handicapped contingents after the radiation accident depends, at different stages of postaccidental situation, on a complex of factors: social, economic, radiation, and general toxic ones, which once again underlines the general social character of such disasters.

  3. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    the motivation of employees to share knowledge. The model is tested using statistical methods on a sample of 114 respondents in Denmark. Qualitative data is used to elaborate and explain quantitative findings. Findings: Our findings pinpoint towards the general drivers and barriers to knowledge sharing within...... knowledge sharing framework helps to understand what factors impact engagement on social media. Furthermore the article suggests different types of interventions to overcome the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Originality/value: The study contributes to an understanding of factors leading...

  4. Questionnaire Survey on the Occurrence of Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst Farmers in Thika District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ogendi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst farmers in Thika District, Kenya. Interviews were conducted in a total of 385 households using a structured questionnaire. The water consumed at household level originated from taps (74.3%, rivers or streams (15.1%, wells (5.4% and boreholes (5.2%. A number of households (46.8% consumed water without boiling or applying any form of treatment. All respondents washed vegetables before cooking, whilst 99.0% washed fruits before eating. Boiled milk was preferred by 99.5% of the farmers. The majority (85.2% consumed beef more often, whilst 1.6% consumed pork. The majority (98.7% consumed thoroughly cooked meat. Meat was preserved by 17% of farmers. Only four farmers (1.2% who practised mixed farming used gloves when handling livestock manure. Five farmers (1.6% reported the occurrence of abortion in ruminants and pigs on their farms within the last two years before the study. Almost half (44.9% of the households owned cats, which were kept mainly as pets (79.8% and for deterring rodents (20.2%. The majority of households (91.3% fed the cats on leftovers, whilst 8.1% fed cats with raw offal. Sixteen households (9.2% provided housing for cats. Only five households (2.8% had litter boxes, but none of the households with litter boxes used gloves when cleaning them out. Disposal of cat faeces was done mainly by women (55.5%. Only one farmer (0.3% had some knowledge about toxoplasmosis, but was not aware of the transmission mechanism. The study highlights the need for public health education to raise awareness of risk factors for toxoplasmosis.

  5. Factors Influencing uUniversity Research Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Fiona; Geare, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This research extends our understanding of research productivity by examining features of managerial practice and culture within university departments. Adopting a robust comparative research design, capturing both interview and survey data sourced from multiple stakeholders from New Zealand universities, we seek to identify factors associated…

  6. Biodemographic And Health Seeking Behavior Factors Influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study findings show primarily - amongst the biodemographic and health seeking services factors, delivery-related maternal health complicacies, blindness, higher order births, twin births, lower household size and interaction effect of higher order live births and male child are significantly correlated with higher neonatal ...

  7. Factors influencing adherence to routine iron supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia in pregnancy is a common problem especially in developing countries. and has been linked with feotal and maternal complications. Taking iron supplements could reduce anaemia in pregnancy but some pregnant women do not adhere to this. The study identified some factors associated with non adherence ...

  8. Factors influencing pregnancy outcomes in Morogoro Municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neonatal, perinatal and infant mortality rates are still high in developing countries despite national and international efforts to redress this problem. This study was conducted to investigate maternal knowledge and attitudes regarding the risk factors that adversely affect pregnancy outcomes in Morogoro municipality, ...

  9. Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding the complex factors that can lead to HIV infection is crucial to addressing the problem among vulnerable populations, such as female sex workers. In 2010, the Global Health Research Initiative awarded a $1.8 million grant to the Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI) to build research capacity in Africa for ...

  10. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers Participation in IFAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... strengthen them for easy access to credit, farm inputs and markets for their agricultural products. References. Agbelemoge, A., Adedoyin, S.F. and Oladoyin, S.D. (2001). Farmers Related. Factors and Adoption of Cocoa Rehabilitation Technology in Oluyole. Local Government Area of Oyo State Nigeria.

  11. Factors Influencing Medical Students' Choice of Specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yeh Chang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: This study found that personal intelligence/ability preference and career opportunities were more important factors to the current generation of students in choosing a specialty. Knowledge of these students' attitudes could form the basis for the development of strategies to enhance the attractiveness of specialties facing the problem of a shortage of manpower.

  12. Factors influencing seminar learning and academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; Van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that

  13. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that

  14. Factors influencing parameters of laser ion sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Láska, Leoš; Badziak, J.; Boody, F. P.; Gammino, S.; Jungwirth, Karel; Krása, Josef; Krouský, Eduard; Parys, P.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Ryč, L.; Skála, Jiří; Torrisi, L.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Wolowski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2007), s. 199-205 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100715 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : highly charged ions * laser -produced plasma * self-focusing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s Impact factor: 4.696, year: 2007

  15. Factors influencing children's interpretation and acquisition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipenga

    Issues in idiom interpretation and acquisition. Idiom comprehension and interpretation is said to be affected by several factors such as familiarity of the idiom, linguistic context and transparency/semantic analysability of the idiom. Research has shown that the most familiar idioms are easier to understand than less familiar ...

  16. Factors influencing Complications and Conversion rates following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A total of 60 patients (45 females and 15 males) undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis were studied prospectively by analyzing the data accumulated in the process of investigation and treatment. Factors associated with conversion and complications were assessed to determine their ...

  17. Factors that Influence Frequency of ADHD Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Factors associated with the probability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD diagnosis among third grade US elementary school children were investigated in a nationally representative sample of 9278 children in the 2002 follow-up of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey Cohort conducted at University of Texas, Austin, TX.

  18. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effort assessing product information and comparing products before deciding which one to purchase.4 They report .... interviews were conducted in a consistent fashion by the researcher herself; that there was standardisation in the ..... findings of this study revealed similar trends. The external factors. (i.e. processing outside ...

  19. Factors associated with the occurrence of cardiac arrest after emergency tracheal intubation in the emergency department.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Young Kim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Emergency tracheal intubation has achieved high success and low complication rates in the emergency department (ED. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of post-intubation CA and determine the clinical factors associated with this complication. METHODS: A matched case-control study with a case to control ratio of 1:3 was conducted at an urban tertiary care center between January 2007 and December 2011. Critically ill adult patients requiring emergency airway management in the ED were included. The primary endpoint was post-intubation CA, defined as CA within 10 minutes after tracheal intubation. Clinical variables were compared between patients with post-intubation CA and patients without CA who were individually matched based on age, sex, and pre-existing comorbidities. RESULTS: Of 2,403 patients who underwent emergency tracheal intubation, 41 patients (1.7% had a post-intubation CA within 10 minutes of the procedure. The most common initial rhythm was pulseless electrical activity (78.1%. Patients experiencing CA had higher in-hospital mortality than patients without CA (61.0% vs. 30.1%; p<0.001. Systolic hypotension prior to intubation, defined as a systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mmHg, was independently associated with post-intubation CA (OR, 3.67 [95% CI, 1.58-8.55], p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Early post-intubation CA occurred with an approximate 2% frequency in the ED. Systolic hypotension before intubation is associated with this complication, which has potentially significant implications for clinicians at the time of intubation.

  20. Homocysteine Slovakia study: study design and occurrence of hyperhomocysteinaemia and other risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietava, J; B, B Vohnout; Dukat, A; Fodor, G J

    2012-01-01

    Slovakia belong to the European Union countries with the high incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in general and IHD in particular. Homocystein-Slovakia is crossectional population study realised in subjects in high risk age 35-75 years in two groups. The first consists of patients with verified stable ischemic heart disease (IHD) (M= 152; F = 167) aged 60.8±9.37 yrs (males) res. 63.1±7.56 years (females) (NS) who were randomly selected from two cardiological registrars. Second population was formed by general population who were dichotomised according their medical records into IHD patients (M= 31, F= 53) and apparently healthy controls (M= 47; F = 55), the later in significantly younger age as patients, but in same age for intergender comparison 49.6±10.3 vs 46.6±9.2 yrs (NS). We found very high prevalence of classic as well as newer risk factors and risk markers both in IHD patients and in controls. Increased homocysteinen (Hcy >15 µmo/l for males and Hcy >13 µmo/l for females) was found even in 32.9 % of patients and 13.6 % of controls (pHomocystein Slovakia study found very high prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with stable ischemic heart disease. Even the prevalence in healthy controls correspond to data reported for MI patients in Western countries. Vitamins regulating metabolism of homocysteine also shown high prevalence, however, without differences between IHD patients and controls (Tab. 5, Fig. 1, Ref. 27).

  1. Factors influencing particulate lipid production in the East Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašparović, B.; Frka, S.; Koch, B. P.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Bracher, A.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Neogi, S. B.; Lara, R. J.; Kattner, G.

    2014-07-01

    Extensive analyses of particulate lipids and lipid classes were conducted to gain insight into lipid production and related factors along the biogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Data are supported by particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phaeopigments, Chl a concentrations and carbon content of eukaryotic micro-, nano- and picophytoplankton, including cell abundances for the latter two and for cyanobacteria and prokaryotic heterotrophs. We focused on the productive ocean surface (2 m depth and deep Chl a maximum (DCM). Samples from the deep ocean provided information about the relative reactivity and preservation potential of particular lipid classes. Surface and DCM particulate lipid concentrations (3.5-29.4 μg L-1) were higher than in samples from deep waters (3.2-9.3 μg L-1) where an increased contribution to the POC pool was observed. The highest lipid concentrations were measured in high latitude temperate waters and in the North Atlantic Tropical Gyral Province (13-25°N). Factors responsible for the enhanced lipid synthesis in the eastern Atlantic appeared to be phytoplankton size (micro, nano, pico) and the low nutrient status with microphytoplankton having the most expressed influence in the surface and eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the DCM layer. Higher lipid to Chl a ratios suggest enhanced lipid biosynthesis in the nutrient poorer regions. The various lipid classes pointed to possible mechanisms of phytoplankton adaptation to the nutritional conditions. Thus, it is likely that adaptation comprises the replacement of membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorus containing glycolipids under low phosphorus conditions. The qualitative and quantitative lipid compositions revealed that phospholipids were the most degradable lipids, and their occurrence decreased with increasing depth. In contrast, wax esters, possibly originating from zooplankton, survived downward transport probably due to the fast sinking

  2. On the occurrence of Common Baron (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae: Euthalia aconthea Cramer, 1777 in the Delhi area and analysis of abiotic factors affecting its distribution in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajv K. Singh Bais

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives details of the occurrence of Euthalia aconthea from Delhi area situated in the Indo-Gangetic plains.  Occurrence records of this species suggest that it is most frequent in five zones of India, despite the fact that its main larval food plant Mango Mangifera indica is abundantly available almost throughout India.  Possible abiotic factors are hypothesized for this distribution. 

  3. Factors Influencing Stormwater Mitigation in Permeable Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavement (PP is used worldwide to mitigate surface runoff in urban areas. Various studies have examined the factors governing the hydrologic performance of PP. However, relatively little is known about the relative importance of these governing factors and the long-term hydrologic performance of PP. This study applied numerical models—calibrated and validated using existing experimental results—to simulate hundreds of event-based and two long-term rainfall scenarios for two designs of PP. Based on the event-based simulation results, rainfall intensity, rainfall volume, thickness of the storage layer and the hydraulic conductivity of the subgrade were identified as the most influential factors in PP runoff reduction. Over the long term, PP performed significantly better in a relatively drier climate (e.g., New York, reducing nearly 90% of runoff volume compared to 70% in a relatively wetter climate (e.g., Hong Kong. The two designs of PP examined performed differently, and the difference was more apparent in the relatively wetter climate. This study generated insights that will help the design and implementation of PP to mitigate stormwater worldwide.

  4. Factors influencing recognition of interrupted speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Humes, Larry E

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the effect of interruption parameters (e.g., interruption rate, on-duration and proportion), linguistic factors, and other general factors, on the recognition of interrupted consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in quiet. Sixty-two young adults with normal-hearing were randomly assigned to one of three test groups, "male65," "female65" and "male85," that differed in talker (male/female) and presentation level (65/85 dB SPL), with about 20 subjects per group. A total of 13 stimulus conditions, representing different interruption patterns within the words (i.e., various combinations of three interruption parameters), in combination with two values (easy and hard) of lexical difficulty were examined (i.e., 13×2=26 test conditions) within each group. Results showed that, overall, the proportion of speech and lexical difficulty had major effects on the integration and recognition of interrupted CVC words, while the other variables had small effects. Interactions between interruption parameters and linguistic factors were observed: to reach the same degree of word-recognition performance, less acoustic information was required for lexically easy words than hard words. Implications of the findings of the current study for models of the temporal integration of speech are discussed.

  5. [Factors influencing infant mortality. Havana Province, 1983].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell-florit Serrate, P; Portuondo Dustet, N; Suarez Rosas, L; Ovies Garcia, A; Alvarez Fernandez, R; Lima Perez, M T

    1986-01-01

    Questionnaires intended to determine the factors involved in deaths in infants under 1 year have been completed in the province of Havana, Cuba, since 1980. The questionnaires are completed by obstetricians and pediatricians of the municipal health areas and analyzed at the secondary care level. This work examines the factors present in the 133 infant deaths occurring in Havana Province in 1983. The infant mortality rate in the province in 1983 was 14.1/1000 live births, the lowest ever recorded in the province. 74 of the deaths occurred in the early neonatal period, 13 in the late neonatal, and 46 in the postneonatal period. 22 of the early neonatal deaths were due to intrapartum anoxia, 15 to hyaline membrane disease, 10 to prematurity, 7 to bronchoaspiration, 3 to sepsis, 1 to bronchial pneumonia, and 13 to malformations. In the late neonatal and postneonatal periods, 11 deaths were attributed to acute diarrheal disease, 6 to meningitis, and 5 to accidents. 8 of the mothers were under 17 years old, 30 were 18-20, 57 were 21-30, and 16 were 31 or over. Maternal age was unknown for 22. 22 of the mothers were overweight, 29 were malnourished, 55 were of normal nutritional status, and the status of 27 was unknown. 67.7% of the early neonatal deaths were in low birth weight babies. Low educational level and rural residence were social factors in infant mortality.

  6. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.

