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Sample records for factors influencing combustion

  1. STUDY ON MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION OF COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Jun; Xu Jingcai; Zhang Xinghai

    2000-01-01

    This paper theoretically analyzes major factors influencing spontaneous combustion of coal, such as molecule structure of coal, porosity, temperature, concentration of oxygen, coal thickness, velocity of face advance, and so on; and probes into how they affect the process of spontaneous combustion of coal, which is of momentous significance to predict or control self-ignition of coal.

  2. Factors Influencing Temperature Fields during Combustion Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORTDATE(DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) New Reprint - 4. TITLE AND...Aluminum Rich Al-Ti Mechanical Alloys in Air, Combust. Flame 2006, 144, 688. [27] Z. Zhang, B. Tsai, G. Machin, Radiometric Temperature Measure- ments

  3. [Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential coal combustion and its influence factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Ting-Ting; Chen, Ying-Jun; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chong-Guo; Lin, Tian

    2013-07-01

    As the emission source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), domestic coal combustion has attracted increasing attention in China. According to the coal maturity, combustion form and stove type associated with domestic coal combustion, a large-size, full-flow dilution tunnel and fractional sampling system was employed to collect the emissions from five coals with various maturities, which were burned in the form of raw-coal-chunk (RCC)/honeycomb-coal-briquettes (HCB) in different residential stoves, and then the emission factors of PAHs (EF(PAHs)) were achieved. The results indicate that the EF(PAHs) of bituminous coal ranged from 1.1 mg x kg(-1) to 3.9 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 2.5 mg x kg(-1) to 21. 1 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, and the anthracite EF(PAH8) were 0.2 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 0.6 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, respectively. Among all the influence factors of emission factors of PAHs from domestic coal combustion, the maturity of coal played a major role, the range of variance reaching 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in coals with different maturity. Followed by the form of combustion (RCC/HCB), the EF(PAHs) of HCB was 2-6 times higher than that of RCC for the same geological maturity of the coal. The type of stove had little influence on EF(PAHs).

  4. The combustion of fuel oil and the factors influencing pollutant formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedighi, Kurosh.

    1990-03-01

    This study presents in-flame and flue gas emission data with particular emphasis on the emission of NO{sub x} compounds arising from oil spray combustion. Experimental studies were carried out in a cylindrical ceramic-lined tunnel furnace using a pressure jet swirl oil burner. This burner was characterized in terms of the droplet size and spray pattern it produced in order to investigate the effect of these parameters on system performance with regard to NO formation. Six operating conditions were used and the NO and NO{sub x} emissions in the flame and post flame regions were reported. The majority of NO in the system was formed via the oxidation of nitrogenous species produced close to the burner. The effect of mean droplet size on the NO formation was investigated and the results showed that any factor which tended to produce smaller fuel droplets promoted an increase in the NO emission. In-flame radial and axial profiles were used to elucidate the mechanism of NO formation with regard to burner operation conditions. The burning rate of the fuel droplets was also modelled theoretically for the experimental conditions investigated. Predictions of NO formation chemistry were undertaken using a kinetic package. A post-processing NO model using the FLUENT computer code was also used. (Author).

  5. The Influence of Flame Retardant Treated Timber Density on Combustibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbignev Karpovič

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Timber is widely used as a construction material in the majority of countries. In most cases, timber is the main structural material. Timber and timber fabrics used in building structure elements have to fulfill the requirements of fire safety. This article presents factors affecting the combustibility of timber, mainly the influence of flame retardants on the combustion phase, timber density and moisture. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is analyzed in this paper. Research was performed according to the requirements of the standard LST ISO 5657:1999 “Reaction to fire tests – ignitibility of building products using a radiant heat source”. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is assessed according to duration up to the combustion of the specimen. Article in Lithuanian

  6. 活性炭自燃点测定及影响因素研究%Study on the influence factors of spontaneous combustion of activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗娜

    2014-01-01

    自燃火灾在诸多类型火灾中所占比例较小,但火灾发生后往往造成较大的经济损失。本实验以活性炭为研究对象,分别制备了不同氧化程度、粒径、含水率的系列样品,利用自燃性能测试仪,分别对制备的系列样品进行了实验研究,找出了影响活性炭自燃点的因素并对其原因进行讨论。实验结果表明,氧化程度、含水率和粒径是影响活性炭自燃的重要因素。对活性炭自燃火灾的原因调查和物证鉴定工作具有一定的指导意义,也能为活性炭使用行业提供相应的参考帮助,同时为消防教学丰富相关的资料。%The spontaneous combustion fire occured low proportion in the fire summary ,but often caused great losses once it happened. In this paper ,We fecused on activated carbon ,the series of activated carbon samples with different influence factors had been prepared by the self-ignition test machine and their self-ignition temperature had been tested. The results show that the oxidation degree ,particle size and the humility are the important influnce factors of the activated carbon self-ignition temperature.

  7. Influence of Torrefaction on Single Particle Combustion of Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Zhimin; Jian, Jie; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the influence of torrefaction on the char reactivity, char yield, and combustion time of 3-5 mm spherical wood particles in a single particle combustion reactor (SPC) operating at a nominal temperature of 1231 °C. The devolatilization times were reduced and the char burnout...

