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Sample records for factors influencing family

  1. The influence of family factors on delinquent adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with the aim of finding out the influence of family factors on delinquent adolescents in secondary schools in Edo South Senatorial District of Edo State. This study ascertained the extents to which family factors such as parent child rearing style, family type and parent socio economic background ...

  2. Factors Influencing Utilization of Modern Family Planning Services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Utilization of Modern Family Planning Services among Women of Child Bearing Age (15 - 49 years) in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. ... Using accidental sampling technique, 150 women of childbearing age were selected to constitute the sample. Data were collected using a ...

  3. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration.

  4. Factors that influence clinicians' assessment and management of family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilden, V P; Schmidt, T A; Limandri, B J; Chiodo, G T; Garland, M J; Loveless, P A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. High rates of family violence and low rates of detection, report, and therapeutic intervention by health professionals are well documented. This study was undertaken to determine what factors influence clinicians' decision making about identifying abuse and intervening with victims. METHODS. Survey data about clinicians' experiences with and attitudes toward family violence were gathered by mailed questionnaire from a random sample of practicing clinicians in six disciplines (n = 1521). RESULTS. Data showed similarities within and wide differences among three groups of subjects: dentists/dental hygienists, nurses/physicians, and psychologists/social workers. Overall, a third of subjects reported having received no educational content on child, spouse, or elder abuse in their professional training programs. Subjects with education on the topic more commonly suspected abuse in their patients than those without; among all subjects, spouse abuse was suspected more often than child abuse while elder abuse was suspected infrequently. Significant numbers of subjects did not view themselves as responsible for dealing with problems of family violence. Subjects indicated low confidence in and low compliance with mandatory reporting laws. CONCLUSIONS. There is a need for educators to expand curricula on family violence and for legislators to reexamine mandatory reporting laws. PMID:8154568

  5. Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -10 children. This means they did not know what impact large families will have on the poverty stricken households. There is some ignorance about NFP methods. They are more used to artificial harmful methods of Family Planning. Therefore ...

  6. The influence of family-related factors on the succession process in small and medium-sized family businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Venter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study family-related factors that can influence the succession process in small and medium-sized family businesses are empirically investigated.  The dependent variable in this study is measured by two underlying dimensions, namely satisfaction with the process and continued profitability of the business.  The empirical results indicate that the family-related factors that influence both the aforementioned dimensions are the mutual acceptance of roles, the relationship between the owner-manager and successor, and family harmony.  The continued profitability of the business is also influenced by the agreement to continue the business. The existence of family harmony in itself influences the relationship between the owner-manager and successor, the agreement to continue the business, as well as the mutual acceptance of roles.  The managerial implications of these empirical findings are discussed and recommendations offered.

  7. [Comparison of the factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R; Shin, Sung Hee

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to compare factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families. The participants were 692 children aged 11 to 13 yr (388 in two parent families and 304 in single parent families) recruited from 20 community agencies and 5 elementary schools in Gyeonggi Province and Seoul City, South Korea. Data were collected from May to July, 2007 using a survey questionnaire containing items on self-esteem, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, family hardiness, parent-child communication and social support. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 program and factors affecting children's self-esteem were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression. Scores for the study variables were significantly different between the two groups. The factors influencing children's self-esteem were also different according to family type. For two parent families, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, and parent-child communication significantly predicted the level of self-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.505, psingle parent families, social support, family hardiness, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, and parent-child communication significantly predicted the level of self-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.444, p<.001). Nurse working with children should consider family type-specific factors influencing their self-esteem.

  8. Making time for family meals: Parental influences, home eating environments, barriers and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blake L

    2018-04-06

    Frequent family mealtimes have been associated with numerous positive dietary, health, and behavioral outcomes for children and families. This review article summarizes some of the beneficial outcomes associated with having frequent family dinners. Current trends in family dinner frequency are discussed in the context of barriers that influence how often families eat dinner together, including time issues, work issues, and distractions in the home environment. Next, several parental influences and home environment factors that promote healthy and consistent family dinners are outlined. Finally, limitations are discussed and a few practical suggestions are mentioned to help encourage families, employers, and policy-makers to make family mealtimes a regular practice for as many families as possible. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Factors influencing uptake of family planning services among men in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Utilisation of family planning services in Kenya remains quite low hence, the soaring population which has partly hampered achievement of the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) as well as achievement of overall development goals for the entire country. Current reports indicate that male participation ...

  10. Factors influencing family planning practice among reproductive age married women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Myo Min; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Nanthamongkokchai, Sutham

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors that influence the family planning practice among married, reproductive age women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 284 married, reproductive age women using stratified random sampling. The data were collected through questionnaire interviews during February and March 2012 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression. The proportion of families practicing family planning was 74.7%, contraceptive injection being the most commonly used method. The factors influencing family planning practice were attitude towards family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The women with a positive attitude toward family planning practiced family planning 3.7 times more than women who had a negative attitude. If family planning services were available for 24 hours, then women would practice 3.4 times more than if they were not available for 24 hours. When women got fair to good support from health workers, they practiced 15.0 times more on family planning and 4.3 times more who got fair to good support from partners and friends than women who got low support. The factors influencing family planning practice of married, reproductive age women were attitude toward family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The findings suggest that empowerment of health workers, training of volunteers, pharmacists and contraceptive drug providers, encouraging inter-spousal communication, and peer support, as well as an integrated approach to primary health care in order to target different populations to change women's attitudes on family planning, could increase family planning practice among Myanmar women.

  11. A Psychological Perspective on Preterm Children: The Influence of Contextual Factors on Quality of Family Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Gatta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth has a critical influence on interactive, communicative, and expressive child behaviour, particularly during the first years of life. Few studies have stressed the assessment of mother-father-child interaction in families with preterm children, generating contradictory results. The present study wished to develop these fields: (i comparing the quality of family interactions between families with preterm children and families with children born at full term; (ii observing the development of family interactions after six months in the families with children born preterm; (iii assessing family and contextual factors, as parental stress and social support, in parents of preterm children in order to observe their influence on the quality of family interactions. 78 families are recruited: 39 families with preterm children (M = 19,8 months, SD = 11,05 and 39 families with full-term children (M = 19,66 months; SD = 13,10. Results show that families with preterm children display a low quality of mother-father-child interactions. After six months, family interactions result is generally stable, except for some LTP-scales reflecting a hard adjustment of parenting style to the evolution of the child. In families with preterm children, the parenting stress seemed to be correlated with the quality of mother-father-child interactions.

  12. A Psychological Perspective on Preterm Children: The Influence of Contextual Factors on Quality of Family Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Michela; Miscioscia, Marina; Svanellini, Lorenza; Peraro, Chiara; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth has a critical influence on interactive, communicative, and expressive child behaviour, particularly during the first years of life. Few studies have stressed the assessment of mother-father-child interaction in families with preterm children, generating contradictory results. The present study wished to develop these fields: (i) comparing the quality of family interactions between families with preterm children and families with children born at full term; (ii) observing the development of family interactions after six months in the families with children born preterm; (iii) assessing family and contextual factors, as parental stress and social support, in parents of preterm children in order to observe their influence on the quality of family interactions. 78 families are recruited: 39 families with preterm children ( M = 19,8 months, SD = 11,05) and 39 families with full-term children ( M = 19,66 months; SD = 13,10). Results show that families with preterm children display a low quality of mother-father-child interactions. After six months, family interactions result is generally stable, except for some LTP-scales reflecting a hard adjustment of parenting style to the evolution of the child. In families with preterm children, the parenting stress seemed to be correlated with the quality of mother-father-child interactions.

  13. Determination of specificity influencing residues for key transcription factor families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Garde, Christian; Stormo, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major modulators of transcription and subsequent cellular processes. The binding of TFs to specific regulatory elements is governed by their specificity. Considering the gap between known TFs sequence and specificity, specificity prediction frameworks are highly de...

  14. Voices of Family Therapy Doctoral Students of Color: Aspirations and Factors Influencing Careers in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John K.; Stone, Dana J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined factors influencing career aspirations of doctoral students of color in family therapy doctoral programs across the country, with a special focus on careers in the professoriate. Qualitative interviews were conducted with students at varying levels of degree completion. Respondents discussed barriers to careers in academia as…

  15. Factors influencing life satisfaction of Korean older adults living with family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing life satisfaction of Korean older adults living with family. Participants included 267 adults age 65 and older who met eligibility criteria. Analyses showed that the prediction model of the life satisfaction of older adults who are living with their family was significant (F=24.429, ppocket money (beta=0.060), and age (beta=0.040). It is possible that older adults' life satisfaction increases when they are provided with nursing interventions and are able to effectively manage their health. Nursing interventions must strive to improve their self-esteem and address their depression.

  16. Finding the Perfect Match: Factors That Influence Family Medicine Residency Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katherine M; Ryan, Elizabeth R; Gatta, John L; Anderson, Lauren; Clements, Deborah S

    2016-04-01

    Residency program selection is a significant experience for emerging physicians, yet there is limited information about how applicants narrow their list of potential programs. This study examines factors that influence residency program selection among medical students interested in family medicine at the time of application. Medical students with an expressed interest in family medicine were invited to participate in a 37-item, online survey. Students were asked to rate factors that may impact residency selection on a 6-point Likert scale in addition to three open-ended qualitative questions. Mean values were calculated for each survey item and were used to determine a rank order for selection criteria. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors that predict a strong interest in urban, suburban, and rural residency programs. Logistic regression was also used to identify factors that predict a strong interest in academic health center-based residencies, community-based residencies, and community-based residencies with an academic affiliation. A total of 705 medical students from 32 states across the country completed the survey. Location, work/life balance, and program structure (curriculum, schedule) were rated the most important factors for residency selection. Logistic regression analysis was used to refine our understanding of how each factor relates to specific types of residencies. These findings have implications for how to best advise students in selecting a residency, as well as marketing residencies to the right candidates. Refining the recruitment process will ensure a better fit between applicants and potential programs. Limited recruitment resources may be better utilized by focusing on targeted dissemination strategies.

  17. Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, L L; Davison, K K

    2001-08-01

    Although a large body of research has assessed direct genetic links between parent and child weight status, relatively little research has assessed the extent to which parents (particularly parents who are overweight) select environments that promote overweight among their children. Parents provide food environments for their children's early experiences with food and eating. These family eating environments include parents' own eating behaviors and child-feeding practices. Results of the limited research on behavioral mediators of familial patterns of overweight indicate that parents' own eating behaviors and their parenting practices influence the development of children's eating behaviors, mediating familial patterns of overweight. In particular, parents who are overweight, who have problems controlling their own food intake, or who are concerned about their children's risk for overweight may adopt controlling child-feeding practices in an attempt to prevent overweight in their children. Unfortunately, research reveals that these parental control attempts may interact with genetic predispositions to promote the development of problematic eating styles and childhood overweight. Although the authors have argued that behavioral mediators of family resemblances in weight status, such as parents' disinhibited or binge eating and parenting practices are shaped largely by environmental factors, individual differences in these behaviors also have genetic bases. A primary public health goal should be the development of family-based prevention programs for childhood overweight. The findings reviewed here suggest that effective prevention programs must focus on providing anticipatory guidance on parenting to foster patterns of preference and food selection in children more consistent with healthy diets and promote children's ability to self-regulate intake. Guidance for parents should include information on how children develop patterns of food intake in the family context

  18. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FAMILY SIZE AMONG RURAL POPULATION OF DISTRICT NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.

  19. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FAMILY SIZE AMONG RURAL POPULATION OF DISTRICT NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.

  20. Chinese children at a crossroads: influence of family socioeconomic factors on diet patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hilary; Meng, Mao; Wei, Liu; Xiawei, Zhao; Wang, May C

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study explores the roles of family socioeconomic status (SES) in influencing dietary consumption patterns in 60 Chinese elementary school-aged children (ages 6-11) in Chengdu, China. Two interviewer-administered questionnaires were specially developed to gather sociodemographic and food frequency data. Children from low SES families consumed rice and traditional staples, and high calcium drinks more frequently, and western fast food less frequently than children from higher SES families. After controlling for family SES, children who were primarily cared for by their mothers or grandparents consumed less healthy snacks less frequently than children who were primarily cared for by other adults (including fathers).

  1. A spotlight on preschool: the influence of family factors on children's early literacy skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve M Heath

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness, letter knowledge, oral language (including sentence recall and rapid automatised naming are acknowledged within-child predictors of literacy development. Separate research has identified family factors including socio-economic status, parents' level of education and family history. However, both approaches have left unexplained significant amounts of variance in literacy outcomes. This longitudinal study sought to improve prospective classification accuracy for young children at risk of literacy failure by adding two new family measures (parents' phonological awareness and parents' perceived self-efficacy, and then combining the within-child and family factors.Pre-literacy skills were measured in 102 four year olds (46 girls and 56 boys at the beginning of Preschool, and then at the beginning and end of Kindergarten, when rapid automatised naming was also measured. Family factors data were collected at the beginning of Preschool, and children's literacy outcomes were measured at the end of Year 1 (age 6-7 years.Children from high-risk backgrounds showed poorer literacy outcomes than low-risk students, though three family factors (school socio-economic status, parents' phonological awareness, and family history typically accounted for less Year 1 variance than the within-child factors. Combining these family factors with the end of Kindergarten within-child factors provided the most accurate classification (i.e., sensitivity = .85; specificity = .90; overall correct = .88.Our approach would identify at-risk children for intervention before they began to fail. Moreover, it would be cost-effective because although few at-risk children would be missed, allocation of unnecessary educational resources would be minimised.

  2. A spotlight on preschool: the influence of family factors on children's early literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Steve M; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Bloor, Kimberley E; Boyle, Gemma L; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John H; Wigley, Charles A; Yeong, Stephanie H M

    2014-01-01

    Phonological awareness, letter knowledge, oral language (including sentence recall) and rapid automatised naming are acknowledged within-child predictors of literacy development. Separate research has identified family factors including socio-economic status, parents' level of education and family history. However, both approaches have left unexplained significant amounts of variance in literacy outcomes. This longitudinal study sought to improve prospective classification accuracy for young children at risk of literacy failure by adding two new family measures (parents' phonological awareness and parents' perceived self-efficacy), and then combining the within-child and family factors. Pre-literacy skills were measured in 102 four year olds (46 girls and 56 boys) at the beginning of Preschool, and then at the beginning and end of Kindergarten, when rapid automatised naming was also measured. Family factors data were collected at the beginning of Preschool, and children's literacy outcomes were measured at the end of Year 1 (age 6-7 years). Children from high-risk backgrounds showed poorer literacy outcomes than low-risk students, though three family factors (school socio-economic status, parents' phonological awareness, and family history) typically accounted for less Year 1 variance than the within-child factors. Combining these family factors with the end of Kindergarten within-child factors provided the most accurate classification (i.e., sensitivity = .85; specificity = .90; overall correct = .88). Our approach would identify at-risk children for intervention before they began to fail. Moreover, it would be cost-effective because although few at-risk children would be missed, allocation of unnecessary educational resources would be minimised.

  3. Chinese family adaptation during the postpartum period and its influencing factors: A questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong; Zhu, Xiu; Hou, Rui; Wang, De-hui; Zhang, Hai-juan; While, Alison

    2012-04-01

    this study aimed to explore new parents' views and experiences during their transition to parenthood. in China the one-child birth policy may bring more stress and challenges for the new parents due to the lack of experience and greater expectations of their new role. China is also at a stage of rapid economic and social development which creates new conditions for parenthood. a cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to September 2009 among 232 mothers and fathers, yielding a 83.6% response rate (n=194 couples). The questionnaire included: the Family Assessment Device-General Function Scale, the Family Resources Scale, the Family Adaptation Scale, and the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale. there were no significant differences between mothers' adaptation and fathers' adaptation during the postpartum period, as well as their perceived stress, family function and family resources (p>0.05). Method of childbirth was not related to adaptation. About 29% of variance in mothers' adaptation could be explained by satisfaction with the infant's gender (B=0.295, padaptation (B=0.236, padaptation could be explained by mothers' adaptation (B=0.268, pimportance of family resources to family adaptation and antenatal and postnatal education programmes as part of family-centred care. The possible influences of culture and policies need to be considered by health-care professionals developing strategies to facilitate family adaptation to the early parenthood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictors of suicidal acts across adolescence: influences of familial, peer and individual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nrugham, Latha; Larsson, Bo; Sund, Anne Mari

    2008-07-01

    To examine the influences of familial, peer and individual predictors of suicidal acts in a longitudinal study with a subset of school adolescents reporting high levels of depressive symptoms. A representative sample of Norwegian school students (N=2464, mean age 13.7 years, T1) was reassessed after 1 year (T2) with the same questionnaire. All high scorers of depressive symptoms on the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) at T2 were defined as cases. One control from low or middle scorers, matched for age and gender, was randomly assigned to every two cases. This subset (n=345) was diagnostically assessed by face-to-face K-SADS-PL interviews (mean age=14.9 years). The same subset was reassessed after 5 years (T3) by using the same questionnaire (n=252, mean age=20.0 years) and telephone K-SADS-PL interviews (n=242). The participation rate at T3 was 76.9% (n=265). The questionnaire explored various relationships with family members, peers and individual factors such as lifestyle habits, and physical health. Irrespective of time, history of a suicidal act significantly predicted a later suicidal act. Not living with both biological parents and a diagnosis of any depressive disorder were significant predictors for younger and older adolescents, respectively. In line with the findings of previous clinical studies, our results underline the importance of identifying previous suicidal acts, depressive disorders, broken homes and risk behaviours such as smoking and intoxication in the assessment of suicidal risk across adolescence.

  5. Influencing Factors on Family Physician Retaining in Kohgilouye and Boyer Ahmad Province, Iran in 2009

    OpenAIRE

    SA Mosaviraja; AA Nasiripour; JM Malekzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background & aim: Family Physician Plan in health and treatment services providing a relatively new plan beginning from 2005 by ministry of health in collaboration with general health insurance office to increase people's access to comprehensive health services. One of the main problems is the lack of retention of doctors in the workplace, particularly in deprived areas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors associated with survival in the workplace of family physicians in the Koh...

  6. Factors influencing the intention of women in rural Ghana to adopt postpartum family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Sebastian; Baiden, Frank; Quansah-Asare, Gloria; Graham-Hayfron, Yvonne; Bonsu, Derek; Phillips, James; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi

    2013-07-22

    Uptake of postpartum family planning (PPFP) remains low in sub-Saharan Africa and very little is known about how pregnant women arrive at their decisions to adopt PPFP. This information is needed to guide the development of interventions to promote PPFP. We conducted a survey among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a rural district in Ghana. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to explore how knowledge of various family planning (FP) methods, past experience with their use and the acceptability of PPFP to male partners and close relations influenced the intention of pregnant women to adopt PPFP. We interviewed 1914 pregnant women in four health facilities. About 84% considered PPFP acceptable, and 70% intended to adopt a method. The most preferred methods were injectables (31.5%), exclusive breastfeeding (16.7%), and oral contraceptive pills (14.8%). Women whose first choice of PPFP method were injectables were more likely to be women who had had past experience with its use (O.R = 2.07, 95% C.I. 1.50-2.87). Acceptability of PPFP by the pregnant woman (O.R. = 3.21, 1.64-6.26), perception of partner acceptability (O.R. = 3.20, 1.94-5.48), having had prior experience with the use of injectables (O.R. = 3.72, 2.61-5.30) were the strongest predictors of the intention to adopt PPFP. Conversely women who knew about the diaphragm (O.R. = 0.59, 0.38-0.93) and those who had past experience with IUD use (O.R. = 0.13, 0.05-0.38) were less likely to want to adopt PPFP. Acceptability of PPFP to the pregnant woman, male partner approval, and past experience with the use of injectables are important factors in the PPFP decisions of women in this population. Antenatal and early postnatal care need to be adapted to take these factors into consideration.

  7. The Influence of Family Factors on the Retention Decision Making Process of Military Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gary L.

    Retention of military personnel has become a top priority to military leadership. Given the investment made in recruiting and training personnel, it is vital that military decision makers understand the factors that influence the career commitments of service members. Research has demonstrated an increased interest in the influence of family…

  8. A comparison of the factors influencing life satisfaction between Korean older people living with family and living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S H; Sok, S R

    2012-06-01

    As the global population of older people continuously increases, many countries are beginning to experience health problems associated with older age. These countries may be interested in knowing and understanding the health problems experienced by the older Korean population, which is projected to age the most rapidly. This study aimed to compare and examine the factors that influence the life satisfaction between older people living with their family and those living alone. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. The participants comprised a total 300 older Koreans (150 living with their family, 150 living alone) aged 65 years or over who met the eligibility criteria. All measures were self-administered. Data were analysed using the SAS statistical software program version 6.12 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The older people living with their family were better than the older people living alone in perceived health status, self-esteem, depression and life satisfaction. Perceived health status, self-esteem, depression, age and monthly allowance were found to be the factors related to the life satisfaction of older people living with their family and those living alone. The factors that were found to have the greatest influence on the life satisfaction of older people living with their family and those living alone were depression and perceived health, respectively. This study may help healthcare providers to understand the factors that can influence the life satisfaction among older people living with their family and living alone in Korea. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  9. The influence of familial factors on the intelligence-mortality association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, G. T.; Osler, M.; Madsen, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate whether the widely reported inverse intelligence-mortality association could be replicated in twin intrapair analyses in which genetic and shared environmental factors are controlled for, as per the study design. Furthermore, the issue of generalizability of twin findings......-mortality associations were replicated in intrapair analyses of all twins and DZ twins where genetic and shared familial factors were partly controlled for, as per the study design. For twin pairs with a difference in intelligence test-score of half a standard deviation or more, the proportion of twin pairs in which...

  10. Influencing Factors for Developing Managerial Behaviours That Encourage a Work-Family Culture in the University Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Álvarez-Pérez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article develops and tests a theoretical model to find out which factors influence the behaviour of supervisors in terms of promoting a work-family culture. This model explains to what extent the factors studied are relevant to encourage deans to promote this type of culture at Spanish universities. The hypotheses were tested using linear regression analysis. Data were obtained through a questionnaire to deans. The results yield five key factors: (1 the personal work-family conflict of managers; (2 the transformational leadership style of managers; (3 the identification with subordinates in need of work-family cares; (4 the perceived institutional support; and (5 the perceived support from other supervisors in the centre. The findings have practical implications for human resources management (HRM practices. Human resources management practices such as (a providing deans and other supervisors with training about the importance of work-family programs; (b promoting deans’ training in order to develop transformational leadership skills; or (c increasing institutional support can be useful when implementing a work-family culture in Spanish universities.

  11. Influence of family and school-level factors on age of sexual initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Candace N; Warner, Lynn A

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the association of individual, family, and school-level characteristics with age of sexual initiation (ASI) and focused specifically on school context as a moderator of known predictors of ASI. Data are from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 10,596). Predictors include grade point average, physical development, attitudes about sex, likelihood of higher education, alcohol use, delinquency, family structure, parents' education level, childhood abuse, maternal approval of sex, parental monitoring, and parent-child relationship quality. School-level predictors are averages of adolescents' attitudes about sex and likelihood of higher education and parents' education. Hierarchical linear models run separately by sex were used to predict ASI. When school-level attitudes about sex are more favorable, both boys and girls report younger ASI, and school mean parental education attainment moderates the influence of individual adolescents' attitudes about sex on ASI. More of the predictors are significant for girls than boys, whereas perception of maternal and peer approval of sexual activity are the most salient predictors of younger ASI for boys. Results highlight the importance of school context for understanding adolescents' motivations for early ASI. Findings support the need for school-wide prevention interventions that engage adolescents, peers, and parents in addressing attitudes about early sex. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic syndrome-related composite factors over 5 years in the STANISLAS family study: genetic heritability and common environmental influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeth, Bernard; Samara, Anastasia; Ndiaye, Coumba; Marteau, Jean-Brice; Berrahmoune, Hind; Siest, Gérard; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2010-06-03

    We estimated genetic heritability and common environmental influences for various traits related to metabolic syndrome in young families from France. At entrance and after 5 years, nineteen traits related to metabolic syndrome were measured in a sample of families drawn from the STANISLAS study. In addition, 5 aggregates of these traits were identified using factor analysis. At entrance, genetic heritability was high (20 to 44%) for plasma lipids and lipoproteins, uric acid, fasting glucose, and the related clusters "risk lipids" and "protective lipids". Intermediate or low genetic heritability (less than 20%) was shown for triglycerides, adiposity indices, blood pressure, hepatic enzyme activity, inflammatory makers and the related clusters: "liver enzymes", "adiposity/blood pressure" and "inflammation". Moreover, common environmental influences were significant for all the parameters. With regard to 5-year changes, polygenic variance was low and not statistically significant for any of the individual variables or clusters whereas shared environment influence was significant. In these young families, genetic heritability of metabolic syndrome-related traits was generally lower than previously reported while the common environmental influences were greater. In addition, only shared environment contributed to short-term changes of these traits. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Breakfast habits and factors influencing food choices at breakfast in relation to socio-demographic and family factors among European adolescents. The HELENA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Lena; Vereecken, Carine A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Patterson, Emma; Gilbert, Chantal C; Catasta, Giovina; Díaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; González Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; Hegyi, Adrienn; Lehoux, Claire; Mouratidou, Theodora; Widham, Kurt; Aström, Annika; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Breakfast consumption has been shown to be an important indicator of a healthy lifestyle. Little is known however about factors influencing breakfast consumption and food choices at breakfast in adolescents. The aim of the present study was therefore to describe breakfast habits, and factors influencing food choices at breakfast within the framework of the EU-funded HELENA Study, in 3528 adolescents from ten European cities. Additionally, socio-demographic differences in breakfast habits and in influencing factors were investigated. Half of the adolescents (and fewer girls than boys) indicated being regular breakfast consumers. Girls with mothers with a high level of education, boys from 'traditional' families and boys who perceived low family affluence were positively associated with breakfast consumption. Boys whose parents gave encouragement and girls whose peers ate healthily were more likely to be regular breakfast consumers. 'Hunger', 'taste', 'health concerns' and 'parents or guardian' were the most important influences on the adolescents' food choices at breakfast. Adolescents from southern Europe and girls reported to be more influenced by personal and socio-environmental factors. Socio-demographic differences, in particular regional and gender differences, need to be considered in discussions surrounding the development of nutritional intervention programs intended for adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Family Structure and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Dawn R.

    Regardless of family form, there is a universal belief that one's family is the most powerful agent of socialization. A sample of 38 junior high school students from single parent and nuclear families completed a questionnaire in order to examine the relative effects of peer influence and family influence in single parent and nuclear families.…

  15. Survey of Wife Abuse and Influencing Social Factors Incidence of Domestic Violence in Tehranian Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Latifi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Violence against wives has been one of the things that are of interest to researchers, sociologists and psychologists. In all countries, despite the social and economic and cultural differences between them, Domestic violence occurs by husbands. It encompasses any behavior between them in close relationship. It causes physical, psychological and sexual abuse. Therefore this study is aimed to impact of social factors effective in the incidence of domestic violence in the Tehranian families who are referred to the parks. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive - analytical. The data collection tools are questionnaires. The questionnaires consist of 4 parts: Demographic data, physical, Sexual and psychological violence. Then 224 persons of married women referring to Tehran parks were completed these questionnaires, so data were analyzed by SPPS software (version 16 using descriptive, inferential statistics. Results: 33.6% of women participating in the study have experienced physical violence at least one during the last year, also between variables female age, remarried women, Gender of children, who Have adopted children, income, property, A separate bank account, type of married are significant relationship with violence. Conclusion: Economic problem, low education and type of job connected to Domestic violence. To combat of domestic violence as a global challenge, should be promoted the men's knowledge about women's rights and educated couple before marriage about their right and created an environment and support and counseling services and psychotherapy for individuals who are victims of violence.

  16. Factors That Influence Student Pursuit of Science Careers; the Role of Gender, Ethnicity, Family and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Susan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Snape, Jonathan B.

    2011-01-01

    This study adds to a body of research reporting on pupils' choices and outcomes in relation to science. The article reports on 536 Scottish pupils' perceptions regarding reported intention to choose careers in science, with further analysis in terms of family, friends, gender and ethnicity. The pupils, aged 14-15, from 5 schools in one Scottish…

  17. Factors influencing effectiveness of exhibit displays on family learning in a public aquarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Kodi Rae

    An important goal in science education reform is to create a scientifically literate society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (1989b) has stated that for people to understand biology, they must first have personal experiences with it. There are severe limitations on the types of firsthand biology experiences available in the classroom. Informal learning institutions, however, are not limited by these constraints. Visitors enjoy a free-choice environment, where they can thoroughly explore things unavailable in most classrooms. Thus, museums are key resources that may help society achieve scientific literacy. This study asked what aspects of the Aquarium of the America's labeling system promote visitor learning. I looked at characteristics of both the text and the displays themselves. By using open-ended interviews rather than formal questionnaires, I allowed visitors to identify information pertinent to them. After observing families viewing the Aquarium's "Living in Water" exhibit, I interviewed them to learn what had made an impact on them. One to two months later, I conducted follow-up interviews with each family member. Although families did not come away with the strong cognitive gains we might desire, they did come away with some strong episodic memories. Visitors tended to describe their interactions with each other and the displays rather than the actual label content---except for cartoon labels. Nevertheless, when visitors found displays that raised questions, they were curious to find answers and more likely to mention them. Families also described more details of interactive displays, particularly those that used various senses and emotions. Such potentially powerful interactives must be carefully tested, or we may create tenacious misconceptions rather than greater understanding. Based on my observations, I developed an Exhibit Interactivity Rubric (EIR) which may be useful in developing meaningful exhibits. Some families created

  18. Sociopolitical Change and Inequality of Educational Opportunities: Influences of Family Background and Institutional Factors on the Acquisition of Education (1940-2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunling, Li

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the influences of family background and institutional factors on the acquisition of education (1940-2001) and demonstrates that the increase or decrease in the inequality of educational opportunity allocations are closely linked to the government's relevant policies. The rapid growth of the inequality in educational…

  19. Factors influencing healthy lifestyle changes: a qualitative look at low-income families engaged in treatment for overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason-Wilkerson, Rochelle; Goldberg, Shauna; Albright, Karen; Allison, Mandy; Haemer, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity disproportionately affects low-income minority populations, yet there is a paucity of literature about effective interventions in this population. This study sought to understand the experience of low-income majority Hispanic families engaged in obesity treatment. We conducted six focus groups (2=English, 4=Spanish) with families who completed a community-based, family-oriented obesity treatment program, using standard qualitative focus group interview methods. Transcripts were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content. Two coders using the software program ATLAS.ti (v.7.0; Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany) coded each transcript independently; reflexive team analysis with three study team members was used to reach a consensus. Participants (n=37) indicated high program satisfaction. Parents reported buying less junk/fast food, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, preparing and eating more meals as a family, and increasing their families' physical activity (PA). Four barrier and facilitator themes emerged. Barrier themes were time and financial cost, parent's lack of time and energy, influence of family members, and challenges regarding physical environment. Facilitator themes were skill building around healthy eating and parenting, family involvement, and long-term health concerns. Unanticipated findings, parents reported, were that changes resulted in children sleeping better, feeling happier, and less irritability. Despite low-income families experiencing barriers to lifestyle changes to manage obesity, they made positive dietary changes and increased PA by learning specific skills and including the whole family in those changes. Additionally, some unexpected benefits were noted, including improved sleep, less irritability, and children appearing happier. Future studies should consider using these parent-identified outcomes as secondary measures of program effectiveness.

  20. Effects of workplace, family and cultural influences on low back pain: what opportunities exist to address social factors in general consultations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Campbell, Paul; Nelson, Candace C; Main, Chris J; Linton, Steven J

    2013-10-01

    Social factors are widely acknowledged in behavioural models of pain and pain management, but incorporating these factors into general medical consultations for low back pain (LBP) can be challenging. While there is no compelling evidence that social factors contribute to LBP onset, these factors have been shown to influence functional limitation and disability, especially the effects of organisational support in the workplace, spousal support, family conflict and social disadvantage. A number of barriers exist to address such social factors in routine medical encounters for LBP, but there is emerging evidence that improving social and organisational support may be an effective strategy to reduce the negative lifestyle consequences of LBP. For clinicians to address these factors in LBP treatment requires a clearer psychosocial framework in assessment and screening, more individualised problem-solving efforts, more patient-centred interventions involving family, peers and workplace supports and a less biomechanical and diagnostic approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceived influence, decision-making and access to information in family services as factors of parental empowerment: a cross-sectional study of parents with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorenmaa, Maaret; Halme, Nina; Perälä, Marja-Leena; Kaunonen, Marja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2016-06-01

    Parental empowerment is known to increase parents' resources and to reduce stress, and therefore to improve family well-being. Professionals working in family services (child health clinics, school health care, day care, preschool and primary school) encounter families in various everyday settings and can significantly support parental empowerment. This study aimed (i) to identify associations between parental empowerment and demographic and family service characteristics (i.e. parents' participation and perceived influence, decision-making and access to information) and (ii) to identify predictors of maternal and paternal empowerment. Study design was cross-sectional. Participants were mothers (n = 571) and fathers (n = 384) of children aged 0-9 who were selected by stratified random sampling in 2009. Associations were analysed by t-test, one-way analysis of variance and multiple linear regression analysis. Sufficient perceived influence and joint decision-making by family and professionals on family service appointments emerged as significant variables of increased parental empowerment. Access to adequate information about municipal services was also associated with high empowerment. These family service characteristics were associated with parents' sense that they were able to manage in everyday life and had influence on specific service situations and family services in general. Mothers with a child aged under 3 or a child in home care or primary school, and fathers with a lower education feel less empowered in family services than other parents. Knowledge about the factors associated with parental empowerment can contribute to further reinforce parental empowerment, help identify parents who need special attention and contribute to the development of family services. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. Do family and parenting factors in adolescence influence condom use in early adulthood in a multiethnic sample of young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A; Kopak, Albert M; Robillard, Alyssa G

    2011-11-01

    Studies show that positive family factors help protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual activities, but do they continue to protect adolescents as they transition to late adolescence/early adulthood? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined whether family support, parent-child closeness, parental control/monitoring of adolescent behaviors and parent-child communication about sex, assessed in adolescence, were related to condom use in late adolescence/early adulthood among African American (n = 1,986), Chinese American (n = 163), Mexican American (n = 1,011) and White (n = 6,971) youth. Controlling for demographic variables and number of sex partners, the results showed that family support was positively related and parent-child communication was negatively related to condom use for the sample as a whole and for the white sample, but not for the other groups. Parent-child communication about sex and parental control were negatively related to condom use in the Chinese American sample. None of the family factors was related to condom use in the African American or Mexican American samples. Overall, parents talked more with daughters than sons about sexual matters. Condom use was most common among African Americans and among males. Greater attention to cultural expectations regarding sex and gender roles, as well as the causal ordering of effects, are important directions for future research.

  3. Factors influencing the implementation, adoption, use, sustainability and scalability of eLearning for family medicine specialty training: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotič, Živa; Rees, Rebecca; Wark, Petra A; Car, Josip

    2016-10-19

    In 2013, there was a shortage of approximately 7.2 million health workers worldwide, which is larger among family physicians than among specialists. eLearning could provide a potential solution to some of these global workforce challenges. However, there is little evidence on factors facilitating or hindering implementation, adoption, use, scalability and sustainability of eLearning. This review aims to synthesise results from qualitative and mixed methods studies to provide insight on factors influencing implementation of eLearning for family medicine specialty education and training. Additionally, this review aims to identify the actions needed to increase effectiveness of eLearning and identify the strategies required to improve eLearning implementation, adoption, use, sustainability and scalability for family medicine speciality education and training. A systematic search will be conducted across a range of databases for qualitative studies focusing on experiences, barriers, facilitators, and other factors related to the implementation, adoption, use, sustainability and scalability of eLearning for family medicine specialty education and training. Studies will be synthesised by using the framework analysis approach. This study will contribute to the evaluation of eLearning implementation, adoption, use, sustainability and scalability for family medicine specialty training and education and the development of eLearning guidelines for postgraduate medical education. PROSPERO http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42016036449.

  4. The Size of the Family – A Factor Influencing Alimentation and, Implicitly, the Growth and Development Processes in Teen-Agers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Simalcsik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Viewed as a phenomenon with multi-factorial determination, the growth and development of the human organism depend equally on the hereditary patrimony and on the environmental conditions, the socio-economic ones, especially. As a critical transition period from childhood to adult age, adolescence is characterized by increased nutritional needs. The main factor responsible for the variations manifested in human physical development is alimentation – a factor correlated with the socio-economic variations. Similarly with the case of other countries affected by transitions, the difficult economic transformations occurring in the Republic of Moldova have been accompanied by the installation of poverty – a phenomenon affecting especially the families formed of more than 5 members. The teen-agers of the Republic of Moldova register a deficit in the consumption of proteins, especially of animal origin, known as playing a critical role in the period of accelerated growing of the organism. Alimentation and family size are closely correlated with the socio-economic status of the family from which the child comes, while the attention and care given to the child by the family plays an essential part in the growth and development of the teen-ager. Child’s development as a function of such an element is directly related to environmental factors, as follows: alimentation is poorer in more numerous families, as the monthly income per member of family is more reduced, which is immediately reflected in a scarce alimentary consumption; hygiene is insufficient; mother’s care for the child is also reduced, etc. The study was performed on 1,525 subjects (boys and girls with ages between 10 and 16 years, all from the city of Kishinev. The main parameters considered were: stature, weight and average puberal age. The results obtained show that family size influences both the average stature of the teenagers and their weight, over the 10-16 years interval, the

  5. The influence of socioeconomic factors and family context on energy-dense food consumption among 2-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, S; Oliveira, A; Pinto, E; Moreira, P; Barros, H; Lopes, C

    2015-01-01

    Adverse effect on health has been described for a high consumption of energy-dense food, among children and adults. Limited research has been performed among pre-school children. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between socioeconomic characteristics and family structure, and the consumption of energy-dense food among 2-year-old children. The study sample includes 808 2-year-old children from the Portuguese birth cohort Generation XXI with information on food consumption. Data were obtained from questionnaires administered by interviewers to parents. Based on a food frequency questionnaire, four groups of energy-dense food were defined: soft drinks (sweetened drinks), sweets (chocolate and candies), cakes (creamy and not creamy cakes and sweet pastry) and salty snacks (crisps, pizza and burger). Multinomial logistic regression models (odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals) were fitted to estimate the associations. Intakes of energy-dense food were much lower than in similar aged children in other Westernized countries. Maternal age and education, grandparents' education, household income and maternal occupation were inversely associated with the consumption of energy-dense food, particularly soft drinks and sweets. Children with older siblings were more likely to have a daily consumption of any energy-dense food. Few significant associations were found between socioeconomic characteristics and family structure and consumption of cakes and sweets less than once a week. High socioeconomic characteristics were associated with lower consumption of energy-dense food by 2-year-old children, mainly soft drinks and sweets. This influence is not only from parents' background but also from the preceding generations.

  6. The influence of patient, caregiver, and family factors on symptoms of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents with intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puka, Klajdi; Widjaja, Elysa; Smith, Mary Lou

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the association of caregiver and family factors with symptoms of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents with medically refractory localization-related epilepsy (i.e., failed at least two epilepsy medications). Forty-four children (ages 6-11years) and 65 adolescents (ages 12-18years) and their parents participated in this multicentered, observational, cross-sectional study. Univariable and multivariable linear regressions were used to evaluate the influence of multiple patient, caregiver, and family characteristics on self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression in the children and adolescents. Among children, depressive symptoms were associated with a lower proportion of life with seizures (β=.344, p=.022), caregiver depression (β=.462, p=.002), poorer family relationships (β=.384, p=.010), and poorer family mastery and social support (β=.337, p=.025); in multivariable analysis, proportion of life with epilepsy and parental depression remained significant. No significant predictors of anxiety were found among children. Among adolescents, depressive symptoms were associated with caregiver unemployment (β=.345, p=.005) and anxiety (β=.359, p=.003), low household income (β=.321, p=.012), poorer family mastery and social support (β=.334, p=.007), and greater family demands (β=.326, p=.008); in multivariable analysis, caregiver unemployment and anxiety remained significant. Greater anxiety symptoms among adolescents were associated with females (β=.320, p=.009) and caregiver depression (β=.246, p=.048) and anxiety (β=.392, p=.001) and poorer family mastery and social support (β=.247, p=.047); in multivariable analysis, female sex and caregiver anxiety remained significant. These findings highlight the central role of caregiver psychopathology, which is amenable to intervention, on children and adolescents' symptoms of anxiety and depression. Addressing caregiver psychopathology may improve children and

  7. A comparative study of factors influencing decisions on desired family size among married men and women in Bokkos, a rural local government area in Plateau state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahansim, Makshwar L; Hadejia, Idris S; Sambo, Mohammed N

    2013-03-01

    The total fertility rate of Nigerian women has remained high at 5.7. This is even higher for women in rural areas. Men and women in rural areas desire more children than those in urban areas. This study was aimed at describing and comparing the factors that influence family size decisions among men and women in Bokkos, a rural Local Government Area in Plateau state, Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive comparative study was used. Data was collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaires. Seventy two percent of women and 83.6% of men who desire to have 1-4 children had at least a secondary school education. Close to seventy percent of both men and women would have fewer children if they are certain of their survival to adulthood. Over 50% of the respondents believe that the husbands should have the final say on family size decisions. Preference for male children influences decisions on family size among men and women in the study population.