  7. INFLUENCE FACTORS AND MANIFESTATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel DĂNECI-PĂTRĂU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Notion almost unknown before 1950, labor productivity is now commonly used by economists, engineers, sociologists and politicians alike, influencing all the important issues of the time. Under these circumstances, if it is accepted that labor productivity is the driving variable that generates economic progress, it is justified that people need to increase their efforts to enhance, its value through various means. This article presents the findings of a theoretical research literature regarding landmarks in the evolution of labor productivity. Arguments justifying such an approach have been given by the fact that the labor issue presents an interest not only at the micro level, individual (the consequences it has on the individual work, but also at the macro level, societal (employment relations on the market labor, insurance systems and the offer educational services on the market today.

  8. Factors influencing incident reporting in surgical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckler, S; Catchpole, K; McCulloch, P; Handa, A

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the process of incident reporting in a surgical setting. In particular: the influence of event outcome on reporting behaviour; staff perception of surgical complications as reportable events. Anonymous web-based questionnaire survey. General Surgical Department in a UK teaching hospital. Of 203 eligible staff, 55 (76.4%) doctors and 82 (62.6%) nurses participated. Knowledge and use of local reporting system; propensity to report incidents which vary by outcome (harm, no harm, harm prevented); propensity to report surgical complications; practical and psychological barriers to reporting. Nurses were significantly more likely to know of the local reporting system and to have recently completed a report than doctors. The level of harm (F(1.8,246) = 254.2, pvs 53%, z = 4.633, psystems.

  9. Environmental factors that determine the occurrence and seasonal dynamics of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa YAMAMOTO

    2009-02-01

    . Overall, analytical results imply a possible adverse impact of the existence of other cyanoprokaryotes, such as Anabaena and Microcystis, on both varieties of A. flos-aquae; however, its mechanism remains unknown. Nutrient concentrations and pH had no clear impact on the population density of A. flos-aquae. Based on these observations, progress of eutrophication and absence of other cyanoprokaryotes are likely the key factors determining the future expansion of A. flos-aquae.

  10. Extent of poly-pharmacy, occurrence and associated factors of drug-drug interaction and potential adverse drug reactions in Gondar Teaching Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endalkachew Admassie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the extent of poly-pharmacy, occurrence, and associated factors for the occurrence of drug-drug interaction (DDI and potential adverse drug reaction (ADR in Gondar University Teaching Referral Hospital. Institutional-based retrospective cross-sectional study. This study was conducted on prescriptions of both in and out-patients for a period of 3 months at Gondar University Hospital. Both bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify risk factors for the occurrence of DDI and possible ADRs. All the statistical calculations were performed using SPSS; software. A total of 12,334 prescriptions were dispensed during the study period of which, 2,180 prescriptions were containing two or more drugs per prescription. A total of 21,210 drugs were prescribed and the average number of drugs per prescription was 1.72. Occurrences of DDI of all categories (Major, Moderate, and Minor were analyzed and DDI were detected in 711 (32.6% prescriptions. Sex was not found to be a risk factor for the occurrence of DDI and ADR, while age and number of medications per prescription were found to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of DDI and ADR. The mean number of drugs per prescription was 1.72 and hence with regard to the WHO limit of drugs per prescription, Gondar hospital was able to maintain the limit and prescriptions containing multiple drugs supposed to be taken systemically. Numbers of drugs per prescription as well as older age were found to be predisposing factors for the occurrence of DDI and potential ADRs while sex was not a risk factor.

  11. Factors influencing workplace health promotion intervention: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojatz, Daniela; Merchant, Almas; Nitsch, Martina

    2017-10-01

    Although workplace health promotion (WHP) has evolved over the last 40 years, systematically collected knowledge on factors influencing the functioning of WHP is scarce. Therefore, a qualitative systematic literature review was carried out to systematically identify and synthesize factors influencing the phases of WHP interventions: needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Research evidence was identified by searching electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, ERIC, IBBS and PsycINFO) from 1998 to 2013, as well as by cross-checking reference lists of included peer-reviewed articles. The inclusion criteria were: original empirical research, description of WHP, description of barriers to and/or facilitators of the planning, implementation and/or evaluation of WHP. Finally, 54 full texts were included. From these, influencing factors were extracted and summarized using thematic analysis. The majority of influencing factors referred to the implementation phase, few dealt with planning and/or evaluation and none with needs assessment. The influencing factors were condensed into topics with respect to factors at contextual level (e.g. economic crisis); factors at organizational level (e.g. management support); factors at intervention level (e.g. quality of intervention concept); factors at implementer level (e.g. resources); factors at participant level (e.g. commitment to intervention) and factors referring to methodological and data aspects (e.g. data-collection issues). Factors regarding contextual issues and organizational aspects were identified across three phases. Therefore, future research and practice should consider not only the influencing factors at different levels, but also at different phases of WHP interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE OCCURRENCE AND OUTCOME OF CAR REAR-END COLLISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudewijn van KAMPEN

    2000-01-01

    It appears that not all of the indicators used point the same way; some of the increase mentioned may be due to registration biases. There is also a lack of adequate data with regard to the real number of whiplash injuries, their severity, and the longer-term consequences. Even if the total scope of the problem of whiplash injury in the Netherlands is still not fully known, the current estimate of societal consequences implicates a need for preventive measures. In the first place, accident prevention should be considered and a number of possible preventive measures (such as infrastructural improvement and application of ITS devices in cars to maintain distance in traffic are discussed. Injury preventive measures (such as in car protection against whiplash are already more generally available but still need much improvement.

  13. Natural and social factors influencing forest fire occurrence at a local spatial scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Luisa Chas-Amil; Julia M. Touza; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Colin J. McClean

    2012-01-01

    Development of efficient forest fire policies requires an understanding of the underlying reasons behind forest fire ignitions. Globally, there is a close relationship between forest fires and human activities, i.e., fires understood as human events due to negligence (e.g., agricultural burning escapes), and deliberate actions (e.g., pyromania, revenge, land use change...

  14. Factors influencing EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.L.; Spinella, M.R.; Bof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors) [es

  15. Factors influencing microinjection molding replication quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Julie; Brulez, Anne-Catherine; Contraires, Elise; Larochette, Mathieu; Trannoy-Orban, Nathalie; Pignon, Maxime; Mauclair, Cyril; Valette, Stéphane; Benayoun, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in producing and providing high-precision plastic parts that can be manufactured by microinjection molding: gears, pumps, optical grating elements, and so on. For all of these applications, the replication quality is essential. This study has two goals: (1) fabrication of high-precision parts using the conventional injection molding machine; (2) identification of robust parameters that ensure production quality. Thus, different technological solutions have been used: cavity vacuuming and the use of a mold coated with DLC or CrN deposits. AFM and SEM analyses were carried out to characterize the replication profile. The replication quality was studied in terms of the process parameters, coated and uncoated molds and crystallinity of the polymer. Specific studies were processed to quantify the replicability of injection molded parts (ABS, PC and PP). Analysis of the Taguchi experimental designs permits prioritization of the impact of each parameter on the replication quality. A discussion taking into account these new parameters and the thermal and spreading properties on the coatings is proposed. It appeared that, in general, increasing the mold temperature improves the molten polymer fill in submicron features except for the steel insert (for which the presence of a vacuum is the most important factor). Moreover, the DLC coating was the best coating to increase the quality of the replication. This result could be explained by the lower thermal diffusivity of this coating. We noted that the viscosity of the polymers is not a primordial factor of the replication quality.

  16. [Factors that influence the sexuality of the elderly: an integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Danielle Lopes de; Marques, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Vieira, Júlia de Cássia Miguel

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the scientific evidence addressing the factors that influence the sexuality of the elderly. It involved an online search carried out in pairs, including original articles published between 2006 and October 2011 in Portuguese, English or Spanish, which fulfilled the requirements of the study. The MEDLINE, LILACS, CidSaúde and BDENF databases were used with the key words: sexualidade e idoso / sexuality and elderly / sexualidad y anciano. The articles selected were assessed for methodological quality using two instruments, namely CASP and the Hierarchical Classification of Evidence. After analysis, 15 articles were included in the review, which discuss the culture of asexuality of the elderly, whereby the experience of sexuality only prevails among younger people. The absence of the partner due to widowhood, attributing value to beauty standards of the young, the occurrence of disease, use of medication, and changes in sexual physiology were identified as important factors that influence the sexuality of the elderly. The conclusion drawn is that social and cultural factors, changes in body physiology, and the occurrence of disease interfere with the sexuality of the elderly, making it necessary for nursing professionals to be proactive in debunking myths and providing orientation.

  17. Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life.

  18. Factors influencing dependence on mobile phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of current study was to investigate the relationship between the problematic use of mobile phone and Big Five personality traits among students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A total number of 120 students (80 females and 40 males were selected by applying proportional randomized classification sampling method from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS and demographic questionnaire were used to gather data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Analysis of gathered data showed that gender, neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience had positive correlation with the problematic use of mobile phone, whereas conscientiousness and agreeableness were not correlated with the problematic use of mobile phone. Conclusion: The evaluation of Big Five personality traits would be a reliable factor for predicting the problematic use of mobile phone among students.

  19. Exploring factors influencing smoking behaviour in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study is to investigate the determinants of smoking behaviour among adults in Malaysia. Findings of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-3) by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, were used. The sample consisted of 34,539 observations. A logistic regression model was thus applied to estimate the probability to participate in smoking. Age, income, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status, residential area, education, lifestyle and health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of smoking. Specifically, youngsters, low income earners, males, unmarried individuals, Malays, employed individuals, rural residents and primary educated individuals were more likely to smoke. In conclusion, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors have significant impacts on smoking participation in Malaysia. Based on these empirical findings, several policy implications are suggested.

  20. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, A.; Nichols, M.L.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.; Thurber, J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research

  1. Factors influencing professional life satisfaction among neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M; Halpern, Michael T; Kane, Heather L; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2017-06-19

    Predicted shortages in the supply of neurologists may limit patients' access to and quality of care for neurological disorders. Retaining neurologists already in practice provides one opportunity to support the overall supply of practicing neurologists. Understanding factors associated with professional life satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) and implementing policies to enhance satisfaction may encourage neurologists to remain in clinical practice. In this paper, we present results from the first study examining factors associated with professional life satisfaction among a large sample of U.S, neurologists. We collaborated with the AAN to survey a sample of U.S. neurologists about their professional life satisfaction. Analyses examined the association of physician and practice characteristics with aspects of professional life satisfaction, including satisfaction with their career in medicine, medical specialty, current position, relationship with colleagues, relationship with patients, work/life balance, and pay. The study population consisted of 625 neurologists. In multivariate regression analyses, no single group or population stratum indicated high (or low) responses to all aspects of satisfaction. Older neurologists reported higher satisfaction with career, specialty, and relationship with patients than younger neurologists. Female neurologists had significantly lower satisfaction with pay than male neurologists. Neurologists who spent more time in research and teaching had greater satisfaction with specialty, relationship with colleagues, and relationship with patients than those spending no time in research. Neurologists who practiced in small cities/rural areas reported lower satisfaction across multiple dimensions than those practicing in large urban areas. Neurologists in solo practice had greater satisfaction with the relationship with their patients, but lower satisfaction with pay. Satisfaction is a multidimensional construct that is associated with

  2. Factors influencing why nursing care is missed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Ian; Henderson, Julie; Willis, Eileen; Hamilton, Patricia; Toffoli, Luisa; Verrall, Claire; Abery, Elizabeth; Harvey, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the reasons nurses identify missed care and what factors account for this variance in nursing practice. Second, the study seeks to understand if the identified reasons behind missed care interact with one another and form a multidimensional construct. This study draws on the results of previous research conducted by Kalisch in developing the MISSCARE research survey tool and now applies it to an Australian context. This study engages a nonexperimental exploratory approach where 16 latent variables are identified and estimated using structural equation modelling to determine the capacity each of these factors has in predicting the reasons for reported missed nursing care. Data were obtained from an electronic survey sent to nursing members of the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation of South Australia. A self-report, Likert-type instrument was used to capture the strength and direction of consensus derived from a sample of 289 nurses and midwives. Eight variables were identified as having direct predictor effects as to why nursing care was being missed, and included shift type, nursing resource allocation, health professional communication, workload intensity, workload predictability, the nurses' satisfaction with their current job and their intention to remain working. Additional indirect effects of other variables explained 34% of the variance of the total scores for why nursing care was reported as being missed. Historically, the MISSCARE survey has identified and quantified what types of nursing care is missed. This paper takes this concept further by producing an interactional model identifying the effects different variables have on why nursing care is missed. These Australian findings not only contribute to other international studies that identify why nursing care is omitted, it provides a framework for why reported episodes of missed care can be predicted and subsequently addressed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Factors influencing the density of aerobic granular sludge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, M.K.; Kleerebezem, R.; Strous, M.; Chandran, K.; Loosdrecht, M.C. van

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the factors influencing density of granular sludge particles were evaluated. Granules consist of microbes, precipitates and of extracellular polymeric substance. The volume fractions of the bacterial layers were experimentally estimated by fluorescent in situ hybridisation

  4. EDUCATIONAL MARKETING: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF A UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MANIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Competition in the higher education sector is forcing the higher educational institutions (HEI to develop more competitive marketing strategies. For developing universities marketing strategies HEI need to understand the student choice process of a university. Understanding university choice process is not easy, this process involves complex decision which affects students’ life (future career, friends, residence, etc.. Therefore, this paper presents a conceptual framework to explore the factors that influence university choice decision, in general, by investigating factors, relevant in literature, which most influence this decision. Among the factors identified are: institutional reputation, cost, employment opportunities, parents’ influence, educational offer, location. This study has been done in order to find the most important factors that influence choice of a university among Romanian students.

  5. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A. J. M.; van Assema, P.; Hesdahl, B.; Harting, J.; de Vries, N. K.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health

  6. Evaluation of some genetic factors influencing the phenotypic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some genetic factors influencing the phenotypic severity of β thalassemia Egyptian patients. Ibtessam R Hussein, Amina M Medhat, Samir F Zohny, Alice K Abd El-Aleem, Ghada Y El-Kammah, Bardees M Foda ...

