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Sample records for factors influencing mammography

  1. Factors influencing elderly women's mammography screening decisions: implications for counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Roger B

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although guidelines recommend that clinicians consider life expectancy before screening older women for breast cancer, many older women with limited life expectancies are screened. We aimed to identify factors important to mammography screening decisions among women aged 80 and older compared to women aged 65–79. Methods Telephone surveys of 107 women aged 80+ and 93 women aged 65–79 randomly selected from one academic primary care practice who were able to communicate in English (60% response rate. The survey addressed the following factors in regards to older women's mammography screening decisions: perceived importance of a history of breast disease, family history of breast cancer, doctor's recommendations, habit, reassurance, previous experience, mailed reminder cards, family/friend's recommendations or experience with breast cancer, age, health, and media. The survey also assessed older women's preferred role in decision making around mammography screening. Results Of the 200 women, 65.5% were non-Hispanic white and 82.8% were in good to excellent health. Most (81.3% had undergone mammography in the past 2 years. Regardless of age, older women ranked doctor's recommendations as the most important factor influencing their decision to get screened. Habit and reassurance were the next two highly ranked factors influencing older women to get screened. Among women who did not get screened, women aged 80 and older ranked age and doctor's counseling as the most influential factors and women aged 65–79 ranked a previous negative experience with mammography as the most important factor. There were no significant differences in preferred role in decision-making around mammography screening by age, however, most women in both age groups preferred to make the final decision on their own (46.6% of women aged 80+ and 50.5% of women aged 65–79. Conclusion While a doctor's recommendation is the most important factor influencing

  2. Factors influencing elderly women's mammography screening decisions: implications for counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberg, Mara A; McCarthy, Ellen P; York, Meghan; Davis, Roger B; Marcantonio, Edward R

    2007-11-16

    Although guidelines recommend that clinicians consider life expectancy before screening older women for breast cancer, many older women with limited life expectancies are screened. We aimed to identify factors important to mammography screening decisions among women aged 80 and older compared to women aged 65-79. Telephone surveys of 107 women aged 80+ and 93 women aged 65-79 randomly selected from one academic primary care practice who were able to communicate in English (60% response rate). The survey addressed the following factors in regards to older women's mammography screening decisions: perceived importance of a history of breast disease, family history of breast cancer, doctor's recommendations, habit, reassurance, previous experience, mailed reminder cards, family/friend's recommendations or experience with breast cancer, age, health, and media. The survey also assessed older women's preferred role in decision making around mammography screening. Of the 200 women, 65.5% were non-Hispanic white and 82.8% were in good to excellent health. Most (81.3%) had undergone mammography in the past 2 years. Regardless of age, older women ranked doctor's recommendations as the most important factor influencing their decision to get screened. Habit and reassurance were the next two highly ranked factors influencing older women to get screened. Among women who did not get screened, women aged 80 and older ranked age and doctor's counseling as the most influential factors and women aged 65-79 ranked a previous negative experience with mammography as the most important factor. There were no significant differences in preferred role in decision-making around mammography screening by age, however, most women in both age groups preferred to make the final decision on their own (46.6% of women aged 80+ and 50.5% of women aged 65-79). While a doctor's recommendation is the most important factor influencing elderly women's mammography screening decisions, habit and reassurance

  3. Factors influencing elderly women's mammography screening decisions: implications for counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Schonberg, Mara A; McCarthy, Ellen P; York, Meghan; Davis, Roger B; Marcantonio, Edward R

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Although guidelines recommend that clinicians consider life expectancy before screening older women for breast cancer, many older women with limited life expectancies are screened. We aimed to identify factors important to mammography screening decisions among women aged 80 and older compared to women aged 65–79. Methods Telephone surveys of 107 women aged 80+ and 93 women aged 65–79 randomly selected from one academic primary care practice who were able to communicate in ...

  4. Effects of attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy model factors on regular mammography performance in life-transition aged women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hyun; Kim, Young Im

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed predictors of regular mammography performance in Korea. In addition, we determined factors affecting regular mammography performance in life-transition aged women by applying an attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy (ASE) model. Data were collected from women aged over 40 years residing in province J in Korea. The 178 enrolled subjects provided informed voluntary consent prior to completing a structural questionnaire. The overall regular mammography performance rate of the subjects was 41.6%. Older age, city residency, high income and part-time job were associated with a high regular mammography performance. Among women who had undergone more breast self-examinations (BSE) or more doctors' physical examinations (PE), there were higher regular mammography performance rates. All three ASE model factors were significantly associated with regular mammography performance. Women with a high level of positive ASE values had a significantly high regular mammography performance rate. Within the ASE model, self-efficacy and social influence were particularly important. Logistic regression analysis explained 34.7% of regular mammography performance and PE experience (β=4.645, p=.003), part- time job (β=4.010, p=.050), self-efficacy (β=1.820, p=.026) and social influence (β=1.509, p=.038) were significant factors. Promotional strategies that could improve self-efficacy, reinforce social influence and reduce geographical, time and financial barriers are needed to increase the regular mammography performance rate in life-transition aged.

  5. Mammography performance in Oman: Review of factors influencing cancer yield and positive predictive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taif, Sawsan; Tufail, Fatma; Alnuaimi, Ahmed Sameer

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess mammography performance in Oman by estimating the breast cancer rate and the positive predictive value (PPV) with the influence of some variables. This cross-sectional study was conducted on mammograms done in one of the three main breast imaging centers in Oman between January 2008 and July 2012. Diagnostic and screening groups were identified and assessed separately. Rate of abnormal mammograms, rate of breast cancer and the PPV were estimated according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) score, presence of breast lump and patient's age. Total of 653 mammograms were included, 254 diagnostic and 399 screening. Abnormal mammograms (BIRADS 4 and 5) form 31.9% of the diagnostic examinations compared with 6.8% of screening examinations. Breast cancer was present in 17.9% of the diagnostic compared with 1.0% of the screening group. The PPV of BIRADS 5 was 94.1%, and for BIRADS 4 was 37.1 and 26.7% for diagnostic and screening studies. Overall PPV for abnormal mammograms was 65.2% in the diagnostic and 26.7% in the screening group. Mammography PPV shows positive association with age (P = 0.039) while presence of breast lump has no significant effect on the PPV (P = 0.38). BIRADS 5 score was found to have a high cancer yield making it a strong predictor of cancer. Different results were obtained in the diagnostic compared with screening mammography with higher rates of abnormal mammograms and breast cancer. Mammography performance should be better in the older women. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Does health status influence intention regarding screening mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Keeho; Park, Jong-Hyock; Park, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Hui-Jeong; Park, Bo-Yoon

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed information surveyed from a community-based sample of Korean women older than 40 years of age to understand the relationships between health status and screening behavior. In a cross-sectional population-based study, a two-stage, geographically stratified household-based sampling design was used for assembly of a probability sample of women aged 40-69 years living in Gunpo in Korea, resulting in a total sample size of 503 women. The primary outcome variable for this analysis was the respondent's intention to obtain a mammogram. Predictor variables included health status and other factors known to influence the use of cancer screening, such as age, education, income, marital status and the presence of co-morbid illnesses. Health status was assessed by using the EuroQol (EQ-5D). The median EQ visual analogue scale score was 75.0, ranging from 20 to 100. In bivariate analyses, the percentage of women reporting to have intention toward mammography use decreased with worsening health status. Women who had problems with mobility or anxiety/depression showed lower intention to undergo future screening mammography. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that health status was significantly associated with intention toward mammography use. Anxiety or depression was an independent predictor of future screening mammography use. Health status is significantly associated with intention regarding screening mammography use. Physicians or other health professionals should be aware that health status is an important component for health promotion, and should pay more attention to clients' possible vulnerability in screening mammography use due to their poor health status. (author)

  7. Influence of the radiographer on the pain felt during mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, M. van; Verslegers, I.; Biltjes, I.; De Schepper, A.; Mortelmans, D.; Bruyninckx, E.; Hove, E. Van

    2003-01-01

    Mammography is the only useful examination in screening for breast cancer. Mortality from breast cancer can be reduced if women go regularly for a screening mammography. Moreover, it is still the key examination in diagnosis of breast diseases and in the follow-up of patients treated for breast cancer. Pain with mammography can deter women from going for regular screening or follow-up; therefore, it is important to reduce pain experience or discomfort from mammography. In this study we evaluate the impact of the ''radiographer'' on the pain risk during mammography by analysing questionnaires filled in by women and radiographers. Study results reveal that the opinion of the radiographer, the information and communication during the examination and the number of years of experience are important factors in pain and discomfort experience. The attitude of the radiographer plays an important role in the pain experience. (orig.)

  8. Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer Whether there is any harm from breast cancer screening, such as side effects from testing or overtreatment of cancer when it's discovered Mammography is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is ...

  9. Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This patent reveals a method and instrument for the detection and registration of breast cancer with the aid of X-radiation, i.e. mammography. The breast is irradiated with soft X-rays whereby the radiation beam is scanned with a moving 'stripform' screen and whereby the picture from the 'stripform' screen is recorded by a television camera that moves simultaneously with the strip. The image is then projected on a monitor

  10. Influence of age and menstrual cycle on mammography and MR imaging of the breast; Einfluss von Alter und Menstruationszyklus auf Mammographie und MR-Mammographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Schimpfle, M.; Ohmenhaeuser, K.; Claussen, C.D. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    1997-09-01

    Age and menstrual cycle have an important influence on the breast. This well-known fact is experienced in the daily routine of gynecologists and radiologists. The number of publications addressing the effect of these influences on imaging, however, is surprisingly low. The aim of this work is to describe the influences of age and menstrual cycle on the breast and to address their clinical relevance for mammography and MR mammography. Therefore, own data are presented concerning the age and menstrual cycle influences on breast parenchyma in dynamic MR mammography. Literature data are used to correlate mammography and MR imaging findings with these influences. The changes of the breast due to age and menstrual cycle have important direct implications on performing and reading conventional mammography and MR mammography. The knowledge of these changes is also helpful in the interpretation of findings when comparing different methods. Finally, the data gained by using imaging methods enable important basic insights into physiology and physiopathology of the breast in vivo. (orig.) [Deutsch] Alter und Menstruationszyklus stellen wichtige Einflussfaktoren auf die Mamma dar. Diese Tatsache ist klinisch lange bekannt und im Alltag des Gynaekologen wie Radiologen staendig praesent. Dagegen ist die Anzahl der Publikationen zu den Auswirkungen dieser Einfluesse auf die Bildgebung erstaunlich niedrig. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die alters- und zyklusabhaengigen Veraenderungen der Mamma und deren klinische Relevanz fuer die Mammographie und MR-Mammographie darzustellen. Zu diesem Zweck werden aus einer eigenen Studie Daten der dynamischen MR-Tomographie zum Alters- und Zykluseinfluss auf das Mammaparenchym praesentiert. Darueber hinaus werden diese Einflussfaktoren mit mammographischen und MR-tomographischen Daten aus der Literatur korreliert. Dabei zeigt sich, dass sich aus den alters- und menstruationszyklusbedingten Veraenderungen der Brust wichtige unmittelbare

  11. Factors contributing to low participation in mammography screening in Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, R.; Spuur, K.M.; Umo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to describe the current state of mammography screening services in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and to document factors thought to contribute to low participation in the free mammography screening service at the Pacific International Hospital (PIH), Port Moresby. Method: Women attending for mammography screening at PIH between August 2006 and July 2010 were invited to complete a survey investigating environmental, political, social, financial, cultural and health factors thought to be contributing to low participation in the mammography screening service. Ethics approval and permission to collect data was granted through the University of Papua New Guinea, School of Medicine and Health Sciences Research and Ethics Committee and by the Medical Director and Chief Operating Officer of PIH. Results: The reasons for low participation were found to be multifactorial; difficult environmental factors 42.86%; financial dependency factors 40.54%; cultural factors related to exposing the body 50.03%, social factors (sexual harassment) 77.6%, political factors 4.29% and health factors including poor health 54.54%. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that in this snapshot of PNG women, the low participation rate in the free mammography screening program at PIH was influenced by various interrelated factors inherent in both the PNG environment and culture, in particular lack of transport infrastructure, financial burden and sexual harassment. As low participation directly impacts upon the high breast cancer mortality in PNG women, a more comprehensive study of the women of PNG is required to validate this research. - Highlights: • Snap shot of issues surrounding low participation in the free screening program. • Geography and poor transport infrastructure made participation almost impossible. • Lack of funds for transport by either road or air deterred participation. • Sexual harassment was the main social factor that deterred access.

  12. The influence of software filtering in digital mammography image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, C.; Spyropoulou, V.; Kalyvas, N.; Valais, I.; Dimitropoulos, N.; Fountos, G.; Kandarakis, I.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2009-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women. Several techniques have been developed to help in the early detection of breast cancer such as conventional and digital x-ray mammography, positron and single-photon emission mammography, etc. A key advantage in digital mammography is that images can be manipulated as simple computer image files. Thus non-dedicated commercially available image manipulation software can be employed to process and store the images. The image processing tools of the Photoshop (CS 2) software usually incorporate digital filters which may be used to reduce image noise, enhance contrast and increase spatial resolution. However, improving an image quality parameter may result in degradation of another. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of three sharpening filters, named hereafter sharpen, sharpen more and sharpen edges on image resolution and noise. Image resolution was assessed by means of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF).In conclusion it was found that the correct use of commercial non-dedicated software on digital mammograms may improve some aspects of image quality.

  13. The influence of software filtering in digital mammography image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michail, C; Spyropoulou, V; Valais, I; Panayiotakis, G; Kalyvas, N; Fountos, G; Kandarakis, I; Dimitropoulos, N

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women. Several techniques have been developed to help in the early detection of breast cancer such as conventional and digital x-ray mammography, positron and single-photon emission mammography, etc. A key advantage in digital mammography is that images can be manipulated as simple computer image files. Thus non-dedicated commercially available image manipulation software can be employed to process and store the images. The image processing tools of the Photoshop (CS 2) software usually incorporate digital filters which may be used to reduce image noise, enhance contrast and increase spatial resolution. However, improving an image quality parameter may result in degradation of another. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of three sharpening filters, named hereafter sharpen, sharpen more and sharpen edges on image resolution and noise. Image resolution was assessed by means of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF).In conclusion it was found that the correct use of commercial non-dedicated software on digital mammograms may improve some aspects of image quality.

  14. Influence of age and menstrual cycle on mammography and MR imaging of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Schimpfle, M.; Ohmenhaeuser, K.; Claussen, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    Age and menstrual cycle have an important influence on the breast. This well-known fact is experienced in the daily routine of gynecologists and radiologists. The number of publications addressing the effect of these influences on imaging, however, is surprisingly low. The aim of this work is to describe the influences of age and menstrual cycle on the breast and to address their clinical relevance for mammography and MR mammography. Therefore, own data are presented concerning the age and menstrual cycle influences on breast parenchyma in dynamic MR mammography. Literature data are used to correlate mammography and MR imaging findings with these influences. The changes of the breast due to age and menstrual cycle have important direct implications on performing and reading conventional mammography and MR mammography. The knowledge of these changes is also helpful in the interpretation of findings when comparing different methods. Finally, the data gained by using imaging methods enable important basic insights into physiology and physiopathology of the breast in vivo. (orig.) [de

  15. Knowledge about mammography and associated factors: population surveys with female adults and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the knowledge about mammography and to identify associated factors in female adults and elderly. Data were obtained from two population surveys, one with female adults and another with elderly women from Florianópolis (SC in 2009 - 2010. A descriptive analysis of the variables was carried out, the appropriate mean of responses about mammography was estimated and crude and adjusted Poisson regression was conducted to identify associated factors. Among adults, 23.1% answered all of the questions appropriately and the appropriate average responses was 7.2 (95%CI 7.1 - 7.3 in a total of 9. In the adjusted model, older age, higher education and income were associated with knowledge about mammography. For the elderly, 15.3% answered all questions appropriately and the average of appropriate responses was 6.4 (95%CI 5.2 - 6.5 and the factors associated with knowledge about mammography in the adjusted model were younger age groups, increased education and income, and identification of mammography as the main diagnostic method for breast cancer. Information about mammography can neither be transmitted in a clear way nor be easily understood; there are also demographic and socioeconomic differences concerning the knowledge about the exam.

  16. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  17. Factors associated with breast arterial calcification on mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, A.N.; Khan, S.; Zafar, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of breast arterial calcifications (BAC) as seen on mammographic examination and to determine the association between BAC and hypertension, age, parity and weight of the person. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytic study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to January 2007. Methodology: Two hundred patients undergoing mammography were studied to evaluate the association of BAC with raised blood pressure, age and parity. Previous history of lactation and the patients' weight were also recorded. Proportions of classes were compared using chi-square test. Results: 13.5% of the subjects (n = 200) were positive for BAC on mammograms. Mean age of the BAC positive subjects was higher than their counterparts found negative for BAC. Women bearing 5 - 6 children showed the highest frequency of BAC. Seventy seven (10.38%) of the BAC positive cases had previous history of lactation, whereas 15.44% (n = 123) had not breast fed their children and showed BAC. No significant association of presence of BAC was noted with the weight of the subjects. Conclusion: The frequency of presence of BAC on mammography was associated with systemic hypertension and higher age. It also increased with the reproductive parameters of a woman. (author)

  18. The influence of travel time on breast cancer characteristics, receipt of primary therapy, and surveillance mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Cook, Andrea; Kirlin, Beth; Shi, Xun; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Tuzzio, Leah; Buist, Diana S M

    2011-08-01

    Travel time has been shown to influence some aspects of cancer characteristics at diagnosis and care for women with breast cancer, but important gaps remain in our understanding of its impact. We examined the influence of travel time to the nearest radiology facility on breast cancer characteristics, treatment, and surveillance for women with early-stage invasive breast cancer. We included 1,012 women with invasive breast cancer (stages I and II) who had access to care within an integrated health care delivery system in western Washington State. The travel times to the nearest radiology facility were calculated for all the U.S. Census blocks within the study area and assigned to women based on residence at diagnosis. We collected cancer characteristics, primary and adjuvant therapies, and surveillance mammography for at least 2.5 years post diagnosis and used multivariable analyses to test the associations of travel time. The majority of women (68.6%) lived within 20 min of the nearest radiology facility, had stage I disease (72.7%), received breast conserving therapy (68.7%), and had annual surveillance mammography the first 2 years after treatment (73.7%). The travel time was not significantly associated with the stage or surveillance mammography after adjusting for covariates. Primary therapy was significantly related to travel time, with greater travel time (>30 min vs. ≤ 10 min) associated with a higher likelihood of mastectomy compared to breast conserving surgery (RR = 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.01). The travel time was not associated with the stage at diagnosis or surveillance mammography receipt. The travel time does seem to influence the type of primary therapy among women with breast cancer, suggesting that women may prefer low frequency services, such as mastectomy, if geographic access to a radiology facility is limited.

  19. Targeted Ultrasound of an Indeterminate Breast Lesion on Mammography: When Does It Influence Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Saba; Masroor, Imrana; Afzal, Shaista

    2015-08-01

    To determine the change over mammographic diagnosis, BI-RADS category and management following targeted ultrasound of an indeterminate lesion seen on mammography and associated factors, if any. Descriptive, analytical study. Radiology Department, The Aga Khan University Hospital and Clifton Medical Services, Karachi, from April 2010 to May 2011. Patients referred for targeted breast ultrasound following X-ray mammography were selected regardless of age. Targeted Ultrasound (TUS) was defined as a limited ultrasound of a specific lesion or breast part as indicated by the referring source. Comparison was made between the post mammography and post TUS lesion characterization, diagnosis and BI-RADS category (0-5) which was taken as a measure of management change. Those were evaluated to determine significance of age, marital status, parity, breast parenchymal pattern ( dense, fatty, heterogeneous), referring source for the TUS (radiology resident, radiologist or surgeon), lesion characteristics (density, echogenecity, shape, location, margins, size, depth-to-width ratio, enhancement or shadowing), presenting symptoms or signs and reason for TUS. Ap-value of 0.05 or less was taken as significant. There were a total of 342 patients with mean age of 49.7 ±13.5 years. It assigned a definite category in 232 patients with an indefinite category (0) on mammography requiring further investigation. It decreased the suspicion for malignancy in 180 (77.58%) by assigning a low BI-RADS category and increased the suspicion in 52 (22.41%). The factors significantly associated with this changes included clinical indication being diagnostic (p management of an indeterminate breast lesion in a high number of patients, particularly when there was a lump as indication for imaging in the presence of risk factors in a patient with otherwise heterogeneously dense breast parenchyma.

  20. A Survey on Physical Factors and Compressed Breast Thickness in Voluntary Mammography Screening Using FFDM System in Malaysia: Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal; Humairah Samad Cheung; Siti Kamariah Che Mohamad; Ellyda Muhamad Nordin

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting preliminary results of a survey on physical factors, namely tube potential (kV), tube current exposure time product (mAs) and compressed breast thickness (CBT) during voluntary mammography screening using Full-Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) System in Malaysia. Retrospective data were collected from 1128 FFDM images of 282 women from three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) who underwent voluntary screening mammography at Breast Centre, International Islamic University Malaysia from January to March 2008. Results from the present study were then compared with results from the previous study on Screen-Film Mammography System (SFM) according to the ethnic group for both Cranio-caudal (CC) and Mediol-Lateral (MLO) views. We found that the mean kV for CC view for the three ethnic groups are Malay (28), Chinese (28) and Indian (28), and for MLO view are Malay (29), Chinese (28) and Indian (29). These values are higher than the kV for SFM which were Malay (26), Chinese (27) and Indian (26) for CC and Malay (26), Chinese (27) and Indian (26) for CC and MLO views respectively. The mean mAs for CC and MLO views for FFDM were lower compared to SFM systems. These values were Malay (104), Chinese (108) and Indian (91) for CC views and Malay (106), Chinese (105), and Indian (94) for MLO views for the FFDM system. The values for SFM system are for CC and MLO views were Malay (120), Chinese (106) and Indian (126), and Malay (166), Chinese (132), Indian (183) respectively. The median CBT for CC and MLO views increased by 27 % and 7 % respectively on the FFDM compared to the SFM system. In conclusion, the FFDM operates with higher kV, lower mAs, and higher CBT when compared with SFM system. Median CBT on CC and MLO view with FFDM system are 27 % and 7 % higher respectively compared to the SFM. We are currently collecting data on mean glandular dose with FFDM systems to assess how the change in local mammography practice influences this

  1. The study of mean glandular dose in mammography in Yazd and the factors affecting it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzarjomehri, F.; Mostaar, A.; Ghasemi, A.; Ehramposh, M. H.; Khosravi, H.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the mean glandular dose resulting from mammography examinations in Yazd, southeastern Iran and to identify the factors affecting it. Patients and Methods: This survey was conducted during May to December 2005 to estimate the mean glandular dose for women undergoing mammography and to report the distribution of dose. compressed breast thickness, glandular tissue content, and mammography technique used. The clinical data were collected from 946 mammograms taken from 246 women who were referred to four mammography centers. The mammography instruments in these centers were four modern units with a molybdenum anode and either molybdenum or rhodium filter. The exposure conditions of each mammogram were recorded. The breast glandular content of each mammogram was estimated by a radiologist. The mean glandular dose was calculated based on measuring the normalized entrance skin dose in air. half value layer, kVp, mAs, breast thickness and glandular content. Half value layer, kVp and entrance skin dose were measured by a solid-state detector. The analytical method of Sobol et al. was used for calculation of mean glandular dose . Results: The mean±SD mean glandular dose per film was.2±0.6 mGy for cranio caudal and 1.63±O.9 mGy for mediolateral oblique views. The mean±SD mean glandular dose per woman was 5.5 3.1.mGy. A positive correlation was found between the beam Half value layer with mean glandular dose (r=O.38) and the breast thickness with mean glandular dose (r=O.5). Conclusion: The mean±SD mean glandular dose per film of 1.42±0.8 mGy in present study was lower than most of similar reports. However, the mean mean glandular dose per woman was higher than that in other studies

  2. Pain during mammography: Possible risk factors and ways to alleviate pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, Belinda

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the literature surrounding the issue of pain experienced during mammography. This is an important topic since many women may refuse screening mammograms due to the possibility of a painful examination. It is a difficult area to research since the experience of pain is by nature subjective and the manner by which data have been collected has varied with many different pain assessment instruments being utilised. Accordingly there is wide variation in the degree of pain felt from only slight pain to some women finding it acutely painful. To discover why some women find it so painful certain risk factors that have been associated with painful mammography are explored. There are many of these risk factors but this article concentrates on three main areas: biological, psychological and staff-related. Once the reasons why some women experience such acute pain, ways to ease this may be found. Methods to alleviate painful mammography are suggested and discussed. The article concludes that there is a wide variance in the data collection techniques which could account for the wide variance in the reported pain. More research is required using a validated pain measurement to establish the extent of pain and to establish the effect of this on future compliance

  3. Health-related lifestyle factors and mammography screening attendance in a Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Drake, Isabel; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sontrop, Jessica M; Zackrisson, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether health-related lifestyle factors are associated with attendance at a population-based invitational mammography screening program in southern Sweden, data on health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, BMI, diet, self-rated health, and stress) were obtained from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study and linked to the Malmö mammography register (Sweden, 1992-2009). Women (n=11 409) who were free from breast cancer at study entry were included in the cohort, and mammography attendance was followed from cohort entry to 31 December 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for repeated measures within patients. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Nonattendance occurred in 8% of the 69 746 screening opportunities that were observed. Nonattendance was more common among women who were current or former smokers [OR=1.60 (1.45-1.76) and OR=1.15 (1.05-1.28)], had not used alcohol in the past year [OR=1.55 (1.32-1.83)], were less physically active outside of work [OR=1.10 (1.00-1.20)], had high physical activity at work (OR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.00-1.28), were vegetarians or vegans [OR=1.49 (1.11-1.99)], had not used dietary supplements [OR=1.11 (1.01-1.21)], had poor self-rated health [OR=1.24 (1.14-1.36)], and were experiencing greater stress [OR=1.25 (1.14-1.36)]. In this cohort, nonattendance was associated with smoking, alcohol abstinence, physical activity, poor self-rated health, stress, and following a vegetarian/vegan diet. These findings generally support the notion that women with less healthy lifestyles are less likely to engage in mammography screening.

  4. Do cultural factors predict mammography behaviour among Korean immigrants in the USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanju; Kim, Jiyun; Han, Hae-Ra

    2009-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the correlates of mammogram use among Korean American women. Despite the increasing incidence of and mortality from breast cancer, Asian women in the United States of America report consistently low rates of mammography screening. A number of health beliefs and sociodemographic characteristics have been associated with mammogram participation among these women. However, studies systematically investigating cultural factors in relation to mammogram experience have been scarce. We measured screening-related health beliefs, modesty and use of Eastern medicine in 100 Korean American women in 2006. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to examine the unique contribution of the study variables, after accounting for sociodemographic characteristics. Only 51% reported past mammogram use. Korean American women who had previously had mammograms were statistically significantly older and had higher perceived benefit scores than those who had not. Perceived benefits (odds ratio = 6.3, 95% confidence interval = 2.12, 18.76) and breast cancer susceptibility (odds ratio = 3.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.06, 9.59) were statistically significant correlates of mammography experience, whereas cultural factors did not correlate. Post hoc analysis showed that for women with some or good English skills, cultural factors statistically significantly correlated with health beliefs and breast cancer knowledge (P culturally tailored interventions of more targeted outreach and healthcare system navigation assistance for promoting mammography screening in Korean American women. Further research is needed to unravel the interplay between acculturation, cultural factors and health beliefs related to cancer screening behaviours of Korean American women.

  5. Influence of the menstrual cycle on compression-induced pain during mammography: correlation with the thickness and volume of the mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Hitomi; Kawashima, Hiroko

    2018-03-01

    In mammography, breast compression is necessary and an important factor influencing image quality. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the menstrual cycle on compression-induced pain during mammography and to evaluate the association between the thickness and volume of the mammary gland and pain. We examined basal body temperature and categorized the menstrual cycle into five phases. We executed breast compression in the craniocaudal view using a customized compression plate, to which we introduced an opening. We measured the thickness of the mammary gland under compression using echography. Immediately after releasing the compression, we evaluated pain using the visual analogue scale. We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the same day and measured the volume of the mammary gland. The thickness of the mammary gland, pain, and the volume of the mammary gland were minimal in the late follicular phase and maximal in the late luteal and early follicular phases. It was shown that the changes in the thickness and volume of the mammary gland during the menstrual cycle accounted for the changes in compression-induced pain. On MRI examination of each breast quadrant, the same changes were observed in areas A and C. In area A, it was shown that both the anatomical characteristics and the increase in volume of the mammary gland were associated with pain. We concluded that the late follicular phase constitutes the optimal timing for mammography.

  6. Performance of clinical mammography: a nationwide study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Allan; Vejborg, Ilse; Severinsen, Niels

    2006-01-01

    that clinical mammography worked best in patient populations of purely symptomatic women. Our data indicate that to increase the accuracy of clinical mammography at the community level, the presence of an experienced radiologist should be prioritized ahead of raising the clinic size.......Clinical mammography is the key tool for breast cancer diagnosis, but little is known about the impact of the organisational set-up on the performance. We evaluated whether organisational factors influence the performance of clinical mammography. Clinical mammography data from all clinics...... in Denmark in the year 2000 were collected and linked to cancer outcome. Use of the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene register for identification of radiology clinics ensured comprehensive nationwide registration. We used the final mammographic assessment at the end of the imaging work-up to determine...

  7. Contrast-enhanced Spectral Mammography: Modality-Specific Artifacts and Other Factors Which May Interfere with Image Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimani, Chandni; Li, Luna; Liao, Lydia; Roth, Robyn G; Tinney, Elizabeth; Germaine, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) uses full field digital mammography with the added benefit of intravenous contrast administration to significantly reduce false-positive and false-negative results and improve specificity while maintaining high sensitivity. For CESM to fulfill its purpose, one should be aware of possible artifacts and other factors which may interfere with image quality, and attention should be taken to minimize these factors. This pictorial demonstration will depict types of artifacts detected and other factors that interfere with image acquisition in our practice since CESM implementation. Many of the artifacts and other factors we have encountered while using CESM have simple solutions to resolve them. The illustrated artifacts and other factors interfering with image quality will serve as a useful reference to anyone using CESM. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of mean glandular dose for patients who undergo mammography and studying the factors affecting it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzanje, Sana L. N. H.; Harki, Edrees M. Tahir Nury

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine mean glandular dose (MGD) during diagnostic mammography. This study was done in two hospitals in Hawler city in Kurdistan -region /Iraq, the exposure parameters kVp and mAs was recorded for 40 patients under go mammography. The MGD estimated by multiplied ESD with normalized glandular dose (Dn). The ESD measured indirectly by measuring output radiation mGy/mAs by using PalmRAD 907 as a suitable detector (Gigger detector).the results; shown that the mean and its standard deviation of MGD for Screen Film Mammography and Digital Mammography are (0.95±0.18)mGy and (0.99±0.26)mGy, respectively. And there is a significant difference between MGD for Screen Film Mammography and Digital Mammography views (p≤0. 05). Also the mean value and its standard deviation of MGD for screen film mammography is (0.96±0.21) for CC projection and (1.03±0.3) mGy for MLO projection, but mean value and its standard deviation evaluated of MGD for digital mammography is (0.92±0.17) mGy for CC projection and (0.98±0.2) mGy for MLO projection. As well as, the effect of kVp and mAs in MGD were studied, shows that in general as kVp and mAs increased the MGD increased accordingly in both of mammography systems.

  9. Anxiety in mammography: mammographers' and clients' perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galletta, S.; Joel, N.; Maguire, R.; Weaver, K.; Poulos, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify causes of anxiety experienced by mammographers and clients during mammography and strategies to decrease the anxiety generated by the mammographic procedure. Two questionnaires were distributed: one to mammographers in public and private centres within NSW, the other to women (clients) who have experienced mammography. Mammographers' and clients' rankings of causes of clients' anxiety demonstrated many similarities indicating the mammographers' acknowledgement of factors contributing to client anxiety. Thematic analysis provided important qualitative data concerning anxiety experienced by both mammographers and clients and the influence of mammographer and client behaviour on that anxiety. The results of this study have provided important new knowledge for mammographic practice and mammography education. By understanding the causes of anxiety experienced by clients, mammographers can provide an informed, empathetic approach to the mammographic process. By acknowledging factors which increase their own anxiety mammographers can reduce the impact of this on themselves and on their clients. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  10. Digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bick, Ulrich; Diekmann, Felix

    2010-01-01

    This state-of-the-art reference book provides in-depth coverage of all aspects of digital mammography, including detector technology, image processing, computer-aided diagnosis, soft-copy reading, digital workflow, and PACS. Specific advantages and disadvantages of digital mammography in comparison to screen-film mammography are thoroughly discussed. By including authors from both North America and Europe, the book is able to outline variations in the use, acceptance, and quality assurance of digital mammography between the different countries and screening programs. Advanced imaging techniques and future developments such as contrast mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis are also covered in detail. All of the chapters are written by internationally recognized experts and contain numerous high-quality illustrations. This book will be of great interest both to clinicians who already use or are transitioning to digital mammography and to basic scientists working in the field. (orig.)

  11. Influence of breast compression pressure on the performance of population-based mammography screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, Katharina; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Mann, Ritse M.; Den Heeten, Gerard J.; van Gils, Carla H.; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Background: In mammography, breast compression is applied to reduce the thickness of the breast. While it is widely accepted that firm breast compression is needed to ensure acceptable image quality, guidelines remain vague about how much compression should be applied during mammogram acquisition. A

  12. Trimodel Mammography with Perfect Coregistration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    background, the major confounding factor in reading mammography; the imaging characteristics suggest that this contrast mechanism would be preferable...image with enhanced edges and reduced anatomical background, the major confounding factor in reading mammography; the imaging characteristics suggest...subjects, vertebrate animals , biohazards, and/or select agents Describe significant deviations, unexpected outcomes, or changes in approved protocols

  13. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  14. Decision making and counseling around mammography screening for women aged 80 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberg, Mara A; Ramanan, Radhika A; McCarthy, Ellen P; Marcantonio, Edward R

    2006-09-01

    Despite uncertain benefit, many women over age 80 (oldest-old) receive screening mammography. To explore decision-making and physician counseling of oldest-old women around mammography screening. Qualitative research using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Twenty-three women aged 80 or older who received care at a large academic primary care practice (13 had undergone mammography screening in the past 2 years) and 16 physicians at the same center. We asked patients and physicians to describe factors influencing mammography screening decisions of oldest-old women. We asked physicians to describe their counseling about screening to the oldest-old. Patients and/or physicians identified the importance of physician influence, patient preferences, system factors, and social influences on screening decisions. Although physicians felt that patient's health affected screening decisions, few patients felt that health mattered. Three types of elderly patients were identified: (1) women enthusiastic about screening mammography; (2) women opposed to screening mammography; and (3) women without a preference who followed their physician's recommendation. However, physician counseling about mammography screening to elderly women varies; some individualize discussions; others encourage screening; few discourage screening. Physicians report that discussions about stopping screening can be uncomfortable and time consuming. Physicians suggest that more data could facilitate these discussions. Some oldest-old women have strong opinions about screening mammography while others are influenced by physicians. Discussions about stopping screening are challenging for physicians. More data about the benefits and risks of mammography screening for women aged 80 or older could inform patients and improve provider counseling to lead to more rational use of mammography.