  8. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  9. [Multidimensional family therapy: which influences, which specificities?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaire, C; Bastard, N; Couteron, J-P; Har, A; Phan, O

    2014-10-01

    Among illegal psycho-active drugs, cannabis is the most consumed by French adolescents. Multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) is a family-based outpatient therapy which has been developed for adolescents with drug and behavioral problems. MDFT has shown its effectiveness in adolescents with substance abuse disorders (notably cannabis abuse) not only in the United States but also in Europe (International Cannabis Need of Treatment project). MDFT is a multidisciplinary approach and an evidence-based treatment, at the crossroads of developmental psychology, ecological theories and family therapy. Its psychotherapeutic techniques find its roots in a variety of approaches which include systemic family therapy and cognitive therapy. The aims of this paper are: to describe all the backgrounds of MDFT by highlighting its characteristics; to explain how structural and strategy therapies have influenced this approach; to explore the links between MDFT, brief strategic family therapy and multi systemic family therapy; and to underline the specificities of this family therapy method. The multidimensional family therapy was created on the bases of 1) the integration of multiple therapeutic techniques stemming from various family therapy theories; and 2) studies which have shown family therapy efficiency. Several trials have shown a better efficiency of MDFT compared to group treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy and home-based treatment. Studies have also highlighted that MDFT led to superior treatment outcomes, especially among young people with severe drug use and psychiatric co-morbidities. In the field of systemic family therapies, MDFT was influenced by: 1) the structural family therapy (S. Minuchin), 2) the strategic family theory (J. Haley), and 3) the intergenerational family therapy (Bowen and Boszormenyi-Nagy). MDFT has specific aspects: MDFT therapists think in a multidimensional perspective (because an adolescent's drug abuse is a multidimensional disorder), they

  10. Father Influences on Employed Mothers' Work-Family Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Press, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This study employed the ecological systems perspective and gender ideology theory to examine the influence of fathers' paid work-family crossover and family involvement on self-reports of work-family balance by employed mothers with children under the age of 13 (N = 179). Multiple regression analyses revealed that fathers' crossover factors had a…

  11. Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated by Olam Organisation in ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... level, household size, no of farm family assisting on the farm, management system adopted, ...

  12. Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0794-5698. Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in Fadama II Project ... project implementation (80%) in the stages of project development. Women .... the project as they appeared to have more family burden to ...

  13. [Eating behavior and childhood obesity: family influences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Vásquez, P; Olivares, S; Santos, J L

    2008-09-01

    Eating behavior involves all actions that define the relation between human beings and food. It is accepted that feeding habits are acquired through eating experiences and practices learned from the familiar and social context in early childhood. Besides the role of the social context, it is also assumed that familiar factors, both common family environment and genetic inheritance, have an important influence on food intake and eating behavior linked with childhood obesity. Research on food intake and childhood obesity has been traditionally focused on the amount and type of foods in the usual diet. However, it is an increasing interest to understand the link between eating behavior and obesity using questionnaires. There are several psychometric tools that have been developed specifically to deal with human eating behavior. This review summarizes the family influences, both genetic and non-genetic, on childhood feeding behavior and their relation to childhood obesity.

  14. Factors influencing use of family planning in women living in crisis affected areas of Sub-Saharan Africa: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Kelly; Zielinski, Ruth

    2017-11-01

    far too many women continue to die from pregnancy and childbirth related causes. While rates have decreased in the past two decades, some areas of the world such as sub-Saharan Africa continue to have very high maternal mortality rates. One intervention that has been demonstrated to decrease maternal mortality is use of family planning and modern contraception, yet rates of use in sub-Saharan countries with the highest rates of maternal death remain very low. to review available research and summarize the factors that inhibit or promote family planning and contraceptive use among refugee women and women from surrounding areas living in Sub-Saharan Africa. a review of the literature. Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), OVID, power search, and PubMed databases. studies included were: (1) published in English from 2007 to present; (2) primary research; and (3) focused on family planning and contraceptive use among refugee women and women in surrounding areas. Findings were discussed within the framework of the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior. twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Utilization of modern contraceptive methods was low. Women were socially influenced to avoid the use of contraceptives by husbands and others in the community. Reasons were a lack of trust in western medicine and the desire to have large families. Low socioeconomic status and proximity of family planning clinics were barriers to access. Women believed that health care providers were unqualified, many described being treated with disrespect in the health clinics. Knowledge and understanding of contraceptives was low; while most women knew different methods were available, there were many misconceptions. Believing that certain contraceptives cause death, infertility and side effects, contributed to fear of use. This lack of knowledge and fear, even with the desire to space and limit births, affected motivation to use

  15. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Kosovar Adolescents; Cross Sectional Study of Scholastic, Familial-, and Sports-Related Factors of Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiraj, Enver; Cubela, Mladen; Ostojic, Ljerka; Rodek, Jelena; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-05-16

    Adolescence is considered to be the most important period for the prevention of substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of SUM and to establish potentially important factors associated with SUM in Kosovar adolescents. Multi-stage simple random sampling was used to select participants. At the end of their high school education, 980 adolescents (623 females) ages 17 to 19 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption (measured by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-AUDIT), and illegal drug use (dependent variables), as well as socio-demographic, scholastic, familial, and sports-related factors (independent variables), were assessed. Boys smoke cigarettes more often than girls with daily-smoking prevalence of 16% among boys and 9% among girls (OR = 1.85, 95% = CI 1.25-2.75). The prevalence of harmful drinking (i.e., AUDIT scores of >10) is found to be alarming (41% and 37% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.87-1.48), while 17% of boys and 9% of girls used illegal drugs (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35-2.95). The behavioral grade (observed as: excellent-average-poor) is the factor that was most significantly correlated with SUM both in boys and girls, with lower behavioral grades among those adolescents who consume substances. In girls, lower maternal education levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of SUM, whereas sports achievement was negatively associated with risky drinking. In boys, sports achievement decreased the likelihood of daily smoking. Information on the factors associated with SUM should be disseminated among sports and school authorities.

  16. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Kosovar Adolescents; Cross Sectional Study of Scholastic, Familial-, and Sports-Related Factors of Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Tahiraj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is considered to be the most important period for the prevention of substance use and misuse (SUM. The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of SUM and to establish potentially important factors associated with SUM in Kosovar adolescents. Multi-stage simple random sampling was used to select participants. At the end of their high school education, 980 adolescents (623 females ages 17 to 19 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption (measured by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test–AUDIT, and illegal drug use (dependent variables, as well as socio-demographic, scholastic, familial, and sports-related factors (independent variables, were assessed. Boys smoke cigarettes more often than girls with daily-smoking prevalence of 16% among boys and 9% among girls (OR = 1.85, 95% = CI 1.25–2.75. The prevalence of harmful drinking (i.e., AUDIT scores of >10 is found to be alarming (41% and 37% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.87–1.48, while 17% of boys and 9% of girls used illegal drugs (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35–2.95. The behavioral grade (observed as: excellent–average-poor is the factor that was most significantly correlated with SUM both in boys and girls, with lower behavioral grades among those adolescents who consume substances. In girls, lower maternal education levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of SUM, whereas sports achievement was negatively associated with risky drinking. In boys, sports achievement decreased the likelihood of daily smoking. Information on the factors associated with SUM should be disseminated among sports and school authorities.

  17. Ecological Factors Influencing Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Self-Concept in Adolescents from Low-Income Families in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Suyon; Yoo, Haewon

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we examined emotional/behavioral problems and self-concept in adolescents from low-income families in Korea; additionally, we identified ecological factors associated with these traits. This descriptive study employed an ecological model to analyze data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. A nationwide stratified multistage cluster sampling methodology was used. Overall, 2534 first-year middle school students were included in the survey, and the survey was conducted from 2010 to 2016. Hierarchical multiple regression models were generated. The mean score of emotional/behavioral problem has been changed from 2.20 (2011), 2.15 (2013), to 2.11 (2015) out of 4, and the mean score of self-concept has been changed from 2.73 (2012), 2.73 (2014), to 2.77 (2015) out of 4. Factors that influenced emotional/behavioral problems and self-concept among adolescents were health perception and academic achievement (only associated with self-concept) at the intrapersonal level and parenting style, peer attachment (only associated with self-concept), and relationships with teachers at the interpersonal level. These results may be used to inform the development of interventions designed to decrease emotional/behavioral problems and improve positive self-concept in adolescents from low-income families.

  18. Survivors of childhood cancer and comparison peers: the influence of early family factors on distress in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kristen E; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Noll, Robert B

    2009-02-01

    This prospective study examines family predictors of distress among survivors of childhood cancer and comparison peers during the transition to emerging adulthood. Children with cancer (n = 55), comparison peers (n = 60), and parents completed measures of distress, family environment, social support, and demographic characteristics during initial treatment, as well as follow-up measures of young adult distress and demographic characteristics soon after participants turned 18 years old. Severity of initial treatment and late effects were rated by healthcare providers for participants with cancer. For all participants, mother and father report of initial parent distress was associated with their report of young adult distress at follow-up. Young adult gender moderated this association. For survivors of childhood cancer, severity of initial treatment and late effects also moderated the association between parent and young adult distress. Improving parent distress may help reduce child distress in general. For survivors specifically, ameliorating the impact of initial treatment and long-term physical problems may be beneficial. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Family matters : The influence of family history on phenomenology and IQ in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Although the exact aetiology of schizophrenia remains unknown, multiple genetic and environmental factors influence the development and expression of schizophrenia. The strongest risk factor to develop schizophrenia is the familial risk, thus having a family member with schizophrenia. The

  20. Factors influencing left ventricular hypertrophy in children and adolescents with or without family history of premature myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohsen Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Result : The results showed that among the studied variables, gender, age, body mass index, and blood pressure were associated with the left ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusion: Considering the results and previous studies in this field, it was observed that left ventricular hypertrophy exists at early ages, which is very dangerous and can lead to heart diseases at early ages. Factors such as being overweight, having high blood pressure, and being male cause left ventricular hypertrophy and lead to undiagnosable heart diseases.

  1. Influence of maternal and socioeconomic factors on breast milk fatty acid composition in urban, low‐income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Uma; Kanungo, Suman; Zhang, Dadong; Ross Colgate, E.; Carmolli, Marya P.; Dey, Ayan; Alam, Masud; Manna, Byomkesh; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Kim, Deok Ryun; Paul, Dilip Kumar; Choudhury, Saugato; Sahoo, Sushama; Harris, William S.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Kirkpatrick, Beth D.; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The lipid composition of breast milk may have a significant impact on early infant growth and cognitive development. Comprehensive breast milk data is lacking from low‐income populations in the Indian subcontinent impeding assessment of deficiencies and limiting development of maternal nutritional interventions. A single breast milk specimen was collected within 6 weeks postpartum from two low‐income maternal cohorts of exclusively breastfed infants, from Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 683) and Kolkata, India (n = 372) and assayed for percentage composition of 26 fatty acids. Mature milk (>15 days) in Dhaka (n = 99) compared to Kolkata (n = 372) was higher in total saturated fatty acid (SFA; mean 48% vs. 44%) and disproportionately lower in ω3‐polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), hence the ω6‐ and ω3‐PUFA ratio in Dhaka were almost double the value in Kolkata. In both sites, after adjusting for days of lactation, increased maternal education was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA, and increasing birth order or total pregnancies was associated with decreasing ω6‐PUFA or ω3‐PUFA by a factor of 0.95 for each birth and pregnancy. In Dhaka, household prosperity was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA and increased ω6‐ and ω3‐PUFA. Maternal height was associated with increased SFA and PUFA in Kolkata (1% increase per 1 cm), but body mass index showed no independent association with either ratio in either cohort. In summary, the socioeconomic factors of maternal education and household prosperity were associated with breast milk composition, although prosperity may only be important in higher cost of living communities. Associated maternal biological factors were height and infant birth order, but not adiposity. Further study is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of these effects. PMID:28198164

  2. FAMILY PERCEPTION AND PARTICIPATION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THEIR WEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfi Sri Legowo Utami

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Micro Financial Institution (MFI is an alternative financial institution that helps micro entrepreneurs and poor families to get flexible loans. This study analyzes family perception and participation on micro financial institution and their influence on family welfare. It analyzes the cases of Bina Sejahtera Posdaya, Pasir Mulya, West Bogor sub-district, Bogor district. The sample consists of 32 MFI members and 38 non-MFI members. The result shows that experiences in financial institutions and cosmopolitans significantly influence welfare. Factors influence the family welfare are family income, members’ perception to MFI, and members participation. Keywords:    Family welfare, perception, family participation, micro financial institution JEL classification number: G21, G29

  3. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  4. Factors within the family environment such as parents' dietary habits and fruit and vegetable availability have the greatest influence on fruit and vegetable consumption by Polish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolnicka, Katarzyna; Taraszewska, Anna Małgorzata; Jaczewska-Schuetz, Joanna; Jarosz, Mirosław

    2015-10-01

    To identify determinants of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption among school-aged children. A survey study was conducted in October 2010. The questionnaire contained questions concerning social and demographic data, lifestyle and dietary habits, particularly the frequency of F&V consumption, availability of F&V and knowledge about recommended amounts of F&V intake. Polish primary schools. Children (n 1255) aged 9 years from randomly selected primary schools and their parents. The children's consumption of fruit and of vegetables was influenced by the fruit consumption and vegetable consumption of their parents (r=0·333 and r=0·273, respectively; P=0·001), parents encouraging their children to eat F&V (r=0·259 and r=0·271, respectively; P=0·001), giving children F&V to take to school (r=0·338 and r=0·321, respectively; P=0·001) and the availability of F&V at home (r=0·200 and r=0·296, respectively; P=0·001). Parental education influenced only the frequency of fruit consumption (r=0·074; P=0·01). A correlation between parents' knowledge of the recommended intakes and the frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption by children was noticed (r=0·258 and r=0·192, respectively, P=0·001). Factors within the family environment such as parents' dietary habits and F&V availability had the greatest influence on the F&V consumption by children. Educational activities aimed at parents are crucial to increase the consumption of F&V among children.

  5. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Global Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Briana N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David

    2010-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on global family conflict. The sample comprised 872 same-sex pairs of twin parents, their spouses/partners and one adolescent child per twin from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (TOSS). The twins, spouses and child each reported on the degree of family conflict, and there was significant agreement among the family members’ ratings. These shared perspectives were explained by one common factor, indexing global family conflict. Genetic influences explained 36% of the variance in this common factor, suggesting that twins’ heritable characteristics contribute to family conflict, via genotype-environment correlation. Nonshared environmental effects explained the remaining 64% of this variance, indicating that twins’ unique childhood and/or current family experiences also play an important role. PMID:20438198

  6. Community- and family-level factors influence care-giver choice to screen blood lead levels of children in a mining community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, S M; Tsui, E K; Silbergeld, E K

    2010-07-01

    Bunker Hill, in Kellogg, Idaho, formerly a lead mine (1884-1981) and smelter (1917-1981), is now a Superfund site listed on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List. Lead contamination from the site is widespread due to past smelter discharges to land, water, and air, placing children at risk for both exposure to lead and resultant health effects of lead. Since 1983, the EPA has used child blood lead levels to inform the clean-up standards for the Bunker Hill Superfund site. This study was undertaken to examine factors that have contributed to the significant fall-off in the rates and numbers of children being screened for blood lead in Kellogg (number screened decreased from 195 to 8 from 2002 to 2007). The goal of this research project was to define community- and family-level factors which influence care-giver choice to screen blood lead levels of their children in this environment. This formative research study used mixed methods and was comprised of three research components: (1) preliminary interviews using community-based participatory research methods to define key research questions of relevance to community members, government and NGOs working in relation to the Bunker Hill clean-up; (2) a quantitative analysis of a cross-sectional household survey conducted with adult care-givers about child blood lead screening in Kellogg; and (3) ethnographic community rapid assessment methods formed the in-depth interview process and qualitative analysis. The survey showed the likelihood of blood lead screening that for children under the age of 18 years increases 34% with each one-year increase in current age of the child (95% CI, 1.08-1.67, p-value=0.009), and decreases 45% with annual household income greater than $10,000 (95% CI, 0.35-0.88, p-value=0.013). Sibling birth order increased the likelihood of blood lead screening by 61% (95% CI, 1.04-2.48, p-value=0.032) for each successive child. Female children were rated by their care

  7. The Influence of Gender, Age, Psychological Resilience and Family Interaction Factors upon Anxiety and Depression in Non-Autism Spectrum Disorder Siblings of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.; Mailli, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The influence of gender, age, Psychological resilience and family interaction factors upon generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) was investigated in 75 non-autism spectrum disorder (NASD) siblings who had a brother or sister with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). GAD and MDD were much more prevalent than in…

  8. Meaning in family caregiving for people with dementia: a narrative study about relationships, values, and motivation, and how day care influences these factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretteteig, Signe; Vatne, Solfrid; Rokstad, Anne Marie Mork

    2017-01-01

    In addition to care-related burdens, most caregivers of a person with dementia perceive a variety of positive and satisfying experiences, such as feeling needed and useful in their family caregiving role. "Meaning-focused coping" describes both positive and negative emotions in periods with high levels of stress. Day care service may have the potential to increase caregivers' positive experiences and meaning-focused coping, and positively influence interpersonal relationships between those giving care and those receiving care. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about family caregivers' experiences of meaning in their caring role. Additionally, the influence of day care services on caregivers' experiences and motivation in their caregiving role is explored. A qualitative design based on individual interviews was used. The interviews were analyzed using a narrative method and a case study approach. Family caregivers' roles and coping strategies were related to their relational ties. Caregivers had to make decisions about whether to enhance, maintain, or let go of emotional ties to find a good balance between meeting their own needs and the needs of the person with dementia. Family caregivers reported that day care positively influenced their "relationship-oriented coping" and experience of meaning. Finding meaning in the role of a family caregiver for persons with dementia is closely connected to the caregivers' own values and goals. Finding a balance between attending to their own needs and the needs of the person with dementia is crucial. Day care has the potential to increase family caregivers' motivation to care by supporting their capacity to meet their own needs, cooperate and communicate with the person with dementia, and make competent and autonomous choices, thus increasing their feeling of mastery.

  9. Hospital organizational factors influence work-family conflict in registered nurses: Multilevel modeling of a nation-wide cross-sectional survey in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leineweber, C; Chungkham, H S; Westerlund, H; Tishelman, C; Lindqvist, R

    2014-05-01

    The present shortage of registered nurses (RNs) in many European countries is expected to continue and worsen, which poses a substantial threat to the maintenance of healthcare in this region. Work-family conflict is a known risk factor for turnover and sickness absence. This paper empirically examines whether the nurse practice environment is associated with experienced work-family conflict. A multilevel model was fit with the individual RN at the 1st, and the hospital department at the 2nd level using cross-sectional RN survey data from the Swedish part of RN4CAST, an EU 7th framework project. The data analyzed here is based on a national sample of 8356 female and 592 male RNs from 369 hospital departments. We found that 6% of the variability in work-family conflict experienced by RNs was at the department level. Organizational level factors significantly accounted for most of the variability at this level with two of the work practice environment factors examined, staffing adequacy and nurse involvement in hospital affairs, significantly related to work-family conflict. Due to the design of the study, factors on ward and work group levels could not be analyzed, but are likely to account for additional variance which in the present analysis appears to be on the individual level, with private life factors likely explaining another major part. These results suggest that higher level organizational factors in health care have a significant impact on the risk of work-family conflict among RNs through their impact on the nurse practice environment. Lower level organizational factors should be investigated in future studies using hierarchical multilevel sampling. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The Family Parenting Influenced Adolescent Brawls Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhaeni, Heni; Dinarti; Priharti, Dwi

    2016-01-01

    There are four types of parenting: democratic, authoritarian, permissive, and ignored, which would affect the character of the child. However family upbringing itself influenced education, norms/cultural, environmental, social, economic and belongs to the family members. Quasi-experimental study through questionnaires, observation, deep interview,…

  11. The Significance of Family, Environment, and College Preparation: A Study of Factors Influencing Graduation and Persistence Rates of African American Males Playing Division I Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Enzley, IV

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify specific external factors including family composition, pre-college environment, and college preparation that contribute to why some African American males playing basketball at the NCAA Division I level graduate and persist while others do not. Despite an aggressive advertising campaign from the NCAA…

  12. Factors associated with the referral of anxious children to mental health care: The influence of family functioning, parenting, parental anxiety and child impairment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, L.; Simon, E.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8–13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age =10.28, standard deviation (SD) =1.35], 176

  13. Factors associated with the referral of anxious children to mental health care: the influence of family functioning, parenting, parental anxiety and child impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, L.; Simon, E.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age =10.28, standard deviation (SD) =1.35], 176

  14. Factors Associated with the Referral of Anxious Children to Mental Health Care: the Influence of Family Functioning, Parenting, Parental Anxiety and Child Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, L.; Simon, E.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age =10.28, standard deviation (SD) =1.35], 176

  15. Factors influencing feeding practices of extreme poor infants and young children in families of working mothers in Dhaka slums: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ashraful; Maitrot, Mathilde Rose Louise

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional status differs between infants and young children living in slum and non-slum conditions-infants and young children living in City Corporation slums are likely to have worse nutritional status compared to those from non-slums. Furthermore, families in slums tend to engage female labor in cash-earning activities as a survival strategy; hence, a higher percentage of mothers stay at work. However, little is known about feeding practices for infants and young children in families with working mothers in slums. This study aims to understand the factors that determine feeding practices for infants and young children living in families with working mothers in Dhaka slums. This study adopted a qualitative approach. Sixteen In-depth Interviews, five Key Informant Interviews, and Focused Group Discussions were conducted with family members, community leaders, and program staff. Method triangulation and thematic analyses were conducted. Feeding practices for infants and young children in families with working mothers are broadly determined by mothers' occupation, basis civic facilities, and limited family buying capacity. Although mothers have good nutritional knowledge, they negotiate between work and feeding their infants and young children. Household composition, access to cooking facilities, and poverty level were also found to be significant determining factors. The results suggest a trade-off between mothers' work and childcare. The absence of alternative care support in homes and/or work places along with societal factors outweighs full benefits of project interventions. Improving alternative childcare support could reduce the burden of feeding practice experienced by working mothers and may improve nutritional outcomes.

  16. Meaning in family caregiving for people with dementia: a narrative study about relationships, values, and motivation, and how day care influences these factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretteteig S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Signe Tretteteig,1,2 Solfrid Vatne,3 Anne Marie Mork Rokstad1,3 1Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, Tønsberg, Norway; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo; Oslo, Norway; 3Faculty of Health Sciences and Social Care, Molde University College, Molde, Norway Background: In addition to care-related burdens, most caregivers of a person with dementia perceive a variety of positive and satisfying experiences, such as feeling needed and useful in their family caregiving role. “Meaning-focused coping” describes both positive and negative emotions in periods with high levels of stress. Day care service may have the potential to increase caregivers’ positive experiences and meaning-focused coping, and positively influence interpersonal relationships between those giving care and those receiving care. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about family caregivers’ experiences of meaning in their caring role. Additionally, the influence of day care services on caregivers’ experiences and motivation in their caregiving role is explored. Methods: A qualitative design based on individual interviews was used. The interviews were analyzed using a narrative method and a case study approach. Findings: Family caregivers’ roles and coping strategies were related to their relational ties. Caregivers had to make decisions about whether to enhance, maintain, or let go of emotional ties to find a good balance between meeting their own needs and the needs of the person with dementia. Family caregivers reported that day care positively influenced their “relationship-oriented coping” and experience of meaning. Conclusion: Finding meaning in the role of a family caregiver for persons with dementia is closely connected to the caregivers’ own values and goals. Finding a balance between attending to their own needs and the needs of the person with dementia is crucial. Day care has the potential to increase

  17. Human factors influencing decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    This report supplies references and comments on literature that identifies human factors influencing decision making, particularly military decision making. The literature has been classified as follows (the classes are not mutually exclusive): features of human information processing; decision making models which are not mathematical models but rather are descriptive; non- personality factors influencing decision making; national characteristics influencing decision makin...

  18. Factors influencing choice of oral hygiene products by dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several factors, such as cost, branding, packaging and family influence, had been implicated as influencing the choice of toothpastes and toothbrushes by individuals. Media advertisement is also considered a very strong factor influencing consumer's choice. Aim: To assess the extent to which some factors ...

  19. Workplace Factors Associated with Family Dinner Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tammy D.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Poteat, Laura F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between workplace factors and family dinners. We examined two aspects of the family dinner, the frequency that the entire family typically has dinner together each week and the frequency that children eat fast food for dinner. Participants were 220 parents who worked at least 20 h a week and had at least one…

  20. Family and relationship influences on parenting behaviors of young parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace; Murphy, Alexandrea; Lewis, Jessica; Divney, Anna; Albritton, Tashuna; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick

    2014-02-01

    Assess the influence of relationship and family factors during pregnancy on parenting behavior 6 months postpartum among low-income young parents. Some 434 young expectant couples were recruited from obstetrics clinics during pregnancy and followed 6 months postpartum. Using a series of general estimating equations to control for the correlated nature of the data, we assessed the influence of relationship factors (e.g., relationship satisfaction, attachment) and family factors (e.g., family functioning, family history) during pregnancy on parenting (e.g., parenting involvement, time spent caregiving, parenting experiences, and parenting sense of competence) 6 months postpartum controlling for covariates. Relationship functioning related to parenting involvement, caregiving, parenting experiences, and parenting sense of competence. In addition, several family factors related to parenting. Mother involvement during childhood was related to more parenting involvement, parenting positive experiences, and parenting sense of competence. History of being spanked as a child related to less time spent caregiving and less positive life change from being a parent. Further, gender significantly moderated the associations between relationship and family factors and parenting behavior. Male parenting behavior was more influenced by relationship and family factors than female parenting. This study suggests the importance of relationship and family contexts for parenting behaviors of young mothers and fathers, highlighting the potential utility of involving both young mothers and fathers in parenting programs, and developing interventions that focus on strengthening young parents' romantic relationships and that address negative parenting experienced during childhood. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Trigger factors for familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Hauge, Anne Werner; Ashina, Messoud

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample.......The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample....

  2. Factors influencing plant invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette Ortega; Dean Pearson

    2009-01-01

    Invasiveness of spotted knapweed and biological control agents. Dean and Yvette are examining the influence of drought on the invasiveness of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and its susceptibility to herbivory by biological control agents. In collaboration with the University of Montana and Forest Health Protection, researchers have constructed 150...

  3. What influences success in family medicine maternity care education programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biringer, Anne; Forte, Milena; Tobin, Anastasia; Shaw, Elizabeth; Tannenbaum, David

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To ascertain how program leaders in family medicine characterize success in family medicine maternity care education and determine which factors influence the success of training programs. Design Qualitative research using semistructured telephone interviews. Setting Purposive sample of 6 family medicine programs from 5 Canadian provinces. Participants Eighteen departmental leaders and program directors. METHODS Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with program leaders in family medicine maternity care. Departmental leaders identified maternity care programs deemed to be “successful.” Interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Team members conducted thematic analysis. Main findings Participants considered their education programs to be successful in family medicine maternity care if residents achieved competency in intrapartum care, if graduates planned to include intrapartum care in their practices, and if their education programs were able to recruit and retain family medicine maternity care faculty. Five key factors were deemed to be critical to a program’s success in family medicine maternity care: adequate clinical exposure, the presence of strong family medicine role models, a family medicine–friendly hospital environment, support for the education program from multiple sources, and a dedicated and supportive community of family medicine maternity care providers. Conclusion Training programs wishing to achieve greater success in family medicine maternity care education should employ a multifaceted strategy that considers all 5 of the interdependent factors uncovered in our research. By paying particular attention to the informal processes that connect these factors, program leaders can preserve the possibility that family medicine residents will graduate with the competence and confidence to practise full-scope maternity care. PMID:29760273

  4. ADOLESCENT INFLUENCE ON FAMILY PURCHASING DECISIONS: RESEARCH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Tor Kadioglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic, social, and cultural changes in the modern world have made adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 important influences on family purchasing decisions. No longer solely users of products and services, adolescents now influence purchasing decisions and have attracted the attention of marketers and researchers. The purpose of this study is to analyze changes in the influence of adolescents aged between 12 and 18 on family purchasing decisions depending on socio-economic and demographic factors. This study aims to determine whether changes occur regarding different product groups by establishing at which stage of the decision process adolescent influence predominates. To achieve this goal, a survey method was used as a data collection tool. Using the convenience sampling method, adolescents within the age range of 12 and 18 were interviewed in Mersin, Turkey. The research results indicate that the influence of adolescents on family purchasing decisions occurs at different stages and depends on the type of product to be purchased. The analysis further shows that adolescents’ age, gender, and number of siblings, and the family's total income, the father's level of education, and the mother's employment status also affect adolescent influence on family purchasing decisions.

  5. Family Influences on Dropout Behavior in One California High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumberger, Russell W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated how family processes influence high school student dropout behavior. Used a sample of 114 dropouts from 1 California high school, 48 of whom were matched to similarly profiled continuing students. Identified factors that explain students' dropout decisions: permissive parenting, negative parental reactions to grades, excessive…

  6. Factors associated with family-centered involvement in family practice--a cross-sectional multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Tobias; Frese, Thomas; Sandholzer, Hagen

    2014-01-01

    The importance of a family-centered approach in family practice has been emphasized. Knowledge about factors associated with higher family-centered involvement seems beneficial to stimulate its realization. German office-based family physicians completed a questionnaire addressing several aspects of family-centered care. Logistic regression was used to identify associations with the involvement overall and in different domains: routine inquiry and documentation of family-related information, family orientation regarding diagnosis and treatment, family-oriented dialogues, family conferences, and case-related collaboration with marriage and family therapists. We found significant associations between physicians' family-centered involvement and expected patient receptiveness, perceived impact of the family's influence on health, self-perceived psychosocial family-care competences (overall and concerning concepts for family orientation, psychosocial intervention in family conferences, and the communication of the idea of family counseling), advanced training in psychosocial primary care (PPC), personal acquaintance with family therapists (regarding case-related collaboration), and rural office environment. Increased emphasis on the family's influence on health in medical education and training, the provision of concepts for a family-centered perspective, and versatile skills for psychosocial intervention and inquiry of patient preferences, as well as the strengthening of networking between family physicians and family therapists, might promote the family-centered approach in family practice.

  7. Factors associated with the referral of anxious children to mental health care: the influence of family functioning, parenting, parental anxiety and child impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongerden, Loes; Simon, Ellin; Bodden, Denise H M; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age = 10.28, standard deviation (SD) = 1.35], 176 non-referred anxious children recruited in primary schools (M age = 9.94, SD = 1.22). Child anxiety and other disorders were assessed with semi-structured interviews. Child anxiety symptoms, behavioural problems, parental anxiety, the parenting styles overprotection, autonomy encouragement, rejection, and the family functioning dimensions control and relational functioning, were assessed with child, father and mother report on questionnaires. The summed interference rating of children's anxiety disorders was a predictor of referral, consistent over child and parent reports, but not comorbidity. Most family and parenting variables did not predict referral, nor differed between the referred and non-referred sample. Contrary to our hypothesis, maternal self-reported anxiety decreased the odds of referral and child reported parental autonomy granting increased, while child reported overprotection decreased the odds of referral. The impairment for the child due to the number and severity of their anxiety disorder(s) is, based on child, mother and father report associated with referral. This indicates that those who need it most, receive clinical treatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Factors Influencing of Social Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwandi Sumartias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social conflicts that occur in several areas in Indonesia lately, one of them is caused by the weakness of law certainty. This is feared to threaten the integration of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to determine the factors that affect social conflict in Manis Lor village in Kuningan district. The method used the explanatory quantitative methods, the statistical test Path Analysis. The study population was a formal and informal community leaders (village chief, clergy, and youth, and the people who involved in a conflict in Manis Lor village Kuningan regency. The result shows a There is no significant influence between social identity factors with social conflict anarchist. b There is significant influence between socio-economic factors with social conflict anarchists. c There is no significant influence between the credibility factor anarchist leaders with social conflict. d There is no significant influence between the motive factor with anarchist social conflict. e There is significant influence between personality factors/beliefs with anarchist social conflict. f There is significant influence of behavioral factors anarchist communication with social conflict.

  9. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  10. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  11. Familial psychological factors are associated with encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Devrim; Çengel Kültür, S Ebru; Saltık Temizel, İnci Nur; Zeki, Ayşe; Şenses Dinç, Gülser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess maternal psychiatric symptoms, family functioning and parenting styles in children with encopresis. Forty-one children with encopresis were compared to 29 children without any psychiatric disorder. Higher maternal psychiatric symptoms were found in children with encopresis. The general family functioning and strictness/supervision in parenting were significant predictors of encopresis. Family functioning may be screened in children with encopresis, especially when standard interventions have had limited success. Identification and treatment of familial factors may enhance the treatment efficacy in encopresis. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Family and individual factors of suicidal ideation in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdanović-Maraš Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to better understand the phenomenon of suicidal behavior of adolescents by establishing relations between characteristics of a family system and suicidal ideation, as well as determining the influence of family and individual factors on suicidal ideation in adolescents. The systemic family therapy was used as the theoretical framework for this investigation. The study sample included 96 adolescents, aged 14-21 years, who assessed the functionality of their own families that were in the adolescent phase of a family life cycle at the time of the study. Participants were assigned to one of the three groups: the first consisted of adolescents who had previously attempted suicide, the second of adolescents who had another psychiatric problem at the time of the study, and the third was made up of adolescents who had never had psychiatric or psychological problems. The following instruments were used: Self-report Family Inventory (SFI, Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI, Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, and Beck’s Suicidal Ideation Scale (SIS. The results suggest that family has a significant, but indirect influence on suicidal ideation in adolescents. Suicidal ideation is primarily related to adolescents’ individual characteristics, which are indeed strongly influenced by family functionality.

  13. Family health and family physician’s influence on prevention of psychoactive substances abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapčević Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The family, as the basic social unit, has a decisive role in the health and disease of its members. It is the primary unit where health needs are formed and solved. By its own resources the family independently resolves about 75% of the total health requirements. In the paper the authors study family characteristics which influence family health and diseases, indicators of family health and the scale of life values. Also, the study evaluates social factors, communication and the influence of the usage of psychoactive substances on family health and the quality of family life. To form the personality of a child three factors are most significant: love, the feeling of safety and the presence of harmonious relationship between the parents. Life harmony in a family also depends on the quality of structural components of the personality and the interaction of motivation of its members. Early childhood determines the future personality of the adult person. At that period, habits and partially attitudes are formed. In harmonious family relationships the parents are the role model to children. Verbal and non-verbal communication enrich the relationship among people and enable efforts in supporting understanding, compassion and care for others by mutual agreement. On the scale of life values of Serbian citizens health holds the first position. Immediately following the health issue is good relationship in the family. As healthcare is not only the task of healthcare services, but also of each individual, family and the society as a whole, it is on healthcare personnel to educate the citizens how to preserve and improve their own health and the health of their family by a continual healthcare and education. Above all, this concerns avoidance of bad habits, such as smoking, immoderate alcohol consumption, narcotic abuse, physical inactivity, hypercaloric nutrition, etc. Also, it is significant to make an early recognition of disease symptoms and to turn for

  14. "It's hard to ask": examining the factors influencing decision-making among end-stage renal disease patients considering approaching family and friends for a kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Merryn A; Cornwall, Jon

    2018-05-04

    People needing kidney transplants in New Zealand can receive organs from deceased donors or from a living kidney donor. This project explored issues surrounding donor recruitment, examining the lived experience of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in order to facilitate improved donor recruitment for ESRD patients. A qualitative study comprising interviews of ESRD patients in Hawke's Bay, focusing on the factors surrounding approaching family and friends for a kidney. Purposeful sampling and thematic analysis of data was utilised. Fifteen participants were interviewed (Five female; mean age 49.8yrs). Most stated it was hard to ask for a kidney; almost half had never approached anyone. For many, approaching potential donors was a barrier. Many Māori had limited recruitment opportunities due to comorbidities within extended whanau, making the decision of who to approach difficult. Other barriers included concern for donor health, poor health literacy and poor self-efficacy. Recipients desired more support to facilitate approaching donors, with cultural differences observed between Māori and non-Māori in recruitment expectations. Tailored support could be enabled with development of a screening tool to assess willingness and motivation to accept donation, cultural needs, self-efficacy, communication skills and health literacy. Psychosocial support could help address barriers such as reciprocity concerns.

  15. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aimed at identifying the factors that influence women's decisions to purchase specific .... influence of all the factors influencing their decision to purchase a selected .... one free” promotions seemed to have had the greatest influence on this ...

  16. Family factors in end-of-life decision-making: family conflict and proxy relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Susan Mockus; Winter, Laraine; Santana, Abbie J; Parker, Barbara; Diamond, James J; Rose, Molly; Myers, Ronald E

    2011-02-01

    Few studies have examined proxy decision-making regarding end-of-life treatment decisions. Proxy accuracy is defined as whether proxy treatment choices are consistent with the expressed wishes of their index elder. The purpose of this study was to examine proxy accuracy in relation to two family factors that may influence proxy accuracy: perceived family conflict and type of elder-proxy relationship. Telephone interviews with 202 community-dwelling elders and their proxy decision makers were conducted including the Life-Support Preferences Questionnaire (LSPQ), and a measure of family conflict, and sociodemographic characteristics, including type of relationship. Elder-proxy accuracy was associated with the type of elder-proxy relationship. Adult children demonstrated the lowest elder-proxy accuracy and spousal proxies the highest elder-proxy accuracy. Elder-proxy accuracy was associated with family conflict. Proxies reporting higher family conflict had lower elder-proxy accuracy. No interaction between family conflict and relationship type was revealed. Spousal proxies were more accurate in their substituted judgment than adult children, and proxies who perceive higher degree of family conflict tended to be less accurate than those with lower family conflict. Health care providers should be aware of these family factors when discussing advance care planning.

  17. FACTORS INFLUENCING SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Khasinah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivation, attitude, age, intelligence, aptitude, cognitive style, and personality are considered as factors that greatly influence someone in the process of his or her second language acquisition. Experts state that those factors give a more dominant contribution in SLA to learners variedly, depend on who the learners are, their age, how they behave toward the language, their cognitive ability, and also the way they learn.

  18. Factors influencing bone scan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)

  19. Factors influencing maternal decision-making for the infant sleep environment in families at higher risk of SIDS: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Anna; Ingram, Jenny; Blair, Peter S; Fleming, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with mothers of babies at higher risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were carried out to understand their views and decision-making process on the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted between February and November 2014 in deprived areas of Bristol, UK. Mothers were asked about their decision-making for the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages including infant sleep position, co-sleeping, smoking, dummy use, feeding and disrupted routines. The interviews were transcribed, coded and thematic analysis carried out. Participants were invited based on an algorithm developed in a previous SIDS case control study that identified an increased risk of SIDS from four demographic characteristics: young maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, three or more children, and a measure of deprivation. The presence of three, or more characteristics led to being invited to take part in the qualitative study. Factors influencing mothers' adherence to the safe sleep messages included previous experience and the credibility of the advice given. They described disrupted routines that led to risky scenarios with a belief that occasional risks were acceptable. Where circumstances made following the advice more difficult they found alternative strategies to reduce the risk, including the use of movement monitors, regular checking and a belief that lighter maternal sleep in the presence of a baby was protective. Safer sleep messages should be tailored to fit with the lived realities of mothers, especially those at higher risk. The traditional list of 'do's' and 'don'ts' was not well accepted by this group. Interventions that seek to influence this higher-risk group should acknowledge mothers' own protective instincts and consider their beliefs and understanding behind the safer sleep messages if they are to be effective and encourage this group to change.

  20. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Baumert, Kevin; Blanchard, Odile; Burch, Sarah; Robinson, John

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  1. Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family, especially maternal, factors play a role in determining eating attitudes. Peer and media (television) factors are not significantly influential. The findings provide preliminary data on factors that influence eating attrtudes in a group at risk for the development of eating disorders. The findings have implications for the ...

  2. Influences of Family Structure Dynamics on Sexual Debut in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no research on the timing, sequencing and number of changes in family environment and their influences on sexual and reproductive health outcomes in Africa. Using a population-based survey with data on family structure at three points in the life course, this paper examines the influences of these family structure ...

  3. Age and Family Control Influences on Children's Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that (1) age and family control did not influence children's television viewing levels; (2) age influenced program preferences of children; (3) cartoon preferences related negatively to family control for the youngest groups; and (4) comedy and children's program preferences and television realism related positively to family control for…

  4. Family factors in adolescent problematic Internet gaming: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Luke A; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2017-09-01

    Background and aims Familial influences are known to affect the likelihood of an adolescent becoming a problem gamer. This systematic review examined some of the key findings in empirical research on family factors related to adolescent problem gaming. Methods A total of 14 studies in the past decade were evaluated. Family-related variables included: (a) parent status (e.g., socioeconomic status and mental health), (b) parent-child relationship (e.g., warmth, conflict, and abuse), (c) parental influence on gaming (e.g., supervision of gaming, modeling, and attitudes toward gaming), and (d) family environment (e.g., household composition). Results The majority of studies have focused on parent-child relationships, reporting that poorer quality relationships are associated with increased severity of problem gaming. The paternal relationship may be protective against problem gaming; therefore, prevention programs should leverage the support of cooperative fathers. Discussion The intergenerational effects of problem gaming require further attention, in light of adult gamers raising their children in a gaming-centric environment. Research has been limited by a reliance on adolescent self-report to understand family dynamics, without gathering corroborating information from parents and other family members. The very high rates of problem gaming (>10%) reported in general population samples raise concerns about the validity of current screening tools. Conclusions Interventions for adolescents may be more effective in some cases if they can address familial influences on problem gaming with the active co-participation of parents, rather than enrolling vulnerable adolescents in individual-based training or temporarily isolating adolescents from the family system.