  7. Perceived Factors Influencing the Choice of Antenatal Care and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived Factors Influencing the Choice of Antenatal Care and Delivery Centres among Childbearing Women In Ibadan North South-Western, Nigeria. EE Ewa, CJ Lasisi, SO Maduka, AE Ita, UW Ibor, OA Anjorin ...

  8. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  9. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads.

  10. Peroneal artery-vein index as a potential factor of thrombosis occurrence in free osteocutaneous fibula flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziemianczyk-Pakiela, Dorota; Groth, Dawid; Toloczko-Iwaniuk, Natalia; Rybak, Jozef S; Piotrowski, Leszek; Lukasiewicz, Adam; Borys, Jan; Ettl, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    Despite high popularity and great success rates of free osteocutaneous fibula flaps, the flap failure caused by vascular thrombosis is still a challenging problem. The authors present their evaluation of a potential thrombosis risk factor - a peroneal artery-vein index. The authors evaluated the diameters of peroneal vessels and peroneal artery-vein indexes based on the computed tomography angiographies in 10 patients who underwent a mandible reconstruction with a free fibula flap and compared the results with clinical outcome. In one case the flap was lost, because of thrombosis in the donor vein. This patient presented superficial varicose veins of both lower extremities. Peroneal vein diameters in this patient ranged from 5,05 mm to 6,68 mm and were higher than in patients without complications. The peroneal artery-vein index in the patient with thrombosis ranged from 0,37 to 0,50 with median 0,40 and was lower than in patients without complications. High disproportion between peroneal artery and concomitant veins might be a potential risk factor of the occurrence of venal thrombosis. Detailed perioperative examination of peroneal veins in patients with varicosities should be considered. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence of Cytomegalovirus Infection and factors causing reactivation of the infection among Renal Transplant Recipients: A single center study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khameneh, Z.R.

    2008-01-01

    Reactivation of infection with the cytomegalovirus (CMV) in renal transplant recipients may cause significant morbidity and mortality. To evaluate factors associated with activation of CMV replication, we followed prospectively a group of 68 renal transplant recipients for 12 months. The control group consisted of healthy blood donors (n=37). Sera were collected periodically from these patients and analyzed for the presence of specific anti-CMV antibodies. Enzyme-linked immunoassay based on recombinant CMV proteins was used to detect the following antibody specificities: IgG and IgM. During the first year after transplantation, reactivation of CMV occurred in 48 recipients (70.6%). Detailed analysis did not show any association of reactivation with the type of basic immunosuppressive therapy, prophylactic or therapeutic use of anti-lymphocyte antibodies, as well as occurrence of acute rejection episodes. There was a borderline association (P=0.068) between the presence of CMV infection and EBV reactivation. In conclusion, results of our study suggest that CMV infection may represent a factor activating EBV replication. (author)

  12. [Influence of nonindustrial risk factors on congenital abnormalities formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talykova, L V

    2009-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities could result from exposure to occupational hazards. Epidemiologic study of nickel compounds influence on reproductive health in females engaged into nickel purification in Murmansk region enterprises did not reveal increased risk of the anomalies. The study was aimed to define influence of various risk factors connected not to work conditions, but to mother's health, bad habits, age, on congenital abnormalities in newborns.

  13. The Influence of Societal Factors on Female Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteath, Sheryl A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the influence of societal factors on Western women's perceptions of their bodies. Finds that women typically underestimate their body size and want smaller bodies; two-fifths of women expressed negative feelings about their bodies; and that body satisfaction is best explained by societal influences, self-esteem and body mass index.…

  14. Factors That Influence Technology Integration in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Maureen C.

    2017-01-01

    Education is one area where the use of technology has had great impact on student learning. The integration of technology in teaching and learning can significantly influence the outcome of education in the classroom. However, there are a myriad of factors that influence technology integration in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to…

  15. Influence of macroeconomic factors on residential property returns in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt was made in this study to bridge the existing gap in the knowledge of the influence exerted by macro-economic factors on residential property returns in Abuja. The backward and forward relationship between property market and the economy has influenced a rise and fall in future of property returns in Abuja ...

  16. Influence of Sociodemographic and Stroke‑related Factors on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Employment is a known significant contributor to social network and was also found to influence significantly, the availability of poststroke social support in this study. Further studies are required to identify factors that more substantially influence the availability of social support after stroke. Keywords: Nigeria ...

  17. Factors influencing adoption of Small-Scale Palm Oil Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of respondents' socio-economic characteristics on adoption was investigated along with other factors influencing adoption of the Small-Scale ... be geared towards extension service delivery with specific emphasis to recommended palm oil processing technologies adoption; credit scheme should be made

  18. Factors influencing acceptability of voluntary counseling and testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors influencing VCT for HIV were consequences of a test result, influences from a sexual partner, cost of VCT, physical accessibility of VCT, awareness, risk of HIV infection, need for linking VCT with care (especially availability of anti-retrovirals) and perceived quality of care of VCT services. Conclusions: Increased ...

  19. Do socio-demographic factors influence the travel behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nature-based tourism products in Africa, especially South Africa, are playing an important role in attracting visitors. It is therefore essential to understand travel behaviour and the factors influencing the behaviour of visitors, as such knowledge can influence future park visits, park development and target marketing strategies ...

  20. Factors influencing the adoption of mobile financial services in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the basis for product or service development, pricing, marketing and policy formulation. In this study we .... influence and perceived price levels were used together with the original TAM model to study factors influencing .... The target population of this study includes users of mobile financial services in the Chamwino district.

  1. Environmental factors influencing fluctuation of share prices on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental factors influencing fluctuation of share prices on Nigeria stock exchange market. ... Financial markets could be money or capital markets. The commodities traded on these ... The results show inflation, money supply, total deficits index of industrial production, interest rate and GDP influence stock prices.

  2. Factors influencing palliative care. Qualitative study of family physicians' practices.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J. B.; Sangster, M.; Swift, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Family physicians who practise palliative care on a full-time basis, who practise on a part-time basis, or who have retired from active involvement in palliative care. METHOD: Eleven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palli...

  3. Factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees

    OpenAIRE

    K. R. Sowmya; N. Panchanatham

    2011-01-01

    Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the...

  4. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  5. Factors Influencing Dropouts' GED & Diploma Attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Wayman

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined correlates of degree attainment in high school dropouts. Participants were high school dropouts of Mexican American or non-Latino white descent who had no degree, a high school degree, or a GED certificate. This study was unique in that it accounted for sample bias of missing data through the use of multiple imputation, it considered students who had dropped out as early as 7th grade, and it was able to include variables found significant in previous research on returning dropouts. Logistic regression analyses identified a parsimonious set of factors which distinguished dropouts who held degrees (diploma or GED from those who did not. Similar analyses were performed to distinguish participants who had attained diplomas from those who had attained GEDs. It was estimated that 59.2% of dropouts return to obtain high school credentials. School capability, age at dropout, and socio-economic status significantly predicted degree attainment. Presence of children, higher school capability and socio-economic status were associated with GED attainment, while later grade at dropout was associated with diploma attainment. These relationships did not vary by ethnicity, although degree attainment was less likely for Mexican American dropouts. The study concludes that dropping out is not the end of a student's education, and more research should be directed toward returning dropouts. Further, the focus of such research should be expanded to include a more positive and broader range of correlates.

  6. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  7. Factors that Influence Quality Service of Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nur Mustafa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Education as a profession requires a thorough commitment and sincerity among educators in guiding and shaping the patterns of learning toward forming identities and lead change in the students. As an adult with a lot of knowledge and experience, classroom becomes an important medium for the delivery and access to knowledge to the students in an instructional condition that effectively and efficiently. Therefore, all educators need to prepare themselves to face challenges to deal with children as a leader in charge in constructing a conducive and persuasive educational relationship. Important characteristics in this context is how to create a memorable delivery systems that meet the standard qualities and aligned with the education laws enforced. As a teacher who has received training from experts and civil servants thus all actions taken should be sincere, open, meet the service specification that gives attention to the self-esteem of the students with a good service, quality, and meet their needs. Therefore, this study will discuss the main factors that affect the quality of service to the students among the teachers namely motivation and professional competence. Selected samples in this study were 327 teachers from Secondary School in Pekanbaru. This study has shown a clear interest in improving the quality of motivation and the quality of service of teachers to the students. The aspects of the professional competence of teachers are still experiencing problems in applying the knowledge and skills to lead and manage the classroom inrealizing   a conducive environment.

  8. Factors Influencing Mini-CEX Rater Judgments and Their Practical Implications: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor; Brain, Keira; Martin, Jenepher

    2017-06-01

    At present, little is known about how mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) raters translate their observations into judgments and ratings. The authors of this systematic literature review aim both to identify the factors influencing mini-CEX rater judgments in the medical education setting and to translate these findings into practical implications for clinician assessors. The authors searched for internal and external factors influencing mini-CEX rater judgments in the medical education setting from 1980 to 2015 using the Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, PubMed, and Scopus databases. They extracted the following information from each study: country of origin, educational level, study design and setting, type of observation, occurrence of rater training, provision of feedback to the trainee, research question, and identified factors influencing rater judgments. The authors also conducted a quality assessment for each study. Seventeen articles met the inclusion criteria. The authors identified both internal and external factors that influence mini-CEX rater judgments. They subcategorized the internal factors into intrinsic rater factors, judgment-making factors (conceptualization, interpretation, attention, and impressions), and scoring factors (scoring integration and domain differentiation). The current theories of rater-based judgment have not helped clinicians resolve the issues of rater idiosyncrasy, bias, gestalt, and conflicting contextual factors; therefore, the authors believe the most important solution is to increase the justification of rater judgments through the use of specific narrative and contextual comments, which are more informative for trainees. Finally, more real-world research is required to bridge the gap between the theory and practice of rater cognition.

  9. Factors that influence chest injuries in rollovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digges, Kennerly; Eigen, Ana; Tahan, Fadi; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The design of countermeasures to reduce serious chest injuries for belted occupants involved in rollover crashes requires an understanding of the cause of these injuries and of the test conditions to assure the effectiveness of the countermeasures. This study defines rollover environments and occupant-to-vehicle interactions that cause chest injuries for belted drivers. The NASS-CDS was examined to determine the frequency and crash severity for belted drivers with serious (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] 3+) chest injuries in rollovers. Case studies of NASS crashes with serious chest injuries sustained by belted front occupants were undertaken and damage patterns were determined. Vehicle rollover tests with dummies were examined to determine occupant motion in crashes with damage similar to that observed in the NASS cases. Computer simulations were performed to further explore factors that could contribute to chest injury. Finite element model (FEM) vehicle models with both the FEM Hybrid III dummy and THUMS human model were used in the simulations. Simulation of rollovers with 6 quarter-turns or less indicated that increases in the vehicle pitch, either positive or negative, increased the severity of dummy chest loadings. This finding was consistent with vehicle damage observations from NASS cases. For the far-side occupant, the maximum chest loadings were caused by belt and side interactions during the third quarter-turn and by the center console loading during the fourth quarter-turn. The results showed that the THUMS dummy produced more realistic kinematics and improved insights into skeletal and chest organ loadings compared to the Hybrid III dummy. These results suggest that a dynamic rollover test to encourage chest injury reduction countermeasures should induce a roll of at least 4 quarter-turns and should also include initial vehicle pitch and/or yaw so that the vehicle's axis of rotation is not aligned with its inertial roll axis during the initial stage

  10. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed.

  11. Intrinsic Factors Influencing Decision making of Arbitrators in Dispute Resolution of variation Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, K. C.; Chaphalkar, N. B.; Patil, Smita K.

    2018-03-01

    Occurrence of disputes is a common feature in construction contracts. Adjudication of disputes through the arbitration process involves detailed and through analysis of facts and evidences related to the case before arriving at the final decision. These facts and evidences have been explored by researchers to develop dispute resolution mechanisms. As a part of the research, the present work identifies the factors which influence the decision making of arbitrators in resolving disputes through a case study of 72 arbitration awards and settled court cases related to Indian construction contracts. This work further seeks consensus for the identified factors from experts and also ranks the factors based on their importance with the help of the responses obtained through a questionnaire survey and statistical tests.

  12. The Influence of Human Factor in Aircraft Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Virovac

    2017-06-01

    during aircraft maintenance. In the EASA approved aircraft maintenance organisation, which includes in its working system the human factor as well, the tendency is to apply the approach by continuous monitoring and analysis of errors in aircraft maintenance. Such approach achieves advance prevention or reduction of the occurrence of harmful events, such as accidents, incidents, injuries and in a wider sense damages related to aircraft operation and maintenance. The research presented in this paper is a result of gathering and systematization of errors caused by human factors over the last five years in one organisation for aircraft maintenance certified according to the European standards. The study encompasses an analysis of 28 (twenty-eight investigations of individual cases and provides insight into the main factors of errors. The results of analyses on the cause of occurrence of human error show similar results like the Boeing study which was carried out for the world fleet.

  13. Factors influencing the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auda Fares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of seasonal patterns in infectious disease occurrence dates back at least as far as the hippocratic era, but the mechanisms underlying these fluctuations remain poorly understood. Many classes of mechanistic hypotheses have been proposed to explain seasonality of various directly transmitted diseases, including at least the following; human activity, seasonal variability in human immune system function, seasonal variations in vitamin D levels, seasonality of melatonin, and pathogen infectivity. In this short paper will briefly discuss the role of these factors in the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases.

  14. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an

  15. New factors influencing G protein coupled receptors' system functions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New factors such as the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) surrounding's chemical environment, cell membrane constituents, the existent gap junction, endogenous receptor affinity status and animal species have been shown to influence the GPCR physiology and variations of those factors can modify the functions of the ...

  16. Factors Influencing the Outcomes in Extradural Haematoma Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pupillary abnormalities and those older than age 61 are poor prognostic indicators. Key Words: Extradural hematoma, Head injury,. Intracranial hematoma, Outcome. Factors Influencing the Outcomes in Extradural. Haematoma Patients. Kiboi JG, Nganga HK, ... Pre-morbid risk factors, surgical variables such as type of ...

  17. Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peer and media (television) factors are not significantly influential. The findings provide preliminary data on factors that influence eating attrtudes in a group at risk for the development of eating disorders. The findings have implications for the formulation of preventive strategies within a comprehensive treatment approach.