  15. Ultrasonic mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueneke, B.

    1982-01-01

    608 women are examined by means of ultrasonic mammography during the period of 1 year. 432 patients were examined with the compound method with the U.I. Octoson, a water tank scanner, and 176 patients with the real time method with a directly connected linear-array-scanner. The following results were obtained at the end of the examination period: In the ultrasonic and also in the X-ray mammogram tumour diameters can be determined with an error rate of +- 30%. In the diagnosing of carcinomas, a significant dependence of the exactness on the sice of the tumour is found for the combination of the five methods tested (clinical examination, X-ray mammography, ultrasonic mammography, thermography, cytology). Classifying the individual methods with regard to their exactness, X-ray mammography ranks in front of ultrasonic mammography. Mastopathic changes in the breast can be screened by means of ultrasonic mammography. The structure of the changes can be determined more exactly than with an X-ray picture which is due to the possibility of differentiating solid and cystic structures. In diagnosing fibro-adenomas and establishing diagnoses on young women with dense gland bodies, ultrasonic mammography is superior to radiology both in the ability of screening a finding of a fibro-adenoma (US=88%, X-ray=75%) and in the possibility of classifying it as ''more benign than malignant''. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Mammography and radiation risk; Mammographie und Strahlenrisiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biophysik und Strahlenbiologie

    1998-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant neoplasia among women in Germany. The use of mammography as the most relevant diagnostic procedure has increased rapidly over the last decade. Radiation risks associated with mammography may be estimated from the results of numerous epidemiological studies providing risk coefficients for breast cancer in relation to age at exposure. Various calculations can be performed using the risk coefficients. For instance, a single mammography examination (bilateral, two views of each breast) of a women aged 45 may enhance the risk of developing breast cancer during her lifetime numerically from about 12% of 12.0036%. This increase in risk is lower by a factor of 3,300 as compared to the risk of developing breast cancer in the absence of radiation exposure. At the age of 40 or more, the benefit of mammography exceeds the radiation risk by a factor of about 100. At higher ages this factor increases further. Finally, the dualism of individual risk and collective risk is considered. It is shown that the individual risk of a patient, even after multiple mammography examinations, is vanishingly small. Nevertheless, the basic principle of minimising radiation exposure must be followed to keep the collective risk in the total population as low as reasonably achievable. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Mammakarzinom ist in Deutschland die haeufigste Krebserkrankung der Frau, und entsprechend oft wird die Mammographie als das derzeit wichtigste Diagnoseverfahren eingesetzt. Zur Beurteilung des mit einer mammographischen Untersuchung verbundenen Strahlenrisikos liegen die Resultate einer groesseren Anzahl strahlenepidemiologischer Studien vor. Diese liefern den Risikokoeffizienten fuer Brustkrebs in Abhaengigkeit vom Lebensalter bei Strahlenexposition und ermoeglichen somit die Berechnung des altersabhaengigen Strahlenrisikos. Beispielsweise wird durch eine einmalige Mammographie-Untersuchung (bilateral, je zwei Aufnahmen in zwei Ebenen) bei einer 45

  17. Mammography Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mammography Facility Database is updated periodically based on information received from the four FDA-approved accreditation bodies: the American College of...

  18. Optimization of technique factors for a silicon diode array full-field digital mammography system and comparison to screen-film mammography with matched average glandular dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berns, Eric A.; Hendrick, R. Edward; Cutter, Gary R.

    2003-01-01

    Contrast-detail experiments were performed to optimize technique factors for the detection of low-contrast lesions using a silicon diode array full-field digital mammography (FFDM) system under the conditions of a matched average glandular dose (AGD) for different techniques. Optimization was performed for compressed breast thickness from 2 to 8 cm. FFDM results were compared to screen-film mammography (SFM) at each breast thickness. Four contrast-detail (CD) images were acquired on a SFM unit with optimal techniques at 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm breast thicknesses. The AGD for each breast thickness was calculated based on half-value layer (HVL) and entrance exposure measurements on the SFM unit. A computer algorithm was developed and used to determine FFDM beam current (mAs) that matched AGD between FFDM and SFM at each thickness, while varying target, filter, and peak kilovoltage (kVp) across the full range available for the FFDM unit. CD images were then acquired on FFDM for kVp values from 23-35 for a molybdenum-molybdenum (Mo-Mo), 23-40 for a molybdenum-rhodium (Mo-Rh), and 25-49 for a rhodium-rhodium (Rh-Rh) target-filter under the constraint of matching the AGD from screen-film for each breast thickness (2, 4, 6, and 8 cm). CD images were scored independently for SFM and each FFDM technique by six readers. CD scores were analyzed to assess trends as a function of target-filter and kVp and were compared to SFM at each breast thickness. For 2 cm thick breasts, optimal FFDM CD scores occurred at the lowest possible kVp setting for each target-filter, with significant decreases in FFDM CD scores as kVp was increased under the constraint of matched AGD. For 2 cm breasts, optimal FFDM CD scores were not significantly different from SFM CD scores. For 4-8 cm breasts, optimum FFDM CD scores were superior to SFM CD scores. For 4 cm breasts, FFDM CD scores decreased as kVp increased for each target-filter combination. For 6 cm breasts, CD scores decreased slightly as k

  19. Image quality in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, A.G.; Doi, K.; Metz, C.E.; Bernstein, J.

    1976-01-01

    In mammography, image quality is a function of the shape, size, and x-ray absorption properties of the anatomic part to be radiographed and of the lesion to be detected; it also depends on geometric unsharpness, and the resolution, characteristic curve and noise properties of the recording system. X-ray energy spectra, modulation transfer functions, Wiener spectra, characteristic and gradient curves, and radiographs of a breast phantom and of a resected breast specimen containing microcalcifications are used in a review of some current considerations of the factors, and the complex relationship among factors, that affect image quality in mammography. Image quality and patient radiation exposure in mammography are interrelated. An approach to the problem of evaluating the trade-off between diagnostic certainty and the cost or risk of performing a breast imaging procedure is discussed

  20. The Influence of Spiritual Framing on African American Women's Mammography Intentions: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Alicia L; Spencer, S Melinda; Friedman, Daniela B; Hall, Ingrid J; Billings, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p framing also had a significant indirect effect on mammography intentions through polarity (standardized indirect effect = .057, 95% confidence interval [.024, .106], p framing may improve the efficacy of BCS messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use.

  1. MR mammography: influence of menstrual cycle on the dynamic contrast enhancement of fibrocystic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieber, A.; Nuessle, K.; Merkle, E.; Tomczak, R.; Brambs, H.J.; Kreienberg, R.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) provides data regarding the nature of tumours based on contrast medium dynamics; fibrocystic changes in the breast, however, may lead to false-positive results. This study investigated whether the contrast medium dynamics of fibrocystic changes are dependent on the menstrual cycle. Twenty-four patients with palpable lumps but normal mammographies and ultrasound studies were examined. The MRM technique was performed during the first and second part of the menstrual cycle using a FLASH 3D sequence, both native and at 1, 2, 3 and 8 min after intravenous application of 0.15 mmol/kg body weight of gadodiamide. The calculated time-intensity curves were evaluated based on the following criteria: early percentage of contrast medium uptake in relation to the native value; formation of a plateau phenomenon after the second minute; the point of maximal contrast medium uptake; and calculation of the contrast enhancing index. During the second half of the menstrual cycle, a generally greater contrast medium uptake was observed. Nevertheless, when further diagnostic criteria, such as continuous contrast medium increase as a function of time, were considered, there was no increased rate of false-positive findings. The phase of the menstrual cycle may affect the specificity of the examination, if only the quantitative contrast medium uptake and the percentage of contrast medium uptake in the first 2 min are considered. A control MRM during the other half of the cycle may then be indicated and additional diagnostic criteria may improve specificity. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors; Evaluacion de la influencia de los parametros que determinan la dosis glandular media en Mamografia utilizando diferentes detectores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: katicostabh@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  3. Influence of breast compression pressure on the performance of population-based mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Katharina; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Mann, Ritse M; den Heeten, Gerard J; van Gils, Carla H; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2017-11-28

    In mammography, breast compression is applied to reduce the thickness of the breast. While it is widely accepted that firm breast compression is needed to ensure acceptable image quality, guidelines remain vague about how much compression should be applied during mammogram acquisition. A quantitative parameter indicating the desirable amount of compression is not available. Consequently, little is known about the relationship between the amount of breast compression and breast cancer detectability. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of breast compression pressure in mammography on breast cancer screening outcomes. We used digital image analysis methods to determine breast volume, percent dense volume, and pressure from 132,776 examinations of 57,179 women participating in the Dutch population-based biennial breast cancer screening program. Pressure was estimated by dividing the compression force by the area of the contact surface between breast and compression paddle. The data was subdivided into quintiles of pressure and the number of screen-detected cancers, interval cancers, false positives, and true negatives were determined for each group. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for correlation between examinations of the same woman and for the effect of breast density and volume when estimating sensitivity, specificity, and other performance measures. Sensitivity was computed using interval cancers occurring between two screening rounds and using interval cancers within 12 months after screening. Pair-wise testing for significant differences was performed. Percent dense volume increased with increasing pressure, while breast volume decreased. Sensitivity in quintiles with increasing pressure was 82.0%, 77.1%, 79.8%, 71.1%, and 70.8%. Sensitivity based on interval cancers within 12 months was significantly lower in the highest pressure quintile compared to the third (84.3% vs 93.9%, p = 0.034). Specificity was lower in the

  4. MR mammography: influence of menstrual cycle on the dynamic contrast enhancement of fibrocystic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieber, A.; Nuessle, K.; Merkle, E.; Tomczak, R.; Brambs, H.J. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Radiologie 1 (Roentgendiagnostik); Kreienberg, R. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Gynecology

    1999-08-01

    Magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) provides data regarding the nature of tumours based on contrast medium dynamics; fibrocystic changes in the breast, however, may lead to false-positive results. This study investigated whether the contrast medium dynamics of fibrocystic changes are dependent on the menstrual cycle. Twenty-four patients with palpable lumps but normal mammographies and ultrasound studies were examined. The MRM technique was performed during the first and second part of the menstrual cycle using a FLASH 3D sequence, both native and at 1, 2, 3 and 8 min after intravenous application of 0.15 mmol/kg body weight of gadodiamide. The calculated time-intensity curves were evaluated based on the following criteria: early percentage of contrast medium uptake in relation to the native value; formation of a plateau phenomenon after the second minute; the point of maximal contrast medium uptake; and calculation of the contrast enhancing index. During the second half of the menstrual cycle, a generally greater contrast medium uptake was observed. Nevertheless, when further diagnostic criteria, such as continuous contrast medium increase as a function of time, were considered, there was no increased rate of false-positive findings. The phase of the menstrual cycle may affect the specificity of the examination, if only the quantitative contrast medium uptake and the percentage of contrast medium uptake in the first 2 min are considered. A control MRM during the other half of the cycle may then be indicated and additional diagnostic criteria may improve specificity. (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 24 refs.

  5. Influence of different anode/filter combination on radiation dose and image quality in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie; Liu Peifang; Zhang Lianlian; Ma Wenjuan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of different anode/filter combination on radiation dose and image quality in digital mammography, so as to choose optimal anode/filter combination to reduce radiation injury without scarifying image quality. Methods: Mammography accredition phantoms with the thickness from 1.6 cm to 8.6 cm were used to simulate human breast tissue. The same exposure conditions, pressure, compression thickness. and different anode/filter combination were employed under the automatic and manual exposure modes. The image kV, mAs, pressure, filter, average glandular dose (ACD), contrast to noise ratio (CNR) were recorded and the figure of merit (FOM) was calculated. SPSS 17.0 and one-way analysis of variance were used in the statistical analysis. Results: As the phantom thickness increase, the ACD values which were acquired with Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, and W/Ag three different anode/filter combinations were increased, but CNR and FOM values were decreased, ACD, CNR, and FOM values which were acquired in the phantom with different thickness, and three different anode/filter combinations were statistically different (P=0.000, respectively). The ACD values of Mo/Mo were lowest. For 1.6 cm-2.6 cm phantom thicknesses, the FOMs of Mo/Rh were lowest, and for 3.6 cm-8.6 cm phantom thicknesses, the FOMs of W/Ag were lowest. Conclusion: Phantom thickness in 1.6 cm-2.6 cm and 3.6 cm-8.6 cm. Mo/Rh combination and W/Ag combination respectively can achieve the highest FOM, and can provide the best imaging quality with low radiation dose. (authors)

  6. Compression force behaviours: An exploration of the beliefs and values influencing the application of breast compression during screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Fred; Nightingale, Julie; Hogg, Peter; Robinson, Leslie; Seddon, Doreen; Mackay, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This research project investigated the compression behaviours of practitioners during screening mammography. The study sought to provide a qualitative understanding of ‘how’ and ‘why’ practitioners apply compression force. With a clear conflict in the existing literature and little scientific evidence base to support the reasoning behind the application of compression force, this research project investigated the application of compression using a phenomenological approach. Following ethical approval, six focus group interviews were conducted at six different breast screening centres in England. A sample of 41 practitioners were interviewed within the focus groups together with six one-to-one interviews of mammography educators or clinical placement co-ordinators. The findings revealed two broad humanistic and technological categories consisting of 10 themes. The themes included client empowerment, white-lies, time for interactions, uncertainty of own practice, culture, power, compression controls, digital technology, dose audit-safety nets, numerical scales. All of these themes were derived from 28 units of significant meaning (USM). The results demonstrate a wide variation in the application of compression force, thus offering a possible explanation for the difference between practitioner compression forces found in quantitative studies. Compression force was applied in many different ways due to individual practitioner experiences and behaviour. Furthermore, the culture and the practice of the units themselves influenced beliefs and attitudes of practitioners in compression force application. The strongest recommendation to emerge from this study was the need for peer observation to enable practitioners to observe and compare their own compression force practice to that of their colleagues. The findings are significant for clinical practice in order to understand how and why compression force is applied

  7. Evaluation of the influence of the TH-GEM detector components in dosimetric measurements of standard mammography beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natália F.; Castro, Maysa C.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: nsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: maysadecastro@gmail.com, E-mail: fbelonsi@gmail.com, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Tiago F.; Cintra, Felipe B.; Luz, Hugo N. da, E-mail: tfsilva@if.usp.br, E-mail: hugonluz@if.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (IF/USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Física

    2017-07-01

    GEM detectors have found applications in many areas due to their simplicity of construction, low cost, ruggedness and diversity of shape. A dosimeter with these qualities presents utility in several applications, as for example in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine, industrial radiography and nuclear meters. Furthermore, the high sensitivity provided by GEM detectors may extend their applications in low dose dosimetry. Based on these facts, it may be interesting to produce a prototype of a portable TH-GEM type detector with characteristics suitable for dosimetric use in X-rays with low and medium energies. The precise determination of the dosimeter characteristics is very important for laboratories of instrument calibration, as well as to determine how the various components of the detector may influence on the energy deposited in the sensitive volume. In this work, the results obtained about the influence of each one of the components present in this type of detector in standard mammography beams is presented. The code MCNP5 was used. The results allowed the adaptation of the detector to the desired conditions. (author)

  8. Influence of different exposure modes on image quality and radiation dose in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie; Wang Xia; Li Xiaokang; Liu Peifang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different exposure modes on radiation dose and image quality in digital mammography, and to explore how to reduce patient's radiation injury by choosing proper exposure mode and exposure conditions without sacrifice image quality. Methods: A breast phantom was exposed by using automatic exposure mode (60 mAs, 28 k/V) and manual exposure modes (37.5 to 70 mAs range, 24 to 32 kV range) respectively. Same oppression thickness and pressure were set for all modes. The average glandular dose (AGD), entrance surface dose (ESD), and image quality score according to American College of Radiology (ACR) criteria were recorded for each image. Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare the image quality scores between automatic and manual modes. All statistic analyses were performed by using SPSS17.0. Results: Compared to automatic exposure mode (60 mAs, 28 k/V), the overall score of image quality of manual modes (45 to 70 mAs range, 26 to 32 kV range) had no significant difference. Both ESD and ACD decreased 26.1% and increased 15.4% when the tube loading was changed from 60 mAs to 45 mAs and 70 mAs respectively. The ESD and ACD decreased 22.6%, 28.2% and increased 47.0%, 62.7% when the tube voltage was changed from 28 kV to 26 kV and 32 kV respectively. Conclusion: When the image quality reaches to a certain level, it will not be raised by a higher photographic condition. Without sacrifice image quality, the tube loading and tube voltage can be manually decreased to reduce radiation dose. (authors)

  9. Human factors influencing decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    This report supplies references and comments on literature that identifies human factors influencing decision making, particularly military decision making. The literature has been classified as follows (the classes are not mutually exclusive): features of human information processing; decision making models which are not mathematical models but rather are descriptive; non- personality factors influencing decision making; national characteristics influencing decision makin...

  10. Factors affecting the precision of lesion sizing with contrast-enhanced spectral mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travieso-Aja, M Del Mar; Naranjo-Santana, P; Fernández-Ruiz, C; Severino-Rondón, W; Maldonado-Saluzzi, D; Rodríguez Rodríguez, M; Vega-Benítez, V; Luzardo, O P

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the precision of the pre-surgical measurement of the size of breast cancer by contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). This was a retrospective study of 204 breast cancers. Variables related to tumour biology and anthropometric variables were recorded and considered when evaluating the efficacy of CESM in predicting tumour size. Microscopic measurement of the largest diameter of the tumour at pathology was chosen as the reference standard. The mean size of tumours at pathology was 20.7±15.8 mm, while at CESM it was 23.6±16.7 mm (Bland-Altman 2.9 mm overestimation, 2.9 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -10.3-16.2 mm). Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.83 (p<0.0001). The concordance analysis indicated that 37.8% of the measurements were concordant, 47% were overestimated, and 15.2% were underestimated. Tumour size, nodal involvement, breast density, and breast size significantly modified the sizing accuracy. Quality of tumour size prediction with CESM is good, and this appears to be a promising imaging technique in the surgical planning of breast cancer. Biological tumour features, and anthropological characteristics of the patients do, however, affect the diagnostic precision and should be taken into account. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors influencing plant invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette Ortega; Dean Pearson

    2009-01-01

    Invasiveness of spotted knapweed and biological control agents. Dean and Yvette are examining the influence of drought on the invasiveness of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and its susceptibility to herbivory by biological control agents. In collaboration with the University of Montana and Forest Health Protection, researchers have constructed 150...

  12. Factors Influencing of Social Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwandi Sumartias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social conflicts that occur in several areas in Indonesia lately, one of them is caused by the weakness of law certainty. This is feared to threaten the integration of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to determine the factors that affect social conflict in Manis Lor village in Kuningan district. The method used the explanatory quantitative methods, the statistical test Path Analysis. The study population was a formal and informal community leaders (village chief, clergy, and youth, and the people who involved in a conflict in Manis Lor village Kuningan regency. The result shows a There is no significant influence between social identity factors with social conflict anarchist. b There is significant influence between socio-economic factors with social conflict anarchists. c There is no significant influence between the credibility factor anarchist leaders with social conflict. d There is no significant influence between the motive factor with anarchist social conflict. e There is significant influence between personality factors/beliefs with anarchist social conflict. f There is significant influence of behavioral factors anarchist communication with social conflict.

  13. Mammography fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkes, J.L. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A device is described for compressing a pendant breast during tomographic mammography using X-rays. The device utilises a thin, elastic membrane pressurised by a fluid whose X-ray absorption properties are similar to those of soft human tissue. The membrane changes the normal conical shape of a pendant breast into a substantially cylindrical shape. The breast is surrounded by a second fluid medium whose X-ray absorption properties are also similar to that of soft human tissue and tomography transmission is carried out through the second fluid medium and the breast. This patent claims the advantages of eliminating high gradients in X-ray absorption density and the effective detection of breast tumours with minimum radiation dosage and processing time. (UK)

  14. Pain and discomfort during mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Absetz-Ylöstalo, P; Eerola, T

    1996-01-01

    was the most powerful factor explaining pain and discomfort among women with earlier mammography. However, it had no effect among women without earlier mammography, for whom screening-related nervousness and perceptions of staff were crucial. Suggested interventions include better information before screening......The aim of this prospective study was to investigate associations of mammography pain and discomfort with sociodemographics, personal history and psychological and situational factors. Subjects were women with a negative screening finding (n = 883) from a random sample of 50-year-old Finnish women...... attending their first breast cancer screening. Questionnaires were sent 1 month before the screening invitation and 2 months after screening. Sixty-one per cent reported painful and 59% uncomfortable mammograms (4% severely). Linear regression analyses showed that anticipation of pain and discomfort...

  15. Family/Friend Recommendations and Mammography Intentions: The Roles of Perceived Mammography Norms and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Ornelas, India J.; Doty, Sarah L.; Bishop, Sonia; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Coronado, Gloria D.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying factors that increase mammography use among Latinas is an important public health priority. Latinas are more likely to report mammography intentions and use, if a family member or friend recommends that they get a mammogram. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the relationship between social interactions and mammography…

  16. Magnification mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickles, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Lack of detail, a situation commonly encountered, renders unreliable the diagnostic criteria described above, leading to equivocal radiographic interpretations. Standard practice calls for biopsy of such equivocal lesions in order to rule out malignancy; indeed, this is necessary to detect as many small cancers as possible. An unfortunate consequence of this approach, however, is that several benign lesions have to be removed for each cancer discovered. In some circumstances, especially when malignancy is thought to be unlikely, biopsy is deferred in favor of a series of follow-up mammographic examinations. It is even more unfortunate, if this latter course of action is chosen, when the underlying lesion proves to be cancerous and appropriate treatment is thereby delayed. One potential solution to this double-edged problem of equivocal interpretations is to substantially improve the sharpness and detail of the radiographic image, thus permitting one to utilize more fully the standard mammographic interpretive criteria that otherwise might be ignored. If this approach proves successful, some equivocal interpretations will be converted into more definitive diagnoses, either benign or malignant. The technique of direct radiographic magnification has been shown to be very helpful in this regard. Not only are magnification images known to display improved sharpness and detail, but magnification techniques have already been applied successfully to mammography, angiography, and skeletal radiography, resulting in increased diagnostic accuracy for these examinations

  17. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aimed at identifying the factors that influence women's decisions to purchase specific .... influence of all the factors influencing their decision to purchase a selected .... one free” promotions seemed to have had the greatest influence on this ...

  18. Could parenchymal enhancement on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) represent a new breast cancer risk factor? Correlation with known radiology risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaridas, S L; Taylor, D B; Gunawardana, D; Phillips, M

    2017-12-01

    To compare background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on contrast-enhanced (CE) spectral mammography (CESM) with CE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and evaluate how these relate to hormonal status, mammographic breast density (MBD) and MRI fibroglandular tissue volume (FGTV). Between June 2012 to October 2015, participants in a cancer staging study underwent full-field digital mammography (FFDM), CEMRI, and CESM. Two readers independently rated FGTV, MBD, and BPE using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) criteria. Inter-reader reliability was estimated using weighted kappa (k) and correlations between BPE, MBD, and FGTV calculated using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Associations with hormonal status were evaluated using multilevel ordinal regression analysis. Of the 96 eligible participants, 66 women (35-77 years) underwent CESM and CEMRI. Reasons for exclusion were declined or withdrawn consent (n=18), inadequate renal function (n=2), claustrophobia (n=2), previous reaction to contrast medium (n=2), mild reaction to contrast medium following CESM (n=2), lack of vascular access (n=1), neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n=1), CESM equipment failure (n=1), and unclear in one case. Inter-reader agreement was substantial (k=0.67) for CESM BPE, slight (k=0.19) for CEMRI BPE, moderate (k=0.57) for MRI FGTV and fair (k=0.35) for MBD. CESM BPE showed significant correlation with MBD (rho=0.36, p<0.0001), FGTV (rho=0.52, p<0.0001), and MRI BPE (rho=0.49, p<0.0001). BPE was significantly reduced in the post-menopausal group for CEMRI and CESM (p<0.05). CESM BPE did not significantly fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. CESM BPE is correlated with MBD, FGTV, and CEMRI BPE, has better inter-reader reliability than CEMRI, and is not influenced by the menstrual cycle. Grading the degree of BPE on CESM could be a useful addition to breast cancer risk assessment tools. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. Study on patient exposure from mammography, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Miyao

    1983-01-01

    Risks and benefits of the patient from mammography performed in Japan were estimated, and the indication of mammography were discussed. 1) Breast cancers induced by mammography were estimated based on the average breast dose, the average life span, risks of radiation-induced breast cancer and the breast cancer significant factor. 2) The breast cancer significant factor was calculated, similar to those of leukemia significant factor by Hashizume, from latent periods of radiation-induced breast cancer and the excess breast cancer induction rate in female A-bomb survivors. 3) Numbers of the deaths and Lost-years were calculated from risks of radiation-induced breast cancer, incidence of breast cancer by mammography, cure rate of breast cancer, average life span and latent period of radiation-induced breast cancer. 4) Numbers of the increased life and years saved were calculated from the improved rate of the ability of diagnosis, frequency of mammography, the average life span and cure rate of breast cancer. 5) Induction of leukemia, lung cancer and thyroid cancer by mammography also were investigated. Its contribution was not significant, compared to the induction of breast cancer. 6) Comparing risk and benefit, the latter was much higher than the former by factors of 71-76. This was suggested the efficacy of mammography. 7) From a pointview of risk and benefit, routine mammography is contraindicative for 10-19 years old women because of large risk, the indication must be scrutinized for 20-29 years old ones, and the benefit increases with age for over 30 years old ones so that mammography was positively admitted for the symptomatic women. (author)

  20. FACTORS INFLUENCING SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Khasinah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivation, attitude, age, intelligence, aptitude, cognitive style, and personality are considered as factors that greatly influence someone in the process of his or her second language acquisition. Experts state that those factors give a more dominant contribution in SLA to learners variedly, depend on who the learners are, their age, how they behave toward the language, their cognitive ability, and also the way they learn.

  1. Control of image quality in mammography. Influence of assessing subjective image of a test object; Control de calidad de imagen en mamografia. Influencia de la valoracion subjetiva de la imagen de un objeto de prueba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Concepcion, E.; Garrido Breton, C.; Batista Arce, A.; Gonzalez Lopez, S.; Catalan Acosta, A.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2013-07-01

    . The object of this work is to assess the influence of the observer in the control of image quality to the digital mammography machine of our hospital, establishing reference values and tolerances that take into account the variability between observers. (Author)

  2. Factors influencing bone scan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)

  3. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Baumert, Kevin; Blanchard, Odile; Burch, Sarah; Robinson, John

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  4. Mammography screening in Greece: An exploratory survey of women's views, experiences and behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Kalokerinou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internationally, breast cancer comprises 29% of all cancer incidences. In Greece, 1,500-1,800women die annually from breast cancer out of the 4,000 who are affected. Only 5% are detected at an early diseasestage through mammography screening.Aim: This paper presents findings from a study exploring the factors that influence Greek women’smammography screening behaviour.Methodology: Data were collected in Athens-Greece, during the period March-July 2008, from individuals whowere members of six women’s associations. One hundred and eighty six questionnaires were completed and 33interviews were conducted from a sub-sample. This paper reports the findings from the questionnaire survey.Results: Participants had a variety of demographic characteristics with 85% of them having attendedmammography screening. Only 61% of them intended to continue in the future. Τhe majority of women agreedwith a number of factors which supported their decision to participate in regular mammography screening, such asdoctors’ encouragement and mammogram efficacy to detect breast cancer at an early stage, while anxiety wasidentified as a possible inhibitor to their participation.Conclusion: Women’s mammography screening behaviour and perceptions of mammography screening appearedto be positive in relation to their participation. However, the reasons as to why a large number of women indicatedthey were unlikely to go for mammography screening again is not known, and needs further investigation.

  5. Experience with digital mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Korzhenkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital techniques in mammography has become a last step for completing the process of digitization in diagnostic imaging. It is assumed that such a spatial decision will be required for digital mammography, as well as for high-resolution intensifying screen-film systems used in conventional mammography and that the digital techniques will be limited by the digitizer pixel size on detecting minor structures, such as microcalcifications. The introduction of digital technologies in mammography involves a tight control over an image and assures its high quality.

  6. College factors that influence drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cheryl A; Meilman, Philip W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the aspects of collegiate environments, rather than student characteristics, that influence drinking. Unfortunately, the existing literature is scant on this topic. A literature review of articles primarily published within the last 10 years, along with some earlier "landmark" studies of collegiate drinking in the United States, was conducted to determine institutional factors that influence the consumption of alcohol. In addition, a demonstration analysis of Core Alcohol and Drug Survey research findings was conducted to further elucidate the issues. Several factors have been shown to relate to drinking: (1) organizational property variables of campuses, including affiliations (historically black institutions, women's institutions), presence of a Greek system, athletics and 2- or 4-year designation; (2) physical and behavioral property variables of campuses, including type of residence, institution size, location and quantity of heavy episodic drinking; and (3) campus community property variables, including pricing and availability and outlet density. Studies, however, tend to look at individual variables one at a time rather than in combination (multivariate analyses). Some new analyses, using Core Alcohol and Drug Survey data sets, are presented as examples of promising approaches to future research. Given the complexities of campus environments, it continues to be a challenge to the field to firmly establish the most compelling institutional and environmental factors relating to high-risk collegiate drinking.

  7. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  8. Mammography screening services: market segments and messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammon, D L; Smith, J A; Beard, T

    1991-01-01

    Mammography has become a vital tool for the early detection of breast cancer. Although many organizations and health care facilities are working to educate and motivate women to take advantage of the life saving opportunity that is offered through screening mammography, only twenty percent of women who should be screened actually have the procedure performed. In order to reach women who have not been screened, it is important to learn which factors most strongly motivate those women who do choose to have a mammogram. Depth interviews with 18 women attending a mobile mammography unit were conducted to explore the decision making process of women obtaining mammography screening services and to develop a profile of prevalent emotions, attitudes, and feelings associated with receiving breast cancer screening services. Analysis of the interview transcripts revealed several important themes to which health care professionals can direct marketing and health promotion strategies.

  9. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  10. Screen-film mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, W.W.; Janus, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The development of screen-film mammography has resulted in the re-emergence of confidence, rather than fear, in mammography. When screen-film mammography is performed with state-of-the-art dedicated equipment utilizing vigorous breast compression and a ''soft'' x-ray beam for improved contrast, screen-film images are equivalent or superior to those of reduced-dose xeromammography and superior to those of nonscreen film mammography. Technological aids for conversion from xeromammographic or nonscreen film mammographic techniques to screen-film techniques have been described. Screen-film mammography should not be attempted until dedicated equipment has been obtained and the importance of vigorous compression has been understood

  11. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Nyando ... The overall objective of this study was to determine factors influencing the ... EBF and its benefits), pre lacteal feeds and exclusive breastfeeding consistency.

  12. One more hurdle to increasing mammography screening: pubescent, adolescent, and prior mammography screening experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Eileen; Usher, LaToya

    2009-01-01

    Approximately $8.1 billion dollars is spent each year in the United States alone on the treatment of breast cancer. Survival rates are dependent on access to, and utilization of, early detection services. The primary reason for disparity in breast cancer mortality is the delay in time to diagnosis, resulting in poor prognosis. Despite ongoing research to understand barriers to mammography screening, recent studies report a decrease in mammography screening among all racial groups. A qualitative approach was used to elicit information from 36 White non- Hispanic, African-American, Hispanic, and Native American women without a history of breast cancer. Women were invited to share written or audiotape-recorded narratives about experiences pertaining to their breasts and their mammography screening experiences. Major categories identified were: teasing, family norms and values, media/societal influence, body image, and mammography screening experiences. The resulting effects of these experiences left these women with feelings of shame and "conflict" regarding their breasts. The major theme identified was breast conflict. Findings suggest that breast conflict may persist throughout the lifespan and can have a negative influence on a woman's decision to participate in mammography screening. The authors hypothesize that experiences that occur during adolescence pertaining to young girls' breasts can influence a women's body image, which in turn can later in life affect health-seeking behaviors related to mammography screening. These findings have implications for public health practice in planning for breast cancer screening, education, and interventions for women from diverse racial/ethnics groups.

  13. Influence of lifestyle factors on mammographic density in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Brand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT, little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. METHODS: We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI and HRT was studied. RESULTS: Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07. This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06: increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01 but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82. A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04. No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk.

  14. Automated Breast Density Computation in Digital Mammography and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: Influence on Mean Glandular Dose and BIRADS Density Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-García, Maria; Chevalier, Margarita; Garayoa, Julia; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Alejandro; García-Pinto, Diego; Valverde, Julio

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to compare the breast density estimates from two algorithms on full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and to analyze the clinical implications. We selected 561 FFDM and DBT examinations from patients without breast pathologies. Two versions of a commercial software (Quantra 2D and Quantra 3D) calculated the volumetric breast density automatically in FFDM and DBT, respectively. Other parameters such as area breast density and total breast volume were evaluated. We compared the results from both algorithms using the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test and the Spearman's rank coefficient for data correlation analysis. Mean glandular dose (MGD) was calculated following the methodology proposed by Dance et al. Measurements with both algorithms are well correlated (r ≥ 0.77). However, there are statistically significant differences between the medians (P density median values from FFDM are, respectively, 8% and 77% higher than DBT estimations. Both algorithms classify 35% and 55% of breasts into BIRADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System) b and c categories, respectively. There are no significant differences between the MGD calculated using the breast density from each algorithm. DBT delivers higher MGD than FFDM, with a lower difference (5%) for breasts in the BIRADS d category. MGD is, on average, 6% higher than values obtained with the breast glandularity proposed by Dance et al. Breast density measurements from both algorithms lead to equivalent BIRADS classification and MGD values, hence showing no difference in clinical outcomes. The median MGD values of FFDM and DBT examinations are similar for dense breasts (BIRADS d category). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Comparison of tomosynthesis plus digital mammography and digital mammography alone for breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Brian M; Kalra, Vivek; Geisel, Jaime; Raghu, Madhavi; Durand, Melissa; Philpotts, Liane E

    2013-12-01

    To compare screening recall rates and cancer detection rates of tomosynthesis plus conventional digital mammography to those of conventional digital mammography alone. All patients presenting for screening mammography between October 1, 2011, and September 30, 2012, at four clinical sites were reviewed in this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, for which the institutional review board granted approval and waived the requirement for informed consent. Patients at sites with digital tomosynthesis were offered screening with digital mammography plus tomosynthesis. Patients at sites without tomosynthesis underwent conventional digital mammography. Recall rates were calculated and stratified according to breast density and patient age. Cancer detection rates were calculated and stratified according to the presence of a risk factor for breast cancer. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effect of screening method, breast density, patient age, and cancer risk on the odds of recall from screening. A total of 13 158 patients presented for screening mammography; 6100 received tomosynthesis. The overall recall rate was 8.4% for patients in the tomosynthesis group and 12.0% for those in the conventional mammography group (P tomosynthesis reduced recall rates for all breast density and patient age groups, with significant differences (P tomosynthesis versus 5.2 per 1000 in patients receiving conventional mammography alone (P = .70). Patients undergoing tomosynthesis plus digital mammography had significantly lower screening recall rates. The greatest reductions were for those younger than 50 years and those with dense breasts. A nonsignificant 9.5% increase in cancer detection was observed in the tomosynthesis group. © RSNA, 2013.

  16. Does gender discrimination impact regular mammography screening? Findings from the race differences in screening mammography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Amy B; Kasl, Stanislav V; Jones, Beth A

    2008-03-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine if gender discrimination, conceptualized as a negative life stressor, is a deterrent to adherence to mammography screening guidelines. African American and white women (1451) aged 40-79 years who obtained an index screening mammogram at one of five urban hospitals in Connecticut between October 1996 and January 1998 were enrolled in this study. This logistic regression analysis includes the 1229 women who completed telephone interviews at baseline and follow-up (average 29.4 months later) and for whom the study outcome, nonadherence to age-specific mammography screening guidelines, was determined. Gender discrimination was measured as lifetime experience in seven possible situations. Gender discrimination, reported by nearly 38% of the study population, was significantly associated with nonadherence to mammography guidelines in women with annual family incomes of > or =$50,000 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.33, 2.98) and did not differ across racial/ethnic group. Our findings suggest that gender discrimination can adversely influence regular mammography screening in some women. With nearly half of women nonadherent to screening mammography guidelines in this study and with decreasing mammography rates nationwide, it is important to address the complexity of nonadherence across subgroups of women. Life stressors, such as experiences of gender discrimination, may have considerable consequences, potentially influencing health prevention prioritization in women.

  17. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  18. Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, M.S.; Waggoner, Ch.A.

    2009-01-01

    Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size

  19. Digital mammography; Mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, M.; Torres, R.

    2010-07-01

    Mammography represents one of the most demanding radiographic applications, simultaneously requiring excellent contrast sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and wide dynamic range. Film/screen is the most widely extended image receptor in mammography due to both its high spatial resolution and contrast. The film/screen limitations are related with its narrow latitude, structural noise and that is at the same time the medium for the image acquisition, storage and presentation. Several digital detector made with different technologies can overcome these difficulties. Here, these technologies as well as their main advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. Also it is discussed its impact on the mammography examinations, mainly on the breast screening programs. (Author).