  5. The Influence of Family of Origin Relationships on Career Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Xu, Yonghong Jade; Strauser, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Family of origin relationships are an important influence on career decision-making. The current study investigates the relationship between family cohesion, expressiveness and conflict and dysfunctional career thoughts. The Family Environment Scale-Form R (Moos & Moos, 2009) measured the family environment and the Career Thoughts Inventory…

  6. The influences of family environment on personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, K; Takaishi, J; Tatsuta, K; Katayama, H; Iwase, M; Yorifuji, K; Takeda, M

    2000-02-01

    In order to clarify the influences of family environment on the development of personality traits, 150 children (104 males and 46 females, mean age 13.2 +/- 2.4 years) who had been interviewed at the Child Guidance Clinic in Osaka were investigated. From 13 behavioral characteristics (activity, talkativeness, sociability, social skills, rule-keeping, will, aggression, emotional control, imagination, anxiety, maturity, intelligence, and neuroticism), factor analysis identified three personality traits: extraversion, maturity, and intellect. The effects of family environment (maternal and paternal participation in child rearing before and after 4years of age, child-rearing style, parental relationship, sibling relationship, number of siblings, birth order, and socioeconomic status) on these personality traits were examined based on a structural equation model. The results found, first, that extraversion was negatively associated with overprotection/interference and with maternal participation in child rearing. Maturity correlated with high socioeconomic status, appropriate child-rearing style, and paternal participation in child rearing. Intellect was related to high socioeconomic status and maternal participation in child rearing. Second, path analysis with selected variables revealed that 8% of variance in extraversion, 14% in maturity, and 10% in intellect was due to family environment. Third, children with high introversion or high intellect had stronger influences from family environment than did those with high extraversion or low intellect.

  7. Factors influencing career decisions in internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, C; Cawood, T

    2012-08-01

    Numerous factors influence career decisions for internal medicine trainees and Fellows. There is a perception that a greater emphasis is placed on work-family balance by younger physicians. To determine the characteristics of the modern internal medicine workforce and ascertain whether job flexibility is important to career decision-making. We hypothesised that factors which reflect flexibility would be highly influential in decision-making, especially for women and those with young children. A questionnaire was mailed to 250 New Zealand internal medicine trainees and Fellows. It focused on factors, including job flexibility, interest and collegial support, and included demographic details which were primarily aimed at ascertaining family responsibilities. Response rate was 54%. The majority of female physicians are the main person responsible for their children (62%), and the majority of their partners work full-time (80%). This contrasts with male physicians, of whom only 4% are the main person responsible for their children. Flexibility was found to be more influential in women, those with young children, trainees and those working in outpatient-based subspecialties. However, contrary to our original hypothesis, flexibility was not reported to be highly influential in any group, with career choice being most influenced by interest and enjoyment, intellectual challenge and variety within the job. It is hoped that results will inform employers and those involved with training to enable them to better cater for the needs of the workforce and also encourage trainees to consider future family commitments when making career decisions. © 2012 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  8. Children's influence on family decision-making in food buying and consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Miguel Romero; Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates children's participation and influence in the family decision process during food buying and consumption. Danish 10 to 13-year-old children and their parents participated in the study. First, an ethnographic field study was carried out with 20 families. The field worker...... visited children at school and families at home during food buying, cooking and eating. Secondly, a survey was carried out with 451 families. The primary findings are that children participate and gain influence on several decision stages and areas during family food buying and that family everyday...... routines are an explaining factor of children's influence on family food decisions. When families buy and consume food, parents are not the only participants and decision-makers. Children and parents not always agree. Implications are that research should include parents as well as children; and that food...

  9. Familial influence and childhood trauma in female alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Å.; Lundholm, C.; Göransson, M.; Copeland, W.; Heilig, M.; Pedersen, N. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background To assess the role of genetic and environmental factors in female alcoholism using a large population-based twin sample, taking into account possible differences between early and late onset disease subtype. Method Twins aged 20–47 years from the Swedish Twin Registry (n = 24 119) answered questions to establish lifetime alcohol use disorders. Subjects with alcoholism were classified for subtype. Structural equation modeling was used to quantify the proportion of phenotypic variance due to genetic and environmental factors and test whether heritability in women differed from that in men. The association between childhood trauma and alcoholism was then examined in females, controlling for background familial factors. Results Lifetime prevalence of alcohol dependence was 4.9% in women and 8.6% in men. Overall, heritability for alcohol dependence was 55%, and did not differ significantly between men and women, although women had a significantly greater heritability for late onset (type I). Childhood physical trauma and sexual abuse had a stronger association with early onset compared to late onset alcoholism [odds ratio (OR) 2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53–3.88 and OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.38–3.79 respectively]. Co-twin analysis indicated that familial factors largely accounted for the influence of physical trauma whereas the association with childhood sexual abuse reflected both familial and specific effects. Conclusions Heritability of alcoholism in women is similar to that in men. Early onset alcoholism is strongly association with childhood trauma, which seems to be both a marker of familial background factors and a specific individual risk factor per se. PMID:21798111

  10. Threats: power, family mealtimes, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Alexa; Potter, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    One of the most basic topics in social psychology is the way one agent influences the behaviour of another. This paper will focus on threats, which are an intensified form of attempted behavioural influence. Despite the centrality to the project of social psychology, little attention has been paid to threats. This paper will start to rectify this oversight. It reviews early examples of the way social psychology handles threats and highlights key limitations and presuppositions about the nature and role of threats. By contrast, we subject them to a programme of empirical research. Data comprise video records of a collection of family mealtimes that include preschool children. Threats are recurrent in this material. A preliminary conceptualization of features of candidate threats from this corpus will be used as an analytic start point. A series of examples are used to explicate basic features and dimensions that build the action of threatening. The basic structure of the threats uses a conditional logic: if the recipient continues problem action/does not initiate required action then negative consequences will be produced by the speaker. Further analysis clarifies how threats differ from warnings and admonishments. Sequential analysis suggests threats set up basic response options of compliance or defiance. However, recipients of threats can evade these options by, for example, reworking the unpleasant upshot specified in the threat, or producing barely minimal compliance. The implications for broader social psychological concerns are explored in a discussion of power, resistance, and asymmetry; the paper ends by reconsidering the way social influence can be studied in social psychology. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  11. College factors that influence drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cheryl A; Meilman, Philip W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the aspects of collegiate environments, rather than student characteristics, that influence drinking. Unfortunately, the existing literature is scant on this topic. A literature review of articles primarily published within the last 10 years, along with some earlier "landmark" studies of collegiate drinking in the United States, was conducted to determine institutional factors that influence the consumption of alcohol. In addition, a demonstration analysis of Core Alcohol and Drug Survey research findings was conducted to further elucidate the issues. Several factors have been shown to relate to drinking: (1) organizational property variables of campuses, including affiliations (historically black institutions, women's institutions), presence of a Greek system, athletics and 2- or 4-year designation; (2) physical and behavioral property variables of campuses, including type of residence, institution size, location and quantity of heavy episodic drinking; and (3) campus community property variables, including pricing and availability and outlet density. Studies, however, tend to look at individual variables one at a time rather than in combination (multivariate analyses). Some new analyses, using Core Alcohol and Drug Survey data sets, are presented as examples of promising approaches to future research. Given the complexities of campus environments, it continues to be a challenge to the field to firmly establish the most compelling institutional and environmental factors relating to high-risk collegiate drinking.

  12. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  13. Moderation of genetic factors by parental divorce in adolescents' evaluations of family functioning and subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa, Niels; Boomsma, Dorret I; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J; Bartels, Meike

    2010-04-01

    Adolescents' evaluations of family functioning may have a significant impact on their subjective well-being and adjustment. The aim of the study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life and the overlap between them. We assessed whether genetic and environmental influences are moderated by parental divorce by analyzing self-report data from 6,773 adolescent twins and their non-twin siblings. Genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in general family functioning and family conflict, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls than boys in general family functioning. Genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in quality of life, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls. Evidence was found for interaction between genetic factors and parental divorce: genetic influence on general family functioning was larger in participants from divorced families. The overlap between general family functioning and quality of life, and family conflict and quality of life was accounted for the largest part by genetic effects, with nonshared environmental effects accounting for the remaining part. By examining the data from monozygotic twins, we found evidence for interaction between genotype and nonshared, non-measured, environmental influences on evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life.

  14. Splash!: a prospective birth cohort study of the impact of environmental, social and family-level influences on child oral health and obesity related risk factors and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M; Waters, Elizabeth; Calache, Hanny; Smith, Michael; Gold, Lisa; Gussy, Mark; Scott, Anthony; Lacy, Kathleen; Virgo-Milton, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries (decay) is the most prevalent disease of childhood. It is often left untreated and can impact negatively on general health, and physical, developmental, social and learning outcomes. Similar to other health issues, the greatest burden of dental caries is seen in those of low socio-economic position. In addition, a number of diet-related risk factors for dental caries are shared risk factors for the development of childhood obesity. These include high and freq...

  15. Grandparental investment: The influence of reproductive timing and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coall, David A; Meier, Marc; Hertwig, Ralph; Wänke, Michaela; Höpflinger, François

    2009-01-01

    The influence that grandparents have on the life history traits of their descendants has been studied extensively. However, no attention has been paid to the potential influence a grandparent's own reproductive history has on the investment they make in their grandchildren. We use data from 658 Swiss grandchildren and 591 of their grandparents to investigate whether grandparents' reproductive scheduling and family size influence the amount of investment grandparents make in a focal grandchild (shared contacts, occasions to meet, activities, discussions, interests, and important roles the grandparent plays). Grandparents who were younger when they had their first child had more children and grandchildren; this relationship strengthened after controlling for grandparental age, sex, lineage, and education (all P children or grandchildren was associated with reduced levels of grandparental investment. After adjustment for a wide range of factors known to influence investment, having more children or grandchildren and having a first child or grandchild at a younger age were associated with reduced investment in 14 of 24 analyses (all P family size. Interestingly, these relationships were only present in data reported from the grandchild's point of view, not the grandparent's. This analysis provides preliminary evidence that grandparents' reproductive strategies have consequences for the amount of investment they make in their grandchildren. These results are examined in terms of the trade-offs between current and future reproduction and offspring quality and quantity. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Family and delinquency: Textbooks analysis of family influence on the juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubičić Milana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are dealing with analysis of the typology of crime causes, with particular reference to the position of the family in the etiology of juvenile delinquency. Our intention was to, by using the so-called mixed content analysis of criminology textbooks; determine the topics of crime patterns, and the typical family characteristics of juveniles pushed into delinquency. On the other hand, the need to consider the influence of the ideas presented by some textbooks authors to their followers appeared to be of particularly importance in a longitudinal perspective. Analysed were 22 textbooks published between 1945-2010 in the former SFR of Yugoslavia and also the Republics that emerged after disintegration of the SFRY. The analysis showed that the significant number of textbooks follow identical pattern of etiological factors which reflects mutual influence of authors on one another. Also, considering the causes juvenile delinquency we noticed that the family takes up a special position. In addition, families of delinquents, regardless of the name under which it is recognized and almost without exception, carry a socially unacceptable ‘degraded’ character. These findings have opened a number of issues related to certain aspects of the scientific base for the existing typologies (e.g., objectivity and verifiability, and the implications that ‘scientific image’ has had on the practical involvement of experts whose professions require knowledge of criminology.

  17. Family Influences on College Students' Occupational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios-Allison, Ana C.

    2005-01-01

    The occupational identity statuses of 232 college students were analyzed by examining their family emotional environment and the identity control processes that drive career decision making. Results of multivariate analysis showed that each family differentiation construct, family tolerance for connectedness, and separateness explained significant…

  18. Family History Is a Risk Factor for COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokanson, John E.; Lynch, David A.; Washko, George R.; Make, Barry J.; Crapo, James D.; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that family history is a risk factor for COPD, but have not accounted for family history of smoking. Therefore, we sought to identify the effects of family history of smoking and family history of COPD on COPD susceptibility. Methods: We compared 821 patients with COPD to 776 control smokers from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) Study. Questionnaires captured parental histories of smoking and COPD, as well as childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Socioeconomic status was defined by educational achievement. Results: Parental history of smoking (85.5% case patients, 82.9% control subjects) was more common than parental history of COPD (43.0% case patients, 30.8% control subjects). In a logistic regression model, parental history of COPD (OR, 1.73; P < .0001) and educational level (OR, 0.48 for some college vs no college; P < .0001) were significant predictors of COPD, but parental history of smoking and childhood ETS exposure were not significant. The population-attributable risk from COPD family history was 18.6%. Patients with COPD with a parental history had more severe disease, with lower lung function, worse quality of life, and more frequent exacerbations. There were nonsignificant trends for more severe emphysema and airway disease on quantitative chest CT scans. Conclusions: Family history of COPD is a strong risk factor for COPD, independent of family history of smoking, personal lifetime smoking, or childhood ETS exposure. Although further studies are required to identify genetic variants that influence COPD susceptibility, clinicians should question all smokers, especially those with known or suspected COPD, regarding COPD family history. PMID:21310839

  19. Relationship of Marital Satisfaction, Family Support and Family-Work Conflict Factors Among Malaysian Fathers with Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahayudin, A.A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study on contextual factors in Malaysian family is more concentrated among mothers compared to the fathers. Malaysian fathers are often influenced by these factors embedded in the family. This study examines the level of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The survey was conducted using a simple sampling method, on a group of 413 fathers with adolescent children from all districts in the state of Selangor, West Peninsular of Malaysia. A set of questionnaires was used to derive data from the fathers̕ contextual factors which are marriage satisfaction, family support and work-family conflict among fathers of adolescents. Analysis on frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the Pearson correlations were used to investigate the level and correlation of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The Pearson correlation shows that there is a significant correlation between work-family conflict and marriage satisfaction and between family support and marriage satisfaction. However, there is no significant correlation between family support and work-family conflict. The study proficiently contributes towards the exploration of influencing factors for the involvement of fathers in parenting.

  20. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  1. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Nyando ... The overall objective of this study was to determine factors influencing the ... EBF and its benefits), pre lacteal feeds and exclusive breastfeeding consistency.

  2. Risk factors of deviant behaviour in the family context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur A. Rean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the problems of deviant and delinquent behaviour from the standpoint of relations theory. The process of socialization is considered as a process of development and purposeful formation of the personality relations system. Deformations in the individual system of social relations can be caused by a number of factors, which include those associated with social institutions such as family and school. The paper emphasizes the determination of anti-social behaviour of juveniles is prioritized by the family of psychosocial strain. An important mechanism of family influence on the development of social deviancy and antisocial behaviour is the emotional neglect of a child, «non-value» attitude. The so-called apathetic or ignoring type of upbringing is most strongly associated with subsequent delinquency. The lack of parental supervision is considered to be more important in delinquency than the adverse socio-economic status. The most important mechanism of negative family influence on the personality development is family socialization on the deviant type. Antisocial values, norms and patterns of behaviour might be acquired through learning and imitation mechanism, if the values and norms are dominant in the family. Adolescent’s representations of the reprimand of the family, parents, involved in adolescent’s behaviour, encourage negative attitudes, reduces the likelihood of further manifestations . If a child has built a negative relationship with one or both parents, if the development of positive self-esteem and I-concept are not supported in the parental estimates, the probability of illegal behaviour increases significantly. The central place in the system of child and adolescent relations belongs to the mother. Th research shows that the decrease in positive attitudes towards the mother, increasing the negative descriptors in depicting the mother correlates with overall negativism toward all social relations of the

  3. Striking variations in consultation rates with general practice reveal family influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spreeuwenberg Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reasons why patients decide to consult a general practitioner vary enormously. While there may be individual reasons for this variation, the family context has a significant and unique influence upon the frequency of individuals' visits. The objective of this study was to explore which family factors can explain the differences between strikingly high, and correspondingly low, family consultation rates in families with children aged up to 21. Methods Data were used from the second Dutch national survey of general practice. This survey extracted from the medical records of 96 practices in the Netherlands, information on all consultations with patients during 2001. We defined, through multilevel analysis, two groups of families. These had respectively, predominantly high, and low, contact frequencies due to a significant family influence upon the frequency of the individual's first contacts. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to analyse which of the family factors, related to shared circumstances and socialisation conditions, can explain the differences in consultation rates between the two groups of families. Results In almost 3% of all families, individual consultation rates decrease significantly due to family influence. In 11% of the families, individual consultation rates significantly increase due to family influence. While taking into account the health status of family members, family factors can explain family consultation rates. These factors include circumstances such as their economic status and number of children, as well as socialisation conditions such as specific health knowledge and family beliefs. The chance of significant low frequencies of contact due to family influences increases significantly with factors such as, paid employment of parents in the health care sector, low expectations of general practitioners' care for minor ailments and a western cultural background. Conclusion Family

  4. Family Influences on the Career Development of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splete, Howard; Freeman-George, Ann

    1985-01-01

    This article (1) reviews family influences on career development (geographic location, genetic inheritance, family background, socioeconomic status, family composition, parenting style, parental work-related attitudes) and (2) suggests counselor interventions to aid young adults in becoming autonomous in their career development (e.g., review…

  5. Influence of Family Background on Academic Achievement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that family structure, parents‟ occupation and educational level of parents, did not have significant influence on students‟ achievement in biology. Based on the findings, the paper concludes that family background did not have much influence on students‟ achievement in science (biology) as against ...

  6. Splash!: a prospective birth cohort study of the impact of environmental, social and family-level influences on child oral health and obesity related risk factors and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay is the most prevalent disease of childhood. It is often left untreated and can impact negatively on general health, and physical, developmental, social and learning outcomes. Similar to other health issues, the greatest burden of dental caries is seen in those of low socio-economic position. In addition, a number of diet-related risk factors for dental caries are shared risk factors for the development of childhood obesity. These include high and frequent consumption of refined carbohydrates (predominately sugars, and soft drinks and other sweetened beverages, and low intake of (fluoridated water. The prevalence of childhood obesity is also at a concerning level in most countries and there is an opportunity to determine interventions for addressing both of these largely preventable conditions through sustainable and equitable solutions. This study aims to prospectively examine the impact of drink choices on child obesity risk and oral health status. Methods/Design This is a two-stage study using a mixed methods research approach. The first stage involves qualitative interviews of a sub-sample of recruited parents to develop an understanding of the processes involved in drink choice, and inform the development of the Discrete Choice Experiment analysis and the measurement instruments to be used in the second stage. The second stage involves the establishment of a prospective birth cohort of 500 children from disadvantaged communities in rural and regional Victoria, Australia (with and without water fluoridation. This longitudinal design allows measurement of changes in the child's diet over time, exposure to fluoride sources including water, dental caries progression, and the risk of childhood obesity. Discussion This research will provide a unique contribution to integrated health, education and social policy and program directions, by providing clearer policy relevant evidence on strategies to counter

  7. Splash!: a prospective birth cohort study of the impact of environmental, social and family-level influences on child oral health and obesity related risk factors and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M; Waters, Elizabeth; Calache, Hanny; Smith, Michael; Gold, Lisa; Gussy, Mark; Scott, Anthony; Lacy, Kathleen; Virgo-Milton, Monica

    2011-06-27

    Dental caries (decay) is the most prevalent disease of childhood. It is often left untreated and can impact negatively on general health, and physical, developmental, social and learning outcomes. Similar to other health issues, the greatest burden of dental caries is seen in those of low socio-economic position. In addition, a number of diet-related risk factors for dental caries are shared risk factors for the development of childhood obesity. These include high and frequent consumption of refined carbohydrates (predominately sugars), and soft drinks and other sweetened beverages, and low intake of (fluoridated) water. The prevalence of childhood obesity is also at a concerning level in most countries and there is an opportunity to determine interventions for addressing both of these largely preventable conditions through sustainable and equitable solutions. This study aims to prospectively examine the impact of drink choices on child obesity risk and oral health status. This is a two-stage study using a mixed methods research approach. The first stage involves qualitative interviews of a sub-sample of recruited parents to develop an understanding of the processes involved in drink choice, and inform the development of the Discrete Choice Experiment analysis and the measurement instruments to be used in the second stage. The second stage involves the establishment of a prospective birth cohort of 500 children from disadvantaged communities in rural and regional Victoria, Australia (with and without water fluoridation). This longitudinal design allows measurement of changes in the child's diet over time, exposure to fluoride sources including water, dental caries progression, and the risk of childhood obesity. This research will provide a unique contribution to integrated health, education and social policy and program directions, by providing clearer policy relevant evidence on strategies to counter social and environmental factors which predispose infants and

  8. A systematic review of risk and protective factors associated with family related violence in refugee families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timshel, Isabelle; Montgomery, Edith; Dalgaard, Nina Thorup

    2017-01-01

    and protective factors an ecological model was used to structure the findings. At the individual level, parental trauma experiences/mental illness, substance abuse and history of child abuse were found to be risk factors. Family level risk factors included parent-child interaction, family structure and family...... families is a result of accumulating, multiple risk factors on the individual, familial, societal and cultural level. The findings suggest that individual trauma and exile related stress do not only affect the individual but have consequences at a family level. Thus, interventions targeting family related...

  9. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurina Carme

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010 and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010. Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7% and the pill (28.0% being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood. With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to

  10. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurina, Carme; Vall-Llosera, Laura; Saez, Marc

    2012-07-20

    In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010) and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010). Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain) by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users' sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use) of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU) and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7%) and the pill (28.0%) being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood) and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood). With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to use family planning methods (36.68%, 38.59% and 70

  11. Factors influencing initiation of breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwo, E E; Dusdieker, L B; Booth, B M

    1983-04-01

    We used the critical incidence method to study factors motivating 33 primigravidas and 39 multigravidas to initiate breast-feeding of their infants. Women chose breast-feeding because they believed that it would provide protection to the infant against infection, establish maternal-infant bonding, was convenient, provided better nutrition than cow's milk formula, was emotionally satisfying, and was the natural way to feed infants. The decision to breast-feed was made well in advance of pregnancy by primigravidas and shortly before pregnancy by multigravidas. Friends who had successfully nursed infants were as influential as immediate family members in influencing our study subjects in their decision to breast-feed. Prenatal counseling, though important, may not be the optimal period for motivating women to breast-feed.

  12. Consanguinity and family clustering of male factor infertility in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Kobeissi, Loulou; Nassar, Zaher; Lakkis, Da'ad; Fakih, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the influence of consanguineous marriage on male factor infertility in Lebanon, where rates of consanguineous marriage remain high (29.6% among Muslims, 16.5% among Christians). Clinic-based, case-control study, using reproductive history, risk factor interview, and laboratory-based semen analysis. Two IVF clinics in Beirut, Lebanon, during an 8-month period (January-August 2003). One hundred twenty infertile male patients and 100 fertile male controls, distinguished by semen analysis and reproductive history. None. Standard clinical semen analysis. The rates of consanguineous marriage were relatively high among the study sample. Patients (46%) were more likely than controls (37%) to report first-degree (parental) and second-degree (grandparental) consanguinity. The study demonstrated a clear pattern of family clustering of male factor infertility, with patients significantly more likely than controls to report infertility among close male relatives (odds ratio = 2.58). Men with azoospermia and severe oligospermia showed high rates of both consanguinity (50%) and family clustering (41%). Consanguineous marriage is a socially supported institution throughout the Muslim world, yet its relationship to infertility is poorly understood. This study demonstrated a significant association between consanguinity and family clustering of male factor infertility cases, suggesting a strong genetic component.

  13. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods. Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance. Study design: Population based cross - sectional study. Setting: Rural area of East Delhi. Participants: Married women in the reproductive age group. Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group. Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child. Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptives Statistical Analysis: By proportions. Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception. Recommendations: (i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention. (ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  14. Which factors influence women in the decision to breastfeed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Canicali Primo

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the factors that influence women in the decision to breastfeed. Methods. Integrative review. Information was gathered from original articles, case studies, theoretical studies, consensus and systematic reviews published between 2007-2013 in Spanish, Portuguese and English and recovered in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS. The descriptors used in this study were: breastfeeding, maternal behavior, risk factors, lactation and newborn. Results. Were included 30 articles, grouped into five categories. Factors influencing the decision of the breastfeeding woman are a convergence of breastfeeding's advantages, benefits and justifications, family, social and professional support, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women, personal experience and family tradition and personal choice. Conclusion. The decision to breastfeed by women is influenced by a convergence of factors. It is essential the role of nursing to encourage women in the decision to initiate and maintain breastfeeding her child.

  15. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  16. Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, M.S.; Waggoner, Ch.A.

    2009-01-01

    Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size

  17. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Claudia MOISĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

  18. When Family Considerations Influence Work Decisions: Decision-Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    The work-family literature has provided an abundance of evidence that various family factors are linked to various work decisions, suggesting that the "family-relatedness" of work decisions is a prevalent phenomenon (Greenhaus & Powell, 2012). However, the cognitive processes by which such linkages occur have received little attention. We offer a…

  19. Influence of the Family in Career Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chope, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Two recently emerging factors are changing the role of family in career decision making: the revolutionary changes in family structure and increased emphasis on interpersonal relationships in work. Career counselors need new protocols in order to work with clients and family members. (SK)

  20. Matching career and family related factors for families with children

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkienė, Aušra; Trepulė, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Work-family conflict is a complex, multi-dimensional construct. When families decide to continue their professional career, work and family role matching demands efforts and causes strain. Results of a qualitative research show that having and taking care of pre-school and primary-school age children is one of main conflict reasons. Child-care arrangements have an important impact on parents’ experiences of work and their career paths. Job tenure and involvement into work-team are lower stres...

  1. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  2. INFLUENCE OF FAMILIAL DYSFUNCTION ON THE PSYCHO-PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Belyakova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of a theoretical methodological analysis of the problem of familial dysfunction as a factor influencing the mental health of children. It shows that peculiarities of family relationships may play a defining role in the formation of psychosomatic symptoms, change the character of a child’s socialization. It describes the influence of peculiarities of different parenting styles on the psychophysical development of children and adolescents.

  3. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  4. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  5. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... in various countries of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human ... influence consumption of Mursik, a traditionally fermented milk product from ...

  6. How Do Families Matter? Age and Gender Differences in Family Influences on Delinquency and Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Antaramian, Susan; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Parenting practices, age, and gender all influence adolescent delinquency and drug use, but few studies have examined how these factors interact to affect offending. Using data from 18,512 students in Grades 6, 8, 10 and 12, this study found that across grades, parents treated girls and boys differently, but neither sex received preferential treatment for all practices assessed, and younger children reported more positive parenting than older students. Family factors were significantly related to delinquency and drug use for both sexes and for all grades. However, particular parenting practices showed gender and age differences in the degree to which they were related to outcomes, which indicates complexities in parent/child interactions that must be taken into account when investigating the causes of adolescent offending and when planning strategies to prevent the development of problem behaviors. PMID:21499537

  7. Family Relationships and its Influence on Family Wine Firms in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Murinova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: There are many a studies by universities and various companies regarding the phenomenon of family business. However, a clear interpretation of the family business does not exist. Thus, the purpose of this paper is clarify the question of family relationships existing within the family business in the Czech Republic. Methodology/methods: As the wine family business is a bright representative of the oldest and traditional economic activities, it was decided to analyze the family relationships of 108 representatives of the wine family firms in the Czech Republic within the secondary research. For primary research the case study method was used. Representatives of wine family firms were interviewed to confirm the obtained results and add the details. Scientific aim: The aim of scientific research is to improve the understanding of family firm’s base from the perspective of family relationships. Findings: Coming out of the definition by Arquer (1979 and taking the applicable Civil Code of the Czech Republic into account, the author has created a definition regarding the family business to be transferred to the next generation. Accordingly, there were identified four dominant groups of family relationships within the wine trading family business. A representative interviewed among others has confirmed the existence of traditional wine trading family business saying that it is not only a mere marketing tool for the customer acquisition. Besides that, case studies make clear beyond the veil the influence of family relationships on the firm’s performance. Conclusions: This study has contributed to the theoretical body of family business research providing an important first step to gaining insights into the understanding of family relationships of the family business influencing its effective functioning.

  8. Family Influence on Teenage Participation in School Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Barbara G.; Dager, Edward Z.

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between social participation and family structure. A theory is developed in the framework of George Herbert Mead's analysis on the development of a consistent self in response to a generalized other. According to this theory, the influence of the family is implicated as one of the social-psychological…

  9. Children's influence on family purchase decision in India.

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Tanvi

    2008-01-01

    The importance of children in purchase decision making has grown over the years. They not only make purchase decisions for personal consumption but they also influence family purchase decision-making (Kaur and Singh, 2006). This research looks at available literature, which is discussed with respect to children influence on product categories, decision-making stages, socialising agents like parents, peers and media and role of family communication in purchase decision making. Demographic vari...

  10. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  11. Children in planned lesbian families: Stigmatisation, psychological adjustment and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the extent to which children between eight and 12 years old in planned lesbian families in the Netherlands experience stigmatization, as well as the influence of protective factors (relationship with parents, social acceptance by peers, contact with children from other families

  12. A systematic review of risk and protective factors associated with family related violence in refugee families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timshel, Isabelle; Montgomery, Edith; Dalgaard, Nina Thorup

    2017-08-01

    The current systematic review summarizes the evidence from studies examining the risk and protective factors associated with family related violence in refugee families. Data included 15 peer-reviewed qualitative and quantitative studies. In order to gain an overview of the identified risk and protective factors an ecological model was used to structure the findings. At the individual level, parental trauma experiences/mental illness, substance abuse and history of child abuse were found to be risk factors. Family level risk factors included parent-child interaction, family structure and family acculturation stress. At the societal level low socioeconomic status was identified as a risk factor. Cultural level risk factors included patriarchal beliefs. Positive parental coping strategies were a protective factor. An ecological analysis of the results suggests that family related violence in refugee families is a result of accumulating, multiple risk factors on the individual, familial, societal and cultural level. The findings suggest that individual trauma and exile related stress do not only affect the individual but have consequences at a family level. Thus, interventions targeting family related violence should not only include the individual, but the family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive, Personality, and Family Factors in Patients with Migraine Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Johari-Fard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a disorder that has debilitating pain, and affects all aspects of life, including the academic, social, and family life of patients. In addition, studies show the effects of migraine on patient's relationships with family members such as spouse, children, and other family members. In addition to physical pain, migraines are tied to significant psychological and economic costs. Migraineurs tend to have high levels of depression and anxiety, and migraine headaches have a profoundly negative impact on sufferers’ quality of life. In the present research, we investigated the correlations and regressions of cognitive, personality, and family factors with migraine headache, to find predictor factors of migraine. In this study, the following questionnaires were used: For migraine: six-item Headache Impact Test (HIT-6, and Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire Version 2.1.; for cognitive factors: Irrational Beliefs Test and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale; for personality factors: NEO Personality Inventory; and for family factors: Family Assessment Device. This project was on 58 women with migraine headaches, diagnosed by neurologist. The findings show that, there is a significant regression between cognitive, personality, and family factors and HIT-6. In cognitive factors, frustration reactivity and anxious overconcern, in personality factors, extraversion trait, and in family factors, affective involvement are significant. Moreover, there is a significant regression between cognitive, personality, and family factors and MSQ. In cognitive factors, frustration reactivity, anxious overconcern, and helplessness, in personality factors, agreeableness and consciousness, and in family factors, affective involvement and general functioning are significant. This project showed that cognitive, personality, and family factors have a correlation with migraine headache.

  14. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors influencing substance abuse amongundergraduate students in Osun State; Nigeria. A sample of 1, 200undergraduate students were randomly selected from three tertiaryinstitution in Osun State. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse Questionnaire (FISA) was developed by the researcher ...

  15. Factors influencing customer satisfaction with reference and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines factors influencing customer satisfaction with reference and information services in an academic environment. The paper identifies types of reference services in libraries, factors influencing customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction with reference and information services and suggested the way forward ...

  16. Factors Influencing Livelihood Diversification among Rural Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was set out to analyze factors influencing rural farmer's engagement in livelihood diversification in the study area. The specific objectives were; to identify the different levels of farmers' engagement in livelihood diversification, determine the socio-demographic factors or forces that influence farmers' ...

  17. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cut‑off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in ...

  18. Processes of Sibling Influence in Adolescence: Individual and Family Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Christiansen, Abigail

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of adolescents' perceptions of sibling influence. Participants included 2 siblings (firstborn age M = 17.34; second-born age M = 14.76 years) from 191 maritally intact families. Adolescents' perceptions of sibling influence were measured via coded responses to open-ended questions about whether their…

  19. Familial Influences on Dating Violence Victimization Among Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Klevens, Joanne; Tharp, Andra Teten; Chapman, Mimi V; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T

    2016-01-01

    Despite theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting that the family environment plays a central role in Latino youth development, relatively little is known about how family processes influence dating violence victimization among Latino adolescents. To address this gap in the literature, we used data from 210 Latino parents and their 13- to 15-year-old adolescents to examine associations between several different family processes, including both parenting practices (parent monitoring, parent-adolescent communication) and aspects of the family relational climate (family cohesion, family conflict, acculturation conflict) and psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence victimization. Consistent with expectations, lower levels of family cohesion and higher levels of family and acculturation conflict were associated with risk for dating violence victimization, although associations varied depending on victimization type. In contrast, neither parental monitoring nor parent-adolescent communication was significantly associated with any type of dating violence victimization. In addition, we found that parent, but not teen, Anglo-American acculturation was associated with higher dating violence victimization risk. Findings suggest that family-based dating abuse prevention programs for Latino youth should seek to increase family cohesion and decrease family conflict, including acculturation-based conflict.

  20. The Returned Prisoner of War: Factors in Family Reintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubin, Hamilton I.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Longitudinal study on 48 families of returned prisoners of war to identify factors to explain degree of reintegration of returnee into his family system. Four sets of data were considered: (1) background characteristics of husband and wife; (2) indices of family preparedness; (3) returnees' prison experiences and their psychiatric status; (4)…

  1. Factors Determining the Incidence of Suicide within Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Maurice L.

    1977-01-01

    This paper addresses itself to the reasons why suicide tends to repeat in some families. Factors include entire family exposure to stresses, grief, and guilt induced by suicide, the provision of a model by the original suicide, suicidogenic interpersonal styles in families, suicidogenic child-rearing practice, and innate predispositions to…

  2. Race, Poverty and SAT Scores: Modeling the Influences of Family Income on Black and White High School Students' SAT Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Roman, Ezekiel J.; Everson, Howard T.; McArdle, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Educational policy makers and test critics often assert that standardized test scores are strongly influenced by factors beyond individual differences in academic achievement such as family income and wealth. Unfortunately, few empirical studies consider the simultaneous and related influences of family income, parental education, and…

  3. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level ...

  4. A qualitative study of factors in nurses' and physicians' decision-making related to family presence during resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twibell, Renee; Siela, Debra; Riwitis, Cheryl; Neal, Alexis; Waters, Nicole

    2018-01-01

    To explore the similarities and differences in factors that influence nurses' and physicians' decision-making related to family presence during resuscitation. Despite the growing acceptance of family presence during resuscitation worldwide, healthcare professionals continue to debate the risks and benefits of family presence. As many hospitals lack a policy to guide family presence during resuscitation, decisions are negotiated by resuscitation teams, families and patients in crisis situations. Research has not clarified the factors that influence the decision-making processes of nurses and physicians related to inviting family presence. This is the first study to elicit written data from healthcare professionals to explicate factors in decision-making about family presence. Qualitative exploratory-descriptive. Convenience samples of registered nurses (n = 325) and acute care physicians (n = 193) from a Midwestern hospital in the United States of America handwrote responses to open-ended questions about family presence. Through thematic analysis, decision-making factors for physicians and nurses were identified and compared. Physicians and nurses evaluated three similar factors and four differing factors when deciding to invite family presence during resuscitation. Furthermore, nurses and physicians weighted the factors differently. Physicians weighted most heavily the family's potential to disrupt life-saving efforts and compromise patient care and then the family's knowledge about resuscitations. Nurses heavily weighted the potential for the family to be traumatised, the potential for the family to disrupt the resuscitation, and possible family benefit. Nurses and physicians considered both similar and different factors when deciding to invite family presence. Physicians focused on the patient primarily, while nurses focused on the patient, family and resuscitation team. Knowledge of factors that influence the decision-making of interprofessional colleagues

  5. What influences success in family medicine maternity care education programs? Qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biringer, Anne; Forte, Milena; Tobin, Anastasia; Shaw, Elizabeth; Tannenbaum, David

    2018-05-01

    To ascertain how program leaders in family medicine characterize success in family medicine maternity care education and determine which factors influence the success of training programs. Qualitative research using semistructured telephone interviews. Purposive sample of 6 family medicine programs from 5 Canadian provinces. Eighteen departmental leaders and program directors. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with program leaders in family medicine maternity care. Departmental leaders identified maternity care programs deemed to be "successful." Interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Team members conducted thematic analysis. Participants considered their education programs to be successful in family medicine maternity care if residents achieved competency in intrapartum care, if graduates planned to include intrapartum care in their practices, and if their education programs were able to recruit and retain family medicine maternity care faculty. Five key factors were deemed to be critical to a program's success in family medicine maternity care: adequate clinical exposure, the presence of strong family medicine role models, a family medicine-friendly hospital environment, support for the education program from multiple sources, and a dedicated and supportive community of family medicine maternity care providers. Training programs wishing to achieve greater success in family medicine maternity care education should employ a multifaceted strategy that considers all 5 of the interdependent factors uncovered in our research. By paying particular attention to the informal processes that connect these factors, program leaders can preserve the possibility that family medicine residents will graduate with the competence and confidence to practise full-scope maternity care. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  6. Professionalization influences on Thai family SMEs internationalization activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kotanut, Varitha

    2012-01-01

    Professionalisation is what has occurred in many family businesses. Recently, Thai family SMEs has become more and more internationalised. My dissertation studied how professionalisation influence firms' internationalisation process, including personnel from whom they acquired relevant skills, specific market knowledge, and experiences that enable growth of the company. These personnel may also affect the firm's managerial system. Each firm may change their governance, strategy, and control s...

  7. Founder Family Influence and Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Kuhn, Jochen; Zanotti, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Purpose    The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of founder families in medium-sized, manufacturing firms and to investigate the impact of such influence on risk management - more specifically foreign exchange hedging and speculation. Design/methodology/approach This empirical study...... in the management team, are members of the board of directors, and/or are shareholders of the firm. We find no difference between such founder family firms and other firms in terms of the use / non-use decision related to foreign exchange derivatives but a marked difference in terms of the extent decision. Thus...... in medium-sized firms (as opposed to large, listed firms in most other studies) and adds to the sparse literature on the impact of founder family influence on risk management.  ...

  8. The Effect of Founder Family Influence on Hedging and Speculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Kuhn, Jochen; Zanotti, Giovanna

    We investigate the effect of founder family influence in the form of managers, board of directors, and/or ownership on hedging and speculation in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark. On a crude measure of use / non-use of derivatives we find only a weak indication of differences between...... founder family firms and other firms in relation to their management of foreign exchange rate, interest rate, and commodity price exposures. Digging deeper into a subsample of users of foreign exchange derivatives and debt denominated in foreign currency, we find that founder family firms not only tend...

  9. The declining influence of family background on educational attainment in Australia: The role of measured and unmeasured influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Gary N; Mooi-Reci, Irma

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines changes in the influence of family background, including socioeconomic and social background variables on educational attainment in Australia for cohorts born between 1890 and 1982. We test hypotheses from modernization theory on sibling data using random effects models and find: (i) substantial declines in the influence of family background on educational attainment (indicated by the sibling intraclass correlations); (ii) declines in the effects of both economic and cultural socioeconomic background variables; (iii) changes in the effects of some social background variables (e.g., family size); (iv) and declines in the extent that socioeconomic and social background factors account for variation in educational attainment. Unmeasured family background factors are more important, and proportionally increasingly so, for educational attainment than the measured socioeconomic and social background factors analyzed. Fixed effects models showed steeper declines in the effects of socioeconomic background variables than in standard analyses suggesting that unmeasured family factors associated with socioeconomic background obscure the full extent of the decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    level factors on birth spacing behaviour in Uganda and Zimbabwe, to ... environments as potential influences on birth spacing ..... health: multivariable cross-country analysis, MACRO ... Equity monitoring for social marketing: Use of wealth.

  11. Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers among Tertiary ... role stereotype and common business practices on media self employment in ... Sex, Psycho-social Characteristics, self Employment, Providing Media Services.

  12. Influence of Macroeconomic Factors on Residential Property ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    exerted by macroeconomic factors on residential property returns in Abuja. The backward .... explanatory power and positive influence of employment and ...... Project. Management In Property Development: the Nigeria experience. Ibadan:.

  13. Factors influencing detail detectability in radiologic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The detectability of various details is estimated quantitatively from the essential technical parameters of the imaging system and additional influencing factors including viewing of the image. The analysis implies the formation of the input radiation distribution (contrast formation, influence of kVp). Noise, image contrast (gamma), modulation transfer function and contrast threshold of the observer are of different influence on details of different size. Thus further optimization of imaging systems and their adaption to specific imaging tasks are facilitated

  14. Family Caregiver Research and the HIPAA Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Steven M.; Levine, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Research in family caregiving recently has become more challenging because of the strict protection of privacy mandated in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996. We ask when should Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) follow HIPAA rules to the letter and when might they use the waiver option? What is the appropriate…

  15. Intellectual disability in children and teenagers: Influence on family and family health. Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Baena-Ariza, María Teresa; Domínguez-Sánchez, Isabel; Lima-Serrano, Marta

    To examine the influence of a child or adolescent with intellectual disabilities on the family unit. A systematic review of the literature, following the recommendations of the PRISMA statement, was carried out on the PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Psicodoc databases. Original articles were found, published in the last 5 years, in Spanish, English, Portuguese, Italian or French, with summary and full text and satisfactory or good methodological quality. Two independent researchers agreed on their decisions. In general, care is provided in the family, mothers assume the greater responsibility, and their wellbeing is lower than that of fathers. Having the support of the husband improves their quality of life. The fraternal subsystem can be affected, with regard to the warmth and the status/power of the relationship, and behavioural problems. Family health may be affected in all its dimensions: family functioning and atmosphere due to increased demands and changes in the organisation and distribution of roles; family resilience and family coping, due to rising costs and dwindling resources; family integrity could be strengthened by strengthened family ties. Quality of family life is enhanced by emotional support. These families may need individualised attention due to the increased demand for care, diminishing resources or other family health problems. Nurses using a family-centred care approach can identify these families and help them to normalise their situation by promoting their family health and the well-being of its members. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  17. Factors Influencing Title VII Bilingual Program Institutionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gerald R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study of the primary restraining and driving forces that influence Title VII bilingual education programs found the external environment, the local community, to be the main factor influencing institutionalization and self-renewal. The internal environment--the local school, and the local school's organization or central office, school board,…

  18. Relevant Factors in the Process of Socialization, Involvement and Belonging of Descendants in Family Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melquicedec Lozano-Posso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research works toward the identification of the factors that comprise the process of socialization, involvement and initial belonging of descendants in family businesses and the key relationships between them. By means of a qualitative detailed study of four cases, complemented by a quantitative survey of 274 Colombian family businesses, the authors generate a new model that takes into account both factors explored in previous research as well as others identified in this study. Findings confirm the specific dependency of each stage on the subsequent ones; socialization influences involvement, which in turn influences the belonging of the descendants to the family business, with a strong presence of factors such as knowledge, leadership, mode, timing, and motivation. Those responsible for the orientation of potential successors may examine these findings in order to optimize their preparation efforts and support of family human resources for the continuity of the business.