  18. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Minimally Invasive Surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cost is a major concern for delivery of minimally invasive surgical technologies due to the nature of resources required. It is unclear whether factors extrinsic to technology availability impact on this uptake. Objectives: To establish the influence of institutional, patient and surgeon-related factors in the adoption of ...

  19. Factors influencing women's utilization of public health care services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal mortality remains a public health challenge claiming many lives at the time of giving birth lives. However, there have been scanty studies investigating factors influencing women's use of public health facilities during childbirth. Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the factors associated with ...

  20. Factors that may influence South African nurses' decisions to emigrate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global shortage of nurses, creating opportunities for South African nurses to work in foreign countries, as well as a variety of factors related to nursing, health care and the general living conditions in South Africa influence nurses' decisions to emigrate. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the factors ...

  1. Socio-economic factors influencing cassava production in Kuje and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined socio-economic factors influencing output level of cassava production in Kuje and Abaji Area Councils of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The specific objectives were to:identify the socio-economic characteristics of sampled cassava farmers in the study area; determine the socio-economic factors ...

  2. The influence of family factors on delinquent adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with the aim of finding out the influence of family factors on delinquent adolescents in secondary schools in Edo South Senatorial District of Edo State. This study ascertained the extents to which family factors such as parent child rearing style, family type and parent socio economic background ...

  3. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  4. Factors influencing the pattern of malnutrition among acutely ill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the pattern of malnutrition among acutely ill children presenting in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. ... The factors associated with malnutrition included early introduction of complementary diets, number of children in the home, maternal illiteracy and lower socioeconomic status of the parents. Female children ...

  5. Inter-dog aggression in a UK owner survey: prevalence, co-occurrence in different contexts and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, R A; Loftus, B; Bolster, C; Richards, G J; Blackwell, E J

    2013-02-02

    Aggression between dogs is common and can result in injury. The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence, evaluate co-occurrence with human-directed aggression, and investigate potential risk factors, using a cross-sectional convenience sample of dog owners. Aggression (barking, lunging, growling or biting) towards unfamiliar dogs was reported to currently occur, by 22 per cent of owners, and towards other dogs in the household, by 8 per cent. A low level of concordance between dog and human-directed aggression suggested most dogs were not showing aggression in multiple contexts. Aggression towards other dogs in the household was associated with increasing dog age, use of positive punishment/negative reinforcement training techniques, and attending ring-craft classes. Aggression towards other dogs on walks was associated with location of questionnaire distribution, owner age, age of dog, origin of dog, dog breed type, use of positive punishment/negative reinforcement training techniques and attending obedience classes for more than four weeks. In both, the amount of variance explained by models was low (dogs and owners which contribute to intraspecific aggression, but also highlight that these are relatively minor predictors.

  6. Risk Factors Associated with the Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminths among Indigenous Donkeys (Equus asinus in Northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammed Jajere

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This survey study was conducted from April 2014 through March 2015 in Bauchi, Yobe, and Gombe states, northeastern Nigeria, to explore the risk factors associated with the occurrence of gastrointestinal helminthosis among indigenous donkeys (Equus asinus. Materials and Methods. A total of six hundred fresh faecal samples were randomly collected from indigenous donkeys of varying age, sex, and settlements. Simple flotation and sedimentation techniques were used for the detection of helminths eggs. Results. Three gastrointestinal nematode parasites were encountered including Strongyle, Parascaris equorum, and Oxyuris equi. An overall prevalence of 98.3% was obtained, of which 78.3%, 40.3%, and 17.5% were, respectively, from Strongyle, Parascaris equorum, and Oxyuris equi. Age, sex, and season were not statistically associated with the risk of helminth infection as were the different study areas (p>0.05. However, body condition score, settlement, anthelminthic medication history, and management practices were significantly associated with the risk of gastrointestinal helminthosis. Statistically high prevalence of helminthic infections was observed in donkeys, with poor (thin body condition, from rural settlements, that were not dewormed and raised under poor management systems (p<0.001. Conclusion. It is concluded from the study that gastrointestinal helminths particularly Strongyle were endemic among the indigenous donkeys in northeastern Nigeria. Further control and preventive measures were discussed.

  7. Meat retail conditions within the establishments of Kigali city (Rwanda): bacteriological quality and risk factors for Salmonella occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyonzima, Eugène; Ongol, Martin Patrick; Brostaux, Yves; Korsak, Nicolas; Daube, Georges; Kimonyo, Anastase; Sindic, Marianne

    2018-03-01

    Meat constitutes one of the major vehicles for human foodborne infections. This study aimed to assess the retail conditions and to determine the microbiological quality and safety of meat retailed within the establishments of Kigali (Rwanda). A questionnaire survey was carried out in 150 retail outlets to characterise meat retail conditions. Additionally, 270 retail meat samples were analysed for the enumeration of hygiene indicator bacteria (total mesophilic bacteria and Escherichia coli) and for the qualitative detection of Salmonella, using conventional culture methods. The results revealed that beef was the predominant meat sold within the retail premises of Kigali city, while meat from non-bovine animal species was mainly sold in large establishments. Salmonella was detected in 19.6% of all the retailed meat samples evaluated, whereas the mean loads for total mesophilic bacteria and E. coli were 7.3 and 3.5 log cfu/g, respectively. Three factors, namely the temperature conditions of the meat under retail, the cleanability of the used meat cutting boards, and the training of personnel in hygienic meat handling practices, were found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with the risk of Salmonella occurrence in the retailed meat. The findings from this study highlight the need for improvements in hygienic meat handling practices, particularly, in small and medium meat retail establishments in Kigali.

  8. Risk Factors Associated with the Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminths among Indigenous Donkeys (Equus asinus) in Northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Jajere, Saleh; Rabana Lawal, Jallailudeen; Mohammed Bello, Amina; Wakil, Yakaka; Aliyu Turaki, Usman; Waziri, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Aim. This survey study was conducted from April 2014 through March 2015 in Bauchi, Yobe, and Gombe states, northeastern Nigeria, to explore the risk factors associated with the occurrence of gastrointestinal helminthosis among indigenous donkeys (Equus asinus). Materials and Methods. A total of six hundred fresh faecal samples were randomly collected from indigenous donkeys of varying age, sex, and settlements. Simple flotation and sedimentation techniques were used for the detection of helminths eggs. Results. Three gastrointestinal nematode parasites were encountered including Strongyle, Parascaris equorum, and Oxyuris equi. An overall prevalence of 98.3% was obtained, of which 78.3%, 40.3%, and 17.5% were, respectively, from Strongyle, Parascaris equorum, and Oxyuris equi. Age, sex, and season were not statistically associated with the risk of helminth infection as were the different study areas (p > 0.05). However, body condition score, settlement, anthelminthic medication history, and management practices were significantly associated with the risk of gastrointestinal helminthosis. Statistically high prevalence of helminthic infections was observed in donkeys, with poor (thin) body condition, from rural settlements, that were not dewormed and raised under poor management systems (p < 0.001). Conclusion. It is concluded from the study that gastrointestinal helminths particularly Strongyle were endemic among the indigenous donkeys in northeastern Nigeria. Further control and preventive measures were discussed.

  9. Factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas T. Khoza

    2017-07-01

    Objective: This study seeks to identify factors that negatively influence knowledge sharing in software development in the developing country context. Method: Expert sampling as a subcategory of purposive sampling was employed to extract information, views and opinions from experts in the field of information and communication technology, more specifically from those who are involved in software development projects. Four Johannesburg-based software developing organisations listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, South Africa, participated in this research study. Quantitative data were collected using an online questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Results: Findings of this research reveal that job security, motivation, time constraints, physiological factors, communication, resistance to change and rewards are core factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software developing organisations. Conclusions: Improved understanding of factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing is expected to assist software developing organisations in closing the gap for software development projects failing to meet the triple constraint of time, cost and scope.

  10. Which factors influence women in the decision to breastfeed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Canicali Primo

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the factors that influence women in the decision to breastfeed. Methods. Integrative review. Information was gathered from original articles, case studies, theoretical studies, consensus and systematic reviews published between 2007-2013 in Spanish, Portuguese and English and recovered in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS. The descriptors used in this study were: breastfeeding, maternal behavior, risk factors, lactation and newborn. Results. Were included 30 articles, grouped into five categories. Factors influencing the decision of the breastfeeding woman are a convergence of breastfeeding's advantages, benefits and justifications, family, social and professional support, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women, personal experience and family tradition and personal choice. Conclusion. The decision to breastfeed by women is influenced by a convergence of factors. It is essential the role of nursing to encourage women in the decision to initiate and maintain breastfeeding her child.

  11. Occurrence Of Virulence Factors And Antimicrobial Resistance In Pasteurella Multocida Strains Isolated From Slaughter Cattle In Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faham eKhamesipour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 30 Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from 333 pneumonic and apparently health slaughter cattle were examined for capsule biosynthesis genes and 23 virulence associated genes by polymerase chain reaction. The disc diffusion technique was used to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles among the isolates. Of the isolates, 23 belonged to capsular type A, 5 to capsular type D and two isolates were untypeable. The distribution of the capsular types in pneumonic lungs and in apparently health lungs was statistically similar. All virulence genes tested were detected among the isolates derived from pneumonic lungs; whereas isolates derived from apparently health lungs carried 16 of the 23 genes. The frequently detected genes among isolates from pneumonic lungs were exbD, hgbA, hgbB, ompA, ompH, oma87 and sodC; whereas tadD, toxA and pmHAS genes occurred less frequently. Most of the adhesins and superoxide dismutases; and all of the iron acquisition and protectin proteins occurred at significantly (p≤0.05 higher frequencies in isolates from pneumonic lungs. Isolates from apparently healthy lungs didn’t carry the following genes; hsf-1, hsf-2, tadD, toxA, nanB, nanH and pmHAS. One adhesion (hsf-1 and two iron acquisition (exbD and tonB genes occurred at significantly (p≤0.05 higher frequencies among capA isolates. All the P. multocida isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and tetracyclines. Different proportions of the isolates were however resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, lincomycin, penicillin, rifampin, streptomycin and florfenicol. Our results reveal presence of virulence factors in P. multocida strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic bovids. A higher frequency of the factors among isolates from symptomatic study animals may suggest their role in pathogenesis of P. multocida-associated bovine respiratory disease. The results further

  12. Exposure to sun radiation as a risk factor for the occurrence of basal cell carcinoma in the Montenegrian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgound/aim: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent form of carcinomas in the whites. Among the environmental factors, the most important risk factor for its occurrence is the exposure to sun radiation. The aim of this study was to assess the role of the sun radiation in the development of basal cell carcinoma BCC in the Montenegrian population. Methods. A case-control study was conducted in a period from 2002-2003. The study group included 100 histopatologically confirmed cases with BCC, while the control group included 100 patients from the same population, who did not present skin cancer and who were individually matched with the cases from the study group by sex and age (± 5 years. All the participants were interviewed using an epidemiological questionnaire. For statistical analysis, the χ2 test and univariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results. The risk for development of BCC was increased in the persons: that always had burns with no tan during the exposure to sunlight (OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.20-2.55; p = 0.003; that developed sunburns after two hours of the exposure to sunlight (OR = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.39-5.79; p < 0.001 that kept light tan or remained without changes in childhood and adolescence after the repeated exposures to sunlight (OR = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.89-4.52; p < 0.001 that often had severe and painful sunburns (OR = 4.48; 95% CI = 2.74-7.33; p < 0.001. Conclusion. Our study confirmed the significance of sunlight exposure for the development of BCC.

  13. Occurrence, genotyping, shiga toxin genes and associated risk factors of E. coli isolated from dairy farms, handlers and milk consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadallah, M A; Ahmed, H A; Merwad, A M; Selim, M A

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the occurrence and genotypes of E. coli in dairy farms, workers and milk consumers and to evaluate risk factors associated with contamination of milk in dairy farms. Molecular characterization of shiga toxin associated genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) finger printing of E. coli from different sources were also studied. Paired milk samples and rectal swabs from 125 dairy cows, rectal swabs from 82 calves and hand swabs from 45 dairy workers from five dairy farms were collected. In addition, 100 stool samples from 70 diarrheic and 30 healthy humans were collected and examined for the presence of E. coli. E. coli was isolated from milk (22.4%), dairy cattle feces (33.6%), calf feces (35.4%), dairy worker hand swabs (11.1%) and stools of milk consumers (2%, from diarrheic patients only). Only stx1 was identified in seven of 12 E. coli O125 isolated from different sources. High genetic diversity was determined (Simpson's index of diversity, D = 1) and E. coli O125 isolates were classified into 12 distinct profiles, E1-E12. The dendrogram analysis showed that two main clusters were generated. Mastitis in dairy cows was considered a risk factor associated with contamination of the produced milk with E. coli. The isolation of E. coli from rectal swabs of dairy cows and calves poses a zoonotic risk through consumption of unpasteurized contaminated dairy milk. Educational awareness should be developed to address risks related to consumption of raw milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of factors of work environment and burnout syndrome on self-efficacy of medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska, Iwona; Rasińska, Renata; Głowacka, Maria Danuta

    2016-06-02

    Conditions of a healthy, friendly and safe work environment and proper work organisation increase self-efficacy and decrease or eliminate the factors causing the occurrence of burnout symptoms, all of which have a decisive impact on increasing the quality of work. The aim of the study was to analyse and assess the influence of factors of work environment and burnout syndrome on the self-efficacy of medical staff. The study comprised randomly selected professionally-active nurses working on hospital wards (N=405) on the area of two provinces in Poland. The study used the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and a questionnaire concerning the factors that influence the process of work organisation at nursing positions in hospitals. Lower scores for self-efficacy resulted in a worse assessment of development opportunities and promotion prospects (r=-0.11), participation in the decision-making process (r=-0.11) and teamwork (r=-0.10). Lower self-efficacy contributed to the occurrence of burnout symptoms r∈[-0.19 - -0.17]. Properly shaped and used organisational factors are stimulating for professional efficiency and effectiveness, and consequently, for the quality of nursing work. Negative assessment of the factors in the work environment contributes to the occurrence of burnout symptoms and decrease in self-efficacy. Nurses with lower self-efficacy more often experienced symptoms of burnout.