  20. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Claudia MOISĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

  1. Factors Influencing Compliance with Mammography Screening Recommendations in an Air Force Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Link, Tamara

    1998-01-01

    .... Data was analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 6.1. This study found that over 80% of respondents indicated their last mammogram was for routine screening purposes as opposed to diagnostic purposes. Most respondents (82...

  2. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  3. Quality assurance in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fosmark, H.; Olerud, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    Guidelines in mammography are given, including competence of staff, performance of equipment and quality control procedures. The purpose of the guidelines is to ensure optimum diagnostic quality. 5 refs

  4. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... in various countries of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human ... influence consumption of Mursik, a traditionally fermented milk product from ...

  5. Validation of the English and Spanish Mammography Beliefs and Attitudes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-McKee, Gloria; Bader, Julia

    2011-03-21

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among Hispanic women in the United States. Unfortunately Hispanic women exhibit poor mammography screening participation, are diagnosed at later stages of the disease, and have lower survival rates than non-Hispanic white women. Several cultural and psycho-social factors have been found to influence mammography screening participation among Hispanic women. We will begin by presenting the theoretical framework that grounded this research program to develop an instrument to assess factors contributing to poor mammography participation among Hispanic women. We will also summarize the early stages in the development of the English and Spanish Mammography Beliefs and Attitudes Questionnaire (MBAQ and SMBAQ) for use with low-health-literacy Mexican-American women. Next we will describe the initial psychometric testing of the MBAQ/SMBAQ, after which we will present the psychometric testing of the SMBAQ with low-health-literacy women. This will be followed by a discussion of the modification of the MBAQ and SMBAQ subscales. We'll conclude with a discussion of the instruments and share our assessment regarding the limitations of this research program, where the program stands to date, and the implications for practice and future research.

  6. Using Mammography Screening: Hmong Women’s Perceptions and Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Vang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among all women in the United States. Although mammography screening has been shown to be effective in detecting breast cancer, Hmong women, one of the Asian American/Pacific Islander subgroups, have a very low screening rate. The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence Hmong women‘s willingness to be screened for breast cancer. Grounded Theory methodology guided the analysis of fifteen qualitative interviews with Midwestern Hmong women between the ages of40-64. Regardless of age, length of US residency, and language spoken, the results showed one core theme and three interrelated themes regarding the women‘s decision to seek mammographyscreening. The three interrelated themes of Breast Health Messages, Screening Barriers, and Screening Facilitators can have negative and/or positive influences on the core theme of mammography-screening decision-making processes. The first related theme of Breast HealthMessages included professional and lay breast health messages. The second related theme, Screening Facilitators, included breast health messages from professionals, abnormal findings, social support, risk for getting breast cancer, doctor‘s recommendations, and insurance. The third related theme, Screening Barriers, identified symptomatic health seeking behavior, instrumental barriers, fear, social influence (which included lay breast health messages, use of traditional Hmong healing practices, embarrassment, and perception of breast cancer risk. This study suggested that the healthcare professionals need to use a culturally sensitive and multidisciplinaryapproach to provide breast health education as well as to assess and provide instrumental support, while encouraging social support to influence Hmong women to attain mammography screening.

  7. Analysis of participant factors that affect the diagnostic performance of screening mammography: A report of the alliance for breast cancer screening in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Joong; Lee, Eu Hye

    2017-01-01

    To analyze participant factors that affect the diagnostic performance of screening mammography. We enrolled 128756 cases from 10 hospitals between 2005 and 2010. We analyzed recall rate, cancer detection rate (CDR) per 1000 examinations, positive predictive value (PPV), sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate (FPR), and interval cancer rate (ICR) per 1000 negative examinations according to participant factors including age, breast density, and number of visit to the same institution, and adjusted for confounding variables. Increasing age improved recall rates (27.4% in 40's, 17.5% in 50's, 11.1% in 60's, and 8.6% in 70's), CDR (2.7, 3.2, 2.0, and 2.4), PPV (1.0, 1.8, 1.8, and 2.8%), sensitivity (81.3, 88.8, 90.3, and 94.7%), specificity (72.7, 82.7, 89.0, and 91.7%), and FPR (27.3, 17.3, 11.0, and 8.4%) (p < 0.05). Higher breast density impaired recall rates (4.0% in P1, 9.0% in P2, 28.9% in P3, and 27.8% in P4), PPV (3.3, 2.3, 1.2, and 1.3%), specificity (96.1, 91.2, 71.4, and 72.5%), and FPR (3.9, 8.9, 28.6, and 27.6%) (p < 0.001). It also increased CDR (1.3, 2.1, 3.3, and 3.6) and ICR (0.2, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.6) (p < 0.05). Successive visits to the same institution improved recall rates (20.9% for one visit, 10.7% for two visits, 7.7% for more than three visits), PPV (1.6, 2.8, and 2.7%), specificity (79.4, 89.6, and 92.5%), and FPR (20.6, 10.4, and 7.5%) (p < 0.001). Young age and dense breasts negatively affected diagnostic performance in mammography screening, whereas successive visits to the same institution had a positive effect. Examinee education for successive visits to the same institution would improve the diagnostic performance

  8. Analysis of participant factors that affect the diagnostic performance of screening mammography: A report of the alliance for breast cancer screening in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Joong [Dept. of Radiology, Konyang University Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eu Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-08-01

    To analyze participant factors that affect the diagnostic performance of screening mammography. We enrolled 128756 cases from 10 hospitals between 2005 and 2010. We analyzed recall rate, cancer detection rate (CDR) per 1000 examinations, positive predictive value (PPV), sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate (FPR), and interval cancer rate (ICR) per 1000 negative examinations according to participant factors including age, breast density, and number of visit to the same institution, and adjusted for confounding variables. Increasing age improved recall rates (27.4% in 40's, 17.5% in 50's, 11.1% in 60's, and 8.6% in 70's), CDR (2.7, 3.2, 2.0, and 2.4), PPV (1.0, 1.8, 1.8, and 2.8%), sensitivity (81.3, 88.8, 90.3, and 94.7%), specificity (72.7, 82.7, 89.0, and 91.7%), and FPR (27.3, 17.3, 11.0, and 8.4%) (p < 0.05). Higher breast density impaired recall rates (4.0% in P1, 9.0% in P2, 28.9% in P3, and 27.8% in P4), PPV (3.3, 2.3, 1.2, and 1.3%), specificity (96.1, 91.2, 71.4, and 72.5%), and FPR (3.9, 8.9, 28.6, and 27.6%) (p < 0.001). It also increased CDR (1.3, 2.1, 3.3, and 3.6) and ICR (0.2, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.6) (p < 0.05). Successive visits to the same institution improved recall rates (20.9% for one visit, 10.7% for two visits, 7.7% for more than three visits), PPV (1.6, 2.8, and 2.7%), specificity (79.4, 89.6, and 92.5%), and FPR (20.6, 10.4, and 7.5%) (p < 0.001). Young age and dense breasts negatively affected diagnostic performance in mammography screening, whereas successive visits to the same institution had a positive effect. Examinee education for successive visits to the same institution would improve the diagnostic performance.

  9. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  10. An evaluation of musculoskeletal discomfort experience by radiographers performing mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, A.G.; May, J.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether breast screening radiographers experience any problems of musculoskeletal discomfort, and if so the nature and extent of these problems. The study was then further extended to investigate and determine possible occupational, causal or contributory factors, and to suggest recommendations to help alleviate any discomfort. To investigate this problem five main approaches were undertaken. These consisted of; a national survey, an observational study, the comparison of the physical measurements of the mammography units with anthropometric data, a detailed task analysis, and a body mapping study. The national survey set out to determine if the nature and frequency of such problems were higher in mammography than in other areas of radiography or in the general population. Additionally, comparisons were made with non-radiographic staff working at the same breast screening centres. Video recordings of radiographers performing breast screening were also made and posture analysis performed on these data. A detailed task analysis was conducted to identify interaction points and possible problems between the radiographer and the equipment which she is required to use. Physical measurements of the mammography units were made and compared with anthropometric measurements and guidelines. The body mapping study measured the build up of discomfort throughout the working day on several different mammography units. The results from the survey questionnaire indicated that some breast screening radiographers do experience musculoskeletal problems, and that these are different in nature and prevalence from the musculoskeletal discomfort reported by the two control groups. The prevalence of back pain reported by radiographers undertaking mammography was higher than that present in the normal population. No comparison could be made with other body areas as data regarding other types of musculoskeletal discomfort in the general population are

  11. An evaluation of musculoskeletal discomfort experience by radiographers performing mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, A.G.; May, J

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether breast screening radiographers experience any problems of musculoskeletal discomfort, and if so the nature and extent of these problems. The study was then further extended to investigate and determine possible occupational, causal or contributory factors, and to suggest recommendations to help alleviate any discomfort. To investigate this problem five main approaches were undertaken. These consisted of; a national survey, an observational study, the comparison of the physical measurements of the mammography units with anthropometric data, a detailed task analysis, and a body mapping study. The national survey set out to determine if the nature and frequency of such problems were higher in mammography than in other areas of radiography or in the general population. Additionally, comparisons were made with non-radiographic staff working at the same breast screening centres. Video recordings of radiographers performing breast screening were also made and posture analysis performed on these data. A detailed task analysis was conducted to identify interaction points and possible problems between the radiographer and the equipment which she is required to use. Physical measurements of the mammography units were made and compared with anthropometric measurements and guidelines. The body mapping study measured the build up of discomfort throughout the working day on several different mammography units. The results from the survey questionnaire indicated that some breast screening radiographers do experience musculoskeletal problems, and that these are different in nature and prevalence from the musculoskeletal discomfort reported by the two control groups. The prevalence of back pain reported by radiographers undertaking mammography was higher than that present in the normal population. No comparison could be made with other body areas as data regarding other types of musculoskeletal discomfort in the general population are

  12. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors influencing substance abuse amongundergraduate students in Osun State; Nigeria. A sample of 1, 200undergraduate students were randomly selected from three tertiaryinstitution in Osun State. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse Questionnaire (FISA) was developed by the researcher ...

  13. Factors influencing customer satisfaction with reference and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines factors influencing customer satisfaction with reference and information services in an academic environment. The paper identifies types of reference services in libraries, factors influencing customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction with reference and information services and suggested the way forward ...

  14. Factors Influencing Livelihood Diversification among Rural Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was set out to analyze factors influencing rural farmer's engagement in livelihood diversification in the study area. The specific objectives were; to identify the different levels of farmers' engagement in livelihood diversification, determine the socio-demographic factors or forces that influence farmers' ...

  15. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cut‑off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in ...

  16. Practical digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Beverly E. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Virginia Mason Medical Center, VA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This book is meant for the radiologist who is facing the challenge of organizing a digital mammographic imaging center. This text is meant to be a practical book that provides information about digital mammographic physics and equipment which will allow one to intelligently compare technologies and systems. Some of the major challenges include: large expense; rapidly changing technology, and inconsistent connectivity; and finally, need for strong information technology support. The initial conversion cost to digital mammographic imaging is relatively expensive due to the cost of digital mammography hardware, software, and storage. Virtually all other imaging modalities are being converted to purely digital storage and transfer, and the digital trend in mammography is inevitable. Technical advantages of digital mammography are described. However, the improved flexibility in image display and transfer are some of its strongest features. In conclusion, although there are increasing imaging modalities that may be used to evaluate breast disease, mammography will continue to play a key role in detecting breast cancer. To be an effective imager, the radiologist should become familiar with digital mammography and understand its role within the increasing complex structure of breast imaging techniques.

  17. Practical digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Beverly E.

    2008-01-01

    This book is meant for the radiologist who is facing the challenge of organizing a digital mammographic imaging center. This text is meant to be a practical book that provides information about digital mammographic physics and equipment which will allow one to intelligently compare technologies and systems. Some of the major challenges include: large expense; rapidly changing technology, and inconsistent connectivity; and finally, need for strong information technology support. The initial conversion cost to digital mammographic imaging is relatively expensive due to the cost of digital mammography hardware, software, and storage. Virtually all other imaging modalities are being converted to purely digital storage and transfer, and the digital trend in mammography is inevitable. Technical advantages of digital mammography are described. However, the improved flexibility in image display and transfer are some of its strongest features. In conclusion, although there are increasing imaging modalities that may be used to evaluate breast disease, mammography will continue to play a key role in detecting breast cancer. To be an effective imager, the radiologist should become familiar with digital mammography and understand its role within the increasing complex structure of breast imaging techniques

  18. Teaching atlas of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabar, L.; Dean, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    The illustrated case reports in this teaching atlas cover practically the entire range of possible pathological changes and are based on in-patient case material and 80,000 screening documents. The two basic approaches, - detection and analysis of changes -, are taught comprehensively and in great detail. A systematic procedure for analysing the mammographies, in order to detect even the very least changes, and its practical application is explained using mammographies showing unclear findings at first sight. A system of coordinates is presented which allows precise localisation of the changes. Exercises for practising the technique of identifying the pathological changes round up the methodolical chapters. Additional imaging technical enhancements and detail enlargements are of great help in interpreting the findings. The specific approach adopted for this teaching atlas is a 'reverse procedure', which leaves the beaten track and starts with analysing the mammographies and evaluating the radiographic findings, in order to finally derive the diagnosis. (orig./CB) [de

  19. [Hierarchy structuring for mammography technique by interpretive structural modeling method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Nozomi; Kurowarabi, Kunio; Terashita, Takayoshi; Nishimoto, Naoki; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2009-10-20

    Participation in screening mammography is currently desired in Japan because of the increase in breast cancer morbidity. However, the pain and discomfort of mammography is recognized as a significant deterrent for women considering this examination. Thus quick procedures, sufficient experience, and advanced skills are required for radiologic technologists. The aim of this study was to make the point of imaging techniques explicit and to help understand the complicated procedure. We interviewed 3 technologists who were highly skilled in mammography, and 14 factors were retrieved by using brainstorming and the KJ method. We then applied Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) to the factors and developed a hierarchical concept structure. The result showed a six-layer hierarchy whose top node was explanation of the entire procedure on mammography. Male technologists were related to as a negative factor. Factors concerned with explanation were at the upper node. We gave attention to X-ray techniques and considerations. The findings will help beginners improve their skills.

  20. Mammography and Pap test screening among low-income foreign-born Hispanic women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Maria E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomes<=$15,000. All women were Spanish speakers and had low acculturation levels. Ninety six percent had reported having a Pap smear, but 24% were not in compliance with recommended screening (Pap test within the last 3 years. Among women 40 and older, 62% had received a mammogram, but only 33% were compliant with age appropriate recommended mammography screening guidelines. Women in this study had more misconceptions about cancer than Hispanics in other studies. Multivariate logistic models for correlates of Pap test and mammography screening behavior indicate that factors such as fear of the screening test, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge influenced screening behavior. In conclusion, women in this study had lower rates of mammography screening than non-Hispanic women and lower rates of compliance with recommended Mammography and Pap test screening guidelines.

  1. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    level factors on birth spacing behaviour in Uganda and Zimbabwe, to ... environments as potential influences on birth spacing ..... health: multivariable cross-country analysis, MACRO ... Equity monitoring for social marketing: Use of wealth.

  2. Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers among Tertiary ... role stereotype and common business practices on media self employment in ... Sex, Psycho-social Characteristics, self Employment, Providing Media Services.

  3. Influence of Macroeconomic Factors on Residential Property ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    exerted by macroeconomic factors on residential property returns in Abuja. The backward .... explanatory power and positive influence of employment and ...... Project. Management In Property Development: the Nigeria experience. Ibadan:.

  4. Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated by Olam Organisation in ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... level, household size, no of farm family assisting on the farm, management system adopted, ...

  5. Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0794-5698. Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in Fadama II Project ... project implementation (80%) in the stages of project development. Women .... the project as they appeared to have more family burden to ...

  6. Pain during mammography: Implications for breast screening programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Pain experienced during mammography can deter women from attending for breast cancer screening. Review of the current literature on pain experienced during mammography reveals three main areas of interest: reports of the frequency of pain, identification of predictors of pain and strategies for responding to pain. Implications of this literature for breast screening programmes include the need for appropriate measurements of pain during mammography that are valid for screening populations, a further understanding of organizational factors involved in screening programmes that may be predictors of pain and for the development of valid strategies for responding to pain within breast screening programmes. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  7. Factors influencing detail detectability in radiologic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The detectability of various details is estimated quantitatively from the essential technical parameters of the imaging system and additional influencing factors including viewing of the image. The analysis implies the formation of the input radiation distribution (contrast formation, influence of kVp). Noise, image contrast (gamma), modulation transfer function and contrast threshold of the observer are of different influence on details of different size. Thus further optimization of imaging systems and their adaption to specific imaging tasks are facilitated

  8. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  9. Factors Influencing Title VII Bilingual Program Institutionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gerald R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study of the primary restraining and driving forces that influence Title VII bilingual education programs found the external environment, the local community, to be the main factor influencing institutionalization and self-renewal. The internal environment--the local school, and the local school's organization or central office, school board,…

  10. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  11. Radiology Residents' Performance in Screening Mammography Interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lyou, Chae Yeon

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate radiology residents' performance in screening mammography interpretation and to analyze the factors affecting performance. We enrolled 203 residents from 21 institutions and performed mammography interpretation tests. Between the trainee and non-trainee groups, we compared the interpretation score, recall rate, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV) and false-positive rate (FPR). We estimated the training effect using the score differences between trainee and non-trainee groups. We analyzed the factors affecting performance between training-effective and non-effective groups. Trainees were superior to non-trainees regarding interpretation score (43.1 vs. 37.1), recall rate (11.0 vs. 15.5%), sensitivity (83.6 vs. 72.0%), PPV (53.0 vs. 32.4%) and FPR (13.5 vs. 25.5). The longer the training period, the better were the interpretation score, recall rate, sensitivity, PPV and FPR (rho = 0.486, -0.375, 0.343, 0.504, -0.446, respectively). The training affected an increase by an average of 6 points; however, 31.6% of institutions showed no effect. A difference was noted in the volume of mammography interpretation during a month (594.0 vs. 476.9) and dedication of breast staff (61.5 vs. 0%) between training-effective and non-effective groups. Trainees showed better performance in mammography interpretation compared to non-trainees. Moreover, performance was correlated with the training period. The factors affecting performance were the volume of mammography interpretation and the dedication of the breast staff.

  12. Mammography: Technique and diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Ja; Bahk, Yong Whee; Lee, Don Young

    1974-01-01

    Mammography is now in world wide use, But this has received rather scanty attention in Korea. The purposes of the present communication are twofold: (1) Detailing of technical and photographic aspects of mam in ography and (2) an assessment of its diagnostic accuracy as experienced by us. The clinical materials consisted of 88 cases of mammography performed at the Department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College during the 2 years-period from April 1972. We used nonscreen type mammographic or industrial fine- grain films, and a special mammographic device that can be attached to any of the ordinary radiographic machine. Technical factors are shown in Table II. Of 88 cases 19 were operated on or biopsied. There were 7 cases of carcinoma. 8 cases of inflammatory diseases, and 4 cases of benign tumor. Mammographic diagnosis was correct in 85.7% of carcinoma and 87.5% of inflammatory diseases. One misdiagnosis of 7 cases of carcinoma was turned out to be cystosarcoma phylloides. Of 4 cases of benign tumors 2 were correctly diagnosed, and the other 2 mistaken for either inflammatory disease or simple lactating breast. However, none of the benign conditions were diagnosed as malignant process. We found that nonscreen type mammographic or industrial fine-grain films, and hand-processing were necessary in obtaining the mammograms of desirable quality

  13. Influence of diagnostic quality scanning technique with CR mammography; Influencia de la tecnica de exploracion en la calidad diagnostica de la mamografia ocn CR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas Ballarin, M. A.; Ruiz Manzano, P.; Ortega Pardina, P.; Laliena Bielsa, V.; Calvo Carrillo, S.; Garcia Romero, A.; Millan Cebrian, E.

    2013-07-01

    Image quality criteria laid down in the Spanish Protocol of Control of quality in Radiology (PECCR) to a team of mammography with CR imaging system are applied in this work and evaluated the dosimetry impact implied by the modification of the technique of exposure required for the fulfilment of those criteria. Is also analyzes the impact on the image quality of the new radiographic technique, evaluated by three radiologists. (Author)

  14. Factors influencing job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Liana M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influencing job satisfaction and the perspective of frontline medical imaging staff in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The sample consisted of 359 registered radiologic technologists who were working as staff technologists in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The results of the study suggest that satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators influences overall satisfaction with the work environment and job and commitment to the employer.

  15. Dose measurements in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainberger, F.; Kallinger, W.

    1977-01-01

    Dose measurements at the mamma during mammography were carried out in the form of direct measurement with thermoluminescent dosimetry. Measurement was done for the in- and outcoming doses at the mamma, the dose exposure of the sternal region and the scattered rays above the symphysis, the latter as parameter for the genetic radiation exposure. As expected, the dose of the smooth radiation used for mammography showed a strong decrease at the outcome point in comparison with the income point. Surprisingly high was the scattered radiation in the sternal region. A corresponding protection by lead plates could be taken into consideration. Extremely low is the scattered radiation above the symphysis. Even measurements with the very sensitive calcium fluoride dosimeters did not reveal any practically important dose in the symphysis region. Most measurement values remained below the determinable dose of 0.3mR. Some maximal values varied in the range of 3-1 mR. (orig.) [de

  16. Hardware for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhkova, N.I.; Chikirdin, Eh.G.; Ryudiger, Yu.G.; Kochetova, G.P.; Lisachenko, I.V.; Yakobs, O.Eh.

    2000-01-01

    The comparative studies on various visualization means, in particular, the intensifying screens and films with application of quantitative methods for determining small details on photographs, including measurements of corresponding exposures, absorbed doses and verification of conclusions through the analysis of clinical observations are carried out. It is shown, that technical equipment of the modern mammography room should include the X-ray mammographic apparatus, providing for the image high-quality by low dose loads with special film holders, meeting the mammography requirements, the corresponding X-ray film and the automatic photolaboratory process, provided by one and the same company. The quality of photographs under such conditions is guarantied, the defects and errors by the image interpretation are excluded. The modern computerized information technologies for work with medical images on the basic of creating new generations of diagnostic instrumentation with digital video channels and computerized working places dispose of many medical, technological, organizational and financial problems [ru

  17. Current status of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crymes, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Great progress has been made in recent years in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer; however, breast cancer continues to be the most common and lethal cancer in women today. Early diagnosis is essential in order for treatmet to be given before the tumor spreads beyond the breast. The radiation risks of mammography have been greatly reduced with the use of newer low-dose techniques, and the benefits of mammography have increased because of a better understanding of the natural history of breast cancer, as well as improved methods of treatment. Radiologists must continue to take an active role in the early diagnosis of breast cancer. Continued research is needed in order to improve screening methods and to develop newer, noninvasive techniques

  18. Soft copy digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Hee

    2005-01-01

    Screen-film mammography (SFM) has been the standard method used for breast cancer screening and making a clinical diagnosis. It is a valuable modality for the detection and differentiation of breast calcifications. The advantages are the high spatital resolution, the convenient display, and inexpensiveness. However, it has some inherent limitations such as its low detective quantum efficiency and difficulty of post-processing after obtaining after an image. Digital mammography (DM) has the potential to overcome the inherent limitations of SFM. DM systems directly qualify x-ray photons and decouple the process of x-ray photon detection from the image display. The digital images can be processed by a computer and displayed in multiple formats. Thus, DM is better than SFM for the detection of mass lesions due to its high contrast resolution

  19. Mammography accreditation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, P.

    1993-12-31

    In the mid-1980`s, the movement toward the use of dedicated mammography equipment provided significant improvement in breast cancer detection. However, several studies demonstrated that this change was not sufficient to ensure optimal image quality at a low radiation dose. In particular, the 1985 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends identified the wide variations in image quality and radiation dose, even from dedicated units. During this time period, the American Cancer Society (ACS) launched its Breast Cancer Awareness Screening Campaign. However, there were concerns about the ability of radiology to respond to the increased demand for optimal screening examinations that would result from the ACS program. To respond to these concerns, the ACS and the American College of Radiology (ACR) established a joint committee on mammography screening in 1986. After much discussion, it was decided to use the ACR Diagnostic Practice Accreditation Program as a model for the development of a mammography accreditation program. However, some constraints were required in order to make the program meet the needs of the ACS. This voluntary, peer review program had to be timely and cost effective. It was determined that the best way to address these needs would be to conduct the program by mail. Finally, by placing emphasis on the educational nature of the program, it would provide an even greater opportunity for improving mammographic quality. The result of this effort was that, almost six years ago, in May 1987, the pilot study for the ACR Mammography Accreditation Program (MAP) began, and in August of that year, the first applications were received. In November 1987, the first 3-year accreditation certificates were awarded.

  20. Mammography accreditation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, P.

    1993-01-01

    In the mid-1980's, the movement toward the use of dedicated mammography equipment provided significant improvement in breast cancer detection. However, several studies demonstrated that this change was not sufficient to ensure optimal image quality at a low radiation dose. In particular, the 1985 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends identified the wide variations in image quality and radiation dose, even from dedicated units. During this time period, the American Cancer Society (ACS) launched its Breast Cancer Awareness Screening Campaign. However, there were concerns about the ability of radiology to respond to the increased demand for optimal screening examinations that would result from the ACS program. To respond to these concerns, the ACS and the American College of Radiology (ACR) established a joint committee on mammography screening in 1986. After much discussion, it was decided to use the ACR Diagnostic Practice Accreditation Program as a model for the development of a mammography accreditation program. However, some constraints were required in order to make the program meet the needs of the ACS. This voluntary, peer review program had to be timely and cost effective. It was determined that the best way to address these needs would be to conduct the program by mail. Finally, by placing emphasis on the educational nature of the program, it would provide an even greater opportunity for improving mammographic quality. The result of this effort was that, almost six years ago, in May 1987, the pilot study for the ACR Mammography Accreditation Program (MAP) began, and in August of that year, the first applications were received. In November 1987, the first 3-year accreditation certificates were awarded

  1. Overview of factors influencing the secondary market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleistine, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The major factor influencing secondary trading for the last few years has been the large contractural commitments built up by consumers for reactor programs which have proven to be unrealistic. The situation has intensified as a result of utilities needing to generate capital through inventory liquidation or reductions. The flexibilities in most contracts are inadequate to match the types of external and/or internal factors faced by the industry. This situation also suggests the need for secondary markets to help the industry adjust to unforeseen difficulties. They are very active markets at this time, but their influence in relation to the long-term method of doing business should not be exaggerated

  2. Review and analysis of mammographies of Servicio de Radiologia Hospital San Juan de Dios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araya Cerdas, Adrian; Mirambell Sanchez, Melania; Monge Vega, Mandred; Mora Vargas, Karla; Vega Aguilar, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The concept of mammography is defined. The mammography has been estimated as the best tool currently available for the detection of breast cancer in its early stages, in addition, have been detected clinically occult lesions. Mammographies of the Servicio de Radiologia Hospital San Juan de Dios were analyzed for a total of 1250. The findings were related as static between BIRADS categorization and inherited-family factors, geographical and personal pathological of patients treated in the period September 2012 to January 2013 [es

  3. Understanding women's mammography intentions: a theory-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mikako; O'Callaghan, Frances V; Morrissey, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    The present study compared the utility of two models (the Theory of Planned Behavior and Protection Motivation Theory) in identifying factors associated with intentions to undertake screening mammography, before and after an intervention. The comparison was made between the unique components of the two models. The effect of including implementation intentions was also investigated. Two hundred and fifty-one women aged 37 to 69 years completed questionnaires at baseline and following the delivery of a standard (control) or a protection motivation theory-based informational intervention. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that theory of planned behavior variables were associated with mammography intentions. Results also showed that inclusion of implementation intention in the model significantly increased the association with mammography intentions. The findings suggest that future interventions aiming to increase screening mammography participation should focus on the theory of planned behavior variables and that implementation intention should also be targeted.

  4. INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR LEASING MARKET CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors. This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.

  5. Factors Influencing Medical Students' Choice of Specialty

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Pei-Yeh; Hung, Chih-Young; Wang, Kuei-lng; Huang, Yuan-Huei; Chang, King-Jen

    2006-01-01

    Medical school graduates are the source of a country's physicians. Determining how the graduates of these schools select their areas of specialization is the key to achieving a balanced distribution of doctors among all specialties. The purposes of this study were to determine the factors that influence medical students' choice of medical specialty, and to derive the relative weight of each factor. Methods: We constructed a two-tiered analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model which was repres...

  6. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  7. Factors Influencing Donor Partnership Effectiveness | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... A two-dimensional tool probing eight factors that influence partnership performance was developed, and used in conjunction with a Partnering Process Model, to guide the preparation of the case studies. The incorporation of the temporality dimension is quite novel and adds to the understanding and ...

  8. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  9. Factors influencing HIV seroprevalence rate among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a ...

  10. Factors influencing insulin secretion from encapsulated islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, BJ; Faas, MM; de Vos, P

    2003-01-01

    Adequate regulation of glucose levels by a microencapsulated pancreatic islet graft requires a minute-to-minute regulation of blood glucose. To design such a transplant, it is mandatory to have sufficient insight in factors influencing the kinetics of insulin secretion by encapsulated islets. The

  11. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Entrepreneurship Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Entrepreneurship Among Women In Fishing Communities In Ondo State, Nigeria. ... The study found that overall entrepreneurial rating of the study group is low, essential input can not be easily gotten in the area, the respondents has large household size thereby had a large dependents ...

  12. Factors Influencing Information and Communication Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is a veritable tool for sustainable agricultural development in Nigeria. This paper analyzed the factors that influenced ICT use by women research scientists in the Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 40 respondents per ...

  13. Factors Influencing Examination Malpractice in Secondary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing examination malpractice in some selected secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of one thousand two hundred (1200) students were selected across the three educational zones of Ogoja, Ikom and Calabar using stratified, random ...

  14. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1986-01-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...

  15. Factors that influence advertising design ideation | Usman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that influence advertising design ideation. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... inevitably, more than ever before, on advertisement to take products to the doorsteps of potential consumers. Consequently, local and global corporations employ all manner of advertising media to achieve their end.

  16. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers Participation in IFAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... This study assessed Factors Influencing smallholder farmers' ... percent of the population engaged in agricultural activities as a career and ... that the major source of income of the poor is agriculture and ... shown that farmers have different reasons for participation in agricultural ... 30 Dan gamau 534. 30.

  17. Exploring Factors That Influence Quality Literature Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Research indicates that literature circles are an authentic means for literacy development that students typically enjoy. To better understand the potential value and to add to the research base regarding literature circles, this study, involving 17 fourth graders, explores factors that may influence the quality of literature discussions,…

  18. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  19. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  20. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilda Pečarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  1. Comparative evaluation of average glandular dose and image of digital mammography and film mammography in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, M.; Leyton, F.; Rodrigue, L. L.C.; Oliveira, M.A.; Joana, G.S.; Silva, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and early detection is critical to its diagnosis and treatment. Mammography is the best method for breast-cancer screening and is capable of reducing mortality rates To date, the most effective method for early detection of breast cancer has been x-ray mammography for which the screen/film (SF) technique has been the gold standard. Digital mammography has been proposed as a substitute for film mammography given the benefits inherent to digital technology. The purpose of our study was to compare the technical performance of digital mammographic and screen-film mammography. A PMMA phantom with objects to simulate breast structures. For the screen/film (SF) technique the results showed that 54% mammography units did not achieve the minimum acceptable performance as far the image quality. Besides, 67% services showed inadequate performance in their processing systems, which had significant influence on the image quality. At the mean glandular dose only 44% of digital systems evaluated were compliant in all thicknesses of PMMA. The average glandular dose AGD was 90 % higher than in screen/film systems. (authors)

  2. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  3. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence......Purpose: Enterprise social media platforms provide new ways of sharing knowledge and communicating within organizations to benefit from the social capital and valuable knowledge that employees have. Drawing on social dilemma and self-determination theory, the aim of the study is to understand what...... knowledge sharing framework helps to understand what factors impact engagement on social media. Furthermore the article suggests different types of interventions to overcome the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Originality/value: The study contributes to an understanding of factors leading...

  4. Mammography-oncogenecity at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyes, G J; Mill, A J; Charles, M W

    2009-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the biological effectiveness of low energy x-rays used for mammography breast screening. Recent radiobiology studies have provided compelling evidence that these low energy x-rays may be 4.42 ± 2.02 times more effective in causing mutational damage than higher energy x-rays. These data include a study involving in vitro irradiation of a human cell line using a mammography x-ray source and a high energy source which matches the spectrum of radiation observed in survivors from the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Current radiation risk estimates rely heavily on data from the atomic bomb survivors, and a direct comparison between the diagnostic energies used in the UK breast screening programme and those used for risk estimates can now be made. Evidence highlighting the increase in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of mammography x-rays to a range of x-ray energies implies that the risks of radiation-induced breast cancers for mammography x-rays are potentially underestimated by a factor of four. A pooled analysis of three measurements gives a maximal RBE (for malignant transformation of human cells in vitro) of 4.02 ± 0.72 for 29 kVp (peak accelerating voltage) x-rays compared to high energy electrons and higher energy x-rays. For the majority of women in the UK NHS breast screening programme, it is shown that the benefit safely exceeds the risk of possible cancer induction even when this higher biological effectiveness factor is applied. The risk/benefit analysis, however, implies the need for caution for women screened under the age of 50, and particularly for those with a family history (and therefore a likely genetic susceptibility) of breast cancer. In vitro radiobiological data are generally acquired at high doses, and there are different extrapolation mechanisms to the low doses seen clinically. Recent low dose in vitro data have indicated a potential suppressive effect at very low dose rates and doses. Whilst mammography is a low

  5. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  7. MR mammography (MRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    The book deals with MRI for the diagnostic evaluation of malignant breast lesions. A survey of methods available for breast examination, magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) is briefly explained in terms of development and technical problems encountered in the various examinations. The clinical aspects from a central part of the book, giving information relating to the various neoplasms and a comprehensive review of cases. The book concludes with a chapter discussing the interpretation of data and images, presenting examples of normal findings and of manifestations of carcinoma, fibroadenoma, cysts, mastopathies, scars due to plastic surgery, and the lactating breast. (UWA). 648 figs., 25 tabs.

  8. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality......, but it is not possible to evaluate the effect on mortality until several years later, and continuously monitoring of the quality of all aspects of a screening programme is necessary. Based on other European guidelines, 11 quality indicators have been defined, and guidelines concerning organizational requirements...... for a Danish screening programme as well as recommendations for the radiographic and radiological work have been drawn up....

  9. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  10. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    S ARMAN; M SOLTANI

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is design...

  12. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnekov, V. G.; McMillin, C. W.; Huber, H. A.

    1986-07-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the work piece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist system and work piece thickness, density, and moisture content. (author)

  13. Psychological Factors Influencing Life Satisfaction of Undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, Olubukola; Adewumi, Bukunmi

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the psychological factors influencing life satisfaction of undergraduates. The instruments used were Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), Rosenberge Self-esteem Scale (RSS), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). A total number of 190 participants were purposively selected across various faculties in Ekiti State University. Four hypotheses were tested using Independent t-test to find the effects of perceived stres...

  14. Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceccon Eliane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.

  15. Estimating the relative utility of screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K; Eckstein, Miguel P; Boone, John M

    2013-05-01

    The concept of diagnostic utility is a fundamental component of signal detection theory, going back to some of its earliest works. Attaching utility values to the various possible outcomes of a diagnostic test should, in principle, lead to meaningful approaches to evaluating and comparing such systems. However, in many areas of medical imaging, utility is not used because it is presumed to be unknown. In this work, we estimate relative utility (the utility benefit of a detection relative to that of a correct rejection) for screening mammography using its known relation to the slope of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve at the optimal operating point. The approach assumes that the clinical operating point is optimal for the goal of maximizing expected utility and therefore the slope at this point implies a value of relative utility for the diagnostic task, for known disease prevalence. We examine utility estimation in the context of screening mammography using the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trials (DMIST) data. We show how various conditions can influence the estimated relative utility, including characteristics of the rating scale, verification time, probability model, and scope of the ROC curve fit. Relative utility estimates range from 66 to 227. We argue for one particular set of conditions that results in a relative utility estimate of 162 (±14%). This is broadly consistent with values in screening mammography determined previously by other means. At the disease prevalence found in the DMIST study (0.59% at 365-day verification), optimal ROC slopes are near unity, suggesting that utility-based assessments of screening mammography will be similar to those found using Youden's index.