  19. Family as a factor of risk prevention and victim behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur A. Rean

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines psychological factors victim behaviour. The definition of victim behaviour is given and it is emphasized that such conduct is not necessarily passivebehaviour of the victim. Victimization and behaviour can be active and aggressive. It is shown that antisocial, deviant behaviour of children and adolescents seriously increases the risk of victimization. Family as the most important institution of socialization is considered both as a preventing factor and risk factor of victim behaviour. The role of the family in shaping the victim behaviour is revealed in the following issues: aggressive, conflict behaviour is personal inclination or absence of the “proper” skills; interdependence of the severity of punishment and child aggression; punishment for child aggression (between siblings: what is the result?; ignoring aggression – is it the best solution?; victims of sexual violence and causes of victim behaviour; demonstrative accentuation as a risk factor in rape victim behaviour; happy family – can it be a risk factor for victim behaviour? For a long time, social deviant personality development has been believed to deal with structural deformation of the family, which is defined as a single-parent family, i.e. absence of one parent (usually the father. It is now proved that the major factor of family negative impact on personal development is not structural but psychosocial family deformation. A really happy family, psychologically happy family is the cornerstone of preventing victim behaviour. The victim behaviour being mainly determined by personal qualities does not negate this conclusion, but only strengthens it, as the qualities mentioned above are shaped in many respects within family socialization, are determined by family upbringing styles and features of interpersonal relationships inside the family.

  20. Genetic liability, prenatal health, stress and family environment: risk factors in the Harvard Adolescent Family High Risk for schizophrenia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Deborah J; Faraone, Stephen V; Glatt, Stephen J; Tsuang, Ming T; Seidman, Larry J

    2014-08-01

    The familial ("genetic") high-risk (FHR) paradigm enables assessment of individuals at risk for schizophrenia based on a positive family history of schizophrenia in first-degree, biological relatives. This strategy presumes genetic transmission of abnormal traits given high heritability of the illness. It is plausible, however, that adverse environmental factors are also transmitted in these families. Few studies have evaluated both biological and environmental factors within a FHR study of adolescents. We conceptualize four precursors to psychosis pathogenesis: two biological (genetic predisposition, prenatal health issues (PHIs)) and two environmental (family environment, stressful life events (SLEs)). Participants assessed between 1998 and 2007 (ages 13-25) included 40 (20F/20M) adolescents at FHR for schizophrenia (FHRs) and 55 (31F/24M) community controls. 'Genetic load' indexed number of affected family members relative to pedigree size. PHI was significantly greater among FHRs, and family cohesion and expressiveness were less (and family conflict was higher) among FHRs; however, groups did not significantly differ in SLE indices. Among FHRs, genetic liability was significantly associated with PHI and family expressiveness. Prenatal and family environmental disruptions are elevated in families with a first-degree relative with schizophrenia. Findings support our proposed 'polygenic neurodevelopmental diathesis-stress model' whereby psychosis susceptibility (and resilience) involves the independent and synergistic confluence of (temporally-sensitive) biological and environmental factors across development. Recognition of biological and social environmental influences across critical developmental periods points to key issues relevant for enhanced identification of psychosis susceptibility, facilitation of more precise models of illness risk, and development of novel prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-11

    May 11, 2010 ... internal factors for low school performance, this study focused on the learners ... Namibia. Although numerous studies have confinned socio-economic ... Many studies support the view that family background is the strongest single predictor of ..... Windhoek is clearly stratified, mainly following income levels.

  2. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  3. Family physicians' attitude and interest toward participation in urban family physician program and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Every family physician has a key role in achieving the goals of the family physician program (FPP. Low satisfaction of physicians in certain areas of Iran and their low maintenance level in the program is quite challenging. The aims of the present study were; (1 to assess the attitude of rural/rural-urban family physicians about FPP and (2 to investigate their interest toward participation in urban FPP and (3 to explore the influencing factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 137 family physicians who were working in rural/rural-urban FPP in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Iran. A self-designed valid and reliable questionnaire including demographic data and thirty questions on the participants' attitudes toward the FPP in Likert scale were used. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression models using SPSS software. Results: 49.3% of physicians were interested in continuing their cooperation in the urban-FPP. The mean total attitude score was 62.18 out of 100. The highest agreement and positive attitude of physicians were related to achievements of the program goals dimension. Multiple analyses showed that gender (odds ratio [OR] =5.5; male vs. female and employment status (OR = 16.7 and 10.9 for permanent employment and by contract compared to legal obligation, respectively were significantly associated with physicians' willingness toward participation in the urban-FPP. Conclusion: About half of the studied physicians were interested toward participation in the urban-FPP; Male physicians more than females and permanent employees more than others were willing and interested to participate in the urban-FPP.

  4. Neighborhood, Family and Individual Influences on School Physical Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Few studies on the correlates of school violence include school and neighborhood influences. We use ecological systems theory and social disorganization theory to simultaneously incorporate neighborhood (e.g., concentrated poverty, residential instability, and immigrant concentration), school, family, and individual predictors of physical school victimization longitudinally among a large socio-economically and ethnically diverse (49% Hispanic; 34% African American) sample of 6 and 9 year olds (49% female) from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). These children were followed up at Wave II at ages 8 and 11 (n=1425). Results of Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models reveal neighborhood residential instability increases school victimization net of family and individual correlates. Furthermore, cross-level interactions were also supported where residential family mobility has a stronger risk influence in areas of high residential instability. Also, the influence of residential family mobility is decreased in areas with higher levels of immigrant concentration. We also found cross-context connections where parent-to-child aggression in the home is connected to a higher risk of victimization at school. The role of neighborhood and family residential instability on victimization warrants further research. PMID:23263822

  5. Influence of Family Background on the Academic Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the influence of family background on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria. The study was carried out in the three senatorial districts of Kwara State. Three hundred respondents participated in this research. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the ...

  6. The Association of Family Influence and Initial Interest in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Chakraverty, Devasmita; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    With recent attention to improving scientific workforce development and student achievement, there has been a rise in effort to understand and encourage student engagement in physical science. This study examines the association of family influence and initial interest in science through multiple and logistic regression models. Research questions…

  7. The role of family factors in explaining the women’s conflict of work and family roles

    OpenAIRE

    سیدعلیرضا افشانی; لیدا هاتفی

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the relationship between family factors including socioeconomic status, family support, family attachment, family role overload, and family power structure with conflict of work and family roles among female employees in Yazd city. Research method was descriptive and correlational; and 323 female employees were selected by cluster sampling method. The work-family roles conflict scales, the perception of social support from family, the family involvement ques...

  8. The impact of social and family-related factors on women's stress experience in household and family work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Geyer, Siegfried

    2015-03-01

    This study explores the contribution of social and family-related factors to women's experience of an effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in household and family work. Using a population-based sample of German mothers (n = 3,129), we performed stepwise logistic regression analysis in order to determine the relative impact of social and family-related factors on ERI. All factors investigated showed a significant association with at least one ERI component. Considering all predictors simultaneously in the multivariate analysis resulted in a decrease in significance of socioeconomic status in explaining the effort-reward ratio while the impact on low reward partly remained significant. In addition, age of youngest child, number of children, lower levels of perceived social support, domestic work inequity and negative work-to-family spillover, irrespective of being half- or full-time employed, revealed to be important in predicting ERI. The experience of ERI in domestic work is influenced by the social and family environment. Particularly among socially disadvantaged mothers, lack of social recognition for household and family work proved to be a relevant source of psychosocial stress.

  9. Board composition in family-influenced firms: A dynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiem El Manaa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a sample of 76 family businesses in Tunisia to investigate the impact of the family firm dynamic on the composition of their boards of directors. We argue that whether or not a transition in ownership is planned, firms have different governance needs and characteristics depending on the generational phase. The empirical results show that board composition is positively influenced by both generational evolution and succession planning. This study provides evidence of an increase in the appointment of outside directors to boards of family firms from the third generation of ownership. This result implies that it is important to consider the generational phase and succession process of the family firm in order to better understand its governance system.

  10. Dining with dad: Fathers' influences on family food practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Singh, Priya

    2017-10-01

    Scholars have documented multiple influences on family food practices. This article examines an overlooked contributor to family diet: fathers. Using 109 in-depth interviews with middle and upper-middle class mothers, adolescents, and fathers in the United States, I show how fathers can undermine mothers' efforts to provision a healthy diet. While family members perceive mothers as committed to provisioning a healthy diet, many fathers are seen as, at best, detached and, at worst, a threat to mothers' dietary aspirations. Fathers not only do little foodwork; they are also viewed as less concerned about their own and other family members' dietary health. When tasked with feeding, many fathers often turn to quick, unhealthy options explicitly avoided by mothers. Mothers report efforts to limit fathers' involvement in foodwork to ensure the healthiness of adolescents' diets, with variation across families by mothers' employment status. Fathers' dietary approaches reflect and reinforce traditional gender norms and expectations within families. In highlighting how and why fathers can undermine mothers' efforts to provision a healthy diet, this study deepens our understanding of the myriad dynamics shaping family food practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors impacting the mental health of the caregivers of children with asthma in china: effects of family socioeconomic status, symptoms control, proneness to shame, and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli; Zhang, Xuxia; Wang, Yuyin

    2014-12-01

    Caregiver mental health is widely considered to be an important factor influencing children's asthma symptoms. The present study aimed to examine key factors that contribute to caregiver mental health in pediatric asthma with a Chinese sample. Two hundred participants reported their family socioeconomic status (SES), proneness to shame, asthma symptoms control of their child, family functioning, and their depression and anxiety symptoms. Results suggested that low family SES, low family functioning, and a high level of shame proneness were associated with high levels of anxiety and depression for caregivers. Family functioning mediated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver mental health and also moderated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver depression. This study highlights the importance of reducing experience of shame and enhancing family functioning in families affected by pediatric asthma. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  12. Genomewide analysis of TCP transcription factor gene family in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 93; Issue 3. Genomewide ... Teosinte branched1/cycloidea/proliferating cell factor1 (TCP) proteins are a large family of transcriptional regulators in angiosperms. They are ... To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of a genomewide analysis of apple TCP gene family.

  13. Separation of cognitive impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into 2 familial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsi, Jonna; Wood, Alexis C; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Johnson, Katherine A; Andreou, Penelope; Albrecht, Björn; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Sergeant, Joseph A; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J; Uebel, Henrik; van der Meere, Jaap J; Banaschewski, Tobias; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V; Asherson, Philip

    2010-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with widespread cognitive impairments, but it is not known whether the apparent multiple impairments share etiological roots or separate etiological pathways exist. A better understanding of the etiological pathways is important for the development of targeted interventions and for identification of suitable intermediate phenotypes for molecular genetic investigations. To determine, by using a multivariate familial factor analysis approach, whether 1 or more familial factors underlie the slow and variable reaction times, impaired response inhibition, and choice impulsivity associated with ADHD. An ADHD and control sibling-pair design. Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. A total of 1265 participants, aged 6 to 18 years: 464 probands with ADHD and 456 of their siblings (524 with combined-subtype ADHD), and 345 control participants. Performance on a 4-choice reaction time task, a go/no-go inhibition task, and a choice-delay task. The final model consisted of 2 familial factors. The larger factor, reflecting 85% of the familial variance of ADHD, captured 98% to 100% of the familial influences on mean reaction time and reaction time variability. The second, smaller factor, reflecting 13% of the familial variance of ADHD, captured 62% to 82% of the familial influences on commission and omission errors on the go/no-go task. Choice impulsivity was excluded in the final model because of poor fit. The findings suggest the existence of 2 familial pathways to cognitive impairments in ADHD and indicate promising cognitive targets for future molecular genetic investigations. The familial distinction between the 2 cognitive impairments is consistent with recent theoretical models--a developmental model and an arousal-attention model--of 2 separable underlying processes in ADHD. Future research that tests the familial model within a developmental framework may inform

  14. Factors influencing job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Liana M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influencing job satisfaction and the perspective of frontline medical imaging staff in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The sample consisted of 359 registered radiologic technologists who were working as staff technologists in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The results of the study suggest that satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators influences overall satisfaction with the work environment and job and commitment to the employer.

  15. Factors influencing consumer behaviour in market vegetables in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarish H. Al-Gahaifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to understand factors influencing consumer behaviour when buying vegetables in Republic of Yemen. Data collection was done by structured questionnaire administered through schools, universities, government offices, and markets from 13 provinces in 5 governorates. Random convenience sampling technique was used. Total sample comprised of 463 completed questionnaires which were used for analysis. The respondents were classified into five categories on the base of their monthly income, age, education, gender, and type of settlement. Authors present the factors that can influence significantly this behaviour, e.g. price, quality, the location of seller, habit, personal relationship between consumer and seller, occasions, discount, sorting, word-mouth, time of purchase, the way of products display, and recommendation of friends and families. From the obtained results, it is obvious that there was high influence on the behaviour of Yemeni consumer when buying vegetables for factors price, occasions, discontent, and time of purchase, while factors habit, display, sorting, and the location of seller suggests medium influence, and the influence was low for word-mouth.

  16. Family influences on the development of aggression and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labella, Madelyn H; Masten, Ann S

    2018-02-01

    Recent research confirms that many of the most salient risk and protective factors for the development of aggression and violence reside in the family system. Family-based risks begin before birth, encompassing genetic and epigenetic processes. Contextual stressors (e.g., poverty, conflict) may impact development directly or indirectly through disrupted parenting behavior, including high negativity, low warmth, harshness, and exposure to violence. The family can also serve as a powerful adaptive system counteracting the risk of aggression and violence. Parents can promote healthy behavioral development through warmth, structure, and prosocial values, as well as by fostering adaptive resources in the child and community. Successful interventions often reduce aggression and violence by supporting parents and families. Recent insights and future directions for research and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Cross-Family Transcription Factor Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemer, Marian; Dijk, van Aalt-Jan; Immink, Richard G.H.; Angenent, Gerco C.

    2017-01-01

    Specific and dynamic gene expression strongly depends on transcription factor (TF) activity and most plant TFs function in a combinatorial fashion. They can bind to DNA and control the expression of the corresponding gene in an additive fashion or cooperate by physical interactions, forming larger

  18. Overview of factors influencing the secondary market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleistine, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The major factor influencing secondary trading for the last few years has been the large contractural commitments built up by consumers for reactor programs which have proven to be unrealistic. The situation has intensified as a result of utilities needing to generate capital through inventory liquidation or reductions. The flexibilities in most contracts are inadequate to match the types of external and/or internal factors faced by the industry. This situation also suggests the need for secondary markets to help the industry adjust to unforeseen difficulties. They are very active markets at this time, but their influence in relation to the long-term method of doing business should not be exaggerated

  19. [The influencing factors on alienation in high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Sook

    2004-02-01

    This study was performed to identify the influencing factors on alienation among high school students. Data was collected by questionnaires from 550 students of academic and vocational high schools in G city. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression. The scores of alienation among students in financially lower middle class and lower class were higher than those of the upper middle class students, resulting in significant differences(F=6.87, p=.00). A sense of alienation showed a significantly negative correlation with the scores of responding parenting style(r=-.32), family cohesion(r=-.33), school attachment(r=-.51), academic performance(r=-.34), peer relationships(r=-.38), self-control (r=-.43), and social skills(r=-.33). The most powerful predictor of alienation among high school students was school attachment and the variance explained was 26%. A combination of school attachment, self control, peer relationships, family cohesion, demanding parenting style, and academic performance account for 40% of the variance in alienation among high school students. This study suggests that school attachment, self control, peer relationships, family cohesion, demanding parenting style, and academic performance are significant influencing factors on alienation in high school students. Therefore, nursing strategy is needed to manage these revealed factors.

  20. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    psychosis and a broad range of familial (advanced paternal age, family dissolution, parental psychosis), environmental (urbanicity,deprivation) and psychological factors (childhood adversity). Findings indicated that all types of risk factors were significantly associated with psychosis. In conclusion......, large scale cohort studies using the Danish registry system is a powerful way of assessing the relative impact ofdifferent risk factors for psychosis.......A broad range of biological, genetic, environmental, and psychological riskfactors for psychosis have been reported. However most research studies have tended to focus on one explanatory factor. The aim of this study wasto use data from a large Danish birth cohort to examine the associationsbetween...

  1. A familial factor in the development of colour agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; de Haan, Edward H F

    2007-04-09

    An important aspect of research into the link between genes and behaviour concerns the identification of familial determination. There is evidence for familial factors in selective deficits, such as developmental dyslexia and developmental prosopagnosia. Colour agnosia concerns a selective neuropsychological condition in which colour perception is intact, while the identification and naming of colour is disrupted. We recently demonstrated that this deficit can occur as a developmental deficit. Here, we show that there is a familial factor in the development of colour agnosia by reporting the colour processing abilities of the mother and the daughters of a man with developmental colour agnosia.

  2. Parent and family factors associated with child adjustment to pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kristen E; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Noll, Robert B

    2007-05-01

    To identify factors that influence the association between parent and child distress among families of children with cancer and comparison peers. Parent and child distress, social support, and family environment were assessed among families of 95 children with cancer (94 mothers, 67 fathers) and 98 comparison peers (97 mothers, 77 fathers). Significant associations were found between parent and child distress. For models examining the impact of fathers' distress on children, several moderators were identified (i.e., family environment, child age and gender, a cancer diagnosis, and treatment severity). Family environment also partially mediated father and child distress. Children whose parents were distressed were more likely to be distressed themselves. Subgroups of children were particularly vulnerable, indicating a need to identify further mechanisms of risk and resilience and to develop family-based interventions. Support was found for including fathers as independent sources of information in pediatric psychology research and clinical practice.

  3. INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR LEASING MARKET CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors. This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.

  4. Factors Influencing Medical Students' Choice of Specialty

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Pei-Yeh; Hung, Chih-Young; Wang, Kuei-lng; Huang, Yuan-Huei; Chang, King-Jen

    2006-01-01

    Medical school graduates are the source of a country's physicians. Determining how the graduates of these schools select their areas of specialization is the key to achieving a balanced distribution of doctors among all specialties. The purposes of this study were to determine the factors that influence medical students' choice of medical specialty, and to derive the relative weight of each factor. Methods: We constructed a two-tiered analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model which was repres...

  5. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  6. Factors Influencing Donor Partnership Effectiveness | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... A two-dimensional tool probing eight factors that influence partnership performance was developed, and used in conjunction with a Partnering Process Model, to guide the preparation of the case studies. The incorporation of the temporality dimension is quite novel and adds to the understanding and ...

  7. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  8. Factors influencing HIV seroprevalence rate among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a ...

  9. Factors influencing insulin secretion from encapsulated islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, BJ; Faas, MM; de Vos, P

    2003-01-01

    Adequate regulation of glucose levels by a microencapsulated pancreatic islet graft requires a minute-to-minute regulation of blood glucose. To design such a transplant, it is mandatory to have sufficient insight in factors influencing the kinetics of insulin secretion by encapsulated islets. The

  10. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Entrepreneurship Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Entrepreneurship Among Women In Fishing Communities In Ondo State, Nigeria. ... The study found that overall entrepreneurial rating of the study group is low, essential input can not be easily gotten in the area, the respondents has large household size thereby had a large dependents ...

  11. Factors Influencing Information and Communication Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is a veritable tool for sustainable agricultural development in Nigeria. This paper analyzed the factors that influenced ICT use by women research scientists in the Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 40 respondents per ...

  12. Factors Influencing Examination Malpractice in Secondary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing examination malpractice in some selected secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of one thousand two hundred (1200) students were selected across the three educational zones of Ogoja, Ikom and Calabar using stratified, random ...

  13. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1986-01-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...

  14. Factors that influence advertising design ideation | Usman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that influence advertising design ideation. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... inevitably, more than ever before, on advertisement to take products to the doorsteps of potential consumers. Consequently, local and global corporations employ all manner of advertising media to achieve their end.

  15. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers Participation in IFAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... This study assessed Factors Influencing smallholder farmers' ... percent of the population engaged in agricultural activities as a career and ... that the major source of income of the poor is agriculture and ... shown that farmers have different reasons for participation in agricultural ... 30 Dan gamau 534. 30.

  16. Exploring Factors That Influence Quality Literature Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Research indicates that literature circles are an authentic means for literacy development that students typically enjoy. To better understand the potential value and to add to the research base regarding literature circles, this study, involving 17 fourth graders, explores factors that may influence the quality of literature discussions,…

  17. Neighborhood, Family and Individual Influences on School Physical Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Few studies on the correlates of school violence include school and neighborhood influences. We use ecological systems theory and social disorganization theory to simultaneously incorporate neighborhood (e.g., concentrated poverty, residential instability, and immigrant concentration), school, family, and individual predictors of physical school victimization longitudinally among a large socio-economically and ethnically diverse (49% Hispanic; 34% African American) sample of 6 and 9 year olds...

  18. Family-Level Factors and African American Children's Behavioral Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Colombo, Gia; Hong, Jun Sung; Coard, Stephanie Irby

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable prior research targeting African American children has focused on the pervasiveness of problematic behavior and negative risk factors associated with their development, however the influence of family on better behavioral health outcomes has largely been ignored. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine…

  19. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  20. Japanese family with congenital factor VII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Kanae; Okayama, Yoshiki; Fukushima, Kenji; Kaji, Shunsaku; Muraoka, Michiko; Arao, Yujiro; Shimada, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance. The present female patient was diagnosed with congenital FVII deficiency because of low hepaplastin test (HPT), although vitamin K was given. Heterozygous p.A191T mutation was detected in the peripheral blood, and the same mutation was also found in the mother and sister. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case of p.A191T mutation of FVII in the literature and the first to be reported in Japan. FVII coagulation activity (FVII:C) in asymptomatic heterozygous carriers is mildly reduced. Therefore, some patients may not be accurately diagnosed with congenital FVII deficiency. In infants with low HPT without vitamin K deficiency, congenital FVII deficiency should be considered. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilda Pečarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  2. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, N.K. (Nhu K.); van Berkel, S.R. (Sheila R.); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); L.R.A. Alink (Lenneke R.A.)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and

  3. The Self-Report Family Inventory: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Selig, James P.; Trahan, Don P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers explored the factor structure of the Self-Report Family Inventory with a sample of heterosexual parents who have a son or daughter who self-identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Results suggest that a two-factor solution is appropriate. Research and clinical implications are offered. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  4. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  5. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence......Purpose: Enterprise social media platforms provide new ways of sharing knowledge and communicating within organizations to benefit from the social capital and valuable knowledge that employees have. Drawing on social dilemma and self-determination theory, the aim of the study is to understand what...... knowledge sharing framework helps to understand what factors impact engagement on social media. Furthermore the article suggests different types of interventions to overcome the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Originality/value: The study contributes to an understanding of factors leading...

  6. External and internal factors influencing happiness in elite collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G; Steiner, Hans

    2009-03-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford student-athletes (N=140) were studied with a standardized questionnaire which examined internal factors ((1) locus of control, (2) mindfulness, (3) self-restraint, and (4) self-esteem) to see whether they better account for happiness than external factors (playing time, scholarship). As predicted, internal factors were more powerful correlates of happiness when holding constant demographics. Regression models differed for different aspects of happiness, but the main postulated result of internal versus external was maintained throughout. These findings have implications for how well athletes cope with adversity which, in turn, could shed light on the development of traits that may provide a buffer against adversity and build resilience.

  7. Cultural influences on parental bereavement in Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sio-Wa; Brotherson, Sean E

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the bereavement experiences of parents who had experienced the death of a child in Chinese families. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 bereaved parents in Macau, China. Narrative accounts of Chinese parents' experience in the loss of a child were explored to understand how their connection to the deceased child and their worldview were influenced by cultural beliefs and values. Study themes related to parental connections with the deceased child included the use of object linking, memorializing acts, and avoidance of traditional funeral processes, with clear patterns of Chinese cultural influence. Additionally, themes related to impacts on parental worldview included use of the concept of fate as a rationale for child loss and influences on religious orientation. The influence of cultural beliefs and background on Chinese parents as they deal with the issue of a child's death was apparent. Further research is needed and will benefit our understanding of parental bereavement in Chinese families.

  8. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  10. Link Between Deployment Factors and Parenting Stress in Navy Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A Families 5b. GRANT NUMBER HT9404-13-1-TS05 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Purpose: Many service members today are married, and many also have children; deployments affect all members of the military family . The purpose of this...conducted. Findings: As deployment factors increased, parenting stress increased for fathers in the reintegration period, with a potential mediation

  11. Impact of selected family socio-economic factors on coordinational predispositions of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Domaradzki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological growth of children is genetically determined but there are a lot of factors modifying trends of growth. Among them the most important seems to be parents’ education and number of children in family – socio-economical factors. Factors don’t affect organism individually. Interactions between them can increase or decrease. So the aim of the work was to estimate the influence of socio-economic factors like parents’ education and number of children in family on coordinational traits of children aged 10–11. Material and methods: 199 children aged 10-11 underwent medical examination in 2008 in Polkowice and data collected were used in this study.. Information on parents’ education and number of children was used to divide children into four groups: lower education and 3 or more children in family, lower education and less than 3 children in family, higher education and more than 3 children in family and higher education and less than 3 children in family. Three coordinational traits were measured: short time memory, precision of hand and speed movement of the hand. MANOVA test was used to estimate differences between groups and to check interactions between factors. Results: From among 4 groups of boys, these from the worst socio-economic status of family received the worst results in all three tests. Differences between them and the rest of the groups were statistically significant. Differences between the rest of the groups were not statistically significant. In the girls groups children from families with higher parents’ education received statistically significant better results in test of memory. There were not differences between all 4 groups in precision of the hand test. Girls from family with higher parents’ education and 3 or more children in family received the best results in speed of the hand test. Conclusions: Boys are the gender more eco-sensitive. The family with more than 2 children in family

  12. Factors associated with family violence by persons with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrum, Travis; Solomon, Phyllis L

    2016-10-30

    Family violence by persons with psychiatric disorders (PD) is a highly under-researched area. The primary objective of the present analysis was to identify perpetrator, victim, and interaction/relationship factors associated with this phenomenon. The secondary objective was to examine the extent to which the relationship between caregiving and family violence was mediated by limit-setting practices used towards relatives with PD. 573 adults across the U.S. with an adult relative with PD completed an online survey. Multivariate logistic regression was performed examining the association of factors with the occurrence of family violence. Mediation was assessed with Sobel testing. Family violence was significantly associated with the following factors: perpetrator-income, illegal drug use, psychiatric hospitalization, treatment attendance, and use of medications; victim-age, employment status, income, and mental health status; interaction/relationship-parental relationship, co-residence, use of limit-setting practices, representative payeeship, and unofficial money management. Mediation was statistically significant. Increasing access to mental health and/or substance abuse treatment may decrease the risk of family violence. Interventions may benefit from attempting to decrease/modify the use of limit-setting practices. Where family representative payeeship or unofficial money management exists, it is advisable for practitioners to assess and address financial coercion and promote greater collaboration in financial decision-making. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Influences of satisfaction with telecare and family trust in older Taiwanese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Hung; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Uei, Shu-Lin

    2014-01-27

    The level of trust given towards telecare by the family members of older people using the service is extremely important. Family trust may be an influential factor in deciding whether to use such services. This study focuses on older people's satisfaction with telecare and examines their family's trust in telecare services. Influences on intention to continue using telecare services are also explored. A questionnaire-based survey on 60 communities dwelling older people who had been receiving telecare services in the past two years was employed. This study developed a satisfaction and trust scale based on previous studies. Our results show that older people's satisfaction with telecare services and families' trust were influential in decided whether to continue to use of telecare services. These findings can help medical institutions to better insight into the user experience of telecare to help them provide future services that better comply with clients' desires and requirements.

  14. A social work study on family related issues influencing juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study to investigate the impacts of various factors on juvenile delinquency. The study distributes 400 questionnaires among young people aged 19-26 who are involved with some sort of crime and analyzes their feedbacks. There are three hypotheses including family income, tendency to spirituality and religion and educational backgrounds of families and juvenile delinquency among these people. The results show that while family income and religious as well as spirituality characteristics play important role on juvenile delinquency, educational background of the parents do not statistically have any influence on juvenile delinquency. The study recommends that a better family condition could contribute society to reduce juvenile delinquency and people could guide their children through better consultations.

  15. Adolescents with Functional Somatic Symptoms: The influence of family therapy on empowerment and illness beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Rask, Charlotte; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte

    psychological treatment and the significance of illness beliefs and empowerment in children and adolescents with severe FSS is scarce. Aims: To conduct a qualitative study which aims to examine how specific illness beliefs and a sense of empowerment evolve and change during specialized family-based treatment......Background: Young patients with Functional Somatic Symptoms (FSS) are common and may present in all clinical settings. Psychological treatment targeting dysfunctional illness beliefs and poor sense of empowerment has been shown effective for FSS in adults. In comparison current knowledge about...... (IPA). Results: Preliminary data from a pilotstudy with 2 families, from interviews conducted prior to family therapy, indicate that illness beliefs and sense of empowerment may be diverging for children and their parents, and are influenced by many factors, such as health professionals, family history...

  16. Family environment influences emotion recognition following paediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Adam T; Orsten, Kimberley D; Hanten, Gerri R; Li, Xiaoqi; Levin, Harvey S

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and performance on two tasks of emotion recognition (emotional prosody and face emotion recognition) and a cognitive control procedure (the Flanker task) following paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) or orthopaedic injury (OI). A total of 142 children (75 TBI, 67 OI) were assessed on three occasions: baseline, 3 months and 1 year post-injury on the two emotion recognition tasks and the Flanker task. Caregivers also completed the Life Stressors and Resources Scale (LISRES) on each occasion. Growth curve analysis was used to analyse the data. Results indicated that family functioning influenced performance on the emotional prosody and Flanker tasks but not on the face emotion recognition task. Findings on both the emotional prosody and Flanker tasks were generally similar across groups. However, financial resources emerged as significantly related to emotional prosody performance in the TBI group only (p = 0.0123). Findings suggest family functioning variables--especially financial resources--can influence performance on an emotional processing task following TBI in children.

  17. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  18. [Family characteristics, organic risk factors, psychopathological picture and premorbid adjustment of hospitalized adolescent patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małkiewicz-Borkowska, M; Namysłowska, I; Siewierska, A; Puzyńska, E; Sredniawa, H; Zechowski, C; Iwanek, A; Ruszkowska, E

    1996-01-01

    The relation of some family characteristics such as cohesion and adaptability with organic risk factors, developmental psychopathology, clinical picture and premorbid adjustment was assessed in the group of 100 hospitalized adolescent patients and families. We found correlation between: some of organic risk factors (pathology of neonatal period, pathology of early childhood), some of indicators of developmental psychopathology (eating disorders, conduct disorders), some of clinical signs (mannerism, grandiosity, hostility, suspciousness, disturbances of content of thinking), premorbid adjustment, and variables related to families, described before. We think that biological variables characterizing child (pathology of neonatal period, pathology of early childhood) have an influence on some family characteristics as independent variable. General system theory and circular thinking support these conclusions. In order to verify them, it is necessary to undertake further investigations, based on other methodology, using this results as preliminary findings.

  19. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    S ARMAN; M SOLTANI

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is design...

  20. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnekov, V. G.; McMillin, C. W.; Huber, H. A.

    1986-07-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the work piece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist system and work piece thickness, density, and moisture content. (author)

  1. Psychological Factors Influencing Life Satisfaction of Undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, Olubukola; Adewumi, Bukunmi

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the psychological factors influencing life satisfaction of undergraduates. The instruments used were Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), Rosenberge Self-esteem Scale (RSS), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). A total number of 190 participants were purposively selected across various faculties in Ekiti State University. Four hypotheses were tested using Independent t-test to find the effects of perceived stres...

  2. Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceccon Eliane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.

  3. Influencing factors of mental health of medical students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xin-hao; Liu, Zhuo; Luo, Ai; Feng, Zhan-chun

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the mental health status of medical students in China, and analyzed the influencing factors in order to provide evidence for mental health education for medical students. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit medical students from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. The questionnaire survey on general information and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used for investigation and analysis. The results showed among the 1137 valid questionnaires, 278 (24.45%) participants had SCL-90 score ≥ 160. The top three mental problems of medical students were obsessive-compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity and depression in terms of the factor score ≥ 2.5 and the number of participants who reflected on the diseases. The third-year medical students had the worst mental health status, and fifth-year medical students had the best mental health status. Students from rural area had more psychological problems than those from urban area; furthermore, students with high professional satisfaction, those who were the single child of the family, non-poor students, and those whose parents had high education level had better mental health status. It was concluded that the mental health of medical students is not optimistic in China. Medical students have some mental health problems of different degrees. Factors that influence the mental health of medical students include academic pressure, professional satisfaction level and family environment.

  4. Family factors in shaping parental attitudes in young students at the stage of entering adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Karabanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Parenthood is a process of promoting the child’s progressive development and achieving personal autonomy. Social, family and psychological factors of formation of parental attitudes of the person at the stage of entering adulthood are considered. The mechanisms of the parental family influence on parental attitudes are analyzed. Parenting and children raising are recognized by modern young students as a significant family value with priority of professional and social activity. The revealed gender differences prove a higher assessment of the importance of parenthood and the upbringing of children among males rather than females, who have strongly prioritize their professional careers as compared to parenthood. Young women’s expectations of difficulties in the future of family life are related to child birth and upbringing. The experience of emotional relations in one’s own parent family is proved to determine the importance of parenting for young adults. Positive expectations of student youth regarding future family life and a certain underestimation of the difficulties of the transitional periods of the family life cycle are revealed. The greatest difficulties are predicted by students in connection with the period of child expectation and the first year of child life. The beginning of parental function realization, child raising, economic and household functioning of the family and mutual adaptation of the spouses are listed as the most difficulties in family life cycle. Family factors that determine expectations about difficulties and subjective satisfaction with family life include gender, experience of romantic partnership, full or incomplete family in origin, chronological age.

  5. Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yim-wah Mak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the association of family process and peer influences with risk behaviors of adolescents. A total of 805 students were recruited from secondary schools. The results showed that adolescents who have parents who are “authoritarian” (OR = 1.856 were more likely to smoke. Adolescents who have conflicts with their parents (OR = 1.423 were more likely to drink. Those who have parents who are “permissive” were less likely to drink (OR = 0.885. Having friends who smoked (OR = 5.446 or drank (OR = 1.894, and friends’ invitation to smoke (OR = 10.455 or drink (OR = 11.825 were the dominant contributors to adolescent smoking and drinking. Interventions are needed that recognize the strength of the parent-child relationship, as well as strengthen family functioning through improved interpersonal, parenting, and monitoring skills.

  6. Family structure and family education as the factors for personal development of preschooler

    OpenAIRE

    Golovey L.A.; Vasilenko V.E.; Savenysheva S.S.

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to analysis of personal characteristics of preschoolers in relation to the factors of gender, family structure (complete or one-parent, the presence of sibling) and family upbringing (parenting styles, parent-child emotional interaction). The study involved 155 boys, 157 girls and 312 mothers from Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The age of children — from 4 to 7 years. We used the test and projective techniques. The study revealed that children from sing...

  7. The effective family and personality factors on felony in adolescent felons of Khorramabad house of correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mandana Saki

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social damage is one of the problems which destroys the active manpower and young population in the country and also prevents social development. Family is the first environment in which social ground for the child is provided.Any dispute, controversy or inferiority complex in the family may lead to wrong doings The present study aims at the effective family and personality factors on felony in felon adolescents kept in Khorramabad bouse of correction. Materials and Methods: This descriptive- analytic study was carried out on all of the adolescents in Khorramabad house of correction as case group selected using census random sampling and high school students as control group selected by cluster random sampling. Data gathering tool was a 2-part questionnaire including demographic information and standard SCL 90 questionnaire. Results: Results showed that there is a significant relationship between the place of residence, failure in school program, economic status of the family, parents presence, fathers job and education, mothers job and education, parents inter personal relationship and family conflicting. The results also showed that aggression, anxiety, depression, somatic complain, obsessive compulsive, inter personality sensitivity, Psychotic, paranoid and phobia had a significant difference in the case and control groups. Conclusion: Regarding the fact that family environment is considered as the most important educative factor and no social damage has not occurred out of family influence, so no society can claim to be healthy unless to have healthy families.

  8. Children's dental fear and anxiety: exploring family related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingli; Gao, Xiaoli

    2018-06-04

    Dental fear and anxiety (DFA) is a major issue affecting children's oral health and clinical management. This study investigates the association between children's DFA and family related factors, including parents' DFA, parenting styles, family structure (nuclear or single-parent family), and presence of siblings. A total of 405 children (9-13 years old) and their parents were recruited from 3 elementary schools in Hong Kong. Child's demographic and family-related information was collected through a questionnaire. Parents' and child's DFA were measured by using the Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS) and Children Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS), respectively. Parenting styles were gauged by using the Parent Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). DFA was reported by 33.1% of children. The mean (SD) CFSS-DS score was 29.1 (11.0). Children with siblings tended to report DFA (37.0% vs. 24.1%; p = 0.034) and had a higher CFSS-DS score (29.9 vs. 27.4; p = 0.025) as compared with their counterpart. Children from single-parent families had lower CFSS-DS score as compared with children from nuclear families (β = - 9.177; p = 0.029). Subgroup analysis showed a higher CFSS-DS score among boys with siblings (β = 7.130; p = 0.010) as compared with their counterpart; girls' from single-parent families had a lower CFSS-DS score (β = - 13.933; p = 0.015) as compared with girls from nuclear families. Children's DFA was not associated with parents' DFA or parenting styles (p > 0.05). Family structure (nuclear or single-parent family) and presence of siblings are significant determinants for children's DFA. Parental DFA and parenting style do not affect children's DFA significantly.

  9. The WRKY transcription factor family in Brachypodium distachyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Langum, Tanner J; Boken, Ashley K; Rushton, Deena L; Boomsma, Darius D; Rinerson, Charles I; Rabara, Jennifer; Reese, R Neil; Chen, Xianfeng; Rohila, Jai S; Rushton, Paul J

    2012-06-22

    A complete assembled genome sequence of wheat is not yet available. Therefore, model plant systems for wheat are very valuable. Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) is such a system. The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating important agronomic traits. Studies of WRKY transcription factors in Brachypodium and wheat therefore promise to lead to new strategies for wheat improvement. We have identified and manually curated the WRKY transcription factor family from Brachypodium using a pipeline designed to identify all potential WRKY genes. 86 WRKY transcription factors were found, a total higher than all other current databases. We therefore propose that our numbering system (BdWRKY1-BdWRKY86) becomes the standard nomenclature. In the JGI v1.0 assembly of Brachypodium with the MIPS/JGI v1.0 annotation, nine of the transcription factors have no gene model and eleven gene models are probably incorrectly predicted. In total, twenty WRKY transcription factors (23.3%) do not appear to have accurate gene models. To facilitate use of our data, we have produced The Database of Brachypodium distachyon WRKY Transcription Factors. Each WRKY transcription factor has a gene page that includes predicted protein domains from MEME analyses. These conserved protein domains reflect possible input and output domains in signaling. The database also contains a BLAST search function where a large dataset of WRKY transcription factors, published genes, and an extensive set of wheat ESTs can be searched. We also produced a phylogram containing the WRKY transcription factor families from Brachypodium, rice, Arabidopsis, soybean, and Physcomitrella patens, together with published WRKY transcription factors from wheat. This phylogenetic tree provides evidence for orthologues, co-orthologues, and paralogues of Brachypodium WRKY transcription factors. The description of the WRKY transcription factor

  10. [Factors influencing nurses' organizational citizenship behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junhee; Yun, Eunkyung; Han, Sangsook

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to identify the factors that influence nurses' organizational citizenship behavior. A cross-sectional design was used, with a convenience sample of 547 nurses from four university hospitals in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey done from September 22 to October 10, 2008. The tools used for this study were scales on organizational citizenship behavior (14 items), self-leadership (14 items), empowerment (10 items), organizational commitment (7 items), job satisfaction (8 items) and transformational.transactional leadership (14 items). Cronbach's alpha and factor analysis were examined to test reliability and construct validity of the scale. The data collected were processed using SPSS Window 15.0 Program for actual numbers and percentages, differences in the dependent variable according to general characteristics, and means, standard deviations, correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The factors influencing nurses' organizational citizenship behavior were identified as self-leadership(beta=.247), empowerment (beta=.233), job satisfaction (beta=.209), organizational commitment (beta=.158), and transactional leadership (beta=.142). Five factors explained 42.0% of nurses' organizational citizenship behavior. The results of this study can be used to develop further management strategies for enhancement of nurses' organizational citizenship behavior.