  15. Patch size but not short-term isolation influences occurrence of westslope cutthroat trout above human-made barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas P. Peterson; Bruce E. Rieman; Dona L. Horan; Michael K. Young

    2014-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation in aquatic systems has led to widespread isolation of stream fishes. Metapopulation theory predicts that persistence is directly related to local patch size and its characteristics, but because these relationships tend to be taxon-specific, empirical data are important. We assembled 246 observations of occurrence of westslope cutthroat trout (WCT...

  16. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. An application of the food choice kaleidoscope framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller Loose, S; Jaeger, S R

    2012-12-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen by whom, when and where can be helpful for manufacturers, dieticians/health care providers, and health policy makers. A descriptive framework - the food choice kaleidoscope (Jaeger et al., 2011) - was applied to self-reported 24h food recall data from a sample of New Zealand consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors. Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in the form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal specific. Furthermore, this study integrates psychographic variables into the 'person' mirror of the food choice kaleidoscope. A measure of habit in beverage choice was obtained from the inter-participant correlation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ecology of cultivable yeasts in pristine forests in northern Patagonia (Argentina) influenced by different environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, María Cecilia; Fontenla, Sonia; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    Environmental factors influencing the occurrence and community structure of soil yeasts in forests are not well studied. There are few studies dedicated to Southern Hemisphere soil yeasts populations and even fewer focused on temperate forests influenced by volcanic activity. The present work aimed to study the ecology of soil yeast communities from pristine forests influenced by different environmental factors (precipitation, physicochemical properties of soil, tree species, soil region, and season). The survey was performed in 4 northern Patagonian forests: 2 dominated by Nothofagus pumilio and 2 by Nothofagus antarctica. Yeast communities were described with ecological indices and species accumulation curves, and their association with environmental characteristics was assessed using multivariate analysis. Each forest site showed a particular arrangement of species as a result of environmental characteristics, such as dominant plant species, nutrient availability, and climatic characteristics. Cryptococcus podzolicus was most frequently isolated in nutrient-rich soils, Trichosporon porosum dominated cold mountain forests with low nutrient and water availability in soil, and capsulated yeasts such as Cryptococcus phenolicus dominated forest sites with low precipitation. The present work suggests that environmental factors affecting yeast communities may not be the current soil characteristics but the result of complex interactions of factors including natural disturbances like volcanic activity.

  18. The Significance of the Psychosocial Factors Influence in Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Alajbegovic, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in the world today. Risk factors are those factors that influence the development of CVD. Risk factors can be divided into materialistic (genetic predisposition, smoking, alcohol) and non-materialistic (psychosocial factors). Our goal is to note the role of the health system, to emphasize the importance of psychosocial factors in the pathogenesis of CVD, explain the relationship between psychosocial factors and other risk factors, stress the importance of prevention through the provision of management of the cardiovascular system (CVS) diseases. Methods: A descriptive analysis was performed on scientific studies in several published articles in journals on CVS: Public Health Reviews, CVD, European Heart Journal, Materia Socio Medica and other indexed journals that publish articles on CVS. Results and Conclusions: The importance and role of the health system in the early detection, diagnosis, therapy and CVS disease prevention is presented through three thematic areas: (a) The incidence and prevalence of CVS diseases; (b) treatment of CVS diseases and (c) promotion of health in patients with CVS disease and those the risk of their occurrence. Health promotion is the most important aspect of the health system monitoring. Health promotion is adequately implemented ifthe management ofCVD is proper. The main objectives of CVD management are: Preventing or delaying the occurrence of CVD, reducing the number and severity of worsening and complications of CVD. Management Includes: Individual and family, the health system and the community. Materialistic and non-materialistic risk factors together contribute to the development of CVD. PMID:24404370

  19. Analysis of a factor that influences cancer outpatient fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Mayumi; Hosokawa, Mai; Takagai, Junko; Ishida, Kazuko; Kano, Taro; Kanda, Kiyoko

    2008-01-01

    The fatigue seen in many cancer cases is considered to be decrease quality of life. We clarified factors related to such fatigue and used out result to relieve fatigue. We conducted a questionnaire using the Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS) on 204 cancer outpatients at the A hospital. We studied 16 factors influencing fatigue and analyzed the relationships among these factors and CFS scores. The mean of total fatigue scores was 23.0 points (standard deviation: 10.0). The fatigue is strong by higher than 19 points of the CFS scores. That frequency was 64.7%. The logistic regression analysis was conducted the influence factors of fatigue. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for items showing a significant difference Performance States (PS), loneliness, hormonal therapy, and radiation therapy. The conclusion of this study was to reduce fatigue in outpatient cancer treatment, it was suggested to that importance to assess a related factor of fatigue. (author)

  20. A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Valipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

  1. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.

  2. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Surya Diarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was conducted in Bali’s five major tourism objects. The 240 foreign tourists were chosen as respondents through convenience sampling technique. Data were analyzed using factor analysis. The results showed that factors that significantly influenced Bali brand equity were: symbolic and experiential benefit factor, direct and indirect destinations attributes, destination reliability and tangibility, assurance and empathy, brand destinations recognition and recall, destinations common psychological attributes, destination common functional attributes, unique functional attributes, behavioral loyalty, destination awareness, and attitudinal loyalty. Given the fluctuative nature of brand equity, Bali needs a consistent effort to maintain or to enhance brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. Maintaining the dominant factors that influence the strength of brand equity can be used as a basis to develop destination branding strategy to expand market segment,  choose the right target market, and anchoring destination position in world market competition.

  3. ICT Interventions for Girls: Factors Influencing ICT Career Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gorbacheva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

  4. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soepardi Soedibyo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was conducted on elementary school students in Jakarta, to identify factors that play roles on obesity of school-aged children. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:43-54Keywords: childhood obesity, weight shape index, body mass index

  5. Influences on domestic well water testing behavior in a Central Maine area with frequent groundwater arsenic occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara V; Marvinney, Robert G; Zheng, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In 2001 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted a new standard for arsenic (As) in drinking water of 10 μg/L, replacing the old standard of 50 μg/L. However, for the 12% of the U.S. population relying on unregulated domestic well water, including half of the population of Maine, it is solely the well owner's responsibility to test and treat the water. A mailed household survey was implemented in January 2013 in 13 towns of Central Maine with the goal of understanding the population's testing and treatment practices and the key behavior influencing factors in an area with high well-water dependency and frequent natural groundwater As. The response rate was 58.3%; 525 of 900 likely-delivered surveys to randomly selected addresses were completed. Although 78% of the households reported that their well has been tested, half of it was more than 5 years ago. Among the 58.7% who believe they have tested for As, most do not remember the results. Better educated, higher income homeowners who more recently purchased their homes are most likely to have included As when last testing. While households agree that water and As-related health risks can be severe, they feel low personal vulnerability and there are low testing norms overall. Significant predictors of including As when last testing include: having knowledge that years of exposure increases As-related health risks (risk knowledge), knowing who to contact to test well water (action knowledge), believing that regular testing does not take too much time (instrumental attitude), and having neighbors who regularly test their water (descriptive norm). Homeowners in As-affected communities have the tendency to underestimate their As risks compared to their neighbors. The reasons for this optimistic bias require further study, but low testing behaviors in this area may be due to the influence of a combination of norm, ability, and attitude factors and barriers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF STRESS CONNECTED WITH PROFESSIONAL WORK ON THE OCCURRENCE OF BURNOUT SYNDROME IN NURSES WORKING IN SURGICAL AND MEDICAL TREATMENT WARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Nowak-Starz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nursing is one of the professions where chronic stress is an inseparable characteristic and stems from the very nature of the profession itself. The job of a nurse involves particular mental burdens. The source of these is another person, one who has most often found themselves in an extreme situation. A nurse carries out her/his duties in a state of strong and long-lasting emotional strain. Inappropriate coping with stress and a lack of support from others in difficult situations leads to the development of burnout syndrome. This syndrome not only lowers, to a great extent, the quality of performed work but also prevents nurses from further professional development. Aims : The aim of the following paper is to evaluate the influence of stress connected with the professional work of a nurse on the occurrence of burnout syndrome. Material and methodology : Research was conducted on a group of 103 nurses working at eight hospital wards (surgical and medical treatment at the District Hospital in Lipsko. The research tool was a questionnaire of the author’s own devise, which contained 34 questions. Results : Among the examined nurses, 90% concluded that their professional work has a negative impact on their family life and they pointed to their own occupational burnout. Nurses who carried negative emotions over from work to their homes significantly more often showed a lack of satisfaction from their job and signs of occupational burnout. A substantial percentage of the participants considered shift-work and the professional position held to be a detrimental factor in the process of occupational burnout. Conclusion : The nurses were to a large extent exposed to mental burdens having a negative impact on their work. The vast majority of the respondents felt satisfaction from their job but a significant percentage of the respondents admitted to suffering from symptoms of chronic stress and exhaustion, which may indicate a lack of any support from co

  7. Evaluation of Factors Influencing Student Class Attendance and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Devadoss; John Foltz

    1996-01-01

    This study quantifies the effects of student behavior, teacher attributes, and course characteristics on class attendance and performance. Several notable factors that influence attendance and grades are motivation, prior grade point average (GPA), self-financing by students, hours worked on jobs, quality of teaching, and nature of class lectures. This study provides strong empirical evidence of the positive influence of class attendance on student performance. Copyright 1996, Oxford Universi...

  8. Factors Influencing the Intended Likelihood of Exposing Sexual Infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne L; Fitzgerald, Carey J

    2015-08-01

    There is a considerable body of literature on infidelity within romantic relationships. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature on factors influencing the likelihood of uninvolved individuals exposing sexual infidelity. Therefore, we devised an exploratory study examining a wide range of potentially relevant factors. Based in part on evolutionary theory, we anticipated nine potential domains or types of influences on the likelihoods of exposing or protecting cheaters, including kinship, strong social alliances, financial support, previous relationship behaviors (including infidelity and abuse), potential relationship transitions, stronger sexual and emotional aspects of the extra-pair relationship, and disease risk. The pattern of results supported these predictions (N = 159 men, 328 women). In addition, there appeared to be a small positive bias for participants to report infidelity when provided with any additional information about the situation. Overall, this study contributes a broad initial description of factors influencing the predicted likelihood of exposing sexual infidelity and encourages further studies in this area.

  9. Factors influencing health information system adoption in American hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bill B; Wan, Thomas T H; Burke, Darrell E; Bazzoli, Gloria J; Lin, Blossom Y J

    2005-01-01

    To study the number of health information systems (HISs), applicable to administrative, clinical, and executive decision support functionalities, adopted by acute care hospitals and to examine how hospital market, organizational, and financial factors influence HIS adoption. A cross-sectional analysis was performed with 1441 hospitals selected from metropolitan statistical areas in the United States. Multiple data sources were merged. Six hypotheses were empirically tested by multiple regression analysis. HIS adoption was influenced by the hospital market, organizational, and financial factors. Larger, system-affiliated, and for-profit hospitals with more preferred provider organization contracts are more likely to adopt managerial information systems than their counterparts. Operating revenue is positively associated with HIS adoption. The study concludes that hospital organizational and financial factors influence on hospitals' strategic adoption of clinical, administrative, and managerial information systems.

  10. A study on influencing factors of combined electrolysis catalytic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xiulong

    2008-01-01

    The influencing factors on CECE's separation performance was comprehensively investigated with a theoretical model. The separation factor of electrolysis cell has a remarkable influence on stripping efficiency and enrichment, and it is an effective way to improve enrichment by decreasing holdup of electrolysis cell. The separation performance at feeding point 1.5 m is better than that of 3 m, stripping efficiency and enrichment has a linear relationship with mass transfer coefficient in the range 3-4 mol · m -3 · s -1 . For all influencing factors, HD/H 2 O and HT/H 2 O have similar tendency, and HT/H 2 O has better separation performance than HD/H 2 O for the inherent thermodynamic difference of the two systems. (authors)

  11. Maturity of hospital information systems: Most important influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Carvalho, João; Rocha, Álvaro; Abreu, António

    2017-07-01

    Maturity models facilitate organizational management, including information systems management, with hospital organizations no exception. This article puts forth a study carried out with a group of experts in the field of hospital information systems management with a view to identifying the main influencing factors to be included in an encompassing maturity model for hospital information systems management. This study is based on the results of a literature review, which identified maturity models in the health field and relevant influencing factors. The development of this model is justified to the extent that the available maturity models for the hospital information systems management field reveal multiple limitations, including lack of detail, absence of tools to determine their maturity and lack of characterization for stages of maturity structured by different influencing factors.

  12. Factors influencing the purchasing behavior of TCM outpatients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Ma, Tso-Chiang; Chiu, Yen-Lin; Chen, Jin-Tang; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2008-07-01

    To test the factors that influence Chinese medicine outpatients' behavior patterns in purchasing Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) under the National Health Insurance (NHI) system in Taiwan. A structural questionnaire was developed and administered to randomly selected outpatients waiting for Chinese Medicine at pharmacies in two academic hospitals that offered Chinese Medicine services in central Taiwan. A total of 641 effective questionnaires were collected. SPSS 10.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) was used to run descriptive analysis and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). In addition, LISREL 8.30 (Analytical Package, Scientific Software International, Inc., Chicago, IL) was used to modify and analyze the relationship between the variables of the hypothetical pathway model. Path analysis showed that "behavioral intention" and "suffering from disease" had positive and direct influences on the outpatients' patterns of purchasing TCM. Furthermore, "usable resources" was an important factor with direct influence on behavioral intention. When there were more usable resources, the behavioral intention became stronger and indirectly influenced the purchasing behavior of TCM outpatients. In addition, one-way ANOVA showed that the purchasing behavior was significantly influenced by the number of diseases that an individual suffered. The results of the pathway model showed that "behavioral intention" and "suffering from disease" had positive and direct influence on the TCM purchasing behavior of Chinese Medicine outpatients. However, "usable resources" was an important factor with direct influence on behavioral intention. When there were more usable resources, the behavioral intention became stronger and indirectly had influence on the TCM purchasing behavior. Furthermore, the analysis result of one-way ANOVA showed that the more chronic diseases the surveyed subject suffered, the more significant the influence on purchasing behavior

  13. Modeling Factors with Influence on Sustainable University Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Dumitrascu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the factors with influence on the sustainable university management and the relationships between them. In the scientific approach we begin from a graphical model, according to which the extracurricular activities together with internal environmental factors influence students’ involvement in such activities, the university attractiveness, their academic performance and their integration into the socially-economic and natural environment (components related with sustainable development. The model emphasizes that individual performances, related to students’ participation in extracurricular activities, have a positive influence on the sustainability of university management. The results of the study have shown that the university sustainability may be influenced by a number of factors, such as students’ performance, students’ involvement in extracurricular activities or university’s attractiveness and can in turn influence implicitly also the sustainability of university management. The originality of the paper consists in the relationships study using the modeling method in general and informatics tools of modeling in particular, as well as through graphical visualization of some influences, on the sustainability university management.

