WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors influencing metal

  1. Factors influencing metabolism and toxicity of metals: a consensus report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, G.F.; Fowler, B.A.; Friberg, L.; Jernelov, A.; Nelson, N.; Piscator, M.; Sandstead, H.H.

    1978-08-01

    The relationships between metals like lead, cadmium, and mercury and other factors that quantitatively and qualitatively modify their metabolism and toxicity are surveyed. Interactions are examined by scientists from a variety of fields covering biochemistry, ecology, epidemiology, nutrition, occupational health, and toxicology. Evidence of interactions among arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury, and between these elements and selenium, calcium, copper, zinc, and iron is considered. There is ample evidence from animal experiments that many interactions occur. The enhancing influence of marginal essential element intake on cadmium absorption and the deleterious effects of cadmium on essential metal metabolism may have public health implications in populations with borderline dietary status. The possibility of interaction between irritating substances, like tobacco smoke, and the toxicity of metals is discussed. (312 references)

  2. Taxonomy of factors which influence heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Gunawardana, Chandima; Gunawardena, Janaka; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metals build-up on urban road surfaces is a complex process and influenced by a diverse range of factors. Although numerous research studies have been conducted in the area of heavy metals build-up, limited research has been undertaken to rank these factors in terms of their influence on the build-up process. This results in limitations in the identification of the most critical factor/s for accurately estimating heavy metal loads and for designing effective stormwater treatment measures. The research study undertook an in-depth analysis of the factors which influence heavy metals build-up based on data generated from a number of different geographical locations around the world. Traffic volume was found to be the highest ranked factor in terms of influencing heavy metals build-up while land use was ranked the second. Proximity to arterial roads, antecedent dry days and road surface roughness has a relatively lower ranking. Furthermore, the study outcomes advances the conceptual understanding of heavy metals build-up based on the finding that with increasing traffic volume, total heavy metal build-up load increases while the variability decreases. The outcomes from this research study are expected to contribute to more accurate estimation of heavy metals build-up loads leading to more effective stormwater treatment design.

  3. Understanding the factors influencing the removal of heavy metals in urban stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniquiz-Redillas, Marla C; Kim, Lee-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    In this research, an infiltration trench equipped with an extensive pretreatment and filter bed consisting of woodchip, sand and gravel was utilized as a low impact development technique to manage stormwater runoff from a highly impervious road with particular emphasis on heavy metal removal. Findings revealed that the major factors influencing the removal of heavy metals were the concentration of the particulate matters and heavy metals in runoff, runoff volume and flow rates. The reduction of heavy metals was enhanced by sedimentation of particulates through pretreatment. Fine particles (design considerations. Sediment was most highly attached on the surface area of woodchip than to other filter media like sand, gravel and geotextile. It is suggested that maintenance must be performed after the end of the winter season wherein high sediment rate was observed to maintain the efficiency of the treatment system.

  4. Critical review of heavy metal pollution of traffic area runoff: Occurrence, influencing factors, and partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Maximilian [Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Am Coulombwall 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Welker, Antje [Fachgebiet Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Hydromechanik, Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Nibelungenplatz 1, 60318 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Helmreich, Brigitte, E-mail: b.helmreich@tum.de [Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Am Coulombwall 8, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    A dataset of 294 monitored sites from six continents (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America) was compiled and evaluated to characterize the occurrence and fate of heavy metals in eight traffic area categories (parking lots, bridges, and three types each of both roads and highways). In addition, site-specific (fixed and climatic) and method-specific (related to sample collection, preparation, and analysis) factors that influence the results of the studies are summarized. These factors should be considered in site descriptions, conducting monitoring programs, and implementing a database for further research. Historical trends for Pb show a sharp decrease during recent decades, and the median total Pb concentrations of the 21st century for North America and Europe are approximately 15 μg/L. No historical trend is detected for Zn. Zn concentrations are very variable in traffic area runoff compared with other heavy metals because of its presence in galvanized structures and crumbs of car tire rubber. Heavy metal runoff concentrations of parking lots differ widely according to their use (e.g., employee, supermarket, rest areas for trucks). Bridge deck runoff can contain high Zn concentrations from safety fences and galvanizing elements. Roads with more than 5000 vehicles per day are often more polluted than highways because of other site-specific factors such as traffic signals. Four relevant heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd) can occur in the dissolved phase. Knowledge of metal partitioning is important to optimize stormwater treatment strategies and prevent toxic effects to organisms in receiving waters. - Highlights: • Heavy metal runoff concentrations in parking lots, bridges, and roads • Large dataset of dissolved and total metal concentrations in traffic area runoff • Description of site-specific and monitoring method-specific factors • Summary of traffic-related and anthropogenic heavy metals in road runoff • Reduction in Pb

  5. Analyses toward factors influencing sealing clearance of a metal rubber seal and derivation of a calculation formula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Hui; Zhao Yalei; Liu Jianguo; Jiang Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Sealing clearance is a key factor for a metal rubber seal’s sealability. The expansion coef-ficient and expansion deformation in the radial direction of metal rubber have been obtained through a thermal expansion experiment of metal rubber. The influence of the elastic modulus to the sealing clearance has been analyzed theoretically. By combining the temperature and elasticity factors of metal rubber with the elastic mechanics theory, the calculation formula of the sealing clearance has been derived, and the values of the sealing clearance and the leakage rate in certain working conditions have been calculated. Experimental results are consistent with calculation results in a high degree. The calculation formula of the sealing clearance can explain the influences of the temperature and elastic modulus factors of metal rubber on the sealing clearance. It can pro-vide guidance for the study of sealing mechanism of metal rubber seals.

  6. Influence of the soil sealing on the geoaccumulation index of heavy metals and various pollution factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charzyński, Przemysław; Plak, Andrzej; Hanaka, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    Soil sealing belongs to the most destructive and damaging processes to the soil environment. Soil sealing interrupts or greatly restricts the exchange of matter and energy between the biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere and the soil environment. The aim of this study was to compare the content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) of Ekranic Technosols by applying indicators such as geoaccumulation index (I geo), enrichment factor (EF), and pollution load index (PLI), which allowed to determine quantitatively the impact of the soil sealing degree on the content of heavy metals and to distinguish natural from anthropogenic sources of origin of heavy metals. In general, 42 soils from different parts of the city of Toruń (NW Poland) were sampled and divided into three groups according to the degree of soil sealing: completely sealed with asphalt or concrete (A), semi-permeable (partially sealed with cobblestones and concrete paving slabs (B)), and reference (non-sealed) (C). The results indicate that the artificial sealing in urban areas slightly affects the content of heavy metals in soils. However, based on PLI, I geo, and EF, it was found that the sealing has influence on soil properties and unsealed soil is the most exposed to the accumulation of pollutants.

  7. Noneconomic factors influencing scrap metal disposition decisions at DOE and NRC-licensed nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewen, M.D.; Robinson, L.A.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently developing radiation protection standards for scrap metal, which will establish criteria for the unconditional clearance of scrap from nuclear facilities. In support of this effort, Industrial Economics, Incorporated is assessing the costs and benefits attributable to the rulemaking. The first step in this analysis is to develop an in-depth understanding of the factors influencing scrap disposition decisions, so that one can predict current and future practices under existing requirements and compare them to the potential effects of EPA`s rulemaking. These baseline practices are difficult to predict due to a variety of factors. First, because decommissioning activities are just beginning at many sites, current practices do not necessarily provide an accurate indicator of how these practices may evolve as site managers gain experience with related decisions. Second, a number of different regulations and policies apply to these decisions, and the interactive effects of these requirements can be difficult to predict. Third, factors other than regulatory constraints and costs may have a significant effect on related decisions, such as concerns about public perceptions. In general, research suggests that these factors tend to discourage the unconditional clearance of scrap metal.

  8. Evaluation of site-specific factors influencing heavy metal contents in the topsoil of vegetated infiltration swales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmeyer, Nils; Huber, Maximilian; Drewes, Jörg E; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-08-01

    Stormwater runoff of traffic areas is usually polluted by organic and inorganic substances and must be treated prior to discharge into groundwater. One widely used treatment method is infiltrating the runoff over the topsoil of vegetated swales. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors influencing the heavy metal contents in such topsoil layers of vegetated infiltration swales near highways, roads, and parking lots. In total, 262 topsoil samples were taken from 35 sampling sites, which varied in age, traffic volume, road design, driving style, and site-specific conditions. In the evaluation of all soil samples, the median heavy metal values of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc were yielding 0.36 (mean: 1.21) mg/kg DM, 37.0 (mean: 44.5) mg/kg DM, 28.0 (mean: 61.5) mg/kg DM, 27.0 (mean: 71.9) mg/kg DM, and 120 (mean: 257) mg/kg DM, respectively. The main purpose was to evaluate the site-specific data (i.e., surrounding land use characteristics, traffic area site data, and operational characteristics). In general, heavy metal contents increased with increasing traffic volumes. However, other factors also had a notable impact. Factors such as road design (e.g., curves, crossings, and roundabouts) and grade of congestion significantly influenced the heavy metal contents. High heavy metal contents were detected for stop-and-go areas, roundabouts, crossings, and sites with traffic lights, signs, and guardrails. Findings of this study can be used to identify highly polluted traffic areas and to verify or improve standards regarding the treatment of runoff from traffic areas.

  9. Evaluation of site-specific factors influencing heavy metal contents in the topsoil of vegetated infiltration swales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horstmeyer, Nils; Huber, Maximilian; Drewes, Jörg E.; Helmreich, Brigitte, E-mail: b.helmreich@tum.de

    2016-08-01

    Stormwater runoff of traffic areas is usually polluted by organic and inorganic substances and must be treated prior to discharge into groundwater. One widely used treatment method is infiltrating the runoff over the topsoil of vegetated swales. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors influencing the heavy metal contents in such topsoil layers of vegetated infiltration swales near highways, roads, and parking lots. In total, 262 topsoil samples were taken from 35 sampling sites, which varied in age, traffic volume, road design, driving style, and site-specific conditions. In the evaluation of all soil samples, the median heavy metal values of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc were yielding 0.36 (mean: 1.21) mg/kg DM, 37.0 (mean: 44.5) mg/kg DM, 28.0 (mean: 61.5) mg/kg DM, 27.0 (mean: 71.9) mg/kg DM, and 120 (mean: 257) mg/kg DM, respectively. The main purpose was to evaluate the site-specific data (i.e., surrounding land use characteristics, traffic area site data, and operational characteristics). In general, heavy metal contents increased with increasing traffic volumes. However, other factors also had a notable impact. Factors such as road design (e.g., curves, crossings, and roundabouts) and grade of congestion significantly influenced the heavy metal contents. High heavy metal contents were detected for stop-and-go areas, roundabouts, crossings, and sites with traffic lights, signs, and guardrails. Findings of this study can be used to identify highly polluted traffic areas and to verify or improve standards regarding the treatment of runoff from traffic areas. - Highlights: • Correlation of contents with traffic volume, road design, and stop-and-go traffic • Increased heavy metal contents at stop-and-go sites, roundabouts, and crossings • Different soil contents and behavior of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc • Identification of factors influencing the variability of zinc in topsoil samples.

  10. Lead (Pb) and other metals in New York City community garden soils: factors influencing contaminant distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca G; Spliethoff, Henry M; Ribaudo, Lisa N; Lopp, Donna M; Shayler, Hannah A; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Lambert, Veronique T; Ferenz, Gretchen S; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M; Stone, Edie B; McBride, Murray B

    2014-04-01

    Urban gardens provide affordable fresh produce to communities with limited access to healthy food but may also increase exposure to lead (Pb) and other soil contaminants. Metals analysis of 564 soil samples from 54 New York City (NYC) community gardens found at least one sample exceeding health-based guidance values in 70% of gardens. However, most samples (78%) did not exceed guidance values, and medians were generally below those reported in NYC soil and other urban gardening studies. Barium (Ba) and Pb most frequently exceeded guidance values and along with cadmium (Cd) were strongly correlated with zinc (Zn), a commonly measured nutrient. Principal component analysis suggested that contaminants varied independently from organic matter and geogenic metals. Contaminants were associated with visible debris and a lack of raised beds; management practices (e.g., importing uncontaminated soil) have likely reduced metals concentrations. Continued exposure reduction efforts would benefit communities already burdened by environmental exposures.

  11. Influence of heavy metals on biosynthesis, activity of lytic enzymes and growthstimulating factor of Streptomyces recifensis var. lyticus P-29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. P. Kilochok

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Influence of heavy metals on growth, biosynthesis, lytic action and growthstimulating activity enzymes complex of Streptomyces recifensis var. lyticus was studied. It was showed that salt of plumbum' has positive influence as on biosynthesis hydrolases (lytic endopeptidases, proteinases, amylases as well increase growthstimulating activity of preparation relatively the yeast

  12. Analyses toward factors influencing sealing clearance of a metal rubber seal and derivation of a calculation formula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yan Hui Zhao Yalei Liu Jianguo Jiang Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    .... By combining the temperature and elasticity factors of metal rubber with the elastic mechanics theory, the calculation formula of the sealing clearance has been derived, and the values of the sealing...

  13. MRI compatibility of several early transition metal based alloys and its influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Da-Bo; Wang, Shao-Gang; Wang, Shao-Ping; Ai, Hong-Jun; Xu, Jian

    2017-02-03

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibility of three early transition metal (ETM) based alloys was assessed in vitro with agarose gel as a phantom, including Zr-20Nb, near-equiatomic (TiZrNbTa)90 Mo10 and Nb-60Ta-2Zr, together with pure tantalum and L605 Co-Cr alloy for comparison. The artifact extent in the MR image was quantitatively characterized according to the maximum area of 2D images and the total volume in reconstructed 3D images with a series of slices under acquisition by fast spin echo (FSE) sequence and gradient echo (GRE) sequence. It was indicated that the artifacts extent of L605 Co-Cr alloy with a higher magnetic susceptibility (χv ) was approximately 3-fold greater than that of the ETM-based alloys with χv in the range of 160-250 ppm. In the ETM group, the MRI compatibility of the materials can be ranked in a sequence of Zr-20Nb, pure tantalum, (TiZrNbTa)90 Mo10 and Nb-60Ta-2Zr. In addition, using a rabbit cadaver with the implanted tube specimens as a model for ex vivo assessment, it was confirmed that the artifact severity of Nb-60Ta-2Zr alloy is significantly reduced in comparison with the L605 alloy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017.

  14. Influencing Factors for the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Micro Porous Titanium Manufactured by Metal Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Lu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous titanium is a new structural and functional material. It is widely used in many fields since it integrates the properties of biomaterials with those of metallic foam. A new technology that combines both the preparation and forming of porous materials has been proposed in this paper. Moreover, a new solder was developed that could be employed in the joining of porous materials. Influencing factors for microstructure and mechanical properties of the parent material and joint interface are identified. Metal injection molding (MIM technology was used for fabricating porous materials. The feedstock for injection molding of porous titanium powders was prepared from titanium powders and a polymer-based binder system. In addition, the proportion of powder loading and binders was optimized. Through MIM technology, a porous titanium filter cartridge was prepared. For the purpose of investigating the thermal debinding technology of the filter cartridge, effects of the sintering temperature on the porosity, morphology of micropores and mechanical properties were analyzed. It could be found that when the sintering temperature increased, the relative density, bending and compression strength of the components also increased. Moreover, the porosity reached 32.28% when the sintering temperature was 1000 °C. The microstructure morphology indicated that micropores connected with each other. Meanwhile, the strength of the components was relatively high, i.e., the bending and compression strength was 65 and 60 MPa, respectively. By investigating the joining technology of porous filter cartridges, the ideal components of the solder and pressure were determined. Further research revealed that the micropore structure of the joint interface is the same as that of the parent material, and that the bending strength of the joint interface is 40 MPa.

  15. Study of the factors influencing the metals solubilisation from a mixture of waste batteries by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanong, Kulchaya; Coudert, Lucie; Chartier, Myriam; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-François

    2017-02-22

    This paper presents an innovative process for the recovery of valuable metals from a mixture of spent batteries. Different types of batteries, including alkaline, zinc-carbon (Zn-C), nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd), nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH), lithium ion (Li-ion) and lithium metallic (Li-M) batteries, were mixed according to the proportion of the Canadian sales of batteries. A Box-Behnken design was applied to find the optimum leaching conditions allowing a maximum of valuable metal removals from a mixture of spent batteries in the presence of an inorganic acid and a reducing agent. The results highlighted the positive effect of sodium metabisulfite on the performance of metals removal, especially for Mn. The solid/liquid ratio and the concentration of H2SO4 were the main factors affecting the leaching behavior of valuable metals (Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni) present in spent batteries. Finally, the optimum leaching conditions were found as follows: one leaching step, solid/liquid ratio = 10.9%, [H2SO4] = 1.34 M, sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) = 0.45 g/g of battery powder and retention time = 45 min. Under such conditions, the removal yields achieved were 94% for Mn, 81% for Cd, 99% for Zn, 96% for Co and 68% for Ni.

  16. Influence factors of capacity loss after short-time standing of metal-hydride electrode and its EIS model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩楠; 晁栋梁; 周万海; 陈云贵; 吴朝玲

    2013-01-01

    Considerable irreversible capacity loss was observed after the electrode standing at small state-of-charge (SOC) for only a short term. Influence of SOC, standing time and the replacement elements of LaNi5-type hydrogen storage alloys to standing was discussed. Charge-transfer resistance, exchange current density (I0), and hydrogen diffusion coefficient were determined based on the study of electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS), linear polarization (LP) and constant potential step (CPS), respectively. The oxi-dation of metal Ni on the alloy surface after standing was responsible for the rapid deterioration of capacity, charge-transfer resistance and I0. Galvanostatic, LP, EIS and CPS measurements suggested the presence of an oxide and/or corrosion layer on the alloy surface of raw material and electrode after standing at 0%SOC for 2 d. It was proved that the first small semicircle in high-frequency region of EIS was related to this layer. Novel EIS model in metal hydride electrode was proposed accordingly.

  17. Factorial kriging and stepwise regression approach to identify environmental factors influencing spatial multi-scale variability of heavy metals in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jianshu; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Zulu; Dai, Jierui

    2013-10-15

    The knowledge about spatial variations of heavy metals in soils and their relationships with environmental factors is important for human impact assessment and soil management. Surface soils from Rizhao city, Eastern China with rapid urbanization and industrialization were analyzed for six key heavy metals and characterized by parent material and land use using GIS-based data. Factorial kriging analysis and stepwise multiple regression were applied to examine the scale-dependent relationships among heavy metals and to identify environmental factors affecting spatial variability at each spatial scale. Linear model of coregionalization fitting showed that spatial multi-scale variation of heavy metals in soils consisted of nugget effect, an exponential structure with the range of 12 km (short-range scale), as well as a spherical structure with the range of 36 km (long-range scale). The short-range variation of Cd, Pb and Zn were controlled by land use, with higher values in urban areas as well as cultivated land in mountain area, and were related to human influence; while parent material dominated the long structure variations of these elements. Spatial variations of Cr and Ni were associated with natural geochemical sources at short- and long-range scales. At both two scales, Hg dominated by land use, corresponded well to spatial distributions of urban areas, and was attributed to anthropic emissions and atmosphere deposition.

  18. Spatial Variability of Metals in Surface Water and Sediment in the Langat River and Geochemical Factors That Influence Their Water-Sediment Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Ying Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper determines the controlling factors that influence the metals’ behavior water-sediment interaction facies and distribution of elemental content (75As, 111Cd, 59Co, 52Cr, 60Ni, and 208Pb in water and sediment samples in order to assess the metal pollution status in the Langat River. A total of 90 water and sediment samples were collected simultaneously in triplicate at 30 sampling stations. Selected metals were analyzed using ICP-MS, and the metals’ concentration varied among stations. Metal concentrations of water ranged between 0.08–24.71 μg/L for As, <0.01–0.53 μg/L for Cd, 0.06–6.22 μg/L for Co, 0.32–4.67 μg/L for Cr, 0.80–24.72 μg/L for Ni, and <0.005–6.99 μg/L for Pb. Meanwhile, for sediment, it ranged between 4.47–30.04 mg/kg for As, 0.02–0.18 mg/kg for Cd, 0.87–4.66 mg/kg for Co, 4.31–29.04 mg/kg for Cr, 2.33–8.25 mg/kg for Ni and 5.57–55.71 mg/kg for Pb. The average concentration of studied metals in the water was lower than the Malaysian National Standard for Drinking Water Quality proposed by the Ministry of Health. The average concentration for As in sediment was exceeding ISQG standards as proposed by the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines. Statistical analyses revealed that certain metals (As, Co, Ni, and Pb were generally influenced by pH and conductivity. These results are important when making crucial decisions in determining potential hazardous levels of these metals toward humans.

  19. Investigating the atomic level influencing factors of glass forming ability in NiAl and CuZr metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Sina; Kirk, Donald Walter; Singh, Chandra Veer; Thorpe, Steven John

    2015-09-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively new class of amorphous metal alloy which possess unique mechanical and magnetic properties. The specific concentrations and combinations of alloy elements needed to prevent crystallization during melt quenching remains poorly understood. A correlation between atomic properties that can explain some of the previously identified glass forming ability (GFA) anomalies of the NiAl and CuZr systems has been identified, with these findings likely extensible to other transition metal-transition metal and transition metal-metalloid (TM-M) alloy classes as a whole. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation methods are utilized to study thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural properties of equiatomic CuZr and NiAl metallic glasses in an attempt to further understand the underlying connections between glass forming ability, nature of atomic level bonding, short and medium range ordering, and the evolution of structure and relaxation properties in the disordered phase. The anomalous breakdown of the fragility parameter as a useful GFA indicator in TM-M alloy systems is addressed through an in-depth investigation of bulk stiffness properties and the evolution of (pseudo)Gruneisen parameters over the quench domain, with the efficacy of other common glass forming ability indicators similarly being analyzed through direct computation in respective CuZr and NiAl systems. Comparison of fractional liquid-crystal density differences in the two systems revealed 2-3 times higher values for the NiAl system, providing further support for its efficacy as a general purpose GFA indicator.

  20. Investigating the atomic level influencing factors of glass forming ability in NiAl and CuZr metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Sina; Kirk, Donald Walter; Singh, Chandra Veer; Thorpe, Steven John

    2015-09-21

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively new class of amorphous metal alloy which possess unique mechanical and magnetic properties. The specific concentrations and combinations of alloy elements needed to prevent crystallization during melt quenching remains poorly understood. A correlation between atomic properties that can explain some of the previously identified glass forming ability (GFA) anomalies of the NiAl and CuZr systems has been identified, with these findings likely extensible to other transition metal-transition metal and transition metal-metalloid (TM-M) alloy classes as a whole. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation methods are utilized to study thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural properties of equiatomic CuZr and NiAl metallic glasses in an attempt to further understand the underlying connections between glass forming ability, nature of atomic level bonding, short and medium range ordering, and the evolution of structure and relaxation properties in the disordered phase. The anomalous breakdown of the fragility parameter as a useful GFA indicator in TM-M alloy systems is addressed through an in-depth investigation of bulk stiffness properties and the evolution of (pseudo)Gruneisen parameters over the quench domain, with the efficacy of other common glass forming ability indicators similarly being analyzed through direct computation in respective CuZr and NiAl systems. Comparison of fractional liquid-crystal density differences in the two systems revealed 2-3 times higher values for the NiAl system, providing further support for its efficacy as a general purpose GFA indicator.

  1. Investigating the atomic level influencing factors of glass forming ability in NiAl and CuZr metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedighi, Sina; Kirk, Donald Walter; Singh, Chandra Veer, E-mail: chandraveer.singh@utoronto.ca; Thorpe, Steven John [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, Room 140, 184 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)

    2015-09-21

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively new class of amorphous metal alloy which possess unique mechanical and magnetic properties. The specific concentrations and combinations of alloy elements needed to prevent crystallization during melt quenching remains poorly understood. A correlation between atomic properties that can explain some of the previously identified glass forming ability (GFA) anomalies of the NiAl and CuZr systems has been identified, with these findings likely extensible to other transition metal–transition metal and transition metal–metalloid (TM–M) alloy classes as a whole. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation methods are utilized to study thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural properties of equiatomic CuZr and NiAl metallic glasses in an attempt to further understand the underlying connections between glass forming ability, nature of atomic level bonding, short and medium range ordering, and the evolution of structure and relaxation properties in the disordered phase. The anomalous breakdown of the fragility parameter as a useful GFA indicator in TM–M alloy systems is addressed through an in-depth investigation of bulk stiffness properties and the evolution of (pseudo)Gruneisen parameters over the quench domain, with the efficacy of other common glass forming ability indicators similarly being analyzed through direct computation in respective CuZr and NiAl systems. Comparison of fractional liquid-crystal density differences in the two systems revealed 2-3 times higher values for the NiAl system, providing further support for its efficacy as a general purpose GFA indicator.

  2. Factors Controlling the Distribution of Trace Metals in Macroalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝利; 刘丛强

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the concentrations of trace metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) in macroalgae from five areas. Significant differences were noticed in trace metal concentration in macroalgae, and a large range of variations between the minimum and maximum concentrations of trace metals was found. Trace metals detected in macroalgae generally occur in adsorbed and absorbed forms. Environmental and biological factors jointly control the trace metal compositions and concentrations in macroalgae. The complexity and variation of these factors cause significant differences in trace metal concentrations in macroalgae. Environmental factors play a more important role in controlling trace metal compositions and concentrations when external available trace metals are beyond requirement for algal metabolism and growth, especially for non-essential trace metals; however, when the external available trace metals just satisfy the needs of algal metabolism and growth, biological factors would play a more important role, especially for essential trace metals. Interactions among the trace metals can also influence their compositions and concentrations in macroalgae. It is also discussed how to make macroalgae as an excellent biomonitor for trace metals.

  3. Temporal variations of heavy metals in coral Porites lutea from Guangdong Province, China: Influences from industrial pollution,climate and economic factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Zicheng; LIU Junhua; ZHOU Chenglin; NIE Baofu; CHEN Tegu

    2006-01-01

    The eight heavy metals Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb have been determined in samples of coral Porites lutea collected from Dafangji Island waters (21°21' N, 111°11' E), Dianbai County, Guangdong Province, China, by the ICP-MS method. The samples represent the growth of coral in the period of 1982-2001. The results showed that the waters were polluted by the heavy metals Cu, Ni, Zn,and Pb in certain years, but not by other metals. The contamination may have come from industrial sources, including electroplating, metallurgy, mining, and aquatic industries in the coastal areas.The correlation coefficients among the metals and climatic and economic factors indicate that the metals Ni, Zn, and Cd behave similarly. Copper and Mn are positively correlated, and cobalt is negatively correlated with Cr, Ni, Zn, and Cd. Lead is not correlated with any other metals but is correlated with sea surface water temperature, air temperature, GDP and industrial-agricultural production in Dianbai County.Lead in corals is related to the enhanced pollution level of ocean waters as a result of increased industrial activities.

  4. Reduction of Influence Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Sydenham, Peter H.; Thorn, Richard

    Any measurement system has imperfections and any act of measurement is liable to errors. Measurement errors either originate from system deficiencies (for instance system noise, quantization, and drift), or are due to environmental influences such as thermal, electromagnetic, and mechanical

  5. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  6. Purcell factor of metallic nanoresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvan, C.; Hugonin, J.-P.; Maksymov, I. S.; Lalanne, P.

    2013-03-01

    The spontaneous emission of a quantum emitter depends on its environment. This fundamental effect of quantum electrodynamics has become a cornerstone of nano-optics, with the objective to control light absorption and emission at the nanometer scale. At the heart of the effect lies the emitter-cavity coupling. An important figure of merit is the famous Q/V ratio introduced by Purcell in 1946 and largely used by the photonic-crystal community over the last decennia, with Q the quality factor of the cavity and V the mode volume. Here we revisit the classical problem of field coupling between quantum emitters and cavities to encompass the important case of metallic nanoresonators. We propose a generalized Purcell formula, which substantially differs from the classical one and which is capable of accurately handling cavity modes with strong radiative leakage, absorption and material dispersion. Fully-vectorial numerical calculations obtained for distinct nanocavity constructs representative of modern studies in nanophotonics provide a strong support to our theory.

  7. Research on corrosion resistance influencing factors of metal parts in outdoor condensing units%室外型冷凝机组金属部件耐腐蚀性能影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏梅

    2012-01-01

    Both the corrosion mechanism and the corrosion resistance influencing factors of the metal parts in outdoor units exposed in the air are summarized. Regarding the red rust area as the criterion, the experiments are made in order to judge the influence degree of the three important factors-metal backing,spray technology,coating thickness,and the pairwise interaction with the orthogonal experimental method. The results indicate that spray technology influences the corrosion resistance most. The metal backing, and the interaction of the metal backing and spray technology can influence the corrosion resistance obviously. Therefore, correctly selecting the spray technology, metal backing and taking their interaction into consideration are important for enhancing corrosion resistance of outdoor metal parts.%概述室外机金属部件暴露于大气中的腐蚀机制及金属部件耐腐蚀性能的影响因素.采用正交试验方法,以盐雾试验后的红锈面积作为判断标准,针对影响金属耐腐蚀性能的3个重要因素(金属基材、喷涂方式和涂膜厚度)及其两两交互作用对室外机金属部件耐腐蚀性能的影响程度进行试验对比.结果表明:喷涂方式对耐腐蚀性能影响最大,金属基材、金属基材与喷涂方式的交互作用对金属耐腐蚀性能影响较大.因此正确选择喷涂方式和金属基材并考虑2种影响因素的交互关系对提高室外机金属部件耐腐蚀性能具有重要意义.

  8. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...

  9. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  10. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  11. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu SSX

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim

  12. ASRDI oxygen technology survey, Volume 7: Characteristics of metals that influence system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A literature survey and analysis of the material and process factors affecting the safety of metals in oxygen systems is presented. In addition, the practices of those who specify, build, or use oxygen systems relative to the previous is summarized. Alloys based on iron, copper, nickel, and aluminum were investigated representing the bulk of metals found in oxygen systems. Safety-related characteristics of other miscellaneous metals are summarized. It was found that factors affecting the safety of metals in oxygen systems exit in all phases of the evolutionary process, from smelting and mill techniques through end-production fabrication. The safety of a given metal in an oxygen system was determined to be influenced by the particular service requirement. The metal characteristics should favorably influence fulfillment of these requirements. Thus, no singular metal or alloy could be classified as safest for all types of oxygen service.

  13. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: multi-nutrient supplements; survey; children; women's decisions. Factors influencing .... associations between level of education and various factors influencing women's ..... Social marketing improved the use of multivitamin and ...

  14. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  15. The study of temperature changes around metal in ultrashort wave electric-field and it's influence factors%超短波电场对金属周围升温变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁维娣; 张志强; 孙师; 田丽君

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨超短波电场对金属周围升温变化的影响因素.方法 采用医用超短波治疗仪1档,调谐,输出80 mA,取0.2 ml水作为载体,金属物一端深入水中,改变金属物长度、金属物与电极板间垂直距离、金属物在电磁场中的摆放位置以及超短波的作用时间,采用数字电偶温度表测量不同治疗条件前、后水温的变化.结果 相同条件下,金属线长轴平行于电极板,金属物场外实际长度为10 cm、20 cm、30 cm、50 cm、70 cm、90 cm时,其周围升温分别为4.37℃、8.30℃、18.00℃、20.64℃、32.92℃、38.96℃;金属物长轴平行于电极板,金属线与一侧电极板间垂直间距分别为1.5 cm、3.0 cm、4.5 cm、6.0 cm时,金属周围升温分别为66.03℃、49.37℃、14.80℃、0.87℃;如果金属物长轴垂直于电极板,金属一端与极板间距离为5 cm、9 cm、15 cm时,金属周围升温分别为56.10℃、26.64℃、11.07℃;金属与电场边缘的垂直间距为0 cm、5 cm、10 cm、15 cm时,金属周围升温分别为25.32℃、10.26℃、2.88℃、1.53℃;固定长度的金属物,涵盖入电场内的实际长度分别为20 cm、10 cm、0 cm时,金属周围升温分别为2.84℃、4.04℃、7.30℃;同等条件下,改变超短波作用时间为5 min、10 min时,金属周围升温分别为24.90℃、39.07℃.结论 当金属物长轴平行置于电极板正中间位置,且金属完全置于电场内并远离极板边缘时,通过减短金属物的长度、两极板间的距离以及超短波的作用时间,可降低金属物周围的升温幅度.%Objective To study the temperature changes around metal in ultrashort wave electric-field and it's influence factors.Methods Medical ultrashort wave therapeutic instrument was used and output switen was set at the 1 st grade.After tuning, one end of metal object was placed into 0.2ml water contained in a plastic tube ( with a length of 2cm and diameter of 2mm).Temperature changes of water around

  16. Influence of acid volatile sulfide and metal concentrations on metal bioavailability to marine invertebrates in contaminated sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B.-G.; Lee, J.-S.; Luoma, S.N.; Choi, H.J.; Koh, C.-H.

    2000-01-01

    An 18-day microcosm study was conducted to evaluate the influence of acid volatile sulfides (AVS) and metal additions on bioaccumulation from sediments of Cd, Ni, and Zn in two clams (Macoma balthica and Potamocorbula amurensis) and three marine polychaetes (Neanthes arenaceodentata, Heteromastus filiformis, and Spiophanes missionensis). Manipulation of AVS by oxidation of naturally anoxic sediments allowed use of metal concentrations typical of nature and evaluation of processes important to chronic metal exposure. A vertical sediment column similar to that often found in nature was used to facilitate realistic biological behavior. Results showed that AVS or porewater (PW) metals controlled bioaccumulation in only 2 of 15 metal-animal combinations. Bioaccumulation of all three metals by the bivalves was related significantly to metal concentrations extracted from sediments (SEM) but not to [SEM - AVS] or PW metals. SEM predominantly influenced bioaccumulation of Ni and Zn in N. arenaceodentata, but Cd bioaccumulation followed PW Cd concentrations. SEM controlled tissue concentrations of all three metals in H. filiformis and S. missionensis, with minor influences from metal-sulfide chemistry. Significant bioaccumulation occurred when SEM was only a small fraction of AVS in several treatments. Three factors appeared to contribute to the differences between these bioaccumulation results and the results from toxicity tests reported previously: differences in experimental design, dietary uptake, and biological attributes of the species, including mode and depth of feeding.An 18-day microcosm study was conducted to evaluate the influence of acid volatile sulfides (AVS) and metal additions on bioaccumulation from sediments of Cd, Ni, and Zn in two clams (Macoma balthica and Potamocorbula amurensis) and three marine polychaetes (Neanthes arenaceodentata, Heteromastus filiformis, and Spiophanes missionensis). Manipulation of AVS by oxidation of naturally anoxic sediments

  17. 城市地表颗粒物重金属分布特征及其影响因素分析%Distribution Characteristics and Their Influencing Factors of Heavy Metals in Urban Road Sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕; 石安邦

    2014-01-01

    As the important carrier of heavy metals, urban road sediments may threaten humans health and urban water systems, thus they have been the important research object in the field of environmental sciences. In this paper, the research significances of spatial, particle size and speciation distribution characteristics as well as their influencing factors on heavy metals in road sediments was reviewed and discussed. This study pointed out the distribution characteristics of heavy metals (i.e., Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb) based on the comparative analysis of heavy metal concentrations in different functional areas among domestic cities. The results showed that Cu and Pb concentration in urban road sediments decreased in the order of industrial area, commercial area, traffic area, residential area and leisure area;the content of Zn followed the order as industrial area>traffic area>commercial area>residential area>leisure area;Cd concentration decreased in the order of traffic area>industrial area>commercial area>residential area>leisure area, and the concentrations of Zn and Pb fluctuated obviously. In general, the heavy metal contamination of industrial, traffic and commercial areas were more serious than other functional zones in China. Moreover, compared with the corresponding heavy metals' background concentration in soil of China, Cd was found to be the most serious one among these four metals. The differences of heavy metal accumulation in road sediments between domestic and foreign cities were systematically investigated, and the results revealed that the mean concentrations of heavy metals in China were lower than the values in the developed cities in Europe and America, while the contents of these metals in large-scaled cities were higher than the mean concentration in China. Particle size distribution, chemical fraction and bioavailability of heavy metals in urban sediments were analyzed. The impact of traffic activities (i.e., traffic flow, vehicle speed, the

  18. Internal Demagnetizing Factor in Ferrous Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenő Takács

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling the saturation major loop of a ferrous metal produces the intrinsic magnetization parameters; fitting the measured commutation curve, however, can yield different results. The relation of the intrinsic loci of the vertices of the minor loops (ND=0 to the experimental curve (ND≠0 is investigated. The two-way transformation between the two curves is formulated in closed mathematical form with the help of the internal demagnetization factor, ND. The method is applied to four ferrous metals, with widely different intrinsic properties (soft nonoriented Fe-Si steel, normalized low carbon steel, and Finemet in nanocrystalline and amorphous state supporting the predictions of the proposal. The developed relationship is model independent and it is shown that the ND factor depends linearly on coercivity based on experimental evidence.

  19. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  20. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in producti

  1. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Claudia MOISĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

  2. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  3. Gyroscopic g factor of rare earth metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Y.; Chudo, H.; Ono, M.; Harii, K.; Matsuo, M.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.

    2017-02-01

    We develop the in situ magnetization measurement apparatus for observing the Barnett effect consisting of a fluxgate sensor, a high speed rotor with frequencies of up to 1.5 kHz, and a magnetic shield at room temperature. The effective magnetic field (Barnett field) in a sample arising from rotation magnetizes the sample and is proportional to the rotational frequency. The gyroscopic g factor, g ' , of rare earth metals, in particular, Gd, Tb, and Dy, was estimated to be 2.00 ± 0.08, 1.53 ± 0.17, and 1.15 ± 0.32, respectively, from the slopes of the rotation dependence of the Barnett field. This study provides a technique to determine the g ' factor even in samples where the spectroscopic method may not be available.

  4. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  5. Influence of sulfhydryl sites on metal binding by bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, Ryan M.; Fein, Jeremy B.