  11. The role of family and maternal factors in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lisa Y; Byrne, Susan M; Davis, Elizabeth A; Blair, Eve; Jacoby, Peter; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2007-06-04

    To investigate the relationship between a child's weight and a broad range of family and maternal factors. Cross-sectional data from a population-based prospective study, collected between January 2004 and December 2005, for 329 children aged 6-13 years (192 healthy weight, 97 overweight and 40 obese) and their mothers (n=265) recruited from a paediatric hospital endocrinology department and eight randomly selected primary schools in Perth, Western Australia. Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of children and mothers; demographic information; maternal depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem; general family functioning; parenting style; and negative life events. In a multilevel model, maternal BMI and family structure (single-parent v two-parent families) were the only significant predictors of child BMI z scores. Childhood obesity is not associated with adverse maternal or family characteristics such as maternal depression, negative life events, poor general family functioning or ineffective parenting style. However, having an overweight mother and a single-parent (single-mother) family increases the likelihood of a child being overweight or obese.

  12. Impulsivity moderates promotive environmental influences on adolescent delinquency: A comparison across family, school, and neighborhood contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined moderating effects of impulsivity on the relationships between promotive factors from family (family warmth, parental knowledge), school (school connectedness), and neighborhood (neighborhood cohesion) contexts with delinquency using data collected from N = 2,978 sixth to eighth graders from 16 schools surrounding a major city in the Midwestern United States. More than half of the respondents were non-Caucasian (Mage = 12.48; 41.0% male). Multilevel modeling analyses were conducted to take into account the clustering of the participants within schools. Impulsivity was positively associated with adolescent delinquency. Additionally, family warmth, parental knowledge, and school connectedness, but not neighborhood cohesion, were independently and inversely related to adolescent delinquency. Finally, impulsivity moderated relationships between family warmth and parental knowledge with delinquency but not relationships between school attachment and neighborhood cohesion with delinquency. Specifically, the negative relationship between family warmth and delinquency was significant for adolescents with high levels of, but not for those with below-average levels of, impulsivity. In addition, parental knowledge had a stronger association with decreased levels of delinquency for adolescents reporting higher levels of impulsivity. The moderating effects of impulsivity did not differ for males and females or for minority and non-minority participants. Findings indicate that impulsivity may have greater impact on adolescents’ susceptibility to positive family influences than on their susceptibility to promotive factors from school or neighborhood contexts. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:23673971

  13. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  14. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... 4.50-5.31). The study showed that risk factors with highest predictive power on the individual level have a relatively low population impact. The challenge in future studies with direct genetic data is to examine gene-environmental interactions that can move research beyond current approaches...... and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established...

  15. Substance abuse treatment response in a Latino sample: the influence of family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jessica N; Maier, Candice A; Priest, Jacob B

    2015-02-01

    Latino Americans report underutilization of treatment and poor treatment response for substance use and abuse compared to other racial/ethnic groups; thus, it is important to assess factors that contribute to these disparities. The current study objective was to assess the influence of family conflict on substance abuse treatment response in a sample of Latino Americans using two different yet complementary analyses. First, ordinary least squares regression was used to assess the association between overall family conflict and pre- and post-treatment substance use. Second, repeated measures latent class analysis was used to identify groups based on family member conflict and timing of conflict during treatment. Findings indicated that family conflict contributed unique variance to concurrent substance use; however pre-treatment family conflict was not related to post-treatment outcomes. Results also identified three distinct family conflict groups: no/low conflict, pre-treatment conflict, and post-treatment conflict who differed in pre- and post-treatment substance use. Post hoc investigation revealed that those who experienced pre-treatment conflict but low post-treatment conflict showed the greatest decrease in substance use. Findings highlight the importance of considering family conflict during all stages of treatment for Latino American substance users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors Influencing Resilience of Burn Patients in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi Heui; Park, Jongui; Chong, Mi Kyong; Sok, Sohyune R

    2017-09-01

    To examine and identify the factors influencing the degree of resilience among Korean burn patients. A cross-sectional descriptive design was employed. The study sample consisted of 138 burn patients recovering from the acute phase in H hospital, Seoul. The male patient participants numbered 93 (67.4%) and the female participants numbered 45 (32.6%). The average age of the participants was 46.79 years. Measures used were the Beck Depression Inventory, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, self-esteem scale, family support scale, and resilience scale. The analyses showed that the prediction model for resilience among burn patients was significant (F = 33.94, p resilience among burn patients was self-esteem (β = .35), followed by family support (β = .29). This study provides preliminary evidence that self-esteem is a major and primary predictor of resilience among burn patients, next followed by family support. In the nursing practice, nurses need to pay attention to the burn patient's self-esteem and family support. Concrete interventions and strategies to improve the resilience of burn patients are needed. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Factors influencing childhood conduct disorders: Study of 43 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalili B

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduct disorders are a group of behavior disorders in which the basic rights of others or major age appropriate social norms or rules are violated. To evaluate the factors influencing childhood conduct disorders, we reviewed records of 43 cases (84% boys, mean age 11 years referred to Shahid Esmaili psychiatric hospital, Tehran. All patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria of DSMIV. 15 variables were included; Age and sex and step of patient among sibling, parental educational level, social class of the family, medical and psychiatric history of entire family members and the kind of therapy. The most frequent complaints were aggressiveness, stealing and lying. The dominant age group was 10-14 years. The most frequent family members were 5. Most of the children were 2nd child of the family. The most often educational level of the parents were illiteracy followed by primary school educated. Most of the patients were of low to intermediate socioeconomic classes. The most effective therapy was behavior modification along with appropriate medications.

  18. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, N.K. (Nhu K.); van Berkel, S.R. (Sheila R.); IJzendoorn, Rien; Alink, Lenneke R.A.

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and the occurrence of multiple types of child maltreatment. Cross-sectional data of 1,851 secondary and high school students aged 12 to 17 years (47.3% boys) in four provinces of Northern Vietnam were ...

  20. Familial and Temperamental Risk Factors for Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…

  1. An Examination of Educational and Familial Factors in Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikçi, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    In this study, family attitudes and behaviours, along with educational factors during school years, which are believed to have an effect on the development of leadership, are researched. In the study, the qualitative research method and phenomenological model have been applied. The participants were identified as one female and one male student by…

  2. Familial and Institutional Factors: Job Satisfaction for Female Counselor Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Albritton, Carrie; Hill, Nicole R.

    2015-01-01

    Job satisfaction based on familial and institutional factors was explored for 157 female counselor educators. Results indicate that female associate professors had lower levels of intrinsic rewards domain after controlling for institutional type. Parental responsibility and partnership status were equivocal, with significant interaction effects…

  3. Genetic and environmental influences on the familial transmission of externalizing disorders in adoptive and twin offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Foster, Katherine T; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2013-10-01

    Twin-family studies have shown that parent-child resemblance on substance use disorders and antisocial behavior can be accounted for by the transmission of a general liability to a spectrum of externalizing disorders. Most studies, however, include only biological parents and offspring, which confound genetic and environmental transmission effects. To examine the familial transmission of externalizing disorders among both adoptive (genetically unrelated) and biological relatives to better distinguish genetic and environmental mechanisms of transmission. Family study design wherein each family included the mother, father, and 2 offspring, including monozygotic twin, dizygotic twin, nontwin biological, and adoptive offspring. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate familial transmission effects and their genetic and environmental influences. Participants were recruited from the community and assessed at a university laboratory. A total of 1590 families with biological offspring and 409 families with adoptive offspring. Offspring participants were young adults (mean age, 26.2 years). Symptom counts of conduct disorder, adult antisocial behavior, and alcohol, nicotine, and drug dependence. RESULTS There was a medium effect for the transmission of the general externalizing liability for biological parents (r = 0.27-0.30) but not for adoptive parents (r = 0.03-0.07). In contrast, adoptive siblings exhibited significant similarity on the general externalizing liability (r = 0.21). Biometric analyses revealed that the general externalizing liability was highly heritable (a2 = 0.61) but also exhibited significant shared environmental influences (c2 = 0.20). Parent-child resemblance for substance use disorders and antisocial behavior is primarily due to the genetic transmission of a general liability to a spectrum of externalizing disorders. Including adoptive siblings revealed a greater role of shared environmental influences on the general externalizing liability

  4. Factors influencing elderly women's mammography screening decisions: implications for counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Roger B

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although guidelines recommend that clinicians consider life expectancy before screening older women for breast cancer, many older women with limited life expectancies are screened. We aimed to identify factors important to mammography screening decisions among women aged 80 and older compared to women aged 65–79. Methods Telephone surveys of 107 women aged 80+ and 93 women aged 65–79 randomly selected from one academic primary care practice who were able to communicate in English (60% response rate. The survey addressed the following factors in regards to older women's mammography screening decisions: perceived importance of a history of breast disease, family history of breast cancer, doctor's recommendations, habit, reassurance, previous experience, mailed reminder cards, family/friend's recommendations or experience with breast cancer, age, health, and media. The survey also assessed older women's preferred role in decision making around mammography screening. Results Of the 200 women, 65.5% were non-Hispanic white and 82.8% were in good to excellent health. Most (81.3% had undergone mammography in the past 2 years. Regardless of age, older women ranked doctor's recommendations as the most important factor influencing their decision to get screened. Habit and reassurance were the next two highly ranked factors influencing older women to get screened. Among women who did not get screened, women aged 80 and older ranked age and doctor's counseling as the most influential factors and women aged 65–79 ranked a previous negative experience with mammography as the most important factor. There were no significant differences in preferred role in decision-making around mammography screening by age, however, most women in both age groups preferred to make the final decision on their own (46.6% of women aged 80+ and 50.5% of women aged 65–79. Conclusion While a doctor's recommendation is the most important factor influencing

  5. Factors influencing elderly women's mammography screening decisions: implications for counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberg, Mara A; McCarthy, Ellen P; York, Meghan; Davis, Roger B; Marcantonio, Edward R

    2007-11-16

    Although guidelines recommend that clinicians consider life expectancy before screening older women for breast cancer, many older women with limited life expectancies are screened. We aimed to identify factors important to mammography screening decisions among women aged 80 and older compared to women aged 65-79. Telephone surveys of 107 women aged 80+ and 93 women aged 65-79 randomly selected from one academic primary care practice who were able to communicate in English (60% response rate). The survey addressed the following factors in regards to older women's mammography screening decisions: perceived importance of a history of breast disease, family history of breast cancer, doctor's recommendations, habit, reassurance, previous experience, mailed reminder cards, family/friend's recommendations or experience with breast cancer, age, health, and media. The survey also assessed older women's preferred role in decision making around mammography screening. Of the 200 women, 65.5% were non-Hispanic white and 82.8% were in good to excellent health. Most (81.3%) had undergone mammography in the past 2 years. Regardless of age, older women ranked doctor's recommendations as the most important factor influencing their decision to get screened. Habit and reassurance were the next two highly ranked factors influencing older women to get screened. Among women who did not get screened, women aged 80 and older ranked age and doctor's counseling as the most influential factors and women aged 65-79 ranked a previous negative experience with mammography as the most important factor. There were no significant differences in preferred role in decision-making around mammography screening by age, however, most women in both age groups preferred to make the final decision on their own (46.6% of women aged 80+ and 50.5% of women aged 65-79). While a doctor's recommendation is the most important factor influencing elderly women's mammography screening decisions, habit and reassurance

  6. Factors influencing thermal tolerances of individual organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, V.H.

    1976-01-01

    The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms

  7. Emergency Department Crowding: Factors Influencing Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkun, Alp

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time.Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting “door-to-doctor” and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients.Results: We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102% with an average of 27% boarding. Median “door-to-doctor” time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences.Conclusion: The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:10-15

  8. Emergency department crowding: factors influencing flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkun, Alp; Briggs, William M; Patel, Sweha; Datillo, Paris A; Bove, Joseph; Birkhahn, Robert H

    2010-02-01

    THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THOSE FACTORS, BOTH INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC TO THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT (ED) THAT INFLUENCE TWO SPECIFIC COMPONENTS OF THROUGHPUT: "door-to-doctor" time and dwell time. We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday) during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival) proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting "door-to-doctor" and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients. We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102%) with an average of 27% boarding. Median "door-to-doctor" time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences. The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital.

  9. [New nurse turnover intention and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Sook; Sohn, In Soon; Kim, Nam Eun

    2009-12-01

    The study was done to identify turnover intention in new nurses according to characteristics of the nurses and other factors affecting turnover and to provide data to set up a strategy to reduce the turnover. Data were collected from 1,077 new nurses who had less than 12 months employment experience and worked in one of 188 hospitals. Eight research instruments were used. Data analysis was done using SPSS WIN 15.0 program. Several factors influence new nurse turnover intention. The average score for turnover intention was 2.12. The scores for subscales were self efficacy, 3.76, nursing performance, 3.90, job satisfaction, 2.09, organization commitment, 1.28, stress, 1.32, burnout, 2.82 and nursing organizational culture, 3.29. Turnover intention was related to self efficacy, nursing performance, job satisfaction, organization commitment, stress, burnout, nursing organizational culture, duration of in-class training, duration of on the job training, number of hospital beds, length of employment and duration of employment in current workplace. The predicting factors for turnover intention were burnout, stress, duration of employment in the current workplace, self efficacy and nursing performance. Those factors explained 51.6% of turnover intention. New nurse turnover intention can be reduced by mitigating the factors affecting this intention.

  10. Sociocultural and Familial Factors Associated with Weight Bias Internalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Pearl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Sociocultural and familial factors associated with weight bias internalization (WBI are currently unknown. The present study explored the relationship between interpersonal sources of weight stigma, family weight history, and WBI. Methods: Participants with obesity (N = 178, 87.6% female, 71.3% black completed questionnaires that assessed the frequency with which they experienced weight stigma from various interpersonal sources. Participants also reported the weight status of their family members and completed measures of WBI, depression, and demographics. Participant height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI. Results: Linear regression results (controlling for demographics, BMI, and depression showed that stigmatizing experiences from family and work predicted greater WBI. Experiencing weight stigma at work was associated with WBI above and beyond the effects of other sources of stigma. Participants who reported higher BMIs for their mothers had lower levels of WBI. Conclusion: Experiencing weight stigma from family and at work may heighten WBI, while having a mother with a higher BMI may be a protective factor against WBI. Prospective research is needed to understand WBI's developmental course and identify mechanisms that increase or mitigate its risk.

  11. Factors Influencing Individual Performance In An Indonesian Government Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizatul Munawaroh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 1024x768 Reformation in Indonesian government offices leads to many substantial changes, and demands improved job performances while arguably loading employees with more work. This research aims to understand factors that potentially influence job performance in Indonesian government offices that carries on such reformation. Using adapted scales from previous studies, this research investigates the role of workload, responsibility for others (level of responsibility to care for other people and need for achievement on employee’s performance.  A survey to all full-time workers in an Indonesian government office is conducted. Contrary to expectation, workload does not influence employee’s performance. Instead, regression analysis demonstrates that, employee’s need for achievement and responsibility for others are significant factors affecting individual performance. These results are important because they highlight the significance of need for achievement for the success of reformation in this office, and by extension for reformation in Indonesia. The results are also interesting because this is the first study that points out to the role of responsibility for others in influencing individual performance in Indonesia which is characterized by collectivistic culture. This paper discusses the contributions of these results for theory and practice.   Keywords: Indonesian public, need for achievement, responsibility for others, workload. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family

  12. Some factors affecting acceptance of family planning in Manus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avue, B; Freeman, P

    1991-12-01

    This paper examines selected factors affecting the acceptance and delivery of modern family planning from health centres in Manus. A survey was carried out of mothers attending Maternal and Child Health clinics and a written questionnaire was given to health workers. The survey of mothers demonstrated the importance of the husband's approval for contraceptive practice and showed that knowledge about traditional methods of family planning is widespread. The health workers' questionnaire demonstrated a high level of dissatisfaction with the current family planning program delivered by health clinics: 45% found the program ineffective; 68% wrote that health workers' attitudes discouraged mothers from attending for family planning. The perceived and actual benefits and costs of children and the role of men should be assessed locally before planning future family planning programs. Widespread retraining and motivating of health workers is essential if improved coverage is to be achieved through health services. The efficacy of alternative methods of delivery of family planning such as local community-based and social marketing programs should also be investigated.

  13. Common familial risk factors for schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Debra L; Mackinnon, Andrew; Morgan, Vera A; Watts, Gerald F; Castle, David J; Waterreus, Anna; Galletly, Cherrie A

    2016-05-01

    The co-occurrence of type 2 diabetes and psychosis is an important form of medical comorbidity within individuals, but no large-scale study has evaluated comorbidity within families. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is evidence for familial comorbidity between type 2 diabetes and psychosis. Data were analysed from an observational study of a nationally representative sample of 1642 people with psychosis who were in contact with psychiatric services at the time of survey (The 2010 Australian National Survey of Psychosis). Participants were aged 18-64 years and met World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision diagnostic criteria for a psychotic disorder (857 with schizophrenia, 319 with bipolar disorder with psychotic features, 293 with schizoaffective disorder, 81 with depressive psychosis and 92 with delusional disorder or other non-organic psychoses). Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between a family history of diabetes and a family history of schizophrenia. A positive family history of diabetes was associated with a positive family history of schizophrenia in those with a psychotic disorder (odds ratio = 1.35, p = 0.01, adjusted for age and gender). The association was different in those with an affective versus non-affective psychosis (odds ratio = 0.613, p = 0.019, adjusted for age and gender) and was significant only in those with a non-affective psychosis, specifically schizophrenia (odds ratio = 1.58, p = 0.005, adjusted for age and sex). Adjustment for demographic factors in those with schizophrenia slightly strengthened the association (odds ratio = 1.74, p = 0.001, adjusted for age, gender, diagnosis, ethnicity, education, employment, income and marital status). Elevated risk for type 2 diabetes in people with schizophrenia is not simply a consequence of antipsychotic medication; type 2 diabetes and schizophrenia share familial risk factors. © The Royal Australian and New

  14. Emergency Department Crowding: Factors Influencing Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Arkun, Alp; Briggs, William M; Patel, Sweha; Datillo, Paris A; Bove, Joseph; Birkhahn, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED) that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time. Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday) during a three-month period. V...

  15. Factors influencing variation in dentist service rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1990-01-01

    In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates.

  16. The role of family factors in explaining the women’s conflict of work and family roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سیدعلیرضا افشانی

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the relationship between family factors including socioeconomic status, family support, family attachment, family role overload, and family power structure with conflict of work and family roles among female employees in Yazd city. Research method was descriptive and correlational; and 323 female employees were selected by cluster sampling method. The work-family roles conflict scales, the perception of social support from family, the family involvement questionnaire, the family roles overload scale, and the scale of power structure in family were used in this study. Data were analyzed by SPSS and AMOS. The Findings indicated that socioeconomic status, family support to employed member, family attachment and family power structure had significant and negative relationship with work and family roles conflict. In contrast there were significant and positive relationships between family role overload with work and family roles conflict. Thus, family factors have a very significant role in amount of work and family roles conflict and also can play an effective role in reducing the conflict-induced pressure and stress.

  17. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi

    1997-01-01

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  18. A survey on factors influencing city branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.

  19. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, A.; Nichols, M.L.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.; Thurber, J.

    1992-01-01

    Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance

  20. Factorization of the Laplacian and families of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that multi-vector Clifford algebra allows a series of factorizations of the Laplacian operator and associated Dirac-like equations, this set of related equations generates 3 families of elementary particles with the experimentally observed lepton and quark content for each family and the experimentally observed electroweak color interactions and other related properties. In contrast to the usual approach to the standard model the properties for the different fields of the model are consequences of the relative properties of the equations, among themselves and in relation to space-time, and therefore, they do not need to be postulates of the theory. 11 refs

  1. Childhood and family influences on body mass index in early adulthood: findings from the Ontario Child Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Boyle, Michael H; Georgiades, Katholiki; Duncan, Laura; Atkinson, Leslie R; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are steadily increasing worldwide with the greatest prevalence occurring in high-income countries. Many factors influence body mass index (BMI); however multiple influences assessed in families and individuals are rarely studied together in a prospective design. Our objective was to model the impact of multiple influences at the child (low birth weight, history of maltreatment, a history of childhood mental and physical conditions, and school difficu...

  2. Automation bias: empirical results assessing influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Kate; Roudsari, Abdul; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the rate of automation bias - the propensity of people to over rely on automated advice and the factors associated with it. Tested factors were attitudinal - trust and confidence, non-attitudinal - decision support experience and clinical experience, and environmental - task difficulty. The paradigm of simulated decision support advice within a prescribing context was used. The study employed within participant before-after design, whereby 26 UK NHS General Practitioners were shown 20 hypothetical prescribing scenarios with prevalidated correct and incorrect answers - advice was incorrect in 6 scenarios. They were asked to prescribe for each case, followed by being shown simulated advice. Participants were then asked whether they wished to change their prescription, and the post-advice prescription was recorded. Rate of overall decision switching was captured. Automation bias was measured by negative consultations - correct to incorrect prescription switching. Participants changed prescriptions in 22.5% of scenarios. The pre-advice accuracy rate of the clinicians was 50.38%, which improved to 58.27% post-advice. The CDSS improved the decision accuracy in 13.1% of prescribing cases. The rate of automation bias, as measured by decision switches from correct pre-advice, to incorrect post-advice was 5.2% of all cases - a net improvement of 8%. More immediate factors such as trust in the specific CDSS, decision confidence, and task difficulty influenced rate of decision switching. Lower clinical experience was associated with more decision switching. Age, DSS experience and trust in CDSS generally were not significantly associated with decision switching. This study adds to the literature surrounding automation bias in terms of its potential frequency and influencing factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Forsythe, Steven; Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2009-11-18

    Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful tool to achieve this.

  4. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  5. Factors that influence nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen-Chung; Samuels, Michael E; Alexander, Judith W

    2003-05-01

    To examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of registered nurses (RNs). A growing recognition of job dissatisfaction among RNs in South Carolina hospitals has contributed to current problems with recruitment and retention. If administrators identify factors influencing RNs' job satisfaction in hospitals and implement strategies to address these factors, RN turnover rates will decrease and recruiting and retention rates will increase. A cross-sectional study of secondary data was designed to identify the individual, work, and geographic factors that impact nursing job satisfaction at the state level. A 27-question self-administered survey was sent to 17,500 RNs in South Carolina with postage-paid envelopes for their responses. Surveys from 3472 nurses were completed anonymously. Univariate statistics were used to describe the study sample. One-way and multivariable Analysis of Variance were used to determine which variables contributed the most to job satisfaction. For about two thirds of the RNs, job satisfaction remained the same or had lessened over the past 2 years. In addition, statistically significant differences were found between job satisfaction and years of service, job position, hospital retirement plan, and geographic area. The findings have implications for nurse managers and hospital administrators for planning and implementing effective health policies that will meet the unique needs of their staffs and organizations. Such research is particularly relevant in this difficult time of nursing shortages throughout the healthcare industry.

  6. Iranian nurses self-perception -- factors influencing nursing image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaei, Shokoh; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jasper, Melanie; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perspectives of Iranian nurses regarding factors influencing nursing image. Nursing image is closely tied to the nurse's role and identity, influencing clinical performance, job satisfaction and quality of care. Images of nursing and nurses are closely linked to the cultural context in which nursing is practised, hence, this study explores how Iranian nurses perceive the factors that influence their own image. A descriptive study using a survey design was conducted with 220 baccalaureate qualified nurses working in four teaching hospitals in an urban area of Iran. A Nursing Image Questionnaire was used and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. In the domains of 'characteristics required for entry to work', 'social role characteristics of nursing' and 'prestige, economic and social status, and self image' the nurses had negative images. 'Reward' and 'opportunity for creativity and originality' were factors that least influenced choosing nursing as a career. The presence of a nurse in the family and working in the hospital had the greatest impact on the establishment of nurses' nursing image. Improving the nursing profession's prestige and social position as well as providing the opportunity for creativity and originality in nursing practice will change the self-image of Iranian nurses, facilitating effective and lasting changes in nursing's image. Nurse managers are well-placed to influence nurses' perceptions of nursing's image. Given the finding that thinking about leaving a job positively correlates with holding a negative nursing image, nurse managers need to consider how they can work effectively with their staff to enhance morale and nurses' experience of their job. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Factors Influencing Professional Help-Seeking for Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin; Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Randall, Rebecca

    2018-05-01

    Evidence suggests that the majority of people with suicidality do not seek help. Little systematic evaluation of factors influencing professional help-seeking has been done. To systematically evaluate the factors that influence professional help-seeking for suicidality. Published quantitative and qualitative studies in Medline and PsycInfo databases were reviewed following PRISMA. In all, 55 relevant studies were identified. Of these, 15 studies examined professional help-seeking intentions for perceived suicidal ideation, among people with or without suicidality; 21 studies examined professional help-seeking behavior among people with suicidality; and 19 studies examined suicidal decedents' health services use. Several potential important barriers were identified including high self-reliance, lack of perceived need for treatment, and stigmatizing attitudes toward suicide, toward mental health issues, and toward seeking professional treatment. The presence of suicidality and mental health issues was found to generally decrease help-seeking intentions for perceived suicidal ideation while facilitating actual service use. Social support and informal support from family and friends also played an important role in professional help-seeking. Although the majority of the included studies were of sound quality, some of the factors identified in the review were assessed in relatively few studies, and most of the included studies were conducted in industrialized countries. Further quantitative and qualitative studies examining the potential important factors in broader community samples, especially in developing countries, are needed.

  8. School Variables as Mediators of Personal and Family Factors on School Violence in Taiwanese Junior High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2012-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 3,058 junior high school students in Taiwan, this study examines a model of how personal traits, family factors, and school dynamics influence school violence committed by students against students and teachers. This model proposed that school violence is directly influenced by personal traits,…

  9. Factors influencing tinnitus loudness and annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Wolfgang; Goebel, Gerhard

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate the 2 major components of tinnitus severity, loudness and annoyance, and their degree of dependence on characteristics of tinnitus manifestation, history, and etiology. Cross-sectional survey performed during the first months of 2004. Nonclinical population. A total of 4995 members of the German Tinnitus League. Comprehensive screening questionnaire, including the Klockhoff and Lindblom loudness grading system and the miniversion of the Tinnitus Questionnaire. A moderate correlation of 0.45 was found between tinnitus loudness and annoyance. Both factors were generally higher in men, those older than 50 years, those with binaural and centrally perceived tinnitus, those with increased noise sensitivity, and those who had continuous tinnitus without interruptions. Tinnitus that lasted 12 months or less had a stronger influence on annoyance (odds ratio [OR], 1.96) than on loudness (OR, 0.45), whereas the contrary was found for tinnitus of more than 5 years' duration (ORs, 0.72 and 2.11, respectively). Loudness and annoyance were increased in subjects with coexisting hearing loss, vertigo, and hyperacusis. The impact of hyperacusis on annoyance was clearly stronger than on loudness (ORs, 21.91 vs 9.47). Several clinical factors of tinnitus influence perceived loudness and annoyance. Both are distinguishable components of tinnitus severity.

  10. Factors influencing endometrial thickness in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A

    2014-07-01

    Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer. This study suggests that parity, BMI, presence of

  11. Family perspectives in lynch syndrome becoming a family at risk, patterns of communication and influence on relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartuma Katarina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of individuals are diagnosed with hereditary cancer. Though increased levels of anxiety and depression have been demonstrated around the time of genetic counselling, most individuals handle life at increased risk well. Data have, however, been collected on individual basis, which led us to focus on family perspectives of hereditary cancer. Methods Lynch syndrome represents a major type of hereditary colorectal and gynaecological cancer. We preformed open-ended interviews with 27 informants from 9 Lynch syndrome families. Inductive content analysis revealed three major themes: transition to a risk family, patterns of communication and influence on family relations and individual roles. Results Family members described how learning about Lynch syndrome shifted focus from daily issues to concerns about cancer. Changes in communication related to difficulties in talking to children about heredity and informing new family members and distant relatives about an increased risk of cancer. Influence on relations was exemplified by family members taking on different roles, e.g. females often being responsible for coordinating information about heredity and providing support. Families in which members had experienced cancer at young age typically informed children soon after learning about heredity and at young age, whereas families with experience of cancer at higher age postponed information and thereby also genetic counselling. Conclusions Three major family perspectives are described in Lynch syndrome families; becoming a risk family, patterns of communication and influence on family relations. Since these issues are central, our findings suggests that such family perspectives should be considered during genetic counselling in order to contribute to information spread, help family members cope with the increased risk, and motivate family members at risk to undergo surveillance.

  12. Generational Approach to Factors Influencing Career Choice in Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Hsiao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research aims to grasp which factors influence the generation Y to choose accounting as its career. A significant decline in the number of candidates willing to pursue a career as accountant has been observed abroad - USA, Australia, and Japan. However, in other countries - Brazil, Singapore, and Hong Kong - the opposite has been observed. Another issue is the decline in educational qualification of those pursuing an accounting career, contributing in a way that many talented students change their career choice. This may be explained by the fact that people tend to believe accounting is an exact science, full of calculations, boring, and not very creative, bringing an unbalance between the traits an individual should have according to the job market and those perceived by society. In order to give a contribution to literature concerning the factors that influence the generation Y in its career choice, a goal of this research was conducting an exploratory study where some hypotheses were formulated to support the discussion. We used Mannheim's Generational Theory and the literature on career choice. Data collection was carried out using a questionnaire, based on Schwartz's Portrait Value Questionnaire and Germeijs and Verschueren's Student Choice Task Inventory, adapted through focus group interview. Data were fully collected online and the sample consisted of 665 subjects. The results showed that people who chose accounting as their career were influenced by factors such as creativity, independence, challenging and dynamic environment, job security, money-making, job availability, and other significant people - friends and teachers. The subjects were not influenced by social factors, such as working with people and making contributions to society and family. They wish for more autonomy, creativity, and flexibility at work, and people still care about job security and money-making.

  13. Personality factors in the Long Life Family Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stacy L; Sun, Jenny X; Sebastiani, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate personality profiles of Long Life Family Study participants relative to population norms and offspring of centenarians from the New England Centenarian Study.Method. Personality domains of agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness were...... assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory in 4,937 participants from the Long Life Family Study (mean age 70 years). A linear mixed model of age and gender was implemented adjusting for other covariates. RESULTS: A significant age trend was found in all five personality domains. On average, the offspring...... generation of long-lived families scored low in neuroticism, high in extraversion, and within average values for the other three domains. Older participants tended to score higher in neuroticism and lower in the other domains compared with younger participants, but the estimated scores generally remained...

  14. Family Influences on the Long Term Post-Disaster Recovery of Puerto Rican Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Erika; You, Sukkyung; Vernberg, Eric; Canino, Glorisa

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on characteristics of the family environment that may mediate the relationship between disaster exposure and the presence of symptoms that met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for symptom count and duration for an internalizing disorder in children and youth. We also explored how parental history of mental health problems may moderate this meditational model. Approximately 18 months after Hurricane Georges hit Puerto Rico in 1998, participants were randomly selected based on a probability household sample using 1990 US Census block groups. Caregivers and children (N=1,886 dyads) were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and other questionnaires in Spanish. Areas of the family environment assessed include parent-child relationship quality, parent-child involvement, parental monitoring, discipline, parents’ relationship quality and parental mental health. SEM models were estimated for parents and children, and by age group. For children (4–10 years old), parenting variables were related to internalizing psychopathology, but did not mediate the exposure-psychopathology relationship. Exposure had a direct relationship to internalizing psychopathology. For youth (11–17 years old), some parenting variables attenuated the relation between exposure and internalizing psychopathology. Family environment factors may play a mediational role in psychopathology post-disaster among youth, compared to an additive role for children. Hurricane exposure had a significant relation to family environment for families without parental history of mental health problems, but no influence for families with a parental history of mental health problems. PMID:22688681

  15. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation.

  16. Factors Influencing Smokeless Tobacco Use in Rural Ohio Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M.; Liu, Sherry T.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Methods Fifteen focus groups and twenty-three individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n=63) and adolescent (n=53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. Results ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. Conclusions In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to 1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and 2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation. PMID:22427033

  17. Common Factors Among Family Medicine Residents Who Encounter Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binczyk, Natalia M; Babenko, Oksana; Schipper, Shirley; Ross, Shelley

    2018-04-01

    Residents in difficulty are costly to programs in both time and resources, and encountering difficulty can be emotionally harmful to residents. Approximately 10% of residents will encounter difficulty at some point in training. While there have been several studies looking at common factors among residents who encounter difficulty, some of the findings are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are common factors among the residents who encounter difficulty during training in a large Canadian family medicine residency program. Secondary data analysis was performed on archived resident files from a Canadian family medicine residency program. Residents who commenced an urban family medicine residency program between the years of 2006 and 2014 were included in the study. Five hundred nine family medicine residents were included in data analysis. Residents older than 30 years were 2.33 times (95% CI: 1.27-4.26) more likely to encounter difficulty than residents aged 30 years or younger. Nontransfer residents were 8.85 times (95% CI: 1.17-66.67) more likely to encounter difficulty than transfer residents. The effects of sex, training site, international medical graduate status, and rotation order on the likelihood of encountering difficulty were nonsignificant. Older and nontransfer residents may be facing unique circumstances and may benefit from additional support from the program.

  18. Influence of caregiver personality on the burden of family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha-Hyun; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Shim, Hyun-Jeong; Hwang, Jun-Eul; Chung, Ik-Joo; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2016-02-01

    To determine the influence of caregiver personality and other factors on the burden of family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients. We investigated a wide range of factors related to the patient-family caregiver dyad in a palliative care setting using a cross-sectional design. Caregiver burden was assessed using the seven-item short version of the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI-7). Caregiver personality was assessed using the 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10), which measures the following five personality dimensions: extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. Patient- and caregiver-related sociodemographic and psychological factors were included in the analysis because of their potential association with caregiver burden. Clinical patient data were obtained from medical charts or by using other measures. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to identify the independent factors associated with caregiver burden. We analyzed 227 patient-family caregiver dyads. The multivariate analysis revealed that caregiver extroversion was protective against caregiver burden, whereas depressive symptoms in caregivers were related to increased burden. Neuroticism was positively correlated with caregiver burden, but this relationship was nonsignificant following adjustment for depressive symptoms. Patient-related factors were not significantly associated with caregiver burden. Evaluating caregiver personality traits could facilitate identification of individuals at greater risk of high burden. Furthermore, depression screening and treatment programs for caregivers in palliative care settings are required to decrease caregiver burden.

  19. Factors that influence Asian communities' access to mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynaden, Dianne; Chapman, Rose; Orb, Angelica; McGowan, Sunita; Zeeman, Zenith; Yeak, SiewHo

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study to identify factors that influence Asian communities' access to mental health care and how mental health care is delivered to them. Semistructured interviews were completed with Asian community members/leaders and health-care professionals. Content analysis identified major themes. Participants also completed a demographic data sheet. The research aimed to provide health professionals with an increased understanding of the values and beliefs held by people from Asian communities regarding the cause and treatment of mental illness. Data analysis identified six main themes that influenced Asian communities' access to mental health care and how mental health care is delivered to them. They were: shame and stigma; causes of mental illness; family reputation; hiding up; seeking help; and lack of collaboration. The findings highlighted that people from Asian communities are unwilling to access help from mainstream services because of their beliefs, and that stigma and shame are key factors that influence this reluctance. The findings also highlight that the mental health needs of refugee women are significant, and that they comprise a vulnerable group within Australian society.

  20. ABFs, a family of ABA-responsive element binding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Hong, J; Ha, J; Kang, J; Kim, S Y

    2000-01-21

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in environmental stress responses of higher plants during vegetative growth. One of the ABA-mediated responses is the induced expression of a large number of genes, which is mediated by cis-regulatory elements known as abscisic acid-responsive elements (ABREs). Although a number of ABRE binding transcription factors have been known, they are not specifically from vegetative tissues under induced conditions. Considering the tissue specificity of ABA signaling pathways, factors mediating ABA-dependent stress responses during vegetative growth phase may thus have been unidentified so far. Here, we report a family of ABRE binding factors isolated from young Arabidopsis plants under stress conditions. The factors, isolated by a yeast one-hybrid system using a prototypical ABRE and named as ABFs (ABRE binding factors) belong to a distinct subfamily of bZIP proteins. Binding site selection assay performed with one ABF showed that its preferred binding site is the strong ABRE, CACGTGGC. ABFs can transactivate an ABRE-containing reporter gene in yeast. Expression of ABFs is induced by ABA and various stress treatments, whereas their induction patterns are different from one another. Thus, a new family of ABRE binding factors indeed exists that have the potential to activate a large number of ABA/stress-responsive genes in Arabidopsis.

  1. FACTORS INFLUENCING FOOD NEOPHOBIA. A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOICA Maricica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the number of new food products has increased considerably. Nevertheless, not all new food products are accepted and understood by consumers, the innovations in the food sector are often not well received by the market, partly due to a phenomenon known as food neophobia. Food neophobia, a general aversion to try new or unfamiliar foods, has a major impact on preferences, selection and food product acceptability. The neophobic consumers tend to display negative attitudes and less pleasure in relation to new food products. Food neophobia is based on three main reasons for rejection of a food, such as: dislike of its sensory characteristics, fear of negative consequences of eating it, and disgust arising from the idea of the food’s nature or origin. Phobia towards the introduction of unfamiliar foods in the diet can occur for several different factors, such as: socio-demographic characteristics, education level and lifestyle, degree of urbanization, income level, arousal, personal experiences, advertising, fashion, advices of other persons, and habits. This review paper was designed to provide up-to-date relevant information on factors influencing food neophobia, like social factors, type of new food, education, and arousal. The scientific information presented here could help food scientists in new food development, and food companies to develop the best marketing strategies that lead to a general decrease in neophobic consumers’ behaviour. The application of appropriate marketing strategies may allow the product to reach a competitive advantage and be successful.

  2. Influence of organizational factors on performance reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; O'Brien, J.N.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1991-12-01

    This is the first volume of a two-volume report. Volume 2 will be published at a later date. This report presents the results of a research project conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The purpose of the project was to develop a general methodology to be use in the assessment of the organizational factors which affect performance reliability (safety) in a nuclear power plant. The research described in this report includes the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (GNOMIC). This concept characterizes the organizational factors that impact safety performance in a nuclear power plant and identifies some methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on safety performance. This report is divided into two parts; Part 1 presents an overview of the development of the methodology, while Part 2 provides more details and a technical analysis of the methodological development. Specifically, the results of two demonstration studies, the feasibility of the methodology, and a specific applications for which the methodology was developed are presented

  3. Evaluation of Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Sypniewska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term “job satisfaction” is derived from the humanities, psychology and sociology. In the field of psychology, it is a state where an employee has an emotional perception of his situation and reacts with feelings of pleasure or pain. In sociology, it is considered a variable in different categories related to how each employee evaluates and thinks about his work. Job satisfaction is closely related to the performance and quality of work performed by an employee and, consequently, translates into the success of an organization, because a satisfied employee builds and participates in the success of any organization. This article presents the results of the research conducted by the author in 2012 on a sample of 215 people. Respondents represented different organizations. The aim of the study was to identify and assess the significance of individual factors influencing satisfaction and dissatisfaction with work and demonstrate their impact on the overall assessment of job satisfaction. The study showed that between the weight attributed to individual factors and overall job satisfaction there are many statistically significant correlations referring mainly to selected on the basis of analysis respondents’ groups. The study confirms the raised thesis concerning the validity of research in the factors affecting the general feeling of satisfaction by the employees.

  4. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing large African herbivore movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour

  5. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhu K; van Berkel, Sheila R; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Alink, Lenneke R A

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and the occurrence of multiple types of child maltreatment. Cross-sectional data of 1,851 secondary and high school students aged 12 to 17 years (47.3% boys) in four provinces of Northern Vietnam were obtained using self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that the likelihood of emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and experiencing multiple types of child maltreatment during lifetime increased with age. Boys had a higher risk than girls on lifetime sexual abuse, and past year and lifetime physical abuse. Living in a single parent family was the risk factor related to most types of child maltreatment including lifetime sexual abuse, neglect, and multiple types of child maltreatment, and both past year and lifetime witnessing parental conflict. Interestingly, low socioeconomic status (SES) and parental unemployment were associated with a decreased risk on experiencing emotional abuse in the past year and during lifetime, respectively. "Tiger parenting," a parenting style observed frequently in East Asian parents, may be more common in families with high SES and might explain this finding. This study highlights the importance of prioritizing single parent families in parenting programs and implementing child maltreatment interventions early because of the risk on child maltreatment increased with age. More research on emotional abuse and "Tiger parenting" in Vietnam could clarify the association of emotional abuse with high SES and parental employment. Finally, the underlying mechanisms of the risk factors in Vietnam should be studied more to inform interventions.

  6. Habitat factors influencing the distribution of Cymbopogon validus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat factors influencing the distribution of Cymbopogon validus in Mkambati Game Reserve, Transkei. ... disturbance; game reserve; grassland; grasslands; habitat conditions; habitat factors; mkambati game ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Interdependent recovery of adults with schizophrenia: Asian American consumer perspectives of family involvement and influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karen Kyeunghae; Yamada, Ann-Marie; Kim, Min Ah; Dinh, Tam Q

    2015-09-01

    Family involvement is important in the recovery experience of culturally diverse adults with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the influence of family among consumers purported to have close family ties without regular contact. This study explored Asian American consumers' views about family relationships and participation in their recovery. Secondary analysis of qualitative data from a larger project was conducted to explore family related themes of 8 Asian Americans receiving services from recovery-focused programs in urban Southern California. Most consumers described their family support as adequate while simultaneously reporting limited family involvement. Asia-born and U.S.-born Asian consumers varied in describing family support, suggesting providers consider nativity in culturally responsive service delivery. Families need not be present to affect the perspectives of Asian Americans receiving recovery-oriented services. The extent of family influences on recovery, beyond the initial determination of current family contact, requires further exploration. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. [Bioavailability and factors influencing its rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan

    Bioavailability can be defined as the rate and range of active ingredient absorption, when it becomes available in the systemic circulation or at the desired site of drug action, respectively. Drug bioavailability after oral administration is affected by anumber of different factors, including physicochemical properties of the drug, physiological aspects, the type of dosage form, food intake, biorhythms, and intra- and interindividual variability of the human population. This article is the first from the series dealing with the bioavailability and methods leading to its improvement. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of aspects influencing the rate of bioavailability after oral administration of the active ingredient. Subsequentarticles will provide detailed descriptions of methods used for dug bioavailability improvement, which are here only summarized.