  16. MO-E-217A-01: Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography - Physical Aspects and QA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, M; Hill, M

    2012-06-01

    To describe the current state of dual energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography, to discuss those aspects of its operation that require evaluation or monitoring and to propose elements of a program for quality assurance of such systems. The principles of dual-energy contrast imaging will be discussed and tools and techniques for assessment of performance will be described. Many of the elements affecting image quality and dose performance in digital mammography (eg noise, system linearity, consistency of x-ray output and detector performance, artifacts) remain important. In addition, the ability to register images can influence the resultant image quality. The maintenance of breast compression thickness during the imaging procedure and calibration of the system to allow quantification of iodine in the breast represent new challenges to quality assurance. CESM provides a means of acquiring new information regarding tumor angiogenesis and may reveal some cancers that will not be detectable on digital mammography. It may also better demonstrate the extent of disease. The medical physicist must understand the dependence of image quality on physical factors. Implementation of a relevant QA program will be required if the promise of this new modality is to be delivered. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. [Factors influencing nurses' organizational citizenship behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junhee; Yun, Eunkyung; Han, Sangsook

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to identify the factors that influence nurses' organizational citizenship behavior. A cross-sectional design was used, with a convenience sample of 547 nurses from four university hospitals in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey done from September 22 to October 10, 2008. The tools used for this study were scales on organizational citizenship behavior (14 items), self-leadership (14 items), empowerment (10 items), organizational commitment (7 items), job satisfaction (8 items) and transformational.transactional leadership (14 items). Cronbach's alpha and factor analysis were examined to test reliability and construct validity of the scale. The data collected were processed using SPSS Window 15.0 Program for actual numbers and percentages, differences in the dependent variable according to general characteristics, and means, standard deviations, correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The factors influencing nurses' organizational citizenship behavior were identified as self-leadership(beta=.247), empowerment (beta=.233), job satisfaction (beta=.209), organizational commitment (beta=.158), and transactional leadership (beta=.142). Five factors explained 42.0% of nurses' organizational citizenship behavior. The results of this study can be used to develop further management strategies for enhancement of nurses' organizational citizenship behavior.

  18. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  19. Slit aperture technique for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.

    1984-01-01

    Following a discussion of various principles used in the elimination of scatter, the prototype of a simple slit aperture mammography apparatus is described (modified Mammomat, Siemens). The main advantage of this technique compared with grid mammography is a halving of the radiation dose for identical image quality, using an identical film system. The technical requirements (heavy duty tube, new generator) are, however, considerable. If the film-screen systems currently in use are to remain the common systems for the future, then the development of a multi-lamellar slit diaphragm technique carries much promise for mammography. (orig.) [de

  20. Digital mammography and their developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienbeck, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    At the present time digital mammography is a satisfactory breast diagnostic imaging in clinical as well as screening mammography in defined age groups. Nevertheless it shows beside the application of ionizing radiation in women with dense breasts limitations in the detection of non calcification breast cancers. Tomosynthesis, digital contrast-enhanced mammography and breast-CT with or without contrast media lead to better results. Especially the application of contrast media for the visualisation of the tumor angiogenesis is invariably superior to all other non-contrast imaging modalities. However, the excellent results of breast MRI will be probably accessible with none of the new procedures.

  1. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors influencing thermal tolerances of individual organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, V.H.

    1976-01-01

    The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms

  3. Emergency Department Crowding: Factors Influencing Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkun, Alp

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time.Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting “door-to-doctor” and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients.Results: We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102% with an average of 27% boarding. Median “door-to-doctor” time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences.Conclusion: The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:10-15

  4. Emergency department crowding: factors influencing flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkun, Alp; Briggs, William M; Patel, Sweha; Datillo, Paris A; Bove, Joseph; Birkhahn, Robert H

    2010-02-01

    THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THOSE FACTORS, BOTH INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC TO THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT (ED) THAT INFLUENCE TWO SPECIFIC COMPONENTS OF THROUGHPUT: "door-to-doctor" time and dwell time. We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday) during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival) proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting "door-to-doctor" and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients. We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102%) with an average of 27% boarding. Median "door-to-doctor" time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences. The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital.

  5. [New nurse turnover intention and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Sook; Sohn, In Soon; Kim, Nam Eun

    2009-12-01

    The study was done to identify turnover intention in new nurses according to characteristics of the nurses and other factors affecting turnover and to provide data to set up a strategy to reduce the turnover. Data were collected from 1,077 new nurses who had less than 12 months employment experience and worked in one of 188 hospitals. Eight research instruments were used. Data analysis was done using SPSS WIN 15.0 program. Several factors influence new nurse turnover intention. The average score for turnover intention was 2.12. The scores for subscales were self efficacy, 3.76, nursing performance, 3.90, job satisfaction, 2.09, organization commitment, 1.28, stress, 1.32, burnout, 2.82 and nursing organizational culture, 3.29. Turnover intention was related to self efficacy, nursing performance, job satisfaction, organization commitment, stress, burnout, nursing organizational culture, duration of in-class training, duration of on the job training, number of hospital beds, length of employment and duration of employment in current workplace. The predicting factors for turnover intention were burnout, stress, duration of employment in the current workplace, self efficacy and nursing performance. Those factors explained 51.6% of turnover intention. New nurse turnover intention can be reduced by mitigating the factors affecting this intention.

  6. Effectiveness of a Mobile Mammography Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Elizabeth; Lewis, Madelene C; Irshad, Abid; Ackerman, Susan; Collins, Heather; Pavic, Dag; Leddy, Rebecca J

    2017-12-01

    Mobile mammography units have increasingly been used to address patient health care disparities; however, there are limited data comparing mobile units to stationary sites. This study aims to evaluate the characteristics of women who underwent mammography screening in a mobile unit versus those who underwent mammography screening at a cancer center. In this retrospective study, we analyzed all screening mammography examinations performed in a mobile unit in 2014 (n = 1433 examinations). For comparison, we randomized and reviewed an equivalent number of screening mammography examinations performed at our cancer center in 2014 (n = 1434 examinations). BI-RADS assessment, adherence to follow-up, biopsies performed, cancer detection rate, and sociodemographic variables were recorded. An independent-samples t test was conducted to identify potential differences in age between cancer center patients and mobile unit patients. Chi-square analyses were used to test for associations between location and factors such as health insurance, race, marital status, geographic area, adherence to screening guidelines, recall rate, adherence to follow-up, and cancer detection rates. Patients visiting our cancer center (mean = 57.74 years; SD = 10.55) were significantly older than those visiting the mobile unit (mean = 52.58 years; SD = 8.19; p mobile van (cancer center = 3.70%, mobile unit = 38.73%). There was a significant association between screening location and patient race (χ 2 = 118.75, p mobile unit = 33.30%), more black patients being screened in the mobile van (cancer center = 49.30%, mobile unit = 54.15%), and more Hispanic patients being screened in the mobile van (cancer center = 1.05%, mobile unit = 6.77%). There was a significant association between location and patient marital status (χ 2 = 135.61, p mobile unit = 38.31%), more single patients screened in the mobile van (cancer center = 25.17%, mobile unit = 34.47%), and more widowed patients being screened at the

  7. Emergency Department Crowding: Factors Influencing Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Arkun, Alp; Briggs, William M; Patel, Sweha; Datillo, Paris A; Bove, Joseph; Birkhahn, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED) that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time. Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday) during a three-month period. V...

  8. Factors influencing variation in dentist service rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1990-01-01

    In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates.

  9. Discount rates and the education gradient in mammography in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Anikó

    2013-09-01

    I analyse intertemporal decisions on undertaking breast cancer screening by women aged 50-64  years in the UK and provide estimates of the rate of discounting potential future benefits of screening. I also analyse education differences in mammography decisions and examine the underlying mechanisms by which education influences breast cancer screening attendance. I estimate a structural model, which reveals that although there are differences in the disutility of breast cancer screening between education groups, there is no difference in the estimated discount factor. These results suggest that the observed education gradient is mainly due to differences in health behaviours and healthcare attitudes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi

    1997-01-01

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  11. A survey on factors influencing city branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.

  12. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, A.; Nichols, M.L.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.; Thurber, J.

    1992-01-01

    Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance

  13. Mammography screening among Arab American women in metropolitan Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kendra; Fakhouri, Monty; Bartoces, Monina; Monsur, Joseph; Younis, Amani

    2008-12-01

    Mammography screening behavior has not been well studied among Middle Eastern immigrant women. We conducted a telephone survey of 365 Arab American women residing in metropolitan Detroit, home to one of the largest populations of Middle Eastern immigrants in the US, to determine prevalence of factors associated with mammography, and attitudes and beliefs regarding mammography screening. Of 365 participants, only five were born in the US. Mean age was 53.2 years (SD 10.8). Two hundred twelve (58.1%) reported having mammogram every 1-2 years; 70% ever had mammogram. Age 50-64 years, having health insurance, married status, being in the US over 10 years, and being Lebanese were associated with mammography every 1-2 years. After adjusting for demographic factors, perceived seriousness of disease, general health motivation, and having fewer barriers were associated with more frequent screening. Appropriate mammography screening is decreased in this group. Targeted outreach regarding screening is appropriate for this population; however, lack of insurance may prevent adequate follow-up.

  14. Automation bias: empirical results assessing influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Kate; Roudsari, Abdul; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the rate of automation bias - the propensity of people to over rely on automated advice and the factors associated with it. Tested factors were attitudinal - trust and confidence, non-attitudinal - decision support experience and clinical experience, and environmental - task difficulty. The paradigm of simulated decision support advice within a prescribing context was used. The study employed within participant before-after design, whereby 26 UK NHS General Practitioners were shown 20 hypothetical prescribing scenarios with prevalidated correct and incorrect answers - advice was incorrect in 6 scenarios. They were asked to prescribe for each case, followed by being shown simulated advice. Participants were then asked whether they wished to change their prescription, and the post-advice prescription was recorded. Rate of overall decision switching was captured. Automation bias was measured by negative consultations - correct to incorrect prescription switching. Participants changed prescriptions in 22.5% of scenarios. The pre-advice accuracy rate of the clinicians was 50.38%, which improved to 58.27% post-advice. The CDSS improved the decision accuracy in 13.1% of prescribing cases. The rate of automation bias, as measured by decision switches from correct pre-advice, to incorrect post-advice was 5.2% of all cases - a net improvement of 8%. More immediate factors such as trust in the specific CDSS, decision confidence, and task difficulty influenced rate of decision switching. Lower clinical experience was associated with more decision switching. Age, DSS experience and trust in CDSS generally were not significantly associated with decision switching. This study adds to the literature surrounding automation bias in terms of its potential frequency and influencing factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Forsythe, Steven; Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2009-11-18

    Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful tool to achieve this.

  16. Digital Mammography Tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergov, I.; Alexov, G.; Rusonov, K.

    2017-01-01

    Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration with Tomosynthesis enhances the diagnostic precision in mammographic screening. The apparatus has a wide-angle tomosynthesis up to 50 degrees. The Siemens breast augmentation algorithm reconstructs multiple two-dimensional breast images into three-dimensional images at the lowest doses to help detect tumors hidden from the overlapping chest tissue, allowing for a more accurate diagnosis than standard 2-dimensional digital mammography, and reducing the number of false positive results. 3D digital tomosynthesis improves the precision of detecting and diagnosing a larger number of expansive lesions, ensures better morphological mass analysis and architectural distortion, and detecting calcifications by adding digital breast tomosynthesis to the traditional two-dimensional digital mammogram of the patient. In this way, it solves the problem of overlapping parenchyma, reduces the number of unnecessary biopsies from questionable sonomammographic findings, and the need for stressful repeating procedures, which usually contributes to both better patient outcomes and cost saving. [bg

  17. Improvements in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redington, R.W.; Henkes, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Equipment for positioning and supporting patients during tomographic X-ray mammography is described. It is comprised of a table and fabric slings which permit the examination of a downward, pendant breast of a prone patient by allowing the breast to pass through an aperture in the table into a fluid filled container. The fluid has an X-ray absorption coefficient similar to that of soft human tissue allowing high density resolution radiography and permitting accurate detection of breast tumours. The shape of the equipment and the positioning of the patient allow the detector and X-ray source to rotate 360 0 about a vertical axis through the breast. This permits the use of relatively simple image reconstruction algorithms and a divergent X-ray geometry with multiple detectors. Successive planes of the breast are scanned by translating the detectors and source vertically to produce a three-dimensional image of the breast tissue structure. (U.K.)

  18. Cultural views, language ability, and mammography use in Chinese American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenchi; Wang, Judy; Chen, Mei-Yuh; Feng, Shibao; Yi, Bin; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S

    2009-12-01

    Mammography screening rates among Chinese American women have been reported to be low. This study examines whether and how culture views and language ability influence mammography adherence in this mostly immigrant population. Asymptomatic Chinese American women (n = 466) aged 50 and older, recruited from the Washington, D.C. area, completed a telephone interview. Regular mammography was defined as having two mammograms at age-appropriate recommended intervals. Cultural views were assessed by 30 items, and language ability measured women's ability in reading, writing, speaking, and listening to English. After controlling for risk perception, worry, physician recommendation, family encouragement, and access barriers, women holding a more Chinese/Eastern cultural view were significantly less likely to have had regular mammograms than those having a Western cultural view. English ability was positively associated with mammography adherence. The authors' results imply that culturally sensitive and language-appropriate educational interventions are likely to improve mammography adherence in this population.

  19. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  20. Factors that influence nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen-Chung; Samuels, Michael E; Alexander, Judith W

    2003-05-01

    To examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of registered nurses (RNs). A growing recognition of job dissatisfaction among RNs in South Carolina hospitals has contributed to current problems with recruitment and retention. If administrators identify factors influencing RNs' job satisfaction in hospitals and implement strategies to address these factors, RN turnover rates will decrease and recruiting and retention rates will increase. A cross-sectional study of secondary data was designed to identify the individual, work, and geographic factors that impact nursing job satisfaction at the state level. A 27-question self-administered survey was sent to 17,500 RNs in South Carolina with postage-paid envelopes for their responses. Surveys from 3472 nurses were completed anonymously. Univariate statistics were used to describe the study sample. One-way and multivariable Analysis of Variance were used to determine which variables contributed the most to job satisfaction. For about two thirds of the RNs, job satisfaction remained the same or had lessened over the past 2 years. In addition, statistically significant differences were found between job satisfaction and years of service, job position, hospital retirement plan, and geographic area. The findings have implications for nurse managers and hospital administrators for planning and implementing effective health policies that will meet the unique needs of their staffs and organizations. Such research is particularly relevant in this difficult time of nursing shortages throughout the healthcare industry.

  1. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods. Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance. Study design: Population based cross - sectional study. Setting: Rural area of East Delhi. Participants: Married women in the reproductive age group. Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group. Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child. Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptives Statistical Analysis: By proportions. Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception. Recommendations: (i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention. (ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  2. Factors influencing tinnitus loudness and annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Wolfgang; Goebel, Gerhard

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate the 2 major components of tinnitus severity, loudness and annoyance, and their degree of dependence on characteristics of tinnitus manifestation, history, and etiology. Cross-sectional survey performed during the first months of 2004. Nonclinical population. A total of 4995 members of the German Tinnitus League. Comprehensive screening questionnaire, including the Klockhoff and Lindblom loudness grading system and the miniversion of the Tinnitus Questionnaire. A moderate correlation of 0.45 was found between tinnitus loudness and annoyance. Both factors were generally higher in men, those older than 50 years, those with binaural and centrally perceived tinnitus, those with increased noise sensitivity, and those who had continuous tinnitus without interruptions. Tinnitus that lasted 12 months or less had a stronger influence on annoyance (odds ratio [OR], 1.96) than on loudness (OR, 0.45), whereas the contrary was found for tinnitus of more than 5 years' duration (ORs, 0.72 and 2.11, respectively). Loudness and annoyance were increased in subjects with coexisting hearing loss, vertigo, and hyperacusis. The impact of hyperacusis on annoyance was clearly stronger than on loudness (ORs, 21.91 vs 9.47). Several clinical factors of tinnitus influence perceived loudness and annoyance. Both are distinguishable components of tinnitus severity.

  3. Factors influencing endometrial thickness in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A

    2014-07-01

    Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer. This study suggests that parity, BMI, presence of

  4. Factors influencing career decisions in internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, C; Cawood, T

    2012-08-01

    Numerous factors influence career decisions for internal medicine trainees and Fellows. There is a perception that a greater emphasis is placed on work-family balance by younger physicians. To determine the characteristics of the modern internal medicine workforce and ascertain whether job flexibility is important to career decision-making. We hypothesised that factors which reflect flexibility would be highly influential in decision-making, especially for women and those with young children. A questionnaire was mailed to 250 New Zealand internal medicine trainees and Fellows. It focused on factors, including job flexibility, interest and collegial support, and included demographic details which were primarily aimed at ascertaining family responsibilities. Response rate was 54%. The majority of female physicians are the main person responsible for their children (62%), and the majority of their partners work full-time (80%). This contrasts with male physicians, of whom only 4% are the main person responsible for their children. Flexibility was found to be more influential in women, those with young children, trainees and those working in outpatient-based subspecialties. However, contrary to our original hypothesis, flexibility was not reported to be highly influential in any group, with career choice being most influenced by interest and enjoyment, intellectual challenge and variety within the job. It is hoped that results will inform employers and those involved with training to enable them to better cater for the needs of the workforce and also encourage trainees to consider future family commitments when making career decisions. © 2012 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING FOOD NEOPHOBIA. A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOICA Maricica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the number of new food products has increased considerably. Nevertheless, not all new food products are accepted and understood by consumers, the innovations in the food sector are often not well received by the market, partly due to a phenomenon known as food neophobia. Food neophobia, a general aversion to try new or unfamiliar foods, has a major impact on preferences, selection and food product acceptability. The neophobic consumers tend to display negative attitudes and less pleasure in relation to new food products. Food neophobia is based on three main reasons for rejection of a food, such as: dislike of its sensory characteristics, fear of negative consequences of eating it, and disgust arising from the idea of the food’s nature or origin. Phobia towards the introduction of unfamiliar foods in the diet can occur for several different factors, such as: socio-demographic characteristics, education level and lifestyle, degree of urbanization, income level, arousal, personal experiences, advertising, fashion, advices of other persons, and habits. This review paper was designed to provide up-to-date relevant information on factors influencing food neophobia, like social factors, type of new food, education, and arousal. The scientific information presented here could help food scientists in new food development, and food companies to develop the best marketing strategies that lead to a general decrease in neophobic consumers’ behaviour. The application of appropriate marketing strategies may allow the product to reach a competitive advantage and be successful.

  6. Influence of organizational factors on performance reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; O'Brien, J.N.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1991-12-01

    This is the first volume of a two-volume report. Volume 2 will be published at a later date. This report presents the results of a research project conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The purpose of the project was to develop a general methodology to be use in the assessment of the organizational factors which affect performance reliability (safety) in a nuclear power plant. The research described in this report includes the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (GNOMIC). This concept characterizes the organizational factors that impact safety performance in a nuclear power plant and identifies some methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on safety performance. This report is divided into two parts; Part 1 presents an overview of the development of the methodology, while Part 2 provides more details and a technical analysis of the methodological development. Specifically, the results of two demonstration studies, the feasibility of the methodology, and a specific applications for which the methodology was developed are presented

  7. Evaluation of Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Sypniewska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term “job satisfaction” is derived from the humanities, psychology and sociology. In the field of psychology, it is a state where an employee has an emotional perception of his situation and reacts with feelings of pleasure or pain. In sociology, it is considered a variable in different categories related to how each employee evaluates and thinks about his work. Job satisfaction is closely related to the performance and quality of work performed by an employee and, consequently, translates into the success of an organization, because a satisfied employee builds and participates in the success of any organization. This article presents the results of the research conducted by the author in 2012 on a sample of 215 people. Respondents represented different organizations. The aim of the study was to identify and assess the significance of individual factors influencing satisfaction and dissatisfaction with work and demonstrate their impact on the overall assessment of job satisfaction. The study showed that between the weight attributed to individual factors and overall job satisfaction there are many statistically significant correlations referring mainly to selected on the basis of analysis respondents’ groups. The study confirms the raised thesis concerning the validity of research in the factors affecting the general feeling of satisfaction by the employees.

  8. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing large African herbivore movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour

  9. Habitat factors influencing the distribution of Cymbopogon validus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat factors influencing the distribution of Cymbopogon validus in Mkambati Game Reserve, Transkei. ... disturbance; game reserve; grassland; grasslands; habitat conditions; habitat factors; mkambati game ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. [Bioavailability and factors influencing its rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan

    Bioavailability can be defined as the rate and range of active ingredient absorption, when it becomes available in the systemic circulation or at the desired site of drug action, respectively. Drug bioavailability after oral administration is affected by anumber of different factors, including physicochemical properties of the drug, physiological aspects, the type of dosage form, food intake, biorhythms, and intra- and interindividual variability of the human population. This article is the first from the series dealing with the bioavailability and methods leading to its improvement. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of aspects influencing the rate of bioavailability after oral administration of the active ingredient. Subsequentarticles will provide detailed descriptions of methods used for dug bioavailability improvement, which are here only summarized.

  11. Factors influencing initiation of breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwo, E E; Dusdieker, L B; Booth, B M

    1983-04-01

    We used the critical incidence method to study factors motivating 33 primigravidas and 39 multigravidas to initiate breast-feeding of their infants. Women chose breast-feeding because they believed that it would provide protection to the infant against infection, establish maternal-infant bonding, was convenient, provided better nutrition than cow's milk formula, was emotionally satisfying, and was the natural way to feed infants. The decision to breast-feed was made well in advance of pregnancy by primigravidas and shortly before pregnancy by multigravidas. Friends who had successfully nursed infants were as influential as immediate family members in influencing our study subjects in their decision to breast-feed. Prenatal counseling, though important, may not be the optimal period for motivating women to breast-feed.

  12. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Meyrick C M

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of "being there" in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users' attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S ARMAN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

  14. Mammography: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions (National Cancer Institute) Mammography for Women with Breast Implants (American Cancer Society) Also in Spanish Mammography: What You Need to Know (Food and Drug Administration) Nipple Aspirate Test Is ... Specifics Breast Tomosynthesis (American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of ...

  15. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-09-01

    The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to

  16. Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Sargent, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes

  17. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  18. Factors influencing choice of oral hygiene products by dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several factors, such as cost, branding, packaging and family influence, had been implicated as influencing the choice of toothpastes and toothbrushes by individuals. Media advertisement is also considered a very strong factor influencing consumer's choice. Aim: To assess the extent to which some factors ...

  19. The dose and image quality in mammography in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershan, V.

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Mean Glandular Dose (MGD), dose distribution, phantom and quality of the real mammogram were studied for the first time in Macedonia. The study was conducted to review the condition of mammography equipment, to access the dose and image quality in mammography practices in Macedonia.. The purpose was to find out the weak points in the mammography practices in order to suggest improvements in the practices and establish quality control procedures. Under evaluation were 12 monographic machines. MGD was estimated using Entrance Surface Air KERMA at the breast surface K f measured free in air and appropriate conversion factors. Dose survey was curried by measurement and calculated of the HVLs and radiation output for 25-32 kVp and keeping record of the clinical parameters (breast thickness, kVp, mAs). Image quality was evaluated using the Mammographic Accreditation Phantom Gammex 156, PMMA plates and test tool for film processing.

  20. Mammography at reduced doses: present performance and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntz, E.P.; Wilkinson, E.; George, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    Reduced dose mammography is assessed with the aid of very recent work. It is concluded that there are technical and clinical reasons for believing that the reduced dose systems and their interpreters should perform more effectively than their predecessors. Review of known technologic achievements suggests a possible 6 to 7 reduction factor from present screen-film mammography dose levels without sacficifing image quality. Reasonable estimates of representative doses presently achieved by both xeroradiography and screen-film systems are given. The screen-film value is about 3 times higher than some previous

  1. Factors Influencing Students’ Perceptions of Online Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falls

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.

  2. Factors Influencing Teamwork in Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijal Michał

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse different views on interpersonal relations and team composition among managers and medical professionals with respect to the transition of professional roles in healthcare in Poland. To achieve that goal, a description based on a quantitative and qualitative questionnaire was conducted. Since the questionnaire covered various areas of health care, only its small fraction was used for the analysis. The main result is that most of the medical professionals and medical managers consider technology to be the single most important external factor influencing the team work efficiency and team composition in health care, and the managers consider skillset as the crucial factor determining whether a person would be a good team member. Based on the literature on professional roles in health care and their evolution in recent years, one can assume that constant development and lifelong learning would play a significant role in the healthcare systems reform. The findings are an important contribution to the discussion of the healthcare reform and its possible directions in future years as well a reference point for policy makers.

  3. Factors influencing performance within startup assistance organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceaușu Ioana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Startup assistance organizations, and especially business accelerators have gained a lot of traction in the last years, captioning not only the attention of the public, but most importantly that of investors and other stakeholders. It has become a challenge for many all around the world to develop such programs, but many have failed or did not have their expected results, meaning medium to long-term sustainable and profitable alumni start-ups. As high amounts of resources, both human and financial, are being invested in the design and development of such programs, it is important to understand what sets apart the successful business acceleration programs from the ones that fail. The current paper is reviewing the up-to-date theoretical literature and studies on the matter at hand, in order to identify the most relevant factors influencing startup assistance organizations’ performance. The objective behind identifying these factors is to get a better understanding of best practices of such successful programs and set the basis for future research regarding the development of a set of metrics for more accurately measuring their performance.

  4. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Gimeno, Ana; Martínez-Costa, Lucía; Ayala, Guillermo

    2012-08-08

    To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue), graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis), and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain). The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women) presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  5. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Gimeno Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  6. Patterns and determinants of mammography screening in Lebanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Nadia; Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R; Adib, Salim M

    2017-03-01

    The associations of ever using and/or repeating a mammography test with psychosocial and socio-demographic factors were surveyed in 2014 among Lebanese women ≥ 40. A sample of 2400 women was selected across Lebanon. Variables with significant bivariate associations with various types of behaviors were entered in multivariate analysis. Of the total, 105 women (4·4%) had never heard of mammography as a tool for early breast cancer detection. Among the remaining 2295, 45% had ever used it, of whom 10% had obtained it for the first time within the 12 months preceding the survey. Repeaters were 67% of 926 women who had the time opportunity to do so (median lifetime frequency: 2). Older age, higher socio-economic status (SES) and living within the Greater Beirut (GB) area were significantly associated with ever-use. Within GB, psychosocial factors such as perceived susceptibility and benefits were most strongly associated with ever-use. Outside GB, socio-economic advantage seemed to mostly affect ever-use. Only 4% reported opposition from husbands to their mammography, and husband's support was significant for adherence to mammography guidelines mostly outside GB. Higher education emerged also as a significant socio-demographic determinant for ever-repeating in all regions. Perceived comfort of the previous test strongly affected the likelihood of repeating it. Providing mammography free-of-charge may alleviate some obstacles among women with socio-economic disadvantage. Stressing that good results one year do not make the cancer less likely or repeating the test less important, as well as improving the comfort of mammography testing could ensure test repeating.

  7. Factors influencing induction of adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misonoh, Jun; Ojima, Mitsuaki; Yonezawa, Morio

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)

  8. Predictors of Perceived Barriers to Mammography in Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Kim, RN, PhD

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: Nurses who work with Korean women for breast cancer screening need to assess these predictive factors, including health motivation and breast cancer fear. Further extensive research will be needed to demonstrate the relationship between breast cancer fatalism and perceived barriers to mammography.

  9. Thyroid absorbed dose using TLDs during mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez A, M.; Melendez L, M.; Davila M, P.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: In this study, the mean glandular dose (MGD) and the thyroid dose (D Thy) were measured in 200 women screened with mammography in Cranio caudal (Cc) and mediolateral oblique projections. All mammograms were performed with Giotto-Ims (6000-14-M2 Model) equipment, which was verified to meet the criteria of quality of NOM-229-Ssa-2002. During audits performance and HVL, for each anode filter combinations was measured with the camera Radcal mammography equipment 10 X 6-6M (HVL = 0.26 mm Al). D Thy measurements were performed with TLD dosimeters (LiF:Mn) , that were read with the Harshaw 3500 TLD reader. The MGD, was obtained according to the UK and European protocols for mammographic dosimetry using a plane parallel chamber (Standard Imaging, Model A-600) calibrated by a radiation beam UW-23-Mo (= 0.279 mm Al HVL). A comparative statistical analysis was carried out with the measured MGD and D thy. The thyroid mean dose was 0.063 mGy and 0.078 mGy for Cc and mediolateral oblique respectively. There is a linear correlation between the MGD and the D Thy slightly influenced by the anode-filter combination. Using a 95% for the confidence interval in MGD (1.07 mGy), the 90% of measurements are in agreement with the established uncertainty limits. The D Thy are lower than the MGD. There is no risk for cancer induction in thyroid in women due to mammography screening. (Author)

  10. Fundamental factors influencing portal image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffray, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    It has been recognized that improved methods of verifying radiation field placement in external beam radiotherapy are required in order to make frequent checks of field placement feasible. As a result, a large number of electronic portal imaging systems have been developed as possible replacements for film. These developments have produced digital systems with faster acquisition and improved display contrast, however, the quality of the images acquired with such systems is still disappointing. This presentation examines many of the fundamental factors which limit the quality of radiographs obtained with a megavoltage radiotherapy beam. The size and shape of the radiation sources (focal and extra-focal) in radiotherapy machines and their influence on the spatial resolution of portal images are examined. Monte Carlo simulations of x-ray interactions within the patient determined that a significant fraction of the x-ray scatter generated in the patient is due to bremsstrahlung and positron annihilation. Depending on the detector, the scatter signal can reduce the differential signal-to-noise by 20%. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo study of the interaction of x-rays within typical fluoroscopic imaging detectors (metal plate/phosphor screen) demonstrates the degrading effect of energy absorption noise on the detective quantum efficiency of fluoroscopic based imaging systems. Finally, the spatial frequency content in the x-ray shadowgram is demonstrated to change with x-ray energy, resulting in images that appear to have reduced spatial resolution at megavoltage energies. The relative magnitude of each of these factors will be presented and recommendations for the next generation of portal imaging systems will be made

  11. Radiographic techniques for digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, Katsuhei

    2007-01-01

    Since the differences in X-ray absorption between various breast tissues are small, a dedicated X-ray system for examination of the breast and a high-contrast, high-resolution screen/film system (SFM) (light-receiving system) are employed for X-ray diagnosis. Currently, however, there is a strong trend toward digital imaging in the field of general radiography, and this trend is also reflected in the field of mammographic examination. In fact, approximately 70% of facilities purchasing new mammography systems are now selecting a digital mammography system (DRM). Given this situation, this report reviews the differences between SFM and DRM and discusses the radiographic techniques and quality assurance procedures for digital mammography. (author)

  12. Mammography quality assurance in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaoui, F.; Talsmat, K.; Lalaoui, K.

    2001-01-01

    The 'Centre National de l'Energie, des Sciences et des Techniques Nucleaires' (CNESTEN) realised, from February 1999 to March 2000, a quality control of 41 mammography facilities in Morocco. The protocol and standards adopted for achieving the control of elements constituting the mammography chain are those elaborated by GIM and Qualix association. Statistics and conformities results are presented. The program was performed in order to demonstrate to the practitioners in mammography field, the utility and necessity to have a national quality assurance policy. The main objective of CNESTEN is to be accredited by the Moroccan government as a reference laboratory in quality control and dose evaluation in medical imaging and radiotherapy. To achieve this goal the CNESTEN has set up Medical Physic Unit well trained and equipped with the necessary instruments. (author)

  13. The accuracy of digital breast tomosynthesis compared with coned compression magnification mammography in the assessment of abnormalities found on mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.C.; Iqbal, A.; Wasan, R.K.; Peacock, C.; Evans, D.R.; Rahim, R.; Goligher, J.; Michell, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of the digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) with coned compression magnification mammography (CCMM). Materials and methods: The study design included two reading sessions completed by seven experienced radiologists. In the first session, all readers read bilateral standard two-view mammograms and a CCMM view of the lesion before giving a combined score for assessment. In the second session, readers read bilateral standard two-view mammograms plus one-view DBT. The two reading sessions of the experiment were separated by at least 2 weeks to reduce the chance of reader memory of the images read in the previous session from influencing the performance in the subsequent session. Results: Three hundred and fifty-four lesions were assessed and receiver-operative characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the difference between the two modes. For standard two-view mammography plus CCMM, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83–0.91] and for standard two-view mammography plus DBT the AUC was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91–0.95). The difference between the AUCs was 0.06 with p-value of 0.0014. Conclusion: Two-view mammography with one-view DBT showed significantly improved accuracy compared to two-view mammography and CCMM in the assessment of mammographic abnormalities. These results show that DBT can be used effectively in the further evaluation of mammographic abnormalities found at screening and in symptomatic diagnostic practice. - Highlights: • Diagnostic accuracy of magnification mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis. • There is statistical difference between CCMM and DBT. • DBT has a role in evaluating mammographic abnormalities

  14. Factors influencing creep model equation selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdsworth, S.R.; Askins, M.; Baker, A.; Gariboldi, E.; Holmstroem, S.; Klenk, A.; Ringel, M.; Merckling, G.; Sandstrom, R.; Schwienheer, M.; Spigarelli, S.

    2008-01-01

    During the course of the EU-funded Advanced-Creep Thematic Network, ECCC-WG1 reviewed the applicability and effectiveness of a range of model equations to represent the accumulation of creep strain in various engineering alloys. In addition to considering the experience of network members, the ability of several models to describe the deformation characteristics of large single and multi-cast collations of ε(t,T,σ) creep curves have been evaluated in an intensive assessment inter-comparison activity involving three steels, 21/4 CrMo (P22), 9CrMoVNb (Steel-91) and 18Cr13NiMo (Type-316). The choice of the most appropriate creep model equation for a given application depends not only on the high-temperature deformation characteristics of the material under consideration, but also on the characteristics of the dataset, the number of casts for which creep curves are available and on the strain regime for which an analytical representation is required. The paper focuses on the factors which can influence creep model selection and model-fitting approach for multi-source, multi-cast datasets

  15. Stability of the CAE of a digital mammography machine; Estabilidad del CAE de un mamografo digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Lara, A. A.; Ruiz Morales, C.; Buades Forner, M. J.; Tobarra, B. M.

    2013-07-01

    We analyzed the long-term reproducibility automatic exposure control (CAE) of a digital mammography machine for possible drifts and the factors that have led to changes in its baseline are discussed. (Author)

  16. Quality Imaging - Comparison of CR Mammography with Screen-Film Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Azorin Nieto, J.; Iran Diaz Gongora, J. A.; Arreola, M.; Casian Castellanos, G.; Perdigon Castaneda, G. M.; Franco Enriquez, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is a quality imaging comparison of CR mammography images printed to film by a laser printer with screen-film mammography. A Giotto and Elscintec dedicated mammography units with fully automatic exposure and a nominal large focal spot size of 0.3 mm were used for the image acquisition of phantoms in screen-film mammography. Four CR mammography units from two different manufacturers and three dedicated x-ray mammography units with fully automatic exposure and a nominal large focal spot size of 0.3 mm were used for the image acquisition of phantoms in CR mammography. The tests quality image included an assessment of system resolution, scoring phantom images, Artifacts, mean optical density and density difference (contrast). In this study, screen-film mammography with a quality control program offers a significantly greater level of quality image relative to CR mammography images printed on film

  17. An Investigation into factors influencing the choice of business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant difference between male and female career influencing factors. There was no significant difference regarding the influence exercised by parent in the students' choice of Business Education. There is significant difference between male and female in the influence exerted by external factors in their ...