    2017-02-01

    The role of sulfhydryl sites within bacterial cell envelopes is still unknown, but the sites may control the fate and bioavailability of metals. Organic sulfhydryl compounds are important complexing ligands in aqueous systems and they can influence metal speciation in natural waters. Though representing only approximately 5-10% of the total available binding sites on bacterial surfaces, sulfhydryl sites exhibit high binding affinities for some metals. Due to the potential importance of bacterial sulfhydryl sites in natural systems, metal-bacterial sulfhydryl site binding constants must be determined in order to construct accurate models of the fate and distribution of metals in these systems. To date, only Cd-sulfhydryl binding has been quantified. In this study, the thermodynamic stabilities of Mn-, Co-, Ni-, Zn-, Sr- and Pb-sulfhydryl bacterial cell envelope complexes were determined for the bacterial species Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Metal adsorption experiments were conducted as a function of both pH, ranging from 5.0 to 7.0, and metal loading, from 0.5 to 40.0 μmol/g (wet weight) bacteria, in batch experiments in order to determine if metal-sulfhydryl binding occurs. Initially, the data were used to calculate the value of the stability constants for the important metal-sulfhydryl bacterial complexes for each metal-loading condition studied, assuming a single binding reaction for the dominant metal-binding site type under the pH conditions of the experiments. For most of the metals that we studied, these calculated stability constant values increased significantly with decreasing metal loading, strongly suggesting that our initial assumption was not valid and that more than one type of binding occurs at the assumed binding site. We then modeled each dataset with two distinct site types with identical acidity constants: one site with a high metal-site stability constant value, which we take to represent metal-sulfhydryl binding and which dominates under low

  6. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  7. 电絮凝去除废水中多种重金属影响因素研究%Influencing Factors on Heavy Metals Removal by Electrocoagulation Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊道文; 熊珊; 陈湘斌; 虞少嵚; 王合德

    2014-01-01

    目的:以铁作为电极,研究电絮凝法处理含多种重金属废水的影响因素及效果。方法通过控制pH、停留时间、电流密度、电导率、废水初始浓度等因素至不同水平,考察处理效果、能耗及极板消耗的变化。结果随着停留时间、pH值及电流密度的升高,处理效果越好,但升高至一定程度后,处理效果提升并不明显;电导率对处理效果影响并不显著,但过低的电导率会增加能耗;废水初始浓度越高,要达到处理目标所需的能耗及极板消耗均越高。结论当pH为8.5~9.0、进水电导率为1500~2000μs/cm、停留时间为3~4 min、废水初始质量浓度<20 mg/L、电流密度为13.2~19.8 A/m2时,处理效果最理想,对总铜、总镍、总铅、总锌、总镉及总铬的去除率达到99%以上,且能耗与极板消耗均为最低,电絮凝法更适合于重金属废水的深度处理。%Objective To study the influencing factors on heavy metals removal by electrocoagulation treatment. Meth-ods Wastewater was treated with electrocoagulation by using iron plate as electrode. Several affecting factors, such as reten-tion time, initial pH, current density, conductivity and initial concentration were investigated. Results The removal rate was obviously improved with the increase of retention time, initial pH and current density, however, the improvement of treatment effect did not continue after reaching a certain level. Conductivity did not influence the treatment effect, but low conductivity increased energy consumption. To achieve the desired treatment effect, the higher the initial concentration of wastewater, the higher the consumption of energy and plates. Conclusion Electrocoagulation was more suitable for advanced treatment of wastewater containing heavy metals. The removal rates of total copper, total nickel, total lead, total zinc, total cadmium and total chromium were above 99% under the conditions of initial p

  8. Thymic Output: Influence Factors and Molecular Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Jin; Jun Zhang; Weifeng Chen

    2006-01-01

    Thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, able to generate mature T cells that eventually colonize secondary lymphoid organs, and is therefore essential for peripheral T cell renewal. Recent data showed that normal thymocyte export can be altered by several influence factors including several chemokines,sphingosinel-phosphate (S1P),transcription factors such as Foxjl, Kruppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2) and antigen stimulation, etc. In this review, we summarized the recent reports about study strategies, influence factors and possible molecular mechanisms in thymic output.

  9. 31. FACTORS INFLUENCING UTILIZATION OF INTERMITTENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    treatment of malaria during pregnancy(IPTp), effective IPTp service utilization ... effective case management of malaria. Despite the ... Factors influencing IPTp utilization identified in the study included; educational status of a woman,. Medical ...

  10. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Factors Influencing Performance and Progress of Primary School Pupils in ... found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school ... on school progress and performance, however; home language did play a role.

  11. Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers among Tertiary ... role stereotype and common business practices on media self employment in ... Sex, Psycho-social Characteristics, self Employment, Providing Media Services.

  12. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  13. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human beings are ... Key words: Mursik, Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), probiotic, Preschoolers, Focus group

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING AS A. PROFESSION ... Colleges of Health Technology undergoing external ... questionnaire requested information on age ... individual with good communication skills and ...

  15. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING SUSTAINED MANAGERIAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Marius RIZESCU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effectiveness is learnable in economic theory and practice with various forms of manifestation of the results obtained by the managers, such as profitability, the productivity of factors of production, capital efficiency, cost savings, etc. Regarded as the organizing principle and driving activity in the market economy, it has a much richer content and also favorable results of generalizing all derived by managers. Choosing effective in meeting needs with limited resources or powerlessness to maximize resource needs under restrains, are expressions through which efficiency is situated at the heart of economic theory and practice.

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  18. Variation properties of ionospheric eclipse factor and ionospheric influence factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunmei; YUAN Yunbin; OU Jikun; CHEN Jinping

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and calculation methods of ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) and ionospheric influence factor (IFF) are further illustrated. The temporal and spacial variation properties of IEF and IFF are studied, which shows that the properties are influenced by the geographic position and season. The possibility of improving the precision of using GPS data to determine ionospheric delay based on the above variation properties is also analysed.

  19. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPOSTING POULTRY WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kopeć

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic recycling of waste, taking into account sanitary safety, should be a fundamental method for recovering the nutrients present in the waste for plants and organic matter. It also refers to by-products of animal origin, which are not intended for consumption by humans. In the present research , composting of hydrated poultry slaughterhouse waste with maize straw was carried out. A combination with fodder yeast and post-cellulose lime was also introduced, which modified chemical and physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. The experiment was carried out by recording the biomass temperature for 110 days in 1.2×1.0×0.8 m reactors with perforated bottoms enabling active aeration. The following parameters were taken into consideration in the composted material: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, respiratory activity, microorganisms, fractions of compost obtained after washing on sieves. Small amounts of fodder yeast favoured the development of microorganisms and caused a sanitary risk in the final product. At the initial stage, the temperature of raw compost in that object was several degrees lower than in the case of the composted mass without yeast addition. The addition of post-cellulose lime at ratios 6.5:1:6.5 (maize straw: poultry slaughterhouse waste: post-cellulose lime caused a change in the time of microbiological activity, and led to its inhibition in the final process. In comparison to objects with poultry waste, the highest degree of hygienization was found in the compost with post-cellulose lime (with pH close to neutral. By adjusting the ratios of substrates we can influence the microbiological activity, but the amounts of individual substrates should be determined taking into account the quality of the obtained compost.

  20. Factors Influencing the Quality of Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin ZAMFIROIU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications are becoming increasingly used. Mobile devices are becoming indispensable for the user. In the material are claiming the sales of mobile devices internationally and the use of mobile applications compared to traditional internet use on desktop systems for the United States. Are presented influences the quality of mobile applications and based on these influencing factors built a model of choice for optimal application of mobile applications and traditional desktop application. At the end of the material presented methods to increase quality by tracking the influence factors during the development of mobile applications.

  1. Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Bilodeau, Stéphanie; Langlois, Geneviève; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2011-07-01

    Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity.

  2. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  3. Patient factors that influence warfarin dose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pamela J

    2010-06-01

    Warfarin has long been the mainstay of oral anticoagulation therapy for the treatment and prevention of venous and arterial thrombosis. The narrow therapeutic index of warfarin, and the complex number of factors that influence international normalized ratio (INR) response, makes optimization of warfarin therapy challenging. Determination of the appropriate warfarin dose during initiation and maintenance therapy requires an understanding of patient factors that influence dose response: age, body weight, nutritional status, acute and chronic disease states, and changes in concomitant drug therapy and diet. This review will examine specific clinical factors that can affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin, as well as the role of pharmacogenetics in optimizing warfarin therapy.

  4. Factors affecting the concentrations of heavy metals in precipitation of Tehran using factor analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kamani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objectives: Quantity of trace metals in the wet precipitation can illustrate the environmental pollution of different urban areas. Up to now, there is no study regarding the chemistry of wet precipitation in Tehran .The objectives of this study are: measurement of heavy metal concentrations and identification of the main factors affecting the heavy metal concentrations in wet precipitation using factor analysis method. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which measurements of heavy metals were performed in 53 wet precipitation samples collected from a central site of Tehran City, capital of Iran. The samples were collected during November to May in 2010, 2011 and 2012 on the roof of the student’s dormitory building of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and then the concentration of heavy metals in each sample was measured with ICP-MS. Results: pH ranged from 4.2 to 7.1 with a mean value of 5.1 indicating in acidic range. Result of EF calculations revealed that samples were not enriched with Fe and Cr but were enriched with Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu. Factor Component Analysis with Varimax normalized rotation showed Al, Fe and Cr are originated from crustal source and Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu are originated from anthropogenic sources.  Conclusion: EF and acidic pH values indicate Tehran is under the influence of extremely anthropogenic activities. Large number of vehicles and industrial activity in the city are undoubtedly responsible for the emission of a wide range of pollution.

  5. The influence of heavy metals on soil microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štyriaková Iveta

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our contribution was to ascertain an influence of heavy metals on quantitative and qualitative composition of soil microflora. Our experiment was directed to quantitative isolation of culturable bacteria from individual soil samples and to the comparison of the amounts and colony morphology of the isolates from various soil samples. These soil samples were characteristic by a difference in pH, heavy metals and humus contents. Despite the differences between individual soil samples, the most of bacterial isolates were represented by Bacillus genus (especially Bacillus cereus and Bacillus mycoides which belongs to the heavy metal resistant bacterial kinds.

  6. [Influence of chosen metals on the citric acid cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojczyk-Gołebiewska, Ewa; Kucharzewski, Marek

    2013-03-01

    Industrial activity growth influenced not only technological progress, but also had negative effects on human natural environment. It results among others in increased human exposition to heavy metals. In case of detoxication mechanisms disturbance in organism, heavy metals cumulate in tissues causing mutations and disrupting metabolism, including Krebs cycle. Recent studies have revealed that iron, zinc and manganese have especially strong influence on Krebs cycle. These elements act as cofactors or inhibitors regulating activity of particular enzymes of this cycle, which has a reflection in cellular energy production disturbances.

  7. Influence of mineralogical and heavy metal composition on natural radionuclide concentrations in the river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, G; Ramasamy, V; Meenakshisundaram, V; Venkatachalapathy, R; Ponnusamy, V

    2011-10-01

    The natural radiation level has been determined for the sediment samples of the Ponnaiyar River with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard. The mineralogical characterizations of the sediments have been carried out using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction coefficient. The concentration and spatial distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni) have been studied to understand the heavy metal contamination and its level of toxicity. To evaluate the potential toxicity, heavy metal concentrations are compared with different toxicological and geological reference values. The comparison results suggest that the present metals create an adverse effect on the aquatic ecosystems associated with this river. To assess the sediment contamination due to the studied heavy metals, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) is calculated. Multivariate Statistical analyses (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factor analysis) were carried out between the parameters obtained from radioactivity, mineralogical and geochemical analysis to know the existing relations. Obtained results showed that the effect of mineralogy on level of radioactivity should be significant. However, mineralogy effect on heavy metal composition in the sediments should be limited, indicating that other factors such as vicinity of the pollution sources are more important. Also, the influence of mineralogical characterization on level of radioactivity is significant, whereas the influence of the heavy metal composition on level of radioactivity should be limited.

  8. Influencing factors in MMR immunisation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Marie C; Cox, Carol L

    Immunisation decision making is not a straightforward process for parents. Many factors influence parental decision making on whether they immunise their child with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The feasibility study described in this article provides insight into influencing factors associated with decisions regarding the immunisation of children by parents. The study findings suggest that the practice nurse is a credible source of information for parents seeking informed decision making. At a time when the incidence of measles and mumps is rising in the UK, the provision of appropriate information by the practice nurse has the potential to increase uptake of the MMR vaccine.

  9. INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR LEASING MARKET CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors. This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.

  10. Influence of Filler Metals in Welding Wires on the Phase and Chemical Composition of Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Osetkovskiy, I. V.; Kozyreva, O. A.; Zernin, E. A.; Kartsev, D. S.

    2016-04-01

    The influence of filler metals used in welding wires on the phase and chemical composition of the metal, which is surfaced to mining equipment exposed to abrasive wear, has been investigated. Under a laboratory environment, samples of Mo-V-B and Cr-Mn-Mo-V wires were made. The performed experiments have revealed that fillers of the Cr-Mn-Mo-V system used in powder wire show better wear resistance of the weld metal than that of the Mn-Mo-V-B system; the absence of boron, which promotes grain refinement in the Mn-Mo-V-B system, significantly reduces wear resistance; the Mn-Mo-V-B weld metal has a finer structure than the Cr-Mn-Mo-V weld metal.

  11. Influence of trace metals on some soil nitrogen transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, F.H.; Broadbent, F.E.

    An investigation to evaluate the influence of trace metals on N immobilization, N mineralization, and nitrification was conducted. Samples of Yolo silt loam amended with 100 ppm NH/sub 4/-N, 1% sewage sludge, and 1% ground alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were treated with solutions to provide 100, 200, and 400 ppm of Cd(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Mn(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), and incubated for 2, 4, 8, and 12-week periods. Metals were determined by extracting with water, KNO/sub 3/, DPTA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), and HNO/sub 3/ at the end of each incubation period. All metals reverted quickly to more insoluble forms. Quantities of metals extractable with water + KNO, + DPTA decreased with time, while corresponding increases in HNO/sub 3/-soluble forms occurred. Nitrogen immobilization was measured during 2- to 4-week period, and N mineralization and nitrification during the 4- to 12-week period. At low levels of metal addition Mn and Pb stimulated N transformations. Among the six metals studied the sequence in order of decreasing inhibition was Cr > Cd > Cu > Zn > Mn > Pb. It was concluded that N transformation rates may be affected by trace metals in soils receiving heavy sludge applications.

  12. Influence of metal vapour on arc temperatures in gas-metal arc welding: convection versus radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Anthony B.

    2013-06-01

    The presence of metal vapour in gas-metal arc welding has been shown to have two strong effects on the arc plasma: a decrease in temperature throughout the arc, and the formation of a local temperature minimum near the arc axis. These effects have been attributed, on the basis of different computational models, to either the increased radiative emission associated with the presence of metal vapour in the arc plasma, or the influence of the metal vapour influx on convective flow in the arc. This question is investigated using a three-dimensional computational model in which the production and the transport of metal vapour are taken into account self-consistently. Parameters relevant to welding of thin sheets of aluminum are examined. For these conditions, it is found that the first effect (the decrease in temperature throughout the arc) is due to both the increased radiative emission and the influence of the metal vapour influx on flow. The second effect (the local temperature minimum, which in this case occurs just below the wire electrode) is a consequence of the influence of aluminum vapour produced from the wire electrode on flow in the arc. By examining published results and the energy balance in the plasma, it is shown that for welding of steel with higher arc currents, the increased radiative emission can lead to a local temperature minimum at a greater distance from the wire electrode.

  13. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  14. On factors influencing students’ listening abilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡天秀

    2012-01-01

    As we all know,listening,speaking,reading,and writing are four basic skills in language teaching and learning.Listening plays an important role in improving other skills.There are some factors influencing students’ listening abilities.So it’s important for teachers to improve students’ listening abilities.

  15. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  16. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1986-01-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...

  17. Factors influencing the process of farm liquidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dudek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the logit analysis was used in order to define the factors influencing farm liquidation. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its regional differences were analysed. Significant and negative impact of the number of people in a family farm and the number of machinery and technical equipment, as well as the positive impact of the farmer’ age are reported.

  18. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  19. Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.

  20. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  1. Uncovering Factors Influencing Interpersonal Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Lennie; Jansen, Carel; Hoeks, John

    2017-01-01

    Talking to friends, family, or peers about health issues might, among other things, increase knowledge of social norms and feelings of self-efficacy in adopting a healthier lifestyle. We often see interpersonal health communication as an important mediating factor in the effects of health campaigns on health behavior. No research has been done so far, however, on factors that influence whether and how people talk about health issues without being exposed to a health campaign first. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 12 participants about their communication behavior concerning six different health themes, like smoking and exercising. The results suggest that at least four types of interpersonal health communication can be distinguished, each influenced by different factors, like conversational partner and objective of the conversation. Future research should take this diversity of interpersonal health communication into account, and focus on designing health campaigns that aim to trigger dialogue within target populations.

  2. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilda Pečarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  3. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Enterprise social media platforms provide new ways of sharing knowledge and communicating within organizations to benefit from the social capital and valuable knowledge that employees have. Drawing on social dilemma and self-determination theory, the aim of the study is to understand what...... factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence...... knowledge sharing framework helps to understand what factors impact engagement on social media. Furthermore the article suggests different types of interventions to overcome the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Originality/value: The study contributes to an understanding of factors leading...

  4. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  5. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments: metal influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Raquel; Mucha, Ana P; Teixeira, Catarina; Bordalo, Adriano A; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the potential effect of metals, such as Cd, Cu and Pb, on the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments was investigated under laboratory conditions. Sandy and muddy non-vegetated sediments were collected in the Lima River estuary (NW Portugal) and spiked with crude oil and each of the metals. Spiked sediments were left in the dark under constant shaking for 15 days, after which crude oil biodegradation was evaluated. To estimate microbial abundance, total cell counts were obtained by DAPI staining and microbial community structure was characterized by ARISA. Culturable hydrocarbon degraders were determined using a modified most probable number protocol. Total petroleum hydrocarbons concentrations were analysed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy after their extraction by sonication, and metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained showed that microbial communities had the potential to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons, with a maximum of 32 % degradation obtained for sandy sediments. Both crude oil and metals changed the microbial community structure, being the higher effect observed for Cu. Also, among the studied metals, only Cu displayed measurable deleterious effect on the hydrocarbons degradation process, as shown by a decrease in the hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms abundance and in the hydrocarbon degradation rates. Both degradation potential and metal influence varied with sediment characteristics probably due to differences in contaminant bioavailability, a feature that should be taken into account in developing bioremediation strategies for co-contaminated estuarine sites.

  6. Influence of metal dental materials on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Chiba, Michiko; Yoshizawa, Satoshi; Sasaki, Sadayuki; Maki, Toshio; Kitagawa, Matsuo; Suzuki, Takeshi [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan). Main Hospital; Nakata, Minoru; Fujita, Isao

    1998-11-01

    Differences in magnetic susceptibility produce artifacts and signal loss in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was undertaken to compare the degree of artifacts on MRI caused by metallic dental materials. The influence on MRI of six types of dental alloys, a dental implant, orthodontic appliance, and magnetic attachment was investigated. Among the dental metals, nickel-chromium alloy and cobalt-chromium alloy, which have ferromagnetism, caused significant metal artifacts. Gold-platinum alloy, gold-silver-palladium alloy, silver alloy, and amalgam alloy produced slight metal artifacts. The orthodontic appliance mainly consisted of iron, and the keeper for its magnetic attachment was made of stainless steel. For these reasons, marked metal artifacts and signal loss could be seen in both of them owing to their ferromagnetism. These results suggest that orthodontic appliances and magnetic attachments impair evaluation of the GRE and EPI techniques. It is therefore preferable to use predominantly diamagnetic or paramagnetic dental materials for MRI of the head and neck. Removable keepers should be used more widely to prevent metal artifacts and enhance safety on MRI. (author)

  7. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  9. Influence of EDDS on metal speciation in soil extracts: measurement and mechanistic multicomponent modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Gerwin F; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Song, Jing; Luo, Yongming; Japenga, Jan; Temminghoff, Erwin J M

    2008-02-15

    The use of the [S,S]-isomer of EDDS to enhance phytoextraction has been proposed for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Speciation of metals in soil solution in the presence of EDDS and dissolved organic matter (DOM) received, however, almost no attention, whereas metal speciation plays an important role in relation to uptake of metals by plants. We investigated the influence of EDDS on speciation of dissolved metals in batch extraction experiments using fourfield-contaminated soils with pH varying between 4.7 and 7.2. Free metal concentrations were determined with the Donnan membrane technique, and compared with results obtained with the chemical speciation program ECOSAT and the NICA-Donnan model using a multicomponent approach. Addition of EDDS increased total metal concentrations in our soil extracts by a factor between 1.1 and 32 (Al), 2.1-48 (Cu), 1.1-109 (Fe), 1.1-5.5 (Ni), and 1.3-17 (Zn). In general, Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn had the largest total concentrations in the EDDS-treated extracts, but the contribution of these metals to the sum of total metal concentrations varied significantly between our soils. Free metal concentrations varied between 7.0 and 8.9 (pCd2+), 3.9-9.9 (pCu2+), 6.3-10.2 (pNi2+), and 5.2-7.0 (pZn2+). Addition of EDDS decreased free metal concentrations by a factor between 1.4 and 1.9 (Cd), 3.4-216 (Cu), 1.3-186 (Ni), and 1.3-3.3 (Zn). Model predictions of free metal concentrations were very good, and predicted values were mostly within 1 order of magnitude difference from the measured concentrations. A multicomponent approach had to be used in our model calculations, because competition between Fe and other metals for binding with EDDS was important. This was done by including the solubility of metal oxides in our model calculations. Multicomponent models can be used in chelant-assisted phytoextraction experiments to predict the speciation of dissolved metals and to increase the understanding of metal uptake by plants.

  10. Influence of some factors on alpha energy spectrum of 241Am fire alarm source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Several primary factors influencing the alpha energy spectrum of 241Am fire alarm source have been studied in order to get betteralpha energy spectrum.The results show that the homogeneity andthe thickness of metal surface coat and the size of active area of thesource have considerable influence on the alpha energy spectrum of thesource.

  11. Factors influencing the feasibility of laparoscopy colectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhiyun; Zhang Zhongtao

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective was to review the factors affecting the feasibility of performing successful laparoscopic colectomy.Data sources The literatures about the risk factors closely related to the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy on different surgical diseases of the colon cited in this review were obtained from PubMed published in English from 2006 to 2012.Study selection Original articles regarding the risk factors that affect the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy were selected.Results Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,advanced age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of developing serious complications such as hemorrhage,anastomotic leak,and skin and soft tissue infections following laparoscopic colectomy.These factors also increase the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.In this study,we reviewed the recent original articles about the relationship of laparoscopic colectomy with these risk factors.We also describe some strategies that limit the likelihood of these complications and the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.Conclusions Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of either serious complications or conversion to open operation with laparoscopic colectomy.Evaluation of these risk factors preoperatively should influence the decision to perform colectomy using laparoscopic techniques.

  12. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  13. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  14. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, N Venkata Naga; Prasanna, P Muthu; Sakarkar, Suhas Narayan; Prabha, K Surya; Ramaiah, P Seetha; Srawan, G Y

    2010-05-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the quality preservation techniques of sensitive substances and a method for production of materials with new valuable properties. Microencapsulation is a process of enclosing micron-sized particles in a polymeric shell. There are different techniques available for the encapsulation of drug entities. The encapsulation efficiency of the microparticle or microsphere or microcapsule depends upon different factors like concentration of the polymer, solubility of polymer in solvent, rate of solvent removal, solubility of organic solvent in water, etc. The present article provides a literature review of different microencapsulation techniques and different factors influencing the encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulation technique.

  15. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarkoti, Bishal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING BENDING RIGIDITY OF SUBMERGED VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Long-hua; YANG Xiao-li

    2011-01-01

    The bending rigidity of submerged vegetation is closely related with vegetative drag force.This work aims at determining the effects of flow conditions and characteristics of vegetation on the bending rigidity of submerged vegetation.Based on the dimensional analysis method,the factors influencing the bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation were analyzed.The relationship between the relative bending rigidity and its influencing factors was investigated by experimental observation,and a relative bending rigidity expression for submerged vegetation was obtained by means of multiple linear regression method.The results show that the submerged vegetation has three states under different inflow conditions,and the each critical relative bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation was determined for the different states of submerged vegetation.

  17. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  18. Factors Influencing Impulse Buying in Retail Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgadze, Nino

    2014-01-01

    Impulse buying is a widely pervasive phenomenon. Statistics shows that more and more shoppers are experiencing irresistible urge to purchase unplanned and in most cases unnecessary product. Existing researches fall short in identifying most suitable tools that marketers can adopt in order to promote impulsive sales. Therefore, this thesis provides deep analysis of those, controllable factors that influence impulse buying. Particularly four external cues are examined: product display, promotio...

  19. Major Factors influences the 2008 Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2007 was an unusual year for China's stock market, as the index climbed from 2675 points up to 6124 by the end of the year, setting new records again and again throughout 2007. What will happen to the stock market in the coming 2008? Let's havea look at some of the main factors that will influence the stock market this year, perhaps we can find out if 2008 will be another memorable year full of surprises.

  20. Factors influencing the eicosanoids synthesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefel, Jarosław; Kruszewski, Wiesław Janusz; Sobczak, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    External factors activate a sequence of reactions involving the reception, transduction, and transmission of signals to effector cells. There are two main phases of the body's reaction to harmful factors: the first aims to neutralize the harmful factor, while in the second the inflammatory process is reduced in size and resolved. Secondary messengers such as eicosanoids are active in both phases. The discovery of lipoxins and epi-lipoxins demonstrated that not all arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives have proinflammatory activity. It was also revealed that metabolites of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins also take part in the resolution of inflammation. Knowledge of the above properties has stimulated several clinical trials on the influence of EPA and DHA supplementation on various diseases. However, the equivocal results of those trials prevent the formulation of guidelines on EPA and DHA supplementation. Prescription drugs are among the substances with the strongest influence on the profile and quantity of the synthesized eicosanoids. The lack of knowledge about their influence on the conversion of EPA and DHA into eicosanoids may lead to erroneous conclusions from clinical trials.

  1. Biologics formulation factors affecting metal leachables from stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuxia; Schöneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K

    2011-03-01

    An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect of the various factors, buffer species, solution fill volume per unit contact surface area, metal chelators, and pH, on metal leachables from contact with ss over time were investigated individually. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel, were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry because they are the major components of 316L ss. Iron was primarily used to evaluate the effect of each factor since it is the most abundant. It was observed that each studied factor exhibited its own effect on metal leachables from contact with ss. The effect of buffer species and pH exhibited temperature dependence over the studied temperature range. The metal leachables decreased with the increased fill volume (mL) per unit contact ss surface area (cm(2)) but a plateau was achieved at approximately 3 mL/cm(2). Metal chelators produced the strongest effect in facilitating metal leaching. In order to minimize the metal leachables and optimize biological product stability, each formulation factor must be evaluated for its impact, to balance its risk and benefit in achieving the target drug product shelf life.

  2. A Review of Factors Influencing Health Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Almaspoor Khanghah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : Inequity in health is a universal term which is used for showing current differences, variations and inequalities of people in accessing to health services. The current study aimed to assess the factors influencing health inequalities to present the results to the researchers and health care professionals. Material and Methods : In this review, several databases including PubMed, Proquest, Scopus, Google Scholar search engine, SID and IranDoc were searched within 2000-2014 period. We found 746 articles and refined them step by step according to the aim of the study by reviewing the titles, abstracts and full texts. Finally, 16 articles were selected for further study Results: In the present study, identified determinants in health inequalities were as follows: 1- Economic and income factors 2- Political factors, social and public policy 3- Cultural and social values 4- social and demographic factors 5- Behavioral, psychological and biological factors. Although, other factors like governmental, international, social cohesion, incidents and even the health system itself were involved in health inequalities, but the listed determinants were among the most important determinants in health inequalities in the conducted studies. Conclusion : Given the importance of people's health and inequalities in health, the approach should focus on reducing the inequalities in all policies and development programs and the role of these factors should be taken into consideration by managers and policy-makers

  3. CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Jozsef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.

  4. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  5. Effect of the edaphic factors and metal content in soil on the diversity of Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racić, Gordana; Körmöczi, Péter; Kredics, László; Raičević, Vera; Mutavdžić, Beba; Vrvić, Miroslav M; Panković, Dejana

    2017-02-01

    Influence of edaphic factors and metal content on diversity of Trichoderma species at 14 different soil sampling locations, on two depths, was examined. Forty-one Trichoderma isolates from 14 sampling sites were determined as nine species based on their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Our results indicate that weakly alkaline soils are rich sources of Trichoderma strains. Also, higher contents of available K and P are connected with higher Trichoderma diversity. Increased metal content in soil was not inhibiting factor for Trichoderma species occurrence. Relationship between these factors was confirmed by locally weighted sequential smoothing (LOESS) nonparametric smoothing analysis. Trichoderma strain (Szeged Microbiology Collection (SZMC) 22669) from soil with concentrations of Cr and Ni above remediation values should be tested for its potential for bioremediation of these metals in polluted soils.

  6. Environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present an overview of recent findings on the environmental and behavioral factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis. The authors primarily concentrated on deliberations of possibile main causes of the damage of the endothelium. At the same time the following pathogenic mechanisms as cellular dysfunction, inflammation and coagulation disorders have been enumerated. The links between the state of the vascular endothelium and life style have been emphasized. It is also important to note that the primary causes of the endothelial damage should be traced as originally suggested many years ago viewing such factors as anger, hostility, aggression, impulsiveness and depression but with a new approach. The authors supplement the comments, on the environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis, with basic data on family predisposition to the development of this disease. They highlight that current genetic research have not determined genes responsible for atheroscelosis. According to the authors the considerations and conclusions presented in this overview are important for the educational purposes related to the most frequent disease process resulting in many diseases in medical disciplines.

  7. Contextual factors influencing research use in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Contextual factors are perceived to be significant barriers to research-utilisation-related activity, but little is known about how context impacts on specific research-based decisions, or how the individual interacts with the organisation in the requirement for research-based change. This study describes the impact of contextual factors on the practical reasoning of nurse specialists in the construction of policy for practice. Three groups of clinical nurse specialists were observed during a series of meetings convened to construct evidence-based guidelines for nursing practice. Transcripts of the meetings were analysed to identify and categorise the physical, social, political, and economic influences on 31 nursing issues. Multiple contextual factors influenced each decision made, with decisions about nursing practice bounded by setting and system considerations, relationships with others in the care team, and resource constraints. Practitioners were involved in weighing up alternative scenarios, contexts, and contingencies for each decision, requiring strategies to adapt and reconstruct the nature of care, to influence others, and to affect organisational decision-making processes. The practical accomplishment of evidence-based practice required diverse skills: translating between evidence and practice; mediating the values, preferences, and working practices of multiple stakeholders; negotiating organisational complexity and the management of boundaries; and coordinating inter-organisational and inter-agency working. Nurse specialists in this study had a significant role in instigating, fuelling, and coordinating policy review, predominantly by communication across professional and organisational boundaries. Clinical specialists acting as organisational boundary spanners require skills in the informal cultural work of organising, facilitating, and maintaining links across professional, team, and organisational boundaries. If their role in the negotiation of

  8. Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

  9. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  10. The Influence of Metallicity on Star Formation in Protogalaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jappsen, A -K; Klessen, R S; Mac Low, M -M

    2007-01-01

    In cold dark matter cosmological models, the first stars to form are believed to do so within small protogalaxies. We wish to understand how the evolution of these early protogalaxies changes once the gas forming them has been enriched with small quantities of heavy elements, which are produced and dispersed into the intergalactic medium by the first supernovae. Our initial conditions represent protogalaxies forming within a fossil H II region, a previously ionized region that has not yet had time to cool and recombine. We study the influence of low levels of metal enrichment on the cooling and collapse of ionized gas in small protogalactic halos using three-dimensional, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations that incorporate the effects of the appropriate chemical and thermal processes. Our previous simulations demonstrated that for metallicities Z < 0.001 Z_sun, metal line cooling alters the density and temperature evolution of the gas by less than 1% compared to the metal-free case at densiti...

  11. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-02-01

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  12. A survey on factors influencing city branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.

  13. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Park

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

  14. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  15. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods.Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance.Study design: Population based cross - sectional study.Setting: Rural area of East DelhiParticipants: Married women in the reproductive age group.Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample.Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group.Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child.Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptivesStatistical Analysis: By proportions.Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception.Recommendations:(i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention.(ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  16. Landslide forecasting and factors influencing predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Gigli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Forecasting a catastrophic collapse is a key element in landslide risk reduction, but it is also a very difficult task owing to the scientific difficulties in predicting a complex natural event and also to the severe social repercussions caused by a false or missed alarm. A prediction is always affected by a certain error; however, when this error can imply evacuations or other severe consequences a high reliability in the forecast is, at least, desirable. In order to increase the confidence of predictions, a new methodology is presented here. In contrast to traditional approaches, this methodology iteratively applies several forecasting methods based on displacement data and, thanks to an innovative data representation, gives a valuation of the reliability of the prediction. This approach has been employed to back-analyse 15 landslide collapses. By introducing a predictability index, this study also contributes to the understanding of how geology and other factors influence the possibility of forecasting a slope failure. The results showed how kinematics, and all the factors influencing it, such as geomechanics, rainfall and other external agents, are key concerning landslide predictability.

  17. Influence of metal of the applicator on the dose distribution during brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Hui; Shiau, An-Cheng; Liao, Yi-Jen; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Liu, Yen-Wan Hsueh; Hsu, Shih-Ming

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how the metal materials of the applicator influence the dose distribution when performing brachytherapy for cervical cancer. A pinpoint ionization chamber, Monte Carlo code MCNPX, and treatment planning system are used to evaluate the dose distribution for a single Ir-192 source positioned in the tandem and ovoid. For dose distribution in water with the presence of the tandem, differences among measurement, MCNPX calculation and treatment planning system results are MCNPX result agrees with the measurement. But the doses calculated from treatment planning system are overestimated by up to a factor of 4. This is due to the shielding effect of the metal materials in the applicator not being considered in the treatment planning system. This result suggests that the treatment planning system should take into account corrections for the metal materials of the applicator in order to improve the accuracy of the radiation dose delivered.

  18. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing large African herbivore movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour o

  19. Preparing Methods and Its Influencing Factors about Nanoparticles Based on Dendritic Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the properties, structure and application of dendritic polymer, this paper analysed the methods of the preparation of nanoparticles using dendritic polymer, detailed preparation process, technical parameters and application effect about a single metal nanoparticles, bimetallic nanoparticles, sulfide and halide nanoparticles. The influencing factors of the preparation about nanoparticles were discussed, including the molecular algebra, the molar ratio of the metal ions to the dendritic polymer, and so on.

  20. Influence of nanoparticle-graphene separation on the localized surface plasmon resonances of metal nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Saadabad, Reza Masoudian; Shirdel-Havar, Amir Hushang; Havar, Majid Shirdel

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theory to model the interaction of graphene substrate with localized plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles. The influence of a graphene substrate on the surface plasmon resonances is described using an effective background permittivity that is derived from a pseudoparticle concept using the electrostatic method. For this purpose, the interaction of metal nanoparticle with graphene sheet is studied to obtain the optical spectrum of gold nanoparticles deposited on a graphene substrate. Then, we introduce a factor based on dipole approximation to predict the influence of the separation of nanoparticles and graphene on the spectral position of the localized plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles. We applied the theory for a 4 nm radius gold nanosphere placed near 1.5 nm graphene layer. It is shown that a blue shift is emerged in the position of plasmon resonance when the nanoparticle moves away from graphene.

  1. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole.

  2. Speciation of heavy metal ions as influenced by interactions with montmorillonite, Al hydroxide polymers and citrate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.P.T.

    1995-01-01

    Clay minerals, metal-hydroxides and organic matter can bind metal ions; moreover they also interact with each other. These mutual interactions influence the metal binding to a significant extent. In this study, the speciation of the heavy metal ions Zn and Ph was investigated in model systems consis

  3. Factors influencing career choice in anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student′s stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky′s 13-point sense of coherence scale. Methods: Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky′s sense of coherence (SOC scale. Results: Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%, while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor−patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55 (25 th percentile was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60 in the survey. Conclusion: Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student′s personality.

  4. Factors influencing nurses' perceptions of occupational safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Menevse; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-01-02

    To determine nurses' perceptions of occupational safety and their work environment and examine the sociodemographic traits and job characteristics that influence their occupational safety, we studied a sample of 278 nurses. According to the nurses, the quality of their work environment is average, and occupational safety is insufficient. In the subdimensions of the work environment scale, it was determined that the nurses think "labor force and other resources" are insufficient. In the occupational safety subdimensions "occupational illnesses and complaints" and "administrative support and approaches," they considered occupational safety to be insufficient. "Doctor-nurse-colleague relationships," "exposure to violence," and "work unit" (eg, internal medicine, surgical, intensive care) are the main factors that affect occupational safety. This study determined that hospital administrations should develop and immediately implement plans to ameliorate communication and clinical precautions and to reduce exposure to violence.

  5. Factors Influencing Sulfinatodehalogenation Reactions of Perhalocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU,Kai(吴恺); CHEN,Qing-Yun(陈庆云)

    2004-01-01

    The study on the factors influencing sulfinatodehalogenation of perfluorohexyl chloride plus octene-1 by using Na2S2O4/NaHCO3 discovered that among the various solvents tested(e.g.Me2SO,NMP,DMAc,CH3CN,CH3CN/H2O)at different temperatures,Me2SO was found to be the most suitable solvent and the conversion of the chloride was very dependent on the reaction temperature.When Me2SO was used in the reaction of perfluoroalkyl iodides,the reaction temperature could be decreased by 20℃ as compared with that carried out in CH3CN/H2O to reach the comparable yields.

  6. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Meyrick C M

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of "being there" in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users' attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

  7. Influence of stacking fault energy on friction of nanotwinned metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. J.; Wang, Z. F.; Sun, T.; Yan, Y. D.