  8. Research on Influence Factors of Fuel Combustion in Oxy-fuel Boilers%富氧燃烧条件下锅炉燃料燃烧影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨铭; 王春华; 王志华; 赵占明; 李文兴; 姜冠佳

    2015-01-01

    Based on the calculation method of fuel combustion in boiler under the condition of the oxygen-enriched combustion, combining with the characteristics of oxygen-enriched boiler thermodynamic system, the fuel combustion calculation software was developed using Visual Basic 6.0. By the software, the influence of the oxygen concentration on the boiler efficiency, combustion air volume and smoke gas volume was analyzed as well as the impact of discharge smoke temperature, excess oxygen coefficient on the boiler thermal efficiency. The results show that theoretical air volume and smoke volume decrease with the increase of oxygen concentration; the boiler thermal efficiency rises with the increase of oxygen concentration and reduction of excess oxygen coefficient; the higher the smoke temperature, the slower the boiler thermal efficiency rising rate; under lower oxygen concentration, the oxygen concentration has significant influence on the combustion air volume, smoke volume, boiler thermal efficiency and fuel consumption; on the other hand, under higher oxygen concentration, oxygen concentration has relatively less influence on the above mentioned factors.%以他人建立的富氧燃烧条件下锅炉燃料燃烧计算为框架,结合富氧锅炉热力系统的特点,运用Visual Basic 6.0开发了富氧燃烧条件下燃料燃烧计算软件,分析了锅炉操作参数中氧气浓度对锅炉效率、空气量、烟气量的影响;分析了富氧燃烧条件下排烟温度、过量氧气系数对锅炉热效率的影响。结果显示:理论空气量和理论干烟气量随着氧气浓度的增加而减少;锅炉热效率随着氧气浓度的增加和过量氧气系数的减小呈上升趋势,而且排烟温度越高,锅炉热效率上升越慢;低氧气浓度下,氧气浓度的变化对锅炉燃烧用空气量、烟气量、锅炉热效率、燃料消耗量的影响较为显著;高氧气浓度下,影响相对减弱。

  9. Design factors for stable lean premix combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Gemmen, R.S.

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program includes the development of low-emission combustors. Low emissions have already been achieved by premixing fuel and air to avoid the hot gas pockets produced by nozzles without premixing. While the advantages of premixed combustion have been widely recognized, turbine developers using premixed nozzles have experienced repeated problems with combustion oscillations. Left uncontrolled, these oscillations can lead to pressure fluctuations capable of damaging engine hardware. Elimination of such oscillations is often difficult and time consuming - particularly when oscillations are discovered in the last stages of engine development. To address this issue, METC is studying oscillating combustion from lean premixing fuel nozzles. These tests are providing generic information on the mechanisms that contribute to oscillating behavior in gas turbines. METC is also investigating the use of so-called {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} control of combustion oscillations. This technique periodically injects fuel pulses into the combustor to disrupt the oscillating behavior. Recent results on active combustion control are presented in Gemmen et al. (1995) and Richards et al. (1995). This paper describes the status of METC efforts to avoid oscillations through simple design changes.

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  11. Influence of Coal Quality on Combustion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der; Glarborg, Peter; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Three coals have been fired in a tangentially and an opposed fired full scale power plant (about 400 MWe) and in a pilot scale test rig (160 kWt) in order to investigate the influence of coal quality on nitrogen oxide (NO) formation and unburned carbon in relation to furnace design. In-flame and ......Three coals have been fired in a tangentially and an opposed fired full scale power plant (about 400 MWe) and in a pilot scale test rig (160 kWt) in order to investigate the influence of coal quality on nitrogen oxide (NO) formation and unburned carbon in relation to furnace design. In......-flame and furnace gas temperatures have been measured, and substantial differences in temperature between the coals were observed in the full scale furnaces. Identical trends in NO emission as a function of coal type were obtained for the three furnaces. The emissions correlated well with the high temperature...... volatile yield obtained from heated wire mesh analysis. Under air staging conditions the pilot scale test rig was able to reproduce quantitatively the amount of NO from the tangentially fired plant, which operates with over fire air. This is probably due to the relatively small influence of the near burner...

  12. Influence of injector technology on injection and combustion development - Part 2: Combustion analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, R.; Salvador, F.J.; Gimeno, J.; Morena, J. de la [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    The influence of injection technology on the fuel-air mixing process and the combustion development are analyzed by means of visualization techniques. For this purpose, two injectors (one solenoid and one piezoelectric) are characterized using an optical accessible two stroke engine. Visualization of liquid penetration has allowed the measurement of the stabilized liquid length, which is related with the efficiency of fuel-air mixing process. A theoretical derivation is used in order to relate this liquid length with chamber conditions, as well as to make a temporal analysis of these phenomena. After this, natural flame emission and chemiluminescence techniques are carried out. These results indicate that the piezoelectric system has a more efficient fuel-air mixing and combustion, reducing the characteristic times as well as soot formation. Finally, a correlation for the ignition delay of the two systems is obtained. (author)