  14. Environmental occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section

  15. Factors influencing US medical students' decision to pursue surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lauren E; Cooper, Clairice A; Guo, Weidun Alan

    2016-06-01

    Interest and applications to surgery have steadily decreased over recent years in the United States. The goal of this review is to collect the current literature regarding US medical students' experience in surgery and factors influencing their intention to pursue surgery as a career. We hypothesize that multiple factors influence US medical students' career choice in surgery. Six electronic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Education Resources Information Center, Embase, and PsycINFO) were searched. The inclusion criteria were studies published after the new century related to factors influencing surgical career choice among US medical students. Factors influencing US medical student surgical career decision-making were recorded. A quality index score was given to each article selected to minimize risk of bias. We identified 38 relevant articles of more than 1000 nonduplicated titles. The factors influencing medical student decision for a surgical career were categorized into five domains: mentorship and role model (n = 12), experience (clerkship n = 9, stereotype n = 4), timing of exposure (n = 9), personal (lifestyle n = 8, gender n = 6, finance n = 3), and others (n = 2). This comprehensive systemic review identifies mentorship, experience in surgery, stereotypes, timing of exposure, and personal factors to be major determinants in medical students' decisions to pursue surgery. These represent areas that can be improved to attract applicants to general surgery residencies. Surgical faculty and residents can have a positive influence on medical students' decisions to pursue surgery as a career. Early introduction to the field of surgery, as well as recruitment strategies during the preclinical and clinical years of medical school can increase students' interest in a surgical career. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors That Were Found to Influence Ghanaian Adolescents’ Eating Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mawusi Amos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to find out whether factors such as parental, peer, and media influences predict Ghanaian adolescent students’ eating habits. A random selection of 150 students from a population of senior high school students in Ghana were asked to complete the Eating Habits Questionnaire for Adolescents. Data were analyzed by the use of bivariate correlation, t test, and multiple regression analytical techniques using SPSS version 16. The findings revealed a significant positive relationship between peer influence and eating habits suggesting that the higher the peer pressure, the more unhealthy the students’ eating habits. Counterintuitively, parental and media influences did not significantly correlate with students’ eating habits. Gender difference in eating habits suggested that girls had more unhealthy eating habits than boys. Finally, multiple regression analysis revealed that peer influence was a better predictor of students’ eating habits than parental and media influences. The findings were discussed and recommendations were given in light of the study’s limitations.

  17. Factors influencing consumer behaviour in market vegetables in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarish H. Al-Gahaifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to understand factors influencing consumer behaviour when buying vegetables in Republic of Yemen. Data collection was done by structured questionnaire administered through schools, universities, government offices, and markets from 13 provinces in 5 governorates. Random convenience sampling technique was used. Total sample comprised of 463 completed questionnaires which were used for analysis. The respondents were classified into five categories on the base of their monthly income, age, education, gender, and type of settlement. Authors present the factors that can influence significantly this behaviour, e.g. price, quality, the location of seller, habit, personal relationship between consumer and seller, occasions, discount, sorting, word-mouth, time of purchase, the way of products display, and recommendation of friends and families. From the obtained results, it is obvious that there was high influence on the behaviour of Yemeni consumer when buying vegetables for factors price, occasions, discontent, and time of purchase, while factors habit, display, sorting, and the location of seller suggests medium influence, and the influence was low for word-mouth.

  18. What factors influence British medical students' career intentions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Michael; Fanshawe, Angela; Patel, Vanash; Goswami, Karan; Chilvers, Geoffrey; Ting, Michelle; Pilavakis, Yiannis; Rao, Christopher; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence career choice in UK medical students. Students at seven institutions were invited to rate how important various factors were on influencing their career choices and how interested they were in pursuing different specialties. The influence of interpersonal relationship networks on career choice was also evaluated. 641 responses were collected. 44% (283) were male, 16% (105) were graduates and 41% (263) were final-year students. For Dermatology (p = 0.009), Paediatrics (p = 0.000), Radiology (p = 0.000), Emergency Medicine (p = 0.018) and Cardiothoracic Surgery (p = 0.000), there was a clear correlation between completing a clinical attachment and an interest in pursuing the specialty. Perceived characteristics of the speciality, individually and in clusters were considered important by specific subgroups of students, such as those interested in surgery. These students considered prestige (p = 0.0003), role models (p = 0.014), financial rewards after training (p = 0.0196) and technical challenge (p = 0.0011) as important factors. Demographics such as sex and age played a significant role in career choice. Interpersonal relationship networks do not have a significant influence on career intentions. This study shows that the career intentions of British medical students are influenced by their undergraduate experience and by the weight they place on different specialty-related factors.

  19. Key factors influencing management decisions concerning safety equipment selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinda, Thanwadee; Ammarapala, Veeris; Suanmali, Suthathip

    2017-08-31

    The construction industry involves many hazardous activities that may expose workers to a wide variety of health hazards. Selection of construction safety equipment is crucial in ensuring workers' safety. This article aims to examine key factors influencing management decisions concerning safety equipment selection, utilizing exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). A questionnaire survey is conducted in the construction companies in Bangkok, Thailand. The factor analysis extracts 103 sets of data into six key factors - namely supplier agreements, supplier support, personal, equipment design, safety-related policies and cost value factors - with a total of 20 associated items. The AHP results conclude that the safety-related policies, equipment design and personal factors are the most important factors when selecting construction safety equipment. A construction company can use the study results as a checklist to help assess different safety equipment, and to select the best equipment.

  20. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  1. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitor treatment and occurrence of anterior uveitis in ankylosing spondylitis: results from the Swedish biologics register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Elisabeth; Lindström, Ulf; Zverkova-Sandström, Tatiana; Olsen, Inge C; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena; Askling, Johan; Kapetanovic, Meliha C; Kristensen, Lars Erik; Jacobsson, Lennart T H

    2017-09-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitor (TNFi) treatment has been shown to reduce the rates of anterior uveitis (AU) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Our objective was to compare the effect of adalimumab (ADA), etanercept (ETN) and infliximab (IFX) on AU occurrence in AS, using real-world data. Patients with AS starting ADA, ETN or IFX as their first TNFi from January 2003 to December 2010 were extracted from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register. AU rates, based on visits to an ophthalmologist with International Classification of Diseases 10 codes for AU, were obtained by linkage to the Swedish National Patient Register. For each TNFi, AU rates 2 years before TNFi start and for the first 2 years on TNFi treatment were compared. In the subgroup of patients who were AU-free during the 2 years before TNFi start, we also compared the risk of a first AU event. 1365 patients with AS were included (406 ADA, 354 ETN, 605 IFX). Compared with pretreatment rates, we noted a reduction in overall AU rates for ADA and IFX, and an increase for ETN. The adjusted HRs for AU in 1127 patients who were free of AU in the last 2 years before TNFi start were significantly higher for ETN versus ADA (HR: 3.86 95% CI 1.85 to 8.06) and ETN versus IFX (HR: 1.99, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.22), while the HR for IFX versus ADA was not statistically significant. The results suggest differences in effect on AU risk between ADA, ETN and IFX, with a clear advantage for ADA/IFX over ETN. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang; Bai, Yangjing; Bai, Yangjuan; Ma, Weiguang; Yang, Xiangyu; Li, Jiping

    2018-03-20

    There is a growing recognition that training is not translated into performance and the 'transfer problem' exists in organization training today. Although factors contributing to training transfer have been identified in business and industry, the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession remain less clear. A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken in two tertiary referral hospitals in China from February 2013 to September 2013. Purposeful sampling of 24 nursing staffs were interviewed about the factors influencing training transfer. Seven themes evolved from the analysis, categorized in 4 main domains, which described the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession in trainee characteristics, training design, work environment and profession domain. The trainee characteristics domain included attitude and ability. The training design domain included training content and instruction method. The work environment domain included supports as facilitators and opposition as hindrance. The theme pertaining to the profession domain was professional development. Health care managers need to understand the factors influencing training transfer for maximizing the benefits of training. The right beliefs and values about training, the rigorous employee selection for training, the relevance of training content, training instructions facilitating learning and transfer, supports from peer, supervisors and the organization, organizational culture such as change, sharing, learning and support, and professional development are key to successful training transfer. Furthermore, managers should be aware of the opposition from co-workers and find ways to prevent it.

  3. The Influence of Organizational External Factors on Construction Risk Management among Nigerian Construction Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Adeleke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substantial empirical research has shown conflicting results regarding the influence of organizational external factors on construction risk management, suggesting the necessity to introduce a moderator into the study. The present research confirmed whether rules and regulations matter on the relationships between organizational external factors and construction risk management. Methods: Based on discouragement and organizational control theory, this research examined the effects of organizational external factors and rules and regulations on construction risk management among 238 employees operating in construction companies in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria. A personally administered questionnaire was used to acquire the data. The data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Results: A significant positive relationship between organizational external factors and construction risk management was asserted. This study also found a significant positive relationship between rules and regulations and construction risk management. As anticipated, rules and regulations were found to moderate the relationship between organizational external factors and construction risk management, with a significant positive result. Similarly, a significant interaction effect was also found between rules and regulations and organizational external factors. Implications of the research from a Nigerian point of view have also been discussed. Conclusion: Political, economy, and technology factors helped the construction companies to reduce the chance of risk occurrence during the construction activities. Rules and regulations also helped to lessen the rate of accidents involving construction workers as well as the duration of the projects. Similarly, the influence of the organizational external factors with rules and regulations on construction risk management has proven that most of the construction companies that implement the

  4. The impact of the environmental and socio-economic factors to the occurrence of symptoms and diseases of the respiratory system in school children from Sosnowiec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Skiba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective of the study was to assess the impact of environmental and socio-economic factors to the occurrence of symptoms and diseases of the respiratory system in school children from Sosnowiec, based on the questionnaire data. Materials and methods: The crosssectional epidemiological questionnaire study was performed in the years 2005–2006. Parents of 709 primary school children aged 7–12 years took part in the study. Questionnaire was completed by parents to collect information on children health status, particularly respiratory symptoms, chronic diseases of respiratory system, allergic diseases, use of medical services, children dietary habits and family socio-economic status. Results: In the study group the statistical significance was found for the incidence of respiratory symptoms in children and housing conditions, i.e.: the number of people sleeping together with a child in the same room and dampness in the dwelling. Results of the study showed, that incidence of whizzing differed statistically significantly in the groups of different professional status of the parents. It is difficult to estimate if this is only the influence of socio-economic conditions or any other environmental factors as well. Conclusions: Results of the study demonstrated statistical significance between the status of respiratory system in children and housing occupancy rate (the number of people sleeping together with a child in the same room and dampness in the dwelling. Relation between respiratory symptoms in children, parents education and professional status was analyzed, but findings of the conducted studies do not give explicit evidence of such a relation.

  5. Arctic boundary layer properties and its influence on cloud occurrence frequency, phase and structure in autumn season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, S.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, autumnal boundary layer characteristics and cloud properties have been investigated using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement North Slope of Alaska (ARM NSA) site from January 2002 to December 2008. We found that both cloud and planetary boundary layer (PBL) properties can be well distinguished by surface wind directions. When the ARM NSA site is dominated by a northerly wind during the period September- November, the PBL is at near saturation for all three months; while the maximum RH layer varies from low and thin in September, to higher and thicker in October, and then it becomes close to surface again in November. Both the ceilometer and the MPL derived cloud base heights coincide well with the RH maximum layer in the PBL for all three autumnal months. The frequencies of occurrence of mixed phase clouds in September and October are around 60-80% under a northerly wind, which are about 1.5 times higher than those during a southerly wind. Under northerly wind, the PDFs of PBL temperature and specific humidity are narrow and unimodal, with a peak probability around 0.4-0.5. Under a southerly wind, on the other hand, the PBL is both warmer and wetter than northerly wind profiles, which result in lower RH values (10-15% lower) in September and October; and the PDFs of PBL temperature and specific humidity are more evenly distributed with larger distribution range and lower PDF peak values (PBL is more favorable for mixed phase cloud formation, cloud occurrence frequency decreases from 90% to 60% as PBL temperature and specific humidity increase. In October, the frequency of occurrence of mixed phase clouds also decreases from 90% to 50-60% as PBL temperature increases. While in November, it increases first and then decreases with increasing PBL temperature and specific humidity. The frequency of occurrence of mixed phase clouds is linearly correlated to PBL RH values: for all three months, it increases from 20-90% as PBL RH value

  6. Factors Influencing Environmental Management Practices Among Hotels in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaiton Samdin; Kasimu Abdu Bakori; Hamimah Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the factors that influence hotel managers- attitudes towards sustainable tourism practices (STP) in Kuala Lumpur and the state of Selangor in Malaysia. The study distributes 104 questionnaires to hotels ranging from one star to five-star categories including budget hotels. Out of this figure, 60 copies of the questionnaires were returned and analyzed. The finding revealed that of all the seven factors investigated, only the variables measuring incentives and...