    2016-12-01

    The unique dislocation-twin boundary (TB) interactions that govern the extraordinary mechanical properties of nanotwinned (NT) metals have the strong intrinsic effect of material energy and the extrinsic effect of feature size. In this work, we perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to elucidate fundamental deformation mechanisms of two NT face-centered cubic (FCC) metals (Cu and Pd) under probe-based friction, with an emphasis on evaluating the influence of both material’s intrinsic energy barrier and extrinsic grain size on the microscopic deformation behavior and correlated macroscopic frictional results of the materials. Simulation results reveal that individual deformation modes of dislocation mechanisms, dislocation-TB interactions, TB-associated mechanisms, deformation twinning and grain boundary (GB) accommodation work in parallel in the plastic deformation of the materials, and their competition is strongly influenced by both the intrinsic energy barriers for the nucleation of stacking faults and twin faults, and the extrinsic grain size. Consequently, both the frictional response and worn surface morphology present strong anisotropic characteristics. It is also found that the deformation behavior of NT Pd under a localized multi-axis stress state is significantly different from that which occurs under a uniaxial stress state. These findings will advance the rational design and synthesis of nanostructured materials with advanced frictional properties.

  8. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  9. Factors influencing women's decision making in hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Monika; Armfield, Nigel R; Page, Katie; Kerr, Gayle; Kurz, Suzanne; Jackson, Graeme; Currie, Jason; Weaver, Edward; Yazdani, Anusch; Obermair, Andreas

    2017-09-12

    To explore factors influencing how well-informed women felt about hysterectomy, influences on their decision making, and on them receiving a less-invasive alternative to open surgery. Online questionnaire, conducted in 2015-2016, of women who had received a hysterectomy in Australia, in the preceding two years. Questionnaires were completed by 2319/6000 women (39% response). Most women (n=2225; 96%) felt well-informed about hysterectomy. Women were more aware of the open abdominal approach (n=1798; 77%), than of less-invasive vaginal (n=1552; 67%), laparoscopic (n=1540; 66%), laparoscopic-assisted (n=1303; 56%), and robotic approaches (n=289; 12%). Most women (n=1435; 62%) reported their gynaecologist was the most influential information source. Women who received information about hysterectomy from a GP (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.15-1.90), or from a gynaecologist (OR=1.3; 95% CI 1.06-1.58), were more likely to feel better informed (p<0.01). This study is important because it helps clinicians, researchers and health policy makers to understand why many women still receive an open abdominal approach despite many learned societies recommending to avoid it if possible. Additional information, or education about avoiding open abdominal approach where possible may lead to a greater number of women receiving less-invasive types of hysterectomy in the future. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors Influencing Students’ Perceptions of Online Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falls

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.

  11. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Gimeno Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  12. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF METALIC IONS OF THE STABILITY OF CARBONATES FROM SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bulgariu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of minor elements in heterogeneous mineral / aqueous solutions systems represent one of important problem, with many applications in environmental geochemistry field. Ours studies was focus on the metal ions distribution in carbonate (CaCO3 / solution systems, from applicability point of view to the estimation of formation conditions and of carbonates stability from soils. On the base of our results obtained by sequential solid / liquid extraction for 17 soil samples and theoretical modeling of CaCO3 / solution systems, and the results from literature we try to develop the McIntire prognosis models and the free Gibbs enthalpy linear correlation model, by the inclusion in calculus relations of distribution coefficients a higher number of factors which effective influenced the thermodynamics and kinetics of interphase distribution processes of metal ions. The established correlations has been used to the estimation of time evolution of carbonate / solution equilibrium under the influence of some metal ions (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Bi, which appear usual as pollutants in soils. The prognosis realized on the base of the established correlations are in agreement with the theoretical modelling results and studies of case for different types of polluted soils with heavy metals.

  13. Metal concentrations in aquatic environments of Puebla River basin, Mexico: natural and industrial influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-García, S S; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Shruti, V C; Jonathan, M P; Martínez-Tavera, E

    2017-01-01

    The rapid urban expansion and presence of volcanoes in the premises of Puebla River basin in central Mexico exert significant influences over its aquatic environments. Twenty surface sediment samples from Puebla River basin consisting of R. Alseseca, R. Atoyac, and Valsequillo dam were collected during September 2009 and analyzed for major (Al, Fe, Mg, Ba, Ca, and K) and trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn) in order to identify the metal concentrations and their enrichment. R. Atoyac sediments presented higher concentrations of Ba (1193.8 μg g(-1)) and Pb (27.1 μg g(-1)) in comparison with the local reference sample values. All the metal concentrations except Sr for R. Alseseca sediments were within the range of local reference sample values indicating no significant external influence, whereas Valsequillo dam sediments had elevated concentrations of all the metals suggesting both natural and external influences in the study region. The magnitude of metal contamination was assessed using several indices such as geoaccumulation index (I geo), enrichment factor (EF), degree of contamination (C d ), and pollution load index (PLI). The results suggest that As, Pb, and Zn were predominantly enriched in the Puebla River basin sediments. Comparing with sediment quality guidelines and ecotoxicological values, it is revealed that Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni have possible harmful effects on the biological community. The present study provides an outlook of metal enrichment in Puebla River basin sediments, highlighting the necessity to conserve this river ecosystem for the near future.

  14. Spatially explicit analysis of metal transfer to biota: influence of soil contamination and landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Fritsch

    Full Text Available Concepts and developments for a new field in ecotoxicology, referred to as "landscape ecotoxicology," were proposed in the 1990s; however, to date, few studies have been developed in this emergent field. In fact, there is a strong interest in developing this area, both for renewing the concepts and tools used in ecotoxicology as well as for responding to practical issues, such as risk assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of metal bioaccumulation in animals in order to identify the role of spatially explicit factors, such as landscape as well as total and extractable metal concentrations in soils. Over a smelter-impacted area, we studied the accumulation of trace metals (TMs: Cd, Pb and Zn in invertebrates (the grove snail Cepaea sp and the glass snail Oxychilus draparnaudi and vertebrates (the bank vole Myodes glareolus and the greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula. Total and CaCl(2-extractable concentrations of TMs were measured in soils from woody patches where the animals were captured. TM concentrations in animals exhibited a high spatial heterogeneity. They increased with soil pollution and were better explained by total rather than CaCl(2-extractable TM concentrations, except in Cepaea sp. TM levels in animals and their variations along the pollution gradient were modulated by the landscape, and this influence was species and metal specific. Median soil metal concentrations (predicted by universal kriging were calculated in buffers of increasing size and were related to bioaccumulation. The spatial scale at which TM concentrations in animals and soils showed the strongest correlations varied between metals, species and landscapes. The potential underlying mechanisms of landscape influence (community functioning, behaviour, etc. are discussed. Present results highlight the need for the further development of landscape ecotoxicology and multi-scale approaches, which would enhance our

  15. Remarks on the physical factor influencing the individual language learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨君

    2015-01-01

    individual language learner as a subject of learning can be influenced by many factors such as physical factor,cognitive factor,and affective factor.All of which play an important role in language learning.These three factors are worthy of our research and physical factor will be discussed in this essay.

  16. Influence of reaction stresses induced by dislocation slips on the orientation evolution in bcc metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A plastic deformation model for bcc metals is proposed in consideration of reaction stresses. The shear strains and the corresponding reaction stresses induced by the activation of dislocations are calculated in the model, which will influence the following dislocation activation. The rolling texture in bcc metals is simulated up to 80% reduction, while the ratio of critical resolved shear stresses between the dislocations slipping on the {110} and {112} planes is chosen as 0.95. The corresponding calculation is also conducted with the activation of second dislocation, if the difference between the orientation factor of the two dislocations with maximal orientation factors is lower than 5%. It is shown that the simulated texture is closer to that of the 80% rolled interstitial free steels than other modeling. It is believed that the new model can give more attention to both of the strain and stress continuities during the plastic deformation of polycrystalline metals, and therefore approaches closer to the real deformation process in bcc metals.

  17. Key factors affecting mechanical behavior of metallic glass nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Qi-Kai; Li, Mo

    2017-01-01

    Both strengthening and weakening trends with decreasing diameter have been observed for metallic glass nanowires, sometimes even in the samples with the same chemical composition. How to reconcile the results has reminded a puzzle. Since the detailed stress state and microstructure of metallic glass nanowires may differ from each other significantly depending on preparation, to discover the intrinsic size effect it is necessary to study metallic glass nanowires fabricated differently. Here we show the complex size effects from one such class of metallic glass nanowires prepared by casting using molecular dynamics simulations. As compared with the nanowires of the same composition prepared by other methods, the cast nanowires deform nearly homogeneously with much lower strength but better ductility; and also show strengthening in tension but weakening in compression with decreasing wire diameter. The subtle size dependence is shown to be related to the key factors including internal and surface stress state, atomic structure variation, and presence of various gradients. The complex interplay of these factors at decreasing size leads to the different deformation behaviors.

  18. Influence of Agriculture on Water Quality: Significance of Heavy Metals Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Nusreta Đonlagić; Amra Odobašić; Amra Bratovčić

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural activities directly influence the quality of water systems. Investigations showed that application of various agro-technical measures results with the pollution of water streams with heavy metals and other polluters. Increased concentrations of heavy metals result with intake of heavy metals and their transfer to food chains, and for that reason it is necessary to monitor the content of heavy metals regularly. Broad investigations of bio-geochemical cycling of heavy metals in the...

  19. Regulation of FoxO transcription factors by environmental NO(x). Influence of metal ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Regulation von FoxO-Transkriptionsfaktoren durch Umweltnoxen. Einfluss von Metallionen und polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckers, Anna

    2009-12-15

    FoxO transcription factors are crucial modulators of various cellular processes, controlling the expression of target genes such as those coding for manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and selenoprotein P (SeP), thereby supporting defense against oxidative stress. Environmental stimuli such as heavy metal ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) modulate signaling pathways both by interaction with proteins or by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exposure of hepatoma cells to nickel ions at subcytotoxic doses did not translate into modulation of FoxO activity despite an activation of the Ser/Thr-kinase Akt. The cellular response to nickel ions under these conditions is most likely independent of the formation of ROS, since there were no increased levels of glutathione disulfide detectable. FoxO activity was then found to be modulated in response to exposure of cells to PAH or the tryptophan photoproduct FICZ. Both PAH and FICZ caused an increased activity of a FoxO-responsive promoter construct as well as of glucose 6-phosphatase promoter activity. In contrast, the activities of promoters of genes coding for MnSOD or SeP were decreased in response to exposure to the PAH 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC). In line with the promoter effects, 3-MC also decreased steady-state levels of SeP mRNA. The response of the SeP promoter to 3-MC was abrogated by point mutations introduced at the two identified FoxO binding elements of the SeP promoter, implying that interaction of FoxO proteins with these sites is essential for the downregulation of promoter activity. In addition to FoxO activity being modulated by xenobiotics, it was then demonstrated that FoxO expression was also modulated by exposure of cells to PAH or FICZ. FoxO4 mRNA levels were downregulated in hepatoma cells exposed to 3-MC or FICZ. Similarly, insulin treatment caused a downregulation of mRNA levels of FoxO 1a, 3a and 4 in hepatoma cells. (orig.)

  20. What influences heavy metals accumulation in arctic lichen Cetrariella delisei in Svalbard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Węgrzyn, Michał; Wietrzyk, Paulina; Lisowska, Maja; Klimek, Beata; Nicia, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify variations in heavy metal concentrations in Cetrariella delisei along a transect from a High Arctic glacier forehead to the shoreline as well as determine the main environmental factors influencing the deposition of heavy metals in arctic lichens. The macrolichen Cetrariella delisei appears to be an interesting alternative to those lichen species used in the past (e.g. Flavocetraria nivalis, Cladonia sp.) for heavy metal biomonitoring purposes in the Arctic: it is widely distributed, easy to identify and reluctantly grazed by reindeer. Fieldwork was conducted in the summer of 2012 in the Kaffiøyra Plain, Oskar II Land, NW Spitsbergen. C. delisei and soil samples were collected from 5 localities. Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd were measured in each sample. A bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was calculated for all the analyzed elements. The BAFs for Cu, Mn, and Ni showed a relatively low accumulation level in lichen thalli. On the other hand, the BAFs for Cr, Pb, and Zn, revealed an increased accumulation level in C. delisei. The Cd content in lichen is almost equal to its level in the soil. The statistical analyses covered three environmental factors: soil pH, substrate type and distance from the shoreline. The data were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis test, canonical correspondence analysis and a permutation test. The results show that distance from the shoreline had the greatest influence on the majority of the heavy metal concentrations in the lichen thalli and the soil. However, the level of Mn accumulated in the soil is determined by its source in the glacier. Moreover, the soil pH had the greatest effect on the Cd accumulated in the soil and the Mn accumulated in the lichen thalli.

  1. Influences of the Air in Metal Powder High Velocity Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the process of metal powder high velocity impact compaction, the air is compressed sharply and portion remains in the compacts. In order to study the Influences, a discrete density volleyball accumulation model for aluminium powder was established with the use of ABAQUS. Study found that the powder porosity air obstruct the pressing process because remaining air reduced strength and density of the compacts in the current high-speed pressing (V≤100m/s. When speed further increased (V≥100m/s, the temperature of the air increased sharply, and was even much higher than the melting point of the material. When aluminium powder was compressed at a speed of 200m/s, temperatures of air could reach 2033 K, far higher than the melting point of 877 K. Increased density of powders was a result of local softening and even melt adhesive while air between particles with high temperature and pressure flowed past.

  2. Influence of metal-ceramic interfaces on the behaviour of metal matrix composites and their joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urena, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas; Gomez de Salazar, J.M. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas; Escalera, M.D. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas

    1997-06-01

    The present contribution emphasises the importance of the chemical reactions which occur during the fabrication and joining procedures, in the metallic matrix/ceramic reinforcement interfaces of the metal matrix composites. Using both the experimental data obtained by other investigators studding metal/ceramic systems such us Al/SiC, Al-Mg/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ti/SiC, etc.; and the results of the research carried out for the present authors in the diffusion bonding of Al/SiC and Al-Mg/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites, the nature of these chemical reactions and their influence on the MMC properties are discussed. Authors also study the particularly case of the participation of Li in the interface reactions occurred in the Al/SiC system. For it, the data obtained in the study of the diffusion bonding of an aluminium-copper alloy (AA2124) reinforced with SiC whiskers and using an aluminium-lithium alloy (AA8090) as interlayer, are used. TEM observations showed that Li might change the nature of this interface and penetrate in the SiC lattice. It can answer to the increase in interface strength detected by other authors in Al-Li/SiC composites. The application of TEM has proved to be an essential tool for characterisation of these kind of interfaces. (orig.)

  3. Hydrolysis kinetics of atrazine and influence factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The hydrolysis kinetics of atrazine in distilled water and leaching water from soil, and their influence factors were studied by incubation at 35℃ and HPLC analysis method in this paper. The kinetic process of atrazine hydrolysis can be described by the first-order reaction law. The results showed that the hydrolysis rate constants k in leaching water and distilled water were 1.606x10-3/d and 1.055x10-3/d, respectively; the half-life of atrazine hydrolysis in distilled water at pH 3, pH 4.5 and pH 8 were 373 days, 522 days and 657 days respectively. The results also showed that the proton in reaction solution can catalyze the atrazine hydrolysis; humic acid and NH4+ etc. substances in aqueous solution can facilitate atrazine hydrolysis; rate constants of atrazine hydrolysis with humic acid and NH4NO3 were 2.431x10-3/d and 1.498x10-3/d respectively which were 2.3 and 1.42 times of control(1.055x10-3/d); anion NO3- can inhibit catalysis of humic acid to atrazine hydrolysis.

  4. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  5. Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoshi,Ko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

  6. Effect of Primary Factor on Cavitation Resistance of Some Austenitic Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zai-you; ZHU Jin-hua

    2003-01-01

    The cavitation resistance of six kinds of austenitic metals was investigated using a rotating disc rig. The research results show that cavitation resistance of the austenitic metals is obviously raised due to cavitation-induced martensite and greatly influenced by mechanism of martensitic transformation. The cavitation resistance of two stress-induced martensite Fe-Mn-Si-Cr shape memory alloys is much better than that of three strain-induced martensite austenitic stainless steels. The Fe-Mn-Si-Cr shape memory alloys possess excellent cavitation resistance mainly because of their excellent elasticity in local small-zone. The first principal factor for cavitation resistance of metastable austenitic metals is unloaded rebounding depth, and the second one is energy dissipation resulted from cavitation-induced martensite.

  7. Metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasties : Influence of cobalt chromium ions on bacterial growth and biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, Anton H.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Busscher, Henk J.; Neut, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MOM) bearings involving cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys in total hip arthroplasties are becoming more and more popular due to their low wear. Consequences of corrosion products of Co-Cr alloys are for the most part unclear, and the influence of cobalt and chromium ions on biofilm form

  8. Urban water consumption and its influencing factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Liangxin; Gai, Lingtong; Tong, Yan; Li, Ruihua

    2017-01-01

    Factors that affect water consumption should be identified to develop effective public policies. However, factors influencing domestic water consumption in cities in China, particularly on a national scale, are unclear. In this study, urban water consumption and its influencing factors in 286

  9. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  10. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela-victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  11. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population. ... in influencing food choices and thus food intake of the elderly people in Mauritius. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in different regions around the island ...

  12. Factors of Influence on Receivables and Payables and Their Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin Oleg Ye.; Volovich Yelena B.

    2013-01-01

    The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups - macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.

  13. COMPUTER CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE FOR INVESTIGATIONS OF TRIBOLOGICAL INFLUENCES IN SHEET METAL FORMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Vujinović

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sheet metal forming, especially deep drawing process is influenced by many factors. Blank holding force and drawbead displacement are two of them that can be controlled during the forming process.For this purpose, an electro-hydraulic computerized sheet-metal strip sliding device has been constructed. The basic characteristic of this device is realization of variable contact pressure and drawbead height as functions of time or stripe displacement. There are both, pressure and drawbead, ten linear and nonlinear functions. Additional features consist of the ability to measure drawing force, contact pressure, drawbead displacement etc.The device overview and first results of steel sheet stripe sliding over rounded drawbead are presented in the paper.

  14. Metal matrix composites: History, status, factors and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyriac, Ajith James

    The history, status, and future of metal matrix composites are presented by evaluating the progression of available literature through time. The trends that existed and issues that still prevail are discussed and a prediction of the future for MMCs is presented. The factors that govern the performance of metal matrix composites are also discussed. In many developed countries and in several developing countries there exists continued interest in MMCs. Researchers tried numerous combinations of matrices and reinforcements since work strictly on MMCs began in the 1950s. This led to developments for aerospace and defense applications, but resultant commercial applications were limited. The introduction of ceramic whiskers as reinforcement and the development of 'in-situ' eutectics in the 1960s aided high temperature applications in aircraft engines. In the late 1970s the automobile industries started to take MMCs seriously. In the last 20 years, MMCs evolved from laboratories to a class of materials with numerous applications and commercial markets. After the collapse of the Berlin Wall, prevailing order in the world changed drastically. This effect was evident in the progression of metal matrix composites. The internet connected the world like never before and tremendous information was available for researchers around the world. Globalization and the internet resulted in the transformation of the world to a more level playing field, and this effect is evident in the nature and source of research on metal matrix composites happening around the world.

  15. PIGMENT CONTENT OF Chlorella vulgaris BEIJ. UNDER INFLUENCE OF THE SODIUM SELENITE AND METALS IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the conditions obtaining in the aquaculture of Chlorella vulgaris Beij. algosubstantion enriched with selenium and bioactive metals. For this purpose, the content of seaweed pigments studied by the action of sodium selenite in a concentration based on Se4+: 0.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg / dm3 for 1, 3 and 7 days and while exposed 10.0 mg Se4 +/dm3 and Zn2+, Mn2 +, Co2 +, Cu2 +, Fe3 + in concentrations of 5.0 mg/dm 3, 0.25, 0.002, 0.008 and 0.05 mg/dm3, respectively, within 7 days of culturing. The content of pigments was determined spectrophotometrically, the cellular walls were given off in the percoll gradient and investigated microscopically. The pigments content in Ch. vulgaris increase by 1,5–2,5 times in comparison with control sample under the influence of 10 mg Se(IV/dm3 with and without metal ions. In the same condition a ratio of chlorophylls a/b increased, that accompanied by the formation in cells of the second cell wall as the sign of successful adaptation process in the Chlorella cells under the influence of these factors. Thus, the cultivation of chlorella, enriched with selenium and bioactive metals, is possible within 7 days under the influence of 10 mg Se (IV/dm3 and mentioned concentration of these metal ions.

  16. Purification of coagulation factor VIII by immobilized metal affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Estela S; Verinaud, Claudia I; Oliveira, Douglas S; Raw, Isaías; Lopes, Alexandre P Y; Martins, Elizabeth A L; Cheng, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Factor VIII (FVIII) is a glycoprotein that plays an essential role in blood coagulation cascade. Purification of plasma-derived coagulation FVIII by direct application of plasma to a chromatographic column is a method of choice. Anion exchange column is a very powerful method because FVIII is strongly adsorbed, resulting in good activity recovery and high purification factor. However, vitamin-K-dependent coagulation factors coelute with FVIII. In the present study, we report the separation of vitamin-K-dependent coagulation proteins from FVIII using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) with Cu(2+) as the metal ligand. Plasma was directly loaded to a Q Sepharose Big Beads column, and FVIII was recovered with 65% activity and a purification factor of approximately 50 times. Then, the Q Sepharose eluate was applied to the IMAC-Cu(2+) column, and FVIII was eluted with 200 mM imidazole, with up to 85% recovery of activity. The mass recovery in this fraction was less than 10% of the applied mass of protein. Vitamin-K-dependent proteins elute with imidazole concentrations of lower than 60 mM. Because of the difference in affinity, FVIII could be completely separated from the vitamin-K-dependent proteins in the IMAC column.

  17. Study the Factors Effecting on Welding Joint of Dissimilar Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esam J. Ebraheam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the factors that affect the welding joint of dissimilar metals. Austenitic stainless steel-type AISI (316L with a thickness of (2mm was welded to carbon steel (1mm using an MIG spot welding. The filler metal is a welding wire of the type E80S-G (according to AWS is used with (1.2mm diameter and CO2 is used as shielding gas with flow rate (7L/min for all times was used in this work. The results indicate that the increase of the welding current tends to increase the size of spot weld, and also increases the sheer force. Whereas the sheer force increased inversely with the time of welding. Furthermore, the results indicate that increasing the current and time of welding increases the diameter of weld zone, and decreases the sheer force.

  18. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Minimally Invasive Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of institutional, patient and surgeon-related factors ... Surgical site infections ... Factors influencing choice of open procedures over MIS are summarized in Table 1. The main .... written with pharmaceutical products in mind (25). ... JAMA Intern.

  19. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  20. Influence of traffic activity on heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-05-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals' homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  1. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The independent variables were maternal education, marital status, both ... maternal employment status, health factors (place of delivery and maternal chronic illness) ... It was evident that family support is a key factor in the success of EBF with ...

  2. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  3. Influence of chosen metals on the citric acid cycle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rojczyk-Gołebiewska, Ewa; Kucharzewski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    .... It results among others in increased human exposition to heavy metals. In case of detoxication mechanisms disturbance in organism, heavy metals cumulate in tissues causing mutations and disrupting metabolism, including Krebs cycle...

  4. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda ...... childhood stunting in nigeria: A multilevel analysis. ... Equity monitoring for social marketing: Use of wealth.

  5. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the

  6. Shear bond strength of metallic brackets: influence of saliva contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Borges Retamoso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on shear bond strength and the bond failure pattern of 3 adhesive systems (Transbond XT, AdheSE and Xeno III on orthodontic metallic brackets bonded to human enamel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two permanent human molars were cut longitudinally in a mesiodistal direction, producing seventy-two specimens randomly divided into six groups. Each system was tested under 2 different enamel conditions: no contamination and contaminated with saliva. In T, A and X groups, the adhesive systems were applied to the enamel surface in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. In TS, AS and XS groups, saliva was applied to enamel surface followed by adhesive system application. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h, and then tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine (Emic, DL 2000 running at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. RESULTS: The control and contaminated groups showed no significant difference in shear bond strength for the same adhesive system. However, shear bond strength of T group (17.03±4.91 was significantly higher than that of AS (8.58±1.73 and XS (10.39±4.06 groups (p<0.05. Regarding the bond failure pattern, TS group had significantly higher scores of no adhesive remaining on the tooth in the bonding area than other groups considering the adhesive remnant index (ARI used to evaluate the amount of adhesive left on the enamel. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva contamination showed little influence on the 24-h shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

  7. Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local people ... The social and economic circumstances prevailing in Tanzania today have made ... sociocultural and livelihood factors that influence community participation in ... Increased capacity for conservation skills was the most important driver of community ...

  8. Analysis of Factors Influencing Farmers’ Identification of Entrepreneurial Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; GAO; Fang; YANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey data of entrepreneurship concerning farmers in China,this article uses the multivariate adjustment regression analysis method,to analyze the factors influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity and the mechanism. The results show that demographic characteristics are still an important factor influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity,but the extent of its influence is weaker than entrepreneurs’ trait. The new trait theory is verified in farmers’ entrepreneurship opportunity behavior; entrepreneurship environment is becoming an important factor influencing entrepreneurial opportunity identification,whose regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ social network and previous experience is stronger than the regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ psychological trait.

  9. Factors Potentially Influencing the Tackiness of DWPF Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.C.

    2000-09-13

    This report summarizes a preliminary investigation into the sludge characteristics that could potentially influence properties such as rheology, reactivity toward nitric acid, and surface, or interfacial, tension (or energy) as it relates to adhesion to metallic surfaces. Suggested experiments that could help characterize the tackiness of future sludges are suggested.

  10. Influence of Traffic Activity on Heavy Metal Concentrations of Roadside Farmland Soil in Mountainous Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandong Yao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals’ homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING FRICTION OF PHOSPHATE COATINGS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    surface roughness, crystalline structure , and velocity. The coefficients of friction for manganese phosphate coatings did not differ to any practical...The coefficient of friction was independent of the applied load. Velocity during dynamic testing, surface finish, and crystalline structure influenced

  12. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the e

  13. Flue-gas-influenced heavy metal bioaccumulation by the indigenous microalgae Desmodesmus communis LUCC 002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisami, Swaminathan; Lee, Keesoo; Balakrishnan, Baskar; Nam, Paul Ki-souk

    2015-01-01

    Desmodesmus communis LUCC 002 was cultivated using flue gas originating from a coal-fired power plant as a carbon dioxide (CO2) source. The flue gas contains various heavy metals. For investigating the fate of flue-gas-introduced metals on the cultivation system, bioaccumulation was measured in the microalgal biomass and milieu. The accumulated biomass was found to contain eight heavy metals: arsenic, chromium, barium, lead, selenium, silver, cadmium, and mercury. High heavy metal accumulations were also found in the control group of algae grown without the addition of flue gas at the same location. Further testing revealed that some of the heavy metals originated from well water used in the cultivation. The flue-gas-influenced bioaccumulation pattern of different heavy metals was observed. The responses of individual heavy metals and the influence of well water microbial flora on the algal growth were investigated, this study showed that hormesis was developed by the D. communis LUCC 002.

  14. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  15. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction among Army Chaplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-20

    supported by Maslow’s need hierarchy, it is not substantiated by Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory. Still another approach is that of Leon Festinger’s...Herzberg, Vroom, McGregor, Lawler and Festinger provide a basic JWM » -, —_—^ . foundation and starting point for examining the factors of chaplain...identity, and autonomy, which are examined in this section. Further, Leon Festinger’s work on "cognitive dissonance" points toward the

  16. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovici, Dan A.; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decis...

  17. Influence of heavy metal pollution on lichens and bryophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, D.N.; Robitaille, G.; LeBlanc, F.

    1977-05-01

    A close correlation was observed between metal accumulation levels and phytosociological and physiological changes produced in lichens and bryophytes in a sulfur dioxide and heavy metal polluted area around a copper smelter in Murdochville, Canada. This observation has prompted a discussion of some of the past and present research on ecology, phytosociology, and physiology of lichens and bryophytes with respect to heavy metal pollution. Hopefully this will lead to a better understanding of the use of these plants in the diagnosis of heavy metal pollution. Data are received on the accumulation of Ba, Cu, Pb, Sr and Zn in certain mosses and their corresponding substrates.

  18. scanning speed influence on the physical properties of laser metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Laser metal deposition (LMD), Material efficiency, Titanium alloy ... later assembled in traditional manufacturing process can ..... Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Using Laser Material.

  19. Influence of Nutritional Factors on Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    conditions of chronic high level fat oxidation such as exercise, Askew et al. (121) fed exercising rats diets supplemented with 0.5Z L- carnitine . Although...exercise increased adipose tissue fatty acid turnover, supplemental dietary carnitine neither increased skeletal muscle in vitro fatty acid oxidation...some investigators believe the relative activities of the sn-glycerolphosphate acyltransferase and carnitine palmttyltrans- ferase may influence the

  20. The influence of bioavailable heavy metals and microbial parameters of soil on the metal accumulation in rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Chen, Yujuan; Li, Qiqi; Dai, Jun

    2017-10-01

    A field-based study was undertaken to analyze the effects of soil bioavailable heavy metals determined by a sequential extraction procedure, and soil microbial parameters on the heavy metal accumulation in rice grain. The results showed that Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations in rice grain decreases by 65.9%, 78.9%, 32.6%, 80.5%, 61.0% and 15.7%, respectively in the sites 3 (far-away), compared with those in sites 1 (close-to). Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that soil catalase activity, the MBC/MBN ratio, along with bioavailable Cd, Cr and Ni could explain 68.9% of the total eigenvalue, indicating that these parameters have a great impact on the heavy metal accumulation in rice grain. The soil bioavailable heavy metals have a dominant impact on their accumulation in rice grain, with a variance contribution of 60.1%, while the MBC/MBN has a regulatory effect, with a variance contribution of 4.1%. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the MBC/MBN, urease and catalase activities are the key microbial parameters that affect the heavy metal accumulation in rice by influencing the soil bioavailable heavy metals or the translocation of heavy metals in rice. RDA showed an interactive effect between Cu, Pb and Zn in rice grain and the soil bioavailable Cd, Cr and Ni. The heavy metals in rice grain, with the exception of Pb, could be predicted by their respective soil bioavailable heavy metals. The results suggested that Pb accumulation in rice grain was mainly influenced by the multi-metal interactive effects, and less affected by soil bioavailable Pb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J

    2011-02-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the effects of endogenous and exogenous local dermal changes by body creams, hyperemia, vasoconstriction, and hydration. SAF was measured before and after local administration of body lotion, day cream, sunscreen, or self-browning cream and after attempts to remove these effects with alcohol swabs and washing. SAF was measured before and during three hyperemia maneuvers: vasoconstriction and on a dry and wet skin. The body lotion increased SAF by 18%. Day cream, sunscreen, and self-browning cream gave an increase of >100%. Except for body lotion, subsequent cleaning with alcohol swabs and washing with soap did not return SAF to baseline values. The effect of self-browning cream persisted for 2 weeks and that of sunscreen for 4 days. Hyperemia caused by a hot bath, capsicum cream, or postocclusive reactive hyperemia gave a decrease in SAF of, respectively, 18%, 22%, and 2.3%. Vasoconstriction caused by immersing the arm in cold water gave a 10% increase. Hydration state did not influence SAF. Measurement of SAF is strongly affected by several skin creams. This effect was often not fully corrected by alcohol swabs and washing with soap and may persist for many days. Marked hyperemia and vasoconstriction also influence SAF. We advise avoiding these potential error sources.

  2. Choice of treatment with antidepressants: influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Wranik, Dominika W

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders place a large burden on patients and on society. Although efficacious treatment options for unipolar depressive disorders exist, substantial gaps in care remain. In part, the challenge lies in the matching of individual patients with appropriate care. This is complicated by the steady increases in the variety of antidepressants available in the market. The goal of this study is to highlight the decision processes in the selection of antidepressants by clinicians, given that most treatments have similar clinical effectiveness profiles. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that referred to the decisions surrounding treatment with antidepressants for the treatment of non-psychotic unipolar depression. Our analysis of the literature reveals that the choice of treatment is based on a variety of factors, of which clinical evidence is only one. These factors can be categorized into clinical factors such as illness and treatment characteristics, individual factors such as patient and physician characteristics, and contextual factors such as setting characteristics, decision supports and pharmacoeconomic aspects. Illness characteristics are defined by the type and severity of depression. Treatment characteristics include drug properties, efficacy, effectiveness and favorable as well as unintended adverse effects of the drug. Examples for patient characteristics are co-morbidities and individual preferences, and physician characteristics include knowledge, experience, values and beliefs, and the relationship with the patient. Treatment guidelines, algorithms, and most recently, computational supports and biological markers serve as decision supports.

  3. Nutritional influence on the ability of fungal mycelia to penetrate toxic metal-containing domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomina, Marina; Ritz, Karl; Gadd, Geoffrey M

    2003-07-01

    Metal-contaminated soils often contain a spatially heterogeneous distribution of metal concentrations, and the ability of fungi to colonize such metal-contaminated domains will be influenced by the nutritional resources available. An experimental system based upon tessellated agar tiles was used to study the influence of nutrients upon the ability of soil fungi Trichoderma virens and Clonostachys rosea to colonize spatially discrete toxic metal (copper and cadmium) containing domains. The growth parameters recorded demonstrated a decrease in apparent metal toxicity with increasing concentration of available carbon source. It was shown that maximum hyphal extension rates and the efficacy of carbon substrate utilization of both species decreased with increasing concentration of toxic metals. It was also observed that in the gap between metal-free and metal-containing tiles, the presence of toxic metals led to negative chemotropic reactions and cessation of growth, swelling and lysis of some hyphal tips. Penetration of the hyphae into the metal-containing domain was often followed by the formation of very dense mycelia or mycelial 'bushes' representing an associative (constraining, exploitative or 'phalanx') growth strategy of the mycelial system. After the fungi entered the toxic metal-containing domains, they often produced long sparsely-branched or branchless explorative hyphae representing a dissociative (expansive, explorative or 'guerrilla') growth strategy. Our data therefore demonstrate that fungi efficiently use both 'phalanx' and 'guerrilla' states of the mycelial system as well as shifts in these growth strategies as a response to toxic metal stress combined with nutritionally-poor conditions.

  4. Factors influencing quality of life in asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-kalemji, Abir; Petersen, Karin Dam; Sørensen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The quality of life (QOL) in persons with asthma is reduced and different factors such as demography, asthma severity and psychiatric comorbidity play an influential role. However, little is known about the interplay of these factors. OBJECTIVE: To describe QOL in relation to asthma...... and analyse for the relative impact of asthma severity, psychiatric comorbidity, lifestyle (smoking and obesity) and demographic determinants on QOL in persons with asthma. METHODS: One thousand one hundred sixty-one subjects from an earlier cohort with and without asthma were sent an asthma screening...... gender and smoking were associated with reduced QOL, suggesting that these factors play an independent role on lowering QOL. Depression did not inflate the relationship between asthma severity and worse QOL, suggesting that asthma severity plays an independent role on everyday life regardless...

  5. Factors influencing nurses' participation in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Ann F; Warner, Andrea M; Fleming, Eileen; Schmidt, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Clinical research is necessary for developing nursing's body of knowledge and improving the quality of gastroenterology nursing care. The support and participation of nursing staff are crucial to conducting interventional research. Identification of characteristics of nurses and their work settings that facilitate or impede participation in research is needed. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine the effect of personal and professional characteristics and attitudes about nursing research on staff nurses' participation in a clinical nursing research project. A questionnaire measuring nurses' attitudes, perceptions of availability of support, and research use was distributed to staff nurses working on an endoscopy lab and two same-day surgery units where a nursing research study had recently been conducted. Investigator-developed items measured nurses' attitudes about the utility and feasibility of the interventions tested in the original study. A total of 36 usable questionnaires comprised the sample. Factor analysis of the two questionnaires resulted in three-factor (Importance of Research, Interest in Research, and Environment Support of Research) and two-factor (Value of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions [CBIs] and Participation in Study) solutions, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean scores for the five factors between nurses who did (n = 19) and those who did not (n = 17) participate in the original study. The Participation in Research Factor was significantly negatively correlated with years in nursing (r = -.336, p body of knowledge about factors that facilitate or impede staff nurses' involvement in research. This knowledge will be useful for nurse researchers planning intervention studies to forecast and foster staff nurse involvement in their projects. Findings may also be useful to nurse managers, nurse educators, and staff development personnel in assessing and promoting staff nurses

  6. Influencing factors of infrared surveying in roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Kang-xu; GUO Da

    2006-01-01

    The main factors that affect infrared surveying in roadway include that property of rock, electromechanical equipments running, environmental temperature, hydrogeology and support material etc. This paper sums up the expression features of these disturbing factor through theoretical analysis and actual measurement contrasts and considers that some tunnel section does not suit to go on infrared survey, for instance, soft rock meets water to expanse, and surround rock has obviously pouring water. The basic methods had made evading disturbing of electromechanical equipments, environmental temperature and protect material etc to become possible. It is helpful that offers infrared surveying technical service for production safety better in roadway.

  7. Influence of metal of the applicator on the dose distribution during brachytherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hui Wu

    Full Text Available This study explores how the metal materials of the applicator influence the dose distribution when performing brachytherapy for cervical cancer. A pinpoint ionization chamber, Monte Carlo code MCNPX, and treatment planning system are used to evaluate the dose distribution for a single Ir-192 source positioned in the tandem and ovoid. For dose distribution in water with the presence of the tandem, differences among measurement, MCNPX calculation and treatment planning system results are <5%. For dose distribution in water with the presence of the ovoid, the MCNPX result agrees with the measurement. But the doses calculated from treatment planning system are overestimated by up to a factor of 4. This is due to the shielding effect of the metal materials in the applicator not being considered in the treatment planning system. This result suggests that the treatment planning system should take into account corrections for the metal materials of the applicator in order to improve the accuracy of the radiation dose delivered.