  13. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  14. Influence of Process Parameters on Coal Combustion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der

    The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of nitrogen oxide formation and carbon burnout during the combustion of pulverized coal, and to contribute to addressing the potential of chemical engineering models for the prediction of furnace temperatures, NO emissions and the amount...... of carbon in ash. To this purpose, the effect of coal quality on NO and burnout has been investigated experimentally, a radiation heat balance has been developed based on simple chemical engineering methodology, and a mixing study has been conducted in order to describe the near burner macro mixing in terms...... with self-sustaining flames, while extensions are made to full scale boilers and furnace modeling. Since coal combustion and flame aerodynamics are reviewed elsewhere, these phenomena are only treated briefly. The influence of coal type and process conditions on NO formation and carbon burnout has been...

  15. Influence of measurement errors and estimated parameters on combustion diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, F.; Molina, S.; Martin, J. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Armas, O. [Departamento de Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de proyectos, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha. Av. Camilo Jose Cela s/n 13071,Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Thermodynamic diagnosis models are valuable tools for the study of Diesel combustion. Inputs required by such models comprise measured mean and instantaneous variables, together with suitable values for adjustable parameters used in different submodels. In the case of measured variables, one may estimate the uncertainty associated with measurement errors; however, the influence of errors in model parameter estimation may not be so easily established on an experimental basis. In this paper, a simulated pressure cycle has been used along with known input parameters, so that any uncertainty in the inputs is avoided. Then, the influence of errors in measured variables and geometric and heat transmission parameters on the results of a diagnosis combustion model for direct injection diesel engines have been studied. This procedure allowed to establish the relative importance of these parameters and to set limits to the maximal errors of the model, accounting for both the maximal expected errors in the input parameters and the sensitivity of the model to those errors. (author)

  16. Emission Factor from Small Scale Tropical Peat Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, W.; Damanhuri, E.; Lestari, P.; Dewi, K.

    2017-03-01

    Peatfire in Indonesia recently had become an important issue regarding its global warming impact of green house gases emitted. Emission factor is one of important variables to determine total emission of carbon released by peatfire. But currently there were only a few studies about Indonesian peat fire emission factors. The previous studies of Indonesian peat fire emission factor reported the results from a very limited number of samples and during smoldering combustion stages only. Therefore this study attempts to quantify carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission factors from laboratory peat combustion based on higher number of samples and taken both of combustion stages (flaming and smoldering) into consideration. Peats were sampled from five different districts in Pontianak, West Kalimantan. Ultimate analysis showed that pure peat composed of relatively high carbon content (52.85 - 59.43% dry basis). Laboratory experiments were carried out by burning small amout of peats in a mini furnace and measuring their CO2 and CH4 emission concentration during flaming and smoldering. CO2, CO and CH4 average emission factors and their related average MCE for flaming were found to be 2,088 ± 21 g/kg (n = 17), 3.104 ± 7.173 g/kg (n = 17), 0.143 ± 0.132 g/kg (n = 17) and 0.998 ± 0.005 (n = 17), respectively, while for smoldering were 1,831 ± 131 g/kg (n = 17), 138 ± 72 g/kg (n = 17), 17 ± 12 g/kg (n = 17) and 0.894 ± 0.055 g/kg (n = 17), respectively. This emission factors based on the laboratory combustion experiment can be conveniently used to estimate CO2 and CH4 emission from Indonesian peat fire. Equation models to correlate between MCE and emission factors for both flaming and smoldering were developed. MCE and CO2 emission factor during flaming was relatively higher than smoldering. On the contrary, CO and CH4 emission factors were relatively smaller during flaming than smoldering.

  17. Key factors of combustion from kinetics to gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rubtsov, Nikolai M

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the main advances in the mechanisms of combustion processes. It focuses on the analysis of kinetic mechanisms of gas combustion processes and experimental investigation into the interrelation of kinetics and gas dynamics in gas combustion. The book is complimentary to the one previously published, The Modes of Gaseous Combustion.

  18. Influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions in pulverized coal combustion boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Feng(魏风); ZHANG Jun-ying(张军营); TANG Bi-guang(唐必光); ZHENG Chu-guang(郑楚光)

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports a field testing of full scale PCC (Pulverized Coal Combustion) boiler study into the influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions at unit 3 (125 MW power units, 420 t/h boiler) of Guixi power station, Jiangxi and puts forward the methods to decrease NOx emissions and the principle of boiler operation and regulation through analyzing NOx emissions state under real running condition. Based on boiler constricted air distribution, the experiment mainly tested the influence of primary air, excessive air, boiler load and milling sets (tertiary air) on NOx emissions and found its influence characteristics. A degraded bituminous coal is simply adopted to avoid the test results from other factors.