  18. Determinants of mammography screening behavior in Iranian women: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Moodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer remains a substantial health concern in Iran due to delay and late stage at diagnosis and treatment. Despite the potential benefits of mammography screening for early detection of breast cancer, the performance of this screening among Iranian women is low. For planning appropriate intervention, this study was carried out to identify mammography rates and explore determinants of mammography screening behavior in females of Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this population-based study, 384 women of 40 years and older were interviewed by telephone. The Farsi version of Champion′s Health Belief Model scale (CHBMS was used to examine factors associated with mammography screening. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS (version 16.0 using statistical Chi-square, Fisher Exact test, t-test and multiple logistic regression model to identify the importance rate of socio-demographic and Health Belief Model (HBM variables to predict mammography screening behavior. In all of tests, the level of significant was considered a = 0.05. Results: Mean age ΁ SD of women was 52.24 ΁ 8.2 years. Of the 384 participants, 44.3% reported at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Logistic regression analysis indicated that women were more likely to have mammography if they heard/read about breast cancer (OR = 4.17, 95% CI 2.09, 8.34, menopause in lower age (OR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.87, 0.99 and history of breast problem (OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.12, 0.32. Also, women who perceived more benefits of mammography (OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.63, 2.09, fewer barriers of mammography (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.86, 0.96 and had more motivation for health (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.89, 1 were more likely to have mammography. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the rate of mammography screening among women in Isfahan province is low and highlights the need for developing a comprehensive national breast cancer control program, which should be considered as the first

  19. Interdisciplinary group of mammography (IGM). Quality assurance in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Assurance quality must be a preoccupation of each day in mammography. To be efficient and of low cost it must be discussed between radiologists and physicists; some countries like Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium, United Kingdom, Scandinavia and Netherlands engaged actions to make assurance quality a daily practice

  20. Urban water consumption and its influencing factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Liangxin; Gai, Lingtong; Tong, Yan; Li, Ruihua

    2017-01-01

    Factors that affect water consumption should be identified to develop effective public policies. However, factors influencing domestic water consumption in cities in China, particularly on a national scale, are unclear. In this study, urban water consumption and its influencing factors in 286

  1. Factors influencing choice of paediatrics as a career among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the male students but 12 of the female students (30%) considered gender distribution to be a factor influencing their career choice (p=0.046). Conclusion. This study indicates that paediatrics is popular among female students and that several factors influence choice of this specialty. Understanding these factors may ...

  2. Factors Influencing Prevention and Control of Malaria among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    investigate factors that influence malaria prevention and control practices among pregnant ... treatment of clinical cases and the promotion of ... influence their decision regarding malaria ..... have the ability to purchase anti-malaria drugs that.

  3. Factors influencing the adoption of mobile financial services in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the adoption of mobile financial services in the unbanked population. ... Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences ... the influences of the adoption behaviour at different level of market maturity and points of time.

  4. Factors influencing the usage of different types of malaria prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine factors which influence the use of different types of malaria prevention ... risk areas, religion, education and income influenced ITN usage, whereas only age, malaria .... the uptake of IPTp given that the person would not.

  5. Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari processing among ... Result of probit model analysis at 5% significance level shows an R value ... Marital status (2.236**) and respondents' cultural influences (1.960**) were ...

  6. Factors that influencing veterinary drug’s metabolisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Romeo T.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.

  7. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mnerie, Dumitru; Anghel, Gabriela Victoria; Mnerie, Alin Vasile; Cheveresan, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  8. Mammography in women under 35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzarola, P.; Bellucci, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    The detection of breast cancer in women under 35 is quite an uncommon event, accounting only for 3.2-3.4% of all breast cancers. To determine the indications for mammography in women under 35, the authors correlated clinical, mammographic, and US findings with fine-needle aspiration/surgical biopsy and follow-up results in 1040 symptomatic women examined at the Center of Senology of the Istitute of Radiology - University of Perugia, Italy, from 1984 to June 1990. Of 1040 women, 482 (41.6%) had normal findings; benign disease was diagnosed in 558 (53.7%) cases, and malignant disease in 49 (4.7%). Mammography was very useful to diagnose malignancy in palpable breast lesions, as well as to suggest the need for biopsy, to detect metachronous cancer and to define lesion sizes. In inflammatory process - e.g., mastitis and abscesses - both mammography and US were capable as its remission after therapy. Galactography had a specific role in the evaluation of the mammary duct and demonstrated intraductal pathologic conditions. In the authors'experiences, mammography never showed occult breast cancers in women with no palpable breast lesions or hematic nipple discharge

  9. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  10. Detection of breast abnormalities on enhanced chest CT: Correlation with breast composition on mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eun Mi; Kang, Hee; Shin, Young Gyung; Yun, Jong Hyouk; Oh, Kyung Seung [Dept. of Radiology, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    To investigate the capability of enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) for detecting breast abnormalities and to assess the influence of breast composition on this detectability. From 2000 to 2013, 75 patients who underwent mammography, breast sonography, and enhanced chest CT within one month and had abnormalities on sonography were included. Detection rate of breast abnormality on enhanced chest CT was compared among 4 types of breast composition by the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. Contribution of breast composition, size and enhancement of target lesions to detectability of enhanced chest CT was assessed using logistic regression and chi-square test. Of the 75 target lesions, 34 (45.3%) were detected on enhanced chest CT, corresponding with those on breast sonography; there were no significantly different detection rates among the 4 types of breast composition (p = 0.078). Breast composition [odds ratio (OR) = 1.07, p = 0.206] and enhancement (OR = 21.49, p = 0.998) had no significant effect, but size (OR = 1.23, p = 0.004) was a significant contributing factor influencing the detectability of enhanced chest CT for breast lesions. About half of the cases (45.3%) demonstrated breast lesions on chest CT corresponding with target lesions on sonography. Breast composition defined on mammography did not affect the detectability of enhanced chest CT for breast lesions.

  11. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the

  12. factors influencing condom use among nigerian undergraduates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... Nigeria. Study design: Both qualitative (focus group discussions) and quantitative (cross-sectional ... Keywords: Condom, unsafe sex, HIV, gender, undergraduates. ..... QUESTIONS: the following may influence condom.

  13. Mammography screening credit card and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, D V; Kumar, N B; Clark, R A; Yag, C

    1992-07-15

    Screening for breast cancer using mammography has been shown to be effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The authors attempted to determine if use of a wallet-size plastic screening "credit" card would increase participants' compliance for subsequent mammograms when compared with traditional methods of increasing compliance. Two hundred and twenty consecutive women, ages 40-70 years, undergoing their first screening mammography were recruited and assigned randomly to four groups receiving (1) a reminder plastic credit card (2) reminder credit card with written reminder; (3) appointment card; and (4) verbal recommendation. Return rates of the four groups were determined after 15 months. The return rate for subsequent mammograms was significantly higher for participants (72.4%) using the credit card than for participants (39.8%) exposed to traditional encouragement/reminders (P less than 0.0001). The credit card was designed to show the participant's screening anniversary, and the durability of the card may have been a factor in increasing the return rate. The use of reminder credit cards may increase compliance for periodic screening examinations for other cancers and other chronic diseases.

  14. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  15. Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children\\'s ... they had selected a children's multi-nutrient supplement with the intention of buying it. ... Price, performance and brand loyalty, affect and normative factors were most ...

  16. Factors influencing the pattern of malnutrition among acutely ill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the pattern of malnutrition among acutely ill children presenting in ... height/length) measurements and z-scores calculated for the individual nutritional ... The factors associated with malnutrition included early introduction of ...

  17. Breast density as indicator for the use of mammography or MRI to screen women with familial risk for breast cancer (FaMRIsc: a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadatmand Sepideh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce mortality, women with a family history of breast cancer often start mammography screening at a younger age than the general population. Breast density is high in over 50% of women younger than 50 years. With high breast density, breast cancer incidence increases, but sensitivity of mammography decreases. Therefore, mammography might not be the optimal method for breast cancer screening in young women. Adding MRI increases sensitivity, but also the risk of false-positive results. The limitation of all previous MRI screening studies is that they do not contain a comparison group; all participants received both MRI and mammography. Therefore, we cannot empirically assess in which stage tumours would have been detected by either test. The aim of the Familial MRI Screening Study (FaMRIsc is to compare the efficacy of MRI screening to mammography for women with a familial risk. Furthermore, we will assess the influence of breast density. Methods/Design This Dutch multicentre, randomized controlled trial, with balanced randomisation (1:1 has a parallel grouped design. Women with a cumulative lifetime risk for breast cancer due to their family history of ≥20%, aged 30–55 years are eligible. Identified BRCA1/2 mutation carriers or women with 50% risk of carrying a mutation are excluded. Group 1 receives yearly mammography and clinical breast examination (n = 1000, and group 2 yearly MRI and clinical breast examination, and mammography biennially (n = 1000. Primary endpoints are the number and stage of the detected breast cancers in each arm. Secondary endpoints are the number of false-positive results in both screening arms. Furthermore, sensitivity and positive predictive value of both screening strategies will be assessed. Cost-effectiveness of both strategies will be assessed. Analyses will also be performed with mammographic density as stratification factor. Discussion Personalized breast cancer screening

  18. Digital mammography in breast cancer screening: Evaluation and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluekens, A.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    With all other imaging modalities in radiology being digitised and conventional mammography being ready to phase out the transition to digital mammography was inevitable. This thesis describes the performance of digital screening mammography and the consequences of implementation in a

  19. Screening mammography beliefs and recommendations: a web-based survey of primary care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Shagufta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The appropriateness and cost-effectiveness of screening mammography (SM for women younger than 50 and older than 74 years is debated in the clinical research community, among health care providers, and by the American public. This study explored primary care physicians' (PCPs perceptions of the influence of clinical practice guidelines for SM; the recommendations for SM in response to hypothetical case scenarios; and the factors associated with perceived SM effectiveness and recommendations in the US from June to December 2009 before the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recently revised guidelines. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11,922 PCPs was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire. The response rate was 5.7% (684; (41% 271 family physicians (FP, (36% 232 general internal medicine physicians (IM, (23% 150 obstetrician-gynaecologists (OBG, and (0.2% 31 others. Cross-sectional analysis examined PCPs perceived effectiveness of SM, and recommendation for SM in response to hypothetical case scenarios. PCPs responses were measured using 4-5 point adjectival scales. Differences in perceived effectiveness and recommendations for SM were examined after adjusting for PCPs specialty, race/ethnicity, and the US region. Results Compared to IM and FP, OBG considered SM more effective in reducing breast cancer mortality among women aged 40-49 years (p = 0.003. Physicians consistently recommended mammography to women aged 50-69 years with no differences by specialty (p = 0.11. However, 94% of OBG "always recommended" SM to younger and 86% of older women compared to 81% and 67% for IM and 84% and 59% for FP respectively (p = p = Conclusions A majority of physicians, especially OBG, favour aggressive breast cancer screening for women from 40 through 79 years of age, including women with short life expectancy. Policy interventions should focus on educating providers to provide tailored recommendations for

  20. Factors influencing quality of life in asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-kalemji, Abir; Petersen, Karin Dam; Sørensen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The quality of life (QOL) in persons with asthma is reduced and different factors such as demography, asthma severity and psychiatric comorbidity play an influential role. However, little is known about the interplay of these factors. OBJECTIVE: To describe QOL in relation to asthma...

  1. Application of phase contrast imaging to mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohyama, Keiko; Yamada, Katsuhiko; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Matsuo, Satoru; Morishita, Junji

    2005-01-01

    Phase contrast images were obtained experimentally by using a customized mammography unit with a nominal focal spot size of 100 μm and variable source-to-image distances of up to 1.5 m. The purpose of this study was to examine the applicability and potential usefulness of phase contrast imaging for mammography. A mammography phantom (ACR156 RMI phantom) was imaged, and its visibility was examined. The optical density of the phantom images was adjusted to approximately 1.3 for both the contact and phase contrast images. Forty-one observers (18 medical doctors and 23 radiological technologists) participated in visual evaluation of the images. Results showed that, in comparison with the images of contact mammography, the phantom images of phase contrast imaging demonstrated statistically significantly superior visibility for fibers, clustered micro-calcifications, and masses. Therefore, phase contrast imaging obtained by using the customized mammography unit would be useful for improving diagnostic accuracy in mammography. (author)

  2. Supposed cancer risk from mammography. Reply to previous statements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeser, H; Koeppe, P; Rach, K [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Physikalische Therapie

    1976-12-01

    The view that exposure to diagnostic radiation presents a cancer risk to the female breast should be considered together with the fact that the major factor is ageing of the patient. This risk factor is hidden in experimental and statistical studies on cancer production by exongenous agents; for instance, in studies of radiation effects, it is inherent in the time taken. The assumption that mammography presents a cancer risk is unjustifiable and is denied.

  3. Factors influencing e-commerce development in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinić, Zoran; Ranković, Vladimir; Kalinić, Ljubina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of current state of e-commerce development in Serbia is presented. Also, some important factors influencing e-commerce diffusion are discussed. The factors are divided into four groups: technical factors, which cover e- commerce telecommunication and logistics infrastructure; legal factors, i.e. necessary laws and regulations on e-commerce; economic factors, and psychological factors and local culture. The study showed very strong correlation between broadband inter...

  4. CAD in breast imaging. Application in mammography and MR mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenauer, S.; Hermann, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    Computer aided diagnosis systems (CAD-systems) are evaluated in different parts of diagnostic imaging. In breast imaging double reading which is time- and cost spending is necessary. Therefore a lot of studies evaluated the use of CAD-systems in mammography. However the rate of false-positives is too high to implement CAD-systems as double reader in routine work. In the future, improvements in this technique could perhaps change the performance of CAD-systems. (orig.)

  5. Clinical factors influencing participation in society after successful kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, S.F.; Groothoff, J.W.; van Sonderen, E.L.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.; de Jong, P.E.; van Son, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Little information is available on the degree of actual social functioning after successful kidney transplantation. Moreover, information on factors that influence participation in social activities is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of clinical factors on

  6. Factors influencing selection of office furniture by corporations and universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson

    1976-01-01

    Evaluation of the factors that influence the selection of office furniture by large corporations and universities shows that quality, appearance, and purchase price have the most important influence on the purchase decision. The intended use of the furniture and the appearance of the furniture were the key factors in the purchase of wooden furniture.

  7. Factors Influencing Pregnancy Desires among HIV Positive Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Pregnancy Desires among HIV Positive Women in Sibande District in Mpumalanga, South Africa. ... Gender and Behaviour ... The objective of the study is to present findings on factors influencing pregnancy desires amongst HIV positive women that have participated in Prevention of Mother to child ...

  8. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Attitudes Towards Internet Piracy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In all a total of two hundred and fifty participants were drawn through accidental sampling technique for this study. Their age ranged between 19-48 ... In the same view, consumers ethnic group was not found to significantly influence attitude towards Internet piracy (F(3,246) = .404, P> .05). Reasons were given why the ...

  9. Perceptions of Child Caregivers About Factors Influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition, health education and measles immunization are crucial components of preventive eye health services in the prevention of corneal blindness. This study explores ... The interplay between nutrition and corneal blindness was unknown to mothers in this study. The strong influence ... effectiveness and sustainability.

  10. Factors Influencing Degradation of Mercaptans by Thiobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Degradation of methylmercaptans by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m was influenced by pH of the reaction medium. Ratios of headspace concentrations in empty vials and those of acidified buffer solutions were less than 1.0. 95% of the H2S was in headspace with the remaining 5% in solution upon acidification. The values for ...

  11. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level ...

  12. Digital mammography: current state and future aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U.; Baum, F. [Womens Health Care Center Goettingen, Diagnostisches Brustzentrum Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Hermann, K.P. [Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, Abteilung Diagnostische Radiologie, Goettingen (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of digital technique in mammography has been the last step in completing the process of digitalization in diagnostic imaging. Meanwhile, some different digital techniques as well as a couple of different digital mammography systems were developed and have already been available for some years. In this review article, the relevant data of key studies are reported, the current status is defined, and perspectives of digital mammography are described. (orig.)

  13. Factors influencing the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of primary dysmenorrhoea amongst Abia State university medical students, South ... its impact on school and social activities and the students' management strategies. ... is high, and not consistently associated with demographic risk factors.

  14. Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding the complex factors that can lead to HIV infection is crucial to addressing the problem among vulnerable ... Related content ... Policy in Focus publishes a special issue profiling evidence to empower women in the labour market.

  15. Volumetric breast density affects performance of digital screening mammography

    OpenAIRE

    Wanders, JO; Holland, K; Veldhuis, WB; Mann, RM; Pijnappel, RM; Peeters, PH; Van Gils, CH; Karssemeijer, N

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine to what extent automatically measured volumetric mammographic density influences screening performance when using digital mammography (DM). METHODS: We collected a consecutive series of 111,898 DM examinations (2003-2011) from one screening unit of the Dutch biennial screening program (age 50-75 years). Volumetric mammographic density was automatically assessed using Volpara. We determined screening performance measures for four density categories comparable to the Ameri...

  16. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...

  17. The self-referred mammography patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, H.E.; Jackson, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares the demographics, knowledge, and attitudes of women who refer themselves for screening mammography with those who undergo mammography on the advice of their physicians. Four hundred eighty-five consecutive mammography patients (437 doctor preferred [DR], 48 self-referred [SR]) completed a survey during their mammography appointment. The sample population contained a wide range of socioeconomic groups. While similar in age, race, and employment status to DR patients, SR patients were significantly more likely to have a family income of more than 30,000 per year, be college graduates, and report that they were in good or excellent health

  18. Update on new technologies in digital mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson SK

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie K Patterson, Marilyn A Roubidoux Division of Breast Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Despite controversy regarding mammography's efficacy, it continues to be the most commonly used breast cancer-screening modality. With the development of digital mammography, some improved benefit has been shown in women with dense breast tissue. However, the density of breast tissue continues to limit the sensitivity of conventional mammography. We discuss the development of some derivative digital technologies, primarily digital breast tomosynthesis, and their strengths, weaknesses, and potential patient impact. Keywords: screening mammography, breast cancer, contrast media, digital breast tomosynthesis

  19. Screening mammography in women 65 years old and older

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.; Mulligan, S.A.; Han, S.Y.; Bernreuter, W.K.; Stanley, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares the results of mammographic screening in women aged 65 years and older to those of women aged 50--64 years, to define risk factors and prior use of mammography in these women, and to determine whether mammographic abnormalities are managed differently in the two age groups. Historical data, mammographic findings, and biopsy results were analyzed for all women over 50 years of age screened during 1988 (2,862 patients) at a university hospital-based outpatient center and mobile van, excluding those referred by oncologists. The following factors were determined for patients screened at the outpatient center and the mobile van, with both groups divided according to patient age (50--64 vs ≥ 65 years): presence of risk factors, previous biopsy, exogenous hormones, percentage of black patients, previous mammography, biopsy rate, cancer detection rate, positive nodes, and presence of tumors smaller than 1 cm or ductal carcinoma in-situ

  20. Factors that influence peripheral nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...... to earliest muscle reinnervation) on the final recovery of the outcome measures. Nerve gap distance and the repair type, individually and concertedly, strongly influenced the time to earliest muscle reinnervation, and only time to reinnervation was significant when all three variables were included as outcome...

  1. Reader practice in mammography screen reporting in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, W.; Poulos, A.; Brennan, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Reader variability is a problem in mammography image reporting and compromises the efficacy of screening programmes. The purpose of this exploratory study was to survey reader practice in reporting screening mammograms in Australia to identify aspects of practice that warrant further investigation. Mammography reporting practice and influences on concentration and attention were investigated by using an original questionnaire distributed to screen readers in Australia. A response rate of 71% (83 out of 117) was achieved. Demographic data indicated that the majority of readers were over 46 years of age (73%), have been reporting on screening mammograms for over 10 years (61%), take less than 1 min to report upon a screening mammogram examination (66%), report up to 200 examinations in a single session (83%) and take up to 2 h to report one session (61%). A majority report on more than 5000 examinations annually (66%); 93% of participants regard their search strategy as systematic, 87% agreed that their concentration can vary throughout a session, 64% agreed that the relatively low number of positives can lead to lapses in concentration and attention and almost all (94%) participants agreed that methods to maximise concentration should be explored. Participants identified a range of influences on concentration within their working environment including volume of images reported in one session, image types and aspects of the physical environment. This study has provided important evidence of the need to investigate adverse influences on concentration during mammography screen reporting

  2. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloi, Sabee, E-mail: symolloi@uci.edu; Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer.

  3. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloi, Sabee; Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer

  4. Factors Influencing Organization Adoption Decision On Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ailar Rahimli

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on ado...

  5. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der, I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  6. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  7. Influence Factors of the Economic Development Level Across European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Ioana POPA

    2016-01-01

    The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the...

  8. Additional factors influencing resident satisfaction and dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal SR

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Seyed Ramin Jalal, Abdirahman Osman, Saeed Azizi  Faculty of Medicine, St George’s Hospital Medical School, London, UK We have read the recent review article by Kahn et al1 with great interest. The original article was detailed and informative, and we felt it would be helpful to expand on the factors affecting resident satisfaction and dissatisfaction. As senior medical students in clinical years, we spend a significant portion of our time shadowing specialist trainees. Thus, we can offer a unique perspective on the factors affecting trainee satisfaction and well-being. View the original paper by Kahn and colleagues. 

  9. Assessment of Mean Glandular Dose in Mammography System with Different Anode-Filter Combinations Using MCNP Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamkar, Lida; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Athari, Mitra

    2016-10-01

    X-ray mammography is one of the general methods for early detection of breast cancer. Since glandular tissue in the breast is sensitive to radiation and it increases the risk of cancer, the given dose to the patient is very important in mammography. The aim of this study was to determine the average absorbed dose of X-ray radiation in the glandular tissue of the breast during mammography examinations as well as investigating factors that influence the mean glandular dose (MGD). One of the precise methods for determination of MGD absorbed by the breast is Monte Carlo simulation method which is widely used to assess the dose. We studied some different X-ray sources and exposure factors that affect the MGD. "Midi-future" digital mammography system with amorphous-selenium detector was simulated using the Monte Carlo N-particle extended (MCNPX) code. Different anode/filter combinations such as tungsten/silver (W/Ag), tungsten/rhodium (W/Rh), and rhodium/aluminium (Rh/Al) were simulated in this study. The voltage of X-ray tube ranged from 24 kV to 32 kV with 2 kV intervals and the breast phantom thickness ranged from 3 to 8 cm, and glandular fraction g varied from 10% to 100%. MGD was measured for different anode/filter combinations and the effects of changing tube voltage, phantom thickness, combination and glandular breast tissue on MGD were studied. As glandular g and X-ray tube voltage increased, the breast dose increased too, and the increase of breast phantom thickness led to the decrease of MGD. The obtained results for MGD were consistent with the result of Boone et al. that was previously reported. By comparing the results, we saw that W/Rh anode/filter combination is the best choice in breast mammography imaging because of the lowest delivered dose in comparison with W/Ag and Rh/Al. Moreover, breast thickness and g value have significant effects on MGD.

  10. Control of quality in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The present protocol of quality control/quality assurance in mammography is the result of the work of two regional projects realised in Latin America within the frame of ARCAL with the support of the IAEA. The first is ARCAL LV (RLA/6/043) project on quality assurance/quality control in mammography studies which analysed the present situation of the mammography in the member countries of the project which include: Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Dominican Republic and Republic of Venezuela and the second is ARCAL XLIX (RLA/9/035) project, whose members were Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, Mexico, and Peru, worked the application of Basic Safety Standards for the protection against ionising radiation with the aim to improve radiation protection in X-ray diagnosis medical practices through the implementation of the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) related to x-ray diagnosis in selected hospitals located in each country involved in the project. The work of both projects had been consolidated and harmonized in the present publication

  11. Rayleigh imaging in spectral mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Karl; Danielsson, Mats; Fredenberg, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Spectral imaging is the acquisition of multiple images of an object at different energy spectra. In mammography, dual-energy imaging (spectral imaging with two energy levels) has been investigated for several applications, in particular material decomposition, which allows for quantitative analysis of breast composition and quantitative contrast-enhanced imaging. Material decomposition with dual-energy imaging is based on the assumption that there are two dominant photon interaction effects that determine linear attenuation: the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering. This assumption limits the number of basis materials, i.e. the number of materials that are possible to differentiate between, to two. However, Rayleigh scattering may account for more than 10% of the linear attenuation in the mammography energy range. In this work, we show that a modified version of a scanning multi-slit spectral photon-counting mammography system is able to acquire three images at different spectra and can be used for triple-energy imaging. We further show that triple-energy imaging in combination with the efficient scatter rejection of the system enables measurement of Rayleigh scattering, which adds an additional energy dependency to the linear attenuation and enables material decomposition with three basis materials. Three available basis materials have the potential to improve virtually all applications of spectral imaging.

  12. Maternal sociodemographic factors that influence full child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    single parenting, inadequate antenatal care, ethnicity and negative belief in vaccination to low immunisation uptake around the ... the maternal sociodemographic factors that are associated with child ... mothers <18 years old (odds ratio (OR) 0.53; confidence interval (CI) 0.34 - 0.84) and mothers residing in the northern ...

  13. Factors Influencing Medical Students' Choice of Specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yeh Chang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: This study found that personal intelligence/ability preference and career opportunities were more important factors to the current generation of students in choosing a specialty. Knowledge of these students' attitudes could form the basis for the development of strategies to enhance the attractiveness of specialties facing the problem of a shortage of manpower.

  14. 122 Factors Influencing Information and Communication Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yemi Olojede

    Women Research Scientists in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria ... recommends that researchers should restructure their work schedule to accommodate ICT practice and use in order to enhance ICT use. Keywords: Factors of ICT ... potential to reduce poverty and improve livelihoods by empowering users with timely.

  15. Factors influencing adherence to routine iron supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia in pregnancy is a common problem especially in developing countries. and has been linked with feotal and maternal complications. Taking iron supplements could reduce anaemia in pregnancy but some pregnant women do not adhere to this. The study identified some factors associated with non adherence ...

  16. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our findings support other studies which found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school progress and performance. Contrary to most research findings mother tongue instruction did not eme1rge as an important explanatory factor on school progress and performance, however; home ...

  17. Biodemographic And Health Seeking Behavior Factors Influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study findings show primarily - amongst the biodemographic and health seeking services factors, delivery-related maternal health complicacies, blindness, higher order births, twin births, lower household size and interaction effect of higher order live births and male child are significantly correlated with higher neonatal ...

  18. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-11

    May 11, 2010 ... internal factors for low school performance, this study focused on the learners ... Namibia. Although numerous studies have confinned socio-economic ... Many studies support the view that family background is the strongest single predictor of ..... Windhoek is clearly stratified, mainly following income levels.

  19. Environmental Factors Influencing Artisanal Fishing in Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study identified the environmental factors affecting artisanal fishing in. Eastern Obolo local government area of Akwa ... colonial administration (Anko &Eyo, 2003). According to Olomola (1998), artisanal ... The problems faced by artisanal fishers in Nigeria are not far from what is experienced by artisanal fishermen in ...

  20. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The ...

  1. Nutritional factors influencing milk urea in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995. In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........

  2. Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family, especially maternal, factors play a role in determining eating attitudes. Peer and media (television) factors are not significantly influential. The findings provide preliminary data on factors that influence eating attrtudes in a group at risk for the development of eating disorders. The findings have implications for the ...

  3. Factors Influencing Stormwater Mitigation in Permeable Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavement (PP is used worldwide to mitigate surface runoff in urban areas. Various studies have examined the factors governing the hydrologic performance of PP. However, relatively little is known about the relative importance of these governing factors and the long-term hydrologic performance of PP. This study applied numerical models—calibrated and validated using existing experimental results—to simulate hundreds of event-based and two long-term rainfall scenarios for two designs of PP. Based on the event-based simulation results, rainfall intensity, rainfall volume, thickness of the storage layer and the hydraulic conductivity of the subgrade were identified as the most influential factors in PP runoff reduction. Over the long term, PP performed significantly better in a relatively drier climate (e.g., New York, reducing nearly 90% of runoff volume compared to 70% in a relatively wetter climate (e.g., Hong Kong. The two designs of PP examined performed differently, and the difference was more apparent in the relatively wetter climate. This study generated insights that will help the design and implementation of PP to mitigate stormwater worldwide.

  4. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.

  5. INFLUENCE FACTORS AND MANIFESTATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel DĂNECI-PĂTRĂU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Notion almost unknown before 1950, labor productivity is now commonly used by economists, engineers, sociologists and politicians alike, influencing all the important issues of the time. Under these circumstances, if it is accepted that labor productivity is the driving variable that generates economic progress, it is justified that people need to increase their efforts to enhance, its value through various means. This article presents the findings of a theoretical research literature regarding landmarks in the evolution of labor productivity. Arguments justifying such an approach have been given by the fact that the labor issue presents an interest not only at the micro level, individual (the consequences it has on the individual work, but also at the macro level, societal (employment relations on the market labor, insurance systems and the offer educational services on the market today.

  6. Factors influencing radon attenuation by tailing covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silker, W.B.; Rogers, V.C.

    1981-07-01

    The US NRC, in its Generic Environmental Impact Statement on uranium milling has specified that the radon flux escaping a uranium mill tailings pile will be reduced to pCi/m 2 s by application of covering layers of soils and clays. These covers present a radon diffusion barrier, which sufficiently increases the time required for radon passage from the tailings to the atmosphere to allow for decay of 222 Rn within the cover. The depth of cover necessary to reduce the escaping radon flux to the prescribed level is to be determined by calculation, and requires precise knowledge of the radon diffusion coefficient in the covering media. A Radon Attenuation Test Facility was developed to determine rates of radon diffusion through candidate cover materials. This paper describes this facility and its application for determining the influence of physical properties of the soil column on the radon diffusion coefficient

  7. Factors influencing incident reporting in surgical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckler, S; Catchpole, K; McCulloch, P; Handa, A

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the process of incident reporting in a surgical setting. In particular: the influence of event outcome on reporting behaviour; staff perception of surgical complications as reportable events. Anonymous web-based questionnaire survey. General Surgical Department in a UK teaching hospital. Of 203 eligible staff, 55 (76.4%) doctors and 82 (62.6%) nurses participated. Knowledge and use of local reporting system; propensity to report incidents which vary by outcome (harm, no harm, harm prevented); propensity to report surgical complications; practical and psychological barriers to reporting. Nurses were significantly more likely to know of the local reporting system and to have recently completed a report than doctors. The level of harm (F(1.8,246) = 254.2, pvs 53%, z = 4.633, psystems.

  8. Factors influencing workplace health promotion intervention: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojatz, Daniela; Merchant, Almas; Nitsch, Martina

    2017-10-01

    Although workplace health promotion (WHP) has evolved over the last 40 years, systematically collected knowledge on factors influencing the functioning of WHP is scarce. Therefore, a qualitative systematic literature review was carried out to systematically identify and synthesize factors influencing the phases of WHP interventions: needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Research evidence was identified by searching electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, ERIC, IBBS and PsycINFO) from 1998 to 2013, as well as by cross-checking reference lists of included peer-reviewed articles. The inclusion criteria were: original empirical research, description of WHP, description of barriers to and/or facilitators of the planning, implementation and/or evaluation of WHP. Finally, 54 full texts were included. From these, influencing factors were extracted and summarized using thematic analysis. The majority of influencing factors referred to the implementation phase, few dealt with planning and/or evaluation and none with needs assessment. The influencing factors were condensed into topics with respect to factors at contextual level (e.g. economic crisis); factors at organizational level (e.g. management support); factors at intervention level (e.g. quality of intervention concept); factors at implementer level (e.g. resources); factors at participant level (e.g. commitment to intervention) and factors referring to methodological and data aspects (e.g. data-collection issues). Factors regarding contextual issues and organizational aspects were identified across three phases. Therefore, future research and practice should consider not only the influencing factors at different levels, but also at different phases of WHP interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio; Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; de Olalla, Patricia García; Caylà, Joan A

    2013-06-01

    According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with TB. In spite of the political, economical, research and community efforts, TB remains a major global health problem worldwide. Moreover, in this new century, new challenges such as multidrug-resistance extension, migration to big cities and the new treatments with anti-tumour necrosis alpha factor for inflammatory diseases have emerged and threaten the decreasing trend in the global number of TB cases in the last years. We must also be aware about the impact that smoking and diabetes pandemics may be having on the incidence of TB. The existence of a good TB Prevention and Control Program is essential to fight against TB. The coordination among clinicians, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others, and the link between surveillance, control and research should always be a priority for a TB Program. Each city and country should define their needs according to the epidemiological situation. Local TB control programs will have to adapt to any new challenge that arises in order to respond to the needs of their population.

  10. Factors influencing microinjection molding replication quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Julie; Brulez, Anne-Catherine; Contraires, Elise; Larochette, Mathieu; Trannoy-Orban, Nathalie; Pignon, Maxime; Mauclair, Cyril; Valette, Stéphane; Benayoun, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in producing and providing high-precision plastic parts that can be manufactured by microinjection molding: gears, pumps, optical grating elements, and so on. For all of these applications, the replication quality is essential. This study has two goals: (1) fabrication of high-precision parts using the conventional injection molding machine; (2) identification of robust parameters that ensure production quality. Thus, different technological solutions have been used: cavity vacuuming and the use of a mold coated with DLC or CrN deposits. AFM and SEM analyses were carried out to characterize the replication profile. The replication quality was studied in terms of the process parameters, coated and uncoated molds and crystallinity of the polymer. Specific studies were processed to quantify the replicability of injection molded parts (ABS, PC and PP). Analysis of the Taguchi experimental designs permits prioritization of the impact of each parameter on the replication quality. A discussion taking into account these new parameters and the thermal and spreading properties on the coatings is proposed. It appeared that, in general, increasing the mold temperature improves the molten polymer fill in submicron features except for the steel insert (for which the presence of a vacuum is the most important factor). Moreover, the DLC coating was the best coating to increase the quality of the replication. This result could be explained by the lower thermal diffusivity of this coating. We noted that the viscosity of the polymers is not a primordial factor of the replication quality.

  11. Factors influencing EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.L.; Spinella, M.R.; Bof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors) [es

  12. Factors influencing surface roughness of polyimide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hong; Zhang Zhanwen; Huang Yong; Li Bo; Li Sai

    2011-01-01

    The polyimide (PI) films of pyromellitic dianhydride-oxydiamiline (PMDA-ODA) were fabricated using vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) method under high vacuum pressure of 10-4 Pa level. The influence of equipment, substrate temperature, the process of heating and deposition ratio of monomers on the surface roughness of the PI films was investigated. The surface topography of films was measured by interferometer microscopy and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and the surface roughness was probed with atomic force microscopy(AFM). The results show that consecutive films can be formed when the distance from steering flow pipe to substrate is 74 cm. The surface roughnesses are 291.2 nm and 61.9 nm respectively for one-step heating process and multi-step heating process, and using fine mesh can effectively avoid the splash of materials. The surface roughness can be 3.3 nm when the deposition rate ratio of PMDA to ODA is 0.9:1, and keeping the temperature of substrate around 30 degree C is advantageous to form a film with planar micro-surface topography. (authors)

  13. Influence of socioeconomic factors in muscle dysmorphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Rizo-Baeza

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction and objective: In muscle dysmorphia (MD the patient thinks he is smaller and less muscular than he really is. As in other addictive diseases, its prevention and early diagnosis are the key to avoid associated disorders. It is established as an objective to determine if there are associated socio-demographic factors. Material and methods: Cross-sectional observational study of 140 men, between 16-45 years old, who practice bodybuilding in gyms of different socioeconomic levels, at least 6 months prior to the study, 4 days / week, 1 hour / day, who signed the informed consent and without chronic illness. The main variable was the presence of symptoms of DM using the muscle appearance satisfaction scale (44 patients and the secondary variables were age, coexistence, children, educational level and monthly income. Frequencies were used in the qualitative variables, and averages and standard deviations in the quantitative variables, in the bivariate analysis of the Chisquare test and the t-student test respectively and the binary logistic regression (presence / absence of MD to eliminate confounding factors, the probabilities were calculated associated Results: The gymnasts have an average age of 26.1 (SD = 7.1 years; the majority live with their parents (56.4%; they do not have children (89.3%; the academic levels are balanced and the economic income is mostly low / medium (79.3%. In the bivariate analysis, is observed a higher risk at a younger age (p = 0.027 and when they live with their parents (limit of significance. Significance is not observed with the variables having children, educational level or economic income. In the binary logistic regression these meanings are lost, although the graphic representation of the probability in relation with age seems to be a risk factor, as well as living with the parents or as a couple. Conclusion: Among men who practice bodybuilding, it is usually a risk to suffer MD, to be younger

  14. Barriers to Mammography among Inadequately Screened Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V.; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography…

  15. Mammography parameters: compression, dose, and discomfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, S.; Di Risio, C.; Andisco, D.; Rojas, R.R.; Rojas, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To confirm the importance of compression in mammography and relate it to the discomfort expressed by the patients. Materials and methods: Two samples of 402 and 268 mammographies were obtained from two diagnostic centres that use the same mammographic equipment, but different compression techniques. The patient age range was from 21 to 50 years old. (authors) [es

  16. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE INTENTION FOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULIȚĂ ZENOBIA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents the research results of an applied study regarding the impact of work style and organizational climate on teachers' intention to leave their workplace in the foreseeable future. A sample of 150 teachers aged 21-56, employees of 10 schools from Bucharest, Romania has been the focus of the research, aiming to identify the differences between the group of participants that expressed their intent to leave the organization (called the turnover group and the ones that stated their intention to remain employed in the school (non-fluctuation group regarding work style and its factors and the perceived traits of the organizational climate for the schools employing them at the time of the study. Teachers included in the turnover group revealed a more dynamic work style and a significantly more negative perception of the organizational climate.