  8. Emergency department crowding: Factors influencing flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on emergency department (ED) crowding. In the first part (ED crowding in the Netherlands) the current state of EDs regarding patients’ length of stay and ED managers’ experiences of crowding are described. Part two (input factors) contains three studies which describe the case lo

  9. Heavy metals in sediments of Ganga River: up- and downstream urban influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Jitendra; Singh, Rachna

    2015-09-01

    Bottom sediment in a river often acts as a sink and indicator of changes in water column and magnitude of anthropogenic influences through air and watersheds. Heavy metal concentration in sediments of Ganga River was studied along a 37-km stretch to assess whether there is a significant difference between sites situated upstream and downstream of Varanasi urban core. Metal concentration increased consistently along the study gradient, indicating the influence of urban sources. Concentration in the river sediment was found highest for Fe followed by Mn, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd. Mann-Kendall trend analysis showed marked seasonality in the concentration with values being highest in summer and lowest in rainy season. Enrichment factor revealed severe enrichment of Cd and Pb at downstream sites, and principal component analysis segregated sites into four distinct groups indicating source relationships. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cr did exceed WHO standards. The study has relevance designing control measures and action plans for reducing sediment contamination in anthropogenic impacted rivers.

  10. [Factors that influence student ratings of instruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Su Jin; Choung, Yun Hoon; Chung, Yoon Sok

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of student ratings of instruction by analyzing their relationships with several variables, including gender, academic rank, specialty, teaching time, and teaching method, at a medical school. This study analyzed the student ratings of 297 courses at Ajou University School of Medicine in 2013. SPSS version 12.0 was used to analyze the data and statistics by t-test, analysis of variance, and Scheffe test. There were no statistically significant differences in student ratings between gender, rank, and specialty. However, student ratings were significantly influenced by teaching times and methods (pStudent ratings were high for teaching times of 10 hours or more and small-group learning, compared with lectures. There was relatively mean differences in students ratings by teaching times, specialty and rank, although the difference in ratings was not statistically significant. Student ratings can be classified by teaching time and method for summative purposes. To apply student ratings to the evaluation of the performance of faculty, further studies are needed to analyze the variables that influence student ratings.

  11. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards midwifery: Tool validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rajabi, Omaymah; Al-Hadid, Lourance; Subih, Maha

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a tool that explores the factors influencing women's opinion of and attitudes towards midwifery. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of 526 Jordanian women. Cluster sampling was used to ensure a representative sample; then, convenience sampling was performed. The instrument asked non-identifying demographic questions and covered factors reported in literature to influence women's attitudes towards and views of the profession. The resulting instrument consisted of five factors explained by 29 items. These factors were women's general view of midwives, midwife duties, professional ethics, media influence and demotivating factors associated with working as a midwife. Although the instrument is valid and reliable, it needs further testing in other studies. Taking the factors reported on by the present study into account in public policy-making could promote better understanding of midwifery and improve its status in the community. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Factors influencing medication label viewing in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Chong, Yen Wan

    2016-07-12

    The misuse of medicine is a serious public health issue worldwide. An important factor that contributes to the misuse of medicine is the lack of medication label viewing by consumers. The objective of the present study is to examine the socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with medication label viewing among Malaysian adults. The empirical analysis is based on a nationally representative data set of 30,992 respondents. An ordered probit model is used to examine different types of medication label viewers. The results of this study suggest that socio-economic (i.e. age, income level, education level, location of residence), demographic (i.e. gender, ethnicity, marital status) and lifestyle factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) have significant effects on medication label viewing. It is found that age, low-income and low-education level reduce the likelihood of viewing medication label. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. The present study provides policy makers with baseline information regarding which cohorts of individuals to focus on in efforts to increase the frequency of medication label viewing.

  13. Factors influencing early survival after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, P G; Estrin, J A; Fryd, D S; Payne, W D; Belani, K G; Elick, B A; Najarian, J S; Ascher, N L

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from all adult and pediatric liver transplants performed between January 1, 1983 and January 15, 1986 at the University of Minnesota Hospital and identify perioperative variables that predict patient survival and could aid in patient selection. Charts, intraoperative anesthesia records, blood bank records, flow sheets, outpatient records, and autopsy reports were examined in 45 pediatric and 15 adult patients who underwent primary orthotopic liver transplantation. Analysis of the data can be summarized as follows: (1) Pediatric patients whose coagulation parameters could not be corrected prior to operation and who consequently required preoperative exchange transfusion had poorer outcomes than those not requiring an exchange to correct coagulation parameters. (2) The rapid infusion technique for massive blood transfusion resulted in significantly decreased blood loss and intraoperative blood product replacement. (3) Twenty-four hour postoperative factor V levels were good predictors of survival. Patients with poor factor V levels required rigorous replacement of coagulation factors. (4) Pediatric patients with uncorrectable coagulopathies requiring immediate postoperative exchange transfusion had extremely high mortality.

  14. Factors influencing recognition of interrupted speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Humes, Larry E

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the effect of interruption parameters (e.g., interruption rate, on-duration and proportion), linguistic factors, and other general factors, on the recognition of interrupted consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in quiet. Sixty-two young adults with normal-hearing were randomly assigned to one of three test groups, "male65," "female65" and "male85," that differed in talker (male/female) and presentation level (65/85 dB SPL), with about 20 subjects per group. A total of 13 stimulus conditions, representing different interruption patterns within the words (i.e., various combinations of three interruption parameters), in combination with two values (easy and hard) of lexical difficulty were examined (i.e., 13×2=26 test conditions) within each group. Results showed that, overall, the proportion of speech and lexical difficulty had major effects on the integration and recognition of interrupted CVC words, while the other variables had small effects. Interactions between interruption parameters and linguistic factors were observed: to reach the same degree of word-recognition performance, less acoustic information was required for lexically easy words than hard words. Implications of the findings of the current study for models of the temporal integration of speech are discussed.

  15. Clinically important factors influencing endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapaatalo, H; Mervaala, E

    2001-01-01

    The endothelium, a continuous cellular monolayer lining the blood vessels, has an enormous range of important homeostatic roles. It serves and participates in highly active metabolic and regulatory functions including control of primary hemostasis, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, platelet and leukocyte interactions with the vessel wall, interaction with lipoprotein metabolism, presentation of histocompatibility antigens, regulation of vascular tone and growth and further of blood pressure. Many crucial vasoactive endogenous compounds like prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide, endothelin, angiotensin, endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor, free radicals and bradykinin are formed in the endothelial cells to control the functions of vascular smooth muscle cells and of circulating blood cells. These versatile and complex systems and cellular interactions are extremely vulnerable. The balances may be disturbed by numerous endogenous and exogenous factors including psychological and physical stress, disease states characterized by vasospasm, inflammation, leukocyte and platelet adhesion and aggregation, thrombosis, abnormal vascular proliferation, atherosclerosis and hypertension. The endothelial cells are also the site of action of many drugs and exogenous toxic substances (e.g. smoking, alcohol). As markers and assays for endothelial dysfunction, direct measurement of nitric oxide, its metabolites from plasma and urine, functional measurement of vascular nitric oxide dependent responses and assay of different circulating markers have been used. In numerous pathological conditions (e.g. atherosclerosis, hypertension, congestive heart failure, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, renal failure, transplantation, liver cirrhosis) endothelial dysfunction has been described to exist. Some of them, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors and drug treatment will be discussed in this short review.

  16. Factors Influencing the Performance of Coal Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unsia HABIB

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.

  17. Organizational Culture Factors that Can Influence Knowledge Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Pastor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to establish the correlation that exists between the types of organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer. We started from the hypothesis that organizations which have high scores for cultural factors of openness to change and innovation as well as for task-oriented organizational growth will have the tendency of being favourable to knowledge transfer. Moreover, we started from the hypothesis that organizations that have high scores for bureaucracy and competition factors will have the tendency of being unfavourable to knowledge transfer. The research reached the conclusion that there seems to be a correlation between organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer.

  18. Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A mixed method study. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... group discussions) and quantitative (cross-sectional survey) methods were utilised for this study.

  19. Social and economic factors influencing the patronage and use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social and economic factors influencing the patronage and use of complementary and alternative medicine in Enugu. ... Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources ... approaches to medical treatment that are outside of mainstream medical training.

  20. Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of Courses in ... Female students in six (Arts, Education, Pharmacy, Science, Social Sciences and ... services to secondary school students in the choice of courses and career.

  1. Factors Influencing the Development of Practical Skills of Interns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing the Development of Practical Skills of Interns Working in ... It starts with a good theoretical preparation and some practical experience at university. ... The relationship between intern and senior doctor was important when it ...

  2. Factors influencing the job satisfaction of academics in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the job satisfaction of academics in higher education. ... 94 respondents from similar departments at a residential and a distance education institution. A questionnaire focused on teaching, research, community service, ...

  3. Assessment of risk factors that influence pregnancy outcomes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Pregnancy outcome, low birth weight, Apgar score, maternal age, Tanzania ... (2006) reported that, several risk factors influence neonatal mortality. ..... which is the lowest cut off point for the classification of normal blood pressure.

  4. 'Mum never loved me.' How structural factors influence adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How structural factors influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health ... Research in high income countries shows parent–child connectedness to be ... to young people's low self-esteem and risky sexual behaviour while unplanned ...

  5. Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption of Rice ... Farming experience, household size, farm size and extension contact ... gender, market availability, education, extension contact, labour availability and farm size.

  6. Factors Influencing Farmer Output in the International Fund for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    Department of Rural Sociology and Extension. Michael Okpara ... This study analysed factors influencing International Fund for Agricultural. Development ..... farmers (50.9%) acquired secondary education as against Cross River IFAD farmers.

  7. Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban Areas of Tanzania. ... Model results revealed that household sizes and education levels of the ... To increase the market share of pulses, traders should devise effective ...

  8. Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young adult consumers in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... their reasons for and frequency of fast food consumption, their specific fast food choices, and their attitudes towards health.

  9. LITERATURE REVIEW ON FACTORS INFLUENCING MILK PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klaudia Kurajdova; Janka Taborecka-Petrovicova

    2015-01-01

    In today’s highly informed, competitive and saturated market, a key to success of any business depends on knowing consumer and his consumption patterns and recognizing and understanding factors influencing...

  10. Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ... The findings showed that students from lower socio-economic status homes and those ... The need to involve the students\\' parents in career education programmes and ...

  11. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    Only the factor of taste influencing food choice was significantly different between the two ..... available through the media, promotions, and advertising may confuse consumers and cause ... Predictors of self-initiated, healthful dietary change.

  12. Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    factors that influenced the extent of consumption in urban areas. In summary, the model .... model to control for self-selection bias because some potential consumers may ... accommodate consumer's zero value of purchase as an outcome of a ...

  13. Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in South Africa - a preliminary stud. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ... South African Medical Journal. Journal Home ...

  14. Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among Child Bearing Women in Chilonga ... Medical Journal of Zambia ... The literature review was mainly obtained from studies conducted globally, regionally and Zambia inclusively.

  15. Factors influencing choice of paediatrics as a career among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    female students (30%) considered gender distribution to be a factor influencing their career choice (p=0.046). ... role models in the specialty, job opportunities and financial .... of non-responder bias, although the relatively high response.

  16. Prevalence Of Early Childhood Malnutrition And Influencing Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    therefore, to asses the prevalence of malnutrition and the factors influencing the ... childhood malnutrition in Kabarole District and other areas in Uganda, and ..... Jitta JJ, Migadde M and J Mudusu Determinants of Malnutrition in under-fives.

  17. INFLUENCING FACTORS OF PRICE AND ASSOCIATED STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu NEAMTU; NEAMTU Adina Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The price is an important element in product position; it is a means of sending signals to consumers about the nature and quality of the product. When, for a certain business environment, the demand curve is known in relation to market (competition) costs and prices, the firm can choose a pricing policy simultaneously with business strategy. This study synthesizes the key-factors occurring in choosing a business strategy and the game of price and cost on the market As an approach to pricing p...

  18. Emotional Factors Influencing Students’ English Writing Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂勇伟

    2015-01-01

    As an international common language,English becomes more and more important.Students try their best to improve their English writing competence,especially as the social’s requirements for their English writing become higher and higher.However,students’English writing is very poor,fewer and fewer of them can write fluent English.Through the study of this topic,the author hopes it can remove students’emotional obstacles of English writing learning,master the direction of emotional factor,arouse students’interesting in learning oral English,make them practice English writing positively and obtain a better teaching effect

  19. Treatment Factors That Influence Mortality in Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, John; Ayuk, John; Sherlock, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare condition characterized by excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), which is almost always due to a pituitary adenoma. Acromegaly is associated with significant morbidity such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiomyopathy, obstructive sleep apnoea, malignancy and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Acromegaly has also been associated with increased mortality in several retrospective studies. This review will focus on the epidemiological data relating to mortality rates in acromegaly, the relationship between acromegaly and malignancy, the role of GH and insulin-like growth factor-I in assessing the risk of future mortality, and the impact of radiotherapy and hypopituitarism on mortality.

  20. DEGRADATION WORKS OF MONUMENTAL ART CAST BRONZE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia NICA-BADEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensive pollution, combined with the lack of conservation of monuments exposed to these environments make the main cause of deterioration of cultural objects to atmospheric corrosion metal. This paper proposes a study of the main factors leading to degradation Bronze alloy, cast bronze monuments exposed to open atmosphere: corrosive environmental factors, stability and products of corrosion of bronze. In general, all corrosion products present on a metal surface are indicated as 'skate', can be composed of single-layer or multilayer products. The paper also includes a case study on the influence of environmental factors on degradation Matthias monument statue in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Visual inspection of the monument informs us that have white spots, gray, reddish not consistent with the base color green patina, surfaces showing depigmentation, the rain washed areas, crystallization, deposition of air-borne particles.

  1. Factors influencing consumer satisfaction with health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Satish P; Deshpande, Samir S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that impact consumer satisfaction with health care. This is a secondary analysis of the Center for Studying Health System Change's 2010 Health Tracking Household Survey. Regression analysis was used to examine the impact of treatment issues, financial issues, family-related issues, sources of health care information, location, and demographics-related factors on satisfaction with health care. The study involved 12280 subjects, 56% of whom were very satisfied with their health care, whereas 66% were very satisfied with their primary care physician. Fourteen percent of the subjects had no health insurance; 34% of the subjects got their health care information from the Web. Satisfaction with primary care physician, general health status, promptness of visit to doctor, insurance type, medical cost per family, annual income, persons in family, health care information from friends, and age significantly impacted satisfaction with health care. The regression models accounted for 23% of the variance in health care satisfaction. Satisfaction with primary care physicians, health insurance, and general health status are the 3 most significant indicators of an individual's satisfaction with health care.

  2. Influence of different concentration of heavy metals on the seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Some heavy metals in higher doses may cause metabolic disorders and growth inhibition for most of ... doses of these compounds affected the germination and some growth indices. ... ment causing oxidative stress both in roots and leaves.

  3. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads.

  4. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    I Ketut Surya Diarta; I Gde Pitana; Nyoman Darma Putra; Agung Suryawan Wiranatha

    2016-01-01

    Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was c...

  5. The influence of low voltage discharges on structure and phase transformations of metallic foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ A low voltage electrospark processing of materials allows one to modify the chemical composition and structure of metal layers due to thermo-mechanical influence of discharges and transfer of materials from one electrode to another.

  6. The influence of low voltage discharges on structure and phase transformations of metallic foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pyachin; S.; A.; Verkhoturov; A.; D.; Zavodinsky; V.; G.; Pugachevsky; M.; A.

    2005-01-01

    A low voltage electrospark processing of materials allows one to modify the chemical composition and structure of metal layers due to thermo-mechanical influence of discharges and transfer of materials from one electrode to another.……

  7. Factors Influencing the Disabled's Employment in the Competitive Labour Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Simo

    1995-01-01

    Factors influencing the job search outcomes of 1,353 Finnish individuals with disabilities were studied, focusing on age, gender, domicile, basic education, vocational training, and type of disability. Results showed that age, education, and domicile influenced outcomes, and labor market status was to some extent gender specific. (JDD)

  8. STUDY ON FACTORS INFLUENCING INK ABSORPTION OF COATED PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxin Liu; Chuanshan Zhao; Shuxia Shang; Zhongwei Sun

    2004-01-01

    Ink absorption is one of the most important factors which influence printing properties. This article had discussed the influence of coating properties,technologies of heating and pressure etc. on ink absorption and showed that ink absorption can be adjusted and coating surface structure can be improved when technologies of heating and pressure change, pigment and adhesive altered.

  9. Influence of heavy metals on the activity of oxidoreductases in soil (model experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Legostayeva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The differentiated action of industrial pollutants on biochemical activity of soils under condition of model experiment was determined. The influence of heavy metals (zinc, copper, lead, manganese on dehydrogenase activity was explored. The metals’ inhibition activity on the enzymatic activity was found. Zinc and copper are most toxic for dehydrogenase activity and manganese is the less toxic metal.

  10. Linguistic Factors Influencing Speech Audiometric Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coene, Martine; Krijger, Stefanie; Meeuws, Matthias; De Ceulaer, Geert; Govaerts, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    In speech audiometric testing, hearing performance is typically measured by calculating the number of correct repetitions of a speech stimulus. We investigate to what extent the repetition accuracy of Dutch speech stimuli presented against a background noise is influenced by nonauditory processes. We show that variation in verbal repetition accuracy is partially explained by morpholexical and syntactic features of the target language. Verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and pronouns yield significantly lower correct repetitions than nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. The reduced repetition performance for verbs and function words is probably best explained by the similarities in the perceptual nature of verbal morphology and function words in Dutch. For sentences, an overall negative effect of syntactic complexity on speech repetition accuracy was found. The lowest number of correct repetitions was obtained with passive sentences, reflecting the cognitive cost of processing a noncanonical sentence structure. Taken together, these findings may have important implications for the audiological practice. In combination with hearing loss, linguistic complexity may increase the cognitive demands to process sentences in noise, leading to suboptimal functional hearing in day-to-day listening situations. Using test sentences with varying degrees of syntactic complexity may therefore provide useful information to measure functional hearing benefits.

  11. Physical factors influence for biologic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruzyan, L. A.

    2005-08-01

    Physical methods are widely spread in diagnostics and therapy of different pathologies, especially in oncology. The application of lasers occurred to be the perspective approach for combined methods application in medicine. Our work is devoted to investigation of thermal effect of focused laser beam in the model of Garding-Passi melanoma and also to the study of free radicals activity after the radiation with non-focused laser beam. The histologic alterations correlated with theoretical calculations of temperature distribution in irradiated tissue for energies 30-60 J attracted our interest. The values of maximal temperatures in depths of tissue for energies 30-60 J were carried out. In the model of permanent magnetic field (PMF) effect for mice ascites sarcoma 37 we have showed the linear dependence of tumor growth inhibition from the period of PMF treatment. Simultaneously we investigated PMF influence for free radical"s (FR) concentrations in mice organs and tissues and potentially appearing questions of PMF effect for biopotential in connection with FR formation. We have also studied the alterations of K, Na and Ca ions concentrations in ascetic fluids after animal"s PMF treatment. We revealed some reasons of biopotential generation and concluded that biopotential is not the result of specific ions gradient only but its generation can be followed by free radicals states appearance and occurrence of semi-conductivity in biostructures.

  12. Exploring factors influencing smoking behaviour in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study is to investigate the determinants of smoking behaviour among adults in Malaysia. Findings of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-3) by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, were used. The sample consisted of 34,539 observations. A logistic regression model was thus applied to estimate the probability to participate in smoking. Age, income, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status, residential area, education, lifestyle and health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of smoking. Specifically, youngsters, low income earners, males, unmarried individuals, Malays, employed individuals, rural residents and primary educated individuals were more likely to smoke. In conclusion, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors have significant impacts on smoking participation in Malaysia. Based on these empirical findings, several policy implications are suggested.

  13. Factors influencing dependence on mobile phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of current study was to investigate the relationship between the problematic use of mobile phone and Big Five personality traits among students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A total number of 120 students (80 females and 40 males were selected by applying proportional randomized classification sampling method from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS and demographic questionnaire were used to gather data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Analysis of gathered data showed that gender, neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience had positive correlation with the problematic use of mobile phone, whereas conscientiousness and agreeableness were not correlated with the problematic use of mobile phone. Conclusion: The evaluation of Big Five personality traits would be a reliable factor for predicting the problematic use of mobile phone among students.

  14. Factors influencing citizen participation in community management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to assess the factors affecting citizen participation in community management in district 13 of Tehran Municipality. Measured variables are: social cohesion, profitable partnerships, social-economic agencies, trust among civilians, trust in municipality management, feelings of powerlessness and social anomie. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation test show that all of these variables had significant relationships with community participation in neighborhood management. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that three variables of social cohesion, profitable partnerships and socio-economic status had explained 37% of changes in citizen participation in community management while the changing social cohesion maintained the highest impact.

  15. Factors influencing excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Souza Vilela

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Sleep deprivation in adolescents has lately become a health issue that tends to increase with higher stress prevalence, extenuating routines, and new technological devices that impair adolescents' bedtime. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the excessive sleepiness frequency and the factors that might be associated to it in this population. Methods: The cross-sectional study analyzed 531 adolescents aged 10–18 years old from two private schools and one public school. Five questionnaires were applied: the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire; the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children; the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria; the General Health and Sexual Maturation Questionnaire; and the Physical Activity Questionnaire. The statistical analyses were based on comparisons between schools and sleepiness and non-sleepiness groups, using linear correlation and logistic regression. Results: Sleep deprivation was present in 39% of the adolescents; sleep deficit was higher in private school adolescents (p < 0.001, and there was a positive correlation between age and sleep deficit (p < 0.001; r = 0.337. Logistic regression showed that older age (p = 0.002; PR: 1.21 [CI: 1.07–1.36] and higher score level for sleep hyperhidrosis in the sleep disturbance scale (p = 0.02; PR: 1.16 [CI: 1.02–1.32] were risk factors for worse degree of sleepiness. Conclusions: Sleep deficit appears to be a reality among adolescents; the results suggest a higher prevalence in students from private schools. Sleep deprivation is associated with older age in adolescents and possible presence of sleep disorders, such as sleep hyperhidrosis.

  16. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  17. Factors influencing professional life satisfaction among neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M; Halpern, Michael T; Kane, Heather L; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2017-06-19

    Predicted shortages in the supply of neurologists may limit patients' access to and quality of care for neurological disorders. Retaining neurologists already in practice provides one opportunity to support the overall supply of practicing neurologists. Understanding factors associated with professional life satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) and implementing policies to enhance satisfaction may encourage neurologists to remain in clinical practice. In this paper, we present results from the first study examining factors associated with professional life satisfaction among a large sample of U.S, neurologists. We collaborated with the AAN to survey a sample of U.S. neurologists about their professional life satisfaction. Analyses examined the association of physician and practice characteristics with aspects of professional life satisfaction, including satisfaction with their career in medicine, medical specialty, current position, relationship with colleagues, relationship with patients, work/life balance, and pay. The study population consisted of 625 neurologists. In multivariate regression analyses, no single group or population stratum indicated high (or low) responses to all aspects of satisfaction. Older neurologists reported higher satisfaction with career, specialty, and relationship with patients than younger neurologists. Female neurologists had significantly lower satisfaction with pay than male neurologists. Neurologists who spent more time in research and teaching had greater satisfaction with specialty, relationship with colleagues, and relationship with patients than those spending no time in research. Neurologists who practiced in small cities/rural areas reported lower satisfaction across multiple dimensions than those practicing in large urban areas. Neurologists in solo practice had greater satisfaction with the relationship with their patients, but lower satisfaction with pay. Satisfaction is a multidimensional construct that is associated with

  18. Influence of longitudinal magnetic field on metal transfer in MIG arc welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Yunlong; Che Xiaoping; He Youyou; Hu Guangxu

    2008-01-01

    Metal transfer is an important phenomenon in metal inert gas (MIG) arc welding with longitudinal alternating magnetic field. It is of great significance to observe the metal transfer modes under different excitatory currents and frequencies. However, it is very difficult to view the metal transfer process directly during welding, due to the strong interference from the arc light. To obtain the relationship between the metal transfer modes and the different magnetic fields, a high-speed video camera was used to acquire the images of globules. Different metal transfer modes under the conditions of different magnetic fields and welding parameters were studied. The experiment shows clear images of droplet transfer as well as influence of longitudinal magnetic field on both metal transfer and globule shape.

  19. The influence of speciation on the ecotoxic effects of heavy metals in aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karen S.; Borggaard, Ole K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The fate, bioavailability and exposure of aquatic organisms to potentially toxic metals are strongly influenced by the speciation of the metal ions in the medium. Metal speciation is mainly controlled by pH, ionic strength, and presence of ligands ranging from small ions (e.g. citrate, EDTA.......56. Calculations showed that the speciation is very dependent on the metal concentration and the composition of the media. A large variation in heavy metal toxicity for the same test organism was found for a given metal in different media. Our main hypothesis is that this is due to differences in speciation...... carried out in natural waters and in synthetic test media and analysing correlations between the free metal concentration and acute as well as chronic toxicity reported for Cd, Cu and Zn....

  20. Metals and Breast Cancer: Risk Factors or Healing Agents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Florea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals and metal compounds are part of our environment. Several metals are essential for physiological functions (e.g., zinc or magnesium; while the beneficial effects of others are uncertain (e.g., manganese, some metals are proven to be toxic (e.g., mercury, lead. Additionally there are organic metal compounds; some of them are extremely toxic (e.g., trimethyltin, methylmercury, but there is very little knowledge available how they are handled by organisms. Scientific evidence indicates that long-term exposure to (some metallic compounds induces different forms of cancer, including breast cancer. On the other side, several metal compounds have clinical use in treating life-threatening diseases such as cancer. In this paper we discuss the recent literature that shows a correlation between metal exposure and breast cancer.

  1. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  2. Heavy Metal Exposure Influences Double Strand Break DNA Repair Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E Morales

    Full Text Available Heavy metals such as cadmium, arsenic and nickel are classified as carcinogens. Although the precise mechanism of carcinogenesis is undefined, heavy metal exposure can contribute to genetic damage by inducing double strand breaks (DSBs as well as inhibiting critical proteins from different DNA repair pathways. Here we take advantage of two previously published culture assay systems developed to address mechanistic aspects of DNA repair to evaluate the effects of heavy metal exposures on competing DNA repair outcomes. Our results demonstrate that exposure to heavy metals significantly alters how cells repair double strand breaks. The effects observed are both specific to the particular metal and dose dependent. Low doses of NiCl2 favored resolution of DSBs through homologous recombination (HR and single strand annealing (SSA, which were inhibited by higher NiCl2 doses. In contrast, cells exposed to arsenic trioxide preferentially repaired using the "error prone" non-homologous end joining (alt-NHEJ while inhibiting repair by HR. In addition, we determined that low doses of nickel and cadmium contributed to an increase in mutagenic recombination-mediated by Alu elements, the most numerous family of repetitive elements in humans. Sequence verification confirmed that the majority of the genetic deletions were the result of Alu-mediated non-allelic recombination events that predominantly arose from repair by SSA. All heavy metals showed a shift in the outcomes of alt-NHEJ repair with a significant increase of non-templated sequence insertions at the DSB repair site. Our data suggest that exposure to heavy metals will alter the choice of DNA repair pathway changing the genetic outcome of DSBs repair.

  3. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  4. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  5. Factors influencing ring closure through olefin metathesis - A perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subrata Ghosh; Sarita Ghosh; Niladri Sarkar

    2006-05-01

    Success of ring closure reactions of substrates having two terminal alkenes through olefin metathesis depends on a number of factors such as catalysts, nature and size of the rings to be formed and the substituents/functional groups present on the alkenes as well as at the allylic position. This article presents an overview of these influencing factors with illustrative examples.

  6. Professional Identity Development in Higher Education: Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarà-i-Molinero, Alba; Cascón-Pereira, Rosalía; Hernández-Lara, Ana beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In the last few years, the interest on professional identity development (PID) and the factors that influence PID has become central in higher education (HE) literature. However, the knowledge developed in this domain has focussed on a factor at a time and on a degree or discipline, thus being difficult to have a general picture of all…

  7. Influence of Psychological Factors on the Improvement of Spoken English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宁

    2013-01-01

      From learner's innermost feelings,the author attempts to elaborate the influences of psychological factors on improving the spoken language. The study of spoken English is a very complex process, which is affected easily by learner's linguistic environment and character. We can draw a conclusion that psychological factors are an important problem and cannot be neglected.

  8. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an import

  9. The influence of motivational factors on choice behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Amelsfort, D.H.; Steg, L.; Bliemer, M.C.J.; Schuitema, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate if and how motivational factors influence choice behaviour. We study four motivational factors: attitude towards car use, personal norm to reduce car use, car use habit, and perceived behavioural control to change car use to explain the choice behaviour of respondents in

  10. Using mixed methods to identify factors influencing patient flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Cindy

    2009-11-01

    An effective method of identifying operational factors that influence patient flow can potentially lead to improvements and thus have huge benefits on the efficiency of hospital departments. This paper presents a new inductive mixed-method approach to identify operational factors that influence patient flow through an accident and emergency (A&E) department. Preliminary explorative observations were conducted, followed by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. A questionnaire survey of all medical, nursing, porter and clerical staff was then conducted. The observations provided factors for further exploration: skill-mix, long working hours, equipment availability, lack of orientation programmes, inefficient IT use and issues regarding communication structures. Interviewees highlighted several factors, including availability of medical supervision and senior nursing staff, nursing documentation issues, lack of morale due to overcrowding, personality differences and factors relating to the department layout. The questionnaire respondents strongly supported the importance of the previously identified factors. This paper demonstrates an effective mixed-method approach that can be replicated by other health-care managers to identify factors influencing patient flow. Further benefits include increased volume and quality of data, increased staff awareness for the influence of internal factors on patient flow and enhancing the evidence base for future decision making when prioritizing A&E projects.

  11. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  12. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  13. Factors that Influence Students' Decision to Dropout of Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Pedro A.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many reasons why students dropout of college courses, those reasons may be unique for students who are enrolled in an online program. Issues of isolation, disconnectedness, and technological problems may be factors that influence a student to leave a course. To understand these factors, an online survey was developed to collect…

  14. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING YIELD SPREADS OF THE MALAYSIAN BONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian bond market is developing rapidly but not much is understood in terms of macroeconomic factors that could influence the yield spread of the Ringgit Malaysian denominated bonds. Based on a multifactor model, this paper examines the impact of four macroeconomic factors namely: Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI, Industry Production Index (IPI, Consumer Price Index (CPI and interest rates (IR on bond yield spread of the Malaysian Government Securities (MGS and Corporate Bonds (CBs for a period from January 2001 to December 2008. The findings support the expected hypotheses that CPI and IR are the major drivers that influence the changes in MGS yield spreads. However IPI and KLCI have weak and no influence on MGS yield spreads respectively Whilst IR, CPI and IPI have significant influence on the yield spreads of CB1, CB2 and CB3, KLCI has significant influence only on the CB1 yield spread but not on CB2 and CB3 yield spreads.

  16. The Influence of Cadmium Heavy Metal on Vitamins in Aquatic Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Widowati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The absorption of cadmium heavy metal in 3 (three kinds of aquatic vegetables; water lettuce (Linnocharis flava, water convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk and watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br is studied to determine the influence of the contents of vitamins A and C. The purpose of this research is to identify the accumulation of cadmium in the organs of the aquatic vegetables, and their influence to the contents of vitamins A and C. This research is conducted by employing the factorial experimental design of randomized block design (RBD with 3 (three factors. The data are analyzed by regression to detect the correlation and contribution of cadmium influence on the aquatic vegetables. The accumulation in the 3 (three aquatic vegetables mainly occurs in the stems and leaves. The longer the harvest time is, the higher the accumulation will be. Water lettuce has the highest accumulation of cadmium, followed by water convolvulus and watercress has the least. Cadmium is responsible for the declining levels of vitamins A and C.

  17. 自收缩效应型液态金属限流器限流特性影响因素的研究%Study of Influence Factors on Current Limiting Characteristics of Self Pinch Effect Type Liquid Metal Current Limiter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘懿莹; 吴翊; 荣命哲; 何海龙; 李阳; 刘宏

    2012-01-01

    The liquid metal current limiter(LMCL) based on self pinch effect has a good application prospect with the merits of self detection,self-healing property after fault exclusion,the environment friendly medium,simple design and small volume.In this paper,the influence factors on current limiting characteristics of LMCL was experimental investigated by measuring the circuit current and the arc voltage of LMCL under different conditions during the current limiting process,which provided reference for optimum design of LMCL structure.The experimental results indicate that the current limiting effect is improved with the reduction of pre arcing time and the increase of arc voltage,and the pre arcing time and arc voltage are influenced by the prospective short current and structure parameters,during the experiment.It was found that the arc pressure can adversely affect the current limiting characteristics under high current,so a structure with pressure release space was proposed to solve this problem;and the current limiting effect was improved effectively.%基于自收缩效应的液态金属限流器(liquid metal current limiter,LMCL)有自动检测限流、故障排除后可自恢复、填充介质对环境友好、结构简单以及体积小的独特优点,具有良好的应用前景。通过测量不同情况下限流过程回路电流以及LMCL的电弧电压,实验研究了LMCL限流特性的影响因素,为LMCL结构的优化设计提供参考依据。实验结果表明:LMCL的限流效果随着弧前时间的缩短以及电弧电压的上升而愈加明显,弧前时间和电弧电压受预期短路电流和LMCL结构参数的影响;同时实验过程中发现,大电流下电弧压力对LMCL限流性能会产生不利的影响,为解决此问题,提出了一种带有压力释放功能的限流器结构,可以有效地改善限流效果。

  18. Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs.

  19. A Discussion on Motivation Factor Influencing Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛芊芊

    2016-01-01

    Various characteristics can influence students'second language acquisition and language development, which in-cludes age, gender, personality, cognitive ability, motivation, learning strategies and so on. Among all these factors mentioned, motivation factor that is categorized into learner factors affects learner's learning effect to a great extent. In this paper, motiva-tion characteristic that influences second language learning are discussed. At last, some strategies on the real classroom teaching application are provided after the discussion, which aims at making contribution to the second language teaching process as well as students'language development.

  20. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  1. NURTURING SPORT EXPERTISE: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELITE ATHLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wall

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required

  2. Influence of metal roughness on SPR sensor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sajal; Prajapati, Y. K.; Singh, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roughness of the nano-layer greatly affects the sensor performance. This study is done to quantify the effect of roughness on the sensor performance experimentally. It is seen that the increased thickness of the top metal layer degrades the sensor performance i.e. sensitivity and detection accuracy. The roughness effect on the surface is seen by varying the thickness of intermediate and top metal layers separately. It is seen that 2-5 nm thick intermediate layer and 50 nm thick top layer provides better performance of sensor. Also, mathematical equations are included for the sake of theoretical analysis which indicates the effect of surface roughness on the sensor performance.

  3. Metallic Softness Influence on Magic Numbers of Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The metallic softness parameter αr0 determines the structure of the cluster and governs the rule of magic numbers. Using molecular dynamic method, the stable structures and magic numbers are determined for the clusters consisting of 13 up to 147 atoms in medium range Morse potentials, which is suitable for most of metals. As the number of atoms constituting the cluster increases, the stable structures undergo transition from face-centered (FC) to edge-centered (EC) structures. The magic numbers take ones of FC series before transition and take ones of EC series after that. The transition point from FC to EC structures depends on the value of softness parameter.

  4. Which factors influence women in the decision to breastfeed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Canicali Primo

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the factors that influence women in the decision to breastfeed. Methods. Integrative review. Information was gathered from original articles, case studies, theoretical studies, consensus and systematic reviews published between 2007-2013 in Spanish, Portuguese and English and recovered in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS. The descriptors used in this study were: breastfeeding, maternal behavior, risk factors, lactation and newborn. Results. Were included 30 articles, grouped into five categories. Factors influencing the decision of the breastfeeding woman are a convergence of breastfeeding's advantages, benefits and justifications, family, social and professional support, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women, personal experience and family tradition and personal choice. Conclusion. The decision to breastfeed by women is influenced by a convergence of factors. It is essential the role of nursing to encourage women in the decision to initiate and maintain breastfeeding her child.

  5. RISK FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSTRUCTION PROCUREMENT PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dahiru, A; Aminu, Muhammad Bashir

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges facing construction procurement performance is the failure to determine the risk related factors limiting its success. These risk factors can cause a significant increase in the procurement cost leading to an increase in the overall project cost. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the risk factors influencing construction procurement performance with a view to achieve the overall project performance. The objectives are to establish a relative significa...

  6. Environmental factors influencing asexual reproductive processes in echinoderms

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenov, Pv

    1996-01-01

    This review provides a brief update of the occurrence and adaptive significance of asexual reproduction in echinoderms. It then focuses on the state of knowledge of biotic and abiotic factors that influence asexual processes in this group, particularly factors that may play a role in regulating the expression and relative proportion of asexual versus sexual phenotypes within populations of species, as well as factors modulating and triggering asexual processes. The information presented in th...

  7. Research of Influence Modification of Natural Concentrate on Quality Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoseev, S. N.; Gizatulin, R. A.; Korotkova, E. A.

    2016-08-01

    Questions of increase of mechanical, technological and service properties of metal at minimum cost to produce it are relevant for the metallurgical enterprises. Modification of complex steel alloys containing reactive elements is one of the effective ways to improve the quality of steel. At the same time the direct costs for the use of modifiers are 0.2-0.3%, which little effect on the cost of production. The paper presents the results of the application of natural concentrates as a modifier steel. The effects on the metal quality changes due to the impact of the modification concentrates demonstrate the effectiveness of their application. As a result of modification decreased the content of nonmetallic inclusions and grain size. Reduction of impurity modified metal of was the cause more high plastic properties, especially, impact strength at ordinary and low temperatures of tests. Based on the experimental data evaluated hardening mechanisms that lead to a significant improvement of physic-mechanical properties of the metal workpiece after administration modifier.

  8. Influence of alkaline earth metals on molecular structure of 3-nitrobenzoic acid in comparison with alkali metals effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonowicz, M; Regulska, E; Lewandowski, W

    2011-11-01

    The influence of beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium cations on the electronic system of 3-nitrobenzoic acid was studied in comparison with studied earlier alkali metal ions. The vibrational FT-IR (in KBr and ATR techniques) and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded for 3-nitrobenzoic acid and its salts. Characteristic shifts in IR and NMR spectra along 3-nitrobenzoates of divalent metal series Mg→Ba were compared with series of univalent metal Li→Cs salts. Good correlations between the wavenumbers of the vibrational bands in the IR spectra for 3-nitrobenzoates and ionic potential, electronegativity, inverse of atomic mass, atomic radius and ionization energy of metals were found for alkaline earth metals as well as for alkali metals. The density functional (DFT) hybrid method B3LYP with two basis sets: 6-311++G** and LANL2DZ were used to calculate optimized geometrical structures of studied compounds. The theoretical wavenumbers and intensities of IR spectra as well as chemical shifts in NMR spectra were obtained. Geometric aromaticity indices, atomic charges, dipole moments and energies were also calculated. The calculated parameters were compared to experimental characteristic of studied compounds.