  9. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Meyrick C M

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of "being there" in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users' attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S ARMAN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

  11. Factors That Influence Breastfeeding Initiation Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Tyonne D; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Spatz, Diane L

    2018-05-01

    To examine cultural and socioenvironmental factors that affect breastfeeding initiation among African American women. Qualitative descriptive design and conventional content analysis. A large, inner-city, primary care center affiliated with a 500-bed children's hospital within a large, Northeastern U.S. city. Participants were 34 U.S.-born African American mothers of healthy term infants 0 to 3 months of age. Six focus groups were conducted using a 16-question, scripted interview guide. A number of complex factors that influenced breastfeeding initiation included certain cultural beliefs about sexuality, the influence of family and peer networks, information sources, intentions, and a variety of other barriers and facilitators. Our findings suggest that the decision to initiate breastfeeding is not solely determined by the woman within the African American community. Because this decision is contingent on multiple factors external to the woman, it is important to recognize the role that partners, grandmothers, communities, information sources, and health care providers/organizations play in women's decisions. Implementation of multilevel strategies is critical to increase breastfeeding initiation among African American mothers. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Familial aggregation and linkage analysis with covariates for metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Parisa; Khodakarim, Soheila; Guity, Kamran; Daneshpour, Maryam S

    2018-06-15

    Mechanisms of metabolic syndrome (MetS) causation are complex, genetic and environmental factors are important factors for the pathogenesis of MetS In this study, we aimed to evaluate familial and genetic influences on metabolic syndrome risk factor and also assess association between FTO (rs1558902 and rs7202116) and CETP(rs1864163) genes' single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with low HDL_C in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). The design was a cross-sectional study of 1776 members of 227 randomly-ascertained families. Selected families contained at least one affected metabolic syndrome and at least two members of the family had suffered a loss of HDL_C according to ATP III criteria. In this study, after confirming the familial aggregation with intra-trait correlation coefficients (ICC) of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the quantitative lipid traits, the genetic linkage analysis of HDL_C was performed using conditional logistic method with adjusted sex and age. The results of the aggregation analysis revealed a higher correlation between siblings than between parent-offspring pairs representing the role of genetic factors in MetS. In addition, the conditional logistic model with covariates showed that the linkage results between HDL_C and three marker, rs1558902, rs7202116 and rs1864163 were significant. In summary, a high risk of MetS was found in siblings confirming the genetic influences of metabolic syndrome risk factor. Moreover, the power to detect linkage increases in the one parameter conditional logistic model regarding the use of age and sex as covariates. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Family Partner Intervention Influences Self-Care Confidence and Treatment Self-Regulation in Patients with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Kelly D.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Clark, Patricia C.; Reilly, Carolyn M.; Gary, Rebecca A.; Higgins, Melinda; Ryan, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure self-care requires confidence in one’s ability and motivation to perform a recommended behavior. Most self-care occurs within a family context, yet little is known about the influence of family on heart failure self-care or motivating factors. Aims To examine the association of family functioning and the self-care antecedents of confidence and motivation among heart failure participants and determine if a family partnership intervention would promote higher levels of perceived confidence and treatment self-regulation (motivation) at four and eight months compared to patient-family education or usual care groups. Methods Heart failure patients (N = 117) and a family member were randomized to a family partnership intervention, patient-family education or usual care groups. Measures of patient’s perceived family functioning, confidence, motivation for medications and following a low-sodium diet were analyzed. Data were collected at baseline, four and eight months. Results Family functioning was related to self-care confidence for diet (p=.02) and autonomous motivation for adhering to their medications (p=.05 and diet p=0.2). The family partnership intervention group significantly improved confidence (p=.05) and motivation (medications (p=.004; diet p=.012) at four months whereas patient-family education group and usual care did not change. Conclusion Perceived confidence and motivation for self-care was enhanced by family partnership intervention, regardless of family functioning. Poor family functioning at baseline contributed to lower confidence. Family functioning should be assessed to guide tailored family-patient interventions for better outcomes. PMID:25673525

  14. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-09-01

    The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to

  15. Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Sargent, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes

  16. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  17. Beyond the genetic basis of sensation seeking: The influence of birth order, family size and parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    Feij, Jan A,; Taris, Toon W.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same fa...

  18. Family structure and family education as the factors for personal development of preschooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovey L.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of personal characteristics of preschoolers in relation to the factors of gender, family structure (complete or one-parent, the presence of sibling and family upbringing (parenting styles, parent-child emotional interaction. The study involved 155 boys, 157 girls and 312 mothers from Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Arkhangelsk. The age of children — from 4 to 7 years. We used the test and projective techniques. The study revealed that children from single parent families had higher indicators of anxiety, insecurity, depressiveness, self-distrust, hostility, feeling of inferiority, conflicts and difficulties in communication. In families with pronounced overprotection and characteristics of an authoritarian style children had lower self- esteem and higher indicators of anxiety and hostility. Children's aggressiveness was more pronounced in the case of permissive style and instability of parenting style. It was shown that emotional well-being in the parent-child relationships can be regarded as a resource for personal development of the child: understanding the causes of child s state, empathy. However we revealed that one third part of mothers had difficulties in emotional interaction with children. The research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project №13-06-00480 «The family as a resource of child´s mental development in stable and critical ontogenetic periods».

  19. Influence Strategies Used When Couples Make Work-Family Decisions and Their Importance for Marital Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonkovic, Anisa M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated how marital partners influenced each other concerning work and family decisions and connected influence strategies to martial satisfaction in 61 married couples who had faced work-family decisions in past 6 months. Found that gender role ideology and indirect influence strategies were related to marital satisfaction. Variables related…

  20. Factors Influencing Students’ Perceptions of Online Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falls

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.

  1. Factors Influencing Teamwork in Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijal Michał

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse different views on interpersonal relations and team composition among managers and medical professionals with respect to the transition of professional roles in healthcare in Poland. To achieve that goal, a description based on a quantitative and qualitative questionnaire was conducted. Since the questionnaire covered various areas of health care, only its small fraction was used for the analysis. The main result is that most of the medical professionals and medical managers consider technology to be the single most important external factor influencing the team work efficiency and team composition in health care, and the managers consider skillset as the crucial factor determining whether a person would be a good team member. Based on the literature on professional roles in health care and their evolution in recent years, one can assume that constant development and lifelong learning would play a significant role in the healthcare systems reform. The findings are an important contribution to the discussion of the healthcare reform and its possible directions in future years as well a reference point for policy makers.

  2. Factors influencing performance within startup assistance organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceaușu Ioana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Startup assistance organizations, and especially business accelerators have gained a lot of traction in the last years, captioning not only the attention of the public, but most importantly that of investors and other stakeholders. It has become a challenge for many all around the world to develop such programs, but many have failed or did not have their expected results, meaning medium to long-term sustainable and profitable alumni start-ups. As high amounts of resources, both human and financial, are being invested in the design and development of such programs, it is important to understand what sets apart the successful business acceleration programs from the ones that fail. The current paper is reviewing the up-to-date theoretical literature and studies on the matter at hand, in order to identify the most relevant factors influencing startup assistance organizations’ performance. The objective behind identifying these factors is to get a better understanding of best practices of such successful programs and set the basis for future research regarding the development of a set of metrics for more accurately measuring their performance.

  3. Are the educational differences in incidence of cardiovascular disease explained by underlying familial factors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Gerster, Mette

    2014-01-01

    To isolate the effect of education from the influence of potential underlying factors, we investigated the association of education with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) using twin data to adjust for familial factors shared within twins, including genetic...... make-up and childhood environment. The study was based on data from the Danish Twin Registry linked to administrative and heath registers in Statistics Denmark. A total of 11,968 monozygotic and 20,464 dizygotic same sexed twins were followed from 1980 to 2009, including more than 8000 events of CVD....... Unpaired and intra-pair analyses were compared. In the unpaired analyses, an inverse educational gradient in CVD- and IHD risk was observed. This association was not replicated in the intra-pair analyses that control for shared familial factors exploiting that twins share their intrauterine- and childhood...

  4. Factors Associated with Family Caregivers' Burden and Depression in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyunsook

    2003-01-01

    This study determines the relative effects of functional impairment, cognitive impairment, and duration of care of the elderly on caregivers' depression, and identifies the factors that influence this relationship. The variables were entered individually, based on a logical order in the path modeling. For mediators, the order of three types of…

  5. Maternal depression as a risk factor for family homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2014-09-01

    We estimated the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum year, which is often an unexpected event, on subsequent homelessness and risk of homelessness in a national sample of urban, mostly low-income mothers. We used logistic regression models to estimate associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and both homelessness and risk of homelessness 2 to 3 years later, controlling for maternal and family history of depression, prenatal housing problems, and other covariates. Risk factors for homelessness included experiencing evictions or frequent moves and moving in with family or friends and not paying rent. We found robust associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and subsequent homelessness and risk of homelessness, even among mothers who had no history of mental illness, whose own mothers did not have a history of depressive symptoms, and who had no previous housing problems. This study provides robust evidence that maternal mental illness places families with young children at risk for homelessness, contributes to the scant literature elucidating directional and causal links between mental illness and homelessness, and contributes to a stagnant but important literature on family homelessness.

  6. Hispanic/Latino Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Influence of Family Structure, Perceived Peer Norms, and Family Members' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Xu, Lei; Valente, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family structure and value system among Hispanic/Latino population are changing. However, very few studies have examined the combination of the influence of family structure, parental and sibling alcohol use, perceived peer norms about drinking, and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Purpose: This study examined the…

  7. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Gimeno, Ana; Martínez-Costa, Lucía; Ayala, Guillermo

    2012-08-08

    To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue), graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis), and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain). The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women) presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  8. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Gimeno Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  9. Family interaction and a supportive social network as salutogenic factors in childhood atopic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Per A; Kjellman, N-I Max; Björkstén, Bengt

    2002-02-01

    , alternating between total disinterest and over-involvement (p = 0.02), lack of support and rejection of offered support (p = 0.01), a greater number of individual decisions without regard to the other family members (p = 0.04), and indistinct 'generational boundaries' (p = 0.04). We conclude that psychosocial factors, such as family interaction and a supportive social network, play a significant role in the course of atopic illness in early childhood and that measures which enhance family interaction and the social network could influence the course of the disease favorably.

  10. Educational Aspirations of Male and Female Adolescents from Single-Parent and Two Biological Parent Families: A Comparison of Influential Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rashmi; Melanson, Stella; Levin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Youth from single-parent families report lower educational aspirations than those from two-parent families. This study explored the influence of background factors (gender, grade, parental education and SES), parental involvement with education, academic self-concept, and peer influences on educational aspirations. The participants were Canadian…

  11. Family structure and upbringing as factors of intellectual development of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Golovey L.A.; Savenysheva S.S.; Engelgardt E.E.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of the influence of the family structure and family attitudes, child-parent relationship, styles of family upbringing on the intellectual develop- ment of pre-school-age children. Attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of parents and children gender. The sample included 150 children, 150 mothers and 75 fathers, all the families live in St. Petersburg. Results of the study reveal a significantly greater influence of the child's parent-child rel...

  12. The influence of family violence and child marriage on unmet need for family planning in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cari Jo; Spencer, Rachael A; Khalaf, Inaam A; Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Risk for unmet need for contraception is associated with men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and may be influenced by violence perpetrated by other family members (family violence, FV). Women who married as minors may be most vulnerable to the potential compounding effect of IPV and FV on unmet need. Using nationally representative data from the 2012 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey we examined unmet need by exposure to IPV and FV by women's age at marriage (<18, 18+ years). Logistic regression was used to test whether IPV and FV were independently associated with unmet need, by age at marriage. Interaction terms (IPV×FV) were tested in both models. Stratification by FV was employed to clarify the interpretation of significant interactions. IPV increased the odds of unmet need by 87% [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.87; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.13-3.10] and 76% (AOR 1.76; 95% CI 1.30-2.38) among women who married prior to and after the age of 18 years, respectively. Women married as minors who experienced IPV and FV had a four-fold higher likelihood of having an unmet need (AOR 6.75; 95% CI 1.95-23.29) compared to those experiencing only IPV (AOR 1.49; 95% CI 0.84-2.38). No interaction between IPV and FV was detected for women married at or above majority. Laws that prohibit child marriage should be strengthened and health sector screening for violence experience could help identify women at risk of unmet need and improve women's reproductive agency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Factors influencing French medical students towards a career in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andlauer, Olivier; Guicherd, William; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Bonin, Bernard; Seed, Kitty; Lydall, Gregory; Malik, Amit; Bhugra, Dinesh; Howard, Rob

    2012-09-01

    There is a need to increase the recruitment to psychiatry in France. Our aim in this study was to compare factors influencing career choice between French medical students considering and not considering psychiatry as a specialty. Quantitative cross-sectional online survey on 145 French students in their last year of medical school. 22.7% of our sample considered choosing a career in psychiatry. A preference for a career in psychiatry was associated with more frequent history of personal/familial mental illness, higher ratings of psychiatric teaching, more weeks of compulsory psychiatry teaching and placement, during which students had more often met patients in recovery and been asked their opinion on patients. Students considering psychiatry as a career also emphasized more the need for a good work-life balance, and presented better attitudes toward psychiatry. Improving opportunities of interactions between students and psychiatrists or psychiatric patients might help to improve recruitment in psychiatry.

  14. Beyond the genetic basis of sensation seeking: The influence of birth order, family size and parenting styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feij, Jan A,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same factor, are related to biologically based impulsive disorders, and have a common genetic basis. Questionnaire and biographical data obtained from 532 female and 479 male young adults (age between 18 and 30 years were analyzed using structural modeling. The results show that participants who experienced little parental care and much control were more likely to have high scores on disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. It appears that these family factors may partly explain the previously reported effects of birth order and family size on sensation seeking.

  15. Factors influencing induction of adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misonoh, Jun; Ojima, Mitsuaki; Yonezawa, Morio

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)

  16. Comorbidity and Family Factors Associated with Selective Mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Buzzella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that Selective Mutism (SM is best conceptualized as a childhood anxiety disorder and that oppositional behavior may or may not be a significant part of the clinical picture. Twenty-nine mothers of children with SM and 28 mothers of children who did not meet diagnostic criteria for any Axis I disorder (a community comparison group completed parental self-report questionnaires and clinician-rated interviews assessing anxiety and oppositional behavior, parental psychopathology, and family factors with hypothesized relationships with childhood anxiety. Findings suggested that children with SM experienced more anxiety than those in the community comparison group, with significantly higher levels of social anxiety, rumination, and physical symptoms reported. Mothers of children with SM reported greater monitoring of their children's activities, but they did not significantly differ from community comparison group mothers on reports of other parenting behaviors. Such findings may have important implications for guiding family involvement in psychosocial interventions.

  17. Factors influencing career choices in radiology trainees in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, S W; Ko, H S; Applegate, K E

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing career choices in radiology trainees. We distributed a 27-question written survey to all radiology registrars in Queensland. The questions investigated whether radiology was their first specialty choice, career satisfaction, ideal working conditions and attitudes regarding having children during the time of training. Forty-four of 51 surveys were returned (86% participation rate, 73% men, P = 0.048055) with 100% reporting a high job satisfaction; 28% of male registrars compared to 8% of female registrars did extra work outside of training to earn extra money (P = 0.000003), and 17% of female registrars took a leave of absence during their training, while no male registrar did (P = 0.087923). Only one female trainee worked part-time (P = 0.272727). In addition, 58% of female registrars planned a pregnancy (P = 0.731789) before completion of training; 83% of women versus 75% of men had no children (P = 0.329263). Only 5% of trainees agreed that it was easy to arrange part-time training, only 14% stated that it was easy to negotiate flexible work schedules and 7% agreed that it was easy to return to work after a period of absence. 'Time spent with immediate family' was rated the most important lifestyle factor, followed by 'work hours' and 'on-call duty'. The least important factors were 'being away from extended family', 'availability of part-time work' and whether 'work was in a rural location'. Overall job satisfaction is high among radiology trainees. Nevertheless, lifestyle factors, particularly those related to work time, are becoming more important for career decisions. This should be taken into account when designing and structuring radiology training to ensure that it is considered an attractive career choice.

  18. [Impacts of biological and family factors on lexical and intellectual development in Mandarin-speaking children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jie; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Zhu, Li-Qi

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the impacts of biological factors (age and sex) and family factors (socioeconomic status and parenting style) on the early lexical and intellectual development of children in a longitudinal tracking study. A total of 38 Mandarin-speaking children aged from 18 to 24 months were surveyed using the Putonghua Chinese Communicative Development Inventory (PCDI), the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), and a self-designed Questionnaire for Parents. All of the subjects were retested using PCDI and ASQ after 6 months. Biological factors accounted for 65% of the variance in lexical development, 10% of which was attributed to gender, in the first survey. After six months, the contribution of age decreased to 26% and gender had no significant impact. Lexical development could positively predict the intellectual development of children. When age and gender were controlled, it accounted for 22% of the variance in intellectual development. Family socioeconomic factors had no significant impacts on lexical and intellectual development. Children's recognition of people and objects around them with guidance of parents in parenting styles could positively predict the intellectual development of children six months later, which accounted for 10% of the variance. Biological factors play an important role in the early lexical development of children. However, the influence decreases with the increase of age (months). Biological factors, lexical development, and parenting style have a combined influence on children's intellectual development.

  19. Family planning use and associated factors among pastoralist community of afar region, eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Mussie; Lemma, Hailemariam; Abrha, Kidan; Adama, Yohannes; Fisseha, Girmatsion; Yebyo, Henock; Gebeye, Ejigu; Negash, Kassahun; Yousuf, Jemal; Fantu, Tigist; Gebregzabher, Tesfay; Medhanyie, Araya Abrha

    2016-07-18

    Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Africa with a total fertility rate (TFR) of 4.8 children per a woman and contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) of 29 %. The overall prevalence of modern family planning in a pastoralist community, like Afar region, is low (9.1 %). This study aimed to assess family planning utilization and associated factors among married women of Afar region, Eastern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 10-28, 2013 among 602 women. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Descriptive and multiple variable logistic regression analyses were done to isolate independent predictors on utilization of family planning using SPSS 20. The overall prevalence of family planning utilization in Afar region was 8.5 % (6.2-10.7). Majority of the women (92.2 %) had used injectable. The most common reasons mentioned in the non-use of family planning methods were religion-related (85.3 %), desire to have more children (75.3 %), and husband's objection (70.1 %). Women who had a positive attitude towards family planning utilization (AOR = 4.7, 95 % CI: 2.1, 10.3), owning radio (AOR = 1.8, 95 % CI: 1.02, 4.18), and literate (AOR = 4.4, 95 % CI: 1.80, 11.08) were more likely to use family planning methods as compared to their counterparts. The increase of monthly income was also associated with the likelihood of family planning methods utilization. The odds of using family planning methods were higher among those with monthly income of $27-$55.5 (AOR = 2. 0, 95 % CI: 1.9, 4.7) and > $55 (AOR = 4. 6, 95 % CI: 1.23-17.19) as compared to women with the lowest category of monthly income ($27 and less). The low coverage of family planning in the region could be due to the influence of husband, religious and clan leader. Attitude of women towards family planning methods, possession of radio, monthly income, and educational status could influence family

  20. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity).

  1. The influence of family accommodation on pediatric hospital experience in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Linda S; Ferguson, Deron; Fryda, Sarah; Rubin, Nicole

    2017-08-15

    The goals of our study were to describe the types of family accommodation for parents of hospitalized children and to examine their influence on the pediatric hospital experience. This multi-site cohort survey included 10 hospitals in Ontario Province, Canada. Participants were parents of inpatient children (n = 1240). Main outcome measures included ratings of three parent-reported measures of hospital experience: overall hospital experience; willingness to recommend the hospital to family or friends; and how much the accommodation type helped parent stay involved in their child's hospital care. Parents most often stayed in the child's room (74.7%), their own home (12.3%), hotel (4.0%) or a Ronald McDonald House (3.0%). Accommodation varied based on hospital, parent and child factors. Length of stay and the child's health status were significant predictors for overall hospital experience and recommending the hospital to family or friends, but accommodation type was not. Families who stayed at a Ronald McDonald House reported greater involvement in their child's care compared with other accommodation types (odds ratio: 1.54-20.73 for contrasted accommodation types). Use of different overnight accommodations for families of hospitalized pediatric patients in Canada is similar to a previous report of U.S. family hospital accommodations. In contrast to the previous U.S. findings, Canadian hospital experience scores were lower and accommodation type was not a significant predictor of overall hospital experience or willingness to recommend the hospital. In Canada, as in the U.S., families who stayed at a Ronald McDonald House reported that this accommodation type significantly improved their ability to be involved in their child's care.

  2. Fundamental factors influencing portal image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffray, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    It has been recognized that improved methods of verifying radiation field placement in external beam radiotherapy are required in order to make frequent checks of field placement feasible. As a result, a large number of electronic portal imaging systems have been developed as possible replacements for film. These developments have produced digital systems with faster acquisition and improved display contrast, however, the quality of the images acquired with such systems is still disappointing. This presentation examines many of the fundamental factors which limit the quality of radiographs obtained with a megavoltage radiotherapy beam. The size and shape of the radiation sources (focal and extra-focal) in radiotherapy machines and their influence on the spatial resolution of portal images are examined. Monte Carlo simulations of x-ray interactions within the patient determined that a significant fraction of the x-ray scatter generated in the patient is due to bremsstrahlung and positron annihilation. Depending on the detector, the scatter signal can reduce the differential signal-to-noise by 20%. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo study of the interaction of x-rays within typical fluoroscopic imaging detectors (metal plate/phosphor screen) demonstrates the degrading effect of energy absorption noise on the detective quantum efficiency of fluoroscopic based imaging systems. Finally, the spatial frequency content in the x-ray shadowgram is demonstrated to change with x-ray energy, resulting in images that appear to have reduced spatial resolution at megavoltage energies. The relative magnitude of each of these factors will be presented and recommendations for the next generation of portal imaging systems will be made

  3. Direct and Indirect Factors Influencing Selection of Birthing Attendants in Gunungsari, West Lombok (NTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Aryaniti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: This study aims to determine the direct and indirect factors influencing the selection of birth attendants in Gunungsari subdistrict, West Lombok.Methods: This study was cross-sectional with a purposively selected sample of 27 mothers giving birth assisted by non-health professionals. Samples of those assisted by health professionals were taken by means of proportional systematic random sampling in Gunungsari and Penimbung health centers, respectively 29 of 916 and 14 of 437. Exogenous factors were maternal education levels, attendance to ANC classes, knowledge levels regarding to birthing attendants, maternal attitude, family support, and access to facilities. Birth attendant selection was the endogenousfactor. Data were collected by means of interviews. Data analysis includes descriptive and inferential analysis with path analysis by linear regression.Results: The majority of respondents were 21-25 years old (87.4% , housewives (47.14% had educat ion under high school (65.72% and were married (88.57%. Family support had a direct influence in decision making with a coefficient of 0.534 and 35.54% influence overall. Attendance to ANC classes in addition to family support had anindirect influence with a coefficient of 0.520 and 34.78% influence overall. Family support had a direct influence and the factor of attendance to ANC classes and family support has an indirect effect with the overall effect of 70.32%.Conclusion: The presence of the husband/family was needed in ANC class, through an implementation of schedule agreement.Keywords: family support, ANC class, birth attendants, path analysis, West Lombok

  4. Family and peer influences on adjustment among Chinese, Filipino, and White youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgerodt, Mayumi Anne

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of parent-adolescent relationships and peer behavior on emotional distress and risky behaviors among Asian American adolescents; in particular, cross-cultural and longitudinal examinations are missing from the extant research. To test and compare a theoretical model examining the influence of family and peer factors on adolescent distress and risky behavior over time, using a nationally representative sample of Chinese, Filipino, and White adolescents. Data were utilized from Waves I (1994) and II (1995) of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health; the sample is composed of 194 Chinese, 345 Filipino, and 395 White adolescents and weighted to correct for design effects, yielding a nationally representative sample. Structural equation modeling was used to test the theoretical model for each ethnic group separately followed by multiple-group analyses. The measurement model was examined for each ethnic group, using both unweighted and weighted samples, and was deemed equivalent across groups. Tests of the theoretical model by ethnicity revealed that for each group, family bonds have significant negative effects on emotional distress and risky behaviors. For Filipino and White youth, peer risky behaviors influenced risky behaviors. Multiple-group analyses of the theoretical model indicated that the three ethnic groups did not differ significantly from one another. Findings suggest that family bonds and peer behavior exert significant influences on psychological and behavioral outcomes in Asian American youth and that these influences appear to be similar with White adolescents. Future research should be directed toward incorporating variables known to contribute to the impact of distress and risky behaviors in model testing and validating findings from this study.

  5. Adolescent Agentic Orientations: Contemporaneous Family Influence, Parental Biography and Intergenerational Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Hitlin, Steven

    2017-10-01

    Agentic orientations developed in adolescence have been linked to better health, well-being, and achievements in the years following. This study examines longitudinal parental influences on the development of adolescent children's agentic orientations, captured by the core constructs of mastery beliefs and generalized life expectations. Drawing on multigenerational panel data from the United States (1991-2011), the study examines contemporaneous family factors, but also how parental biographies (their own transition to adulthood) and parents' own adolescent agentic orientations influence their adolescent children. Study adolescents were 46% male, 52% white, and 15.6 years old on average. The findings indicate that parents' early orientations and experiences in the transition to adulthood have little effect on their children's mastery beliefs, but that parents' generalized life expectations (in adolescence) and having married before having the child were associated with their children's more optimistic life expectations. Contemporaneous family income and optimistic expectations among parents-as-adolescents were somewhat substitutable as positive influences on adolescents' optimistic life expectations. The findings contribute to our understanding of intergenerational and over-time influences on these key adolescent orientations.

  6. Part-time work and adolescent heavy episodic drinking: the influence of family and community context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, F Curtis; Adlaf, Edward M

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies on part-time work and alcohol use suggest that teenagers who work longer hours drink more heavily. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether family- and community-level factors moderate the relationship between part-time work hours and heavy episodic drinking. Data were drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of Canadians. The survey included 8,080 respondents 15-19 years of age who reported work hours and frequency of heavy episodic drinking over the past 12 months. These respondents were located in 136 counties or municipalities across Canada. On average, work hours were positively associated with the frequency of heavy drinking by teenagers in the past 12 months. At the community level, the proportion of teenagers in each community drinking any alcohol was independently and positively associated with respondents' frequency of heavy drinking. In terms of moderating effects, we found that the work hours-drinking association was weaker among youth from low socioeconomic status families. Examination of community-level factors indicated that longer work hours were more strongly associated with heavy episodic drinking in communities with high rates of teen alcohol abstinence. Although the cross-sectional data prohibit any firm conclusions on how family and community factors influence the work-alcohol use relationship, these data suggest that interventions to reduce heavy episodic drinking among teens should address the broader environmental as well as the individual determinants.

  7. Medical students, money, and career selection: students' perception of financial factors and remuneration in family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Dante J; Regehr, Glenn; Ginsburg, Shiphra

    2009-02-01

    Medical students have had a declining interest in family medicine as a career. Some studies have shown a small inverse relationship between debt levels and primary care, but it is unclear how students perceive remuneration in different specialties and how these perceptions might influence career choice. Medical students at one school were surveyed to understand their perceptions of physician remuneration and to gain insight into how these perceptions might affect career selection. Response rate was 72% (560/781 students). Students' estimates of physician income were accurate throughout training, with the overall estimate for family medicine being lower than the actual income by only $10,656. The vast majority of students agreed with the statement that family physicians get paid too little (85%-89% of each class). The importance of payment as a factor in career decision making increased with higher debt and with advancing training. Students are able to accurately predict income by specialty from an early stage of training and have a negative perception of income in family medicine. The perception that family physicians make too little money could be an important driver--or at least a modifier--in the lack of interest in family medicine.

  8. Factors influencing creep model equation selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdsworth, S.R.; Askins, M.; Baker, A.; Gariboldi, E.; Holmstroem, S.; Klenk, A.; Ringel, M.; Merckling, G.; Sandstrom, R.; Schwienheer, M.; Spigarelli, S.

    2008-01-01

    During the course of the EU-funded Advanced-Creep Thematic Network, ECCC-WG1 reviewed the applicability and effectiveness of a range of model equations to represent the accumulation of creep strain in various engineering alloys. In addition to considering the experience of network members, the ability of several models to describe the deformation characteristics of large single and multi-cast collations of ε(t,T,σ) creep curves have been evaluated in an intensive assessment inter-comparison activity involving three steels, 21/4 CrMo (P22), 9CrMoVNb (Steel-91) and 18Cr13NiMo (Type-316). The choice of the most appropriate creep model equation for a given application depends not only on the high-temperature deformation characteristics of the material under consideration, but also on the characteristics of the dataset, the number of casts for which creep curves are available and on the strain regime for which an analytical representation is required. The paper focuses on the factors which can influence creep model selection and model-fitting approach for multi-source, multi-cast datasets

  9. Primary care specialty career choice among Canadian medical students: Understanding the factors that influence their decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Heather Ann; Glicksman, Jordan T; Brandt, Michael G; Doyle, Philip C; Fung, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    To identify which factors influence medical students' decision to choose a career in family medicine and pediatrics, and which factors influence their decision to choose careers in non-front-line specialties. Survey that was created based on a comprehensive literature review to determine which factors are considered important when choosing practice specialty. Ontario medical school. An open cohort of medical students in the graduating classes of 2008 to 2011 (inclusive). The main factors that influenced participants' decision to choose a career in primary care or pediatrics, and the main factors that influenced participants' decision to choose a career in a non-front-line specialty. A total of 323 participants were included in this study. Factors that significantly influenced participants' career choice in family medicine or pediatrics involved work-life balance (acceptable hours of practice [ P = .005], acceptable on-call demands [ P = .012], and lifestyle flexibility [ P = .006]); a robust physician-patient relationship (ability to promote individual health promotion [ P = .014] and the opportunity to form long-term relationships [ P  < .001], provide comprehensive care [ P = .001], and treat patients and their families [ P = .006]); and duration of residency program ( P = .001). The career-related factors that significantly influenced participants' decision to choose a non-front-line specialty were as follows: becoming an expert ( P  < .001), maintaining a focused scope of practice ( P  < .001), having a procedure-focused practice ( P = .001), seeing immediate results from one's actions ( P  < .001), potentially earning a high income ( P  < .001), and having a perceived status among colleagues ( P  < .001). In this study, 8 factors were found to positively influence medical students' career choice in family medicine and pediatrics, and 6 factors influenced the decision to choose a career in a non-front-line specialty. Medical students can be

  10. The Application of Family Therapy Concepts to Influencing Organizational Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Larry; Gilmore, Tom

    1980-01-01

    Explores, through an action research project, the possible contributions--in theory, diagnosis, and intervention--of structural family therapy to organizational change. Reports that successful transfer of family therapy techniques to organizations is contingent on understanding four differences between organizations and families. (Author/IRT)

  11. 330 Factors Influencing Substance Abuse among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... family background, and knowledge of drugs and drug abuse. At the end of ... outside the school. This unfortunate, anti social behaviour therefore, calls for. Vol. .... This is necessary because knowledge is power. Information is ...

  12. Risk Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior: A Turkish Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öncel, Sevgi Yurt; Dick, Danielle M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Alıev, Fazil

    2015-01-01

    Aim In this study, we introduce the first twin study in Turkey, focusing on smoking behavior, and laying the foundation to register all twins born in Turkey for research purposes. Using Turkish twins will contribute to our understanding of health problems in the context of cultural differences. Materials and methods We assessed 309 twin pairs (339 males and 279 females) aged between 15 and 45 years living in the Kırıkkale and Ankara regions of Turkey, and administered a health and lifestyle interview that included questions about smoking status and smoking history. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square tests, and bivariate and multivariate clustered logistic regression. In addition, we fit bivariate Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine contributions of latent genetic and environmental factors to smoking outcomes in this sample. Results One hundred seventy-eight participants (28.8%) were identified as smokers, smoking every day for a month or longer, of whom 79.2% were males and 20.8% were females. Mean values for number of cigarettes per day and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Fagerstrom, 1978) score were higher in males than in females, and age of onset was earlier in males. There was a significant positive correlation between the FTND score and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and a significant negative correlation between both variables and age at onset of smoking. Our study showed that gender, presence of a smoking twin in the family, age, alcohol use, marital status, daily sports activities, and feeling moody all played a significant role in smoking behavior among twins. The twin analysis suggested that 79.5% of the liability to FTND was influenced by genetic factors and 20.5% by unique environment, while familial resemblance for smoking initiation was best explained by common environmental factors. Conclusions Marked differences in the prevalence of smoking behavior in men versus women were

  13. Quantitative measurements of trefoil factor family peptides: possibilities and pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund

    2013-01-01

    The trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 are produced and secreted by mucous membranes throughout the body. Their importance for the protection and repair of epithelial surfaces is well established, and the three peptides are present in various amounts in mucosal secretions...... as well as in the circulation. They have been linked to both inflammatory diseases and to various types of cancer, and serum concentrations of TFF3 show a more than 47-fold increase during pregnancy. Several both commercial and in-house immunoassays exist, but a number of methodological issues remain...

  14. Proximity of couples to parents: influences of gender, labor market, and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak Wing; Ermisch, John

    2015-04-01

    We use household survey data from the UK to study how close middle-aged men and women in partnerships live to their parents and their partner's parents. We find a slight tendency for couples to live closer to the woman's parents than the man's. This tendency is more pronounced among couples in which neither partner has a college degree and in which there is a child. In other respects, proximity to parents is gender-neutral, with the two partners having equal influence on intergenerational proximity. Better-educated couples live farther from their parents. And although certain family characteristics matter, intergenerational proximity is primarily driven by factors affecting mobility over long distances, which are mainly associated with the labor market, as opposed to gender or family circumstances.

  15. Is the Association Between Education and Fertility Postponement Causal? The Role of Family Background Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropf, Felix C; Mandemakers, Jornt J

    2017-02-01

    A large body of literature has demonstrated a positive relationship between education and age at first birth. However, this relationship may be partly spurious because of family background factors that cannot be controlled for in most research designs. We investigate the extent to which education is causally related to later age at first birth in a large sample of female twins from the United Kingdom (N = 2,752). We present novel estimates using within-identical twin and biometric models. Our findings show that one year of additional schooling is associated with about one-half year later age at first birth in ordinary least squares (OLS) models. This estimate reduced to only a 1.5-month later age at first birth for the within-identical twin model controlling for all shared family background factors (genetic and family environmental). Biometric analyses reveal that it is mainly influences of the family environment-not genetic factors-that cause spurious associations between education and age at first birth. Last, using data from the Office for National Statistics, we demonstrate that only 1.9 months of the 2.74 years of fertility postponement for birth cohorts 1944-1967 could be attributed to educational expansion based on these estimates. We conclude that the rise in educational attainment alone cannot explain differences in fertility timing between cohorts.

  16. An Investigation into factors influencing the choice of business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant difference between male and female career influencing factors. There was no significant difference regarding the influence exercised by parent in the students' choice of Business Education. There is significant difference between male and female in the influence exerted by external factors in their ...

  17. Perceived Family Cohesion Moderates Environmental Influences on Prosocial Behavior in Nigerian Adolescent Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yoon-Mi; Taylor, Jeanette; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Park, Min-Seo; Haberstick, Brett C

    2017-06-01

    Research shows that perceived family cohesion is positively related to prosocial behavior in adolescents. In this study, we investigated heritability of prosocial behavior (PB) and perceived family cohesion (FC) among Nigerian twins attending public schools in Lagos State, Nigeria (mean age = 14.7 years, SD = 1.7 years), and explored the issue of whether children's perception of cohesive family environment moderated genetic and environmental influences on (PB). The PB scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the FC scale of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III were completed by 2,376 twins (241 monozygotic (MZ) male, 354 MZ female, 440 dizygotic (DZ) male, 553 DZ female, and 788 opposite-sex DZ twins). A general sex-limitation and the bivariate genotype by environment interaction (G×E) models were applied to the data. The general sex-limitation model showed no significant sex differences, indicating that additive genetic and non-shared environmental influences were, 38% (95% CI = 31, 46) and 62% (95% CI = 54, 69) for PB and 33% (95% CI = 24, 40) and 67% (95% CI = 60, 76) for FC in both sexes. These estimates were similar to those found in Western and Asian twin studies to date. The correlation between PB and FC was 0.36. The best-fitting bivariate G×E model indicated that FC significantly moderated non-shared environmental influence unique to PB (E×E interaction). Specifically, non-shared environmental contributions to PB were highest when FC was lowest, and decreased as the levels of FC increased. However, genetic variances in PB were stable across all levels of FC. These findings suggest that FC reduces individual differences in PB by changing non-shared environmental experiences rather than genetic factors in PB.

  18. Factors Which Influence The Fish Purchasing Decision: A study on Traditional Market in Riau Mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswati, Latifa; Putri, Asgami

    2018-05-01

    The purposes of the research are to analyze and assess the factors which influence fish purchasing by the community at Tenayan Raya district Pekanbaru.Research methodology which used is survey method, especially interview and observation technique or direct supervision on the market which located at Tenayan Raya district. Determination technique of sampling location/region is done by purposive sampling. The sampling method is done by accidental sampling. Technique analysis of factors which used using the data that derived from the respondent opinion to various fish variable. The result of this research are the factors which influence fish purchasing decision done in a traditional market which located at Tenayan Raya district are product factor, price factors, social factor and individual factor. Product factor which influences fish purchasing decision as follows: the eyelets condition, the nutrition of fresh fish, the diversity of sold fish. Price factors influence the fish purchasing decision, such as: the price of fresh fish, the convincing price and the suitability price and benefits of the fresh fish. Individual factors which influence a fish purchasing decision, such as education and income levels. Social factors which influence a fish purchasing decision, such as family, colleagues and feeding habits of fish.

  19. Familial and environmental influences on brain volumes in twins with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchioni, Marco M; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Chaddock, Christopher; Cole, James H; Ettinger, Ulrich; Oses, Ana; Metcalfe, Hugo; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Reductions in whole brain and grey matter volumes are robust features of schizophrenia, yet their etiological influences are unclear. We investigated the association between the genetic and environmental risk for schizophrenia and brain volumes. Whole brain, grey matter and white matter volumes were established from structural MRIs from twins varying in their zygosity and concordance for schizophrenia. Hippocampal volumes were measured manually. We conducted between-group testing and full genetic modelling. We included 168 twins in our study. Whole brain, grey matter, white matter and right hippocampal volumes were smaller in twins with schizophrenia. Twin correlations were larger for whole brain, grey matter and white matter volumes in monozygotic than dizygotic twins and were significantly heritable, whereas hippocampal volume was the most environmentally sensitive. There was a significant phenotypic correlation between schizophrenia and reductions in all the brain volumes except for that of the left hippocampus. For whole brain, grey matter and the right hippocampus the etiological links with schizophrenia were principally associated with the shared familial environment. Lower birth weight and perinatal hypoxia were both associated with lower whole brain volume and with lower white matter and grey matter volumes, respectively. Scan data were collected across 2 sites, and some groups were modest in size. Whole brain, grey matter and right hippocampal volume reductions are linked to schizophrenia through correlated familial risk (i.e., the shared familial environment). The degree of influence of etiological factors varies between brain structures, leading to the possibility of a neuroanatomically specific etiological imprint.

  20. Influences of the family of origin on the timing and quantum of fertility in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, A.J.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined to what extent family of origin influences age at first birth and final number of children. We took into account direct intergenerational transmission of fertility behaviour, family-life experiences around age 15, and the wider social context of the family of origin. Hazard

  1. Influences of the family of origin on the timing and quantum of fertility in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, A.J.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined to what extent family of origin influences age at first birth and final number of children. We took into account direct intergenerational transmission of fertility behaviour, family-life experiences around age 15, and the wider social context of the family of origin. Hazard

  2. Quality of Family Context or Sibling Status? Influences on Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freijo, Enrique B. Arranz; Oliva, Alfredo; Olabarrieta, Fernando; Martin, Juan Luis; Manzano, Ainhoa; Richards, Martin P. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence of socioeconomic status, quality of family context and sibling status on cognitive development in a sample of 551 five-year-old children. The regression analyses confirmed the predictive value of socioeconomic status and quality of family context on cognitive development. The quality of family context mediates the…

  3. Perceived Family Influences in Talent Development among Artistically Talented Teenagers in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra

    2013-01-01

    Though there have been quite a number of research studies focusing on how Singaporean families promote literacy and instill values of academic excellence inside the home, little has been written about how families nurture the gifts of teenagers talented in the arts in the Singaporean context. This article highlights how the family influences the…

  4. Psychosocial Influences upon the Workforce and Professional Development Participation of Family Child Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Rebecca Anne; Wiley, Angela R.; A. Koziol, Natalie; Magerko, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family child care is commonly used in the US by families, including by those receiving child care subsidies. Psychosocial influences upon the workforce and professional development participation of family child care providers (FCCPs) have implications for the investment of public dollars that aim to improve quality and stability of…

  5. Siblings' Power and Influence in Polyadic Family Conflict during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Porta, Sandra; Howe, Nina

    2017-01-01

    This study examined sibling behavior during polyadic family conflicts (involving three or more family members) by identifying operational conflict elements (i.e., roles, topic), power strategies, effective influence of power, and social domain argumentation. Polyadic conflict sequences (n = 210) were identified in 35/39 families with two siblings…

  6. Urban water consumption and its influencing factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Liangxin; Gai, Lingtong; Tong, Yan; Li, Ruihua

    2017-01-01

    Factors that affect water consumption should be identified to develop effective public policies. However, factors influencing domestic water consumption in cities in China, particularly on a national scale, are unclear. In this study, urban water consumption and its influencing factors in 286

  7. Factors influencing choice of paediatrics as a career among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the male students but 12 of the female students (30%) considered gender distribution to be a factor influencing their career choice (p=0.046). Conclusion. This study indicates that paediatrics is popular among female students and that several factors influence choice of this specialty. Understanding these factors may ...