  17. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, A.; Nichols, M.L.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.; Thurber, J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research

  18. Factors influencing dependence on mobile phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of current study was to investigate the relationship between the problematic use of mobile phone and Big Five personality traits among students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A total number of 120 students (80 females and 40 males were selected by applying proportional randomized classification sampling method from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS and demographic questionnaire were used to gather data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Analysis of gathered data showed that gender, neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience had positive correlation with the problematic use of mobile phone, whereas conscientiousness and agreeableness were not correlated with the problematic use of mobile phone. Conclusion: The evaluation of Big Five personality traits would be a reliable factor for predicting the problematic use of mobile phone among students.

  19. Wheat Industry: Which Factors Influence Innovation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Francisco Dalla Corte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A change in the profile of food consumption is occurring because of the new context of demographic growth, the increase of income in developing economies, and urbanization. In Brazil, consumption patterns have trended from fresh to processed food and internal and external growth in demand has led to opportunities that require new and higher levels of technological innovation and associated managerial skill. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of innovation on a key Brazilian food industry: wheat product markets. Results showed that while most firms did not innovate in the past year, new investments in R&D were important for innovation to occur compared to other factors such as the size of the company, the integration in supply chain, and the age of the company. These results demonstrate that innovation is not a random or unpredictable process, but a complex and diverse process that may be specific to each industry.

  20. Influence factors in the Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Ramírez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There are factors which impel or slow down the knowledge processes into the organizations which in turn affect the completion of its vision as an ideal planning. The organizational memory, repetition of unconscious acts and the extended practice plays an important role in the meaning of the action and the goal to transform the plans into attainment through the manifest knowledge which turns into conclusion and makes a systematic knowing infused with values as an important core source for the firm. They conceive maturity stages of development within the companies which interact mutually, starting with the organizational memory which embodies the past and present successes, passing towards unconscious acts which can risk the true knowledge content to an extended practice stage based in years of experience.

  1. Factors influencing message dissemination through social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yang, Huancheng; Fu, Yang; Fu, Dianzheng; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-06-01

    Online social networks strongly impact our daily lives. An internet user (a "Netizen") wants messages to be efficiently disseminated. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) dissemination model is the traditional tool for exploring the spreading mechanism of information diffusion. We here test our SIR-based dissemination model on open and real-world data collected from Twitter. We locate and identify phase transitions in the message dissemination process. We find that message content is a stronger factor than the popularity of the sender. We also find that the probability that a message will be forwarded has a threshold that affects its ability to spread, and when the probability is above the threshold the message quickly achieves mass dissemination.

  2. Influence of processing factors over concrete strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, K. A.; Dolzhenko, A. V.; Zharikov, I. S.

    2018-03-01

    Construction of facilities of cast in-situ reinforced concrete poses additional requirements to quality of material, peculiarities of the construction process may sometimes lead to appearance of lamination planes and inhomogeneity of concrete, which reduce strength of the material and structure as a whole. Technology compliance while working with cast in-situ concrete has a significant impact onto the concrete strength. Such process factors as concrete curing, vibration and compaction of the concrete mixture, temperature treatment, etc., when they are countered or inadequately followed lead to a significant reduction in concrete strength. Here, the authors experimentally quantitatively determine the loss of strength in in-situ cast concrete structures due to inadequate following of process requirements, in comparison with full compliance.

  3. Factors influencing professional life satisfaction among neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M; Halpern, Michael T; Kane, Heather L; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2017-06-19

    Predicted shortages in the supply of neurologists may limit patients' access to and quality of care for neurological disorders. Retaining neurologists already in practice provides one opportunity to support the overall supply of practicing neurologists. Understanding factors associated with professional life satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) and implementing policies to enhance satisfaction may encourage neurologists to remain in clinical practice. In this paper, we present results from the first study examining factors associated with professional life satisfaction among a large sample of U.S, neurologists. We collaborated with the AAN to survey a sample of U.S. neurologists about their professional life satisfaction. Analyses examined the association of physician and practice characteristics with aspects of professional life satisfaction, including satisfaction with their career in medicine, medical specialty, current position, relationship with colleagues, relationship with patients, work/life balance, and pay. The study population consisted of 625 neurologists. In multivariate regression analyses, no single group or population stratum indicated high (or low) responses to all aspects of satisfaction. Older neurologists reported higher satisfaction with career, specialty, and relationship with patients than younger neurologists. Female neurologists had significantly lower satisfaction with pay than male neurologists. Neurologists who spent more time in research and teaching had greater satisfaction with specialty, relationship with colleagues, and relationship with patients than those spending no time in research. Neurologists who practiced in small cities/rural areas reported lower satisfaction across multiple dimensions than those practicing in large urban areas. Neurologists in solo practice had greater satisfaction with the relationship with their patients, but lower satisfaction with pay. Satisfaction is a multidimensional construct that is associated with

  4. Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life.

  5. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  6. Assessing the Factors Influencing Women Attainment of Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the factors influencing the attainment of household food security in Ikwuano ... Data analysis utilized descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, ... had no access to credits, 71.7% had no contact with extension service.

  7. The Influence of Psychological Factors in Meniere's Disease | Orji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Influence of Psychological Factors in Meniere's Disease. ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... probably through disorders of the autonomic nervous system occasioned by the increased levels of stress‑related hormones.

  8. Influence of bioregion and environmental factors on the growth, size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of bioregion and important environmental factors in South Africa ... the production efficiency of cows through the implementation of management ... genetic component was not separated from the environmental components.

  9. Factors influencing recruitment and retention of professional nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. Lyn Haskins

    factors influencing recruitment and retention of three categories of HPs in KwaZulu-Natal and has ...... tion, with good career opportunities which were similar in both urban and rural .... attract nurses to rural areas: A multicountry discrete choice.

  10. Factors that influence doctors in the assessment of applicants for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that influence doctors in the assessment of applicants for disability grant. ... and the usefulness of the committees were important in decision making. ... assessment of applicants for a disability grant is a subjective and emotional task.

  11. Evaluation of some genetic factors influencing the phenotypic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some genetic factors influencing the phenotypic severity of β thalassemia Egyptian patients. Ibtessam R Hussein, Amina M Medhat, Samir F Zohny, Alice K Abd El-Aleem, Ghada Y El-Kammah, Bardees M Foda ...

  12. Social Cultural Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Sports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social Cultural Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Sports as Perceived by Female Students of the University of Ilorin. ... sports competition while mass media should organize enlightenment programmes that will mitigate the ...

  13. Physico-chemical and biotic factors influencing microalgal seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical and biotic factors influencing microalgal seed culture propagation for inoculation of a ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... used to inoculate an open raceway pond for large scale biomass production for biodiesel production.

  14. Factors Influencing the Willingness to Pay User Fees

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, George W.

    2012-01-01

    In this Note I explore the factors which influence the demand side of program participation, or the willingness to pay (WTP). The WTP estimates can help you determine how many people will participate in an event at each fee level.

  15. Factors influencing adherence to dietary guidelines: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-17

    Jan 17, 2014 ... Original Research: Factors influencing adherence to dietary guidelines. 76. 2014 Volume ..... eat, because they dik (tired) of giving you special food. Then they go .... patients in this study were satisfied with the advice received ...

  16. 38 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE IRON STATUS OF PREGNANT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sys01

    The study investigated the factors that influence iron ... approaches employed for promotion of girl-child education and prevention of adolescent .... purchase food items rich in haem iron such as ... decision making, life style options, and control.

  17. factors influencing the choice of health care providing facility among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the public sector ... Objectives: This study aimed to assess the factors influencing choice and satisfaction with health service providers among local ... the consumer of healthcare services cannot control. ..... Acquisition of Stable Food.

  18. Factors influencing the adoption of smartphones by undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the adoption of smartphones by undergraduate students at ... ha ve thus far c oncentrated on the adoption of mobile technologies especially ... who may also want to explore the implementation of mobile learning systems, ...

  19. Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Consent For Research In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Consent For Research In Nigeria: Lessons ... for Health Research Ethics in enforcing researchers' compliance with ethical standards in ... Genuine respect for human dignity requires deeper understanding of ...

  20. Assessment of the prevalence and factors influencing adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    adherence to exclusive breast feeding among HIV positive ... Despite its benefits, the practice of EBF among HIV positive mothers is low in Ethiopia. Objective: This study is intended to assess factors influencing adherence to exclusively breast ...

  1. Factors influencing breastfeeding practices in Edo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria however, young infants may not benefit from such a practice as a ... The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing breastfeeding practices in Edo State, Nigeria. ... Only 20 per cent practiced exclusive breastfeeding.

  2. Factors Influencing Student Nurses' Performance in the Final ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Student Nurses' Performance in the Final Practical Examination ... Staff development courses can be held to coordinate the work of the school ... to authentic individual nursing care of patients so that they use the individual ...

  3. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A. J. M.; van Assema, P.; Hesdahl, B.; Harting, J.; de Vries, N. K.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health

  4. Chapter 4. Radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of hydrosphere; (2) Radioactive contamination of hydrosphere

  5. Factors influencing the teaching of physical education and sport in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the teaching of physical education and sport in Cluster H Shools ... and nine heads of schools selected using the random sampling technique. ... the participation of children with disabilities in Physical Education and Sports.

  6. Factors influencing the density of aerobic granular sludge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, M.K.; Kleerebezem, R.; Strous, M.; Chandran, K.; Loosdrecht, M.C. van

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the factors influencing density of granular sludge particles were evaluated. Granules consist of microbes, precipitates and of extracellular polymeric substance. The volume fractions of the bacterial layers were experimentally estimated by fluorescent in situ hybridisation

  7. Factors influencing Nigerian men's decision to undergo prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study explores the factors that influence a group of Nigerian men's decision to go for Prostate Specific ..... older they were in the habit of regularly visiting the hospi- .... friends with prostate cancer was an important stimulus.

  8. Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A mixed method study. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... group discussions) and quantitative (cross-sectional survey) methods were utilised for this study.

  9. Methodology for studying of influence of fire factor on geosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Vasilovyth Buts

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Materials about the impact of emergency situations of the technogenic and natural character, caused by fires, on geosystems are presented. Methodological features of researches on fire factor influence on geosystem components are shown.

  10. E-commerce factors influencing consumers‘ online shopping decision

    OpenAIRE

    Baubonienė, Živilė; Gulevičiūtė, Gintarė

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to look at the factors driving online shopping and to develop an understanding of the factors influencing the online shopping by the consumers. This is done by exploring the factors that encourage consumers to shop online through analysis of such advantages as security, fast delivery, comparable price, convenience, cheaper prices and a wider choice. At the same time, the research project reveals the factors that are discouraging for consumers and the ben...

  11. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads.

  12. At what age should screening mammography be recommended for Asian women?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Junko; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Rashid, Omar M; Takabe, Kazuaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Although regular screening mammography has been suggested to be associated with improvements in the relative survival of breast cancer in recent years, the appropriate age to start screening mammography remains controversial. In November 2009, the United States Preventive Service Task Force published updated guidelines for breast cancer, which no longer support routine screening mammography for women aged 40–49 years, but instead, defer the choice of screening in that age group to the patient and physician. The age to begin screening differs between guidelines, including those from the Task Force, the American Cancer Society and the World Health Organization. It remains unclear how this discrepancy impacts patient survival, especially among certain subpopulations. Although the biological characteristics of breast cancer and peak age of incidence differ among different ethnic populations, there have been few reports that evaluate the starting age for screening mammography based on ethnicity. Here, we discuss the benefits and harm of screening mammography in the fifth decade, and re-evaluate the starting age for screening mammography taking ethnicity into account, focusing on the Asian population. Breast cancer incidence peaked in the fifth decade in Asian women, which has been thought to be due to a combination of biological and environmental factors. Previous reports suggest that Asian women in their 40s may receive more benefit and less harm from screening mammography than the age-matched non-Asian US population. Therefore, starting screening mammography at age 40 may be beneficial for women of Asian ethnicity in well-resourced countries, such as Japanese women who reside in Japan

  13. At what age should screening mammography be recommended for Asian women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Junko; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Rashid, Omar M; Takabe, Kazuaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-07-01

    Although regular screening mammography has been suggested to be associated with improvements in the relative survival of breast cancer in recent years, the appropriate age to start screening mammography remains controversial. In November 2009, the United States Preventive Service Task Force published updated guidelines for breast cancer, which no longer support routine screening mammography for women aged 40-49 years, but instead, defer the choice of screening in that age group to the patient and physician. The age to begin screening differs between guidelines, including those from the Task Force, the American Cancer Society and the World Health Organization. It remains unclear how this discrepancy impacts patient survival, especially among certain subpopulations. Although the biological characteristics of breast cancer and peak age of incidence differ among different ethnic populations, there have been few reports that evaluate the starting age for screening mammography based on ethnicity. Here, we discuss the benefits and harm of screening mammography in the fifth decade, and re-evaluate the starting age for screening mammography taking ethnicity into account, focusing on the Asian population. Breast cancer incidence peaked in the fifth decade in Asian women, which has been thought to be due to a combination of biological and environmental factors. Previous reports suggest that Asian women in their 40s may receive more benefit and less harm from screening mammography than the age-matched non-Asian US population. Therefore, starting screening mammography at age 40 may be beneficial for women of Asian ethnicity in well-resourced countries, such as Japanese women who reside in Japan. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Factors That Influence Technology Integration in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Maureen C.

    2017-01-01

    Education is one area where the use of technology has had great impact on student learning. The integration of technology in teaching and learning can significantly influence the outcome of education in the classroom. However, there are a myriad of factors that influence technology integration in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to…

  15. Factors Influencing Choice of Inguinal Hernia Repair Technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to highlight factors that may influence ... Experienced peers play a major role in training on the various repair ... Reasons influencing choice of repair technique include training ... (after appendectomy) accounting for 10 to 15% of all surgical ..... in medical school [as undergraduate students or as residents].

  16. Influence of breed and environmental factors on litter parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of breed and environmental factors on litter parameters of rabbits ... There was a non-significant effect of season on litter site at birth, kits alive at birth and ... to rabbit reproduction as it influenced negatively more litter parameters than ...

  17. Factors influencing the, selection of state office furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson; R. Bruce Anderson

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of the factors influencing the selection of office furniture by nine state governments shows that quality and purchase price have the most important influence on the purchase decision. The intended use of the furniture and the purchasing regulations of the states were key f8CbrS in the use of wood furniture.

  18. Environmental factors influencing fluctuation of share prices on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental factors influencing fluctuation of share prices on Nigeria stock exchange market. ... What are these environmental variables that affect the fluctuation of share prices in Nigeria? ... The results show inflation, money supply, total deficits index of industrial production, interest rate and GDP influence stock prices.

  19. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The adhesion of this strain reaches maximum numbers within 1h in most in vitro studies and a biofilm has generally formed within 24 h of cells adhering to the lens surface. Physical and chemical properties of contact lens material affect bacterial adhesion. The water content of hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA)-based lenses and their iconicity affect the ability of bacteria to adhere. The higher hydrophobicity of silicone hydrogel lenses compared to HEMA-based lenses has been implicated in the higher numbers of bacteria that can adhere to their surfaces. Lens wear has different effects on bacterial adhesion, partly due to differences between wearers, responses of bacterial strains and the ability of certain tear film proteins when bound to a lens surface to kill certain types of bacteria.

  20. Factors that Influence Quality Service of Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nur Mustafa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Education as a profession requires a thorough commitment and sincerity among educators in guiding and shaping the patterns of learning toward forming identities and lead change in the students. As an adult with a lot of knowledge and experience, classroom becomes an important medium for the delivery and access to knowledge to the students in an instructional condition that effectively and efficiently. Therefore, all educators need to prepare themselves to face challenges to deal with children as a leader in charge in constructing a conducive and persuasive educational relationship. Important characteristics in this context is how to create a memorable delivery systems that meet the standard qualities and aligned with the education laws enforced. As a teacher who has received training from experts and civil servants thus all actions taken should be sincere, open, meet the service specification that gives attention to the self-esteem of the students with a good service, quality, and meet their needs. Therefore, this study will discuss the main factors that affect the quality of service to the students among the teachers namely motivation and professional competence. Selected samples in this study were 327 teachers from Secondary School in Pekanbaru. This study has shown a clear interest in improving the quality of motivation and the quality of service of teachers to the students. The aspects of the professional competence of teachers are still experiencing problems in applying the knowledge and skills to lead and manage the classroom inrealizing   a conducive environment.

  1. Patient dose in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, Margarita; Moran, Pilar; Ten, Jose I.; Fernandez Soto, Jose M.; Cepeda, T.; Vano, Eliseo

    2004-01-01

    In the present investigation, we analyze the dose of 5034 patients (20 137 images) who underwent mammographic examinations with a full-field digital mammography system. Also, we evaluate the system calibration by analyzing the exposure factors as a function of breast thickness. The information relevant to this study has been extracted from the image DICOM header and stored in a database during a 3-year period (March 2001-October 2003). Patient data included age, breast thickness, kVp, mAs, target/filter combination, and nominal dose values. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) without backscatter was calculated from the tube output as measured for each voltage used under clinical conditions and from the tube loading (mAs) included in the DICOM header. Mean values for the patient age and compressed breast thickness were 56 years (SD: 11) and 52 mm (SD: 13), respectively. The majority of the images was acquired using the STD (for standard) automatic mode (98%). The most frequent target/filter combination automatically selected for breast smaller than 35 mm was Mo/Mo (75%); for intermediate thicknesses between 35 and 65 mm, the combinations were Mo/Rh (54%) and Rh/Rh (38.5%); Rh/Rh was the combination selected for 91% of the cases for breasts thicker than 65 mm. A wide kVp range was observed for each target/filter combination. The most frequent values were 28 kVp for Mo/Mo, 29 kVp for Mo/Rh, and 29 and 30 kV for Rh/Rh. Exposure times ranged from 0.2 to 4.2 s with a mean value of 1.1 s. Average glandular doses (AGD) per exposure were calculated by multiplying the ESAK values by the conversion factors tabulated by Dance for women in the age groups 50 to 64 and 40 to 49. This approach is based on the dependence of breast glandularity on breast thickness and age. The total mean average glandular dose (AGD T ) was calculated by summing the values associated with the pre-exposure and with the main exposure. Mean AGD T per exposure was 1.88 mGy (CI 0.01) and the mean AGD T per

  2. Heterogeneity in mammography use across the nation: separating evidence of disparities from the disproportionate effects of geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Laurel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammography is essential for early detection of breast cancer and both reduced morbidity and increased survival among breast cancer victims. Utilization is lower than national guidelines, and evidence of a recent decline in mammography use has sparked concern. We demonstrate that regression models estimated over pooled samples of heterogeneous states may provide misleading information regarding predictors of health care utilization and that comprehensive cancer control efforts should focus on understanding these differences and underlying causal factors. Our study population includes all women over age 64 with breast cancer in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER cancer registries, linked to a nationally representative 5% reference sample of Medicare-eligible women located in 11 states that span all census regions and are heterogeneous in racial and ethnic mix. Combining women with and without cancer in the sample allows assessment of previous cancer diagnosis on propensity to use mammography. Our conceptual model recognizes the interplay between individual, social, cultural, and physical environments along the pathways to health care utilization, while delineating local and more distant levels of influence among contextual variables. In regression modeling, we assess individual-level effects, direct effects of contextual factors, and interaction effects between individual and contextual factors. Results Pooling all women across states leads to quite different conclusions than state-specific models. Commuter intensity, community acculturation, and community elderly impoverishment have significant direct impacts on mammography use which vary across states. Minorities living in isolated enclaves with others of the same race/ethnicity may be either advantaged or disadvantaged, depending upon the place studied. Conclusion Careful analysis of place-specific context is essential for understanding differences across

  3. Development of diagnostic mammography unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, M.; Muraki, T.; Kitade, K. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    The mortality from breast cancer is gradually increasing year after year. Accordingly, it is eagerly desired that X-ray diagnosis information be obtainable with higher accuracy and ease for early detection of the disease. Meeting this demand, development has been made of a 2 x magnification mammography unit (Model MGU-01) capabel of minutely depicting microcalcifications with a size of 150 ..mu..m or thereabout and the peripheral condition of a mammary abscess. The background of the development, the substance of the unit and the examination made of the unit are described here.

  4. Development of diagnostic mammography unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Mitsuyoshi; Muraki, Takeshi; Kitade, Kooichi

    1981-01-01

    The mortality from breast cancer is gradually increasing year after year. Accordingly, it is eagerly desired that X-ray diagnosis information be obtainable with higher accuracy and ease for early detection of the disease. Meeting this demand, development has been made of a 2 x magnification mammography unit (Model MGU-01) capabel of minutely depicting microcalcifications with a size of 150 μm or thereabout and the peripheral condition of a mammary abscess. The background of the development, the substance of the unit and the examination made of the unit are described here. (author)

  5. Diagnostic reference levels in digital mammography: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleiman, Moayyad E.; Brennan, Patrick C.; McEntee, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to review the literature on existing diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in digital mammography and methodologies for establishing them. To this end, a systematic search through Medline, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and Google scholar was conducted using search terms extracted from three terms: DRLs, digital mammography and breast screen. The search resulted in 1539 articles of which 22 were included after a screening process. Relevant data from the included studies were summarised and analysed. Differences were found in the methods utilised to establish DRLs including test subjects types, protocols followed, conversion factors employed, breast compressed thicknesses and percentile values adopted. These differences complicate comparison of DRLs among countries; hence, an internationally accepted protocol would be valuable so that international comparisons can be made. (authors)

  6. FACTORS INFLUENCING YIELD SPREADS OF THE MALAYSIAN BONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian bond market is developing rapidly but not much is understood in terms of macroeconomic factors that could influence the yield spread of the Ringgit Malaysian denominated bonds. Based on a multifactor model, this paper examines the impact of four macroeconomic factors namely: Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI, Industry Production Index (IPI, Consumer Price Index (CPI and interest rates (IR on bond yield spread of the Malaysian Government Securities (MGS and Corporate Bonds (CBs for a period from January 2001 to December 2008. The findings support the expected hypotheses that CPI and IR are the major drivers that influence the changes in MGS yield spreads. However IPI and KLCI have weak and no influence on MGS yield spreads respectively Whilst IR, CPI and IPI have significant influence on the yield spreads of CB1, CB2 and CB3, KLCI has significant influence only on the CB1 yield spread but not on CB2 and CB3 yield spreads.

  7. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Minimally Invasive Surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cost is a major concern for delivery of minimally invasive surgical technologies due to the nature of resources required. It is unclear whether factors extrinsic to technology availability impact on this uptake. Objectives: To establish the influence of institutional, patient and surgeon-related factors in the adoption of ...

  8. Factors influencing medical students in pursuing a career in surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many factors play a role in the decision of a medical student to pursue a career in surgery. With a decline in numbers of applications into surgical programmes seen globally, the aim of this study was to determine the factors that influence medical students in pursuing a career in surgery. Methods: A descriptive ...

  9. Factors that Influence Students' Decision to Dropout of Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Pedro A.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many reasons why students dropout of college courses, those reasons may be unique for students who are enrolled in an online program. Issues of isolation, disconnectedness, and technological problems may be factors that influence a student to leave a course. To understand these factors, an online survey was developed to collect…

  10. Factors that influence household and individual clothing expenditure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    Contributing factors are the growth of low-priced apparel ... determine which factors influence household and individual ... explicitly deals with this concept. .... The income elasticity for clothing for the two-parent ..... Nelson (1989) found that mothers with less than a .... fashion consciousness and style preferences should.

  11. Alternative Administrative Certification: Socializing Factors Influencing Program Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Bickmore, Steven T.; Raines, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used an organizational socialization lens to examine factors influencing participants' decision to pursue the principalship and choice to engage in an alternate administration certification program. Through an analysis of participant focus groups and interviews, factors emerged from the codes that were compared with dimensions of…

  12. Interrelated factors influence of current stock market on pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Петрівна Мацелюх

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impacts on market prices of securities are generalized. It is found that in the process of price determination and its implementation exist a system of interrelated factors of influence, which are divided into objective and subjective; internal and external; traditional and specific. It is proved that the impact of factors associated with risk pricing in financial assets

  13. Hierarchical and coupling model of factors influencing vessel traffic flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liu

    Full Text Available Understanding the characteristics of vessel traffic flow is crucial in maintaining navigation safety, efficiency, and overall waterway transportation management. Factors influencing vessel traffic flow possess diverse features such as hierarchy, uncertainty, nonlinearity, complexity, and interdependency. To reveal the impact mechanism of the factors influencing vessel traffic flow, a hierarchical model and a coupling model are proposed in this study based on the interpretative structural modeling method. The hierarchical model explains the hierarchies and relationships of the factors using a graph. The coupling model provides a quantitative method that explores interaction effects of factors using a coupling coefficient. The coupling coefficient is obtained by determining the quantitative indicators of the factors and their weights. Thereafter, the data obtained from Port of Tianjin is used to verify the proposed coupling model. The results show that the hierarchical model of the factors influencing vessel traffic flow can explain the level, structure, and interaction effect of the factors; the coupling model is efficient in analyzing factors influencing traffic volumes. The proposed method can be used for analyzing increases in vessel traffic flow in waterway transportation system.

  14. The influence of family factors on delinquent adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with the aim of finding out the influence of family factors on delinquent adolescents in secondary schools in Edo South Senatorial District of Edo State. This study ascertained the extents to which family factors such as parent child rearing style, family type and parent socio economic background ...

  15. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an

  16. Socio-economic factors influencing cassava production in Kuje and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined socio-economic factors influencing output level of cassava production in Kuje and Abaji Area Councils of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The specific objectives were to:identify the socio-economic characteristics of sampled cassava farmers in the study area; determine the socio-economic factors ...

  17. Hierarchical and coupling model of factors influencing vessel traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Liu, Jingxian; Li, Huanhuan; Li, Zongzhi; Tan, Zhirong; Liu, Ryan Wen; Liu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of vessel traffic flow is crucial in maintaining navigation safety, efficiency, and overall waterway transportation management. Factors influencing vessel traffic flow possess diverse features such as hierarchy, uncertainty, nonlinearity, complexity, and interdependency. To reveal the impact mechanism of the factors influencing vessel traffic flow, a hierarchical model and a coupling model are proposed in this study based on the interpretative structural modeling method. The hierarchical model explains the hierarchies and relationships of the factors using a graph. The coupling model provides a quantitative method that explores interaction effects of factors using a coupling coefficient. The coupling coefficient is obtained by determining the quantitative indicators of the factors and their weights. Thereafter, the data obtained from Port of Tianjin is used to verify the proposed coupling model. The results show that the hierarchical model of the factors influencing vessel traffic flow can explain the level, structure, and interaction effect of the factors; the coupling model is efficient in analyzing factors influencing traffic volumes. The proposed method can be used for analyzing increases in vessel traffic flow in waterway transportation system.

  18. Factors Influencing the Yemeni Customers’ Intention to Adopt Takaful Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani Echchabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the Yemeni customers’ intention to adopt Takaful products, and to explore the potential factors that influence their decision. This study applies SEM and one sample t-test to analyse the collected data. The results indicate that among the factors included in this study, only compatibility positively and significantly affects the adoption intention. This is the first study that addresses the adoption of Takaful products in Yemen and the factors that influence it. Furthermore, this study extends the Innovations Diffusion Theory (IDT by applying it to a different setting.

  19. Factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas T. Khoza

    2017-07-01

    Objective: This study seeks to identify factors that negatively influence knowledge sharing in software development in the developing country context. Method: Expert sampling as a subcategory of purposive sampling was employed to extract information, views and opinions from experts in the field of information and communication technology, more specifically from those who are involved in software development projects. Four Johannesburg-based software developing organisations listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, South Africa, participated in this research study. Quantitative data were collected using an online questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Results: Findings of this research reveal that job security, motivation, time constraints, physiological factors, communication, resistance to change and rewards are core factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software developing organisations. Conclusions: Improved understanding of factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing is expected to assist software developing organisations in closing the gap for software development projects failing to meet the triple constraint of time, cost and scope.

  20. Which factors influence women in the decision to breastfeed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Canicali Primo

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the factors that influence women in the decision to breastfeed. Methods. Integrative review. Information was gathered from original articles, case studies, theoretical studies, consensus and systematic reviews published between 2007-2013 in Spanish, Portuguese and English and recovered in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS. The descriptors used in this study were: breastfeeding, maternal behavior, risk factors, lactation and newborn. Results. Were included 30 articles, grouped into five categories. Factors influencing the decision of the breastfeeding woman are a convergence of breastfeeding's advantages, benefits and justifications, family, social and professional support, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women, personal experience and family tradition and personal choice. Conclusion. The decision to breastfeed by women is influenced by a convergence of factors. It is essential the role of nursing to encourage women in the decision to initiate and maintain breastfeeding her child.

  1. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...... consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors....... Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal...

  2. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing insurance firms

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Soleimani; Fattaneh Alizadeh Meshkani; Abdullah Naami

    2013-01-01

    The recent trend on competition among insurance firms has increased motivation to look for important factors influencing this industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors shaping this industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and, using principal component analysis, detects important factors on the success of this industry. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.849, and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test are calculated as ...

  3. Quality control of mammography departments in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathova, M.; Nikodemova, D.

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Considering the fact that mammary gland is the most sensitive organ to ionizing radiation, the Commission of the Ministry of Health of SR for QA in radiology organized a pilot two-run country wide audit conducted in 42 mammography departments that have met the beforehand criteria. During the audit the methods for establishing the individual parameters in technical and clinical part of quality assurance in mammography were elaborated and implemented. Technical and clinical parameters of the imaging process that mostly affect the quality of diagnostic information were followed up. These parameters included: the object thickness compensation, optical density deviation, evaluation of the film quality by means of special phantom, etc. Important measurement of ESDs at participating departments enabled to compare the radiation load of mammography patients in Slovakia with reference values in European guidelines. The uniform standard method for QA at mammography departments was elaborated and published as the regulation of the Ministry of Health for performance of preventive mammography examinations in SR. The presented results show the improved quality of mammography examinations due to regular check-ups of technical and clinical parameters and fulfilment of the required values in all parameters. The audit results are the basis for continuous quality assessment of mammography departments as a main prerequisite for conducting preventive examinations and for health insurance purposes.

  4. The mammography screening employee inreach program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joanne; Seltzer, Vicki; Lawrence, Loretta; Autz, George; Kostroff, Karen; Weiselberg, Lora; Colagiacomo, Maria

    2007-02-01

    To determine whether our health care employees were undergoing mammography screening according to American Cancer Society guidelines and to determine whether aggressive outreach, education and streamlining of mammography scheduling could improve compliance. All female employees at North Shore University Hospital (NSUH) and several other health system facilities (SF) were sent mailings to their homes that included breast health education and mammography screening guidelines, a questionnaire regarding their own mammography screening history and the opportunity to have their mammography screening scheduled by the Mammography Screening Employee Inreach Program (MSEIP) coordinator. Of the approximately 2,700 female employees aged 40 and over at NSUH and SF, 2,235 (82.7%) responded to the questionnaire, and 1,455 had a mammogram done via the MSEIP. Of the 1,455, 43% either were overdue for a mammogram or had never had one. During a second year of the MSEIP at NSUH and SF, an additional 1,706 mammograms were done. People employed in health care jobs do not necessarily avail themselves of appropriate health care screening. An aggressive program that utilized education, outreach and assistance with scheduling was effective in increasing compliance with mammography screening.

  5. Mammography image compression using Wavelet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuhar Ripin; Md Saion Salikin; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Asmaliza Hashim; Norriza Md Isa

    2004-01-01

    Image compression plays an important role in many applications like medical imaging, televideo conferencing, remote sensing, document and facsimile transmission, which depend on the efficient manipulation, storage, and transmission of binary, gray scale, or color images. In Medical imaging application such Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACs), the image size or image stream size is too large and requires a large amount of storage space or high bandwidth for communication. Image compression techniques are divided into two categories namely lossy and lossless data compression. Wavelet method used in this project is a lossless compression method. In this method, the exact original mammography image data can be recovered. In this project, mammography images are digitized by using Vider Sierra Plus digitizer. The digitized images are compressed by using this wavelet image compression technique. Interactive Data Language (IDLs) numerical and visualization software is used to perform all of the calculations, to generate and display all of the compressed images. Results of this project are presented in this paper. (Author)

  6. Comparative study of dose estimation in the change a conventional mammography to digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez Vazquez, R.; Otero Martinez, C.; Soto Bua, M.; Santamarina Vazquez, F.; Carril Iglesias, S.; Lobato Busto, R.; Luna Vega, V.; Mosquera Sueiro, J.; Sqanchez Garcia, M.; Pombar Camean, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mammographic studies are now one of the most demanding radiological because of its effectiveness in detecting breast cancer early. The introduction of digital mammography has been a major advance because it has overcome some of the limitations of conventional systems. Due to the nature of the radiosensitive glandular tissue becomes very important control of the dose given to patients. In the present study is to analyze the variations in dosimetry that can exist between a conventional mammography and digital mammography.

  7. A brief review of salient factors influencing adult eating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilien, Christine; Hollis, James H

    2017-12-01

    A better understanding of the factors that influence eating behaviour is of importance as our food choices are associated with the risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, CVD, type 2 diabetes or some forms of cancer. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that the industrial food production system is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emission and may be unsustainable. Therefore, our food choices may also contribute to climate change. By identifying the factors that influence eating behaviour new interventions may be developed, at the individual or population level, to modify eating behaviour and contribute to society's health and environmental goals. Research indicates that eating behaviour is dictated by a complex interaction between physiology, environment, psychology, culture, socio-economics and genetics that is not fully understood. While a growing body of research has identified how several single factors influence eating behaviour, a better understanding of how these factors interact is required to facilitate the developing new models of eating behaviour. Due to the diversity of influences on eating behaviour this would probably necessitate a greater focus on multi-disciplinary research. In the present review, the influence of several salient physiological and environmental factors (largely related to food characteristics) on meal initiation, satiation (meal size) and satiety (inter-meal interval) are briefly discussed. Due to the large literature this review is not exhaustive but illustrates the complexity of eating behaviour. The present review will also highlight several limitations that apply to eating behaviour research.