  7. Factors influencing pricing in the accommodation sector in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelina du Plessis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Price is a significant factor of competitiveness. Price is a complex issue and is determined by a variety of demand and supply factors. These factors also differ from industry to industry. The purpose of this article is to determine the factors that influence pricing in the South African accommodation sector. In order to generate proper data, a survey was conducted at various South African accommodation establishments that were obtained from the databases of the three major associations in the accommodation sector. Two-hundred and forty seven questionnaires completed by managers from accommodation establishments were used in this research. Principal component factor analyses with Varimax rotation in STATISTICA were carried out. These resulted in ten factors, namely environmental qualities, amenities, image, management factor, positioning, quality service factor, infrastructure service factor, location, marketing and product quality factor. The results revealed that the major factors in pricing are service quality, image and product quality. Consequently this article can be used to assist managers in pricing and in obtaining a better competitive position in the industry by revising management structures and marketing campaigns. Keywords and phrases: Tourism industry, price competitiveness, service quality, image, product quality, entrepreneur and factor analysis

  8. Occurrence of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamesipour, Faham; Momtaz, Hassan; Azhdary Mamoreh, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    A total of 30 Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from 333 pneumonic and apparently health slaughter cattle were examined for capsule biosynthesis genes and 23 virulence-associated genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The disc diffusion technique was used to determine antimicrobial resistance profiles among the isolates. Of the isolates, 23 belonged to capsular type A, 5 to capsular type D and two isolates were untypeable. The distribution of the capsular types in pneumonic lungs and in apparently health lungs was statistically similar. All virulence genes tested were detected among the isolates derived from pneumonic lungs; whereas isolates derived from apparently health lungs carried 16 of the 23 genes. The frequently detected genes among isolates from pneumonic lungs were exbD, hgbA, hgbB, ompA, ompH, oma87, and sodC; whereas tadD, toxA, and pmHAS genes occurred less frequently. Most of the adhesins and superoxide dismutases; and all of the iron acquisition and protectin proteins occurred at significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher frequencies in isolates from pneumonic lungs. Isolates from apparently healthy lungs didn't carry the following genes; hsf-1, hsf-2, tadD, toxA, nanB, nanH, and pmHAS. One adhesion (hsf-1) and two iron acquisition (exbD and tonB) genes occurred at significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher frequencies among capA isolates. All the P. multocida isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and tetracyclines. Different proportions of the isolates were however resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, lincomycin, penicillin, rifampin, streptomycin, and florfenicol. Our results reveal presence of virulence factors (VFs) in P. multocida strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic bovids. A higher frequency of the factors among isolates from symptomatic study animals may suggest their role in pathogenesis of P. multocida-associated bovine respiratory disease (BRD). The results

  9. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stok-Koch, L; Bolhuis, S; Koopmans, R

    2007-05-01

    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing home physicians in training (NHPT) and 62 supervisors. They participated in semi-structured group interviews, in which they discussed four questions regarding workplace learning. Qualitative analysis of the data was performed to establish a framework of factors that influence workplace learning, within which framework comparisons between groups could be made. A framework consisting of 56 factors was identified. These were grouped into 10 categories, which in turn were grouped into four domains: the working environment, educational factors in the workplace, NHPT characteristics and supervisor characteristics. Of the factors that influence workplace learning, social integration was cited most often. Supervisors more often reported educational factors and NHPTs more frequently reported impediments. The educational relationship may be improved when supervisors explicitly discuss the learning process and learning conditions within the workplace, thereby focusing on the NHPT needs. Special attention should be paid to the aspects of social integration. A good start could be to answer the question regarding how to establish a basic feeling of 'knowing where you are' and 'how to go about things' to make residents feel comfortable enough to focus on the learning process.

  10. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  11. The stability and change of etiological influences on depression, anxiety symptoms and their co-occurrence across adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczuk, M A; Zavos, H M S; Gregory, A M; Eley, T C

    2016-01-01

    Depression and anxiety persist within and across diagnostic boundaries. The manner in which common v. disorder-specific genetic and environmental influences operate across development to maintain internalizing disorders and their co-morbidity is unclear. This paper investigates the stability and change of etiological influences on depression, panic, generalized, separation and social anxiety symptoms, and their co-occurrence, across adolescence and young adulthood. A total of 2619 twins/siblings prospectively reported symptoms of depression and anxiety at mean ages 15, 17 and 20 years. Each symptom scale showed a similar pattern of moderate continuity across development, largely underpinned by genetic stability. New genetic influences contributing to change in the developmental course of the symptoms emerged at each time point. All symptom scales correlated moderately with one another over time. Genetic influences, both stable and time-specific, overlapped considerably between the scales. Non-shared environmental influences were largely time- and symptom-specific, but some contributed moderately to the stability of depression and anxiety symptom scales. These stable, longitudinal environmental influences were highly correlated between the symptoms. The results highlight both stable and dynamic etiology of depression and anxiety symptom scales. They provide preliminary evidence that stable as well as newly emerging genes contribute to the co-morbidity between depression and anxiety across adolescence and young adulthood. Conversely, environmental influences are largely time-specific and contribute to change in symptoms over time. The results inform molecular genetics research and transdiagnostic treatment and prevention approaches.

  12. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  13. Factors Influencing Resident Choice of Prosthodontic Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarwsky, Pandora Keala Lee; Wang, Yan; Shah, Kumar; Koka, Sreenivas

    2017-06-01

    The decision by prosthodontic residency program directors to employ the Match process highlights the need to understand applicant priorities that influence their choice of which programs to rank highly. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that were most important to residents when choosing from among nonmilitary based prosthodontics dental residency programs in the United States. Following completion of a pilot study, all currently enrolled prosthodontic residents at nonmilitary residency programs were invited to participate via the internet. The study consisted of a survey instrument asking residents to rank 26 possible factors that might impact an applicant's choice of residency program. In addition, the instrument collected other possible influencing variables including gender and debt load. Mean rank scores were compared to determine the most and least important factors. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare specific factors between the possible influencing variables. Two hundred and thirty residents completed the survey instrument, representing a 54.1% response rate of possible participants. With regard to factors influencing program choice, reputation of the residency program was the factor ranked the highest by participants, followed in descending order by the program director's personality, curriculum content, access to use of the latest digital technology, and opportunities for dental implant placement. Quality of schools for children, community outreach opportunities, and the ability to moonlight were ranked as the least important factors. Male and female residents ranked factors such as tuition/stipend, curriculum content, and community outreach opportunities significantly differently. Depending on debt load, residents ranked the factors tuition/stipend, ability to moonlight, curriculum content, and safety of the area where the program is differently. Current prosthodontic residents valued the reputation of the program as the most

  14. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  15. Factors Influencing Sesame (Sesamun Indicum L) Marketing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Journal Seek, Scientific Commons, and http://journal.aesonnigeria.org. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) http://www.ajol.info/index.php/jae. Email: editorinchief@aesonnigeria.org. 126 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v19i2.11. Factors Influencing Sesame (Sesamun Indicum L) Marketing in. Jigawa State, Nigeria ...

  16. Hepatitus B virus infection : factors influencing the outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Hattum (Jan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to find correlations between the various courses of disease after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and factors that could conceivably have influenced the course of disease. The aim of the study was to find correlations between parameters of viral replication and

  17. Influence of climatic and edaphic factors on the distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of climatic and edaphic factors on the distribution of Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees in Arizona, USA. JR Cox, GB Ruyle. Abstract. Aims to delineate areas where Lehmann lovegrass, Eragrostis lehmanniana, has been successfully established from sown seed, where mature plants have persisted for more than ten ...

  18. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  19. Assessing socio–economic factors influencing adoption of legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the numerous benefits of legume-based multiple cropping systems in soil fertility management, most smallholder sorghum farmers have not adopted them. The aim of this study was to examine socio-economic factors influencing adoption of legume-based multiple cropping systems among smallholder sorghum ...

  20. Factors influencing user ability to retrieve information from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing user ability to retrieve information from the reference libraries in University of Calabar (UNICAL) and Cross River State University of Technology (CRUTECH) in Cross River State,Nigeria. ... enhancement. Key Words : University, Libraries, Reference, Librarians, Information , Retrieval, User, Service.

  1. Factors Influencing the Usage of Insecticide Treated Mosquito Nets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Malaria in Sudan is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Incidence remains very high especially among pregnant women and children under five. study was conducted to determine the factors influencing the usage of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) for prevention of malaria among pregnant women.

  2. Factors that Influence Male Involvement in Sexual and Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    This study explored factors that influence male involvement in reproductive health in western Kenya. Qualitative study design was used. From December 2008 to February 2009, data were collected via in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) at three provinces of western Kenya. Twelve in-depth interviews ...

  3. Factors Influencing Utilization of Modern Family Planning Services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: This study investigated factors influencing utilization of modern family planning services among women of childbearing age (15-49 years) in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated. Descriptive survey design was adopted for it.

  4. Factors influencing adolescent mothers\\' non-utilisation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated factors influencing adolescent mothers' non-utilisation of contraceptives in the Mkhondo (previously known as the Piet Retief) area. Although contraceptives are available free of charge, the number of adolescent mothers continues to increase in this area. Questionnaires were completed by 107 ...

  5. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  6. Demographic and Social Factors Influencing Public Opinion on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines countervailing South African public opinion on the subject of prostitution in South Africa, and identifies the factors which might influence these attitudes. It also investigates the complex relationship between public opinion and the law. Whilst engaging in prostitution constitutes a criminal offence under ...

  7. Factors influencing energy demand in dairy farming | Kraatz | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of energy utilization is one of the key indicators for developing more sustainable agricultural practices. Factors influencing the energy demand in dairy farming are the cumulative energy demand for feed-supply, milk yield as well as the replacement rate of cows. The energy demand of dairy farming is ...

  8. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical educaton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. S. Bolhuis; R. Koopmans; L. Stok-Koch

    2007-01-01

    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing

  9. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok-Koch, E.G.H.J.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out

  10. Factors Influencing Pregnancy Desires among HIV Positive Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertility issues for HIV-positive women are becoming increasingly important. The study investigated the pregnancy desires of HIV positive women of Gert Sibande District in Mpumalanga, South Africa. The objective of the study is to present findings on factors influencing pregnancy desires amongst HIV positive women that ...

  11. Factors influencing the teaching of physical education and sport in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was conducted to gain an understanding of the pedagogic, administrative and attitudinal factors that influence the teaching of Physical Education and Sports in cluster H schools of Chivi district of Zimbabwe. The research employed the descriptive survey design. Data was collected by means of ...

  12. Pantomime production by people with aphasia. What are influencing factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nispen, Karin; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke; Mol, Elisabeth; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper aimed to inform clinical practice on whether people with aphasia (PWA) deploy pantomime techniques similarly to non-brain damaged participants (NBDP) and if not, what factors influence these differences. Method: We compared 38 PWA to 20 NBDP in their use of six

  13. Author's correction The genetic factors influencing the development ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The genetic factors influencing the development of trichotillomania. Koushik Chatterjee. J. Genet. 91, 259–262. This article was published online on the journal website (www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/) on 2nd November 2011 and also on Springer's. Online First (http://www.springerlink.com/content/0022-1333/preprint/). The changes ...

  14. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies assessing past and current overall dietary patterns are limited in the elderly in Mauritius. To address this lack of information, a nutritional study was conducted to investigate the various possible factors and their relative importance in influencing food choices and thus food intake of the elderly people in Mauritius.

  15. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Multimedia Cable Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Carolyn A.; Jeffres, Leo W.

    1998-01-01

    Integrates several mainstream research approaches to new media diffusion to explore the potential strengths and weaknesses of each. Investigates factors influencing multimedia cable service adoption interest, including demographic variables, existing media-use patterns, and personality traits such as "innovativeness." (SR)

  16. factors influencing adherence to arvs among patients attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-01

    Apr 1, 2014 ... FACTORS INFLUENCING ADHERENCE TO ARVS AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING COMPREHENSIVE CARE CLINIC. WITHIN JOMO KENYATTA ... AIDS-related mortality is increasing among 20 to 49 year olds (Adults in their ..... Impact of HIV/AIDS on Labor Markets, Productivity and Welfare in Southern ...

  17. Factors Influencing Transient Poverty Among Agro-Pastoralists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Transient Poverty Among Agro-Pastoralists in semi-arid areas of Kenya. ... The number of livelihood sources, education level of the household head, relief food, extension service and distance to the nearest markets were positively related to per capita daily income. A negative relationship was observed ...

  18. Influence of Psycho-demographic Factors and Effectiveness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual risk behaviours (SRBs) among youths continue to reverse the initial gains in HIV/STD control in Nigeria. Very little is known about the interactive influence of psycho-demographic factors (self concept, HIV/AIDS knowledge, and gendezr) and psycho-behavioural interventions (psychoeducation and assertiveness ...

  19. Factors influencing information-seeking strategies and sources used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing information-seeking strategies and sources used by oil palm scientists in Nigeria. L Obasuyi. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Library Archives and Information Science Vol. 17 (2) 2007: pp. 79-97. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  1. Factors Influencing Sesame ( Sesamun indicum L) Marketing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results imply that income and experience were major factors that influence the marketing of sesame in the study area. Formation of cooperative societies by marketers of sesame will make them benefit from economies of scale in marketing of sesame and have much access to credit facilities. Key Words: Sesame marketing, ...

  2. 'Sense of belonging': The influence of individual factors in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. Perceptions of the LE among interns in KwaZulu-Natal, SA, were assessed in December 2015, using a validated version of the Postgraduate ... Intern training programmes in SA need to recognise that individual demographic factors influence interns' perceptions in the context of teaching and mentoring in a ...

  3. Factors Influencing Household Solid Waste Management in Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to determine factors that influence household solid waste management practices in urban Nyeri Municipality. Descriptive cross- sectional household survey was conducted in June, 2011. Households were randomly selected in all four urban sub-locations of the Municipality; 313 ...

  4. Influence of demographic factors on knowledge sharing among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge sharing is an effective means to provide information for organizational growth. The study investigated the influence of demographic factors on knowledge sharing among researchers in selected research institutes in Oyo state, Nigeria. The study adopted survey research method. Total enumeration technique was ...

  5. Navigating New Horizons: An Analysis of Factors that Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the factors that influence computer literacy among university students. The study was primarily inspired by the realization that students acquire computer skills at varying levels and progress to use computers with varying proficiency despite the fact that they will be engaging in a ...

  6. Factors influencing breastfeeding practices in Edo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing breastfeeding practices in Edo State, Nigeria. A questionnaire and group interviewed were the instruments used. Data was collected from 600 randomly selected mothers of children aged 4–24 months, who visited four antenatal and children clinics. The data ...