  19. Global cloud condensation nuclei influenced by carbonaceous combustion aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Spracklen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon in carbonaceous combustion aerosol warms the climate by absorbing solar radiation, meaning reductions in black carbon emissions are often perceived as an attractive global warming mitigation option. However, carbonaceous combustion aerosol can also act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN so they also cool the climate by increasing cloud albedo. The net radiative effect of carbonaceous combustion aerosol is uncertain because their contribution to CCN has not been evaluated on the global scale. By combining extensive observations of CCN concentrations with the GLOMAP global aerosol model, we find that the model is biased low (normalised mean bias = −77 % unless carbonaceous combustion aerosol act as CCN. We show that carbonaceous combustion aerosol accounts for more than half (52–64 % of global CCN with the range due to uncertainty in the emitted size distribution of carbonaceous combustion particles. The model predicts that wildfire and pollution (fossil fuel and biofuel carbonaceous combustion aerosol causes a global mean cloud albedo aerosol indirect effect of −0.34 W m−2, with stronger cooling if we assume smaller particle emission size. We calculate that carbonaceous combustion aerosol from pollution sources cause a global mean aerosol indirect effect of −0.23 W m−2. The small size of carbonaceous combustion particles from fossil fuel sources means that whilst pollution sources account for only one-third of the emitted mass they cause two-thirds of the cloud albedo aerosol indirect effect that is due to carbonaceous combustion aerosol. This cooling effect must be accounted for, along with other cloud effects not studied here, to ensure that black carbon emissions controls that reduce the high number concentrations of fossil fuel particles have the desired net effect on climate.

  20. Influence of inhibitors on combustion of polyacrylonitrile materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkova, S.A.; Panova, L.G.; Vilkov, V.A.; Artemenko, S.E.; Vilesova, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate is not an effective inhibitor of combustion of PAN fibers or composites based on them; moreover, it increases smoke formation during combustion. The flammability of composite materials (CM) based on PAN fibers is lowered substantially by the use of the bromine-chlorine-phosphorus ternary system. In the case of CM reinforced with synthetic fibers combustion inhibitors incorporated in the reinforcing fibers are more effective than additives introduced into the composite material. The use of fibrous wastes from production of artificial fur, containing chlorine, provides a solution of the problem of their rational utilization in manufacture of combustion-resistant CM, thereby solving the problem of protection of the environment against pollution by polymeric wastes. 5 figures, 1 table.

  1. Soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents measurements of the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. This technique uses a high-speed camera coupled with two narrowband filters (550. nm and 650. nm, 10. nm FWHM). After calibration, statistical analysis shows that the uncertainty of the two-color temperature is less than 5%, while it is about 50% for the KL factor. This technique is then applied to the spray combustion of biodiesel and diesel fuels under an ambient oxygen concentration of 21% and ambient temperatures of 800, 1000 and 1200. K. The heat release result shows higher energy utilization efficiency for biodiesel compared to diesel under all conditions; meanwhile, diesel shows a higher pressure increase due to its higher heating value. Biodiesel yields a lower temperature inside the flame area, a longer soot lift-off length, and a smaller soot area compared to diesel. Both the KL factor and the total soot with biodiesel are lower than with diesel throughout the entire combustion process, and this difference becomes larger as the ambient temperature decreases. Biodiesel shows approximately 50-100. K lower temperatures than diesel at the quasi-steady stage for 1000 and 1200. K ambient temperature, while diesel shows a lower temperature than biodiesel at 800. K ambient. This result may raise the question of how important the flame temperature is in explaining the higher NO. x emissions often observed during biodiesel combustion. Other factors may also play an important role in controlling NO. x emissions. Both biodiesel and diesel temperature measurements show a monotonic dependence on the ambient temperature. However, the ambient temperature appears to have a more significant effect on the soot formation and oxidation in diesel combustion, while biodiesel combustion soot characteristics shows relative insensitivity to the ambient temperature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Review of NO/sub x/ emission factors for stationary fossil fuel combustion sources. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, R.J.; Sailor, W.C.; Wasilewski, J.; Kuby, W.C.

    1979-09-01

    A review of recent NOx test data was performed, and summaries of emission factors presented for various types of stationary source combustion and for various fossil fuels. The effects of combustion modifications on NOx emissions are quantified. Background data are given to help the user determine the reliability of each factor in particular applications.

  3. Emission factors of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential solid fuel combustions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guofeng [Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-07-01

    Emission inventory is basic for the understanding of environmental behaviors and potential effects of compounds, however, current inventories are often associated with relatively high uncertainties. One important reason is the lack of emission factors, especially for the residential solid fuel combustion in developing countries. In the present study, emission factors of a group of pollutants including particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon (sometimes known as black carbon) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for a variety of residential solid fuels including coal, crop straw, wood, and biomass pellets in rural China. The study provided a large number of emission factors that can be further used in emission estimation. Composition profiles and isomer ratios were investigated and compared so as to be used in source apportionment. In addition, the present study identified and quantified the influence of factors like fuel moisture, volatile matter on emission performance.

  4. Influence of limestone fillers on combustion characteristics of asphalt mortar for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Wu; Kai, Zhu; Wu, Hao;

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt materials will be ignited and release significant toxic fumes within tunnel fires. Thus, combustion characteristics of asphalt materials used in road tunnel should be studied in order to limit such an adverse effect. In the present work we study the influence of limestone fillers...... on combustion characteristics of asphalt mortar by thermogravimetric and kinetic analysis. It is shown that the combustion of asphalt mortar is not just a linear superposition of asphalt and limestone. The limestone will increase the ignition point and the activation energy of the primary volatile release......, and will catalyze the char formation from the primary volatile release. Kinetic analysis shows that the primary volatile release stage of asphalt mortar combustion can be explained by a three-dimensional diffusion model, the secondary volatile release and char combustion stage can be explained by a model under...