  8. Economic Stress and Cortisol Among Postpartum Low-Income Mexican American Women: Buffering Influence of Family Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Shannon L; Luecken, Linda J; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6-week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress.

  9. Factors influencing success of clinical genome sequencing across a broad spectrum of disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Jenny C; Martin, Hilary C; Lise, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    To assess factors influencing the success of whole-genome sequencing for mainstream clinical diagnosis, we sequenced 217 individuals from 156 independent cases or families across a broad spectrum of disorders in whom previous screening had identified no pathogenic variants. We quantified the numb...

  10. Analysis of Factors Influencing Undergraduates' Occupation Choices: An Investigation of Both Social and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Li; Shunguo, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Based on 2006 survey data on students from three universities in western China, this study analyzes the effect of the students' family background and academic achievements on their occupation choices. Both social capital and human capital were found to be significant factors influencing their employment decisions. The more abundant the social and…

  11. Factors Influencing Prevention and Control of Malaria among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    investigate factors that influence malaria prevention and control practices among pregnant ... treatment of clinical cases and the promotion of ... influence their decision regarding malaria ..... have the ability to purchase anti-malaria drugs that.

  12. Factors influencing the adoption of mobile financial services in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the adoption of mobile financial services in the unbanked population. ... Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences ... the influences of the adoption behaviour at different level of market maturity and points of time.

  13. Factors influencing the usage of different types of malaria prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine factors which influence the use of different types of malaria prevention ... risk areas, religion, education and income influenced ITN usage, whereas only age, malaria .... the uptake of IPTp given that the person would not.

  14. Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari processing among ... Result of probit model analysis at 5% significance level shows an R value ... Marital status (2.236**) and respondents' cultural influences (1.960**) were ...

  15. Factors that influencing veterinary drug’s metabolisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Romeo T.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.

  16. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mnerie, Dumitru; Anghel, Gabriela Victoria; Mnerie, Alin Vasile; Cheveresan, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  17. Validation of Family, School, and Peer Influence on Volunteerism Scale among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ben M. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Social systems, particularly family, school, and peer, are especially critical in influencing adolescents to participate in volunteer service; however, no objective measures of this construct exist. Objectives: This study examined the psychometric properties of the Family, School, and Peer Influence on Volunteerism scale (FSPV) among Chinese…

  18. Influence of Early Exposure to Family Business Experience on Developing Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarling, Cath; Jones, Paul; Murphy, Lyndon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the influences of family business and exposure to family business ideas upon students and graduates during their transition from higher education (HE) towards career identification of entrepreneurship. It explores influences, values and experiences actively impacting on business start-up following…

  19. CFSC (Community and Family Study Center) study finds birth rates falling everywhere - family planning (family planning) is a factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    The findings of the Community and Family Study Center study, based on estimated crude birthrates and total fertility rates for 1968 and 1975, indicate that there has been a significant reduction in fertility levels of both developed and developing countries. Despite regional variations, the estimates show an average proportional decline of 8.5% in total fertility rates between 1968 and 1975. Of the 148 nations studied, 113 were in developing regions and 35 in the developed regions. Information on important social and economic development factors, such as life expectancy, literacy, percent of labor force in agriculture, per capita income, and family planning program strength were gathered for each country. Analyses of these data are reported in "The Public Interest" (to be published) "Population Reference Bulletin," October 1978, and a paper presented at the 1978 Population Association of America Meetings in Atlanta, Georgia. The recent change in fertility affected 81% of the world's population, primarily the peoples of Asia, Latin America, and North America. The total fertility rate in the world in 1968 was 4635 and declined to 4068 in 1975. More substantial declines occurred in Asia and Latin America, where the number of fewer births 1000 women would bear under a given fertility schedule declined by 845 births and 617 births, respectively. As more research is conducted to investigate the underlying causes of this decline, it is likely to confirm the important role that family planning programs have had in developing nations. Although major improvements in the socioeconomic well-being of the developing areas continue as an essential goal, the need to maintain the organized provision of family planning services should not be understated.

  20. Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence During Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions

  1. Childhood and family influences on body mass index in early adulthood: findings from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Andrea

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are steadily increasing worldwide with the greatest prevalence occurring in high-income countries. Many factors influence body mass index (BMI; however multiple influences assessed in families and individuals are rarely studied together in a prospective design. Our objective was to model the impact of multiple influences at the child (low birth weight, history of maltreatment, a history of childhood mental and physical conditions, and school difficulties and family level (parental income and education, parental mental and physical health, and family functioning on BMI in early adulthood. Methods We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study, a prospective, population-based study of 3,294 children (ages 4–16 years enrolled in 1983 and followed up in 2001 (N = 1,928; ages 21–35 years. Using multilevel models, we tested the association between family and child-level variables and adult BMI after controlling for sociodemographic variables and health status in early adulthood. Results At the child level, presence of psychiatric disorder and school difficulties were related to higher BMI in early adulthood. At the family level, receipt of social assistance was associated with higher BMI, whereas family functioning, having immigrant parents and higher levels of parental education were associated with lower BMI. We found that gender moderated the effect of two risk factors on BMI: receipt of social assistance and presence of a medical condition in childhood. In females, but not in males, the presence of these risk factors was associated with higher BMI in early adulthood. Conclusion Overall, these findings indicate that childhood risk factors associated with higher BMI in early adulthood are multi-faceted and long-lasting. These findings highlight the need for preventive interventions to be implemented at the family level in childhood.

  2. Childhood and family influences on body mass index in early adulthood: findings from the Ontario Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Boyle, Michael H; Georgiades, Katholiki; Duncan, Laura; Atkinson, Leslie R; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2012-09-09

    Overweight and obesity are steadily increasing worldwide with the greatest prevalence occurring in high-income countries. Many factors influence body mass index (BMI); however multiple influences assessed in families and individuals are rarely studied together in a prospective design. Our objective was to model the impact of multiple influences at the child (low birth weight, history of maltreatment, a history of childhood mental and physical conditions, and school difficulties) and family level (parental income and education, parental mental and physical health, and family functioning) on BMI in early adulthood. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study, a prospective, population-based study of 3,294 children (ages 4-16 years) enrolled in 1983 and followed up in 2001 (N = 1,928; ages 21-35 years). Using multilevel models, we tested the association between family and child-level variables and adult BMI after controlling for sociodemographic variables and health status in early adulthood. At the child level, presence of psychiatric disorder and school difficulties were related to higher BMI in early adulthood. At the family level, receipt of social assistance was associated with higher BMI, whereas family functioning, having immigrant parents and higher levels of parental education were associated with lower BMI. We found that gender moderated the effect of two risk factors on BMI: receipt of social assistance and presence of a medical condition in childhood. In females, but not in males, the presence of these risk factors was associated with higher BMI in early adulthood. Overall, these findings indicate that childhood risk factors associated with higher BMI in early adulthood are multi-faceted and long-lasting. These findings highlight the need for preventive interventions to be implemented at the family level in childhood.

  3. Factors influencing adherence to dietary guidelines: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main identified factors at individual level were motivation, individual knowledge, perceptions of moderation, self- responsibility, taste concept or cravings, and temptations. At small group (family and friends) level, family relations with the patients were identified as the main support system used to manage the diabetes.

  4. Factors Influencing Contraceptive Choice and Discontinuation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    need for family planning.18 Among an urban Nairobi population of .... birth control methods for those who are HIV- positive, I can only ... and I would see few buying condoms and ..... contraceptive use patterns among HIV-positive women in ...

  5. Influence of Life Style Factors on Barrett’s Oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Horna Strand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus is rising, the prognosis is poor, and surveillance programs are expensive and mostly cost ineffective, there is a need to increase the knowledge of risk factors in Barrett’s oesophagus and oesophageal cancer in order to be able to give attention to medical prevention and/or surveillance programs. Aim. To study if there is a correlation between the development of Barrett’s oesophagus and GOR (gastro oesophageal reflux, family history of GOR, and life style factors, such as alcohol, smoking habits, and mental stress. Methods. Fifty-five consecutively selected patients with Barrett’s oesophagus (BO examined at Linköping University Hospital’s Oesophageal Laboratory were matched by sex, age, and duration of reflux symptoms with 55 GOR patients without Barrett’s oesophagus at the Oesophageal Laboratory. The medical charts in respective groups were examined for comparison of life style factors, mental stress, medication, duration of gastroesophageal acid reflux at 24 hr-pH-metry, and incidence of antireflux surgery and of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus (ACO. Also, potential gender differences and diagnosis of ACO were studied. Results. Mean percentage reflux time on 24 hr-pH-metry was higher for the Barrett’s oesophagus group, 18% for women and 17% for men compared to 4% for women and 4% for men in the control group (P<0.05. Family history of GOR was more frequent in Barrett’s oesophagus patients (62% than in the control group (35% (P<0.05. Male patients with Barrett’s oesophagus had medical therapy for their GOR symptoms to a higher extent (38% than male controls (65% (P<0.05. No difference was found in the number of tobacco users or former tobacco users between Barrett’s oesophagus patients and controls. Barrett’s oesophagus patients had the same level of alcohol consumption and the same average BMI as the control subjects. Female patients with Barrett

  6. Factors of caregiver burden and family functioning among Taiwanese family caregivers living with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2015-06-01

    To assess the degree of caregiver burden and family functioning among Taiwanese primary family caregivers of people with schizophrenia and to test its association with demographic characteristics, family demands, sense of coherence and family hardiness. Family caregiving is a great concern in mental illness. Yet, the correlates of caregiver burden and family functioning in primary family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia still remain unclear. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A convenience sample of 137 primary family caregivers was recruited from two psychiatric outpatient clinics in Taiwan. Measures included a demographic information sheet and the Chinese versions of the Family Stressors Index, Family Strains Index, 13-item Sense of Coherence Scale, 18-item Caregiver Burden Scale, Family Hardiness Index and Family Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve Index. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients, t-test, one-way analysis of variance and a stepwise multiple linear regression. Female caregivers, additional dependent relatives, increased family demands and decreased sense of coherence significantly increased caregiver burden, whereas siblings as caregivers reported lower degrees of burden than parental caregivers. Family caregivers with lower family demands, increased family hardiness and higher educational level had significantly enhanced family functioning. Sense of coherence was significantly correlated with family hardiness. Our findings highlighted the importance of sense of coherence and family hardiness in individual and family adaptation. Special attention needs to focus on therapeutic interventions that enhance sense of coherence and family hardiness, thereby improving the perception of burden of care and family functioning. Given the nature of family caregiving in schizophrenia, understanding of correlates of caregiver burden and family functioning would help

  7. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  8. Eating disorders and body image concerns as influenced by family and media among university students in Sharjah, UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Hadia; Hasan, Hayder A; Najm, Lina; Zaurub, Sara; Jami, Faridah; Javadi, Fahimeh; Deeb, Lina Adeeb; Iskandarani, Amani

    2018-01-01

    Eating disorders (ED) can be influenced by psychological and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental and media influences and body image concerns as factors in the onset of ED. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 662 students (407 women and 255 men) attending one of three universities in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study employed an online self-administered questionnaire with validated scales: Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), Media Influences Scale, and Family Influences Scale (FIS). About 33% of the sample had EAT- 26 scores >=20 and 45% showed mild to marked concerns about their body shape. Women students were significantly more concerned about their shape, and more influenced by media than men. There were significant differences in the means of all scores, except for media influence, among the four BMI groups. The EAT-26 score showed strongest correlation with BSQ (r=0.48), followed by FIS, Media and BMI (r=0.419, r=0.276 and r=0.18 respectively). The BSQ was the best predictor of ED and was inversely associated with the EAT-26 score (B=-1.51, OR=0.219, 95% CI: 0.152-0.316, pmedia and families exert on the development of ED among young adults. These findings provide baseline data for future longitudinal studies to investigate factors influencing ED.

  9. Family structure, family functioning and adolescent well-being: the transcendent influence of parental style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, A H; Bellissimo, A; Norman, G R

    1995-07-01

    This study assessed the association between parental style, family functioning and adolescent well being, contrasting intact families with those of changed configuration. Eight hundred and one grade 10 general level teenagers in 11 high schools of a single educational system were the subjects. Results indicated that the configuration of the family was not the key determinant of effectiveness of family functioning. Instead the style of parenting turned out to be the main determinant of both family functioning and well being of the adolescents. While both "parents" were judged to have contributed to these outcomes cross gender effects were found.

  10. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the

  11. factors influencing condom use among nigerian undergraduates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... Nigeria. Study design: Both qualitative (focus group discussions) and quantitative (cross-sectional ... Keywords: Condom, unsafe sex, HIV, gender, undergraduates. ..... QUESTIONS: the following may influence condom.

  12. Family and Individual Factors Associated with Substance Involvement and PTS Symptoms among Adolescents in Greater New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Cynthia L.; La Greca, Annette M.; Alexandersson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of hurricane impact as well as family and individual risk factors on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and substance involvement among clinically referred adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. Method: A total of 80 adolescents (87% male; 13-17 years old; mean age = 15.6 years; 38% minorities) and…

  13. Stigmatization and Promotive Factors in Relation to Psychological Health and Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Planned Lesbian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, Loes; Gartrell, Nanette N.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether stigmatization was associated with psychological adjustment in adolescents from planned lesbian families and, if so, to examine whether individual and interpersonal promotive factors influenced this association. Seventy-eight adolescents (39 girls, 39 boys; mean age = 17.05 years) completed an…

  14. An investigation of factors influencing indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majborn, B.; Soerensen, A.; Nielsen, S.P.; Boetter-Jensen, L.

    1988-05-01

    Variations in indoor radon concentrations and some influencing factors have been studied during a two-year period (1986-1987) in 16 almost identical single-family houses.The annual average radon concentration in the houses varied from about 50 to about 400 Bq/m 3 . Variations in soil characteristics and radon concentration in soil gas could not be directly related to the variations of the average indoor radon concentrations. Most of the houses showed a ''normal'' seasonal variation of the radon concentration with a maximum in the winter and minimum in the summer. A deviating seasonal variation was found in three of the houses. Hourly data obtained in one unoccupied house during a period of 2-1/2 months showed no or only weak correlations between the indoor radon concentration and meteorological factors. However, for most of the houses, the seasonal variation of the indoor radon concentration was well correlated with the average indoor-outdoor temperature difference on a 2-month basis. It was demonstrated that the radon concentration can be strongly reduced in the Risoe houses if a district-heating duct, which is connected to all the houses, is ventilated, so that a slightly lowered pressure is maintained in the duct. 5 taps., 24 ill. (author)

  15. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  16. Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children\\'s ... they had selected a children's multi-nutrient supplement with the intention of buying it. ... Price, performance and brand loyalty, affect and normative factors were most ...

  17. Factors influencing the pattern of malnutrition among acutely ill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the pattern of malnutrition among acutely ill children presenting in ... height/length) measurements and z-scores calculated for the individual nutritional ... The factors associated with malnutrition included early introduction of ...

  18. Continued Importance of Family Factors in Youth Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S.; Khoury, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Although it is known that levels of family factors (FF) such as parental monitoring and parent–adolescent connectedness vary during adolescence, it is unknown which factors remain protective, preventing smoking initiation, in youth of differing racial/ethnic groups. Using a longitudinal, nationally representative sample, we examined which FF protect against smoking initiation in White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Methods: A total of 3,473 parent-nonsmoking youth dyads from Round 1 (T1) of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were followed to Round 3 (T2). Youth smoking status at T2 was assessed as the primary outcome. We examined changes in FF (T2 – T1) and the protection afforded by these factors at T1 and T2 for smoking initiation, both by race/ethnicity and overall. Results: There were statistically significant decreases in levels of protective FF from T1 to T2 across all racial/ethnic groups; however, FF levels were higher in never-smokers compared with smoking initiators at both T1 and T2 (p parental monitoring in Black and Hispanic youth. Overall, higher parental monitoring at T1 was associated with decreased odds of smoking initiation (33%); decreased parental monitoring and perceived punishment from T1 to T2 were associated with increased odds of smoking initiation (55% and 17%, respectively). Conclusions: Smoking prevention interventions should encourage parents to both enforce consistent consequences of smoking behavior, and continue monitoring, especially in minority groups. PMID:22454285

  19. Trefoil factor family peptides--friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Maike; Dünker, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are a group of molecules bearing a characteristic three-loop trefoil domain. They are mainly secreted in mucous epithelia together with mucins but are also synthesized in the nervous system. For many years, TFF peptides were only known for their wound healing and protective function, e.g. in epithelial protection and restitution. However, experimental evidence has emerged supporting a pivotal role of TFF peptides in oncogenic transformation, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Deregulated expression of TFF peptides at the gene and protein level is obviously implicated in numerous cancers, and opposing functions as oncogenes and tumor suppressors have been described. With regard to the regulation of TFF expression, epigenetic mechanisms as well as the involvement of various miRNAs are new, promising aspects in the field of cancer research. This review will summarize current knowledge about the expression and regulation of TFF peptides and the involvement of TFF peptides in tumor biology and cancerogenesis.

  20. Child Psychological Maltreatment and Its Correlated Factors in Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Ma, Yating; Chen, Jingqi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the prevalence and frequency of child psychological maltreatment and its correlated factors in Chinese families. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted among 1,002 parents of primary school students in Yuncheng City, China. Data were collected using the self-report questionnaire anonymously. Results showed that 696 (69.5%) surveyed parents had different extents of psychological maltreatment toward their children in the past 3 months. The high prevalence of parental psychology maltreatment was significantly associated with high scores on parental over-reactivity and low scores on recognition of child psychology maltreatment. These findings indicate that it is urgent to develop cultural interventions to raise parents' awareness of preventing child psychological maltreatment and to help parents use nonviolent child rearing in China.

  1. The influence of perceived family support on post surgery recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Moreno, M J; Tomás-Aragones, L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the possible relationship between perceived family support, levels of cortisol and post surgery recovery. The study sample comprised 42 patients that were due to undergo open cholecystectomy surgery in a Regional Health Authority Reference Centre of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura in Spain. The FACES-II questionnaire was used for the evaluation of perceived family support and to measure the three fundamental dimensions of perceived family behaviour: cohesion, adaptability and family type. The day before surgery, a sample of saliva was taken from each subject in order to determine the level of cortisol. Results showed a clear relationship between family support and recovery. Patients with higher scores on the Cohesion Scale demonstrated better post surgery recovery (F = 8.8; gl = 40; p = .005). A relationship between levels of cortisol, perceived family support and recovery was also revealed. Patients with lower scores on the Cohesion scale and higher cortisol levels demonstrated poorer post surgery recovery (F = 10.96; gl = 40; p = .006). These results are coherent with other studies that have highlighted the beneficial effects of perceived family support on mental and physical health.

  2. Educational differences in cardiovascular mortality: The role of shared family factors and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøllesdal, M K R; Ariansen, I; Mortensen, L H; Davey Smith, G; Næss, Ø

    2016-12-01

    To explore the confounding effects of early family factors shared by siblings and cardiovascular risk factors in midlife on the educational differences in mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data from national and regional health surveys in Norway (1974-2003) were linked with data from the Norwegian Family Based Life Course Study, the National Educational Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. The study population consisted of participants with at least one full sibling among the health survey participants ( n=271,310). Data were available on CVD risk factors, including weight, height, blood pressure, total cholesterol and smoking. The hazards ratio (HR) of CVD mortality was 3.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.98-3.96) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The HRs were little altered in the within-sibship analyses. Adjusted for risk factors, the HR for CVD mortality in the cohort analyses was 2.05 (CI 1.77-2.37) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The respective HR in the within-sibship analyses was 2.46 (CI 1.48-2.24). Using a sibling design, we did not find that the association between education and CVD mortality was confounded by early life factors shared by siblings, but it was explained to a large extent by CVD risk factors. These results suggest that reducing levels of CVD risk factors could have the greatest effect on mortality in less well-educated people.

  3. Amygdala Volume in Offspring from Multiplex for Alcohol Dependence Families: The Moderating Influence of Childhood Environment and 5-HTTLPR Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Shirley Y; Wang, Shuhui; Carter, Howard; McDermott, Michael D; Zezza, Nicholas; Stiffler, Scott

    2013-12-12

    The increased susceptibility for developing alcohol dependence seen in offspring from families with alcohol dependence may be related to structural and functional differences in brain circuits that influence emotional processing. Early childhood environment, genetic variation in the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) of the SLCA4 gene and allelic variation in the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene have each been reported to be related to volumetric differences in the temporal lobe especially the amygdala. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to obtain amygdala volumes for 129 adolescent/young adult individuals who were either High-Risk (HR) offspring from families with multiple cases of alcohol dependence (N=71) or Low-Risk (LR) controls (N=58). Childhood family environment was measured prospectively using age-appropriate versions of the Family Environment Scale during a longitudinal follow-up study. The subjects were genotyped for Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met and the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Two family environment scale scores (Cohesion and Conflict), genotypic variation, and their interaction were tested for their association with amygdala volumes. Personal and prenatal exposure to alcohol and drugs were considered in statistical analyses in order to more accurately determine the effects of familial risk group differences. Amygdala volume was reduced in offspring from families with multiple alcohol dependent members in comparison to offspring from control families. High-Risk offspring who were carriers of the S variant of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism had reduced amygdala volume in comparison to those with an LL genotype. Larger amygdala volume was associated with greater family cohesion but only in Low-Risk control offspring. Familial risk for alcohol dependence is an important predictor of amygdala volume even when removing cases with significant personal exposure and covarying for

  4. The Role of Family Influences on Adolescent Smoking in Different Racial/Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S.; Khoury, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Although differing levels of family influences may explain some of the varying racial/ethnic trends in adolescent smoking behavior, clarification of which influences are protective against smoking may aid in the development of future ethnic-specific smoking prevention interventions. We sought to identify and compare the association of family influences on adolescent smoking among Black, Hispanic, and White adolescents in a cross-sectional national sample. Methods: Data from 6,426 parent–child dyads from Round 1 of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were analyzed. The association of family influences with ever-smokers and recent smokers was evaluated. Multinomial logistic regression using SUDAAN software was used. Results: While all measures of family influences except for parent–adolescent activities and intention to monitor were significantly protective against recent smoking and ever smoking among Whites, ethnic-specific family influence predictors of smoking were found in Blacks and Hispanics. Higher parental monitoring, higher intention to monitor, and higher connectedness were protective among Hispanics, while higher parental punishment and favorable attitude toward monitoring were protective against smoking among Blacks. For family influences significantly associated with protection against smoking, consistently greater protection was afforded against recent smoking than against ever smoking. Conclusions: Higher levels of family influences are protective against smoking among all racial/ethnic groups. There are consistencies in family influences on youth smoking; however, there may be specific family influences that should be differentially emphasized within racial/ethnic groups in order to protect against smoking behavior. Our results offer insight for designing strategies for preventing smoking in youth of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. PMID:22180584

  5. Factors influencing antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities: a qualitative in-depth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buul, Laura W; van der Steen, Jenny T; Doncker, Sarah M M M; Achterberg, Wilco P; Schellevis, François G; Veenhuizen, Ruth B; Hertogh, Cees M P M

    2014-12-16

    Insight into factors that influence antibiotic prescribing is crucial when developing interventions aimed at a more rational use of antibiotics. We examined factors that influence antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities, and present a conceptual model that integrates these factors. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with physicians (n = 13) and nursing staff (n = 13) in five nursing homes and two residential care homes in the central-west region of the Netherlands. An iterative analysis was applied to interviews with physicians to identify and categorize factors that influence antibiotic prescribing, and to integrate these into a conceptual model. This conceptual model was triangulated with the perspectives of nursing staff. The analysis resulted in the identification of six categories of factors that can influence the antibiotic prescribing decision: the clinical situation, advance care plans, utilization of diagnostic resources, physicians' perceived risks, influence of others, and influence of the environment. Each category comprises several factors that may influence the decision to prescribe or not prescribe antibiotics directly (e.g. pressure of patients' family leading to antibiotic prescribing) or indirectly via influence on other factors (e.g. unfamiliarity with patients resulting in a higher physician perceived risk of non-treatment, in turn resulting in a higher tendency to prescribe antibiotics). Our interview study shows that several non-rational factors may affect antibiotic prescribing decision making in long-term care facilities, suggesting opportunities to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use. We developed a conceptual model that integrates the identified categories of influencing factors and shows the relationships between those categories. This model may be used as a practical tool in long-term care facilities to identify local factors potentially leading to inappropriate prescribing, and to subsequently

  6. Factors affecting frequency of communication about family health history with family members and doctors in a medically underserved population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Pandya, Chintan; Garg, Priyanka; Stafford, Jewel; Lachance, Christina

    2012-08-01

    Family history contributes to risk for many common chronic diseases. Little research has investigated patient factors affecting communication of this information. 1061 adult community health center patients were surveyed. We examined factors related to frequency of discussions about family health history (FHH) with family members and doctors. Patients who talked frequently with family members about FHH were more likely to report a family history of cancer (p =.012) and heart disease (p history of heart disease (p = .011), meet physical activity recommendations (p = .022), seek health information frequently in newspapers (p history of some diseases, those not meeting physical activity recommendations, and those who do not frequently seek health information may not have ongoing FHH discussions. Interventions are needed to encourage providers to update patients' family histories systematically and assist patients in initiating FHH conversations in order to use this information for disease prevention and control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Emerging adults' lived experience of formative family stress: the family's lasting influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R; Chavez, Tom; Woulfe, Julie

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we use a phenomenology framework to explore emerging adults' formative experiences of family stress. Fourteen college students participated in a qualitative interview about their experience of family stress. We analyzed the interviews using the empirical phenomenological psychology method. Participants described a variety of family stressors, including parental conflict and divorce, physical or mental illness, and emotional or sexual abuse by a family member. Two general types of parallel processes were essential to the experience of family stress for participants. First, the family stressor was experienced in shifts and progressions reflecting the young person's attempts to manage the stressor, and second, these shifts and progressions were interdependent with deeply personal psychological meanings of self, sociality, physical and emotional expression, agency, place, space, project, and discourse. We describe each of these parallel processes and their subprocesses, and conclude with implications for mental health practice and research.

  8. Factors influencing quality of life in asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-kalemji, Abir; Petersen, Karin Dam; Sørensen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The quality of life (QOL) in persons with asthma is reduced and different factors such as demography, asthma severity and psychiatric comorbidity play an influential role. However, little is known about the interplay of these factors. OBJECTIVE: To describe QOL in relation to asthma...

  9. Family and Work Influences on Stress, Anxiety and Depression Among Bisexual Latino Men in the New York City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Ripkin, Alexandra; Garcia, Jonathan; Severson, Nicolette

    2015-12-01

    The empirical exploration of mental health problems among bisexual Latino men is scarce. Bisexual men experience stress because of their non-conforming sexuality from multiple-sources. In this study we focus on the family and work environments. We conducted a mixed-methods study to examine the impacts of these social environments among behavioral bisexual Latino men in New York City (N = 142). Using the Brief Symptom Inventory we measured stress, depression, and anxiety, and used specific scales to measure familial and work social environmental stress factors. We also measured four cultural factors to assess their potential influence on our hypothesized stressors. To test our hypothesis we used linear regression with stress, depression and anxiety as the primary outcome variables. Our results indicated that bisexual Latino men experienced negative mental health outcomes due to pressures in their familial and work environments. Stress was the strongest predictor of anxiety and depression among the men in the study. After taking stress into account, familial factors were stronger predictors of negative mental health outcomes than work factors. Cultural factors such as acculturation and length of living in the United States were not associated with negative mental health outcomes in our sample. Our findings suggest the importance of addressing stress, anxiety and depression among behaviorally bisexual men, and suggest that addressing family-based stressors is critical for this population. This research should inform future studies addressing this underserved population and provide mental health providers with a foundation for working with bisexual Latino men.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF FAMILY RELATIONS ON DECISION MAKING IN FAMILY BUSINESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Stoilkovska, Aleksandra; Milenkovska , Violeta; Serafimovic , Gordana

    2013-01-01

    The peculiarity and uniqueness of family businesses set them apart from other businesses in many things. Natural need of man to survive in these harsh circumstances forces him to constantly seek new sources of funding or simply tries to improve the existing. Secure existence is difficult to ensure. The successful family business provides many benefits: reliable operation, to be your own boss, flexible working hours, family members are taken care of, to become successful with your own strength...

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF FAMILY RELATIONS ON DECISION MAKING IN FAMILY BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Stoilkovska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarity and uniqueness of family businesses set them apart from other businesses in many things. Natural need of man to survive in these harsh circumstances forces him to constantly seek new sources of funding or simply tries to improve the existing. Secure existence is difficult to ensure.The successful family business provides many benefits: reliable operation, to be your own boss, flexible working hours, family members are taken care of, to become successful with your own strengths. Also this kind of business brings a range of difficulties that have to be overcomed.Apart from the daily struggle for enterprise development in the complex conditions of tough competition and rapid changes in the environment, family businesses face problems of internal character. Namely, the parents are thorn between the family relations, the love towards their children and the consistence in the decision making processes. Although this is a modern and very present theme however owners of family businesses rarely dare to speak publicly on the subject.This paper presents an action research conducted on a sample of 26 family businesses in FYROM. This research study is primarily exploratory in nature, and the research instruments include survey through questionnaires with family member and employees that are not family members.

  12. Factors influencing e-commerce development in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinić, Zoran; Ranković, Vladimir; Kalinić, Ljubina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of current state of e-commerce development in Serbia is presented. Also, some important factors influencing e-commerce diffusion are discussed. The factors are divided into four groups: technical factors, which cover e- commerce telecommunication and logistics infrastructure; legal factors, i.e. necessary laws and regulations on e-commerce; economic factors, and psychological factors and local culture. The study showed very strong correlation between broadband inter...

  13. Clinical factors influencing participation in society after successful kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, S.F.; Groothoff, J.W.; van Sonderen, E.L.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.; de Jong, P.E.; van Son, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Little information is available on the degree of actual social functioning after successful kidney transplantation. Moreover, information on factors that influence participation in social activities is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of clinical factors on

  14. Factors influencing selection of office furniture by corporations and universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson

    1976-01-01

    Evaluation of the factors that influence the selection of office furniture by large corporations and universities shows that quality, appearance, and purchase price have the most important influence on the purchase decision. The intended use of the furniture and the appearance of the furniture were the key factors in the purchase of wooden furniture.

  15. Factors Influencing Pregnancy Desires among HIV Positive Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Pregnancy Desires among HIV Positive Women in Sibande District in Mpumalanga, South Africa. ... Gender and Behaviour ... The objective of the study is to present findings on factors influencing pregnancy desires amongst HIV positive women that have participated in Prevention of Mother to child ...

  16. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Attitudes Towards Internet Piracy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In all a total of two hundred and fifty participants were drawn through accidental sampling technique for this study. Their age ranged between 19-48 ... In the same view, consumers ethnic group was not found to significantly influence attitude towards Internet piracy (F(3,246) = .404, P> .05). Reasons were given why the ...

  17. Perceptions of Child Caregivers About Factors Influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition, health education and measles immunization are crucial components of preventive eye health services in the prevention of corneal blindness. This study explores ... The interplay between nutrition and corneal blindness was unknown to mothers in this study. The strong influence ... effectiveness and sustainability.

  18. Factors Influencing Degradation of Mercaptans by Thiobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Degradation of methylmercaptans by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m was influenced by pH of the reaction medium. Ratios of headspace concentrations in empty vials and those of acidified buffer solutions were less than 1.0. 95% of the H2S was in headspace with the remaining 5% in solution upon acidification. The values for ...

  19. Logistic Regression and Path Analysis Method to Analyze Factors influencing Students’ Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noeryanti, N.; Suryowati, K.; Setyawan, Y.; Aulia, R. R.

    2018-04-01

    Students' academic achievement cannot be separated from the influence of two factors namely internal and external factors. The first factors of the student (internal factors) consist of intelligence (X1), health (X2), interest (X3), and motivation of students (X4). The external factors consist of family environment (X5), school environment (X6), and society environment (X7). The objects of this research are eighth grade students of the school year 2016/2017 at SMPN 1 Jiwan Madiun sampled by using simple random sampling. Primary data are obtained by distributing questionnaires. The method used in this study is binary logistic regression analysis that aims to identify internal and external factors that affect student’s achievement and how the trends of them. Path Analysis was used to determine the factors that influence directly, indirectly or totally on student’s achievement. Based on the results of binary logistic regression, variables that affect student’s achievement are interest and motivation. And based on the results obtained by path analysis, factors that have a direct impact on student’s achievement are students’ interest (59%) and students’ motivation (27%). While the factors that have indirect influences on students’ achievement, are family environment (97%) and school environment (37).

  20. [The current status of passive smoking in Chinese families and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Ping; Xu, Xue-Fang; Ma, Shao-Jun; Mei, Cui-Zhu; Wang, Jun-Fang; Chen, Ai-Ping; Yang, Gong-Huan

    2008-03-01

    To understand the prevalence of passive smoking in Chinese families and discuss its associated factors, as to providing scientific evidence for establishing tobacco control measures in China. Cross-sectional survey: from June to September, 2004, we randomly selected six counties in three different provinces ( Mianzhu and Xichong of Sichuan Province; Anyi and Hukou of Jiangxi Province; Xinan and Yanshi of Henan Province) and performed face-to-face questionnaire survey on citizens between 18 and 69 years old. All the data were double independently input by professional data entry company to ensure data accuracy. The prevalence of home passive smoking exposure in families with different demographic characteristics was described by using prevalence, and the possible correlated factors of home passive smoking exposure as independent variables, multiple factors were analyzed using Logistic Stepwise Regression Analysis method. The analysis on 8142 nonsmokers revealed that the rate of passive smoking was 28.42%, with 27.38% of male and 28.93% of female suffering from passive smoking. All 87.19% of the smokers would smoke in front of their families. As many as 42.14% of the nonsmokers would offer cigarettes to their guests, while about 46.82% of the nonsmokers would suggest smokers to smoke outdoor. Home restriction on tobacco was extremely rare and only 6.33% of all the families completely forbade smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of non-conditions revealed that, there was a lower level of involuntary tobacco smoke exposure in female, older age group, lower education level, divorced, or widowed families. There was no difference in involuntary tobacco smoke exposure between town dwellers and county dwellers, but such difference did exist in different districts. The three provinces under investigation should have severe involuntary tobacco smoking exposure. Gender, age, literacy level, occupation and region should be all factors that influence the status of

  1. Psychological adjustment of Yoruba adolescents as influenced by family type: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyefeso, A O; Adegoke, A R

    1992-05-01

    This research examines the influence of family type on the psychological adjustment of Yoruba adolescents. Using a sample of 116 adolescents, 69 males and 47 females, with mean age of 17.8 years of age (S.D. = 1.72), the results reveal that male adolescents from monogamous families experience better psychological adjustment than their polygynous counterparts, whereas no such difference exists in the levels of psychological adjustment of female adolescents from both family types. These findings suggest that (i) sex-role prescription influences psychological adjustment of adolescents in Yoruba societies, and (ii) female children enjoy more protective upbringing in polygynous families than their male counterparts.

  2. Factors Influencing Arthropod Diversity on Green Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracha Y. Schindler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs have potential for providing substantial habitat to plants, birds, and arthropod species that are not well supported by other urban habitats. Whereas the plants on a typical green roof are chosen and planted by people, the arthropods that colonize it can serve as an indicator of the ability of this novel habitat to support a diverse community of organisms. The goal of this observational study was to determine which physical characteristics of a roof or characteristics of its vegetation correlate with arthropod diversity on the roof. We intensively sampled the number of insect families on one roof with pitfall traps and also measured the soil arthropod species richness on six green roofs in the Boston, MA area. We found that the number of arthropod species in soil, and arthropod families in pitfall traps, was positively correlated with living vegetation cover. The number of arthropod species was not significantly correlated with plant diversity, green roof size, distance from the ground, or distance to the nearest vegetated habitat from the roof. Our results suggest that vegetation cover may be more important than vegetation diversity for roof arthropod diversity, at least for the first few years after establishment. Additionally, we found that even green roofs that are small and isolated can support a community of arthropods that include important functional groups of the soil food web.

  3. The influence of neighbors' family size preference on progression to high parity births in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Elyse A; Barber, Jennifer S

    2013-03-01

    Large families can have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women, children, and their communities. Seventy-three percent of the individuals in our rural Nepalese sample report that two children is their ideal number, yet about half of the married women continue childbearing after their second child. Using longitudinal data from the Chitwan Valley Family Study, we explore the influence of women's and neighbors' family size preferences on women's progression to high parity births, comparing this influence across two cohorts. We find that neighbors' family size preferences influence women's fertility, that older cohorts of women are more influenced by their neighbors' preferences than are younger cohorts of women, and that the influence of neighbors' preferences is independent of women's own preferences. © 2013 The Population Council, Inc.

  4. [Family and risk factors related to alcohol consumption and smoking among children and adolescents (Guayaquil-Ecuador)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Ruiz, Martha; Andrade, Denise de

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation had as objective identifying in a family the possible factors of risk related to the use of alcohol and tobacco in the children and adolescents. It is important to emphasize that study of this nature within a social and culture perspective expresses the attempt to include/understand the factors of risk for the use of tobacco and to drink alcoholic the environmental influences in the familiar surroundings views to prevent futures cases with dependency. For the study used a sample of one hundred families, to that applied to an instrument pre to them established with the people in charge of the respective families. As result were obtained 51% of the schooling level are low, 54% has inferior wage to the basic one, 61% to drink alcoholic. To emphasize that unquestionable the reduction of the casuistry of alcoholism and/or tabaquismo to influence significantly in the quality of the individuals life.

  5. Cultural Factors in Collegiate Eating Disorder Pathology: When Family Culture Clashes with Individual Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2)…

  6. Factors influencing the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of primary dysmenorrhoea amongst Abia State university medical students, South ... its impact on school and social activities and the students' management strategies. ... is high, and not consistently associated with demographic risk factors.

  7. Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding the complex factors that can lead to HIV infection is crucial to addressing the problem among vulnerable ... Related content ... Policy in Focus publishes a special issue profiling evidence to empower women in the labour market.

  8. Family history influences the early onset of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chung-Hwa Park; Seung-Hee Jeong; Hyeon-Woo Yim; Jin Dong Kim; Si Hyun Bae; Jong Young Choi; Seung Kew Yoon

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the relationship between a positive family history of primary liver cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in Korean HCC patients.METHODS:We studied a total of 2242 patients diagnosed with HCC between January 1990 and July 2008,whose family history of primary liver cancer was clearly described in the medical records.RESULTS:Of the 2242 patients,165 (7.4%) had a positive family history of HCC and 2077 (92.6%) did not.The male to female ratio was 3.6:1,and the major causes of HCC were chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 75.1%,chronic hepatitis C virus infection in 13.2% and alcohol in 3.1%.The median ages at diagnosis in the positive-and negative-history groups were 52 years (range:29-79 years) and 57 years (range:18-89 years),respectively (P < 0.0001).Furthermore,among 1713 HCC patients with HBV infection,the number of patients under 45 years of age out of 136 patients with positive family history was 26 (19.1%),whereas those out of 1577 patients with negative family history was 197 (12.5%),suggesting that a positive family history may be associated with earlier development of HCC in the Korean population (P =0.0028).CONCLUSION:More intensive surveillance maybe recommended to those with a positive family history of HCC for earlier diagnosis and proper management especially when HBV infection is present.

  9. Gender and family influences on Spanish students' aspirations and values in stem fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz, Milagros; Müller, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on expectancy-value theory, this study examines gender and family influences on students' career aspirations and attached values. 796 secondary Spanish students (M age = 16 years old, S.D. = 0.81) participated. 53% were boys. The results show that boys and students with mothers who have completed intermediate level education were more interested in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) architecture and technology. Girls and students with highly educated mothers born in Spain were more likely to aspire to STEM health and experimental studies. Furthermore, boys and students planning to pursue STEM-technology studies attached higher extrinsic values to these studies. On the contrary, girls and participants with interest in experimental and health studies attached less extrinsic values to these studies. Moreover, students with highly educated mothers and interested in STEM architecture and technology reported higher extrinsic values. Understanding the interaction of gender and family factors shaping adolescents' career aspirations in STEM fields seems to be crucial to designing significant and effective school and family grounded interventions.

  10. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...