  7. Socio-economic factors influencing small ruminants management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic factors influencing small ruminants management practices in Kaduna State were investigated. One hundred and twenty questionnaires were administered to randomly selected small ruminants farmers in Giwa LGA of Kaduna State. Tools of analysis include descriptive statistics, the Pearson's correlation ...

  8. Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) is a major public health problem that the world is facing today. It is more prevalent in low income countries including Tanzania. This study was conducted to determine factors influencing Vitamin A status of lactating mothers in selected regions of Manyara and Shinyanga, Tanzania. Purposive and ...

  9. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2011-03-01

    Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

  10. Factors influencing the development of early- or late-onset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinsonfs disease (PD) contribute significantly to global disease burden. PD can be categorised into early-onset PD (EOPD) with an age at onset (AAO) of .50 years and late-onset PD (LOPD) with an AAO of >50 years. Aims. To identify factors influencing EOPD and ...

  11. Factors influencing awareness and attendance of traditional oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In order to institute preventive programmes against harmful traditional oral health practices there is a need to identify targets. Objectives: To investigate factors influencing awareness and attendance of traditional oral health practices by residents of a peri-urban community in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: A ...

  12. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  13. Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A

    2014-12-01

    A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The Influence of Psychological and Societal Factors on Student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of psychological and societal factors on students' performance in mathematics at Senior Secondary School Level in. Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state. A simple random sampling technique was used to sample three hundred secondary school students who supplied information on the ...

  15. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Nagels, G.; Bissay, V.; De Keyser, J.

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and

  16. Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A mixed method study. ... Study design: Both qualitative (focus group discussions) and quantitative (cross-sectional survey) methods were utilised for this study. Subjects: A total of 101 subjects were recruited with age range 18 to 34 years as against 100 ...

  17. The factors influencing safety of archeology monuments in Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir K. Tulush

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article characterizes situation in preserving the arche-ology monuments in region – the most numerous objects of a cultural heritage in the republic. Modern factors, making the greatest influence on barrows and sites of ancient settlement as the basic types of monu-ments of Tuva are considered.

  18. Distribution, stock, and influencing factors of soil organic carbon in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    40

    Distribution, stock, and influencing factors of soil organic carbon. 1 in an alpine meadow in the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibetan. 2. Plateau. 3. XUCHAO ZHU1 and MING'AN SHAO2,3,*. 4. 1State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science,. 5. Chinese Academy of Sciences, 210008, Nanjing, ...

  19. factors influencing vitamin a supplementation among mothers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 89 No. 4 April 2012. FACTORS INFLUENCING VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION AMONG MOTHERS OF CHILDREN UNDER FIVE. YEARS OLD AT MBAGATHI DISTRICT HOSPITAL, KENYA. M. W. Kamau, BSc (Nurs), MSc (Public Health), Lecturer Presbyterian Universityof East Africa, ...

  20. Factors Influencing Student Nurses' Performance in the Final ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to identify leads to factors influencing student nurses' performance in the final year practical examination at Gweru School of Nursing. A descriptive survey was used to collect data from a census of 16 assessors and cluster sample of 35 student nurses. A questionnaire designed for the research ...

  1. Transcriptional factor influence on OTA production and the quelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the influence of some transcriptional factors on ochratoxin A production as well as investigates the quelling attributes of some designed siRNA on the OTA producing Aspergillus section Nigri using standard recommended techniques. Results obtained following comparison of the pks gene promoter ...

  2. Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land ownership patterns and cultivation of seasonal crops were among the major factors that influence water resources as they entail more frequent soil disturbance, inadequate ground cover and increased risks of soil erosion and watershed degradation. Free range and semi – zero grazing system along stream banks is a ...

  3. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  4. Consumption patterns and demographic factors influence on fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sugar content of fruit juice classifications. A number of consumption patterns and demographic factors also had an influence on consumer perceptions; hence, increased information should be disseminated to encourage South African consumers to pursue healthy balanced diets. Keywords: consumer perceptions, fruit juice, ...

  5. Factors That Were Found to Influence Ghanaian Adolescents’ Eating Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Mawusi Amos; Freda Dzifa Intiful; Laurene Boateng

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to find out whether factors such as parental, peer, and media influences predict Ghanaian adolescent students’ eating habits. A random selection of 150 students from a population of senior high school students in Ghana were asked to complete the Eating Habits Questionnaire for Adolescents. Data were analyzed by the use of bivariate correlation, t test, and multiple regression analytical techniques usin...

  6. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  7. The Influence of Gender Related Factors on Access to Antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the influence of gender related factors on access to antiretroviral therapy. The results showed that the number of females visiting antiretroviral therapy clinics was twice that of males and in the 18-26 years age bracket, females were three times more affected by HIV/AIDS than males.

  8. Social Cultural Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Sports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the socio-cultural factors influencing women's participation in sports as perceived by female undergraduates in the University of Ilorin. Two hundred female undergraduate students residing in school halls of residence were involved in the study. These were selected using simple randomsampling.

  9. Comparison of the Economic Factors that Influence Foreign Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the compound growth rate of FDI and the factors influencing its inflow in India and Nigeria. The study showed that the time series data were non-stationary but differenced stationary and their cointegration residual and error correction model regression showed a long-term relationship and a same time ...

  10. Habitat factors influencing the distribution of Cymbopogon validus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors influencing the distribution of Cymbopogon validus in Mkambati Game Reserve were investigated using multivariate techniques. C. validus was found to be present on nutrient-rich, clay soils and absent from dystrophic, sandy soils. This could account for the patchy distribution of C. validus in the reserve and may ...

  11. Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-13

    Mar 13, 2010 ... Original Research: Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young adult consumers. 2010;23(3) ... intake were identified that provide health educators and policy makers with useful information for health promotion. ... malls were selected on the basis of a previous market research study.

  12. Factors that Influence Research Output of Academic Librarians in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey was carried out to determine the factors that influence research output of academic librarians in Niger state. It was aimed at providing the reality of the opinion on research output of academic librarians who are working in Niger state. Questionnaire were designed and distributed to (65) sixty five of the (85) eighty ...

  13. Socio-economic factors influencing agricultural radio programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined socio economic factors influencing agricultural radio programme FILIN MAINOMA in Kainji Area of Niger State. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 252 respondents from the study area. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as, Pearson Product ...

  14. Comparison of the Economic Factors that Influence Foreign Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the Economic Factors that Influence Foreign Direct Investment Growth in Nigeria and India. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, ...

  15. Factors Influencing Road Traffic Delay: Drivers' Perspectives And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined drivers' perception of road traffic delay attributes and factors influencing road traffic delay with a view to assessing loss of man hours along Lagos-Abeokuta Expressway. This view translated to policy statements that can tremendously reduce the road traffic delay in the study area. Primary data were ...

  16. Gender Differential Perception Of Factors Influencing Choice Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Differential Perception Of Factors Influencing Choice Of Profession Among Academic Staff Of Colleges Of Education In Rivers State, Nigeria. ... This is because if the wrong choice is made productivity in the world of work may be affected drastically. Male academicians on the one hand and females on the other have ...

  17. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out to study the influence of environmental factors on the birth weight variability of two breeds of sheep. Animals used in this research were taken from the Pirot and Svrljig indigenous sheep breeds. The data were collected from 1999 to 2009 and were analyzed to determine the effect of ...

  18. Factors influencing birth weights in Cameroon | Ngassa | Clinics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After gestational age has been shown to be significantly correlated with mean birth weights in Cameroon, the aim of this study was to determine other factors which can also influence birth weights. This was a cross sectional study carried out in the obstetrics and gynaecology units of 4 major hospitals in Yaoundé during the ...

  19. Factors influencing in vitro shoot regeneration of Macadamia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... A study was carried out to investigate the effect of culture medium factors that influence the shoot regenerative potential of Macadamia nodal segments in vitro. Explants were obtained from shoots of current growth flush of Macadamia integrifolia and inoculated onto different test media. Woody plant medium ...

  20. Influence of breed and environmental factors on litter parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of breed and environmental factors such as season, temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed on litter parameters of rabbits raised in a semi-humid environment was investigated using two hundred and twenty four (224) litter records collected between 1991 and 1997. New Zealand White ...

  1. Statistical Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Recurrence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate the risk factors influencing the recurrence of urinary bladder cancer, and to predict the probability of recurrence within two years after radical cystectomy. Patients and Methods Between 1986 and 1994, 857 patients were admitted at the Urology and Nephrology Center of Mansoura University, Egypt, ...

  2. An Empirical Investment of the Factors Influencing the Adoption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Empirical Investment of the Factors Influencing the Adoption of Computer Based Auditing in Public Limited Liability Companies in Nigeria. ... information on current issues such as technological development, Keywords: Auditing, Computer based auditing, Information technology. International Journal of Development and ...

  3. International preferences for pork appearance: II. Factors influencing consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngapo, T.M.; Martin, J.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2007-01-01

    The preference for pork varying in its fat cover, lean colour, marbling and drip differs among countries, but the influence of socio-demographic factors is unknown. In this study of 11,717 consumers from 22 countries, more than 80% of consumers liked pork, thought that pork quality was at least

  4. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  5. Factors influencing non-utilisation of maternity care services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the factors influencing the utilization of maternity care in the public health facilities in the Sagamu Community. Materials and Methods: With the aid of pre-tested structured interview questionnaires, a comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Sagamu among expectant mothers patronizing ...

  6. Research of Adsorption on PCBs: Isotherm Modeling and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Peiyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PCBs are a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in the environment. Adsorption behavior of PCBs has obtained great attention affecting the degradation, mobility activities. In this paper, adsorption process was studied systematically to figure out the model of adsorption, adsorption mechanism and the influencing factors, which will provides the theoretical basis for further research.

  7. Determinants of factors influencing technical efficiency of cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors influencing technical efficiency of cocoa production in Ondo State, Nigeria using a stochastic frontier production function. Using the random sampling technique, well-structured questionnaire were used to elicit information from 120 cocoa farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. The mean technical ...

  8. Analysis of factors influencing transaction costs among cocoyam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study identified factors that influenced transaction cost among cocoyam buying households in Abia state, Nigeria. Data were collected from a random sample of 200 cocoyam buying households. The respondents were drawn from rural and urban markets in the two agricultural zones of the state. Data collected were ...

  9. Influence of bioregion and environmental factors on the growth, size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent of the effects of the combined influences of environmental factors on cow productivity depended on the physiological stage of animal growth and reproduction. Environmental effects on production efficiency were buffered by maternal effects at birth, but became more significant after weaning (9%) to yearling age ...

  10. Assessment of the influence of limnological factors on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative survey of molluscs was carried out in two major man-made lakes, Bomo and Kubanni, in Zaria during the rainy and dry seasons of 2007 and 2008. This was done to determine the molluscan compositions as well as to assess the physicochemical factors that may influence the malacofauna of the two lakes.

  11. 'Mum never loved me.' How structural factors influence adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How structural factors influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health through parent–child connectedness: A qualitative study in rural Tanzania. ... Connectedness was related to SRH in a bi-directional way: lack of connectedness was linked to young people's low self-esteem and risky sexual behaviour while ...

  12. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  13. Factors influencing home care nurse intention to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Patterson, Erin; Rowe, Alissa; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; MacDonald, Geraldine; Cranley, Lisa; Squires, Mae

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting Canadian home care nurse intention to remain employed (ITR). In developed nations, healthcare continues to shift into community settings. Although considerable research exists on examining nurse ITR in hospitals, similar research related to nurses employed in home care is limited. In the face of a global nursing shortage, it is important to understand the factors influencing nurse ITR across healthcare sectors. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with home care nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six categories of influencing factors were identified by home care nurses as affecting ITR: job characteristics; work structures; relationships/communication; work environment; nurse responses to work; and employment conditions. Findings suggest the following factors influence home care nurse ITR: having autonomy; flexible scheduling; reasonable and varied workloads; supportive work relationships; and receiving adequate pay and benefits. Home care nurses did not identify job satisfaction as a single concept influencing ITR. Home care nursing management should support nurse autonomy, allow flexible scheduling, promote reasonable workloads and create opportunities for team building that strengthen supportive relationships among home care nurses and other health team members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Analysis Of The Factors Influencing The Adoption Of Valueadded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors influencing the adoption of value added products of cassava in Southeast, Nigeria was estimated using the exponential regression function in 2007. The study was carried out in 3 States i.e Abia, Imo and Akwa Ibom States, structured questionnaire was used for the survey. Data was analyzed using simple ...

  15. Factors Influencing the Use of Information and Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored motivating factors influencing the use of ICT in Minna.The target population were registered Estate Surveyors and Valuers domiciled and operating within the Minna property market. The respondents were extracted from the 2011 NIESV membership Directory.Survey data from 15 estate firms were ...

  16. A Path Model of Psychosocial Factors Influencing Quality, Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study adopted the survey research design using an ex-post facto type to investigate path modeling of psychosocial factors influencing quality marital relationship among married individuals in Southwest Nigeria. The target population ... Three research questions were answered using path analysis. The result showed ...

  17. Cultural Factors Influencing Use Of Sweetpotato Flour For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Imo and Ebonyi states to determine the influence of cultural factors in the utilization of the sweet potato flour for confectionery. Imo and Ebonyi States were purposively selected. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit data from respondents. Data collected were analyzed and presented using ...

  18. Factors Influencing Non-Adherence of the Affirmative Action on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken in tertiary institutions in South-East Zone of Nigeria to find out the factors influencing non-adherence to the affirmative action in employment. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. Out of six thousand and eighty-eight academic staff that made up the population, two thousand and ...

  19. Assessment of the prevalence and factors influencing adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the prevalence and factors influencing adherence to exclusive breast feeding among HIV positive mothers in selected health institution of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ... Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and entered into a computer and analyzed using the SPSS software version 16.

  20. Fish milt quality and major factors influencing the milt quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In commercial fish production, the evaluation of milt quality is essential in order to increase the efficiency of artificial fertilization. Numerous studies have demonstrated that qualitative parameters of milt (i.e. seminal fluid composition, spermatozoa motility and sperm production) could be influence by several factors including ...