  5. Influence of Ti Powder Characteristics on Combustion Synthesis of Porous NiTi Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Porous NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) is a novel biomedical material used for human hard tissue implant. The influence of elemental titanium powder characteristics such as powder morphology, particle size and specific surface area (SSA) on the minimal ignition temperature, combustion temperature and final product of porous NiTi SMA fabricated by combustion synthesis method was investigated in this paper by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)and laser diffraction. The preliminary data indicated that the titanium powder characteristics had a strong effect on combustion synthesis of porous NiTi SMA.

  6. Influence on emissions from fluctuations in combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmgren, A.; Zethraeus, B. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Studsvik (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    Two theoretical methods for calculation of how fluctuating and inhomogeneous conditions in a combustion chamber affect emissions of CO, hydrocarbons, NO{sub x} and soot were investigated. The first method is based on a statistical treatment of frequency and amplitude of deviations from the mean values. The changes in these deviations when they are propagated through the combustion system are treated analogously to electrical signals passing a number of low-pass filters. The second method is based on kinetic calculations of a low number of laminar gas streams where mixing between the streams only occurs at specified positions. The fuels used were birch logs and methane. 14 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Reduction of Influence Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Sydenham, Peter H.; Thorn, Richard

    Any measurement system has imperfections and any act of measurement is liable to errors. Measurement errors either originate from system deficiencies (for instance system noise, quantization, and drift), or are due to environmental influences such as thermal, electromagnetic, and mechanical

  8. Influence of intake air temperature on internal combustion engine operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtok-Băneasă, C.; Raţiu, S.; Hepuţ, T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents three methods for reduce thermal losses in the intake system with improvement of airflow and thermal protection. In the experiment are involved two patented devices conceived by the author and one PhD theme device: 1- Dynamic device for air transfer, 2-Integrated thermal deflector, and, 3-Advanced thermal protection. The tests were carried on different vehicle running in real traffic and in the Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, within the specialization “Road vehicle” belonging to the Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara, component of Politehnica University of Timişoara. The results have been processed and compared whit the ones obtained without these devices.

  9. Global combustion sources of organic aerosols: model comparison with 84 AMS factor-analysis data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-07-01

    Emissions of organic compounds from biomass, biofuel, and fossil fuel combustion strongly influence the global atmospheric aerosol load. Some of the organics are directly released as primary organic aerosol (POA). Most are emitted in the gas phase and undergo chemical transformations (i.e., oxidation by hydroxyl radical) and form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this work we use the global chemistry climate model ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) with a computationally efficient module for the description of organic aerosol (OA) composition and evolution in the atmosphere (ORACLE). The tropospheric burden of open biomass and anthropogenic (fossil and biofuel) combustion particles is estimated to be 0.59 and 0.63 Tg, respectively, accounting for about 30 and 32 % of the total tropospheric OA load. About 30 % of the open biomass burning and 10 % of the anthropogenic combustion aerosols originate from direct particle emissions, whereas the rest is formed in the atmosphere. A comprehensive data set of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements along with factor-analysis results from 84 field campaigns across the Northern Hemisphere are used to evaluate the model results. Both the AMS observations and the model results suggest that over urban areas both POA (25-40 %) and SOA (60-75 %) contribute substantially to the overall OA mass, whereas further downwind and in rural areas the POA concentrations decrease substantially and SOA dominates (80-85 %). EMAC does a reasonable job in reproducing POA and SOA levels during most of the year. However, it tends to underpredict POA and SOA concentrations during winter indicating that the model misses wintertime sources of OA (e.g., residential biofuel use) and SOA formation pathways (e.g., multiphase oxidation).

  10. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  11. Biofuel Combustion Fly Ash Influence on the Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Daugėla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cement as the binding agent in the production of concrete can be replaced with active mineral admixtures. Biofuel combustion fly ash is one of such admixtures. Materials used for the study: Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R, sand of 0/4 fraction, gravel of 4/16 fraction, biofuel fly ash, superplasticizer, water. Six compositions of concrete were designed by replacing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% 20%, and 25% of cement with biofuel fly ash. The article analyses the effect of biofuel fly ash content on the properties of concrete. The tests revealed that the increase of biofuel fly ash content up to 20% increases concrete density and compressive strength after 7 and 28 days of curing and decreases water absorption, with corrected water content by using plasticizing admixture. It was found that concrete where 20% of cement is replaced by biofuel ash has higher frost resistance.