  11. Family Factors Predict Treatment Outcome for Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Langley, Audra; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine family conflict, parental blame, and poor family cohesion as predictors of treatment outcome for youth receiving family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (FCBT) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods We analyzed data from a sample of youth who were randomized to FCBT (n = 49; 59% male; mean age = 12.43 years) as part of a larger randomized clinical trial. Youngsters and their families were assessed by an independent evaluator (IE) pre- and post- FCBT using a standardized battery of measures evaluating family functioning and OCD symptom severity. Family conflict and cohesion were measured via parent self-report on the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994) and parental blame was measured using parent self-report on the Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (PABS; Peris, 2008b). Symptom severity was rated by IE’s using the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS; Scahill et al., 1997). Results Families with lower levels of parental blame and family conflict and higher levels of family cohesion at baseline were more likely to have a child who responded to FCBT treatment even after adjusting for baseline symptom severity compared to families who endorsed higher levels of dysfunction prior to treatment. In analyses using both categorical and continuous outcome measures, higher levels of family dysfunction and difficulty in higher number of domains of family functioning were associated with lower rates of treatment response. In addition, changes in family cohesion predicted response to FCBT controlling for baseline symptom severity. Conclusions Findings speak to the role of the family in treatment for childhood OCD and highlight potential targets for future family interventions. PMID:22309471

  12. Examining reciprocal influences among family climate, school attachment, and academic self-regulation: Implications for school success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mengya; Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E

    2016-06-01

    Guided by family systems and ecological theories, this study examined the multicontextual implications of family, school, and individual domains for adolescents' school success. The first goal of this study was to examine reciprocal influences among family climate, school attachment, and academic self-regulation (ASR) during the middle school years. The second goal was to test the relative impact of each of these domains on adolescents' school adjustment and academic achievement after the transition to high school. We applied a cross-lag structural equation modeling approach to longitudinal data from 979 students in the 6th grade and their families, followed over 5 measurement occasions, from 6th through 9th grade. Controlling for family income, parent education, and adolescent gender, the results revealed reciprocal relationships between the family climate and school attachment over time; both of these factors were related to increases in ASR over time. In turn, ASR was a robust predictor of academic success, with unique associations with school adjustment and academic achievement. Family climate and school adjustment had modest to marginal associations with school adjustment, and no association with academic achievement. Applications of these findings for family school interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Factors that influence peripheral nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...... to earliest muscle reinnervation) on the final recovery of the outcome measures. Nerve gap distance and the repair type, individually and concertedly, strongly influenced the time to earliest muscle reinnervation, and only time to reinnervation was significant when all three variables were included as outcome...

  14. Continued importance of family factors in youth smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabee-Gittens, E Melinda; Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S; Khoury, Jane C

    2012-12-01

    Although it is known that levels of family factors (FF) such as parental monitoring and parent-adolescent connectedness vary during adolescence, it is unknown which factors remain protective, preventing smoking initiation, in youth of differing racial/ethnic groups. Using a longitudinal, nationally representative sample, we examined which FF protect against smoking initiation in White, Black, and Hispanic youth. A total of 3,473 parent-nonsmoking youth dyads from Round 1 (T1) of the National Survey of Parents and Youth were followed to Round 3 (T2). Youth smoking status at T2 was assessed as the primary outcome. We examined changes in FF (T2 - T1) and the protection afforded by these factors at T1 and T2 for smoking initiation, both by race/ethnicity and overall. There were statistically significant decreases in levels of protective FF from T1 to T2 across all racial/ethnic groups; however, FF levels were higher in never-smokers compared with smoking initiators at both T1 and T2 (p < .05). Separate models by race/ethnicity showed the protective effect of increased perceived punishment in all racial/ethnic groups and protection against initiation by increased parental monitoring in Black and Hispanic youth. Overall, higher parental monitoring at T1 was associated with decreased odds of smoking initiation (33%); decreased parental monitoring and perceived punishment from T1 to T2 were associated with increased odds of smoking initiation (55% and 17%, respectively). Smoking prevention interventions should encourage parents to both enforce consistent consequences of smoking behavior, and continue monitoring, especially in minority groups.

  15. Family size and perinatal circumstances, as mental health risk factors in a Scottish birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Daniel Vincent; Morris, Carole; Hattie, Joanne; Stark, Cameron

    2012-06-01

    Higher maternal parity and younger maternal age have each been observed to be associated with subsequent offspring suicidal behaviour. This study aimed to establish if these, and other variables from the perinatal period, together with family size, are also associated with other psychiatric morbidity. Linked datasets of the Scottish Morbidity Record and Scottish death records were used to follow up, into young adulthood, a birth cohort of 897,685. In addition to the index maternity records, mothers' subsequent pregnancy records were identified, allowing family size to be estimated. Three independent outcomes were studied: suicide, self-harm, and psychiatric hospital admission. Data were analysed using Cox regression. Younger maternal age and higher maternal parity were independently associated with increased risk in offspring of suicide, of self-harm and of psychiatric admission. Risk of psychiatric admission was higher amongst those from families of three or more, but, compared with only children, those with two or three siblings had a lower risk of self harm. Perinatal and family composition factors have a broad influence on mental health outcomes. These data suggest that the existence of younger, as well as elder siblings may be important.

  16. FAMILY INFLUENCE ON FORMATION OF CHILDREN'S MANIPULATIVE ATTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov Ivanovna Ryumshina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article raises the issue of children's manipulation, and examines the conditions contributing to the formation of the manipulative attitudes. As such are analyzed: importance of these attitudes for the child, existence of manipulative attitudes in parents, family microclimate and position to the manipulations in society.According to the results of an empirical study, the characteristics of the family, provoking the development of manipulative behavior in children, are described. The members of this family hardly cooperate with each other and others, are focused on self-interests, and try to satisfy them without much effort, and by using the people around them. It is accompanied by the insincerity and lack of attention to the child, and most of all to his needs, feelings and emotional stress. Normal 0 false false false RU X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Обычная таблица"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}

  17. Factors Influencing Health Beliefs Among People in South West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Items 9 - 16 ... Similarly, a natural phenomenon, e.g., ... disasters, crop failures and theft, or loss) in which ill-health is ... are blamed on conflicts with spouses, children, family, friends, ..... cohort effects and influence of western education on their.

  18. Factors influencing non-utilisation of maternity care services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rather, socio-cultural beliefs in the TBA services, low educational status, and husband and family decision (gender influence) were found to be strong determinants of the non-utilization of the maternity centres by expectant mothers in this community. Improving the educational status of women, reducing the waiting time at ...

  19. Factors Influencing Organization Adoption Decision On Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ailar Rahimli

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on ado...

  20. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der, I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  1. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  2. Influence Factors of the Economic Development Level Across European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Ioana POPA

    2016-01-01

    The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the...

  3. Additional factors influencing resident satisfaction and dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal SR

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Seyed Ramin Jalal, Abdirahman Osman, Saeed Azizi  Faculty of Medicine, St George’s Hospital Medical School, London, UK We have read the recent review article by Kahn et al1 with great interest. The original article was detailed and informative, and we felt it would be helpful to expand on the factors affecting resident satisfaction and dissatisfaction. As senior medical students in clinical years, we spend a significant portion of our time shadowing specialist trainees. Thus, we can offer a unique perspective on the factors affecting trainee satisfaction and well-being. View the original paper by Kahn and colleagues. 

  4. Factors affecting the cultural competence of visiting nurses for rural multicultural family support in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Min Hyun; Oh, Won-Oak; Im, YeoJin

    2018-01-01

    With the recent growth of multicultural families in the Korean society, the importance of the role of qualified visiting nurses in the delivery of culturally sensitive health care has grown dramatically. As the primary health care provider for multicultural families enrolled in public community-based health care centers, the cultural competence of visiting nurses is an essential qualification for the provision of quality health care for multicultural families, especially in rural areas. Cultural competence of visiting nurses is based on their cultural awareness and empathetic attitude toward multicultural families. This study aimed to examine the levels of cultural competence, empowerment, and empathy in visiting nurses, and to verify the factors that affect the cultural competence of visiting nurses working with rural multicultural families in South Korea. Employing a cross-sectional descriptive study design, data from 143 visiting nurses working in rural areas were obtained. Data collection took place between November 2011 and August 2012. The measurement tools included the modified Korean version of the Cultural Awareness Scale, the Text of Items Measuring Empowerment, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index to measure the level of empathy of visiting nurses. Analyses included descriptive statistics, a t-test, an ANOVA, a Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, and a multiple linear regression analysis. The cultural competence score of the visiting nurses was 3.07 on a 5-point Likert scale (SD = 0.30). The multiple regression analysis revealed that the cultural competence of visiting nurses was significantly influenced by experience of cultural education, empathy, and scores on the meaning subscale of the empowerment tool (R 2  = 10.2%). Institutional support to enhance visiting nurses' empowerment by assuring the significance of their job and specific strategies to enhance their empathy would be helpful to improve the cultural competence of visiting

  5. Maternal sociodemographic factors that influence full child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    single parenting, inadequate antenatal care, ethnicity and negative belief in vaccination to low immunisation uptake around the ... the maternal sociodemographic factors that are associated with child ... mothers <18 years old (odds ratio (OR) 0.53; confidence interval (CI) 0.34 - 0.84) and mothers residing in the northern ...

  6. Factors Influencing Medical Students' Choice of Specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yeh Chang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: This study found that personal intelligence/ability preference and career opportunities were more important factors to the current generation of students in choosing a specialty. Knowledge of these students' attitudes could form the basis for the development of strategies to enhance the attractiveness of specialties facing the problem of a shortage of manpower.

  7. 122 Factors Influencing Information and Communication Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yemi Olojede

    Women Research Scientists in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria ... recommends that researchers should restructure their work schedule to accommodate ICT practice and use in order to enhance ICT use. Keywords: Factors of ICT ... potential to reduce poverty and improve livelihoods by empowering users with timely.

  8. Factors influencing adherence to routine iron supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia in pregnancy is a common problem especially in developing countries. and has been linked with feotal and maternal complications. Taking iron supplements could reduce anaemia in pregnancy but some pregnant women do not adhere to this. The study identified some factors associated with non adherence ...

  9. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our findings support other studies which found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school progress and performance. Contrary to most research findings mother tongue instruction did not eme1rge as an important explanatory factor on school progress and performance, however; home ...

  10. Biodemographic And Health Seeking Behavior Factors Influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study findings show primarily - amongst the biodemographic and health seeking services factors, delivery-related maternal health complicacies, blindness, higher order births, twin births, lower household size and interaction effect of higher order live births and male child are significantly correlated with higher neonatal ...

  11. Environmental Factors Influencing Artisanal Fishing in Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study identified the environmental factors affecting artisanal fishing in. Eastern Obolo local government area of Akwa ... colonial administration (Anko &Eyo, 2003). According to Olomola (1998), artisanal ... The problems faced by artisanal fishers in Nigeria are not far from what is experienced by artisanal fishermen in ...

  12. Social factors outside of family and school related to student dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović-Ilić Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a systematisation of broader social factors affecting student dropout in Serbia from the framework of Bronfenbrenner’s approach. Although recognised by authors and commonly related to community and education as a system, these factors are rarely investigated. Starting from our previous research into dropout, focused primarily on family and school, this study is aimed at investigating community and systemic factors. The data were compiled by semi-structured interviews with respondents from the following groups (including relevant public statistical data: students who dropped out/are at risk and their parents; school principals and counsellors from schools with high and low attrition rates; teachers’, parents’ and students’ representatives from schools with high dropout rates; social workers in charge of schools with a low attrition rate; representatives of national educational institutions. The findings reveal that factors with a negative impact on children’s education dominate over supportive ones which could have a preventive effect on attrition. Negative influences exist in all social niches: in microsystems (peers prone to risky behaviour, poor neighbourhoods, in weak mesosystem connections of school and family with local institutions, in exosystems (undeveloped regions, up to the macrosystem level (legislative inefficiency, lack of cooperation within educational institutions and between governmental departments. Productive features were observed in mesosystem connections of schools as examples of good practice, as well as at macrosystem level in the form of recognising the dropout problem at the national level. Although preliminary, the obtained results provide useful guidelines for future investigations.

  13. A Study of Firesetting and Animal Cruelty in Children: Family Influences and Adolescent Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Herrera, Veronica M.; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate relationships among family risk factors, childhood firesetting and animal cruelty, and adolescent delinquency. Method: In 1990, mothers and children participating in a 10-year prospective study provided information about family risk factors and childhood problem behavior. Subsequent interviews with 86% of the sample in…

  14. Influence of school-level and family-level variables on Chinese college students' aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Yang, Jiarun; Yu, Yunmiao; Wang, Lin; Han, Dong; Zhu, Xiongzhao; He, Jincai; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Qiao, Zhengxue; Sui, Hong; Yang, Yanjie

    2017-08-01

    With the frequent occurrence of campus violence, scholars have devoted increasing attention to college students' aggression. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of aggression in Chinese university students and identify factors that could influence their aggression. We can thus find methods to reduce the incidence of college students' aggression in the future. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select university students (N = 4565) aged 16-25 years in Harbin. The Aggression Questionnaire, the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist and the Social Support Revalued Scale were used to collect data. Females reported lower levels of aggression than males (p aggression, and the model was highly significant (R 2  = .233, Ad R 2  = .230, p aggression is affected by gender, family-level and school-level variables. Aggression scores are significantly correlated with not only family-level or school-level variables independently, but their combination as well. We find that the risk factors for aggression include a dissatisfying profession, higher levels of study pressure, poor parental relationships, poor interpersonal relationships, the presence of siblings, punishment, health maladjustment, less subjective support, and lower levels of utilization of social support.

  15. The Influence of Family Relationships on Creativity in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopinski, Józef; Szopinski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The article is rooted in the thesis that good family relationships foster creative behaviour in those responsible for the management of an organization. An underlying assumption of the study is that creativity is vital in any leadership role or managerial position requiring interaction with groups of people. Furthermore, it is assumed that…

  16. Influence of Family Size, Household Food Security Status, and Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Fertility pattern and reproductive behaviours affect infant death in Nigeria. ... Keywords: Family size, food insecurity, stunting, breastfeeding, U5 children ... for young children and women in their childbearing years. Food security ... Two in five children are short for their ages; half of .... At the time of data analysis, the child's.

  17. Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

    2009-01-01

    Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. The theory, however, has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570…

  18. Family and Community Influences on Educational Outcomes among Appalachian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan; Copeland, William E.; Costello, E. Jane; Erkanli, Alaattin; Worthman, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shown how quantifiable aspects of community context affect a wide range of behaviors and outcomes. Due partially to the historical development of this field, currently published work focuses on urban rather than rural areas. We draw upon data from a longitudinal study of families and health in Appalachia--the Great Smoky…

  19. Professional Choice: The Influence of the Cultural Resources of the Families of Russian Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, I. P.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of interviews with representatives of different generations shows the continuing importance of a family's social and cultural status in influencing educational aspirations and the choice of a profession.

  20. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The ...

  1. Nutritional factors influencing milk urea in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995. In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........

  2. The influence of entrepreneurial orientation and family business’s resources and capabilities on marketing performances

    OpenAIRE

    Charupongsopon, Wittaya; Puriwat, Wilert

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Successful Transgenerational Entrepreneurship Practices Project (STEP Project) to investigate the influence of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and family business’s resources and capabilities towards marketing performance. Previous researches represent an evidence of a relationship between EO and firm performance. Nevertheless, there are limited studies to investigate both psychological and physical aspects of family business like EO and family business’s resour...

  3. Factors Influencing Stormwater Mitigation in Permeable Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavement (PP is used worldwide to mitigate surface runoff in urban areas. Various studies have examined the factors governing the hydrologic performance of PP. However, relatively little is known about the relative importance of these governing factors and the long-term hydrologic performance of PP. This study applied numerical models—calibrated and validated using existing experimental results—to simulate hundreds of event-based and two long-term rainfall scenarios for two designs of PP. Based on the event-based simulation results, rainfall intensity, rainfall volume, thickness of the storage layer and the hydraulic conductivity of the subgrade were identified as the most influential factors in PP runoff reduction. Over the long term, PP performed significantly better in a relatively drier climate (e.g., New York, reducing nearly 90% of runoff volume compared to 70% in a relatively wetter climate (e.g., Hong Kong. The two designs of PP examined performed differently, and the difference was more apparent in the relatively wetter climate. This study generated insights that will help the design and implementation of PP to mitigate stormwater worldwide.

  4. Family and Individual Factors in the at Risk Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mohammadi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Based on the past studies in the filed of substance abuse, this study is to compare at risk populations regarding to familial and individual factors. Materials & Methods: this study have been done on 716 at risk individual in 11 city of Fars province. Research tools includes:1- locus of control inventory 2- Attachment styles scale 3- Parental Bonding Instrument 4- Resilience Scale 5- Coping Skills Inventory 6- Self Esteem scale. Results: there was a significant difference between normal and user and abuser groups. In resiliency, self esteem, problem oriented coping skills, caring and secure attachment normal group had a higher scores. But in ambivalent attachment style, external locus of control, emotion oriented and less benefit coping skills, normal group had a lower scores. In resiliency, ambivalent attachment style, problem oriented coping skills, and less benefit coping skills there was significant differences between user and abuser groups. But this was not true for caring, overprotection, secure attachment, locus of control, self esteem, and emotion oriented coping skills. Conclusion: according to these finding and in order to development and promotion of resiliency for substance abuse, preventive intervention should focus on educating parents and caregivers in the field of caring, enough protection, developing secure attachment, strategies for development and maintenance of self esteem, internal locus of control, and use of problem oriented coping skills. Psychological interventions also can use these finding in order to focus their therapy goals.

  5. The Influences of Family, Peers, School and Media in Children ’s Proso-cial Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠菲

    2014-01-01

    Children’s skills of social interaction is a significant index of their following psychological development. Prosocial be-haviors which influenced by many factors are fundamental representatives of social interaction. Present essay illustrates an in-depth review of literature concerning the impacts of family,peers, school and media in Children ’s prosocial behaviors and also in-dicates the limitations of each research.

  6. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.

  7. INFLUENCE FACTORS AND MANIFESTATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel DĂNECI-PĂTRĂU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Notion almost unknown before 1950, labor productivity is now commonly used by economists, engineers, sociologists and politicians alike, influencing all the important issues of the time. Under these circumstances, if it is accepted that labor productivity is the driving variable that generates economic progress, it is justified that people need to increase their efforts to enhance, its value through various means. This article presents the findings of a theoretical research literature regarding landmarks in the evolution of labor productivity. Arguments justifying such an approach have been given by the fact that the labor issue presents an interest not only at the micro level, individual (the consequences it has on the individual work, but also at the macro level, societal (employment relations on the market labor, insurance systems and the offer educational services on the market today.

  8. Factors influencing radon attenuation by tailing covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silker, W.B.; Rogers, V.C.

    1981-07-01

    The US NRC, in its Generic Environmental Impact Statement on uranium milling has specified that the radon flux escaping a uranium mill tailings pile will be reduced to pCi/m 2 s by application of covering layers of soils and clays. These covers present a radon diffusion barrier, which sufficiently increases the time required for radon passage from the tailings to the atmosphere to allow for decay of 222 Rn within the cover. The depth of cover necessary to reduce the escaping radon flux to the prescribed level is to be determined by calculation, and requires precise knowledge of the radon diffusion coefficient in the covering media. A Radon Attenuation Test Facility was developed to determine rates of radon diffusion through candidate cover materials. This paper describes this facility and its application for determining the influence of physical properties of the soil column on the radon diffusion coefficient

  9. Factors influencing incident reporting in surgical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckler, S; Catchpole, K; McCulloch, P; Handa, A

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the process of incident reporting in a surgical setting. In particular: the influence of event outcome on reporting behaviour; staff perception of surgical complications as reportable events. Anonymous web-based questionnaire survey. General Surgical Department in a UK teaching hospital. Of 203 eligible staff, 55 (76.4%) doctors and 82 (62.6%) nurses participated. Knowledge and use of local reporting system; propensity to report incidents which vary by outcome (harm, no harm, harm prevented); propensity to report surgical complications; practical and psychological barriers to reporting. Nurses were significantly more likely to know of the local reporting system and to have recently completed a report than doctors. The level of harm (F(1.8,246) = 254.2, pvs 53%, z = 4.633, psystems.

  10. Family and Cultural Influences on Low-Income Latino Children's Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined family and cultural influences on adjustment among 90 low-income Latino middle school children (46% girls; average age = 11.38, SD = 0.66) and their primary caregivers (93% female; average age = 36.12, SD = 6.13). All participants identified as Hispanic/Latino, with 75% of families identifying as Mexican-origin Latino, and 77%…

  11. Contextual Influences on Children's Mental Health and School Performance: The Moderating Effects of Family Immigrant Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.; Duku, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample of 13,470 children aged 4-11 years were used to study contextual influences on children's mental health and school performance, the moderating effects of family immigrant status and underlying family processes that might explain these relationships. Despite greater socioeconomic disadvantage, children…

  12. Assessment of bidirectional influences between family relationships and adolescent problem behavior: Discrete versus continuous time analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Oud, J.H.L.; Bruyn, E.E.J. De

    2005-01-01

    In family research, bidirectional influences between the family and the individual are usually analyzed in discrete time. Results from discrete time analysis, however, have been shown to be highly dependent on the length of the observation interval. Continuous time analysis using stochastic

  13. Does Research on Children Reared in Father-absent Families Yield Information on Father Influences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Frank A.

    1976-01-01

    The most frequently employed research design for studying paternal influences on child development has been to compare children reared in father-absent families to those reared in father-present families. Research should be directed to the study and conceptualization of the more specific components of experience in the father-child and…

  14. The Family's Influence on Adolescent and Young Adult Career Development: Theory, Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Cathy; Thomas, Trang

    2003-01-01

    A research review identified a range of family process variables associated with enhanced career development for adolescents and young adults. Findings were consistent with the theories of Roe (personality development and career choice) and Super (life-span, life-space) regarding the influence of family processes on career development. (Contains…

  15. Cognitive, Personality, and Family Factors in Patients with Migraine Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Johari-Fard; Farzad Goli; Amirreza Boroumand

    2014-01-01

    Migraine is a disorder that has debilitating pain, and affects all aspects of life, including the academic, social, and family life of patients. In addition, studies show the effects of migraine on patient's relationships with family members such as spouse, children, and other family members. In addition to physical pain, migraines are tied to significant psychological and economic costs. Migraineurs tend to have high levels of depression and anxiety, and migraine headaches have a profoundly ...

  16. Environmental influences on familial discordance of phenotype in people with homocystinuria: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maillot Francois

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-heritable factors may have an influence on the clinical expression of monogenic inherited metabolic diseases. Case presentation This is a case report of a man whose mother had been diagnosed late in childhood with pyridoxine responsive homocystinuria with lens dislocation and neurodevelopmental delay. These severe complications were not observed in her son who was pyridoxine unresponsive but who had been treated appropriately since early infancy. Conclusion The phenotype of people with homocystinuria can be discordant within a family, with variability in metabolic and clinical expression depending upon both the genotype and therapeutic interventions. Offspring of people with homocystinuria should be screened in early infancy and, if positive, treated appropriately whether they have pyridoxine responsive or unresponsive disease.

  17. Factors associated to the career choice of family medicine among Japanese physicians: the dawn of a new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ie, Kenya; Tahara, Masao; Murata, Akiko; Komiyama, Manabu; Onishi, Hirotaka

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent developments in post-graduate family medicine training in Japan, the numbers of junior doctors entering family medicine residencies are still limited. The objective of this qualitative study was to investigate the possible factors associated to the career choice of family medicine, especially in the context of the newly established family medicine programs in Japan. From December 2010 to January 2011, we distributed a semi-structured questionnaire about career choice to 58 physician members of the Japan Primary Care Association, and 41 of them responded. Four researchers used the Modified Grounded Theory Approach (Kinoshita, 2003) for three-stage conceptualization. We extracted a conceptual model of the choice of newly established family medicine as a career in Japan, consisting of six categories and 77 subordinate concepts from 330 variations. The subcategories of personal background affecting the family-medicine career choice were characteristics ("self-reliance," "pioneering spirit"), career direction ("community/rural-orientedness," "multifaceted orientation") and experience (e.g., "discomfort with fragmented care"). We divided the influencing factors that were identified for career choice into supporters (e.g., "role model"), conflict of career choice (e.g., "anxiety about diverse/broad practice"), and the dawn of a new era in family medicine in Japan (e.g., "lack of social recognition," "concern about livelihood," and "too few role models"). Although the dawn of a new era seemed a rather negative influencer, it was unique to our study that the dawn itself could attract those with a "pioneering spirit" and an "attitude of self-training." Unlike previous studies, the positive factors such as lifestyle and the short residency program were not shown to be part of family medicine's attractiveness. In contrast, "concern about livelihood" was specific among our respondents and was related to career choice in the dawn period. "Community

  18. Identifying socio-environmental factors that facilitate resilience among Canadian palliative family caregivers: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Melissa; Wolse, Faye; Crooks, Valorie A; Stajduhar, Kelli

    2015-06-01

    In Canada, friends and family members are becoming increasingly responsible for providing palliative care in the home. This is resulting in some caregivers experiencing high levels of stress and burden that may ultimately surpass their ability to cope. Recent palliative care research has demonstrated the potential for caregiver resilience within such contexts. This research, however, is primarily focused on exploring individual-level factors that contribute to resilience, minimizing the inherent complexity of this concept, and how it is simultaneously influenced by one's social context. Therefore, our study aims to identify socio-environmental factors that contribute to palliative family caregiver resilience in the Canadian homecare context. Drawing on ethnographic fieldnotes and semistructured interviews with family caregivers, care recipients, and homecare nurses, this secondary analysis employs an intersectionality lens and qualitative case study approach to identify socio-environmental factors that facilitate family caregivers' capacity for resilience. Following a case study methodology, two cases are purposely selected for analysis. Findings demonstrate that family caregiver resilience is influenced not only by individual-level factors but also by the social environment, which sets the lived context from which caregiving roles are experienced. Thematic findings of the two case studies revealed six socio-environmental factors that play a role in shaping resilience: access to social networks, education/knowledge/awareness, employment status, housing status, geographic location, and life-course stage. Findings contribute to existing research on caregiver resilience by empirically demonstrating the role of socio-environmental factors in caregiving experiences. Furthermore, utilizing an intersectional approach, these findings build on existing notions that resilience is a multidimensional and complex process influenced by numerous related variables that intersect

  19. Factors influencing workplace health promotion intervention: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojatz, Daniela; Merchant, Almas; Nitsch, Martina

    2017-10-01

    Although workplace health promotion (WHP) has evolved over the last 40 years, systematically collected knowledge on factors influencing the functioning of WHP is scarce. Therefore, a qualitative systematic literature review was carried out to systematically identify and synthesize factors influencing the phases of WHP interventions: needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Research evidence was identified by searching electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, ERIC, IBBS and PsycINFO) from 1998 to 2013, as well as by cross-checking reference lists of included peer-reviewed articles. The inclusion criteria were: original empirical research, description of WHP, description of barriers to and/or facilitators of the planning, implementation and/or evaluation of WHP. Finally, 54 full texts were included. From these, influencing factors were extracted and summarized using thematic analysis. The majority of influencing factors referred to the implementation phase, few dealt with planning and/or evaluation and none with needs assessment. The influencing factors were condensed into topics with respect to factors at contextual level (e.g. economic crisis); factors at organizational level (e.g. management support); factors at intervention level (e.g. quality of intervention concept); factors at implementer level (e.g. resources); factors at participant level (e.g. commitment to intervention) and factors referring to methodological and data aspects (e.g. data-collection issues). Factors regarding contextual issues and organizational aspects were identified across three phases. Therefore, future research and practice should consider not only the influencing factors at different levels, but also at different phases of WHP interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. [Intergenerational connection of sexism: influence of family variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Aliri, Jone

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is three-fold: 1) to analyze the relations between parents' hostile sexism (HS), benevolent sexism (BS), and ambivalent sexism (AS) and that of their sons-daughters; 2) to study the relation between the mothers' and the fathers' sexism; and 3) to appraise whether the family socio-economic level-cultural is related to sexism. The sample included 2,867 participants, 1,455 adolescents (768 girls, 687 boys) and their parents (764 mothers, 648 fathers). The results revealed positive correlations between the mothers' sexism (HS-BS-AS) and the BS of their sons, and with the HS, BS, and AS of their daughters. Positive correlations were found between the fathers' sexism (BS-AS) and their sons' sexism (HS-BS-AS-Neosexism); however, no relation was found with their daughters' sexism. The intergenerational connection of sexism in the family was confirmed: from mothers to sons and daughters and from fathers to sons. The mother emerged as a very influential figure, although a higher connection was confirmed between the mothers' and the daughters' sexism and between the fathers' and the sons' sexism. Positive correlations were also found between both parents' sexism, and negative correlations between the socio-economic-cultural level of the family and sexism in the parents and in the adolescents.

  1. Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio; Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; de Olalla, Patricia García; Caylà, Joan A

    2013-06-01

    According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with TB. In spite of the political, economical, research and community efforts, TB remains a major global health problem worldwide. Moreover, in this new century, new challenges such as multidrug-resistance extension, migration to big cities and the new treatments with anti-tumour necrosis alpha factor for inflammatory diseases have emerged and threaten the decreasing trend in the global number of TB cases in the last years. We must also be aware about the impact that smoking and diabetes pandemics may be having on the incidence of TB. The existence of a good TB Prevention and Control Program is essential to fight against TB. The coordination among clinicians, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others, and the link between surveillance, control and research should always be a priority for a TB Program. Each city and country should define their needs according to the epidemiological situation. Local TB control programs will have to adapt to any new challenge that arises in order to respond to the needs of their population.

  2. Factors influencing microinjection molding replication quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Julie; Brulez, Anne-Catherine; Contraires, Elise; Larochette, Mathieu; Trannoy-Orban, Nathalie; Pignon, Maxime; Mauclair, Cyril; Valette, Stéphane; Benayoun, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in producing and providing high-precision plastic parts that can be manufactured by microinjection molding: gears, pumps, optical grating elements, and so on. For all of these applications, the replication quality is essential. This study has two goals: (1) fabrication of high-precision parts using the conventional injection molding machine; (2) identification of robust parameters that ensure production quality. Thus, different technological solutions have been used: cavity vacuuming and the use of a mold coated with DLC or CrN deposits. AFM and SEM analyses were carried out to characterize the replication profile. The replication quality was studied in terms of the process parameters, coated and uncoated molds and crystallinity of the polymer. Specific studies were processed to quantify the replicability of injection molded parts (ABS, PC and PP). Analysis of the Taguchi experimental designs permits prioritization of the impact of each parameter on the replication quality. A discussion taking into account these new parameters and the thermal and spreading properties on the coatings is proposed. It appeared that, in general, increasing the mold temperature improves the molten polymer fill in submicron features except for the steel insert (for which the presence of a vacuum is the most important factor). Moreover, the DLC coating was the best coating to increase the quality of the replication. This result could be explained by the lower thermal diffusivity of this coating. We noted that the viscosity of the polymers is not a primordial factor of the replication quality.

  3. Factors influencing EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.L.; Spinella, M.R.; Bof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors) [es

  4. Cultural factors in collegiate eating disorder pathology: When family culture clashes with individual culture

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiyama, AJ; Mann, T

    2008-01-01

    The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2) culturally independent participants, enmeshment will not be a risk factor for (1) participants of Asian descent or (2) culturally interdependent participants. P...

  5. Factors influencing surface roughness of polyimide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hong; Zhang Zhanwen; Huang Yong; Li Bo; Li Sai

    2011-01-01

    The polyimide (PI) films of pyromellitic dianhydride-oxydiamiline (PMDA-ODA) were fabricated using vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) method under high vacuum pressure of 10-4 Pa level. The influence of equipment, substrate temperature, the process of heating and deposition ratio of monomers on the surface roughness of the PI films was investigated. The surface topography of films was measured by interferometer microscopy and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and the surface roughness was probed with atomic force microscopy(AFM). The results show that consecutive films can be formed when the distance from steering flow pipe to substrate is 74 cm. The surface roughnesses are 291.2 nm and 61.9 nm respectively for one-step heating process and multi-step heating process, and using fine mesh can effectively avoid the splash of materials. The surface roughness can be 3.3 nm when the deposition rate ratio of PMDA to ODA is 0.9:1, and keeping the temperature of substrate around 30 degree C is advantageous to form a film with planar micro-surface topography. (authors)

  6. Normative influence and desired family size among young people in rural Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Catherine

    2011-06-01

    Research has identified the lack of acceptance of a two-child-family norm as the biggest obstacle to achieving replacement-level fertility in Egypt. This analysis examines norms about desired family size for 1,366 males and 1,367 females aged 15-24 in 2004 in rural Minya governorate. Two-level random-effects multivariate logistic regression models, stratified by sex and grouped by neighborhood, are used to assess normative influence at the household and neighborhood levels, controlling for individual- and household-level covariates. In the final model, young males in neighborhoods where more people desire a small family are 33 percent more likely to desire a small family than are young males in other neighborhoods. Young females in households with one or more adults preferring a small family are 78 percent more likely to desire a small family, and young females in households with one or more young people who prefer a small family are 37 percent more likely to desire a small family themselves, compared with those living with adults or with young people, respectively, who do not prefer a small family. Programs aiming to reduce fertility should be aware of gender differences in the sources of normative influence on desired family size.

  7. Influence of socioeconomic factors in muscle dysmorphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Rizo-Baeza

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction and objective: In muscle dysmorphia (MD the patient thinks he is smaller and less muscular than he really is. As in other addictive diseases, its prevention and early diagnosis are the key to avoid associated disorders. It is established as an objective to determine if there are associated socio-demographic factors. Material and methods: Cross-sectional observational study of 140 men, between 16-45 years old, who practice bodybuilding in gyms of different socioeconomic levels, at least 6 months prior to the study, 4 days / week, 1 hour / day, who signed the informed consent and without chronic illness. The main variable was the presence of symptoms of DM using the muscle appearance satisfaction scale (44 patients and the secondary variables were age, coexistence, children, educational level and monthly income. Frequencies were used in the qualitative variables, and averages and standard deviations in the quantitative variables, in the bivariate analysis of the Chisquare test and the t-student test respectively and the binary logistic regression (presence / absence of MD to eliminate confounding factors, the probabilities were calculated associated Results: The gymnasts have an average age of 26.1 (SD = 7.1 years; the majority live with their parents (56.4%; they do not have children (89.3%; the academic levels are balanced and the economic income is mostly low / medium (79.3%. In the bivariate analysis, is observed a higher risk at a younger age (p = 0.027 and when they live with their parents (limit of significance. Significance is not observed with the variables having children, educational level or economic income. In the binary logistic regression these meanings are lost, although the graphic representation of the probability in relation with age seems to be a risk factor, as well as living with the parents or as a couple. Conclusion: Among men who practice bodybuilding, it is usually a risk to suffer MD, to be younger

  8. Sex differences in factors contributing to family-to-work and work-to-family conflict in Japanese civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yuko; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    As the number of dual-earner couples in Japan has increased, work-life balance has become important. This study aimed to examine the factors that contribute to work-family conflict. The participants included 3,594 (2,332 men and 1,262 women) civil servants aged 20-59 working for local government on the west coast of Japan. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate whether work, family, or lifestyle characteristics were associated with work-family conflict. For men, family-to-work conflict was associated with being elderly, having low-grade employment, working long hours, raising children, and sleeping shorter hours. For women, being married and raising children were strong determinants of family-to-work conflict, and being middle-aged, working long hours, and sleeping shorter hours were also associated with this type of conflict. Regarding work-to-family conflict, working long hours was the strongest determinant of conflict in both sexes. In men, being elderly, living with family, eating dinner late, and sleeping shorter hours were also associated with work-to-family conflict. In women, having high-grade employment, being married, raising children, and eating dinner late were associated with work-to-family conflict. This study showed that working long hours was the primary determinant of work-to-family conflict in both sexes and that being married and raising children were strong factors of family-to-work conflict in women only. Sex differences may reflect divergence of the social and domestic roles of men and women in Japanese society. To improve the work-life balance, general and sex-specific health policies may be required.

  9. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE INTENTION FOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULIȚĂ ZENOBIA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents the research results of an applied study regarding the impact of work style and organizational climate on teachers' intention to leave their workplace in the foreseeable future. A sample of 150 teachers aged 21-56, employees of 10 schools from Bucharest, Romania has been the focus of the research, aiming to identify the differences between the group of participants that expressed their intent to leave the organization (called the turnover group and the ones that stated their intention to remain employed in the school (non-fluctuation group regarding work style and its factors and the perceived traits of the organizational climate for the schools employing them at the time of the study. Teachers included in the turnover group revealed a more dynamic work style and a significantly more negative perception of the organizational climate.

  10. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, A.; Nichols, M.L.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.; Thurber, J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research

  11. Factors influencing dependence on mobile phone

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    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of current study was to investigate the relationship between the problematic use of mobile phone and Big Five personality traits among students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A total number of 120 students (80 females and 40 males were selected by applying proportional randomized classification sampling method from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS and demographic questionnaire were used to gather data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Analysis of gathered data showed that gender, neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience had positive correlation with the problematic use of mobile phone, whereas conscientiousness and agreeableness were not correlated with the problematic use of mobile phone. Conclusion: The evaluation of Big Five personality traits would be a reliable factor for predicting the problematic use of mobile phone among students.

  12. Wheat Industry: Which Factors Influence Innovation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Francisco Dalla Corte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A change in the profile of food consumption is occurring because of the new context of demographic growth, the increase of income in developing economies, and urbanization. In Brazil, consumption patterns have trended from fresh to processed food and internal and external growth in demand has led to opportunities that require new and higher levels of technological innovation and associated managerial skill. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of innovation on a key Brazilian food industry: wheat product markets. Results showed that while most firms did not innovate in the past year, new investments in R&D were important for innovation to occur compared to other factors such as the size of the company, the integration in supply chain, and the age of the company. These results demonstrate that innovation is not a random or unpredictable process, but a complex and diverse process that may be specific to each industry.

  13. Influence factors in the Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Ramírez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There are factors which impel or slow down the knowledge processes into the organizations which in turn affect the completion of its vision as an ideal planning. The organizational memory, repetition of unconscious acts and the extended practice plays an important role in the meaning of the action and the goal to transform the plans into attainment through the manifest knowledge which turns into conclusion and makes a systematic knowing infused with values as an important core source for the firm. They conceive maturity stages of development within the companies which interact mutually, starting with the organizational memory which embodies the past and present successes, passing towards unconscious acts which can risk the true knowledge content to an extended practice stage based in years of experience.

  14. Factors influencing message dissemination through social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yang, Huancheng; Fu, Yang; Fu, Dianzheng; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-06-01

    Online social networks strongly impact our daily lives. An internet user (a "Netizen") wants messages to be efficiently disseminated. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) dissemination model is the traditional tool for exploring the spreading mechanism of information diffusion. We here test our SIR-based dissemination model on open and real-world data collected from Twitter. We locate and identify phase transitions in the message dissemination process. We find that message content is a stronger factor than the popularity of the sender. We also find that the probability that a message will be forwarded has a threshold that affects its ability to spread, and when the probability is above the threshold the message quickly achieves mass dissemination.

  15. Influence of processing factors over concrete strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, K. A.; Dolzhenko, A. V.; Zharikov, I. S.

    2018-03-01

    Construction of facilities of cast in-situ reinforced concrete poses additional requirements to quality of material, peculiarities of the construction process may sometimes lead to appearance of lamination planes and inhomogeneity of concrete, which reduce strength of the material and structure as a whole. Technology compliance while working with cast in-situ concrete has a significant impact onto the concrete strength. Such process factors as concrete curing, vibration and compaction of the concrete mixture, temperature treatment, etc., when they are countered or inadequately followed lead to a significant reduction in concrete strength. Here, the authors experimentally quantitatively determine the loss of strength in in-situ cast concrete structures due to inadequate following of process requirements, in comparison with full compliance.

  16. Factors influencing professional life satisfaction among neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M; Halpern, Michael T; Kane, Heather L; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2017-06-19

    Predicted shortages in the supply of neurologists may limit patients' access to and quality of care for neurological disorders. Retaining neurologists already in practice provides one opportunity to support the overall supply of practicing neurologists. Understanding factors associated with professional life satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) and implementing policies to enhance satisfaction may encourage neurologists to remain in clinical practice. In this paper, we present results from the first study examining factors associated with professional life satisfaction among a large sample of U.S, neurologists. We collaborated with the AAN to survey a sample of U.S. neurologists about their professional life satisfaction. Analyses examined the association of physician and practice characteristics with aspects of professional life satisfaction, including satisfaction with their career in medicine, medical specialty, current position, relationship with colleagues, relationship with patients, work/life balance, and pay. The study population consisted of 625 neurologists. In multivariate regression analyses, no single group or population stratum indicated high (or low) responses to all aspects of satisfaction. Older neurologists reported higher satisfaction with career, specialty, and relationship with patients than younger neurologists. Female neurologists had significantly lower satisfaction with pay than male neurologists. Neurologists who spent more time in research and teaching had greater satisfaction with specialty, relationship with colleagues, and relationship with patients than those spending no time in research. Neurologists who practiced in small cities/rural areas reported lower satisfaction across multiple dimensions than those practicing in large urban areas. Neurologists in solo practice had greater satisfaction with the relationship with their patients, but lower satisfaction with pay. Satisfaction is a multidimensional construct that is associated with

  17. Modifiable factors associated with caregiver burden among family caregivers of terminally ill Korean cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok-Joon; Kim, Jong-Sung; Jung, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Samyong

    2014-05-01

    Higher caregiver burden is associated with poor quality of life among family caregivers. However, in Korea, very few studies have examined factors associated with caregiver burden. The present study investigated factors associated with caregiver burden among family caregivers of terminally ill Korean cancer patients, particularly modifiable factors as a potential target of intervention strategies. A cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires was performed. Sixty-four family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients who were admitted to the hospice-palliative care unit of a university hospital in South Korea were included. To identify caregiver burden, the Caregiver Reaction Assessment scale (CRA) was used in this study. Time spent in providing care per day, number of visits per week from other family members, family functioning, and a positive subscale, self-esteem, of the CRA were deemed as modifiable factors. Other sociodemographic, caregiving characteristics of the subjects were non-modifiable factors. Longer time spent providing care per day, fewer weekly visits from other family members, poor family functioning, and low self-esteem were considered as modifiable factors associated with caregiver burden. Low monthly income and the spouse being the family caregiver were non-modifiable factors. Our study has practical significance in that it identifies modifiable factors that can be used to devise intervention strategies. Developing and applying such intervention strategies for alleviating the factors associated with high caregiver burden could be important for improving the quality of life of both patients and their families.

  18. Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life.

  19. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  20. Social Influences and the Physical Activity Intentions of Parents of Young-Children Families: An Extended Theory of Planned Behavior Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence within Australia and internationally suggests parenthood as a risk factor for inactivity; however, research into understanding parental physical activity is scarce. Given that active parents can create active families and social factors are important for parents' decision making, the authors investigated a range of social influences on…