  9. Factors that Influence the Price of Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Rare Earth Elements, and Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, John F.; Bray, E. Lee; Edelstein, Daniel L.; Fenton, Michael D.; Guberman, David E.; Hedrick, James B.; Jorgenson, John D.; Kuck, Peter H.; Shedd, Kim B.; Tolcin, Amy C.

    2008-01-01

    This report is based on a presentation delivered at The 12th International Battery Materials Recycling Seminar, March 17-20, 2008, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., about the factors that influence prices for aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, nickel, rare earth elements, and zinc. These are a diverse group of metals that are of interest to the battery recycling industry. Because the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) closely monitors, yet neither buys nor sells, metal commodities, it is an unbiased source of metal price information and analysis. The authors used information about these and other metals collected and published by the USGS (U.S. production, trade, stocks, and prices and world production) and internationally (consumption and stocks by country) from industry organizations, because metal markets are influenced by activities and events over the entire globe. Long-term prices in this report, represented by unit values, were adjusted to 1998 constant dollars to remove the effects of inflation. A previous USGS study in this subject area was 'Economic Drivers of Mineral Supply' by Lorie A. Wagner, Daniel E. Sullivan, and John L. Sznopek (USGS Open File Report 02-335). By seeking a common cause for common behavior of prices among the various metal commodities, the authors found that major factors that influence prices of metal commodities were international events such as wars and recessions, and national events such as the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 and economic growth in China, which started its open door policy in the 1970s but did not have significant market impact until the 1990s. Metal commodity prices also responded to commodity-specific events such as tariff or usage changes or mine strikes. It is shown that the prices of aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, nickel, and zinc are at historic highs, that world stocks are at (or near) historic lows, and that China's consumption of these metals had increased substantially, making it the world

  10. Soil parameters are key factors to predict metal bioavailability to snails based on chemical extractant data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauget, B.; Gimbert, F., E-mail: frederic.gimbert@univ-fcomte.fr; Scheifler, R.; Coeurdassier, M.; Vaufleury, A. de

    2012-08-01

    Although soil characteristics modulate metal mobility and bioavailability to organisms, they are often ignored in the risk assessment of metal transfer. This paper aims to determine the ability of chemical methods to assess and predict cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) environmental bioavailability to the land snail Cantareus aspersus. Snails were exposed in the laboratory for 28 days to 17 soils from around a former smelter. The soils were selected for their range of pH, organic matter, clay content, and Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations. The influence of soil properties on environmental availability (estimated using HF-HClO{sub 4}, EDTA, CaCl{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, NaNO{sub 3}, free ion activity and total dissolved metal concentration in soil solution) and on environmental bioavailability (modelled using accumulation kinetics) was identified. Among the seven chemical methods, only the EDTA and the total soil concentration can be used to assess Cd and Pb environmental bioavailability to snails (r Superscript-Two {sub adj} = 0.67 and 0.77, respectively). For Zn, none of the chemical methods were suitable. Taking into account the influence of the soil characteristics (pH and CEC) allows a better prediction of Cd and Pb environmental bioavailability (r Superscript-Two {sub adj} = 0.82 and 0.83, respectively). Even though alone none of the chemical methods tested could assess Zn environmental bioavailability to snails, the addition of pH, iron and aluminium oxides allowed the variation of assimilation fluxes to be predicted. A conceptual and practical method to use soil characteristics for risk assessment is proposed based on these results. We conclude that as yet there is no universal chemical method to predict metal environmental bioavailability to snails, and that the soil factors having the greatest impact depend on the metal considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New approach to identify chemical methods able to predict metal bioavailability

  11. Metal hydride switchable mirrors: Factors influencing dynamic range and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slack, Jonathan L.; Locke, James C.W.; Song, Seung-Wan; Ona, Jason; Richardson, Thomas J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Building Technologies Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2006-03-06

    Palladium-coated magnesium-manganese-nickel films behave as gasochromic switchable mirrors, becoming transparent on exposure to dilute hydrogen, and reverting to a mirror state on exposure to air. The cycling stability of the optical switching depends upon preservation of the integrity of the Pd catalyst overlayer. Alloying between Mg and Pd causes interdiffusion of the two elements, and leads to degradation in switching speed and eventual deactivation. Incorporation of a thin niobium oxide barrier layer between the active magnesium alloy film and the Pd layer substantially improves the cycling stability of the mirror. (author)

  12. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    . However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have...... strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability....

  13. Influence of Deuterium Treatments on the Polysilicon-Based Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Sung

    2016-06-01

    The electrical behavior of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) Schottky barrier photodetector structure, depending on deuterium treatment, is analyzed by means of the dark current and the photocurrent measurements. Al/Ti bilayer was used as Schottky metal. The deuterium incorporation into the absorption layer, undoped polysilicon, was achieved with annealing process and with ion implantation process, respectively. In the photocurrent-to-dark current ratio measurement, deuterium-ion-implanted photodetector shows over hundred higher than the control device. It means that the heightening of the Schottky barrier and the passivation of grain boundary trap were achieved effectively through the deuterium ion implantation process.

  14. The wills of older people: risk factors for undue influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisah, C; Finkel, S; Shulman, K; Melding, P; Luxenberg, J; Heinik, J; Jacoby, R; Reisberg, B; Stoppe, G; Barker, A; Firmino, H; Bennett, H

    2009-02-01

    As people live longer, there is increasing potential for mental disorders to interfere with testamentary distribution and render older people more vulnerable to "undue influence" when they are making a will. Accordingly, clinicians dealing with the mental disorders of older people will be called upon increasingly to advise the courts about a person's vulnerability to undue influence. A Subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to establish consensus on the definition of undue influence and the provision of guidelines for expert assessment of risk factors for undue influence. International jurisdictions differ in their approach to the notion of undue influence. Despite differences in legal systems, from a clinical perspective, the subcommittee identified some common "red flags" which might alert the expert to risk of undue influence. These include: (i) social or environmental risk factors such as dependency, isolation, family conflict and recent bereavement; (ii) psychological and physical risk factors such as physical disability, deathbed wills, sexual bargaining, personality disorders, substance abuse and mental disorders including dementia, delirium, mood and paranoid disorders; and (iii) legal risk factors such as unnatural provisions in a will, or provisions not in keeping with previous wishes of the person making the will, and the instigation or procurement of a will by a beneficiary. This review provides some guidance for experts who are requested by the courts to provide an opinion on the risk of undue influence. Whilst international jurisdictions require different thresholds of proof for a finding of undue influence, there is good international consensus on the clinical indicators for the concept.

  15. [Factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and improvement strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, Sergio R; Gálvez González, María; Amezcua, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and to find improvement strategies. Qualitative research using SWOT analysis (weaknesses, threats, strengths, opportunities). Nurses were selected deliberately in eight groups according to predetermined criteria. Analysis included categorization and relationship of factors and strategies. 81 participants were included in groups of 7-12 range. 45 categories were identified with 212 factors: 12 weaknesses (50 factors), 10 strengths (44 factors), 12 threats (68 factors) and 11 opportunities (50 factors). In addition, 32 categories were identified with 53 strategies: 14 categories of W-T strategies (42 strategies), 3 categories of S-T strategies (11 strategies), 5 categories of W-O strategies (13 strategies) and 10 categories of S-O strategies (41 strategies). Nurses identified numerous factors, mainly threats. The strategies are focused on W-T but they also suggest many but weak 5-0 strategies due to the low potential of the opportunities and strengths perceived.

  16. Factors influencing adherence among older people with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify potential factors that could affect adherence and influence the implementation of an evidence-based structured walking program, among older adults diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 69 participants with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee fulfilled an online survey on potential factors that could affect their adherence to an evidence-based structured walking program. Adherence with regard to the influencing factors was explored using a logistic regression model. Results tend to show higher odds of adhering to the evidence-based walking program if the participants were supervised (more than 2.9 times as high), supported by family/friends (more than 3.7 times as high), and not influenced by emotional involvement (more than 11 times as high). The odds of adhering were 3.6 times lower for participants who indicated a change in their medication intake and 3.1 times lower for individuals who considered themselves as less physically active (95 % confidence interval (CI)). Our exploratory findings identified and defined potential adherence factors that could guide health professionals in their practice to better identify positive influences and obstacles to treatment adherence, which would lead to the adoption of a more patient-centered approach. A large-scale study is required to clearly delineate the key factors that would influence adherence. We addressed a new knowledge gap by identifying the main strategies to promote the long-term adherence of community-based walking program.

  17. Factors Affecting the Binding of a Recombinant Heavy Metal-Binding Domain (CXXC motif Protein to Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Boonyodying

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of heavy metal-binding proteins have been used to study bioremediation. CXXC motif, a metal binding domain containing Cys-X-X-Cys motif, has been identified in various organisms. These proteins are capable of binding various types of heavy metals. In this study, heavy metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein encoded from mcsA gene of S. aureus were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The factors involved in the metal-binding activity were determined in order to analyze the potential of recombinant protein for bioremediation. A recombinant protein can be bound to Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. The thermal stability of a recombinant protein was tested, and the results showed that the metal binding activity to Cu2+ and Zn2+ still exist after treating the protein at 85ºC for 30 min. The temperature and pH that affected the metal binding activity was tested and the results showed that recombinant protein was still bound to Cu2+ at 65ºC, whereas a pH of 3-7 did not affect the metal binding E. coli harboring a pRset with a heavy metal-binding domain CXXC motif increased the resistance of heavy metals against CuCl2 and CdCl2. This study shows that metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein can be effectively bound to various types of heavy metals and may be used as a potential tool for studying bioremediation.

  18. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.

  19. A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Valipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

  20. Influence of Metal Oxides on the Arc Erosion Behaviour of Silver Metal Oxides Electrical Contact Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Verma; O.P. Pandey; A. Verma

    2004-01-01

    In the present work investigations have been made to see the role of metal oxides on the performance of the silver metal oxides electrical contact materials. Silver metal oxide materials of three different compositions Ag-10CdO, Ag7.6SnO2-2.3In2O3 and Ag-10ZnO were prepared by internal oxidation process under identical processing conditions.These materials were tested for electrical conductivity, hardness, and erosion loss. Performing an accelerated test on the actual contactor assessed the electrical performance, involving erosion loss and temperature rise of the processed materials. The arc-eroded surface was characterized under scanning electron microscope. The study of the eroded surfaces of contacts indicates that the thermal stability of metal oxides depends on nature of silver-metal oxide interface and their mode of erosion. An attempt is made to correlate the surface features of the eroded contacts with the thermal stability of metal oxides.

  1. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Surya Diarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was conducted in Bali’s five major tourism objects. The 240 foreign tourists were chosen as respondents through convenience sampling technique. Data were analyzed using factor analysis. The results showed that factors that significantly influenced Bali brand equity were: symbolic and experiential benefit factor, direct and indirect destinations attributes, destination reliability and tangibility, assurance and empathy, brand destinations recognition and recall, destinations common psychological attributes, destination common functional attributes, unique functional attributes, behavioral loyalty, destination awareness, and attitudinal loyalty. Given the fluctuative nature of brand equity, Bali needs a consistent effort to maintain or to enhance brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. Maintaining the dominant factors that influence the strength of brand equity can be used as a basis to develop destination branding strategy to expand market segment,  choose the right target market, and anchoring destination position in world market competition.

  2. Factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas T. Khoza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: ‘Knowledge is power’ and software developing organisations are dependent on knowledge to achieve and maintain a competitive advantage. Subsequently, knowledge sharing is a key factor for modern software developing organisations to succeed in today’s competitive environment. For software developing organisations to reach their goals and objectives, knowledge sharing – and in particular the sharing of useful knowledge – needs to be targeted. To promote knowledge sharing, factors influencing knowledge sharing need to be identified and understood.Objective: This study seeks to identify factors that negatively influence knowledge sharing in software development in the developing country context.Method: Expert sampling as a subcategory of purposive sampling was employed to extract information, views and opinions from experts in the field of information and communication technology, more specifically from those who are involved in software development projects. Four Johannesburg-based software developing organisations listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, South Africa, participated in this research study. Quantitative data were collected using an online questionnaire with closed-ended questions.Results: Findings of this research reveal that job security, motivation, time constraints, physiological factors, communication, resistance to change and rewards are core factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software developing organisations.Conclusions: Improved understanding of factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing is expected to assist software developing organisations in closing the gap for software development projects failing to meet the triple constraint of time, cost and scope.

  3. Influence of social factors on lead exposure and child development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornschein, R.L.

    1985-10-01

    A brief overview of current views of child development is provided, with particular attention given to the role the child's physical and social environment plays in influencing the developmental process. Examples from the recent literature are used to illustrate how these factors can influence lead exposure and most importantly how they might interact with lead to ameliorate or exacerbate possible lead effects. An example is provided which demonstrates that failure to control adequately and to adjust the data statistically to correct for the influence of these factors can lead one erroneously to attribute cognitive and behavioral changes to lead. Finally, data from the Cincinnati Prospective Lead Study are presented to illustrate the application of structural equation modeling as a means for unraveling the complex web of sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral influences on childhood lead exposure.

  4. ICT Interventions for Girls: Factors Influencing ICT Career Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gorbacheva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

  5. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Influence on Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Zaleckas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals play a very significant role in the performance and stability of biogas digesters, which are operated with organic fraction of municipal solid wastes or any other type of organic waste. For this reason this paper tries to evaluate the impact of heavy metals on biogas yield and quality. Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and rapeseed cake mixture has been carried out for 14 days. The obtained data show that the greatest negative impact on biogas production was made by zinc additive. Meanwhile, methane content in biogas varied from 64.5 to 70%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.62.4.2040

  6. Factors Influencing the Intended Likelihood of Exposing Sexual Infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne L; Fitzgerald, Carey J

    2015-08-01

    There is a considerable body of literature on infidelity within romantic relationships. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature on factors influencing the likelihood of uninvolved individuals exposing sexual infidelity. Therefore, we devised an exploratory study examining a wide range of potentially relevant factors. Based in part on evolutionary theory, we anticipated nine potential domains or types of influences on the likelihoods of exposing or protecting cheaters, including kinship, strong social alliances, financial support, previous relationship behaviors (including infidelity and abuse), potential relationship transitions, stronger sexual and emotional aspects of the extra-pair relationship, and disease risk. The pattern of results supported these predictions (N = 159 men, 328 women). In addition, there appeared to be a small positive bias for participants to report infidelity when provided with any additional information about the situation. Overall, this study contributes a broad initial description of factors influencing the predicted likelihood of exposing sexual infidelity and encourages further studies in this area.

  7. Empirical Analysis on Factors Influencing Distribution of Vegetal Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjie; WU

    2015-01-01

    Since the reform and opening-up,there has been a great change in spatial pattern of China’s vegetable production. This paper studied vegetable production in provinces of China in 1978- 2013. From the sequential characteristics,China’s vegetable production area is constantly growing and takes on stage characteristic. From the spatial distribution,China’s vegetable production takes on the trend of " going down the south" and " marching the west". In order to grasp rules of changes of vegetable production and the influence factors,this paper made theoretical and empirical analysis on factors possibly influencing distribution of vegetable production. Results show that major factors influencing distribution of China’s vegetable production include irrigation condition,non-agricultural employment,market demand,knowledge spillover,comparative effectiveness,rural road and government policies.

  8. MOTIVATIONS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DECISION OF ONLINE TRADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ancuta IANCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using survey data, we explore motivations and factors that influence the Romanian investors to trade online even if they initially traded through a broker. To identify the factors we used secondary sources and for exploring the factors that influence the decision of trading online we used primary data. We find that investors decide to trade online especially because they spend less time, they have an easier access to information (due to the fact that most of the online trading platforms have notifications and alarms for news that can affect the stock market and they know how to use the internet. We discover that only a few investors are influenced by advertising and the fact that it is fashionable to trade online.

  9. Factors influencing the tolerance of flufenacet applications in winter rye

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In winter rye which is grown mostly on locations with a lighter soil texture loose silky-bent grass (Apera spica-venti) is a dominate weed grass. Because of increasing herbicide resistance the control of A. spica-venti becomes more difficult. To manage resistant weed grass populations in winter rye flufenacet is a very important active substance. However, the application of flufenacet can lead to substantially culture damage. The influence of different factors influencing the tolerance of ...

  10. Pigments content in Сhlorella vulgaris under the influence of the sodium selenite and the ions of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Bodnar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the content of pigments in Chlorella vulgaris Beij. (Chlorophyta under the influence of sodium selenite in concentrations based on Se4+ 0.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/dm3 during one, three and seven days and under the influence of the simultaneous action of selenite in concentrations 10 mg Se4+/dm3 and ions of Zn2+, Mn2+, Co2+,Cu2+, Fe3+ in concentrations 5.00, 0.25, 0.05, 0.008 and 0.002 mg/dm3over seven days. This research was carried out to establish the conditions for obtaining algal lipidis substance enriched with selenium and biogenic metals in the aquaculture. The content of pigments was determined spectrophotometrically, the cellular walls were separatedby centrifuge in the percoll gradient and investigated microscopically. The pigments content in the Ch. vulgaris increased by 1.5–2.5 times in comparison with the control sample under the influence of 10 mg Se4+/dm3 with and without metal ions, in all variants of experimental influence due to binding of SeО32– with proteins and lipids. We found that selenium was included in all lipid fractions (triacylglycerols, dyacylglycerols, phospholipids, nonetherified fatty acids; the maximum amount of selenium-containing lipids wasrecorded in chloroplasts. The increase in the contents of carotenoids caused by the actions of experimental factors played an exceptional role in the mechanism of antioxidant protection that prevents destruction of chlorophyll and, accordingly, increases its amount in cells. Changes in the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus of Ch. vulgaris affect the whole complex of metabolic transformation. Thus, the successful cultivation of chlorella, enriched with selenium and biogenic metals, is possible within seven days under the influence of 10 mg Se4+/dm3 and the above-mentioned concentration of metal ions.

  11. Spin-orbital coupling effect on the power factor in semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, San-Dong; Wang, Jian-Li

    2016-09-01

    The electronic structures and thermoelectric properties of semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers {{MX}}2 (M = Zr, Hf, Mo, W and Pt; X = S, Se and Te) are investigated by combining first-principles and Boltzmann transport theory, including spin-orbital coupling (SOC). It is found that the gap decrease increases from S to Te in each cation group when the SOC is opened. The spin-orbital splitting has the same trend with the gap reducing. The calculated results show that SOC has a noteworthy detrimental effect on the p-type power factor, while it has a negligible influence in n-type doping except for the W cation group, which can be understood by considering the effects of SOC on the valence and conduction bands. For {{WX}}2 (X = S, Se and Te), SOC leads to an observable enhanced power factor in n-type doping, which can be explained by SOC-induced band degeneracy, namely the bands converge. Among all of the cation groups, the Pt cation group shows the highest Seebeck coefficient, which leads to the best power factor, if we assume that the scattering time is fixed. The calculated results show that {{MS}}2 (M = Zr, Hf, Mo, W and Pt) have the best p-type power factor of all the cation groups, and that {{MSe}}2 (M = Zr and Hf), {{WS}}2 and {{MTe}}2 (M = Mo and Pt) have a more excellent n-type power factor in their respective cation group. Therefore, these results may be useful for further theoretical prediction or experimental research of excellent thermoelectric materials from semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers.

  12. Variation partitioning of diatom species data matrices: Understanding the influence of multiple factors on benthic diatom communities in tropical streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bere, Taurai, E-mail: tbere2015@gmail.com; Mangadze, Tinotenda; Mwedzi, Tongai

    2016-10-01

    Elucidating the confounding influence of multiple environmental factors on benthic diatom communities is important in developing water quality predictive models for better guidance of stream management efforts. The objective of this study was to explore the relative impact of metal pollution and hydromorphological alterations in, addition to nutrient enrichment and organic pollution, on diatom taxonomic composition with the view to improve stream diatom-based water quality inference models. Samples were collected twice at 20 sampling stations in the tropical Manyame Catchment, Zimbabwe. Diatom, macroinvertebrate communities and environmental factors were sampled and analysed. The variations in diatom community composition explained by different categories of environmental factors were analysed using canonical correspondence analysis using variance partitioning (partial CCA). The following variations were explained by the different predictor matrices: nutrient levels and organic pollution - 10.4%, metal pollution - 8.3% and hydromorphological factors - 7.9%. Thus, factors other than nutrient levels and organic pollution explain additional significant variation in these diatom communities. Development of diatom-based stream water quality inference models that incorporate metal pollution and hydromorphological alterations, where these are key issues, is thus deemed necessary. - Highlights: • Confounding influences of multiple environmental factors on diatom communities are elucidated. • Variation explained: nutrients + organic pollution - 10.4%, metals - 8.3% and hydromorphological factors - 7.9%. • Calibration of existing or development of new indices may be necessary.

  13. Effect of market factors on the short-time pricing of stock-exchange metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, S. V.; Shevelev, I. M.; Chernyi, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The open trade on the world market is estimated using information of one-day exchange prices of nonferrous and precious metals, oil, reduced crude, and gasoline and the main world stock indices in the time period from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2015. It is found that the short-term changes in the prices of nonferrous metals are determined by the prices on the metal market. The changes in the prices of energy carriers and the stock trade on the stock market weakly influence the pricing of nonferrous and precious metals. The prices of metals depend on the situation during trade on commodity exchanges, and the stock market indirectly influences the exchange prices of metals through changes in the share prices of the companies that produce copper, aluminum, and zinc.

  14. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S; Freitas, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils.

  15. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S.; Freitas, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils. PMID:25601876

  16. Factors influencing consumer behaviour in market vegetables in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarish H. Al-Gahaifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to understand factors influencing consumer behaviour when buying vegetables in Republic of Yemen. Data collection was done by structured questionnaire administered through schools, universities, government offices, and markets from 13 provinces in 5 governorates. Random convenience sampling technique was used. Total sample comprised of 463 completed questionnaires which were used for analysis. The respondents were classified into five categories on the base of their monthly income, age, education, gender, and type of settlement. Authors present the factors that can influence significantly this behaviour, e.g. price, quality, the location of seller, habit, personal relationship between consumer and seller, occasions, discount, sorting, word-mouth, time of purchase, the way of products display, and recommendation of friends and families. From the obtained results, it is obvious that there was high influence on the behaviour of Yemeni consumer when buying vegetables for factors price, occasions, discontent, and time of purchase, while factors habit, display, sorting, and the location of seller suggests medium influence, and the influence was low for word-mouth.

  17. Influence of metal bonding layer on strain transfer performance of FBG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Chen, Weimin; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Li; Shu, Yuejie; Wu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Metal bonding layer seriously affects the strain transfer performance of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG). Based on the mode of FBG strain transfer, the influence of the length, the thickness, Poisson's ratio, elasticity modulus of metal bonding layer on the strain transfer coefficient of FBG is analyzed by numerical simulation. FBG is packaged to steel wire using metal bonding technology of FBG. The tensile tests of different bonding lengths and elasticity modulus are carried out. The result shows the strain transfer coefficient of FBGs are 0.9848,0.962 and their average strain sensitivities are 1.076 pm/μɛ,1.099 pm/μɛ when the metal bonding layer is zinc, whose lengths are 15mm, 20mm, respectively. The strain transfer coefficient of FBG packaged by metal bonding layer raises 8.9 percent compared to epoxy glue package. The preliminary experimental results show that the strain transfer coefficient increases with the length of metal bonding layer, decreases with the thickness of metal bonding layer and the influence of Poisson's ratio can be ignored. The experiment result is general agreement with the analysis and provides guidance for metal package of FBG.

  18. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eMa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS. Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50 and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1 for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were < 1, indicating that all studied bacteria-plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils.

  19. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  20. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  1. Kinetics of nitrite reduction by zinc metal: influence of metal shape on the determination of kinetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousy, L; Dutournie, P; Hadjiev, D

    2010-07-01

    Heterogeneous chemical reactions are complicated, especially in the case of competitive reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the elimination of nitrite (NO2(-)) by applying a metallic reduction using zero-valent zinc (Zn0). The effect of pH, stirring, and metal shape (powder and chips) on the rate and products of nitrite reduction were studied in a batch-stirred reactor. The obtained data have been used to optimize the conditions for metallic reduction of NO2(-) and for kinetic parameters identification. It was found that the dissolution of zinc involves a pseudo-first-order reaction independent of the shape of the metal. Further, the influence of operating conditions on nitrogen (N2) and ammonium (NH4(+)) formation has been determined. It was found that a decrease in pH and in the Zn0 content enhances NH4(+) production. If kinetic parameters can be approximated easily for constant surface area, it was demonstrated that surface evolution had to be integrated for metal powder. Finally, a numerical simulation has been used to determine the kinetic parameters for NO2(-) reduction with zinc powder.

  2. Geochemical features of heavy metals distribution in soils under the influence of the non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YakovenkoO.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objects of researches are soil adjournment under the influence of the non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises. The total maintenance and the maintenance of mobile forms of heavy metalsdefined by means of a method of nuclear adsorption and the spectral analysis. Definition of forms of heavy metals spent with use of a method of consecutive extraction. As a result of researches it is established that the basic source of issue of heavy metals in environment is functioning of svintsovo-zinc industrial complex. It is established that heavy metals are in soils in residual, sorbed on hydroxides and organic forms. The share of the mobile form makes 16 %. It is shown that the maintenance of mobile forms of metals in the polluted soils exceeds indicators of pure soils. On geochemical indicators define level of pollution of soils. On factor of total pollution an ecological situation in a zone of influence of industrial complex it is estimated as catastrophic (ZC = 1,7·104.

  3. Population Distribution and Influencing Factors Based on ESDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Chen; Fan Jie; Sun Wei

    2012-01-01

    Based on the exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) technique and geographic information system (GIS) platform, with statistic data of counties in 2005, this paper confirms that there is a large population density gap between counties in 2005 because the Gini coefficient is 0.55. Population distribution does not change a lot during the past decades, and the southeast China is still much more densely populated than the northwest China. The global spa- tial autoeorrelation of population distribution is obvious because Moran's I scores 0.42 and local spatial autocorrelation is partly significant. Climate and elevation are still the main natural influ- encing factors. Meanwhile industrial structure and transportation significantly influence population distribution. Different combinations of natural factors have different effects on population distribution. For a long term, climate and terrain factor stability affect population distribution. But its influence will be weakened by progress of technology. Economic development is the main factor that changes population distribution for a short term.

  4. What factors influence UK medical students' choice of foundation school?

    OpenAIRE

    Miah, S.; Pang, K.H.; Rebello, W.; Rubakumar, Z.; Fung, V; Venugopal, S.; Begum, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation sc...

  5. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. Methods 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 y...

  6. Factors influencing HPAM solution viscosity prepared by produced water using orthogonal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康万利; 王志伟; 周阳; 孟令伟; 刘述忍; 白宝君

    2008-01-01

    The effect of temperature and metal ion components on the viscosity of HPAM solution was studied by means of orthogonal method.Five factors and 4 levels were considered for the orthogonal design.The five factors included temperature,contents of Na+,Mg2+,Ca2+ and S2-,and the four levels mainly considered the level of produced water components in main oilfields in China.The experiment results show that temperature is the most important factor to control HPAM solution viscosity prepared by produced water.The effect of ions was in order of Na+>S2->Mg2+>Ca2+.The mechanism of each factor influencing viscosity was also discussed.Based on the actual condition of Nanyang oilfield,the desulfurization was used to improve the solution viscosity,and satisfactory result was obtained.

  7. Growth of cyanophage N-1 under the influence of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, T A; Kaur, Sukhrish P

    2005-01-01

    The growth of cyanophage N-1 in the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum under the influence of heavy metal ions, namely Co2+, Cr6+, Cu2+, Mn2+ and Ni2+ has been studied. One-step growth experiments revealed that heavy metal ions extended the latent period by 1-2 hrs with a concomitant decrease in the phage burst size. The latter was reduced in the order Cu2/Mn2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Cr6+. The treatment of the phage-infected bacteria with heavy metal ions did not induce mutations affecting either the phage plaque morphology or burst size. The final phage titer after such a treatments was lowest with Co2+, Cu2+ and Cr6+. The inhibition of the phage growth under the influence of heavy metal ions is discussed in context with the interaction of cyanophage N-1 with the photosynthetic reactions in the host bacteria.

  8. Analytical study of ultrasound influence on the molten metals atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonnikova, A.; Arkhipov, V.; Boiko, V.; Basalaev, S.; Konovalenko, A.; Zolotorev, N.

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on the study of influence of ultrasound on liquid atomization using ejection nozzles. Two principles of influence of ultrasound on the atomization process such as a change of conditions on gas-liquid boundary during the generation of ultrasound oscillation in the gas and liquid jet (film) disintegration under the action of capillary forces in cases of generation of ultrasound oscillation in the liquid are considered. The optimal values of the ultrasound oscillation frequencies are calculated. Two constructions of the nozzles patented are proposed.

  9. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  10. The Influence of Oxygen in Transition Metal Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, P. L.; Leboran, V.; Rivadulla, F.

    2012-02-01

    The existence of a 2D metallic state at the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) has generated much excitement. Its origin has been attributed to charge redistribution to avoid a dielectric catastrophe; however, oxygen vacancies in TiO2-terminated STO can play a significant role in the electronic properties of the interface. In order to determine the nature and origin of the metallic phase, we have induced vacancies in TiO2-terminated STO single crystal substrates by annealing under controlled vacuum conditions. We report resistivity, Hall effect, and thermopower measurements on these materials and discuss their implications for the nature of the 2D electron gas at the STO surface. We have explored the possibility of gate-tuning these systems in order to fabricate single-oxide based devices. This work was supported by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovaci'on (Spain), grant MAT2010-16157, and the European Research Council, grant ERC-2010-StG 259082 2D THERMS.

  11. Influence of metal loading on hydrocracking of rapeseed oil using bifunctional micro-/mesoporous composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gille, T.; Busse, O.; Reschetilowski, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Industrial Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    Hydrocracking of rapeseed oil has been investigated in a fixed bed reactor under integral conditions. A synthesized micro-/mesoporous composite material Al-MCM-41/ZSM-5 modified by different metal loadings (NiMo, PtNiMo, Pt) was used as catalyst system. It could be demonstrated that the support material and their metal loading influence the product selectivity as well as the deactivation tendencies of the catalyst sample. (orig.)

  12. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  13. Does fish reproduction and metabolic activity influence metal levels in fish intestinal parasites, acanthocephalans, during fish spawning and post-spawning period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Vardić Smrzlić, Irena; Raspor, Biserka

    2014-10-01

    Application of fish intestinal parasites, acanthocephalans, as bioindicators in metal exposure assessment usually involves estimation of their metal levels and bioconcentration factors. Metal levels in parasite final host, fishes, are influenced by fish physiology but there is no data for acanthocephalan metal levels. Gastrointestinal Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ag levels in European chub (Squalius cephalus L.) from the Sava River were significantly higher during chub spawning (April/May) compared to the post-spawning period (September). In acanthocephalans (Pomphorhynchus laevis and Acanthocephalus anguillae) significantly higher metal levels during chub spawning were observed only for Zn in P. laevis. Bioconcentration factors were twice as high for Fe, Mn, Ag, Pb in the post-spawning period, probably as a consequence of lower gastrointestinal metal levels in fish rather than metal exposure. Therefore, bioconcentration factors should be interpreted with caution, due to their possible variability in relation to fish physiology. In addition, gastrointestinal Cu, Cd and Pb levels were lower in infected than uninfected chub, indicating that metal variability in fishes might be affected by the presence of acanthocephalans.

  14. Factors that influence the speed of bacterial wood degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.K.W.M.; Overeem, van B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial wood decay is a serious threat to the many wooden foundation piles in the Netherlands. In order to learn more about the factors that influence the process of decay, approx. 2000 wood samples taken from Amsterdam piles heads were analysed on type and degree of decay and for 59 extracted pil

  15. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Nagels, G.; Bissay, V.; De Keyser, J.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and tetan

  16. Factors Influencing the Academic Persistence of College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melara, Claudia Alexia

    2012-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for failing to complete their postsecondary educational degrees than their typical peers. The present qualitative sought to identify factors influencing the academic persistence of students with ADHD in postsecondary settings. Utilizing direct interviews with…

  17. Information Booklets about Cancer: Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction and Utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, Phyllis; Brindle, Elizabeth; McConnell, David; Boakes, Robert; Tattersall, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Explored factors influencing patient satisfaction with and utilization of information booklets. Patients (N=36) rated five booklets, and strongly preferred one with a grade-eight reading level. The relationship of preference and recall was investigated. No difference between those who seek or avoid information was found. Additional findings are…

  18. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  19. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok-Koch, E.G.H.J.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out

  20. The genetic factors influencing the development of trichotillomania

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koushik Chatterjee

    2012-08-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM), an obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD), is a psychiatric condition characterized by repetitive hair pulling. Evidence from family and twin studies suggest a heritable link of TTM. Functional polymorphisms in genes involved in neuronal pathways might influence the susceptibility to TTM. This review is an attempt to compile the genetic factors reported to modify the development of TTM.

  1. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  2. Social Factors Influencing Participation in Sport for the Deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The article looks at social factors influencing participation in sport by the deaf including communication mode and value orientations of community, family, school, and peers of both the hearing and deaf world. A model for integration of the deaf into sports is offered. (DB)

  3. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  4. Factors that Influence Informal Learning in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Shelley A.; Chyung, Seung Youn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate factors that influence informal learning in the workplace and the types of informal learning activities people engage in at work. More specifically, the research examined: the relationship between informal learning engagement and the presence of learning organization characteristics; and…

  5. Factors Influencing the Academic Persistence of College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melara, Claudia Alexia

    2012-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for failing to complete their postsecondary educational degrees than their typical peers. The present qualitative sought to identify factors influencing the academic persistence of students with ADHD in postsecondary settings. Utilizing direct interviews with…

  6. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2011-03-01

    Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

  7. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  8. Hepatitus B virus infection : factors influencing the outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Hattum (Jan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to find correlations between the various courses of disease after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and factors that could conceivably have influenced the course of disease. The aim of the study was to find correlations between parameters of viral replication and

  9. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Nagels, G.; Bissay, V.; De Keyser, J.

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and

  10. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  11. Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Adult Agricultural Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, Oren L.; Warmbrod, J. Robert

    A study examined the institutional factors the influence whether or not adult agricultural education programs are offered in high schools. All Ohio secondary schools that offered vocational agriculture programs in agricultural production or farm business management during 1985-1986 (a total of 260 schools) were included in the study. Data were…

  12. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  13. Leadership Factors Influencing the Performance of Educational Institutions. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Fred E.

    This document is the summary report of a study having as its main objectives: (1) an intensive study of organizational and group-structural factors influencing the research and teaching effectiveness of individual faculty members and their relations to the students; (2) research investigating the effect of academic area and technology on…

  14. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  15. Hepatitus B virus infection : factors influencing the outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Hattum (Jan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to find correlations between the various courses of disease after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and factors that could conceivably have influenced the course of disease. The aim of the study was to find correlations between parameters of viral replication and

  16. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  17. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  18. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical educaton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Stok-Koch; R. Koopmans; Dr. S. Bolhuis

    2007-01-01

    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing

  19. Factors influencing adherence to an emergency department national protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, R.H.A.; Vloet, L.C.M.; Groot, J.M. de; Achterberg, T. van

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence emergency nurses' adherence to an emergency department national protocol (EDNP). A survey of emergency nurses (n=200) and physicians with medical end responsibility on an emergency department (n=103) was carried out. Emergency nurses

  20. STUDY ON MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION OF COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Jun; Xu Jingcai; Zhang Xinghai

    2000-01-01

    This paper theoretically analyzes major factors influencing spontaneous combustion of coal, such as molecule structure of coal, porosity, temperature, concentration of oxygen, coal thickness, velocity of face advance, and so on; and probes into how they affect the process of spontaneous combustion of coal, which is of momentous significance to predict or control self-ignition of coal.

  1. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  2. Product development alliances: factors influencing formation and success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Johanne Rønnow; Harmsen, Hanne; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The objective of this paper is to develop a framework, based on existing literature, for factors influencing the formation and success of product development alliances, and relate this specifically to the food industry. Design/methodology/approach - Case study of a product development a...

  3. Factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt confirmed that ungerminated sorghum grain exhibited essentially no beta-amylase activity. Malted sorghum had beta-amylase activity less than 25% of the level in barley...

  4. INFLUENCE FACTOR ANALYSIS OF CHINESE STUDENTS' LERANING STYLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平

    2009-01-01

    Learning style, aiming at language learner, is a hot issue of second language acquisition. The article first reviews the various definitions of learning style. From the perspective of cognition, three influence factors of Chinese students' learning styles are analyzed. Suggestions are proposed for teachers to help students develop learning styles.

  5. International preferences for pork appearance: II. Factors influencing consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngapo, T.M.; Martin, J.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2007-01-01

    The preference for pork varying in its fat cover, lean colour, marbling and drip differs among countries, but the influence of socio-demographic factors is unknown. In this study of 11,717 consumers from 22 countries, more than 80% of consumers liked pork, thought that pork quality was at least

  6. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok-Koch, E.G.H.J.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out

  7. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical educaton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok-Koch, L.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.