  12. Influence of Process Parameters on Coal Combustion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der

    The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of nitrogen oxide formation and carbon burnout during the combustion of pulverized coal, and to contribute to addressing the potential of chemical engineering models for the prediction of furnace temperatures, NO emissions and the amount...... study has been performed in order to initiate an investigation of the potential of chemical engineering models to predict NO from pulverized fuel burners. The success of chemical engineering modeling is strongly connected to the simplification of the flow pattern into a reactor configuration...... and swirl number on the flow pattern in the near burner zone of the laboratory furnace-model were studied. Experimentally obtained residence time distributions have been used to derive a chemical reaction engineering model for the mixing process. The model is based on a combination of plug flow reactors...

  13. INFLUENCE OF SWIRL ON SPRAY CHARACTERISTICS AND COMBUSTION, A NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF A CATERPILLER DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SREENIVASULU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find the appropriate swirl ratio at which a DI diesel engine should be operated. In the process of identifying an appropriate swirl, the combustion behaviour was analysed by considering Pressure variations and Heat Release Rate variations against crank angle. The spray characteristics were also analysed by considering Penetration lengths, Sauter mean diameters, Spray cone angles against crank angle. Final conclusions were derived by considering NOx emission levels. A turbo charged DI diesel engine geometry was considered for the analysis. Proper care was taken inidentifying the range of Swirl Ratios. A 3-dimensional CFD code (RECARDO VECTIS, which is capable of solving 3-dimensional unsteady, turbulent flows, sprays and combustion of IC engines was used. In the first step CFD code was validated by comparing the obtained results with the experimental results. In the next step an attempt was made to study the influence of swirl on the spray characteristics and combustion.

  14. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...

  15. Influence of Valve's Characteristic on Total Performance of Three Cylinders Internal Combustion Water Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongxin; ZHANG Tiezhu; WANG Weichao

    2009-01-01

    lntenal combustion pump (ICP) is a new type power device turning the thermal energy from fuel combustion into fluid pressure energy. Three cylinders prototype has just been developed. The study on the influence of valve's characteristic on ICP's total performance will found the base for its optimum design. Based on the theoretical and testing fruits of single cylinder prototype, the performance of the valves and complete appliance of the latest is simulated. When the natural frequency of valves is approximately to the round number times of the working frequency, volumetric efficiency is seriously low. The nominal rotational speed of the prototype is nearly to the speed where the volumetric efficiency is lowest, which is harmful to the normal work of ICP, so further structure optimization of valves should be carried out. The change of volumetric efficiency has great influence on the fuel consumption rate,output flow, effective thermal efficiency, effective power, and so on, but little on output pressure.

  16. Multi-phase Combustion and Transport Processes Under the Influence of Acoustic Excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Wegener, Jeffrey Lewis

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study examined the coupling of acoustics with reactive multiphase transport processes and shear flows. The first portion of this dissertation deals with combustion of various liquid fuels when under the influence of externally applied acoustic excitation. For this study, an apparatus at the Energy and Propulsion ResearchLaboratory, UCLA, used a horizontal waveguide to create a standing acoustic wave, wherein burning fuel droplets were positioned near pressure nodes within th...

  17. Influence of dispersant on Y_2O_3:Eu~(3+) powders synthesized by combustion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超男; 赵江波; 李勇; 张慰萍; 尹民

    2009-01-01

    Y2O3:Eu3+ powders were synthesized by combustion method and the influence of dispersant was investigated.XRD analysis indicated that the particle size increased with a small amount of dispersant firstly and then decreased with a further increase of dispersant.The morphologies of the powders were studied by scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy(HRTEM).SEM images revealed that an appropriate amount of dispersant could reduce the agglomeration significantly.Due ...

  18. Influence of combustion-preheating vitiation on operability of a hypersonic inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.; Zhu, Y.; Gao, W.; Yang, J.; Jin, Y.; Wu, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Vitiation of the test flow with combustion products is inherent in combustion wind tunnels, and its effect on experimental results needs to be clarified. In this study, the influence of air vitiation on the startability and performance of a hypersonic inlet is investigated through two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulation. The study examines the vitiation effects introduced by carbon dioxide and water vapor, on the basis of maintaining the static pressure, static temperature and Mach number of the incoming flow. The starting Mach number limits of the inlet are estimated, and it is found that both of these vitiation components lower the starting limit of the inlet. This suggests that the experimental results acquired by tests in combustion wind tunnels overestimate the startability of an inlet and, therefore, combustion-preheated facilities may not be completely trusted in this respect. Deviations in the inlet performance caused by the vitiation are also detected. These are nevertheless minor as long as the flow is at the same started or unstarted condition. A further analysis reveals that it is mainly the increase in the heat capacity, and the resulting weaker shock/compression waves and shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions that account for the aforementioned effects.