  8. [Factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and improvement strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, Sergio R; Gálvez González, María; Amezcua, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and to find improvement strategies. Qualitative research using SWOT analysis (weaknesses, threats, strengths, opportunities). Nurses were selected deliberately in eight groups according to predetermined criteria. Analysis included categorization and relationship of factors and strategies. 81 participants were included in groups of 7-12 range. 45 categories were identified with 212 factors: 12 weaknesses (50 factors), 10 strengths (44 factors), 12 threats (68 factors) and 11 opportunities (50 factors). In addition, 32 categories were identified with 53 strategies: 14 categories of W-T strategies (42 strategies), 3 categories of S-T strategies (11 strategies), 5 categories of W-O strategies (13 strategies) and 10 categories of S-O strategies (41 strategies). Nurses identified numerous factors, mainly threats. The strategies are focused on W-T but they also suggest many but weak 5-0 strategies due to the low potential of the opportunities and strengths perceived.

  9. Radiogenic breast cancer risk and mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaprakash, Shobha; Nair, C.P.R.; Rao, B.S.; Sawant, S.G.

    2001-01-01

    There is a general concern that the risks from mammography screening in inducting radiogenic breast cancer may outweigh the possible benefits to be derived from it. A review of epidemiological, case-control and cohort studies of radiogenic breast cancer, age-specific incidence and dose and dose-rate relationship reveals that such a fear is unfounded. The dose to the breast tissues in a quality assured mammography screening programme falls far below the levels that were observed to produce increased relative risk. The age-specific incidence rates also indicate that the need for mammography is for the women of age at which the relative risk is minimum

  10. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.

  11. A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Valipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

  12. An empirical survey on factors influencing on packaging dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employees of Pegah dairy producer. Cronbach alpha, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of Sphericity approximation Chi-Square are 0.81, 0.679 and 844.475, respectively and they are within acceptable limit. The study has determined five factors including infrastructure, awareness, design and communication as important factors influencing consumers.

  13. Quantitative influence of risk factors on blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songjing; Luo, Senlin; Pan, Limin; Zhang, Tiemei; Han, Longfei; Zhao, Haixiu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively analyze the influence of risk factors on the blood glucose level, and to provide theory basis for understanding the characteristics of blood glucose change and confirming the intervention index for type 2 diabetes. The quantitative method is proposed to analyze the influence of risk factors on blood glucose using back propagation (BP) neural network. Ten risk factors are screened first. Then the cohort is divided into nine groups by gender and age. According to the minimum error principle, nine BP models are trained respectively. The quantitative values of the influence of different risk factors on the blood glucose change can be obtained by sensitivity calculation. The experiment results indicate that weight is the leading cause of blood glucose change (0.2449). The second factors are cholesterol, age and triglyceride. The total ratio of these four factors reaches to 77% of the nine screened risk factors. And the sensitivity sequences can provide judgment method for individual intervention. This method can be applied to risk factors quantitative analysis of other diseases and potentially used for clinical practitioners to identify high risk populations for type 2 diabetes as well as other disease.

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Surya Diarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was conducted in Bali’s five major tourism objects. The 240 foreign tourists were chosen as respondents through convenience sampling technique. Data were analyzed using factor analysis. The results showed that factors that significantly influenced Bali brand equity were: symbolic and experiential benefit factor, direct and indirect destinations attributes, destination reliability and tangibility, assurance and empathy, brand destinations recognition and recall, destinations common psychological attributes, destination common functional attributes, unique functional attributes, behavioral loyalty, destination awareness, and attitudinal loyalty. Given the fluctuative nature of brand equity, Bali needs a consistent effort to maintain or to enhance brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. Maintaining the dominant factors that influence the strength of brand equity can be used as a basis to develop destination branding strategy to expand market segment,  choose the right target market, and anchoring destination position in world market competition.

  15. Factors That Influence the Practice of Elective Induction of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer; Low, Lisa Kane

    2012-01-01

    Elective induction of labor has been linked to increased rates of prematurity and rising rates of cesarean birth. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate current trends in induction of labor scholarship focusing on evidence-based factors that influence the practice of elective induction. A key word search was conducted to identify studies on the practice of elective induction of labor. Analysis of the findings included clustering and identification of recurrent themes among the articles with 3 categories being identified. Under each category, the words/phrases were further clustered until a construct could be named. A total of 49 articles met inclusion criteria: 7 patient, 6 maternity care provider, and 4 organization factors emerged. Only 4 of the articles identified were evidence based. Patient factors were divided into preferences/convenience, communication, fear, pressure/influence, trust, external influences, and technology. Provider factors were then divided into practice preferences/convenience, lack of information, financial incentives, fear, patient desire/demand, and technology. Organization factors were divided into lack of enforcement/accountability, hospital culture, scheduling of staff, and market share issues. Currently, there is limited data-based information focused on factors that influence elective induction of labor. Despite patient and provider convenience/preferences being cited in the literature, the evidence does not support this practice. PMID:22843006

  16. ICT Interventions for Girls: Factors Influencing ICT Career Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gorbacheva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

  17. The U.S. Online News Coverage of Mammography Based on a Google News Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Lin, Leng Leng; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2017-12-01

    To characterize online news coverage relating to mammography, including articles' stance toward screening mammography. Google News was used to search U.S. news sites over a 9-year period (2006-2015) based on the search terms "mammography" and "mammogram." The top 100 search results were recorded. Identified articles were manually reviewed. The top 100 news articles were from the following sources: local news outlet (50%), national news outlet (24%), nonimaging medical source (13%), entertainment or culture news outlet (6%), business news outlet (4%), peer-reviewed journal (1%), and radiology news outlet (1%). Most common major themes were the screening mammography controversy (29%), description of a new breast imaging technology (23%), dense breasts (11%), and promotion of a public screening initiative (11%). For the most recent year, article stance toward screening mammography was 59%, favorable; 16%, unfavorable; and 25%, neutral. After 2010, there was an abrupt shift in articles' stances from neutral to both favorable and unfavorable. A wide range of online news sources addressed a range of issues related to mammography. National, rather than local, news sites were more likely to focus on the screening controversy and more likely to take an unfavorable view. The controversial United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines may have influenced articles to take a stance on screening mammography. As such online news may impact public perception of the topic and thus potentially impact guideline adherence, radiologists are encouraged to maintain awareness of this online coverage and to support the online dissemination of reliable and accurate information. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nursing students' learning dynamics and influencing factors in clinical contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Jae; Clarke, Charlotte L; Carson, Maggie N

    2018-03-01

    Clinical placements are essential for students to develop clinical skills to qualify as nurses. However, various difficulties encountered by nursing students during their clinical education detract from developing clinical competencies. This constructivist grounded theory study aims to explore nursing students' experiences in clinical nursing education, and to identify the factors that influence the clinical education students receive. Twenty-one individual and six group semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen fourth year nursing students and four registered nurses. This research identified six factors that influence nursing students' clinical education: interpersonal, socio-cultural, instructional, environmental, emotional and physical factors. The research has developed a dynamic model of learning in clinical contexts, which offers opportunities to understand how students' learning is influenced multifactorially during clinical placements. The understanding and application of the model can improve nursing instructional design, and subsequently, nursing students' learning in clinical contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors Influencing Indonesian Internet Users Intention on Buying Books Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrik Messah

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to discover and analyse factors influencing Indonesian internet users intention on buying books online. Certain factors will be investigated are demographic, features, convenience, web design, and security. This research used questionaires to obtain data from the respondents. After the data collected, SPSS software is used to process the data with using Chi-Square test. The result found that features, convenience, and security factors of online bookstores and level of education, income, and occupation of the Indonesian Internet Users influence the people intention on buying books online. In the other hand, web design of the online bookstores and the age of the Indonesian internet users have no influence on their intention on buying books online.

  20. Maturity of hospital information systems: Most important influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Carvalho, João; Rocha, Álvaro; Abreu, António

    2017-07-01

    Maturity models facilitate organizational management, including information systems management, with hospital organizations no exception. This article puts forth a study carried out with a group of experts in the field of hospital information systems management with a view to identifying the main influencing factors to be included in an encompassing maturity model for hospital information systems management. This study is based on the results of a literature review, which identified maturity models in the health field and relevant influencing factors. The development of this model is justified to the extent that the available maturity models for the hospital information systems management field reveal multiple limitations, including lack of detail, absence of tools to determine their maturity and lack of characterization for stages of maturity structured by different influencing factors.

  1. Influence Of Dilution Factor For Activity Measurement Of 60CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermawan-Candra; Nazaroh; Ermi-Juita

    2003-01-01

    Influence of dilution factor for activity measurement of 60 Co has been studied. The aim of this research is to determine influence between activity measurement result of 60 Co before and after diluted. Measurement were done by using ionization chamber detectors system and gamma spectrometry system with NaI(TI) detector. Discrepancy within three ionization chambers measurements were 0.2% - 2.1% and NaI(Tl) were 3.5% - 6%. (author)

  2. Factors influencing the perception of organic certification logos in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Karahan Uysal, Ö.; Miran, B.; Abay, C.; Boyaci, M.; Janssen, M.; Hamm, U.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers’ perceptions on organic certification logos and the factors influencing these perceptions were explored. Data from surveys conducted in major cities of Turkey revealed that organic food consumers had little knowledge about logos, although the declared level of trust in organic logos was high. According to ordered logit models, consumer’s perceptions on organic certification logos were influenced by purchasing frequency and weight of organic foods in total food consumption. Dummy v...

  3. Factors influencing US medical students' decision to pursue surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lauren E; Cooper, Clairice A; Guo, Weidun Alan

    2016-06-01

    Interest and applications to surgery have steadily decreased over recent years in the United States. The goal of this review is to collect the current literature regarding US medical students' experience in surgery and factors influencing their intention to pursue surgery as a career. We hypothesize that multiple factors influence US medical students' career choice in surgery. Six electronic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Education Resources Information Center, Embase, and PsycINFO) were searched. The inclusion criteria were studies published after the new century related to factors influencing surgical career choice among US medical students. Factors influencing US medical student surgical career decision-making were recorded. A quality index score was given to each article selected to minimize risk of bias. We identified 38 relevant articles of more than 1000 nonduplicated titles. The factors influencing medical student decision for a surgical career were categorized into five domains: mentorship and role model (n = 12), experience (clerkship n = 9, stereotype n = 4), timing of exposure (n = 9), personal (lifestyle n = 8, gender n = 6, finance n = 3), and others (n = 2). This comprehensive systemic review identifies mentorship, experience in surgery, stereotypes, timing of exposure, and personal factors to be major determinants in medical students' decisions to pursue surgery. These represent areas that can be improved to attract applicants to general surgery residencies. Surgical faculty and residents can have a positive influence on medical students' decisions to pursue surgery as a career. Early introduction to the field of surgery, as well as recruitment strategies during the preclinical and clinical years of medical school can increase students' interest in a surgical career. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling Factors with Influence on Sustainable University Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Dumitrascu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the factors with influence on the sustainable university management and the relationships between them. In the scientific approach we begin from a graphical model, according to which the extracurricular activities together with internal environmental factors influence students’ involvement in such activities, the university attractiveness, their academic performance and their integration into the socially-economic and natural environment (components related with sustainable development. The model emphasizes that individual performances, related to students’ participation in extracurricular activities, have a positive influence on the sustainability of university management. The results of the study have shown that the university sustainability may be influenced by a number of factors, such as students’ performance, students’ involvement in extracurricular activities or university’s attractiveness and can in turn influence implicitly also the sustainability of university management. The originality of the paper consists in the relationships study using the modeling method in general and informatics tools of modeling in particular, as well as through graphical visualization of some influences, on the sustainability university management.

  5. Optimization procedures in mammography: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espana Lopez, M. L.; Marcos de Paz, L.; Martin Rincon, C.; Jerez Sainz, I.; Lopez Franco, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    Optimization procedures in mammography using equipment with a unique target/filter combination can be carried out through such diverse factors as target optical density, technique factors for exposure, screen film combination or processing cycle, in order to obtain an image adequate for the diagnosis with an acceptable risk benefit balance. Diverse studies show an increase in the Standardised Detection Rate of invasive carcinomas with an increase in the optical density among others factors. In our hospital an optimisation process has been established, and as previous step, the target optical density has been increased up to 1,4 DO. The aim of this paper is to value the impact of optical density variation as much in the quality of image as in the entrance surface dose and the average dose to the glandular tissue, comparing them with the results obtained in a previous study. The study has been carried out in a sample of 106 patients, with an average age of 53,4 years, considering 212 clinical images corresponding to the two projections of a same breast with an average compressed thickness of 4,86 cm. An increase of 16,6% on the entrance surface dose and 18% on the average dose to the glandular tissue has been recorded. All the clinical images has been evaluated for the physician as adequate for diagnosis. (Author) 16 refs

  6. Religious beliefs and mammography intention: findings from a qualitative study of a diverse group of American Muslim women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Vu, Milkie; Muhammad, Hadiyah; Marfani, Farha; Mallick, Saleha; Peek, Monica; Quinn, Michael T

    2016-10-01

    Studies suggest that American Muslim women underutilize mammography. While religion has a strong influence upon Muslim health behaviors, scant research has examined how religion-related beliefs inform Muslim women's intention for mammography. Our study identifies and examines such beliefs. Muslim women aged 40 years and older sampled from mosques participated in focus groups and individual interviews. Drawing upon the theory of planned behavior, interviews elicited salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs regarding mammography and the influence of Islam upon screening intention. Fifty women participated in 6 focus groups and 19 in semistructured interviews, with near-equal numbers of African American, South Asian, and Arab Muslims. Forty-two percent of participants had not had a mammogram within the past 2 years. Across differences in race/ethnicity and mammography status, women voiced four religion-related salient beliefs that inform mammography intention: (1) the perceived duty to care for one's health, (2) religious practices as methods of disease prevention, (3) fatalistic notions about health, and (4) comfort with gender concordant health care. Religious beliefs influence decisions to pursue mammography across the ethnic/racial diversity of Muslim women. Notions about duty to God and the stewardship of one's body appear to enhance mammography intention. Theocentric notions of cure and illness and varied views regarding personal agency also inform decisional frames that impact mammography intention. Given the salience of religion among our participants, religiously tailored messages in interventions have the potential to enhance cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. What factors influence British medical students' career intentions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Michael; Fanshawe, Angela; Patel, Vanash; Goswami, Karan; Chilvers, Geoffrey; Ting, Michelle; Pilavakis, Yiannis; Rao, Christopher; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence career choice in UK medical students. Students at seven institutions were invited to rate how important various factors were on influencing their career choices and how interested they were in pursuing different specialties. The influence of interpersonal relationship networks on career choice was also evaluated. 641 responses were collected. 44% (283) were male, 16% (105) were graduates and 41% (263) were final-year students. For Dermatology (p = 0.009), Paediatrics (p = 0.000), Radiology (p = 0.000), Emergency Medicine (p = 0.018) and Cardiothoracic Surgery (p = 0.000), there was a clear correlation between completing a clinical attachment and an interest in pursuing the specialty. Perceived characteristics of the speciality, individually and in clusters were considered important by specific subgroups of students, such as those interested in surgery. These students considered prestige (p = 0.0003), role models (p = 0.014), financial rewards after training (p = 0.0196) and technical challenge (p = 0.0011) as important factors. Demographics such as sex and age played a significant role in career choice. Interpersonal relationship networks do not have a significant influence on career intentions. This study shows that the career intentions of British medical students are influenced by their undergraduate experience and by the weight they place on different specialty-related factors.

  8. Factors influencing consumer behaviour in market vegetables in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarish H. Al-Gahaifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to understand factors influencing consumer behaviour when buying vegetables in Republic of Yemen. Data collection was done by structured questionnaire administered through schools, universities, government offices, and markets from 13 provinces in 5 governorates. Random convenience sampling technique was used. Total sample comprised of 463 completed questionnaires which were used for analysis. The respondents were classified into five categories on the base of their monthly income, age, education, gender, and type of settlement. Authors present the factors that can influence significantly this behaviour, e.g. price, quality, the location of seller, habit, personal relationship between consumer and seller, occasions, discount, sorting, word-mouth, time of purchase, the way of products display, and recommendation of friends and families. From the obtained results, it is obvious that there was high influence on the behaviour of Yemeni consumer when buying vegetables for factors price, occasions, discontent, and time of purchase, while factors habit, display, sorting, and the location of seller suggests medium influence, and the influence was low for word-mouth.

  9. Factors That Were Found to Influence Ghanaian Adolescents’ Eating Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mawusi Amos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to find out whether factors such as parental, peer, and media influences predict Ghanaian adolescent students’ eating habits. A random selection of 150 students from a population of senior high school students in Ghana were asked to complete the Eating Habits Questionnaire for Adolescents. Data were analyzed by the use of bivariate correlation, t test, and multiple regression analytical techniques using SPSS version 16. The findings revealed a significant positive relationship between peer influence and eating habits suggesting that the higher the peer pressure, the more unhealthy the students’ eating habits. Counterintuitively, parental and media influences did not significantly correlate with students’ eating habits. Gender difference in eating habits suggested that girls had more unhealthy eating habits than boys. Finally, multiple regression analysis revealed that peer influence was a better predictor of students’ eating habits than parental and media influences. The findings were discussed and recommendations were given in light of the study’s limitations.

  10. Influence of external action and structural factors on radiation blistering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B.A.; Chernov, I.I.; Fomina, E.P.; Korshunov, S.H.; Polsky, V.I.; Skorov, D.M.; Yakushin, V.L.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of experimental results is presented, pertaining to radiation blistering of a considerable number of materials (stainless steels, alloys with high nickel content, alloys of refractory metals) under helium ion irradiation with energies of 20-100 keV under conditions corresponding to the plasma-wall interaction: bombardment at various angles of incidence and cyclic irradiation in a wide spectrum of ion incidence angles; influence of external action, including thermocyclic; influence of preceding neutron and proton irradiation. It has been shown that external factors have a complex influence on blister parameters and erosion coefficients of materials. A study has been carried out on the influence of aluminium coatings, alloying additions, phase state of material and microstructure on the nature and degree of surface erosion. Complex influence of element and phase composition, as well as microstructural changes during heat treatment and welding on radiation erosion have been established. (orig.)

  11. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  12. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna

    2010-01-01

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed.

  13. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  14. Factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang; Bai, Yangjing; Bai, Yangjuan; Ma, Weiguang; Yang, Xiangyu; Li, Jiping

    2018-03-20

    There is a growing recognition that training is not translated into performance and the 'transfer problem' exists in organization training today. Although factors contributing to training transfer have been identified in business and industry, the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession remain less clear. A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken in two tertiary referral hospitals in China from February 2013 to September 2013. Purposeful sampling of 24 nursing staffs were interviewed about the factors influencing training transfer. Seven themes evolved from the analysis, categorized in 4 main domains, which described the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession in trainee characteristics, training design, work environment and profession domain. The trainee characteristics domain included attitude and ability. The training design domain included training content and instruction method. The work environment domain included supports as facilitators and opposition as hindrance. The theme pertaining to the profession domain was professional development. Health care managers need to understand the factors influencing training transfer for maximizing the benefits of training. The right beliefs and values about training, the rigorous employee selection for training, the relevance of training content, training instructions facilitating learning and transfer, supports from peer, supervisors and the organization, organizational culture such as change, sharing, learning and support, and professional development are key to successful training transfer. Furthermore, managers should be aware of the opposition from co-workers and find ways to prevent it.

  15. Combined assessment (aspiration cytology and mammography) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined assessment (aspiration cytology and mammography) of clinically suspicious breast masses. W.F. van Wyk, D Dent, E Anne Hacking, Genevieve Learmonth, R.E. Kottler, C Anne Gudgeon, A Tiltman ...

  16. Mammography: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... While standing in front of the machine, a technologist will position your breast on a small platform. ... mammography or additional 3D imaging methods, such as ultrasound or MRI, are options for you. Ochs adds: “ ...

  17. Heavy-ion mammography and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Capp, M.P.; Holley, W.R.; Woodruff, K.H.; Sickles, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy-ion radiography is a new diagnostic imaging technique developed in our laboratory that produces superior density resolution at low radiation doses. Heavy-ion mammography has now emerged as a low-dose, safe, reliable, noninvasive diagnostic radiological procedure that can quantitate and image very small differences in soft tissue densities in the breast tissues of patients with clinical breast disease. The improved density resolution of heavy-ion mammography over conventional X-ray mammography and breast xerography provides the potential of detecting small breast cancers of less than 1 cm diameter. The radiation dose to the breast from carbon-ion mammorgraphy is about 50 mrad or less, and can potentially be only a fraction of this level. The results of the present clinical trial in progress of heavy-ion mammography in 37 patients, thus far studied, are extremely encouraging, and warrant continued study for application to the early diagnosis of breast cancer in women

  18. CONTRAST ENHANCED SPECTRAL MAMMOGRAPHY (CESM (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Rozhkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of early diagnosis of a breast cancer is extremely actual. Growth of incidence at women from 19 to 39 years increased for 34% over the last 10 years. It defines need of acceleration of development and deployment of the latest technologies of identification of the earliest symptoms of diseases. The x-ray mammography is the conducting method among of all radiological methods of diagnostics. Nevertheless a number of restrictions of method reduces its efficiency. The technologies increasing informational content of x-ray mammography – the leading method of screening – due to use of artificial contrasting and advantages of digital technologies are constantly developed. In this review it is described works, in which the authors having clinical experience of application of CESM – contrastenhanced spectral mammography on representative group of women. Positive sides and restrictions of new technology in comparison with mammography, ultrasonography and MRT are shown in this article.

  19. Frequently Asked Questions about Digital Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at www.fda.gov/findmammography . Do private insurance companies, Medicare and Medicaid pay for digital mammography exams, ... Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ...

  20. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND LOYALTY IN PROFESSIONAL SPORTS FANS

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Tsan Lin; Chen-Hsien Lin

    2008-01-01

    Many researchers have provided comprehensive definitions for the term of brand loyalty and also examined the factors affecting brand loyalty with many empirical studies. But there is little research focusing on the brand loyalty of professional sports fans. The topic area about factors influencing brand loyalty in professional sports fans was identified because these fans bring significant financial benefits every year and stimulate economic growth in the United States. Although different con...

  1. FACTORS INFLUENCING YIELD SPREADS OF THE MALAYSIAN BONDS

    OpenAIRE

    Norliza Ahmad; Joriah Muhammad; Tajul Ariffin Masron

    2009-01-01

    Malaysian bond market is developing rapidly but not much is understood in terms of macroeconomic factors that could influence the yield spread of the Ringgit Malaysian denominated bonds. Based on a multifactor model, this paper examines the impact of four macroeconomic factors namely: Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI), Industry Production Index (IPI), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and interest rates (IR) on bond yield spread of the Malaysian Government Securities (MGS) and Corporate Bonds (CBs...

  2. Factors Influencing Patronage Of Medical Tourism In Metropolitan Lagos Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Omisore; E.O.; Agbabiaka; H. I.

    2015-01-01

    Since medical tourism attract patient from various origin to seek medical services at different destinations it is paramount to consider the factors that motivate patrons decision on medical tourism. Hence this study assesses the factors influencing patronage of medical tourism in Lagos metropolis Nigeria. Lagos State is situated in the southwestern corner of Nigeria it lies within Latitudes 62N to 64N of the Equator and Longitudes 245E to 420E of the Greenwich meridian. Metropolitan Lagos is...

  3. Factors Influencing Environmental Management Practices Among Hotels in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaiton Samdin; Kasimu Abdu Bakori; Hamimah Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the factors that influence hotel managers- attitudes towards sustainable tourism practices (STP) in Kuala Lumpur and the state of Selangor in Malaysia. The study distributes 104 questionnaires to hotels ranging from one star to five-star categories including budget hotels. Out of this figure, 60 copies of the questionnaires were returned and analyzed. The finding revealed that of all the seven factors investigated, only the variables measuring incentives and...

  4. Digital versus screen-film mammography: impact of mammographic density and hormone therapy on breast cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarelli, Anna M; Prummel, Maegan V; Muradali, Derek; Shumak, Rene S; Majpruz, Vicky; Brown, Patrick; Jiang, Hedy; Done, Susan J; Yaffe, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Most studies that have examined the effects of mammographic density and hormone therapy use on breast cancer detection have included screen-film mammography. This study further examines this association in post-menopausal women screened by digital mammography. Approved by the University of Toronto Research Ethics Board, this study identified 688,418 women of age 50-74 years screened with digital or screen-film mammography from 2008 to 2009 within the Ontario Breast Screening Program. Of 2993 eligible women with invasive breast cancer, 2450 were contacted and 1421 participated (847 screen-film mammography, 574 digital direct radiography). Mammographic density was measured by study radiologists using the standard BI-RADS classification system and by a computer-assisted method. Information on hormone therapy use was collected by a telephone-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression and two-tailed tests for significance evaluated associations between factors and detection method by mammography type. Women with >75 % radiologist-measured mammographic density compared to those with diagnosed with an interval than screen-detected cancer, with the difference being greater for those screened with screen-film (OR = 6.40, 95 % CI 2.30-17.85) than digital mammography (OR = 2.41, 95 % CI 0.67-8.58) and aged 50-64 years screened with screen-film mammography (OR = 10.86, 95 % CI 2.96-39.57). Recent former hormone therapy users were also at an increased risk of having an interval cancer with the association being significant for women screened with digital mammography (OR = 2.08, 95 % CI 1.17-3.71). Breast screening using digital mammography lowers the risk of having an interval cancer for post-menopausal women aged 50-64 with greater mammographic density.

  5. Prognostic value of contrast-enhanced MR mammography in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, U; Kopka, L; Brinck, U; Korabiowska, M; Schauer, A; Grabbe, E

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of contrast-enhanced MR mammography in patients with breast cancer. A total of 190 patients with breast cancer (37 noninvasive carcinomas, 153 invasive carcinomas) underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MR mammography preoperatively. Using 1.5-T unit, T1-weighted sequences (2D FLASH) were obtained repeatedly one time before and five times after IV administration of 0.1 mmol gadopentetate-dimeglumine per kilogram body weight. The findings on MR imaging were correlated with histopathologically defined prognostic factors (histological type, tumor size, tumor grading, metastasis in lymph nodes). In addition, immunohistochemically defined prognostic factors (c-erbB-1, c-erbB-2, p53, Ki-67) were correlated with the signal increase on MR mammogram in 40 patients. There was no significant correlation between the findings on MR mammography and the histopathological type of carcinoma, the grading, and the lymphonodular status. Noninvasive carcinomas showed a higher rate of moderate (38 %) or low (27 %) enhancement on MR imaging than invasive carcinomas (6 and 3 %). The results on MR mammography and the results of immunohistochemical stainings did not correlate significantly. Noninvasive carcinomas showed significantly lower enhancement than invasive carcinomas. However, the signal behavior of contrast-enhanced MR mammography is not related to established histopathological prognostic parameters as subtyping, grading, nodal status, and the expression of certain oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes.

  6. Prognostic value of contrast-enhanced MR mammography in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Kopka, L.; Brinck, U.; Korabiowska, M.; Schauer, A.; Grabbe, E.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of contrast-enhanced MR mammography in patients with breast cancer. A total of 190 patients with breast cancer (37 noninvasive carcinomas, 153 invasive carcinomas) underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MR mammography preoperatively. Using 1.5-T unit, T1-weighted sequences (2D FLASH) were obtained repeatedly one time before and five times after IV administration of 0.1 mmol gadopentetate-dimeglumine per kilogram body weight. The findings on MR imaging were correlated with histopathologically defined prognostic factors (histological type, tumor size, tumor grading, metastasis in lymph nodes). In addition, immunohistochemically defined prognostic factors (c-erbB-1,c-erbB-2, p53, Ki-67) were correlated with the signal increase on MR mammogram in 40 patients. There was no significant correlation between the findings on MR mammography and the histopathological type of carcinoma, the grading, and the lymphonodular status. Noninvasive carcinomas showed a higher rate of moderate (38 %) or low (27 %) enhancement on MR imaging than invasive carcinomas (6 and 3 %). The results on MR mammography and the results of immunohistochemical stainings did not correlate significantly. Noninvasive carcinomas showed significantly lower enhancement than invasive carcinomas. However, the signal behavior of contrast-enhanced MR mammography is not related to established histopathological prognostic parameters as subtyping, grading, nodal status, and the expression of certain oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes. (orig.). With 5 tabs

  7. Factors influencing pricing in the accommodation sector in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelina du Plessis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Price is a significant factor of competitiveness. Price is a complex issue and is determined by a variety of demand and supply factors. These factors also differ from industry to industry. The purpose of this article is to determine the factors that influence pricing in the South African accommodation sector. In order to generate proper data, a survey was conducted at various South African accommodation establishments that were obtained from the databases of the three major associations in the accommodation sector. Two-hundred and forty seven questionnaires completed by managers from accommodation establishments were used in this research. Principal component factor analyses with Varimax rotation in STATISTICA were carried out. These resulted in ten factors, namely environmental qualities, amenities, image, management factor, positioning, quality service factor, infrastructure service factor, location, marketing and product quality factor. The results revealed that the major factors in pricing are service quality, image and product quality. Consequently this article can be used to assist managers in pricing and in obtaining a better competitive position in the industry by revising management structures and marketing campaigns. Keywords and phrases: Tourism industry, price competitiveness, service quality, image, product quality, entrepreneur and factor analysis

  8. Mammography and breast sonography in transsexual women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyers, S., E-mail: steven.weyers@ugent.b [Department of Gynecology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Villeirs, G.; Vanherreweghe, E. [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Verstraelen, H. [Department of Gynecology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Monstrey, S. [Department of Plastic Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Van den Broecke, R.; Gerris, J. [Department of Gynecology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    Data on the necessity of performing screening mammographies in transsexual women are lacking. The main objective of this study was to assess the possibility to perform mammography and breast sonography in transsexual women. Fifty Dutch-speaking transsexual women were interviewed about the following: attitude towards mammography and breast sonography, importance attributed to and satisfaction with breast appearance, opinion about the necessity of breast check-up, expectations regarding discomfort during the exams and knowledge about the breast surgery. A fasting blood sample, clinical breast exam, mammography and breast sonography were performed. At mammography the following parameters were noted: density, technical quality, location of the prostheses, presence of any abnormalities and painfulness. At sonography the following parameters were recorded: density, presence of cysts, visualisation of retro-areolar ducts or any abnormalities. Twenty-three percent of patients are not aware of the type of breast implants and 79% do not know their position to the pectoral muscles. Patient satisfaction with the appearance of their breasts was rather high (7.94 on a scale of 0-10). Mean expected and experienced pain from mammography was low (4.37 and 2.00 respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in expected pain between those who already had mammography and those who did not. There was a significant positive correlation between the expected and the experienced pain. Mammography and breast sonography were technically feasible and no gross anomalies were detected. Since both exams were judged as nearly painless, 98% of transsexual women intended to come back if they would be invited. Since breast cancer risk in transsexual women is largely unknown and breast exams are very well accepted, breast screening habits in this population should not differ from those of biological women.

  9. The Future of Contrast-Enhanced Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Matthew F; Pizzitola, Victor J; Lorans, Roxanne; Pockaj, Barbara A; Northfelt, Donald W; Appleton, Catherine M; Patel, Bhavika K

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss facilitators of and barriers to future implementation of contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) in the United States. CEM provides low-energy 2D mammographic images analogous to digital mammography and contrast-enhanced recombined images that allow assessment of neovascularity similar to that offered by MRI. The utilization of CEM in the United States is currently low but could increase rapidly given the many potential indications for its clinical use.

  10. Mammography and breast sonography in transsexual women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyers, S.; Villeirs, G.; Vanherreweghe, E.; Verstraelen, H.; Monstrey, S.; Van den Broecke, R.; Gerris, J.

    2010-01-01

    Data on the necessity of performing screening mammographies in transsexual women are lacking. The main objective of this study was to assess the possibility to perform mammography and breast sonography in transsexual women. Fifty Dutch-speaking transsexual women were interviewed about the following: attitude towards mammography and breast sonography, importance attributed to and satisfaction with breast appearance, opinion about the necessity of breast check-up, expectations regarding discomfort during the exams and knowledge about the breast surgery. A fasting blood sample, clinical breast exam, mammography and breast sonography were performed. At mammography the following parameters were noted: density, technical quality, location of the prostheses, presence of any abnormalities and painfulness. At sonography the following parameters were recorded: density, presence of cysts, visualisation of retro-areolar ducts or any abnormalities. Twenty-three percent of patients are not aware of the type of breast implants and 79% do not know their position to the pectoral muscles. Patient satisfaction with the appearance of their breasts was rather high (7.94 on a scale of 0-10). Mean expected and experienced pain from mammography was low (4.37 and 2.00 respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in expected pain between those who already had mammography and those who did not. There was a significant positive correlation between the expected and the experienced pain. Mammography and breast sonography were technically feasible and no gross anomalies were detected. Since both exams were judged as nearly painless, 98% of transsexual women intended to come back if they would be invited. Since breast cancer risk in transsexual women is largely unknown and breast exams are very well accepted, breast screening habits in this population should not differ from those of biological women.

  11. Screening mammography among nursing home residents in the United States: Current guidelines and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Deborah S; Epstein, Mara M; Dubé, Catherine; Clark, Robin E; Lapane, Kate L

    2018-06-04

    United States (US) guidelines regarding when to stop routine breast cancer screening remain unclear. No national studies to-date have evaluated the use of screening mammography among US long-stay nursing home residents. This cross-sectional study was designed to identify prevalence, predictors, and geographic variation of screening mammography among that population in the context of current US guidelines. Screening mammography prevalence, identified with Physician/Supplier Part B claims and stratified by guideline age classification (65-74, ≥75 years), was estimated for all women aged ≥65 years residing in US Medicare- and Medicaid- certified nursing homes (≥1 year) with an annual Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0 assessment, continuous Medicare Part B enrollment, and no clinical indication for screening mammography as of 2011 (n = 389,821). The associations between resident- and regional- level factors, and screening mammography, were estimated by crude and adjusted prevalence ratios from robust Poisson regressions clustered by facility. Women on average were 85.4 (standard deviation ±8.1) years old, 77.9% were disabled, and 76.3% cognitively impaired. Screening mammography prevalence was 7.1% among those aged 65-74 years (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 6.8%-7.3%) and 1.7% among those ≥75 years (95% CI, 1.7%-1.8%), with geographic variation observed. Predictors of screening in both age groups included race, cognitive impairment, frailty, hospice, and some comorbidities. These results shed light on the current screening mammography practices in US nursing homes. Thoughtful consideration about individual screening recommendations and the implementation of more clear guidelines for this special population are warranted to prevent overscreening. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  13. Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Revisiting Factors Influencing Optic Nerve Head Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yi; Voorhees, Andrew P.; Sigal, Ian A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To model the sensitivity of the optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanical environment to acute variations in IOP, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), and central retinal artery blood pressure (BP). Methods We extended a previously published numerical model of the ONH to include 24 factors representing tissue anatomy and mechanical properties, all three pressures, and constraints on the optic nerve (CON). A total of 8340 models were studied to predict factor influences on 98 responses in a two-step process: a fractional factorial screening analysis to identify the 16 most influential factors, followed by a response surface methodology to predict factor effects in detail. Results The six most influential factors were, in order: IOP, CON, moduli of the sclera, lamina cribrosa (LC) and dura, and CSFP. IOP and CSFP affected different aspects of ONH biomechanics. The strongest influence of CSFP, more than twice that of IOP, was on the rotation of the peripapillary sclera. CSFP had similar influence on LC stretch and compression to moduli of sclera and LC. On some ONHs, CSFP caused large retrolamina deformations and subarachnoid expansion. CON had a strong influence on LC displacement. BP overall influence was 633 times smaller than that of IOP. Conclusions Models predict that IOP and CSFP are the top and sixth most influential factors on ONH biomechanics. Different IOP and CSFP effects suggest that translaminar pressure difference may not be a good parameter to predict biomechanics-related glaucomatous neuropathy. CON may drastically affect the responses relating to gross ONH geometry and should be determined experimentally. PMID:29332130

  14. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  15. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu; Lee, Keun Bae

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  16. Evaluation of mean glandular dose in a full-field digital mammography unit in Tabriz (IR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riabi, H. A.; Mehnati, P.; Mesbahi, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the mean glandular dose (MGD) and affecting factors during mammography examinations by a full-field digital mammography unit. An extensive quality control program was performed to assure that the unit is properly working. Required information including compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast parenchymal pattern and technical factors used for imaging were recorded. An entrance skin exposure measurement was also performed using slabs of polymethylmethacrylate with 2-8 cm thickness. On the basis of recorded information and measured data, the MGD was estimated for 1145 mammography examinations obtained from 298 patients. Mean CBTs of 4.9 and 5.8 cm and MGDs of 2 and 2.4 mGy were observed for cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique views, respectively. Significant correlation was seen between MGD and CBT, breast parenchymal pattern and applied kVp and mAs. (authors)

  17. Computer assisted visualization of digital mammography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, M.; Breiter, N.; Grabbe, E.; Netsch, T.; Biehl, M.; Peitgen, H.O.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: In a clinical study, the feasibility of using a mammography workstation for the display and interpretation of digital mammography images was evaluated and the results were compared with the corresponding laser film hard copies. Materials and Methods: Digital phosphorous plate radiographs of the entire breast were obtained in 30 patients using a direct magnification mammography system. The images were displayed for interpretation on the computer monitor of a dedicated mammography workstation and also presented as laser film hard copies on a film view box for comparison. The images were evaluted with respect to the image handling, the image quality and the visualization of relevant structures by 3 readers. Results: Handling and contrast of the monitor displayed images were found to be superior compared with the film hard copies. Image noise was found in some cases but did not compromise the interpretation of the monitor images. The visualization of relevant structures was equal with both modalities. Altogether, image interpretation with the mammography workstation was considered to be easy, quick and confident. Conclusions: Computer-assisted visualization and interpretation of digital mammography images using a dedicated workstation can be performed with sufficiently high diagnostic accuracy. (orig.) [de

  18. Factors Influencing Adjustment to Late-Life Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Keren Brown; DeShane, Michael R.