    2007-01-01

    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing h

  8. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PURCHASE DECISION OF ORGANIC TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantry Nugroho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence consumers in making the decision to buy organic tofu. The theory of factors that influence the purchasing behavior developed by Kotler was used as the analytical tool, and these factors include cultural factors, social factors, personal factors, psychological factors and purchasing process. These data were collected through interview techniques and analyzed descriptively using multinomial logistic regression. The characteristics of respondents indicated the consumers who never bought organic tofu are mostly at the age of 26-35 years old and university graduates, do not work, have an expenditure from Rp 1 million to Rp 2.5 million, are highly knowledge, and have the highest scores on the perceptions on sustainable and environmentally friendly organic farming, health benefits, and a more expensive price. There are a number of factors that influence consumers in making purchase decisions of organic tofu including age, education, knowledge and product external factors. The consumers who are potentially interested in purchasing the organic tofu are at the age of 36–50 years old, university graduates, highly knowledgeable in food and organic tofu products, because the higher the education and knowledge, the greater the interest in buying the products, and they approved of the external products such as price, advertising, personal selling and places of selling which are also potentially equal. The managerial implications for the business agents of tofu organic product is that they must be more active in assuring the consumers that these products are good for them by creating a blog, an ad in the local paper, or a pamphlet containing information of the product.Keywords: purchase decision, logistic regression, organic tofu product, purchasing interest

  10. Evaluation of the efficacy of factors influencing on marketing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Yaghoubi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011 [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011. Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3, 368-375.] to determine the factors influencing on marketing SMEs. Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing, positively.

  11. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  12. Factors influencing the flavour of game meat: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, J; Hoffman, L C; Muller, M

    2016-03-01

    Flavour is a very important attribute contributing to the sensory quality of meat and meat products. Although the sensory quality of meat includes orthonasal and retronasal aroma, taste, as well as appearance, juiciness and other textural attributes, the focus of this review is primarily on flavour. The influence of species, age, gender, muscle anatomical location, diet, harvesting conditions, ageing of meat, packaging and storage, as well as cooking method on the flavour of game meat are discussed. Very little research is available on the factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from wild and free-living game species. The aim of this literature review is thus to discuss the key ante- and post-mortem factors that influence the flavour of game meat, with specific focus on wild and free-living South African game species.

  13. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  14. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE OF CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA-CODRUŢA DUDĂ-DĂIANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.

  15. Metal-on-metal bearings a clinical practicum

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Lynne C; Greenwald, A Seth

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the background and significance of factors potentially influencing clinical and biological outcomes of metal-on-metal hip implants. Includes discussion of reported complications including pseudotumors and other lymphocytic-based responses.

  16. Copper Status of Exposed Microorganisms Influences Susceptibility to Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Vincent C.; Spitzmiller, Melissa R.; Hong-Hermesdorf, Anne; Kropat, Janette; Damoiseaux, Robert D.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Mahendra, Shaily

    2017-01-01

    Although interactions of metallic nanoparticles (NP) with various microorganisms have been previously explored, few studies have examined how metal sensitivity impacts NP toxicity. Herein, we investigated the effects of copper nanoparticles’ (Cu-NPs) exposure to the model alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in the presence and absence of the essential micronutrient copper. The toxic ranges for Cu-NPs and the ionic control, CuCl2, were determined using a high-throughput ATP-based fluorescence assay. Cu-NPs caused similar mortality in copper-replete and copper-deplete cells (IC50: 14–16 mg/L), but were less toxic than the ionic control, CuCl2 (IC50: 7 mg/L). Using this concentration range, we assessed Cu-NP impacts to cell morphology, copper accumulation, chlorophyll content, and expression of stress genes under both copper supply states. Osmotic swelling, membrane damage, and chloroplast and organelle disintegration were observed by transmission electron microscopy at both conditions. Despite these similarities, copper-deplete cells showed greater accumulation of loosely bound and tightly bound copper after exposure to Cu-NPs. Furthermore, copper-replete cells experienced greater loss of chlorophyll content, 19 % for Cu-NPs, compared to only an 11% net decrease in copper-deplete cells. The tightly bound copper was bioavailable as assessed by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR analysis of CYC6, a biomarker for Cu-deficiency. The increased resistance of copper-deplete cells to Cu-NPs suggests that these cells potentially metabolize excess Cu-NPs or better manage sudden influxes of ions. Our findings recommend that toxicity assessments must account for the nutritional status of impacted organisms and use toxicity models based on estimations of the bioavailable fractions. PMID:26387648

  17. Why neurology? Factors which influence career choice in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dara V; Hoyle, Chad; Yin, Han; McCoyd, Matthew; Lukas, Rimas V

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the factors which influence the decision to pursue a career in neurology. An anonymous survey was developed using a Likert scale to rate responses. The survey was sent to adult and child neurology faculty, residents and fellows, as well as medical students applying for neurology. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the factors of influence. Respondents were subsequently categorized into pre-neurology trainees, neurology trainees, child neurologists and adult neurologists, and differences between the groups were analysed using Pearson's chi-square test. One hundred and thirty-three anonymous responses were received. The respondents were neurologists across all levels of training and practice. Across all respondents, the most common factor of high importance was intellectual content of specialty, challenging diagnostic problems, type of patient encountered and interest in helping people. Responses were similar across the groups; however, the earliest trainees cited interest in helping people as most important, while those in neurology training and beyond cite intellectual content of the specialty as most important. As trainees transition from their earliest levels of clinical experience into working as residents and faculty, there is a shift in the cited important factors. Lifestyle and financial factors seem to be the least motivating across all groups. Encouragement from peers, mentors, faculty and practicing physicians is considered high influences in a smaller number of neurologists. This may present an opportunity for practicing neurologists to make connections with medical students early in their education in an effort to encourage and mentor candidates.

  18. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  19. Factors influencing first childbearing timing decisions among men: Path analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariman, Nourossadat; Amerian, Maliheh; Jannati, Padideh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors that influence men’s childbearing intentions have been relatively unexplored in the literature. Objective: This study aimed to determine the influencing factors about the first childbearing timing decisions of men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 men who were referred to private and governmental healthcare centers in Shahrood, Iran were randomly recruited from April to September 2014. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Quality of Life Questionnaire; ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, Synder’s Hope Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: After removing the statistically insignificant paths, men’s age at marriage had the highest direct effect (β=0.86) on their first childbearing decision. Marital satisfaction (β=-0.09), social support (β=0.06), economic status (β=0.06), and quality of life (β=-0.08) were other effective factors on men’s first childbearing decisions. Moreover, marital satisfaction and social support had significant indirect effects on men’s childbearing decisions (β=-0.04 and -0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Many factors, including personal factors (age at marriage and quality of life), family factors (marital satisfaction), and social factors (social support), can affect men’s decision to have a child. Policymakers are hence required to develop strategies to promote the socioeconomic and family conditions of the couples and to encourage them to have as many children as they desire at an appropriate time. PMID:27738661

  20. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  1. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed.

  2. Factors influencing Neurodevelopment after Cardiac Surgery during Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Hubertine Hövels-Gürich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD. This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks. Examples for such risks are embolization, deep hypothermia, flow rate, hemodilution, blood gas management, postoperative hyperthermia, systemic-inflammatory response and capillary leak syndrome. However, influences of these procedure-specific risk factors on ND outcome have not been found as strong as expected. Furthermore, modifications have not been found to support the effectiveness of the currently used neuroprotective strategies.Postoperative factors, such as need for extracorporal membrane oxygenation or assist device support and duration of hospital stay, significantly influence ND parameters. On the other hand, the so-called innate, less modifiable patient-specific risk factors have been found to exert significant influences on ND outcomes. Examples are type and severity of CHD, genetic or syndromic abnormalities as well as prematurity and low birth weight.Structural and hemodynamic characteristics of different CHDs are assumed to result in impaired brain growth and delayed maturation with special respect to the white matter. Beginning in the fetal period, this so-called encephalopathy of CHD is suggested a major innate risk factor for pre-, peri- and postoperative additional hypoxic or ischemic brain injury and subsequent ND impairment. Furthermore, MRI studies on brain volume, structure and

  3. Factors Influencing Neurodevelopment after Cardiac Surgery during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hövels-Gürich, Hedwig Hubertine

    2016-01-01

    Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life, and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks. Examples of such risks are embolization, deep hypothermia, flow rate, hemodilution, blood gas management, postoperative hyperthermia, systemic inflammatory response, and capillary leak syndrome. However, influences of these procedure-specific risk factors on ND outcome have not been found as strong as expected. Furthermore, modifications have not been found to support the effectiveness of the currently used neuroprotective strategies. Postoperative factors, such as need for extracorporal membrane oxygenation or assist device support and duration of hospital stay, significantly influence ND parameters. On the other hand, the so-called “innate,” less modifiable patient-specific risk factors have been found to exert significant influences on ND outcomes. Examples are type and severity of CHD, genetic or syndromic abnormalities, as well as prematurity and low birth weight. Structural and hemodynamic characteristics of different CHDs are assumed to result in impaired brain growth and delayed maturation with respect to the white matter. Beginning in the fetal period, this so-called “encephalopathy of CHD” is suggested a major innate risk factor for pre-, peri-, and postoperative additional hypoxic or ischemic brain injury and subsequent ND impairment. Furthermore, MRI studies on brain volume, structure, and

  4. An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hosseinzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.

  5. Influence of metallic dental implants and metal artefacts on dose calculation accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maerz, Manuel; Koelbl, Oliver; Dobler, Barbara [Regensburg University Medical Center, Department of Radiotherapy, Regensburg (Germany)

    2014-10-31

    Metallic dental implants cause severe streaking artefacts in computed tomography (CT) data, which inhibit the correct representation of shape and density of the metal and the surrounding tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of dental implants on the accuracy of dose calculations in radiation therapy planning and the benefit of metal artefact reduction (MAR). A second aim was to determine the treatment technique which is less sensitive to the presence of metallic implants in terms of dose calculation accuracy. Phantoms consisting of homogeneous water equivalent material surrounding dental implants were designed. Artefact-containing CT data were corrected using the correct density information. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were calculated on corrected and uncorrected CT data and compared to 2-dimensional dose measurements using GafChromic trademark EBT2 films. For all plans the accuracy of dose calculations is significantly higher if performed on corrected CT data (p = 0.015). The agreement of calculated and measured dose distributions is significantly higher for VMAT than for IMRT plans for calculations on uncorrected CT data (p = 0.011) as well as on corrected CT data (p = 0.029). For IMRT and VMAT the application of metal artefact reduction significantly increases the agreement of dose calculations with film measurements. VMAT was found to provide the highest accuracy on corrected as well as on uncorrected CT data. VMAT is therefore preferable over IMRT for patients with metallic implants, if plan quality is comparable for the two techniques. (orig.) [German] Zahnimplantate aus Metall verursachen in Computertomographiedaten (CT) streifenfoermige Artefakte. Diese verhindern eine korrekte Zuordnung von Form und Dichteeigenschaften des Metalls und des umgebenden Gewebes. Ziel dieser Studie war es, den Einfluss von Zahnimplantaten auf die Genauigkeit der Dosisberechnung in der

  6. Influence of Sn on Microstructure and Performance of Electric Vacuum Ag-Cu Filler Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Lei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Influence of Sn on microstructure, melting characteristic and brazing performance of electric vacuum Ag-Cu filler metal was studied by using scanning electronic microscope (SEM with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and contrast tests. The results show that, while the addition of Sn is 4% (mass fraction,the same below, there is no brittle β-Cu phase in Ag60Cu filler metal,the effect on the processing performance is not obvious; with the increase of Sn content, the liquidus temperature of Ag60Cu filler metal decreases gradually, but the solidus temperature drops drastically,resulting in wider melting temperature range, and worse gap filling ability of filler metal. The Ag60Cu filler metal with Sn content of 4% has good spreading and metallurgical bonding abilities on copper plates, which are closer to that of BAg72Cu filler metal, and it can be processed into flake filler metal to replace the BAg72Cu flake filler metal to be used.

  7. Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Inventory Management in Manufacturing SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shiau Wei; Tasmin, R.; Nor Aziati, A. H.; Zuraidah Rasi, Raja; Ismail, Fadillah Binti; Yaw, Li Ping

    2017-08-01

    Effectiveness of inventory management is a vital part in the manufacturing organization to be more competitive. The previous studies have indicated that there are several factors influencing the effectiveness of inventory management in the organization but there is lack of researchers who carried out the research in the manufacturing small medium enterprise in Johor. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify the problem of inventory management faced by the manufacturing small medium enterprise and also to determine the factors that will influence the effectiveness of inventory management. In completing this research, 80 employees were selected randomly from the manufacturing small medium enterprise in Batu Pahat, Johor and they were requested to complete questionnaires. The result have shown that the problems of inventory management faced by manufacturing organization were underproduction, overproduction, stock out situation, delays in the delivery of raw materials and discrepancy of records. The factors, documentation/store records, planning, knowledge of employees/staff skill have shown to significantly influence the effectiveness of inventory management while the funds have shown slightly significant influence on the inventory management in manufacturing small medium enterprises. This quantitative study is important to the manufacturing organization in Malaysia because it provides the guidelines to the employers of manufacturing small medium enterprises in Batu Pahat, Johor.

  8. Simulation of the mobility of metal - EDTA complexes in groundwater: The influence of contaminant metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedly, J.C.; Kent, D.B.; Davis, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Reactive transport simulations were conducted to model chemical reactions between metal - EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) complexes during transport in a mildly acidic quartz - sand aquifer. Simulations were compared with the results of small-scale tracer tests wherein nickel-, zinc-, and calcium - EDTA complexes and free EDTA were injected into three distinct chemical zones of a plume of sewage-contaminated groundwater. One zone had a large mass of adsorbed, sewage-derived zinc; one zone had a large mass of adsorbed manganese resulting from mildly reducing conditions created bythe sewage plume; and one zone had significantly less adsorbed manganese and negligible zinc background. The chemical model assumed that the dissolution of iron(III) from metal - hydroxypolymer coatings on the aquifer sediments by the metal - EDTA complexes was kinetically restricted. All other reactions, including metal - EDTA complexation, zinc and manganese adsorption, and aluminum hydroxide dissolution were assumed to reach equilibrium on the time scale of transport; equilibrium constants were either taken from the literature or determined independently in the laboratory. A single iron(III) dissolution rate constant was used to fit the breakthrough curves observed in the zone with negligible zinc background. Simulation results agreed well with the experimental data in all three zones, which included temporal moments derived from breakthrough curves at different distances downgradient from the injections and spatial moments calculated from synoptic samplings conducted at different times. Results show that the tracer cloud was near equilibrium with respect to Fe in the sediment after 11 m of transport in the Zn-contaminated region but remained far from equilibrium in the other two zones. Sensitivity studies showed that the relative rate of iron(III) dissolution by the different metal - EDTA complexes was less important than the fact that these reactions are rate controlled. Results

  9. Simulation of the mobility of metal-EDTA complexes in groundwater: the influence of contaminant metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedly, J C; Kent, D B; Davis, J A

    2002-02-01

    Reactive transport simulations were conducted to model chemical reactions between metal-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) complexes during transport in a mildly acidic quartz-sand aquifer. Simulations were compared with the results of small-scale tracer tests wherein nickel-, zinc-, and calcium-EDTA complexes and free EDTA were injected into three distinct chemical zones of a plume of sewage-contaminated groundwater. One zone had a large mass of adsorbed, sewage-derived zinc; one zone had a large mass of adsorbed manganese resulting from mildly reducing conditions created by the sewage plume; and one zone had significantly less adsorbed manganese and negligible zinc background. The chemical model assumed that the dissolution of iron(III) from metal-hydroxypolymer coatings on the aquifer sediments by the metal-EDTA complexes was kinetically restricted. All other reactions, including metal-EDTA complexation, zinc and manganese adsorption, and aluminum hydroxide dissolution were assumed to reach equilibrium on the time scale of transport; equilibrium constants were either taken from the literature or determined independently in the laboratory. A single iron(III) dissolution rate constant was used to fit the breakthrough curves observed in the zone with negligible zinc background. Simulation results agreed well with the experimental data in all three zones, which included temporal moments derived from breakthrough curves at different distances downgradient from the injections and spatial moments calculated from synoptic samplings conducted at different times. Results show that the tracer cloud was near equilibrium with respect to Fe in the sediment after 11 m of transport in the Zn-contaminated region but remained far from equilibrium in the other two zones. Sensitivity studies showed that the relative rate of iron(III) dissolution by the different metal-EDTA complexes was less important than the fact that these reactions are rate controlled. Results suggest that

  10. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  11. Monitoring Athletes Through Self-Report: Factors Influencing Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Saw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete’s response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30. Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion, and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement. Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed.

  12. Factors that influence on the decisions of battered women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Robledo Martín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence towards and against women consists in any kind of violation of woman’s personality, her physical integrity or her freedom of movement. Nowadays, gender-based violence is considered a state and public health problem as well as a social concerning subject.Objective: To identify the factors that influence on the decisions that battered women make.Methodology: The study population are battered women who live in Madrid province and who are being attended in the Municipal Points of the Regional Observatory against the Gender Violence.The information was collected by performing focus groups and deep interviews.Results: There are several factors which influence on the decisions that battered women make, like the existence or not of children they have to take care of, the economic dependence and the ignorance of the woman, in some cases, of the existence of this ill-treatment, but over all, we could even say beyond all these, there is one that is the most important, common and we could say it is the main axis that determine their behaviour. This factor is fear.Discussion: When attending these women we may be aware of the psychological situation they are, and we should be able to identify if the woman is asking us for help when she comes to us and try to identify and treat this factor that influences the decisions the woman we attend makes.

  13. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R H; van der Lans, Ivo A; Frewer, Lynn J

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0857-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  14. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SPECIFIC FACTORS UPON FINANCING DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatus Viorel-Dorin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/total assets of some Romanian corporations, focusing on its explanatory variables by including them within simple and multiple econometric models. The panel data indicators computed for the companies in the Cluj area listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange were evaluated with the OLS and FEM techniques.The results have been interpreted, pointing out that company size and asset turnover seem to have a positive influence upon the debt ratio of selected companies, while profitability and liquidity seem to influence the debt ratio of selected companies negatively.

  16. The filling factor of intergalactic metals at redshift z=3

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, C M; Delgado, J D; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla

    2010-01-01

    Observations of quasar absorption line systems reveal that the z=3 intergalactic medium (IGM) is polluted by heavy elements down to HI optical depths tau_HI10^2 kpc. Galaxies in more massive haloes cannot possibly account for the observations as they are too rare for their outflows to cover a sufficiently large fraction of the volume. Galaxies need to enrich gas out to distances that are much greater than the virial radii of their host haloes. Assuming the metals to be well mixed on small scales, the fractions of the volume and baryonic mass that are polluted with metals are, respectively, >10% and >50% in all successful models.

  17. Heavy metals and arsenic fixation into freshwater organic matter under Gammarus pulex L. influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Joerg; Mkandawire, Martin; Gert Dudel, E

    2010-07-01

    Organic sediments are a main sink for metal pollutants in aquatic systems. However, factors that make sediments a sink of metals and metalloids are still not clear. Consequently, we investigate the role of invertebrate shredders (Gammarus pulex L.) on quality of metal and arsenic fixation into organic partitions of sediment in the course of litter decay with laboratory microcosm experiments. During the decomposition of leaf litter, G. pulex significantly facilitated the development of small particles of organic matter. The capacity of metal fixation was significantly higher in smaller particles than leaf litter and litter residuals. Thus, G. pulex enhanced metal fixation into the organic partition of sediments by virtue of increasing the amount smaller particles in the aquatic system. Furthermore, invertebrates have a significant effect on formation of dissolved organic matter and remobilization of cobalt, molybdenum and cesium, but no significant effect on remobilization of all other measured elements.

  18. Influence of rare earth metals on the nucleation and solidification behavior of iron and 1045 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; McLean, A.; Rutter, J. W.; Sommerville, I. D.

    1988-06-01

    Two series of experiments have been conducted to determine the influence of rare earth additions on the nucleation and crystallization behavior of pure iron and 1045 steel. In the first series, additions of rare earth suicide or cerium dioxide powder to two-Kg 1045 steel ingots indicated that rare earth suicide can refine the as-cast structure of such ingots. However, if the holding time after rare earth silicide addition is over two minutes, the grain refinement decreases. With cerium dioxide additions, a relatively large columnar zone was obtained. In the second series, the effects of cerium metal or cerium dioxide powder additions on the degree of undercooling obtainable in pure iron and 1045 steel were examined by the lévitation melting method. Surface tension measurements of the levitated droplets were carried out at the same time to investigate the possible effects of surface tension variations on the nucleation and crystallization behavior of the metals. The experimental data show that rare earth inclusions can greatly reduce the degree of undercooling of iron and steel, and that a small amount of dissolved cerium can further reduce the degree of undercooling of levitated droplets. The structure and reaction products obtained with Fe-Ce levitated droplets were examined with both optical and scanning electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffraction analysis. The experimental results clearly indicated that cerium solute redistribution during solidification is the dominant factor in refining the as-cast structure. A nucleation and solidification model for the Fe-Ce levitated droplets has been developed, which can successfully explain the experimental results.

  19. Distribution and Potential Mobility of Selected Heavy Metals in a Fluvial Environment Under the Influence of Tanneries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues M. L. K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the occurrence of heavy metals in a fluvial environment under the influence of tanneries – the Cadeia and Feitoria rivers basin (RS, south Brazil, highlighting the distribution and potential mobility of the selected elements. Every three months, over one year-period, selected heavy metals and ancillary parameters were analyzed in water and sediment samples taken at ten sites along the rivers. Water analyses followed APHA recommendations, and sediment analyses were based on methods from USEPA (SW846 and European Community (BCR sequential extraction. The determinations were performed by ICP/OES, except for Hg (CV/ETA. Statistical factor analysis was applied to water and sediment data sets, in order to obtain a synthesis of the environmental diagnosis. The results revealed that water quality decreased along the rivers, and mainly on the dry period (January, showing the influence of tannery plants vicinity and flow variations. Except for Fe, Al, and eventually Mn, heavy metal contents in water were in agreement with Brazilian standards. Concerning sediments, Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Ti, and Zn concentrations appeared to reflect the base levels, while Cr and Hg were enriched in the deposits from the lower part of the basin. The partition of heavy metals among the sediment geochemical phases showed higher mobility of Mn along the sampling sites, followed by Cr in the lower reach of the basin, most affected by tanneries. Since Cr was predominantly associated to the oxidizable fraction, its potential mobilization from contaminated sediments would be associated to redox conditions. The detection of Hg in the tissue of a bottom-fish species indicated that the environmental conditions are apparently favoring the remobilization of this metal from contaminated sediments.

  20. An exploration study on factors influencing green marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Esmaeeli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distributed among 200 people who were visiting organic product exhibition. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.845, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of factor analysis reveal four major factors including green labeling, compatibility, product value and marketing component and size.

  1. Journal impact factor: this editorial, academic and scientific influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Milton Artur; Greco, Oswaldo Tadeu; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2009-01-01

    In this report the authors present information on the bibliometric instruments and their importance in measuring the quality of scientific journals and researchers. They in particular the history and deployment of the impact factor of the existing Institute for Scientific Information since 1955. Are presented and discussed the criticism regarding the inadequacy of the impact factor for evaluation of scientific production, misuse and strategies editorial handling of the bibliometric index. It is presented to the new classification CAPES for the journals, based on various criteria and the impact factor and its influence on national scientific and academic life. The authors conclude that, despite all obstacles and discussions, the impact factor of the Institute for Scientific Information is still an useful tool and the only isolation available to assess the scientific and intellectual productivity.

  2. Factor Influencing Creative Industries Development in Kenjeran Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, V. K.; Santoso, E. B.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia needs to improve the competitiveness of local products to optimize its contribution to the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) for the welfare of the population. This can be done by improving the development of creative industries. Kenjeran Sub District is one of the coastal villages in the city of Surabaya, which has a large number of poor people. The potential of the creative industries is still not visible in efforts to increase public welfare. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the factors that influence the development of creative industries in Kenjeran. This study using in-depth interview were analysed using content analysis and Cartesian diagram to determine the important factors that affect the development of creative industries in Sub district of Kenjeran. By using five respondents from the government shows that the factors that have a high level of importance and advantages are low among other regulatory factors of raw materials, import and export, extortion, and administrative procedures.

  3. Succesful Lean Manufacturing Implementation: Internal Key Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.

  4. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. The influence of various factors on milk clotting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of pH (6.5 and 5.8, amount of added CaCl2 (0, 200 and 400 mg/l, coagulation temperature (30ºC and 35ºC and heat treatment of milk (65ºC/30 min and 87ºC/10 min on the rate of rennet induced milk coagulation (s were investigated. The time (s from rennet addition to onset of gelation (as indicated by the first visible floccules was measured. The milk samples heat-treated at 87ºC/10 min, with 400 mg/l added CaCl2, which were coagulated at 35ºC and pH 5.8, coagulated 23.28-fold faster than the same samples without added CaCl2, which were coagulated at 30ºC and pH 6.5. The results of investigations related to the influence of particular coagulation factors on the coagulation rate of heat-treated milk showed that at pH 6.5 the most pronounced influence was demonstrated by the amount of Ca2+ and temperature of coagulation. At pH 5.8, different amounts of Ca2 and used temperatures of coagulation did not influence coagulation rate regardless of the used heat treatment of milk. The influence of used heat treatment of milk was particularly pronounced during coagulation of samples without added CaCl2 that coagulated at 30ºC and pH 6.5. The used heat treatment of milk practically did not influence the milk coagulation rate at pH 5.8. The greatest influence on milk coagulation rate was showed by pH. This influence was the most marked in coagulation of samples in which the coaggregates were formed, regardless of the amount of added Ca2+ and used coagulation temperatures.

  6. Influence of part orientation on the geometric accuracy in robot-based incremental sheet metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störkle, Denis Daniel; Seim, Patrick; Thyssen, Lars; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    This article describes new developments in an incremental, robot-based sheet metal forming process (`Roboforming') for the production of sheet metal components for small lot sizes and prototypes. The dieless kinematic-based generation of the shape is implemented by means of two industrial robots, which are interconnected to a cooperating robot system. Compared to other incremental sheet metal forming (ISF) machines, this system offers high geometrical form flexibility without the need of any part-dependent tools. The industrial application of ISF is still limited by certain constraints, e.g. the low geometrical accuracy. Responding to these constraints, the authors present the influence of the part orientation and the forming sequence on the geometric accuracy. Their influence is illustrated with the help of various experimental results shown and interpreted within this article.

  7. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhao, Changpo [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo, Yupeng [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Liu, Chunsheng, E-mail: liuchunshengidid@126.com [College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kyzas, George Z. [Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Luo, Yin [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhao, Dongye [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); An, Shuqing [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu, Hailiang, E-mail: zhuhl@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Zhengzhou City had major effect on the pollution of the Jialu River. • TN, OP, TP and COD{sub Mn} in water drove heavy metals to deposit in sediments. • B-IBI was sensitive to the adverse effect of heavy metals in sediments. - Abstract: This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community.

  8. Influence of Lubricant Pocket Geometry upon Lubrication Mechanisms on Tool-Workpiece Interfaces in Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimizu, I; Martins, P.A.F.; Bay, Niels

    2004-01-01

    Micro lubricant pockets located on the surface of plastically deforming workpieces are recognized to improve the performance of fluid lubrication in a metal forming processes. This work investigates the joint influence of pocket geometry and process working conditions on micro lubrication mechani...

  9. Biosorption Of Heavy Metals From Mining Influenced Water Onto Chitin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining influenced water (MIW) emanating from mine sites poses a major environmental concern due to its impact on water contamination caused by low pH and the presence of high concentrations of toxic metals. Chitorem SC-20® (raw crushed crab shells containing 40% w/w C...

  10. Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

  11. Study of Influencing Factors on ConsumerOnline Impulse Buying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The convenience and anonymity of online shopping have stimulated people's impulse buying tendency. Impulse buying is notonly a competitive method for businesses, but also a crucial factor influencing sales of e-commerce. Based on a systematic reviewof literatures, this paper explores factors affecting the online impulse buying. Moreover, by using the S-O-R model, this paperdescribes the formation mechanism of the online impulse buying behavior. At Last, it points out issues worthy of future studies.For example, this paper suggests to take into consideration of sociocultural impact and to put more emphasis on empirical studies.

  12. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration.

  13. INVESTIGATING FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ LEARNING IN A TEAM TEACHING SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Team teaching factors, including mission clarity, affiliation, innovativeness, and fairness, are examined to determine how they influence student learning in a team-taught course. The study involved 184 college students enrolled in an Introduction to Computers course delivered in a team-taught format in a large university located in the United States. The collaborative teaching design followed a traditional team teaching approach with an instructor team teaching the same course collaboratively. Students enrolled in the team-taught course filled out an online survey targeted at identifying key factors that influence student-based outcomes (satisfaction and competency in the course. Results showed that instructor team mission clarity, affiliation, and fairness are significantly related to students’ satisfaction while instructor team mission clarity and fairness are significantly related to students’ competency.

  14. Factors Influencing Rural Teacher Flow in Yunnan Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; SUN; Zhaochang; REN; Yang; HE; Haijiao; ZHU

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic minority areas area old revolutionary base areas,areas inhabited by ethnic minorities,remote areas,impoverished areas, and also difficult areas for construction of socialist harmonious society.Studying on factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas is of great significance to improving local teacher team structure and promoting balanced development of urban and rural education.However,it lacks empirical analysis based on field survey for the nonce.In this study,based on interview and questionnaire data of education departments and school leaders in 4 ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,it established binary Logistic model,analyzed factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,and finally present policy recommendations.

  15. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed. (author)

  16. Factors influencing prehospital delay for patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujuan CHENG; Lufen GUO; Juyuan LIU; Xiaoling ZHU; Hongbing YAN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors for prehospital delay in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods A total of 807 consecutive patients with AMI who presented to the emergency department of Beijing Anzhen Hospital were analyzed. The influence of several potential risk factors on the prehospital delay time (PDT) was evaluated by comparing patients admitted more than 2 hours after onset of chese pain with those admitted within 2 hours after onset. Results Among 807 patients, 402 came to the hospital within 2 hours while the others arrived at the hospital after 2 hours. The median PDT was 130 min. Among the potential variables, advanced age, history of diabetes mellitus, occurrence of symptom at night and use of emergency medical service significantly affected PDT by multivariate analysis. Conclusion Interventions aimed at reducing the prehospital delay in AMI should primarily focus on the awareness of the risk and help-seeking behavior of patients.

  17. Influence of Organic Matter - Mineral Interfacial Reactions on Metal(loid) Speciation and Bioaccessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorover, J.; Kong, S.; Root, R. A.; Thomas, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bioaccessibility of contaminant metals in geomedia is often measured on the basis of kinetic release to solution during in vitro reaction with biofluid simulants. We postulate that development of a predictive-mechanistic understanding of bioaccessibility requires knowledge of metal(loid) molecular speciation upon sample introduction, as well as its change over the course of the in vitro reaction. Our results - including data from batch, column, mesocosm and field studies pertaining to arsenic, lead, and zinc contaminated materials - indicate the strong influence of organic matter and associated biological activity on metal(loid) speciation in mine tailings and related model systems. Furthermore, presence/absence of organic matter during bioassays affects the kinetics of metal(loid) release into biofluid simulants through multiple mechanisms.

  18. WHICH ARE THE FACTORS INFLUENCING FINANCING DECISIONS IN SMEs?

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia-Diana NISTOR

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I review the literature in search of the factors that influence financing decisions in SMEs. Financial theories suggest that the only goal of a company is value maximization, but empirical studies have shown that small companies’ owners can have other goals than profit maximization, this being reflected in their financing decisions. Also the personal characteristics of SMEs’ founders are relevant in establishing the companies financing strategy

  19. Influence of environmental factors on corrosion damage of aircraft structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the important structural integrity concerns of aging aircraft, and it is estimated that a significant portion of airframe maintenance budgets is directed towards corrosion-related problems for both military and commercial aircraft. In order to better understand how environmental factors influence the corrosion damage initiation and propagation on aircraft structure and to predict pre-corrosion test pieces of fatigue life and structural integrity of an effective approach, this paper uses ...

  20. Generational Approach to Factors Influencing Career Choice in Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Hsiao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research aims to grasp which factors influence the generation Y to choose accounting as its career. A significant decline in the number of candidates willing to pursue a career as accountant has been observed abroad - USA, Australia, and Japan. However, in other countries - Brazil, Singapore, and Hong Kong - the opposite has been observed. Another issue is the decline in educational qualification of those pursuing an accounting career, contributing in a way that many talented students change their career choice. This may be explained by the fact that people tend to believe accounting is an exact science, full of calculations, boring, and not very creative, bringing an unbalance between the traits an individual should have according to the job market and those perceived by society. In order to give a contribution to literature concerning the factors that influence the generation Y in its career choice, a goal of this research was conducting an exploratory study where some hypotheses were formulated to support the discussion. We used Mannheim's Generational Theory and the literature on career choice. Data collection was carried out using a questionnaire, based on Schwartz's Portrait Value Questionnaire and Germeijs and Verschueren's Student Choice Task Inventory, adapted through focus group interview. Data were fully collected online and the sample consisted of 665 subjects. The results showed that people who chose accounting as their career were influenced by factors such as creativity, independence, challenging and dynamic environment, job security, money-making, job availability, and other significant people - friends and teachers. The subjects were not influenced by social factors, such as working with people and making contributions to society and family. They wish for more autonomy, creativity, and flexibility at work, and people still care about job security and money-making.

  1. Analysis of Factors Influencing English Listening Teaching and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Tian

    2013-01-01

    English teaching focuses on cultivating and improving students’listening, speaking, reading, writing and translating skills, which are complementary to each other. Among these five skills, listening, as an important basic skill, should be put into top priority in English teaching. Mainly based on the analysis of factors influencing English listening teaching, the paper puts for-ward some effective countermeasures in improving teaching effectiveness.

  2. Factors Influencing Beta-Thalassemia Awareness in Western India

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin P Patel; Prakash H Parmar; Rupesh B Patel; Nikhil M Trivedi; Nileshkumar A Bhartiya

    2016-01-01

    "Context: Beta-thalassemia is highly prevalent in western India. Our organization runs a screening and prevention program to create awareness and reduce the incidence of homozygous beta-thalassemia cases. Aims: The study was designed to evaluate factors influencing awareness about Beta-thalassemia. Methodology: This cross sectional survey was conducted at six colleges, two medical clinics, and a thalassemia transfusion centre. It involved 398 adults ( and #8805;18 years).The survey form...

  3. Factors Influencing the HRD Climate of an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out which factor (s) influence the HRD climate of the company. The descriptive research design was under taken with the help of the structured questionnaire to study the OCTAPACE culture of Spanco Ltd. which was based on the responses of the various levels of employees working in it. Thesample consistsof 59 employees.Employees believe that the top management gives importance to the human resource and all the employees are treated humanely in the organization. ...

  4. Mechanisms and factors that influence high frequency retroviral recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga;

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse t......, and vaccine development....... transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity...

  5. Factors Influencing Beta-Thalassemia Awareness in Western India

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin P Patel; Prakash H Parmar; Rupesh B Patel; Nikhil M Trivedi; Nileshkumar A Bhartiya

    2016-01-01

    "Context: Beta-thalassemia is highly prevalent in western India. Our organization runs a screening and prevention program to create awareness and reduce the incidence of homozygous beta-thalassemia cases. Aims: The study was designed to evaluate factors influencing awareness about Beta-thalassemia. Methodology: This cross sectional survey was conducted at six colleges, two medical clinics, and a thalassemia transfusion centre. It involved 398 adults ( and #8805;18 years).The survey form...

  6. Factors Influencing Bonding Strength of Laminated Bamboo Strips Lumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Factors influencing bonding strength of laminated bamboo strips lumber (LBSL) were investigated in this paper. In order to find an optimized technology, this paper investigated how the thickness of bamboo strips, the assembly orientation of bamboo curtain, the type of adhesives, as well as coupling agent treatment of bamboo curtain affected the bonding strength. The following conclusions were drawn: 1)The thinner the thickness of the bamboo strips, the bigger the bonding strength of LBSL; 2) The assembly or...

  7. Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra *

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qing; Li, Ying-Hua; Lü, Xiu-yang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra, confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course, and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method, the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisandra under different heating temperature, decocting time, soaking time, processing methods and treatment with different solvents before decocting the Schisandra were measured by RP-HPLC method. The ...

  8. The growth of foot arches and influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ferial Hadipoetro Idris

    2016-01-01

    Background Foot arches are important components for body sup- port. Foot arch deformity caused by growth abnormalities cause serious limitations in daily activities. Objectives To determine the patterns of foot arch growth, factors influencing foot arch growth, and the timing for intervention in er- rant growth patterns. Methods A cross-sectional study evaluated the foot arches of chil- dren aged 0-18 years according to age and sex. Subjects included had no evidence of...

  9. Mechanisms and factors that influence high frequency retroviral recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga;

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse...... transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity......, and vaccine development....

  10. Strength Mechanism and Influence Factors for Cold Recycled Asphalt Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Ma; Hao Wang; Yongli Zhao; Xiaoming Huang; Yuhui Pi

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the key factors affecting the tensile strength of cold recycled asphalt mixture with cement and emulsified asphalt. The specific surface areas and strength of RAP were analyzed. The interaction between the emulsified asphalt and cement was observed. Comprehensive laboratory testing was conducted to evaluate the influences of RAP, emulsified asphalt, and cement on the tensile strength of cold recycled asphalt mixture. It is found that although RAP is used as aggregates, i...

  11. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical educaton

    OpenAIRE

    Stok-Koch, L.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.

    2007-01-01

    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing home physicians in training (NHPT) and 62 supervisors. They participated in semi-structured group interviews, in which they discussed four questions regarding workplace learning. Qualitative analysi...