  19. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  20. Emission factors of gaseous carbonaceous species from residential combustion of coal and crop residue briquettes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin WANG; Chunmei GENG; Sihua LU; Wentai CHEN; Min SHAO

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were performed to measure the emission factors (EFs) of gaseous carbonaceous species, such as CO2, CO, CH4, and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), from the combustion of five types of coal of varying organic maturity and two types of biomass briquettes under residential burning conditions. Samples were collected in stainless steel canisters and 2,4- dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and were analyzed by GC FID/MS and HPLC, respectively. The EFs from crop residue briquette burning were generally higher than those from coals, with the exception of CO2. The dominant NMVOC species identified in coal smoke were carbonyls (41.7%), followed by C2 unsaturated hydrocarbons (29.1%) and aromatics (12.1%), while C2 unsaturated hydrocarbons were the dominant species (68.9%) emitted from the combustion of crop residue briquettes, followed by aromatics (14.4%). A comparison of burning normal crop residues in stoves and the open field indicated that briquettes emitted a larger proportion of ethene and acetylene. Both combustion efficiency and coal organic maturity had a significant impact on NMVOC EFs from burning coal: NMVOC emissions increased with increasing coal organic maturity but decreased as the combustion efficiency improved. Emissions from the combustion of crop residue briquettes from stoves occurred mainly during the smoldering process, with low combustion efficiency. Therefore, an improved stove design to allow higher combustion efficiency would be beneficial for reducing emissions of carbonaceous air pollutants.

  1. The influence of combustion derived pollutants on limestone deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, JB; Montgomery, Melanie; Thompson, GE;

    1996-01-01

    10(-4) mu g cm(-2) s(-1), the pollutants were assessed individually and in various combinations, along with ozone as oxidant, at 84% RH with dry or water-wetted surfaces. The degradation was followed by analysis of exposed stone, for Cl-, SO42- and NO3-, and of run-off solution for Ca2+, in addition...... to the anions. From these data, the total calcium released from limestone to reaction ions and products and the percentages of each pollutant reacted (and so the deposition velocity (V-D)) in each exposure regime were calculated. HCl acted independently of the presence of other pollutants, showed 40 and 100...... rose from 3 to 40% at 84% RH in the presence of SO2 and O-3, with a V-D at 3 mm s(-1), but decreased in the presence of run-off solution. A limited study was performed on smoke-coated and naturally exposed, reaction-product-coated, samples. In addition to obvious factors such as deposited mass...

  2. Influence of injector technology on injection and combustion development - Part 1: Hydraulic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, R.; Salvador, F.J.; Gimeno, J.; Morena, J. de la [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    An experimental study of two real multi-hole Diesel injectors is performed under current DI Diesel engine operating conditions. The aim of the investigation is to study the influence of injector technology on the flow at the nozzle exit and to analyse its effect on the spray in evaporative conditions and combustion development. The injectors used are two of the most common technologies used nowadays: solenoid and piezoelectric. The nozzles for both injectors are very similar since the objective of the work is the understanding of the influence of the injector technology on spray characteristics for a given nozzle geometry. In the first part of the study, experimental measurements of hydraulic characterization have been analyzed for both systems. Analysis of spray behaviour in evaporative conditions and combustion development will be carried out in the second part of the work. Important differences between both injectors have been observed, especially in their transient opening and closing of the needle, leading to a more efficient air-fuel mixing and combustion processes for the piezoelectric actuated injector. (author)

  3. Regional Influence of Aerosol Emissions from Wildfires Driven by Combustion Efficiency: Insights from the BBOP Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Sonya; Zhou, Shan; Onasch, Timothy B; Jaffe, Daniel A; Kleinman, Lawrence; Sedlacek, Arthur J; Briggs, Nicole L; Hee, Jonathan; Fortner, Edward; Shilling, John E; Worsnop, Douglas; Yokelson, Robert J; Parworth, Caroline; Ge, Xinlei; Xu, Jianzhong; Butterfield, Zachary; Chand, Duli; Dubey, Manvendra K; Pekour, Mikhail S; Springston, Stephen; Zhang, Qi

    2016-08-16

    Wildfires are important contributors to atmospheric aerosols and a large source of emissions that impact regional air quality and global climate. In this study, the regional and nearfield influences of wildfire emissions on ambient aerosol concentration and chemical properties in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States were studied using real-time measurements from a fixed ground site located in Central Oregon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (∼2700 m a.s.l.) as well as near their sources using an aircraft. The regional characteristics of biomass burning aerosols were found to depend strongly on the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), an index of the combustion processes of a fire. Organic aerosol emissions had negative correlations with MCE, whereas the oxidation state of organic aerosol increased with MCE and plume aging. The relationships between the aerosol properties and MCE were consistent between fresh emissions (∼1 h old) and emissions sampled after atmospheric transport (6-45 h), suggesting that biomass burning organic aerosol concentration and chemical properties were strongly influenced by combustion processes at the source and conserved to a significant extent during regional transport. These results suggest that MCE can be a useful metric for describing aerosol properties of wildfire emissions and their impacts on regional air quality and global climate.

  4. Influence of the radiation absorbed by micro particles on the flame propagation and combustion regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M F; Liberman, M A

    2015-01-01

    Thermal radiation of the hot combustion products usually does not influence noticeably the flame propagating through gaseous mixture. the situation is changed drastically in the presence even small concentration of particles, which absorb radiation, transfer the heat to the surrounding unburned gaseous mixture by means of heat conduction, so that the gas phase temperature in front of the advancing flame lags that of the particles. It is shown that radiative preheating of unreacted mixture ahead of the flame results in a modest increase of the advancing flame velocity for a highly reactive gaseous fuel, or to considerable increase of the flame velocity in the case of a slow reactive mixture. The effects of radiation preheating as stronger as smaller the normal flame velocity. The radiation heat transfer can become a dominant mechanism compared with molecular heat conduction, determining the structure and the speed of combustion wave in the case of a small enough velocity of the advancing flame. It is shown tha...