    Although the rate of divorce among older Americans has increased steadily, little attention has been paid to late life divorce. To describe the role of age and other factors which might influence adjustment to divorce in later life, data from a larger pilot study were used: 81 divorced persons over the age of 60 completed in-depth, structured…

  19. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  20. Transcriptional factor influence on OTA production and the quelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the influence of some transcriptional factors on ochratoxin A production as well as investigates the quelling attributes of some designed siRNA on the OTA producing Aspergillus section Nigri using standard recommended techniques. Results obtained following comparison of the pks gene promoter ...

  1. Factors Influencing Prescribing Practices of Medical Practitioners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the currently used drugs, influence of pharmaceutical sales representatives and inadequate training and professional development [2,7]. Other factors include poor communication between health professional and patients regarding the basic information about the use of drugs. Most of the studies done in Tanzania on this ...

  2. Determinant factors influencing efficiency of Fadama Arable crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... farm income, output, productivity and farm size and determined factors influencing Fadama farmer's efficiency. The multistage sampling technique was employed in the selection of120 Fadama farmers and their location. One hundred and twenty non-Fadama farmers were drawn using the same technique for comparison.

  3. Analysis of factors influencing adoption of okra production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic factors influencing adoption of okra technology packages in Enugu State, Nigeria was studied and analyzed in 2012. Purposive and multistage random sampling techniques were used in selecting communities, villages and Okra farmers. The sample size was 90 okra farmers (45Awgu and 45 Aninri Okra ...

  4. Factors Influencing Antenatal Care Service Utilization in Hadiya Zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore factors influencing antenatal care services utilization in Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross sectional study was conducted in Hadiya Zone of Southern Ethiopia from January to February 2009. A multi stage sampling technique was used to select the ...

  5. Factors Influencing Choice of Inguinal Hernia Repair Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Inguinal hernia repair surgery is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures worldwide. This study sought to highlight factors that may influence decisions concerning inguinal hernia repair techniques. Methods: This descriptive crosssectional study was carried out in September 2014 among ...

  6. Factors Influencing Household Solid Waste Management in Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to determine factors that influence household solid waste management practices in urban Nyeri Municipality. Descriptive cross- sectional ... Results from the survey showed that 26.2% of households practiced correct methods of household solid waste management. The percentage of ...

  7. Factors Influencing Utilization of Modern Family Planning Services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Utilization of Modern Family Planning Services among Women of Child Bearing Age (15 - 49 years) in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. ... Using accidental sampling technique, 150 women of childbearing age were selected to constitute the sample. Data were collected using a ...

  8. Pantomime production by people with aphasia. What are influencing factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nispen, Karin; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke; Mol, Elisabeth; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper aimed to inform clinical practice on whether people with aphasia (PWA) deploy pantomime techniques similarly to non-brain damaged participants (NBDP) and if not, what factors influence these differences. Method: We compared 38 PWA to 20 NBDP in their use of six

  9. Factors Influencing Transient Poverty Among Agro-Pastoralists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Transient Poverty Among Agro-Pastoralists in semi-arid areas of Kenya. ... The number of livelihood sources, education level of the household head, relief food, extension service and distance to the nearest markets were positively related to per capita daily income. A negative relationship was observed ...

  10. Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in Manyara and ... E.L Ndau, D. Walters, D. Wu, N. Saleh, T.C.E. Mosha, S. Horton, H.S. Laswai ... for young mothers, 84.6% for middle age mothers and 86.3% for elderly mothers.

  11. Talking about Relations : Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltaretu, Adriana-Alexandra; Krahmer, Emiel; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as “the ball between the man and the drawer”). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to

  12. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include…

  13. Perceived factors influencing the utilization of traditional birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived factors influencing the utilization of traditional birth attendants' services in ... A total of 130 questionnaires were retrieved and analyzed using statistical ... Poverty (p=0.988) and educational level (p =0.133) were not found to be ...

  14. System factors influencing utilisation of Research4Life databases by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a comprehensive investigation of the influence of system factors on utilisation of Research4Life databases. It is part of a doctoral dissertation. Research4Life databases are new innovative technologies being investigated in a new context – utilisation by NARIs scientists for research. The study adopted the descriptive ...

  15. Determinants of factors influencing technical efficiency of cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the factors influencing technical efficiency of cocoa production in Ondo State, Nigeria using a stochastic frontier production function. Using the random sampling technique, well-structured questionnaire were used to elicit information from 120 cocoa farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. The mean technical ...

  16. Gender factors influencing technical efficiency of cassava farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was therefore conducted in Akwa Ibom state to examine factors influencing the technical efficiency of farmer groups in cassava production. In carrying out the study, 120 respondents were randomly selected from two agricultural zones in the State and interviewed with interview schedule. Data were analyzed using ...

  17. Influence Of Socio-Economic Factors On Crop Farmers' Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the influence of socio-economic factors on crop farmers production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. Purposive and stratefied random sampling techniques were used to select the locations of Green River Project, cooperative societies and respondents. Using structured ...

  18. 471 socio-economic factors influencing agricultural radio

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    The study examined socio economic factors influencing agricultural radio programme FILIN. MAINOMA in ... statistics such as, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC) and Chi-Square analysis. (χ. 2). .... of fish farmers association while one third. (22.22%) ... problems of language barrier and 6.00% of the.

  19. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  20. Influence of Sociodemographic Factors on Job Burnout and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Sociodemographic Factors on Job Burnout and Satisfaction among ... (ii) female medical personnel showed significantly greater degree of job satisfaction than ... level of job satisfaction than older employees and, (iv) married employees found significantly more job satisfaction than their unmarried counterparts.

  1. Attitudinal and motivational factors influencing job performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the attitudinal and motivational factors influencing job performance of female extension agents in Edo State, Nigeria. A random sample of 35 female extension agents was selected for the study. Findings reveal that the majority of the respondents (57.1%) were in the age group of 31 – 40 years and ...

  2. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  3. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out to study the influence of environmental factors on the birth weight variability of two breeds of sheep. Animals used in this research were taken from the Pirot and Svrljig indigenous sheep breeds. The data were collected from 1999 to 2009 and were analyzed to determine the effect of ...

  4. Statistical Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Recurrence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate the risk factors influencing the recurrence of urinary bladder cancer, and to predict the probability of recurrence within two years after radical cystectomy. Patients and Methods Between 1986 and 1994, 857 patients were admitted at the Urology and Nephrology Center of Mansoura University, Egypt, ...

  5. Factors that influence the speed of bacterial wood degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.K.W.M.; Overeem, van B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial wood decay is a serious threat to the many wooden foundation piles in the Netherlands. In order to learn more about the factors that influence the process of decay, approx. 2000 wood samples taken from Amsterdam piles heads were analysed on type and degree of decay and for 59 extracted

  6. Factors That Influence the Understanding of Good Mathematics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kwan Eu

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that influenced the understanding of good mathematics teaching. A mixed methodology was used investigate the beliefs of beginning secondary teachers on good mathematics teaching. The two research instruments used in this study were the survey questionnaire and an interview. Beginning teachers selected Immediate…

  7. Factors influencing a mother's choice of feeding after discharge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess feeding methods chosen by mothers of babies who spent time in a neonatal unit. Factors influencing this decision were investigated. Design. Descriptive study. Methods. Mothers were interviewed on the day they took their babies home. Basic demographic data on mother and baby were collected from ...

  8. Analysis on Influence Factors of Adaptive Filter Acting on ANC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuqun; Zou, Liang; Ni, Guangkui; Wang, Xiaojun; Han, Tao; Zhao, Quanfu

    The noise problem has become more and more serious in recent years. The adaptive filter theory which is applied in ANC [1] (active noise control) has also attracted more and more attention. In this article, the basic principle and algorithm of adaptive theory are both researched. And then the influence factor that affects its covergence rate and noise reduction is also simulated.

  9. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  10. The application of radiolysis and analysis of influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Fang; Ha Yiming; Wang Feng

    2008-01-01

    As a branch of radiation technology, radiolysis technology has been developing in recent years. The update research and application of radiolysis is briefly reviewed. The radiolysis in reducing veterinary drug residues in food, processing plant sources products and environmental management are summaried. The influencing factors or the mechanism and radiolysis products are reviewed. (authors)

  11. Factors That Were Found to Influence Ghanaian Adolescents’ Eating Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Mawusi Amos; Freda Dzifa Intiful; Laurene Boateng

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to find out whether factors such as parental, peer, and media influences predict Ghanaian adolescent students’ eating habits. A random selection of 150 students from a population of senior high school students in Ghana were asked to complete the Eating Habits Questionnaire for Adolescents. Data were analyzed by the use of bivariate correlation, t test, and multiple regression analytical techniques usin...

  12. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  13. Factors influencing offspring traits in the oviparous multi-clutched ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Calotes versicolor, a multi-clutched oviparous lizard. (Shanbhag and Prasad ... composes correlation between two variables in to: (i) the direct effect of the first ... color breeding time is the prime factor that influences the clutch mass and egg ...

  14. The Influence of Psychological and Societal Factors on Student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of psychological and societal factors on students' performance in mathematics at Senior Secondary School Level in. Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state. A simple random sampling technique was used to sample three hundred secondary school students who supplied information on the ...

  15. 'Sense of belonging': The influence of individual factors in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. Perceptions of the LE among interns in KwaZulu-Natal, SA, were assessed in December 2015, using a validated version of the Postgraduate ... Intern training programmes in SA need to recognise that individual demographic factors influence interns' perceptions in the context of teaching and mentoring in a ...

  16. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Nagels, G.; Bissay, V.; De Keyser, J.

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and

  17. The Modeling of Factors That Influence Coast Guard Manpower Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    applications, and common data warehouses needed to fully develop an effective and efficient manpower requirements engineering and management program. The... manpower requirements determination ensures a ready force, and safe and effective mission execution. Shortage or excess of manpower is the catalyst...FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE COAST GUARD MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS by Kara M. Lavin December 2014 Thesis Advisor: Ronald E. Giachetti Co-Advisor

  18. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2011-03-01

    Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

  19. Hepatitus B virus infection : factors influencing the outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Hattum (Jan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to find correlations between the various courses of disease after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and factors that could conceivably have influenced the course of disease. The aim of the study was to find correlations between parameters of viral replication and

  20. Factors Influencing the Outcomes in Extradural Haematoma Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neurosurgical emergencies and are one of the most common causes of mortality and disability after traumatic brain injury. This study aimed at evaluating the current management and factors that influence outcome in patients treated for extradural hematoma in an African setting. Methods: A total of 224 consecutive patients ...

  1. Factors influencing home care nurse intention to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Patterson, Erin; Rowe, Alissa; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; MacDonald, Geraldine; Cranley, Lisa; Squires, Mae

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting Canadian home care nurse intention to remain employed (ITR). In developed nations, healthcare continues to shift into community settings. Although considerable research exists on examining nurse ITR in hospitals, similar research related to nurses employed in home care is limited. In the face of a global nursing shortage, it is important to understand the factors influencing nurse ITR across healthcare sectors. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with home care nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six categories of influencing factors were identified by home care nurses as affecting ITR: job characteristics; work structures; relationships/communication; work environment; nurse responses to work; and employment conditions. Findings suggest the following factors influence home care nurse ITR: having autonomy; flexible scheduling; reasonable and varied workloads; supportive work relationships; and receiving adequate pay and benefits. Home care nurses did not identify job satisfaction as a single concept influencing ITR. Home care nursing management should support nurse autonomy, allow flexible scheduling, promote reasonable workloads and create opportunities for team building that strengthen supportive relationships among home care nurses and other health team members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Factors influencing indoor concentrations of radon and daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hengde

    1985-01-01

    The correlation between indoor concentrations of 222 Rn and its daughters and some influencing factors is discussed and expressions of concentrations are derived with relation to radon exhalation rate from indoor surfaces, air exchange rate and daughter deposition velocities on indoor surfaces. Experimental methods for determining radon exhalation rate, air exchange rate and daughter deposition velocities are also mentioned

  3. International preferences for pork appearance: II. Factors influencing consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngapo, T.M.; Martin, J.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2007-01-01

    The preference for pork varying in its fat cover, lean colour, marbling and drip differs among countries, but the influence of socio-demographic factors is unknown. In this study of 11,717 consumers from 22 countries, more than 80% of consumers liked pork, thought that pork quality was at least

  4. Factors Influencing the College Choice Decisions of Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Ruth E.

    1995-01-01

    A study investigated the relative importance of 31 institutional characteristics in 1,068 graduate students' decisions to enroll or not enroll in the institution. Factors having the greatest influence included residency status, quality and other academic environment characteristics, work-related concerns, spouse considerations, financial aid, and…

  5. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  6. An Empirical Investment of the Factors Influencing the Adoption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Empirical Investment of the Factors Influencing the Adoption of Computer Based Auditing in Public Limited Liability Companies in Nigeria. ... information on current issues such as technological development, Keywords: Auditing, Computer based auditing, Information technology. International Journal of Development and ...

  7. What Factors Influence Vietnamese Students' Choice of University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc; Thorpe, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the factors that influence Vietnamese students' choice of university in a little researched context where the effects of globalization and education reform are changing higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative survey was completed by 1,124 current or recently completed university…

  8. Activity limitations and factors influencing functional outcome of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... life and satisfaction with life1,22. A recent study conducted among community dwelling stroke survivors found functional ability and independence to be the strongest predictor of, and were responsible for the greatest variance on participation22. For determining the factors influencing outcome with the use ...

  9. Factors influencing the choice of surgery as a career by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    37.5%, p = 0.042). Having surgeons as role models, staff advisers or first degree relatives were significantly associated with selecting a career in surgery. Conclusion: Gender, marital status, having surgeons as role models, staff advisers or first degree relatives in medical school are significant factors influencing the choice ...

  10. Organizational factors influencing successful primary care and public health collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaitis, Ruta; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Wong, Sabrina T; MacDonald, Marjorie; O'Mara, Linda

    2018-06-07

    Public health and primary care are distinct sectors within western health care systems. Within each sector, work is carried out in the context of organizations, for example, public health units and primary care clinics. Building on a scoping literature review, our study aimed to identify the influencing factors within these organizations that affect the ability of these health care sectors to collaborate with one another in the Canadian context. Relationships between these factors were also explored. We conducted an interpretive descriptive qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 74 key informants from three provinces, one each in western, central and eastern Canada, and others representing national organizations, government, or associations. The sample included policy makers, managers, and direct service providers in public health and primary care. Seven major organizational influencing factors on collaboration were identified: 1) Clear Mandates, Vision, and Goals; 2) Strategic Coordination and Communication Mechanisms between Partners; 3) Formal Organizational Leaders as Collaborative Champions; 4) Collaborative Organizational Culture; 5) Optimal Use of Resources; 6) Optimal Use of Human Resources; and 7) Collaborative Approaches to Programs and Services Delivery. While each influencing factor was distinct, the many interactions among these influences are indicative of the complex nature of public health and primary care collaboration. These results can be useful for those working to set up new or maintain existing collaborations with public health and primary care which may or may not include other organizations.

  11. Navigating New Horizons: An Analysis of Factors that Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the factors that influence computer literacy among university students. The study was primarily inspired by the realization that students acquire computer skills at varying levels and progress to use computers with varying proficiency despite the fact that they will be engaging in a ...

  12. Factors influencing energy demand in dairy farming | Kraatz | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of energy utilization is one of the key indicators for developing more sustainable agricultural practices. Factors influencing the energy demand in dairy farming are the cumulative energy demand for feed-supply, milk yield as well as the replacement rate of cows. The energy demand of dairy farming is ...

  13. Factors Influencing Exemplary Science Teachers' Levels of Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakverdi, Meral; Dana, Thomas M.; Swain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exemplary science teachers' use of technology in science instruction, factors influencing their level of computer use, their level of knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, and their…

  14. Factors influencing the job satisfaction of academics in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These included university context, being employed on a full-time or part-time basis, rank, ethnic group, union membership and gender. Factors causing satisfaction and dissatisfaction were identified. These were sometimes influenced by the above-mentioned demographics. Three-quarters of the sample indicated that, ...

  15. Factors that influence attitudes and sexual behavior among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey was carried out to assess attitudes and behaviour among youth within four constituencies in Oshana region, Namibia and to understand to how certain social and cultural factors inform attitudes and influence sexual behaviour among the population of young people surveyed. Using a structured questionnaire, ...

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy of factors influencing on marketing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Yaghoubi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011 [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011. Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3, 368-375.] to determine the factors influencing on marketing SMEs. Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing, positively.

  17. Factors influencing the flavour of game meat: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, J; Hoffman, L C; Muller, M

    2016-03-01

    Flavour is a very important attribute contributing to the sensory quality of meat and meat products. Although the sensory quality of meat includes orthonasal and retronasal aroma, taste, as well as appearance, juiciness and other textural attributes, the focus of this review is primarily on flavour. The influence of species, age, gender, muscle anatomical location, diet, harvesting conditions, ageing of meat, packaging and storage, as well as cooking method on the flavour of game meat are discussed. Very little research is available on the factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from wild and free-living game species. The aim of this literature review is thus to discuss the key ante- and post-mortem factors that influence the flavour of game meat, with specific focus on wild and free-living South African game species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  19. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  20. Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to those found in digital cameras and their efficiency enables better pictures with a lower radiation dose. ... greater accuracy in pinpointing the size, shape and location of breast abnormalities fewer unnecessary biopsies or additional ...

  1. Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    The mamma anatomy are showed with the main characteristics for the mamography examination. The energy band, the additional filtration, the half-value thickness are also mentioned. The evaluation in the exposure and the doses in the mamography examination are described with a quality control for obtention the best image. (C.G.C.) [pt

  2. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PURCHASE DECISION OF ORGANIC TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantry Nugroho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence consumers in making the decision to buy organic tofu. The theory of factors that influence the purchasing behavior developed by Kotler was used as the analytical tool, and these factors include cultural factors, social factors, personal factors, psychological factors and purchasing process. These data were collected through interview techniques and analyzed descriptively using multinomial logistic regression. The characteristics of respondents indicated the consumers who never bought organic tofu are mostly at the age of 26-35 years old and university graduates, do not work, have an expenditure from Rp 1 million to Rp 2.5 million, are highly knowledge, and have the highest scores on the perceptions on sustainable and environmentally friendly organic farming, health benefits, and a more expensive price. There are a number of factors that influence consumers in making purchase decisions of organic tofu including age, education, knowledge and product external factors. The consumers who are potentially interested in purchasing the organic tofu are at the age of 36–50 years old, university graduates, highly knowledgeable in food and organic tofu products, because the higher the education and knowledge, the greater the interest in buying the products, and they approved of the external products such as price, advertising, personal selling and places of selling which are also potentially equal. The managerial implications for the business agents of tofu organic product is that they must be more active in assuring the consumers that these products are good for them by creating a blog, an ad in the local paper, or a pamphlet containing information of the product.Keywords: purchase decision, logistic regression, organic tofu product, purchasing interest

  3. Influence of atmospheric factors on the rheumatic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latman, N S

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of atmospheric factors on rheumatic diseases - rheumatoid arthritis, unspecified arthritis, gout, and systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). The authors state that there appears to be ample evidence to conclude that various atmospheric factors do exert a significant impact on some people with various rheumatic diseases. The data are, however, crude relative to the authors general understanding. They recommend as a logical progression of research the determination of the effects of the meteorological/atmospheric factors of concern on the specific intrinsic mediators of inflammation.

  4. Tomosynthesis and contrast-enhanced digital mammography: recent advances in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, Felix; Bick, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Digital mammography is more and more replacing conventional mammography. Initial concerns about an inferior image quality of digital mammography have been largely overcome and recent studies even show digital mammography to be superior in women with dense breasts, while at the same time reducing radiation exposure. Nevertheless, an important limitation of digital mammography remains: namely, the fact that summation may obscure lesions in dense breast tissue. However, digital mammography offers the option of so-called advanced applications, and two of these, contrast-enhanced mammography and tomosynthesis, are promising candidates for improving the detection of breast lesions otherwise obscured by the summation of dense tissue. Two techniques of contrast-enhanced mammography are available: temporal subtraction of images acquired before and after contrast administration and the so-called dual-energy technique, which means that pairs of low/high-energy images acquired after contrast administration are subtracted. Tomosynthesis on the other hand provides three-dimensional information on the breast. The images are acquired with different angulations of the X-ray tube while the object or detector is static. Various reconstruction algorithms can then be applied to the set of typically nine to 28 source images to reconstruct 1-mm slices with a reduced risk of obscuring pathology. Combinations of both advanced applications have only been investigated in individual experimental studies; more advanced software algorithms and CAD systems are still in their infancy and have only undergone preliminary clinical evaluation. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of microcalcification: can digital monitor zooming replace magnification mammography in full-field digital mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Son, Eun Ju; Youk, Ji Hyun; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Oh, Ki Keun; Han, Mooyoung

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy and image quality of microcalcifications in zoomed digital contact mammography with digital magnification mammography. Three radiologists with different levels of experience in mammography reviewed 120 microcalcification clusters in 111 patients with a full-field digital mammography system relying on digital magnification mammogram (MAG) images and zoomed images from contact mammography (ZOOM) using commercially available zooming systems on monitors. Each radiologist estimated the probability of malignancy and rated the image quality and confidence rate. Performance was evaluated by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. All three radiologists rated MAG images higher than ZOOM images for sensitivity with statistical significance (average value, 92% vs. 87%, P<0.05) and performance by ROC analysis improved with MAG imaging. The confidence rate for diagnosis decision and the assessment of lesion characteristics were also better in MAG images than in ZOOM images with statistical significance (P<0.0001). Digital magnification mammography can enhance diagnostic performance when characterizing microcalcifications. Images zoomed from digital contact mammography cannot serve as an alternative to direct magnification digital mammography. (orig.)

  6. Influence of Terraced area DEM Resolution on RUSLE LS Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongming; Baartman, Jantiene E. M.; Yang, Xiaomei; Gai, Lingtong; Geissen, Viollette

    2017-04-01

    Topography has a large impact on the erosion of soil by water. Slope steepness and slope length are combined (the LS factor) in the universal soil-loss equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE) for predicting soil erosion. The LS factor is usually extracted from a digital elevation model (DEM). The grid size of the DEM will thus influence the LS factor and the subsequent calculation of soil loss. Terracing is considered as a support practice factor (P) in the USLE/RUSLE equations, which is multiplied with the other USLE/RUSLE factors. However, as terraces change the slope length and steepness, they also affect the LS factor. The effect of DEM grid size on the LS factor has not been investigated for a terraced area. We obtained a high-resolution DEM by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) photogrammetry, from which the slope steepness, slope length, and LS factor were extracted. The changes in these parameters at various DEM resolutions were then analysed. The DEM produced detailed LS-factor maps, particularly for low LS factors. High (small valleys, gullies, and terrace ridges) and low (flats and terrace fields) spatial frequencies were both sensitive to changes in resolution, so the areas of higher and lower slope steepness both decreased with increasing grid size. Average slope steepness decreased and average slope length increased with grid size. Slope length, however, had a larger effect than slope steepness on the LS factor as the grid size varied. The LS factor increased when the grid size increased from 0.5 to 30-m and increased significantly at grid sizes >5-m. The LS factor was increasingly overestimated as grid size decreased. The LS factor decreased from grid sizes of 30 to 100-m, because the details of the terraced terrain were gradually lost, but the factor was still overestimated.

  7. Why neurology? Factors which influence career choice in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dara V; Hoyle, Chad; Yin, Han; McCoyd, Matthew; Lukas, Rimas V

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the factors which influence the decision to pursue a career in neurology. An anonymous survey was developed using a Likert scale to rate responses. The survey was sent to adult and child neurology faculty, residents and fellows, as well as medical students applying for neurology. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the factors of influence. Respondents were subsequently categorized into pre-neurology trainees, neurology trainees, child neurologists and adult neurologists, and differences between the groups were analysed using Pearson's chi-square test. One hundred and thirty-three anonymous responses were received. The respondents were neurologists across all levels of training and practice. Across all respondents, the most common factor of high importance was intellectual content of specialty, challenging diagnostic problems, type of patient encountered and interest in helping people. Responses were similar across the groups; however, the earliest trainees cited interest in helping people as most important, while those in neurology training and beyond cite intellectual content of the specialty as most important. As trainees transition from their earliest levels of clinical experience into working as residents and faculty, there is a shift in the cited important factors. Lifestyle and financial factors seem to be the least motivating across all groups. Encouragement from peers, mentors, faculty and practicing physicians is considered high influences in a smaller number of neurologists. This may present an opportunity for practicing neurologists to make connections with medical students early in their education in an effort to encourage and mentor candidates.

  8. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  9. Factors influencing warfarin control in Australia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaitis, Nijole; Ching, Chi Keong; Teo, Siew Chong; Chen, Liping; Badrick, Tony; Davey, Andrew K; Crilly, Julia; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2017-09-01

    Warfarin is widely used for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Variations in warfarin control, as measured by time in therapeutic range (TTR), have been reported across different regions and ethnicities, particularly between Western and Asian countries. However, there is limited data on comparative factors influencing warfarin control in Caucasian and Asian patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine warfarin control and potential factors influencing this in patients with NVAF in Australia and Singapore. Retrospective data was collected for patients receiving warfarin for January to June 2014 in Australia and Singapore. TTR was calculated for individuals with mean patient TTR used for analysis. Possible influential factors on TTR were analysed including age, gender, concurrent co-morbidities, and concurrent medication. The mean TTR was significantly higher in Australia (82%) than Singapore (58%). At both sites, chronic kidney disease significantly lowered this TTR. Further factors influencing control were anaemia and ageWarfarin control was significantly higher in Australia compared to Singapore, however chronic kidney disease reduced control at both sites. The different levels of control in these two countries, together with patient factors further reducing control may impact on anticoagulant choice in these countries with better outcomes from warfarin in Australia compared to Singapore. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Important factors influencing the return to work after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Chih; Kapellusch, Jay; Garg, Arun

    2014-01-01

    As the field of rehabilitation shifts its focus towards improving functional capacity instead of managing disability, return to work (RTW) and return to the community emerge as key goals in a person's recovery from major disabling illness such as stroke. To compile important factors believed to influence RTW after a stroke. Based on a comprehensive literature review, we clustered similar factors and organized these factors based on the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) framework: body functions or structure, activity participation, environmental factors and personal and psychosocial factors. Overall, stroke severity, as assessed by the degree of residual disability such as weakness, neurological deficit or impairments (speech, cognition, apraxia, agnosia), has been shown to be the most consistent negative predictor of RTW. Many factors such as the number of working years remaining until retirement, depression, medical history, and occupation need to be taken into consideration for stroke survivors, as they can influence RTW decision making. Stroke survivors who are flexible and realistic in their vocational goal and emotionally accept their disability appear more likely to return to work. There are many barriers to employment for stroke survivors ranging from physical and cognitive impairments to psychosocial and environmental factors.

  11. Assessment of the factors with significant influence on safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcasiu, M.; Nitoi, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative evaluation of the factors with significant impact on safety culture were performed. These techniques were established and applied in accordance with IAEA standards. In order to show the applicability and opportunity of the methodology a specific case study was prepared: safety culture evaluation for INR Pitesti. The qualitative evaluation was performed using specific developed questionnaires. Through analysis of the completed questionnaires was established the development stage of safety culture at INR. The quantitative evaluation was performed using a guide to rate the influence factors. For each factor was identified the influence (negative or positive) and ranking score was estimated using scoring criteria. The results have emphasized safety culture stages. The paper demonstrates the fact that using both quantitative and qualitative assessment techniques, a practical value of the safety culture concept is given. (authors)

  12. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our study, Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.815 and there are eight influencing factors including flexibility in offering various services, building good relationship with customers, technology and processes, customers’ experiences, brand identity in continuous advertisement, organization size, customer perception on reputation of brand and customers’ tendency to build better brand loyalty. In our survey, flexibility in offering various services received the highest rank followed by building good relationship with customers.

  13. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  14. An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hosseinzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.

  15. Factors Influencing Patronage Of Medical Tourism In Metropolitan Lagos Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omisore

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since medical tourism attract patient from various origin to seek medical services at different destinations it is paramount to consider the factors that motivate patrons decision on medical tourism. Hence this study assesses the factors influencing patronage of medical tourism in Lagos metropolis Nigeria. Lagos State is situated in the southwestern corner of Nigeria it lies within Latitudes 62N to 64N of the Equator and Longitudes 245E to 420E of the Greenwich meridian. Metropolitan Lagos is a statistical division and not an administrative unit it extends over 16 of the 20 LGAs of Lagos State it contains 88 of the population of Lagos State and includes semi-rural areas. Data were collected from primary source. Primary data collection was carried out through the use of structured questionnaire. Systematic sampling technique was employed to select 15 specialized private hospitals and 14 Public hospitals in the study area resulting to a sample size of 29 hospitals. Ten 10 patrons were contacted in each of the selected hospitals consequently 290 patrons were sampled. The study revealed three factors influencing patronage of medical tourism in the study area to be service related economic and facilities. These were further established by factor analysis result which combine service related economic factor as factor one with 29.5 variance explained and Eigen value of 5.605 Facility factor as factor two with 28.6 variance explained and Eigen value of 5.435 Service related factor as factor three with 14.7 variance explained and Eigen value of 2.788 and Economic factor as factor four with 9.2 variance explained and Eigen value of 1.754. The relevant authority in charge of health facilities in the study area would have to employ adequate manpower in-terms of doctors and other healthcare personnel across the public hospital while also regulating the scale of charges of the registered private hospitals in the study area. There is need to improve upon the

  16. Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Inventory Management in Manufacturing SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shiau Wei; Tasmin, R.; Nor Aziati, A. H.; Zuraidah Rasi, Raja; Ismail, Fadillah Binti; Yaw, Li Ping

    2017-08-01

    Effectiveness of inventory management is a vital part in the manufacturing organization to be more competitive. The previous studies have indicated that there are several factors influencing the effectiveness of inventory management in the organization but there is lack of researchers who carried out the research in the manufacturing small medium enterprise in Johor. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify the problem of inventory management faced by the manufacturing small medium enterprise and also to determine the factors that will influence the effectiveness of inventory management. In completing this research, 80 employees were selected randomly from the manufacturing small medium enterprise in Batu Pahat, Johor and they were requested to complete questionnaires. The result have shown that the problems of inventory management faced by manufacturing organization were underproduction, overproduction, stock out situation, delays in the delivery of raw materials and discrepancy of records. The factors, documentation/store records, planning, knowledge of employees/staff skill have shown to significantly influence the effectiveness of inventory management while the funds have shown slightly significant influence on the inventory management in manufacturing small medium enterprises. This quantitative study is important to the manufacturing organization in Malaysia because it provides the guidelines to the employers of manufacturing small medium enterprises in Batu Pahat, Johor.

  17. Breast Cancer Screening Coverage with clinical examination and Mammography Among insured women in Bogota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arboleda, Walter; Murillo Raul; Pinero, Marion

    2009-01-01

    The objective is to determine the coverage of clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography for screening of breast cancer among a group of insured women in Bogota. Methods: A telephone survey was carried out with 4,526 women between the ages of 50 and 69, residing in Bogota or its suburbs, who were insured by one of three commercial health plans. Women with a history of breast cancer were excluded. Screening coverage was estimated as the proportion of women who had had a mammography or CBE. Estimates were established for lifetime frequency, two years prior the survey, and one year prior the survey. Factors associated with screening procedures were analyzed with calculations based on adjusted OR. Results: Lifetime frequency of CBE was 59.3% and 79.8% for mammography; and 49.7% and 65.6% of women respectively underwent the tests for screening purposes; the remainder, for diagnostic purposes (breast symptoms). CBE reported a 34.2% one year coverage and mammography reported a 54% two years coverage. Screening was associated to cancer education and family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: Coverage of CBE for screening purposes is low. Mammography coverage is above that required by the Colombian Health Ministry, but below that reported by developed countries.

  18. Risk factors influencing the pleural drainage volume after transthoracic oesophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Kanda, Tatsuo; Yajima, Kazuhito; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kaoru

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the factors influencing pleural drainage volume after transthoracic oesophagectomy and to determine criteria for the selection of patients who would benefit from the early removal of chest drains. Clinicopathological characteristics of 155 patients who underwent transthoracic oesophagectomy were prospectively collected, and the daily drainage volume of each patient was retrospectively reviewed. Potential risk factors were compared between the high-output group (n = 39) and low-output group (n = 116), which were dichotomized using the 75th percentile of total pleural drainage volume of the total study population. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors. The median duration of drainage was 10 days, with a median total drainage volume of 2258 ml. Of 27 potential risk factors influencing the drainage volume, creatinine clearance (P = 0.04), operative approach (P = 0.03) and thoracic duct removal (P = 0.01) were significantly associated with the total pleural drainage volume. The removal of the thoracic duct (P = 0.02; odds ratio, 4.02; 95% confidence interval 1.20-13.41) and lower creatinine clearance (P = 0.04; odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.04) was independent risk factors for increased pleural drainage volume after transthoracic oesophagectomy. The early removal of chest drains may be possible in patients without these risk factors.

  19. Full-field digital mammography versus computed radiology mammography: comparison in image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongxia; Song Shaojuan; Liu Chuanya; Qi Hengtao; Qin Weichang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differences in image quality and radiation dose between full- field digital mammography (FFDM) system and compute radiology mammography (CRM) system. Methods: The ALVIM mammographic phantom was exposed by FFDM system with automatic exposure control (AEC) and then exposed by CRM system with the unique imaging plank on the same condition. The FFDM system applied the same kV value and the different mAs values (14, 16, 18, 22 and 24 mAs), and the emission skin dose (ESD) and the average gland dose (AGD) were recorded for the above-mentioned exposure factors. All images were read by five experienced radiologists under the same condition and judged based on 5-point scales. And then receive operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn and the probability (P det ) values were calculated. The data were statistically processed with ANOVA. Results: The P det values of calcifications and lesion lump were higher with FFDM system than with CRM system at the same dose (1.36 mGy). Especially, for microcalcifications and lesion lump, the largest difference of the P det value was 0.215, and that of lesion lump was 0.245. In comparison with CRM system, the radiation dose of FFDM system could be reduced at the same P det value. The ESD value was reduced by 26%, and the ACD value was reduced by 41%. When the mAs value exceed AEC value, the P det value almost had no change, though the radiation dose was increased. Conclusions: The detection rates of microcalcifications and lesion lump with FFDM system are proven to be superior to CRM system at the same dose. The radiation dose of FFDM system was less than CRM system for the same image quality. (authors)

  20. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.