  12. Genetic variation in metallothionein and metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in relation to urinary cadmium, copper, and zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott V.; Barrick, Brian; Freney, Emily P.; Shafer, Martin M.; Makar, Karen; Song, Xiaoling; Lampe, Johanna; Vilchis, Hugo; Ulery, April; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Metallothionein (MT) proteins play critical roles in the physiological handling of both essential (Cu and Zn) and toxic (Cd) metals. MT expression is regulated by metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF1). Hence, genetic variation in the MT gene family and MTF1 might therefore influence excretion of these metals. Methods 321 women were recruited in Seattle, WA and Las Cruces, NM and provided demographic information, urine samples for measurement of metal concentrations by mass spectrometry and creatinine, and blood or saliva for extraction of DNA. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MTF1 gene region and the region of chromosome 16 encoding the MT gene family were selected for genotyping in addition to an ancestry informative marker panel. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of SNPs with urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn, adjusted for age, urinary creatinine, smoking history, study site, and ancestry. Results Minor alleles of rs28366003 and rs10636 near the MT2A gene were associated with lower urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn. Minor alleles of rs8044719 and rs1599823, near MT1A and MT1B, were associated with lower urinary Cd and Zn, respectively. Minor alleles of rs4653329 in MTF1 was associated with lower urinary Cd. Conclusions These results suggest that genetic variation in the MT gene region and MTF1 influences urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn excretion. PMID:26529669

  13. Experimental Investigations on the Influence of Adhesive Oxides on the Metal-Ceramic Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Enghardt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the influence of selected base metals, which act as oxide formers, on the metal-ceramic bond of dental veneer systems. Using ion implantation techniques, ions of Al, In and Cu were introduced into near-surface layers of a noble metal alloy containing no base metals. A noble metal alloy with base metals added for oxide formation was used as a reference. Both alloys were coated with a low-temperature fusing dental ceramic. Specimens without ion implantation or with Al2O3 air abrasion were used as controls. The test procedures comprised the Schwickerath shear bond strength test (ISO 9693-1, profile height (surface roughness measurements (ISO 4287; ISO 4288; ISO 25178, scanning electron microscopy (SEM imaging, auger electron spectroscopy (AES and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. Ion implantation resulted in no increase in bond strength. The highest shear bond strengths were achieved after oxidation in air and air abrasion with Al2O3 (41.5 MPa and 47.8 MPa respectively. There was a positive correlation between shear bond strength and profile height. After air abrasion, a pronounced structuring of the surface occurred compared to ion implantation. The established concentration shifts in alloy and ceramic could be reproduced. However, their positive effects on shear bond strength were not confirmed. The mechanical bond appears to be of greater importance for metal-ceramic bonding.

  14. Influencing Factors of Rural Human Consumption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun LI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper combines the social capital theory, the ordered choice model, and the case study in order to analyze the influence factors of the rural human consumption. The results show the presence of inverted U shape curve relation between human consumption amount and age. Human communication range, income, the highest single human consumption amount and the minimum amount, occupation, family population, the existing of human consumption capacity and the scope of the existing relationships between interpersonal relationship satisfaction and other factors on human consumption level has positive influence on human consumption level. Domestic researches on human behaviour are wide, but most of the studies are focused on the social, human, and psychological disciplines. For the origin of human consumption, scholars focus on four aspects like novelty, human or mutual needs. This research is based on field investigation conducted in Niuxintai village, Liaoning Province, in order to understand the current situation of the rural human consumption in China, and to explain the function and influencing factors of human consumption.

  15. Factors Influencing the Success Rate of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah Amanda Hanif

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is a series of actions performed on cardiac arrest patients. Not all patients receiving CPR can survive. The outcome of CPR is influenced by several factors. This study was conducted to determine the success rate of CPR and the factors influencing it in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in 2013. Methods: This study was conducted by using 168 patient medical records who underwent CPR and met the inclusion criteria in the Resuscitation Room of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital from January to December 2013. The collected data consisted of age, gender, pre-arrest diagnosis, initial rhythm, response time and clinical outcome of CPR. The results were expressed in frequencies and percentage. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results: The Success rate of CPR was 15.5%. The success rate was higher in patients with cardiac prearrest diagnoses (8.33%, p=0.024. The most common initial rhythm was unshockable rhythms (83.92%, yet patients with shockable heart rhythms had higher success rates (40.74%, p<0.001. All of the surviving patients had response time within the first minute from cardiac arrest. Conclusions: Success rate of CPR in the resuscitation room of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital during 2013 is still low. The factors influencing the survival rate are the pre-arrest diagnosis and initial heart rhythm.

  16. Research on Factors Influencing Individual's Behavior of Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanfeng

    With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers have also launched similar products. This paper focuses on the factors influencing Energy Management Behaviour (EMB) at the individual level. By reviewing academic literature, conducting surveys in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the author builds an integrated behavioural energy management model of the Chinese energy consumers. This paper takes the vague term of EMB and redefines it as a function of two separate behavioural concepts: Energy Management Intention (EMI), and the traditional Energy Saving Intention (ESI). Secondly, the author conducts statistical analyses on these two behavioural concepts. EMI is the main driver behind an individual's EMB. EMI is affected by Behavioural Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC). Among these three key factors, PBC exerts the strongest influence. This implies that the promotion of the energy management concept is mainly driven by good application user experience (UX). The traditional ESI also demonstrates positive influence on EMB, but its impact is weaker than the impacts arising under EMI's three factors. In other words, the government and manufacturers may not be able to change an individual's energy management behaviour if they rely solely on their traditional promotion strategies. In addition, the study finds that the government may achieve better promotional results by launching subsidies to the manufacturers of these kinds of applications and smart appliances.

  17. Influencing Factors in OER Usage of Adult Learners in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Wook Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Open Educational Resources (OER is terminology that refers to educational resources (content and software distributed through the Internet, free of charge and freely accessible, expanding learning opportunities for adult learners. This terminology first appeared around 2002, although its roots can be traced to the open architecture of the Internet. Until recently, OER development has focused more on quantity of contents rather than quality. In this study, we have examined the factors influencing the learning intention of adult learners in the OER context. Based on the relevant literature, we have identified a number of factors influencing a learner’s intention to use e-learning content. We have also developed a questionnaire for conducting a survey on such influencing factors. The survey results show that ease of use and relation to immediate workplace needs affect the intention of adult learners in using OER. The findings of this study can inform those developing and designing a learning environment that employs OER while also providing general guidance for developers and educators on how to design OER content.

  18. A real-time assessment of factors influencing medication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollarhide, Adrian W; Rutledge, Thomas; Weinger, Matthew B; Fisher, Erin Stucky; Jain, Sonia; Wolfson, Tanya; Dresselhaus, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Reducing medical error is critical to improving the safety and quality of healthcare. Physician stress, fatigue, and excessive workload are performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that may influence medical events (actual administration errors and near misses), but direct relationships between these factors and patient safety have not been clearly defined. This study assessed the real-time influence of emotional stress, workload, and sleep deprivation on self-reported medication events by physicians in academic hospitals. During an 18-month study period, 185 physician participants working at four university-affiliated teaching hospitals reported medication events using a confidential reporting application on handheld computers. Emotional stress scores, perceived workload, patient case volume, clinical experience, total sleep, and demographic variables were also captured via the handheld computers. Medication event reports (n = 11) were then correlated with these demographic and PSFs. Medication events were associated with 36.1% higher perceived workload (p sleep (p = .10). These results confirm the effect of factors influencing medication events, and support attention to both provider and hospital environmental characteristics for improving patient safety.

  19. LITERATURE REVIEW ON FACTORS INFLUENCING MILK PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Kurajdova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s highly informed, competitive and saturated market, a key to success of any business depends on knowing consumer and his consumption patterns and recognizing and understanding factors influencing his decision-making for the purpose of developing an attractive offer of products, supporting services, communication means and other marketing tools that would fit like a glue to customer’s needs. Study of consumer behaviour belongs to a group of very wide and strong subjects of marketing attention and its examination requires ongoing approach. Milk, as one category of dairy products, belongs to the group of basic daily-consumed products characterized by relatively high purchase frequency. On the other hand, its production and consumption is experiencing certain negative trend in Slovakia what inevitably calls for a scientific attention and examination in order to reverse this unfavourable development having a negative impact on the milk companies in Slovakia. Therefore, we focus our attention on studying various factors influencing consumers when purchasing this specific product. Our research in this stage resulted in the compilation of literature review on factors influencing consumers when purchasing milk and determination of boundaries and guidelines for our future research activity

  20. Trace metals, melanin-based pigmentation and their interaction influence immune parameters in feral pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, M; Gasparini, J; Frantz, A

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the effects of trace metals emitted by anthropogenic activities on wildlife is of great concern in urban ecology; yet, information on how they affect individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems remains scarce. In particular, trace metals may impact survival by altering the immune system response to parasites. Plumage melanin is assumed to influence the effects of trace metals on immunity owing to its ability to bind metal ions in feathers and its synthesis being coded by a pleiotropic gene. We thus hypothesized that trace metal exposure would interact with plumage colouration in shaping immune response. We experimentally investigated the interactive effect between exposure to an environmentally relevant range of zinc and/or lead and melanin-based plumage colouration on components of the immune system in feral pigeons (Columba livia). We found that zinc increased anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) IgY primary response maintenance, buffered the negative effect of lead on anti-KLH IgY secondary response maintenance and tended to increase T-cell mediated phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin response. Lead decreased the peak of the anti-KLH IgY secondary response. In addition, pheomelanic pigeons exhibited a higher secondary anti-KLH IgY response than did eumelanic ones. Finally, T-cell mediated PHA skin response decreased with increasing plumage eumelanin level of birds exposed to lead. Neither treatments nor plumage colouration correlated with endoparasite intensity. Overall, our study points out the effects of trace metals on some parameters of birds' immunity, independently from other confounding urbanization factors, and underlines the need to investigate their impacts on other life history traits and their consequences in the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions.

  1. Immunoaffinity purification of factor IX (Christmas factor) by using conformation-specific antibodies directed against the factor IX-metal complex.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Factor IX is a vitamin K-dependent blood clotting zymogen that is functionally defective or absent in patients with hemophilia B. A method of immunoaffinity chromatography has been developed for a one-step high yield purification of factor IX directly from plasma. The technique utilizes conformation-specific antibodies that bind solely to the metal-stabilized factor IX conformer, but not to the conformer of factor IX found in the absence of metal ions. Anti-factor IX-Ca(II) antibodies were im...

  2. Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Jason R.

    This investigation explored scientific, religious, and otherwise nonscientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution and related concepts, how students perceived these factors to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution and changes therein, and what patterns arose among students' articulations of how their levels of acceptance of evolution may have changed. This exploration also measured the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following a treatment designed to address factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution. Acceptance of evolution was measured using the MATE instrument (Rutledge and Warden, 1999; Rutledge and Sadler, 2007) among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic program during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than pre-treatment levels both immediately following and slightly over one year after treatment. Qualitative data from informal questionnaires, from formal course evaluations, and from semi-structured interviews of students engaged in secondary level education and former students at various stages of post-secondary education confirmed that the suspected factors were perceived by participants to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution. Furthermore, participant reports provided insight regarding the relative effects they perceived these factors to have had on their evolution acceptance levels. Additionally, many participants reported that their science teachers in public schools had avoided, omitted, or denigrated evolution during instruction, and several of these students expressed frustration regarding what they perceived to have been a lack of education of an important scientific principle. Finally, no students expressed feelings of being offended by having been taught about

  3. Genetic and pharmacological factors that influence reproductive aging in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie E Hughes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related degenerative changes in the reproductive system are an important aspect of aging, because reproductive success is the major determinant of evolutionary fitness. Caenorhabditis elegans is a prominent organism for studies of somatic aging, since many factors that extend adult lifespan have been identified. However, mechanisms that control reproductive aging in nematodes or other animals are not well characterized. To use C. elegans to measure reproductive aging, we analyzed mated hermaphrodites that do not become sperm depleted and monitored the duration and level of progeny production. Mated hermaphrodites display a decline of progeny production that culminates in reproductive cessation before the end of the lifespan, demonstrating that hermaphrodites undergo reproductive aging. To identify factors that influence reproductive aging, we analyzed genetic, environmental, and pharmacological factors that extend lifespan. Dietary restriction and reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling delayed reproductive aging, indicating that nutritional status and a signaling pathway that responds to environmental stress influence reproductive aging. Cold temperature delayed reproductive aging. The anticonvulsant medicine ethosuximide, which affects neural activity, delayed reproductive aging, indicating that neural activity can influence reproductive aging. Some of these factors decrease early progeny production, but there is no consistent relationship between early progeny production and reproductive aging in strains with an extended lifespan. To directly examine the effects of early progeny production on reproductive aging, we used sperm availability to modulate the level of early reproduction. Early progeny production neither accelerated nor delayed reproductive aging, indicating that reproductive aging is not controlled by use-dependent mechanisms. The implications of these findings for evolutionary theories of aging are discussed.

  4. The Influence of Global Macroeconomic Factors on Stock Values: A Sector Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Özlen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Investors and policy makers should carefully analyze stock returns and their possible relationships with microeconomic and macroeconomic factors in both local and global arena. Since the markets are increasingly becoming global, the outcomes may be more important for international factors. Therefore, this study aims to identify the relationship between selected international macroeconomic variables (FTSE-100 England market index, GDAX Germany market index, NYSE Composite market index, Gold prices and Crude Oil prices and 48 companies in 11 different sectors (electric, food, communication, paper, chemistry, metal-main, metal-product, stone, textile, commerce and transportation in Istanbul Stock Exchange Market. ARDL is employed on the data for the period between the second month of 2005 and the second month of 2012 including 85 monthly observations. The research provides mix results for the selected sectors. Crude oil is found to be significantly effective on almost all the companies in the selected sectors. The extensive influence of gold prices on the sectors except electric and communication sectors is also observed. Global market indices (American, English and German are found to have influence in various degrees through the sectors. This research is expected to be useful in that it provides results for different sectors operating in Turkish Stock Exchange Market.

  5. Heavy Metals Accumulation in Topsoils from the Wine-growing Regions Part 1. Factors which Control Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Romić

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of exposure of agricultural soils to different anthropogenic inputs of heavy metals has been investigated in soils from two wine-producing subregions in northwestern Croatia. The aim of this study was to explore :(i the main soil properties and topsoil accumulation of heavy metals in vineyards under long-term cultivation, and (ii the origin and the preferential feature of metal retention in vineyard topsoil using the multivariate statistical method. The investigated area was marked on regular square grid with 1-km spacing. Topsoil samples (0-10 cm were collected from each sampling point and analyzed for soil chemical properties, particle size distribution and heavy metal concentrations after aqua region digestion. All soil data were incorporate into the GIS base. Summary statistics of the data set were first calculated to evaluate the distributions, and afterward processed by means of R-mode factor analysis, applying the varimax-raw rotational technique. Anthropogenic input of metals in soils of the studied wine-growing regions mostly originates from agrochemicals, since the direct influence of the urban environment or industry is almost negligible. Accumulation of copper and zinc in topsoil, determined in this research, is the most common effect of continuing fertilization and protection against diseases and pests in vineyards.

  6. Influence of dissimilatory metal reduction on fate of organic and metal contaminants in the subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, Derek R.; Anderson, Robert T.

    Dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms have the ability to destroy organic contaminants under anaerobic conditions by oxidizing them to carbon dioxide. Some Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can also reductively dechlorinate chlorinated contaminants. Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can reduce a variety of contaminant metals and convert them from soluble forms to forms that are likely to be immobilized in the subsurface. Studies in petroleum-contaminated aquifers have demonstrated that Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can be effective agents in removing aromatic hydrocarbons from groundwater under anaerobic conditions. Laboratory studies have demonstrated the potential for Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms to remove uranium from contaminated groundwaters. The activity of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can be stimulated in several ways to enhance organic contaminant oxidation and metal reduction. Molecular analyses in both field and laboratory studies have demonstrated that microorganisms of the genus Geobacter become dominant members of the microbial community when Fe(III)-reducing conditions develop as the result of organic contamination, or when Fe(III) reduction is artificially stimulated. These results suggest that further understanding of the ecophysiology of Geobacter species would aid in better prediction of the natural attenuation of organic contaminants under anaerobic conditions and in the design of strategies for the bioremediation of subsurface metal contamination. Des micro-organismes simulant la réduction du fer ont la capacité de détruire des polluants organiques dans des conditions anérobies en les oxydant en dioxyde de carbone. Certains micro-organismes réducteurs de fer peuvent aussi dé-chlorer par réduction des polluants chlorés. Des micro-organismes réducteurs de fer peuvent réduire tout un ensemble de métaux polluants et les faire passer de formes solubles à des formes qui sont susceptibles d'être immobilisées dans le milieu

  7. Factors that influence on the confrontation the spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Melchor Arteaga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of spinal cord injury agree in the consequences of that injury is the loss in varying degrees of autonomic function; this will cause a change in the lifestyle of patients and their families.In the spinal injury, the priority is the recovery or maintenance of vital organ functions, the physical stabilization for people. Later, the priority here is the rehabilitation and adaptation. This should be integrated at all levels, physical, psychological and social. Confrontation is, by Callista Roy, a important variable for understanding the effect of stress on health and disease, health maintenance or recovery. The way, that the patients have to confront the disease, are the confrontation strategies. They are defined as thoughts and actions that persons put in place to deal with adverse changes. They are grouped into 3 categories: problems, emotions and avoidance.There are others factors that influence in the use of strategies, between them the personality. According to Eysenck this is determined by the functional interaction of four factors: cognitive (intelligence, conative (character, affective (temperament and somatic (construction. With this study we want to know the factors that influence in the confrontation of the spinal cord injury and to analyze the possible relation between them, and to be able to elaborate particular tools, on the most determinant factors, to obtain an effective confrontation about this type of disease.

  8. Factors influencing the stigmatization of patients with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Grigoryeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the factors influencing the stigmatization in patients with epilepsy. Patients and methods. The investigation enrolled 71 epileptic patients aged 14 to 50 years. They were divided into two age groups: 30 adolescents aged 14–17 years and 41 adults aged 18–50 years. Results and discussion. Examinations of 71 patients with epilepsy could identify 4 factors influencing their stigmatization: individual traits; activity and relations in the group; the effect of a drug and its adherence in patients; relationships in the family and its response to the disease. The authors’ new screening procedure was employed to determine the leading causes of stigmatization for each age group and to show differences in the specific features of stigmatization (the leading factor of stigmatization in patients of different age. The major factor of stigmatization in the epileptic adolescents was found to be relationships in the family and its response to the disease. Its chief cause in the adults was their principal activity (studies at a higher education establishment or work and group relations. The epileptic patients were shown to need psychological care. The developed screening procedure will be useful in planning psycho-correction measures and rehabilitation programs. 

  9. Prognostic factors influencing clinical outcomes of glioblastoma multiforme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shou-wei; QIU Xiao-guang; CHEN Bao-shi; ZHANG Wei; REN Huan; WANG Zhong-cheng; JIANG Tao

    2009-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant kind of astrocytic tumors and is associated with a poor prognosis. In this retrospective study, we assessed the clinical, radiological, genetic molecular and treatment factors that influence clinical outcomes of patients with GBM.Methods A total of 116 patients with GBM who received surgery and radiation between January 2006 and December 2007 were included in this study. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to find the factors independently influencing patients' progression free survival (PFS) time and overall survival (OS) time.Results Age, preoperative Kamofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, KPS score change at 2 weeks after operation, neurological deficit symptoms, tumor resection extent, maximal tumor diameter, involvement of eloquent cortex or deep structure, involvement of brain lobe, Ki-67 expression level and adjuvant chemotherapy were statistically significant factors (P <0.05) for both PFS and OS in the univariate analysis. Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that age ≤50 years, preoperative KPS score ≥80, KPS score change after operation ≥0, involvement of single frontal lobe,non-eloquent area or deep structure involvement, low Ki-67 expression and adjuvant chemotherapy were independent favorable factors (P <0.05) for patients' clinical outcomes.Conclusions Age at diagnosis, preoperative KPS score, KPS score change at 2 weeks postoperation, involvement of brain lobe, involvement of eloquent cortex or deep structure, Ki-67 expression level and adjuvant chemotherapy correlate significantly with the prognosis of patients with GBM.

  10. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Factors influencing the biochemical markers for predicting mammalian oocyte quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Safiriyu Idowu; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The need for accurate selection of the best oocytes for in vitro fertilization protocols and thus, production of embryos has driven the search for oocyte quality markers from morphological criteria to biochemical parameters. Current studies are focused on the biochemical constituents of the follicular fluid and gene expression profiling of the cumulus cells. These parameters are, however, affected by factors that must be considered before making a judgment of the oocyte's quality. These includes factors such as the type of hormonal stimulation protocol, age of oocyte donor and heat stress on the donor, all of which have been reported to influence the concentrations of many hormones, apolipoproteins, metabolites, fatty acids and growth factors in the follicular fluid and the expression of several genes in the cumulus cells. Another important point to note is species variation in the response to these extraneous influences, which thus calls for species targeted investigations. As reports are still scanty and investigations assumed to be very keen, we employed this review paper to bring attention of researchers and clinicians to those factors that may come to bear on the outcome of their investigations on oocyte and embryo quality.

  12. Factors Influencing Organization Adoption Decision On Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailar Rahimli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on adoption decision from view point of management decision making. The variable that evaluate in this study include: Cost effectiveness, Need for cloud computing, Security effectiveness, and reliability on cloud computing as independent variable and Adoption decision as dependent variable. The scope of this research is IT companies in Malaysia, and target population is member of organization that want to make decision to adopt the cloud computing. The Correlation and Multi Regression analysis show that all factor s have a positive and significant effect on organization adoption decision to cloud computing. 

  13. Factors Influencing Learning Environments in an Integrated Experiential Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koci, Peter

    The research conducted for this dissertation examined the learning environment of a specific high school program that delivered the explicit curriculum through an integrated experiential manner, which utilized field and outdoor experiences. The program ran over one semester (five months) and it integrated the grade 10 British Columbian curriculum in five subjects. A mixed methods approach was employed to identify the students' perceptions and provide richer descriptions of their experiences related to their unique learning environment. Quantitative instruments were used to assess changes in students' perspectives of their learning environment, as well as other supporting factors including students' mindfulness, and behaviours towards the environment. Qualitative data collection included observations, open-ended questions, and impromptu interviews with the teacher. The qualitative data describe the factors and processes that influenced the learning environment and give a richer, deeper interpretation which complements the quantitative findings. The research results showed positive scores on all the quantitative measures conducted, and the qualitative data provided further insight into descriptions of learning environment constructs that the students perceived as most important. A major finding was that the group cohesion measure was perceived by students as the most important attribute of their preferred learning environment. A flow chart was developed to help the researcher conceptualize how the learning environment, learning process, and outcomes relate to one another in the studied program. This research attempts to explain through the consideration of this case study: how learning environments can influence behavioural change and how an interconnectedness among several factors in the learning process is influenced by the type of learning environment facilitated. Considerably more research is needed in this area to understand fully the complexity learning

  14. An empirical investigation on factors influencing export of herbal supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts who are professional in the area of production and distribution of herbal supplements and using factor analysis, the study detects eight factors including supportive laws and regulations, organizational atmosphere, marketing structure, knowledge oriented, feasibility study, research and development, competitive strategy and partnership strategies.

  15. Factors influencing response to treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

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    Hiyama J

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 150 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis from 1990 to 1996 (i to evaluate the frequency of drug resistance, (ii to elucidate factors influencing the response to chemotherapy, and (iii to attempt to improve the therapeutic approach. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains were not found. By univariate analysis, there were 8 factors associated with an increased sputum conversion time: male gender, prior treatment, complications, progressive chest radiographic findings, a high Ziehl-Neelsen stain score, lymphocytopenia, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and hypoproteinemia. Complications, prior treatment, a high Ziehl-Neelsen stain score, and a high ESR were independent predictive factors in a Cox proportional hazard model. Recursive partitioning and amalgamation (RPA defined 3 subgroups that responded to treatment. In order to reduce the time to sputum conversion, poor responders according to the RPA should be treated with a 4-drug regimen containing pyrazinamide.

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN DAIRY SECTOR IN EU

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    Radek ZDENĚK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important for the stability of Europe and Czech milk market is to remain competitive in world markets, as the main way for balance on the internal market is based on successful export of dairy products to third countries. Price volatility and environmental sustainability are seen as the most serious current problems in the dairy industry and dairy farming. The aim of this paper is to assess the development of the production and milk prices in the EU and assess the main factors that affect labour productivity. The number of cows per worker is one of the most important factors affecting labour productivity. Effect of prices on labour productivity in monetary expression is not as significant as is usually assumed. The technical equipment of labour should be an important factor influencing the number of cows per worker. The hypothesis that higher technical equipment of labour should create better conditions for higher productivity could be assumed.

  17. A review on factors influencing bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshani, A M B

    2017-05-24

    Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent deficiency disorders in the world. As shown by many studies plant food based approaches have a real potential on prevention of vitamin A deficiency in a sustainable way. Carotenoids are important as precursors of vitamin A as well as for prevention of cancers, coronary heart diseases, age-related macular degeneration, cataract etc. Bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids are known to be influenced by numerous factors including dietary factors such as fat, fiber, dosage of carotenoid, location of carotenoid in the plant tissue, heat treatment, particle size of food, carotenoid species, interactions among carotenoids, isomeric form and molecular linkage and subject characteristics. Therefore even when carotenoids are found in high quantities in plant foods their utilization may be unsatisfactory because some factors are known to interfere as negative effectors.

  18. An empirical investigation on factors influencing sales force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In today's competitive business environment, consumers are exposed to make their choice from different alternatives. Customer loyalty has never been an easy task and many business owners may lose their customer as soon as new products appear on the market. This paper presents a study to find important factors influencing on sales force using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire and distributed among 180 customers of a well-known food chain named Shahrvand in different regions in city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 156 filled ones. The questionnaire consists of 68 questions Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.847, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of our survey indicate that five major factors including.

  19. The Influencing Factors of Enterprise Sustainable Innovation: An Empirical Study

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    Si-Hua Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable innovation is the inexhaustible source of development of enterprises. Within fierce market competition, only by depending on continuous innovation can an enterprise exist and develop. By conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis, this paper proposes a theoretical model, dividing enterprise sustainable innovation ability into three aspects: knowledge innovation capability, production innovation capability, and market innovation capability, and analyzes the influencing factors respectively. Finally, applying this theoretical model to a practical case, with system dynamics method, the simulation results show that they are consistent with real enterprise facts. Therefore, the framework of determinants of sustainable innovation built in this paper has already been verified theoretically and practically. It not only lays a theoretical foundation for further research, but also provides a clear ground for firms to improve their sustainable innovation.

  20. Investigating the influence of social desirability on personality factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, J E; Smith, D B; Sackett, P R

    2001-02-01

    This study provides a comprehensive investigation into whether social desirability alters the factor structure of personality measures. The study brought together 4 large data sets wherein different organizational samples responded to different personality measures. This facilitated conducting 4 separate yet parallel investigations. Within each data set, individuals identified through a social desirability scale as responding in an honest manner were grouped together, and individuals identified as responding in a highly socially desirable manner were grouped together. Using various analyses, the fit of higher order factor structure models was compared across the 2 groups. Results were the same for each data set. Social desirability had little influence on the higher order factor structures that characterized the relationships among the scales of the personality measures.

  1. Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacogenetic, and Other Factors Influencing CNS Penetration of Antiretrovirals

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    Jacinta Nwamaka Nwogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological complications associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are a matter of great concern. While antiretroviral (ARV drugs are the cornerstone of HIV treatment and typically produce neurological benefit, some ARV drugs have limited CNS penetration while others have been associated with neurotoxicity. CNS penetration is a function of several factors including sieving role of blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and activity of innate drug transporters. Other factors are related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the specific ARV agent or mediated by drug interactions, local inflammation, and blood flow. In this review, we provide an overview of the various factors influencing CNS penetration of ARV drugs with an emphasis on those commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa. We also summarize some key associations between ARV drug penetration, CNS efficacy, and neurotoxicity.

  2. Innovation types at smes and external influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Walicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulating innovation is one of the pressing policy challenges facing many countries in the world today. The paper analyses the external factors that Polish entrepreneurs find most detrimental to their innovative activity. A sample of 199 small and medium size enterprises (SMEs in Poland were subjected to a survey. The data collected revealed the innovation types of SMEs in Poland and external financial factors influencing innovation the most. The results show external factors such as legal regulations, access to external financing, bureaucracy of institutions, financial government support, the tax system, time necessary to comply with regulations, and crisis and instability are very important for SMEs. According to the results, process and marketing innovations are applied more frequently than product and organisational innovations. Finally, the results indicate that entrepreneurs indicate that lack of government support and weakness of tax incentives is an important barrier to the innovation process.

  3. Influence of saliva medium on freeing heavy metal ion from fixed dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalicanin, Biljana; Ajduković, Zorica

    2008-07-01

    In dental-prosthetic practice, various kinds of fixed dentures, crowns and bridges, have very often been used in order to replace natural teeth and to respond to all health and esthetic needs. This study investigated the effect of saliva medium on migration of ions of heavy metals from fixed dentures that were fixed with various cements. Also, the influence of saliva medium on natural human teeth was observed. Potentiometric stripping analysis was used in order to determine the content of toxic heavy metals in the examined samples. The study confirmed that synthetic saliva had no significant influence on heavy metal ion migration from the natural teeth, whereas slight migration of some observed toxic heavy metal ions from the fixed dentures was present. This, however, indicates that these contents, although very low, must be taken seriously, because the above mentioned metals have cumulative effect which after some period of time may lead to functional disorders of some organs, and even to some very serious diseases.

  4. Factors Influencing the Use of Prenatal Care: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Prenatal care is a key strategy for achieving public health goals, primary healthcare objectives, and the Millennium Development Goals. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the use of prenatal care services in order to design suitable interventions and promote the use of these services. Methods:In this systematic quantitative literature review, studies published in years 2010-2014 were evaluated. For this purpose, two international electronic databases, i.e., Scopus and PubMed, were explored to find English-language articles by using relevant keywords; moreover, the reference lists of the articles were hand-searched. We reviewed all cross-sectional and prospective studies, which focused on factors associated with the use of prenatal care services within the specified period of time. Results: In total, 17 relevant articles were included in our review. The results showed that late initiation and inadequate use of prenatal care services are independently associated with multiple variables, including demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, predisposing cultural and religious factors, social support, factors related to healthcare providers, women’s awareness and attitude, unintended pregnancy, high-risk medical or obstetric history, and health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the literature review, proper use of prenatal care cannot be achieved merely by establishing healthcare centers. Utilization of maternal health services may be achieved and improved via developing socioeconomic factors and addressing patients' basic needs including education and financial independence.

  5. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation.

  6. Monitoring athletes through self-report: factors influencing implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-03-01

    Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete's response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key pointsEffective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment.A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff.A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level.

  7. Factors influencing the choice of specialty of Australian medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary G; Gavel, Paul H; Young, Jeannette R

    2005-09-19

    To identify the relative importance of extrinsic determinants of doctors' choice of specialty. A self-administered postal questionnaire. Australian vocational training programs. 4259 Australian medical graduates registered in September 2002 with one of 16 Australian clinical colleges providing vocational training programs. Choice of specialist vocational training program; extrinsic factors influencing choice of program, and variation by sex, age, marital status and country of birth. In total, 79% of respondents rated "appraisal of own skills and aptitudes" as influential in their choice of specialty followed by "intellectual content of the specialty" (75%). Extrinsic factors rated as most influential were "work culture" (72%), "flexibility of working arrangements" (56%) and "hours of work" (54%). We observed variation across training programs in the importance ascribed to factors influencing choice of specialty, and by sex, age and marital status. Factors of particular importance to women, compared with men, were "appraisal of domestic circumstances" (odds ratio [OR], 1.9), "hours of work" (OR, 1.8) and "opportunity to work flexible hours" (OR, 2.6). Partnered doctors, compared with single doctors, rated "hours of work" and "opportunity to work flexible hours" as more important (OR, 1.3), while "domestic circumstances" was more important to doctors with children than those without children (OR, 1.7). In total, 80% of doctors had chosen their specialty by the end of the third year after graduation. Experience with discipline-based work cultures and working conditions occurs throughout medical school and the early postgraduate years, and most doctors choose their specialty during these years. It follows that interventions to influence doctors' choice of specialty need to target these critical years.

  8. Factors influencing behavior in the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, Olena V; Kanekar, Shami; D'Anci, Kristen E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-06-13

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral test in rodents which was developed in 1978 by Porsolt and colleagues as a model for predicting the clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A modified version of the FST added the classification of active behaviors into swimming and climbing, in order to facilitate the differentiation between serotonergic and noradrenergic classes of antidepressant drugs. The FST is now widely used in basic research and the pharmaceutical screening of potential antidepressant treatments. It is also one of the most commonly used tests to assess depressive-like behavior in animal models. Despite the simplicity and sensitivity of the FST procedure, important differences even in baseline immobility rates have been reported between different groups, which complicate the comparison of results across studies. In spite of several methodological papers and reviews published on the FST, the need still exists for clarification of factors which can influence the procedure. While most recent reviews have focused on antidepressant effects observed with the FST, this one considers the methodological aspects of the procedure, aiming to summarize issues beyond antidepressant action in the FST. The previously published literature is analyzed for factors which are known to influence animal behavior in the FST. These include biological factors, such as strain, age, body weight, gender and individual differences between animals; influence of preconditioning before the FST: handling, social isolation or enriched environment, food manipulations, various kinds of stress, endocrine manipulations and surgery; schedule and routes of treatment, dosage and type of the drugs as well as experimental design and laboratory environmental effects. Consideration of these factors in planning experiments may result in more consistent FST results.

  9. Development of realistic environmental release factors based on measured data: approach and lessons from the EU metal industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, Frederik A M; Van Assche, Frank; Hicks, Keegan; Mertens, Jelle; Voigt, Astrid; Verougstraete, Violaine

    2014-10-01

    The assessment of environmental exposure and risks associated with the production or use of a substance on an industrial site includes the estimation of the releases to the environment. In the absence of measured release data on the specific substance, a risk assessor would rely on default release factors to the environmental compartments as developed in international, national, or regional context. Because a wide variety of substances, processes, and uses has to be covered, default release factors are as a rule conservative, usually leading to significant overprediction of releases and hence to overpredicted environmental exposure concentrations and risks. In practice, unrealistic and worst-case predictions do not support a more efficient management of releases and risk. The objective of this article is to propose a more realistic approach to characterize the environmental releases from manufacture, processing, and downstream uses of the metals and their compounds. Although developed in the European Union (EU), this approach can also be used in other regions and in other chemical management systems addressing metals. A database consisting of more than 1300 recent (1993-2010), site-specific measured release factors to air and water of 18 different metals from various EU Member States was compiled and used to calculate average and reasonable worst-case release factors for multiple metal manufacture and industrial use processes. The parameters influencing releases to water were found to depend predominantly on life cycle step (manufacture and/or use), the sector and/or the solid-water partition coefficient (K(d)). The release factors can be used as advanced tier instrument in environmental safety assessments, increasing the realism of the estimates while still keeping a sufficient level of conservatism.

  10. Macrolevel factors of influence on industry competitiveness of Ukrainian regions

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    S.M. Tkach

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to identify processes and phenomena of macro level, which form current conditions of the industry competitiveness of Ukraine for working out practical recommendations of its innovation increasing. The results of the analysis. The influence of macro-environment on the industry competitiveness is shown. The main factors of industry competitiveness influence which issue on the national level (political, legal, economic, institutional, commercial, etc. are outlined. These factors are synergistically intertwined and form conditions of the industry competitiveness of regions. Considering the analysis of the results of international competitiveness rankings the author found out the following factors of lowering the competitive position of Ukraine: corruption, problematic access to business finance, inflation, political instability, tax burden, inefficient government bureaucracy and unstable exchange rate. On the basis of this, the trends of factors are explored over the past five years (2011-2015 and reasons of them are identified. The particular attention is paid to institutional factors as public-private partnership, state support of industrial development, features of the development of industrial parks in Ukraine and others. Moreover, the features of foreign policy of Ukraine and structure of exports of industrial goods are explored. The study demonstrated key macro threats in Ukraine. Practical recommendations of industry competitiveness increasing are given. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The development of Ukraine for the past five years (2011-2015 characterized by dynamic changes in all spheres of life. This affected the competitiveness of the country in general and its industry in particular. Macro-level influencing factors, which created unfavorable conditions for the formation of industrial competitiveness, are: macroeconomic instability and high levels of bureaucracy, corruption, lack of

  11. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism.

  12. [Factors influencing oral insurance among children in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chen; Yanyan, Zhang; Jinghu, Jiang; Jing-xian, Zhang; Xuepeng, Shan; Xing, Qu; Chengge, Hua

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the value of child oral health for Chengdu parents, their intentions, and factors influencing their decision to acquire oral insurance coverage for their childrens. A total of 562 Chengdu parents were interviewed using questionnaires by convenient sampling, and the results were analyzed using SPSS 20.0. The age of children (B = -1.741, P = 0.004), age of parents (B = 2.031, P = 0.003), level of oral discomfort (B = 0.569, P = 0.000), incurring/not incurring oral care expenses in the previous year (B = 1.897, P = 0.014), the last time parents' had teeth cleaned (B = 0.777, P = 0.006), and acquiring/not acquiring commercial insurance coverage (B = 1.632, P = 0.031) significantly influenced the intention of acquiring child oral insurance. Child oral health, health and insurance awareness of parents, and other factors influenced the intention of parents to purchase oral insurance coverage for their children, which were significant to establish pediatric dental insurance.

  13. Influence of electrostatic charging on the magnetic and other physical properties of thin metallic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.

    1971-01-01

    Electrical, superconducting and optical properties of thin metal films can be influenced by electrostatic charging. In the same way attempts have been made to change the saturation magnetization of ferromagnetic films, which was measured, e.g., with the torque method. Using the film as one plate of a capacitor torque changes are measured for different voltages. The torque changes are assumed to be caused by magnetization changes due to an altered electron concentration of the metal. The contribution of one unit charge to the magnetic moment was estimated to ca. /sup 1///sub 2/ mu/sub B/.

  14. [Influence of Dissimilatory Iron Reduction on the Speciation and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, You-bin; Wang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    Fe(III) dissimilatory reduction by microbes is an important process of producing energy in the oxidation of organic compounds under anaerobic condition with Fe(III) as the terminal electron acceptor and Fe(II) as the reduction product. This process is of great significance in element biogeochemical cycle. Iron respiration has been described as one of the most ancient forms of microbial metabolism on the earth, which is bound up with material cycle in water, soil and sediments. Dissimilatory iron reduction plays important roles in heavy metal form transformation and the remediation of heavy metal and radionuclide contaminated soils. In this paper, we summarized the research progress of iron reduction in the natural environment, and discussed the influence and the mechanism of dissimilatory iron reduction on the speciation and bioavailability of heavy metals in soil. The effects of dissimilatory iron reduction on the speciation of heavy metals may be attributed to oxidation and reduction, methytation and immobilization of heavy metals in relation to their bioavailability in soils. The mechanisms of Fe(III) dissimilatory reduction on heavy metal form transformation contain biological and chemical interactions, but the mode of interaction remains to be further investigated.

  15. General Adjustment Influence Factor of Malaysian Construction Expatriates Executives Abroad

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    Zainol Halmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of Malaysian construction companies creates an opportunity to explore abroad. Past studies have shown that the difficulty of expatriates in adjusting to a new environment is the main aspect that leads to failure of assignments. The success in implementing an overseas assignment does not solely depend on an expatriate’s technical expertise. The adjustment issues such as the interaction with the host nationals, and adaptability to the host country’s culture also exert influence on the assignment. The research was conducted to identify the influence of executive expatriate general adjustment on assignment in host countries. The objective of the study was to identify adjustment influence factors relating to general adjustment abroad. Questionnaires were sent to Malaysian expatriate executives. Sixty four Malaysian expatriate executives from Malaysian construction companies overseas were involved in this study. The findings show interaction, social and living environment influences their adjustment during expatriation. Pre-departure training preparation aspects for expatriates is a good step before their departure to host countries.

  16. Magnitude and influencing factors of parasomnia in schoolchildren

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    Choudhury Habibur Rasul

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasomnias are undesirable events occurring in the sleep-wake transition period. Several predisposing factors are reported to induce parasomnia in preschool children. Objective To estimate the magnitude of parasomnia in school children and to evaluate its relationship with possible predisposing factors. Methods Five hundred children aged 5-16 years from a boys’ school and a girls’ school in Khulna City, Bangladesh, were randomly selected for the study conducted from July to December 2011. The survey was done in two steps: self-administered questionnaire and clinical interviews of affected students and their parents. Apart from demographic features, questionnaires included details of perinatal and personal factors as well as familial and socioeconomic factors. The diagnoses of variants of parasomnias was based on the criteria for category-based classification by the American Academy of Sleep Mmedicine. Results Seven hundred thirteen filled questionnaires revealed parasomnia in 187 (26.2% children. Most parasomnias were accompanied by other sleep disorders, in which 23 (12.3% having primary dyssomnias including 18 (9.3% obstructive sleep apnea, and 10 (5.3% parasomnias with hypersomnias. Nightmares (7.4% were highest among the parasomnias followed by nocturnal enuresis (4.1% and sleep terrors (3.4%. More girls experienced parasomnias than boys (107/360 vs. 80/353, respectively; P=0.039. Perinatal factors such as problems during pregnancy (17.1% or eventful delivery (25.7%, and socioeconomic factors such as familial disharmony (11.8% and low socioeconomic level (31.6% had positive associations with parasomnia. Conclusion One-quarter of school children experience parasomnia. We found perinatal factors particularly problem during pregnancy, and socioeconomic factors particularly familial disharmony have significant influences on this condition. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:339-45.].

  17. Influencing factors of mental health of medical students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xin-hao; Liu, Zhuo; Luo, Ai; Feng, Zhan-chun

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the mental health status of medical students in China, and analyzed the influencing factors in order to provide evidence for mental health education for medical students. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit medical students from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. The questionnaire survey on general information and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used for investigation and analysis. The results showed among the 1137 valid questionnaires, 278 (24.45%) participants had SCL-90 score ≥ 160. The top three mental problems of medical students were obsessive-compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity and depression in terms of the factor score ≥ 2.5 and the number of participants who reflected on the diseases. The third-year medical students had the worst mental health status, and fifth-year medical students had the best mental health status. Students from rural area had more psychological problems than those from urban area; furthermore, students with high professional satisfaction, those who were the single child of the family, non-poor students, and those whose parents had high education level had better mental health status. It was concluded that the mental health of medical students is not optimistic in China. Medical students have some mental health problems of different degrees. Factors that influence the mental health of medical students include academic pressure, professional satisfaction level and family environment.

  18. Expecting success: Factors influencing ninth graders' science self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Elizabeth

    What factors influence ninth grade students' expectations for success in science? Using social cognitive theory and bioecological systems theory as theoretical frameworks, this dissertation employs data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) to examine the relative impact of teacher practices and their perceived attitudes on students' science self-efficacy. Further, as they relate to this broader issue, the relative impact of student subjective task value and teacher characteristics is also investigated. It has been well documented that U.S. students are not achieving at satisfactory levels in science. Education policy has focused on improving science teacher quality as one way to address this problem. Teacher effectiveness has been primarily measured by student achievement on standardized tests. However, not enough attention has been given to the social cognitive factors that can lead to increased achievement and persistence in science as well as how teachers may influence these factors. This study interrogates the relationship between student and teacher variables and the social cognitive construct of self-efficacy, which has proven to have a significant impact on student achievement and persistence in science. Findings add to the current literature surrounding ways that educators may increase student performance in science by employing policies and practices that benefit the development of student science self-efficacy.

  19. Factors influencing the outcome of embryo freezing and Ihawing program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 金帆; 徐晨明; 邢兰凤

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors that might influence the sucess of an ernbryo freezing and thawing program.Method: The relationship between the pregnancy rate in 73 cycles of embryo freezing and thewing program and the following factors was analyzed;matermal age,E2 level at the time of HCG trigger,embryo storage time,number of thawed embryos transferred,presence of sponsoring embryos and intact embryos.And the suvival rate of thawed embryos with different morphology,cell stage and storage time was evaluated.Result:Transfer with three of more than three thawed embryos resulted in pragnancy rates of 38.5% and 35.7%,respectively.compared with 5.3% for transfer of fewer than three embryos.The presence of sponsoring embryos and intact embryos significantly incresses pregnancy rate in embryo freezing and thawing program .No other factor examined had any effect on pregnancy outcome.The survival rate of good morphology embryos was higher than poor ones,but was not influenced by cell stage and storage time.Conclusion:Embryo morphology before freezing , number of thawed embryos transferred and the presence of intact embryos are important to the outcome of embryo freezing and thawing program.

  20. A Broad Set of Chromatin Factors Influences Splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Eric; Myers, Michael P.; Garcia-Bernardo, Jose; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Krainer, Adrian R.; Muchardt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Several studies propose an influence of chromatin on pre-mRNA splicing, but it is still unclear how widespread and how direct this phenomenon is. We find here that when assembled in vivo, the U2 snRNP co-purifies with a subset of chromatin-proteins, including histones and remodeling complexes like SWI/SNF. Yet, an unbiased RNAi screen revealed that the outcome of splicing is influenced by a much larger variety of chromatin factors not all associating with the spliceosome. The availability of this broad range of chromatin factors impacting splicing further unveiled their very context specific effect, resulting in either inclusion or skipping, depending on the exon under scrutiny. Finally, a direct assessment of the impact of chromatin on splicing using an in vitro co-transcriptional splicing assay with pre-mRNAs transcribed from a nucleosomal template, demonstrated that chromatin impacts nascent pre-mRNP in their competence for splicing. Altogether, our data show that numerous chromatin factors associated or not with the spliceosome can affect the outcome of splicing, possibly as a function of the local chromatin environment that by default interferes with the efficiency of splicing. PMID:27662573

  1. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study will be useful to both managers in the auto industry as well as policy makers. It will help managers in the auto industry to gain a better understanding of consumer intentions and identify the factors which influence them. Policy makers in Pakistan’s auto sector would benefit from the insights of this study when developing the long overdue Auto Policy. Analysis of the data collected has revealed that the three key factors identified from studies in other Asian countries are also relevant for Pakistani auto consumers.

  2. Factors influencing quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ronald V; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2013-02-16

    Recent technological advances in colonoscopy have led to improvements in both image enhancement and procedural performance. However, the utility of these technological advancements remain dependent on the quality of bowel preparation during colonoscopy. Poor bowel preparation has been shown to be associated with lower quality indicators of colonoscopy performance, such as reduced cecal intubation rates, increased patient discomfort and lower adenoma detection. The most popular bowel preparation regimes currently used are based on either Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte, a non-absorbable solution, or aqueous sodium phosphate, a low-volume hyperosmotic solution. Statements from various international societies and several reviews have suggested that the efficacy of bowel preparation regimes based on both purgatives are similar, although patients' compliance with these regimes may differ somewhat. Many studies have now shown that factors other than the type of bowel preparation regime used, can influence the quality of bowel preparation among adult patients undergoing colonoscopy. These factors can be broadly categorized as either patient-related or procedure-related. Studies from both Asia and the West have identified patient-related factors such as an increased age, male gender, presence of co-morbidity and socio-economic status of patients to be associated with poor bowel preparation among adults undergoing routine out-patient colonoscopy. Additionally, procedure-related factors such as adherence to bowel preparation instructions, timing of bowel purgative administration and appointment waiting times for colonoscopy are recognized to influence the quality of colon cleansing. Knowledge of these factors should aid clinicians in modifying bowel preparation regimes accordingly, such that the quality of colonoscopy performance and delivery of service to patients can be optimised.

  3. Factors influencing power hand tool fastening accuracy and reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwin, Robert G; Chourasia, Amrish O; Howery, Robert S; Fronczak, Frank J; Yen, Thomas Y; Subedi, Yashpal; Sesto, Mary E

    2014-06-01

    A laboratory study investigated the relationship between power hand tool and task-related factors affecting threaded fastener torque accuracy and associated handle reaction force. We previously developed a biodynamic model to predict handle reaction forces. We hypothesized that torque accuracy was related to the same factors that affect operator capacity to react against impulsive tool forces, as predicted by the model. The independent variables included tool (pistol grip on a vertical surface, right angle on a horizontal surface), fastener torque rate (hard, soft), horizontal distance (30 cm and 60 cm), and vertical distance (80 cm, 110 cm, and 140 cm). Ten participants (five male and five female) fastened 12 similar bolts for each experimental condition. Average torque error (audited - target torque) was affected by fastener torque rate and operator position. Torque error decreased 33% for soft torque rates, whereas handle forces greatly increased (170%). Torque error also decreased for the far horizontal distance 7% to 14%, when vertical distance was in the middle or high, but handle force decreased slightly 3% to 5%. The evidence suggests that although both tool and task factors affect fastening accuracy, they each influence handle reaction forces differently. We conclude that these differences are attributed to different parameters each factor influences affecting the dynamics of threaded faster tool operation. Fastener torque rate affects the tool dynamics, whereas posture affects the spring-mass-damping biodynamic properties of the human operator. The prediction of handle reaction force using an operator biodynamic model may be useful for codifying complex and unobvious relationships between tool and task factors for minimizing torque error while controlling handle force.

  4. Factors influencing dissipation of avermectins in sheep faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virant Celestina, Tina; Kolar, Lucija; Gobec, Ivan; Kuzner, Jernej; Flajs, Vesna Cerkvenik; Pogacnik, Milan; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh

    2010-01-01

    Factors influencing fate of avermectins (abamectin, doramectin) in faeces of treated sheep were investigated under different experimental conditions. In the laboratory, concentrations of both avermectins were declined in homogenised faeces of treated animals until day 14 of exposure, regardless of experimental conditions. After that day, no significant decrease in concentrations was observed till the end of the experiment. Established DT(50) did not exceed 9 days. In the karst pasture, an average DT(50) of 27 days was established for abamectin and 23 days for doramectin in natural faeces of treated sheep. In the compost mixture, doramectin concentration was decreased by 38.9+/-2.6% during 21 days of the thermophilic phase of composting. Therefore, DT(50) was not established. A possible influence of moisture content of sheep faeces on concentrations of avermectins was observed.

  5. Neutralising fair credit: factors that influence unethical authorship practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkle, Brad S; Phillips, Trisha; Hall, Alicia; Moffatt, Barton

    2017-01-31

    This study experimentally tests whether the techniques of neutralisation as identified in the criminal justice literature influence graduate student willingness to engage in questionable research practices (QRPs). Our results indicate that US-born graduate students are more willing to add an undeserved coauthor if the person who requests it is a faculty member in the student's department as opposed to a fellow student. Students are most likely to add an undeserving author if a faculty member is also their advisor. In addition, four techniques of neutralisation, 'diffusion of responsibility', 'defence of necessity', 'advantageous comparison' and 'euphemistic labelling', are associated with student willingness to act unethically. Participants who had received responsible conduct of research training were no less likely to commit the violation than those who had not. Knowledge of these influencing factors for QRPs will provide for opportunities to improve research ethics education strategies and materials.

  6. Factors Influencing Pap Screening Use Among African Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboyega, Adebola; Hatcher, Jennifer

    2016-07-28

    Papanicolau (Pap) screenings disparities exist for immigrant women in the United States. This study sought to have an understanding of factors influencing Pap screening among sub-Saharan African immigrant women. This is a qualitative descriptive study. Women were recruited from the community and by word of mouth following institutional review board approval. Data were gathered through in-depth focus group and demographic questionnaires. Interview sessions were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Twenty-two women aged 24 to 65 years were interviewed. Barriers to screening included low knowledge of screening, cost, cultural beliefs, fear and communication issues. Motivators to improve Pap use include provider's recommendations, enlightenment, and family support. Interventions addressing the barriers peculiar to this population may alleviate these barriers and improve Pap screening use in this population. Providers have the opportunity to influence screening attitudes of African-born women by providing awareness and patient-targeted interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Mechanisms and Factors that Influence High Frequency Retroviral Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Delviks-Frankenberry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity of the recombination process, and evaluates the subsequent viral diversity and fitness of the progeny recombinant. Specifically, the high mutation rates and high recombination frequencies of HIV-1 will be analyzed for their roles in influencing HIV-1 global diversity, as well as HIV-1 diagnosis, drug treatment, and vaccine development.

  8. Exploring Factors Influencing the Adoption of Mobile Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Bhatti,

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an extended technology acceptance model that integrates innovation diffusion theory to investigate what determine user mobile commerce acceptance. This paper models the factors relationships such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, personal innovativene ss, subjective norms, behavioral control and intention to adopt mobile commerce. The proposed model was empirically tested using data collected from a survey of mobile commerce consumers. Empirical data from regression analysis reflects users ease of use influence behavioral intention to adopt mobile commerce. The majority of positive relationships between perceived ease of use, subjective norms, behavioral control and intention to adopt are supported by empirical data. Results also reveal that behavioral control and subjective norms influence perceived ease of use which affects then their adoption intention. The paper concludes some important implications for the practitioners.

  9. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career. METHODS: Candidates commencing BST training during a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008 were included in a quantitative study. In addition a total of 2,536 candidates, representing all those who commenced surgical training in Ireland since 1960 were identified through the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) database and invited to complete an online survey. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15, with p < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: During the 5-year quantitative study period there were 381 BST trainees. Gender was a significant predictor of career choice with women more likely to ultimately choose a nonsurgical career after initial surgical training (p = 0.049). Passing surgical membership examinations (MRCS) also was predictive of remaining in surgery (p = 0.005). Training region was not a significant predictor of ultimate career choice. There were 418 survey respondents. The influence of role models was most commonly cited as influencing candidates in choosing to commence surgical training. Candidates who rated "academic opportunity" (p = 0.023) and "intellectual challenge" (p = 0.047) as factors that influenced their decision to commence surgical training were more likely to ultimately continue their careers in a surgical speciality. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the career pathway of surgical trainees and confirms the importance of academic achievement in discriminating between candidates applying for surgical training schemes.

  10. Career decisions: factors that influence the Māori doctor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C; Edmonds, L; Leroy, J; Reith, D

    2014-06-01

    Māori have known health disparities that may be addressed through increasing the cultural competency of New Zealand's medical workforce. There is a paucity of Māori health professionals choosing paediatrics or adult medicine as a career and the factors influencing their career decision are yet to be explored. First, to differentiate factors influencing the medical career choice of non-Māori paediatricians and physicians, Māori paediatricians and physicians and other Māori doctors. Second, to identify ways in which Māori doctors may be encouraged to choose paediatricians or adult medicine. A questionnaire was distributed by email to New Zealand physicians and paediatricians and to Māori doctors. Questions included demographic information, a matrix rating table and open-ended questions. Altogether 199 people accessed the questionnaire. Response rates were 9% (n = 118) for non-Māori paediatricians and physicians, 70% (n = 19) for Māori paediatricians and physicians, and 31% (n = 62) for other Māori doctors. Māori paediatricians and physicians highlighted mentoring as having significant impact on career choice. Non-Māori paediatricians and physicians regarded interest as having the most influence on career choice (P doctors (P < 0.001). All three groups regarded poor lifestyle as having the largest negative influence. No group regarded potential income as important. Mentoring provides an opportunity to attract Māori into paediatric and adult physician training. The use of existing mentoring programmes could facilitate in expanding Māori RACP workforce development. This extended Māori workforce would have benefits for the health of New Zealand as a whole. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  11. Factors which influence on the development of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Raiko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of this article is to analyze the tendencies in the main indicators of business activity in the machine-building industry of Ukraine, and to systemize the factors (such as use of fixed assets, resources, liquid assets, human resources, innovations, investment processes, information technology, marketing activities, consumer feedback. Those factors comprehensively take into account all facets of an enterprise's activity, reflect the interests of the shareholders, staff, consumers, partners, do not contradict the interests of the enterprise, the region and the state, immediately corresponds to previously neglected features of the enterprise development from the viewpoint of marketing. Marketing is the basis that connects the subjects, provides information interaction, resolute conflicts that arise in the enterprise dealings with its most important stakeholders, which are partners and consumers. The results of the analysis. To develop proposals on the influence of various factors on the development of industrial enterprises (in particular, its marketing activities, it is helpful to analyze the specific features of the machine-building enterprise day to day activities in Ukraine. In this research we’ve analyzed 40 Ukrainian industrial enterprises from different regions of the country. These companies represent different sectors of the industry. They mostly specialize in energy, transport, agricultural and electrical machine- and instrument-building. To evaluate the influence of factors we conducted a survey among the managers of industrial enterprises and selected the following groups of factors: use of fixed assets, material assets, financial (liquid assets, human resources, innovations, investment processes, information technology, marketing activity, consumer feedback. We analyzed these data using regression methods (including the method of partial least squares and identified the relationship and influence of

  12. E-COMMERCE FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMERS‘ ONLINE SHOPPING DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Baubonienė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to look at the factors driving online shopping and to develop an understanding of the factors influencing the online shopping by the consumers. This is done by exploring the factors that encourage consumers to shop online through analysis of such advantages as security, fast delivery, comparable price, convenience, cheaper prices and a wider choice. At the same time, the research project reveals the factors that are discouraging for consumers and the benefits received by buyers making purchases online. Specifically, the research explores how online shopping can be affected by such factors as age, gender or occupation. Design/methodology/approach – The factors that affect the consumer online shopping have been disclosed through quantitative research by analysing data collected via a web‐based questionnaire survey. The sample consisted of 183 Lithuanian consumers who were purchasing online. Findings –The empirical findings of this study indicate that the main factors influencing consumers to shop online are convenience, simplicity and better price. Analysis of socio-demographical characteristics such as gender has shown that men shop more often online because of the lower price. Respondents of the 25–35 year age group more often choose shopping online for such reasons as lack of time and a wide range of products. The most beneficial factor of shopping online was identified as a possibility to compare prices and buy at a lower price. Research limitations/implications – This study was done regarding only general conditions and the findings may not necessarily be applicable to a particular e-business. Therefore, in the future it would be highly encouraged to examine consumers’ attitudes towards specialized online shopping websites to look for differences by kind of products or services.Practical implications – Attributes identified by this study could help e-business developers to forme their

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING ADOPTION DECISIONS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Ayodeji Fadare

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The needs to develop improved varieties of maize have been in the heart of various researchers and institutions in Nigeria because of its strategic role in tackling food insecurity and poverty. Despite substantial efforts to improve maize varieties, the level of adoption of improved maize varieties (IMV in Nigeria in still very low. Although previous adoption studies have indicated a number of socioeconomic and institutional/organizational variables as important factors influencing adoption of improved maize (crop varieties in the country, whether these factors are the main issues of concern, and whether the inclusion of regional/agro-ecological variables in adoption model are also important in explaining what could drive farmers’ adoption behaviour requires investigation. This study therefore examined factors influencing adoption of IMV among farmers in Nigeria using a selected portion of the Nigeria Living Standard Measurement Survey data collected by the National Bureau of Statistics and the World Bank for 2010/2011 cropping season with descriptive statistics and probit model as tools for data analysis. The results suggest, in line with some previous studies, that farm size, education level of farmers and access to extension services would significantly influence adoption of IMV. The results also indicate that farmers across the entire agro-ecological regions of country share some negative sentiments regarding adoption of IMV. Renewed emphasis on interventions that would enable farmers gain more access to farmland, and promote formal education and extension service are advocated. An attempt to incorporate variables that capture farmers’ perception/experience on agroclimatic/ ecologically related concerns in adoption study could aid better understand of what drives farmers’ adoption decisions across the country especially in the light of the emerging climate change issues and its implication on food production.

  14. Factors Influencing the Use of CSs in Oral Tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丽

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays,along with the rapid development of globalization and communication among all countries in the world,almost all trades and professions demand people who are able to use a foreign language effectively as an essential tool for meaningful communication,which raises practical requirement for foreign language education and research around the world.CS has gained increasing attentions in the field of applied linguistics particularly since the late 70s.It is necessary to analyze the factors influencing the use of CSs in oral tasks in order to enhance the learners’communicative competence.

  15. [Risk factors influencing the development of gastroduodenal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orobeĭ, Iu A; Lazebnik, L B; Nikolaeva, É I; Selivanova, G B

    2010-01-01

    Bleedings of an ulcerative aetiology are an actual and multiplane problem many years. Obvious communication of the complicated current of a peptic ulcer with various risk factors, such as a tobacco smoking, abusing alcohol, uncontrolled and long reception of ulcerogenic agents (NSAID, anticoagulants etc.), mucosa of stomach H. pylori, is noted by a serious accompanying pathology of other organs and systems. The knowledge of influence of interaction of the facts of risk on development bleedings of an ulcerative aetiology, will allow to develop in due time the complex of medical actions referred on prevention of this terrible complication.

  16. Identification of Factors Influencing Third Birth Transition in Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Singh N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The third birth transition has a negative impact on the national goal of fertility replacement level (2.1 which is to be achieved by 2010. To identify the factors influencing the demographic phenomenon, a cross sectional as well as community based study consisting of 1397 eligible women was conducted in the four valley districts of Manipur under cluster sampling scheme. Analysing the empirical information through SPSS, 42% of the study subjects transit their 3rd birth and its major determinants could be detected to be sex preference, age at marriage, and educational level each at 0.01 probability level of significance.

  17. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...... disease seems to be influenced by age, gender, drinking pattern and type of alcohol....

  18. The Influence Factors of the BZ Oscillating Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XiuHui; GAO JinZhang

    2001-01-01

    @@ As a typical oscillating chemical reaction, studies of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction have not only yielded important results to provide insights to many kinetic and thermodynamic problems, but also provided suggestive models for a number of important biological processes. Now the BZ reaction has become a useful experimental model for studying nonlinear phenomena in distributed systems. We carried out a systematic study of the influence factors on the BZ reaction in a closed system, and some new observations are reported here forthe first time.

  19. Factors influencing trace element composition in human teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Iyengar, G.V. [Biomineral Sciences International, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature published in or after 1978 for 45 major, minor, and trace elements in human teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various factors that influence the concentration levels of certain trace elements in human teeth. The sampling practices and analytical techniques that are applicable for trace element analysis are also discussed. It is also our intention to identify reference range of values, where data permit such conclusions. The scrutiny was designed to identify only the healthy permanent teeth, and values from teeth with fillings, caries, or periodontal diseases were eliminated.

  20. Structures of d4 MH3X: a computational study of the influence of the metal and the ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblador-Bahamonde, Amalia I; Raynaud, Christophe; Eisenstein, Odile

    2012-05-21

    Density functional theory (DFT, PBE0, and range separated DFT, RSH + MP2) and coupled-cluster with single and double and perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)) calculations have been used to probe the structural preference of d(4) MH(3)X(q) (M = Ru, Os, Rh(+), Ir(+), and Re(-); X = H, F, CH(3), CF(3), SiH(3), and SiF(3)) and of MX(4) (M = Ru; X = H, F, CH(3), CF(3), SiH(3), and SiF(3)). Landis et al. have shown that complexes in which the metal is sd(3) hybridized have tetrahedral and non-tetrahedral structures with shapes of an umbrella or a 4-legged piano stool. In this article, the influence of the metal and ligands on the energies of the three isomeric structures of d(4) MH(3)X and MX(4) is established and rationalized. Fluoride and alkyl ligands stabilize the tetrahedral relative to non-tetrahedral structures while hydride and silyl ligands stabilize the non-tetrahedral structures. For given ligands and charge, 4d metal favors more the non-tetrahedral structures than 5d metals. A positive charge increases the preference for the non-tetrahedral structures while a negative charge increases the preference for the tetrahedral structure. The factors that determine these energy patterns are discussed by means of a molecular orbital analysis, based on Extended Hückel (EHT) calculations, and by means of Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analyses of charges and resonance structures (NRT analysis). These analyses show the presence of through-space interactions in the non-tetrahedral structures that can be sufficiently stabilizing, for specific metals and ligands, to stabilize the non-tetrahedral structures relative to the tetrahedral isomer.

  1. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    . However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have...... first investigated PGF variability in two cohorts focusing on non-genetic risk factors: a study sample from two isolated villages in the Cilento region, South Italy (N=871) and a replication sample from the general Danish population (N=1,812). A significant difference in PGF mean levels was found...... between the two cohorts. However, in both samples, we observed a strong correlation of PGF levels with ageing and sex, men displaying PGF levels significantly higher than women. Interestingly, smoking was also found to influence the trait in the two populations, although differently. We have then focused...

  2. Influence of heavy metals occurrence on respiratory activity of microorganisms in the compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the influence of selected heavy metals, copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc and cadmium on respiratory activity of microorganisms during the composting process. We focused on comparing the respiratory activity of microorganisms in the compost after composting process in the presence of different concentrations of above mentioned metals and the measured results were confronted with the valid Czech standard for industrial composts. The results show that the high inhibitory effect at low concentrations, about 1 mg/dm3, has cobalt, for which the limit concentration is no set by Czech standard. Other heavy metals exhibit an inhibitory effect at concentrations higher than maximum allowable concentration, which is set in Czech standard for compost class I and II, with regard to their application to agricultural land.

  3. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav; Shukurov, Nosir; Steinberger, Yosef

    2008-03-01

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices.

  4. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...

  5. A study on ranking ethical factors influencing customer loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Modiri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommending brand to others, positive attitude toward brand and cognitive loyalty to brand. These criteria have been ranked using fuzzy analytical network process. The study determines 14 different ethical values, which may play essential role on customer loyalty and using VIKOR, different ethical values are ranked. The study indicates that welcoming customers is the most important factor followed by cheerfulness, on time delivery, being informative and having appropriate standards.

  6. Factors influencing the treatment of posterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittivej, Kittimasak; Prompaet, Sureeporn; Rojanasthien, Sattaya

    2005-10-01

    The primary objective was to determine the factors which influence the requirement of surgical treatment of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury. Ninety one PCL injured patients diagnosed in the "Sports Medicine Clinic", Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital from January 1998 to December 2000 were included in the present study. There were 63 males and 28 females with an average age of 29 years. All of the PCL-insufficient knees were initially treated by non-operative method including 3 phases of rehabilitation. They were followed through to the end of December 2003. Analysis showed that the degree of posterior laxity was the only factor that had a statistical significant correlation to failure of conservative treatment. In addition, the need for surgical treatment was not associated with gender age, cause of injury, and concomitant of injury. The authors concluded that PCL injured patients with posterior laxity greater than 10 millimeters should be treated by PCL reconstruction.

  7. Factors influencing consumers' selection of a primary care physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, Teresa A; Butler, E Sonny; McGlone, Vernon L

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature regarding patient choice of health care plans, patient satisfaction, and patient evaluation of health care quality, but there is little information concerning the factors that influence the initial selection of a primary care physician (PCP). This exploratory study identifies and conceptualizes the physician selection dimensions which include: physician reputation/manner, physician record, physician search, consumer self-awareness, physician location, physician qualifications, physician demographics, office atmospherics, house calls/insurance, and valuing patient opinion. The study also develops and tests a scale for PCP selection using factor analysis which is demonstrated to be valid, and determines significant differences of variables, which include education level, gender, and age, using a summated scale. The study is of use to physicians in their targeting and communication strategies, and to researchers seeking to refine the scale.

  8. The factors that influence customer e-services adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamisha Persad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the investigation into customer e-service adoption. The investigation includes a qualitative survey and observation of participants using e-services. E-services are used to attract customers and persuade them to transact online and the customer’s perception of an e-service contributes greatly to e-service adoption or rejection. This paper describes the factors that influence customer perception towards e-services. Relationships between the identified factors were also considered in order to build a conceptual framework. Grounded theory was used for its flexibility, repetitive comparisons of data, and emergence of concepts and theories.

  9. The Stakeholders’ Views on Factors Influencing Nutrition Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Sicinska, Ewa; de Wit, Liesbeth;

    2015-01-01

    ) participated in the study. The remaining interviewees represented non-governmental organisations (n=6), industry (n=4) or were independent academic or health professional experts (n=5). Data were analysed by theoretical interpretative thematic analysis. Insights from interviewees on the development...... of micronutrient policies were grouped using the Public Health Nutrition Policy-making model. The main factors infl uencing the micronutrient policies were: systematic monitoring of nutrition and health, causal relationships between consumers’ diet-related behaviours and health outcomes, scientific recommendations...... engagement, relationships between stakeholders (Policy and institutions area). The spectrum and weight of the factors influencing nutritional policy depends on nutrient, country and degree of its “advanced status” within nutrition policy, political environment, culture and socio-economic conditions as well...

  10. Influence of metallic vapours on thermodynamic and transport properties of two-temperature air plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Linlin; Wang, Xiaohua; Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Rong, Mingzhe

    2016-09-01

    The metallic vapours (i.e., copper, iron, and silver in this paper) resulting from walls and/or electrode surfaces can significantly affect the characteristics of air plasma. Different from the previous works assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium, this paper investigates the influence of metallic vapours on two-temperature (2 T) air plasma. The 2 T compositions of air contaminated by Cu, Fe, and Ag are first determined based on Saha's and Guldberg-Waage's laws. The thermodynamic properties (including mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat) are then calculated according to their definitions. After determining the collision integrals for each pair of species in air-metal mixtures using the newly published methods and source data, the transport coefficients (including electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) are calculated for air-Cu, air-Fe, and air-Ag plasmas with different non-equilibrium degree θ (Te/Th). The influences of metallic contamination as well as non-equilibrium degree are discussed. It is found that copper, iron, and silver exist mainly in the form of Cu2, FeO, and AgO at low temperatures. Generally, the metallic vapours increase mass density at most temperatures, reduce the specific enthalpy and specific heat in the whole temperature range, and affect the transport properties remarkably from 5000 K to 20 000 K. The effect arising from the type of metals is little except for silver at certain temperatures. Besides, the departure from thermal equilibrium results in the delay of dissociation and ionization reactions, leading to the shift of thermodynamic and transport properties towards a higher temperature.

  11. Influence of lifestyle factors on mammographic density in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Brand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT, little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. METHODS: We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI and HRT was studied. RESULTS: Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07. This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06: increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01 but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82. A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04. No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk.

  12. Influence of Inclusion Shape on Thermoelasto-Plastic Optimun Design of Ceramic Metal Functionally Graded Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A nonlinear finite element method is applied to observe how inclusion shape influence the thermal response of a ceramic-metal functionally graded material (FGM).The elastic and plastic behaviors of the layers which are two-phase isotropic composites consisting of randomly oriented elastic spheroidal inclusions and a ductile matrix are predicted by a mean field method.The prediction results show that inclusion shape has remarkable influence on the overall behavior of the composite.The consequences of the thermal response analysis of the FGM are that the response is dependent on inclusion shape and its composition profile cooperatively and that the plastic behavior of each layer should be taken into account in optimum design of a ceramic-metal FGM.

  13. Heavy metals and arsenic fixation into freshwater organic matter under Gammarus pulex L. influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaller, Joerg, E-mail: schaller@forst.tu-dresden.d [Dresden University of Technology, D-01062, Dresden (Germany); Institute of General Ecology and Environmental Protection, Tharandt 01737 (Germany); Mkandawire, Martin [Dresden University of Technology, D-01062, Dresden (Germany); Institute of General Ecology and Environmental Protection, Tharandt 01737 (Germany); Institute of Material Sciences, Dresden (Germany); Gert Dudel, E. [Dresden University of Technology, D-01062, Dresden (Germany); Institute of General Ecology and Environmental Protection, Tharandt 01737 (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Organic sediments are a main sink for metal pollutants in aquatic systems. However, factors that make sediments a sink of metals and metalloids are still not clear. Consequently, we investigate the role of invertebrate shredders (Gammarus pulex L.) on quality of metal and arsenic fixation into organic partitions of sediment in the course of litter decay with laboratory microcosm experiments. During the decomposition of leaf litter, G. pulex significantly facilitated the development of small particles of organic matter. The capacity of metal fixation was significantly higher in smaller particles than leaf litter and litter residuals. Thus, G. pulex enhanced metal fixation into the organic partition of sediments by virtue of increasing the amount smaller particles in the aquatic system. Furthermore, invertebrates have a significant effect on formation of dissolved organic matter and remobilization of cobalt, molybdenum and cesium, but no significant effect on remobilization of all other measured elements. - G. pulex enhanced metal fixation into the organic partition of sediments by virtue of increasing the amount of smaller particles in the aquatic system.

  14. Metals in albatross feathers from Midway Atoll: Influence of species, age, and nest location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    2000-03-01

    In this paper the authors examine the concentrations of metals (heavy metals, mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese, tin; and metalloids, arsenic and selenium), in the down and contour (body) feathers of half-grown young albatrosses, and contour feathers of one of their parents. They collected feathers from Laysan Diomedea immutabilis and black-footed Diomedea nigripes albatrosses from Midway Atoll in the central Pacific Ocean. The authors test the null hypotheses that there is no difference in metal levels as a function of species, age, feather type, and location on the island. Using linear regression they found significant models accounting for the variation in the concentrations of mercury, lead, cadmium, selenium, chromium, and manganese (but not arsenic or tin) as a function of feather type (all metals), collection location (all metals but lead), species (selenium only), and interactions between these factors. Most metals (except mercury, arsenic, and tin) were significantly higher in down than in the contour feathers of either chicks or adults. Comparing the two species, black-footed albatross chicks had higher levels of most elements (except arsenic) in their feathers and/or down. Black-footed adults had significantly higher levels of mercury and selenium. They also collected down and feathers from Laysan albatross chicks whose nests were close to buildings, including buildings with flaking lead paint and those that had been lead-abated.

  15. Influence of galvano-ceramic and metal-ceramic crowns on magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dong-ping; WU Guang-yao; WANG Yi-ning

    2010-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is prone to be deformed by artifacts caused by the presence of metallic materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the artifacts from galvano-ceramic and metal-ceramic crowns in MRI, in order to analyze their influences on diagnostic interpretation of MRI.Methods Galvano-ceramic and metal-ceramic crowns (Bio98, Wiron99, SP-78, BioKC97) were fabricated with the same model. All materials were imaged by means of 1.5T MRI apparatus with three different sequences, T1-weighted spin-echo (T1-weighted SE), T2-weighted spin-echo (T2-weighted SE) and Gradient echo (GE). Mean and standard deviation of distilled water signal intensity (SI) around the sample in the region of interest (500 mm~2) enclosing the whole artifacts were determined, and compared for evaluation of the homogeneity of signal intensity. Images around the sample were acquired and evaluated.Results There were statistically significant differences in the values of signal intensity between acrylic resin control and BioKC97, Wiron99 in the three sequences (P0.05). Images showed that the greatest artifact was a 25 mm ring with distortion in Wiron99 in GE sequence.Conclusions This in vitro study suggested that galvano-ceramic crown had no influence on the MRI, while metal-ceramic crowns caused moderate artifacts in the MRI. Therefore, galvano-ceramic restoration is a valuable alternative in dentistry.

  16. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

  17. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Vijay

    Full Text Available The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

  18. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:26305698

  19. Exploring the Influence of Environmental Factors on Bacterial Communities within the Rhizosphere of the Cu-tolerant plant, Elsholtzia splendens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Longfei; Song, Mengke; Yang, Li; Zhang, Dayi; Sun, Yingtao; Shen, Zhenguo; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial communities of rhizospheric soils play an important role in the tolerance and uptake of metal-tolerant/hyperaccumulating plants to metals, e.g. the Cu-tolerant Elsholtzia splendens native to China. In this work, pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was firstly applied to investigate the rhizospheric bacterial community of E. splendens grown at Cu contaminated sites. The 47 phyla including 11 dominant phyla (>1%) in E. splendens rhizosphere were presented. The effects of Cu and other environmental factors (total organic carbon, total nitrogen and pH) on the rhizospheric bacterial community were studied comprehensively. The phyla abundances were affected by the environmental factors to different extent, and we found pH, instead of Cu concentration, influenced UniFrac distance significantly and was identified as the most important environmental factor affecting bacterial community. In addition, the influence of environmental factors on gene profiles was explored according to the predicted metagenomes obtained by PICRUSt (phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states). Our study illustrates a view about Cu-tolerant E. splendens rhizospheric bacterial communities (composition, diversity and gene profiles) and their influencing factors, giving a hand for the understanding on bacterial community is formed and affected in rhizosphere.

  20. Rare earth metals influence on mechanical properties and crack resistance of GP240GH and G17CrMo5-5 cast steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gajewski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of research on modification influence of REM on mechanical properties and crack resistance of GP240GH cast carbon steel and G17CrMo5-5 high-temperature cast steel. The tests have been performed on successive industrial melts. The rare earth metals were put into the ladle during tapping of heat melt from the furnace. Each time ca 2000 kg of liquid metals were modified. Because of this the amount of sulphur in the cast steel was decreased and the non-metallic inclusion morphology was significantly changed. There were tested mechanical properties (Re,Rm, plastic properties (A5,Z and impact strength (KV, and on the basis of the three-point bend test the KJC stress intensity factor was evaluated. It was noticed that the REM modification brings essential increase of impact strength as well as fracture toughness determined by KJC factor.