  5. Research on the Influence of Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide on Methane HCCI Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Susumu; Yamasaki, Yudai; Kawamura, Hideo; Iida, Norimasa

    In this research, the influence on natural gas combustion of H2 and CO was investigated by numerical calculations with elementary reactions. The investigation was carried out using the following procedures: 1. To research basic oxidation characteristics of CH4/H2/CO mixed fuel, parametric calculations for initial temperature were carried out. 2. For investigation of the effect of H2 and CO on CH4 combustion, the calculations with H2 and CO initial mole fraction variation was carried out. As a result, it was clarified that the oxidation temperature of CO was higher than that of CH4 and H2, the increase of H2 initial fraction has the effect to advance CH4 ignition timing, and increase of the CO fraction, under the condition that only CO was added, has the opposite effect of H2 addition.

  6. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  7. Determination of organochlorine in oilfield chemical oxygen combustion method Influence factors analysis%氧燃烧法测定油田化学剂中有机氯影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙桂春

    2016-01-01

    通过试验研究,分析了化学剂中有机氯含量测定的影响因素,规定了样品称量的范围、样品包裹固定的方法、盐含量测定时的进样速度等操作步骤,规范了检测方法,提高了检验数据准确性和工作时效性。%According to a series of experiment research,this thesis analyses the effective factors of organic chlorine content detection in chemicals,provides the range of sample weighing and the methods of sample packaging and fixing,stipulates some operating steps such sampling speed during determination of salt content,standardizes the detection approaches,improves the accuracy and timeliness in test data.

  8. Numerical comparison of coal spontaneous combustion danger influenced by different methane drainage patterns in gob area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong-qing; LIU Xing-kui; ZHANG Ru-ming; ZHANG Sheng-zhu

    2011-01-01

    The influence of gas drainage on float coal spontaneous combustion in the work face with "U" style ventilation was studied. Numerical simulation was used to compare the mutative law of steady flow and density field in the gob area under different drainage conditions by solving the equation set, including mass, momentum, and component transition. Consequently, the sequence of drainage effect and safety was obtained. The result manifests that the more effective the drainage pattern is, the easier float coal spontaneous combustion is caused due to air being guided into the depth of the gob area when the drainage position is arranged in the gas accumulation area. If the widened scope of oxidation zone exceeds the upper limit of the work face advancing speed, nitrogen injection should be applied to decrease the probability of spontaneous combustion. Then, the pipe laying drainage in the upper angle is most economical and safe compared with other drainage patterns when only the situation of gas accumulation is controlled in the upper angle. Finally, drainage pressure must not be too great. Otherwise the drainage density will decrease even if hazard is caused by back flow possibly happening in the return outlet when the drainage position is arranged near the work face.

  9. Regional Influence of Aerosol Emissions from Wildfires Driven by Combustion Efficiency: Insights from the BBOP Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, Sonya; Zhou, Shan; Onasch, Timothy B.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Kleinman, Lawrence; Sedlacek, Arthur J.; Briggs, Nicole L.; Hee, Jonathan; Fortner, Edward; Shilling, John E.; Worsnop, Douglas; Yokelson, Robert J.; Parworth, Caroline; Ge, Xinlei; Xu, Jianzhong; Butterfield, Zachary; Chand, Duli; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Springston, Stephen; Zhang, Qi

    2016-08-16

    Abstract Wildfires are important contributors to atmospheric aerosols and a large source of emissions that impact regional air quality and global climate. In this study, wildfire emissions in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States were characterized using real-time measurements near their sources using an aircraft, and farther downwind from a fixed ground site located at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (~ 2700 m a.s.l.). The characteristics of aerosol emissions were found to depend strongly on the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a qualitative index of the combustion processes of a fire. Organic aerosol emissions had negative correlations with MCE, whereas the carbon oxidation state of organic aerosol increased with MCE. The relationships between the aerosol properties and MCE were consistent between fresher emissions (~1 hour old) and emissions sampled after atmospheric transport (6 - 45 hours), suggesting that organic aerosol mass loading and chemical properties were strongly influenced by combustion processes at the source and conserved to a significant extent during regional transport. These results suggest that MCE can be a useful metric for describing aerosol properties of regionally transported wildfire emissions and their impacts on regional air quality and global climate.

  10. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu SSX

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim

  11. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: multi-nutrient supplements; survey; children; women's decisions. Factors influencing .... associations between level of education and various factors influencing women's ..... Social marketing improved the use of multivitamin and ...

  12. Modeling of the dynamical combustion of explosives: influence of mechanical properties; Modelisation de la combustion dynamique des explodifs: influence des proprietes mecaniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picart, D.; Pertuis, C. [CEA Le Ripault, 37 - Tours (France)

    1996-12-31

    Experimental observations performed during the combustion of solid explosives under pressure have shown an unexpected desensitization of the samples when damaged. A simplified method of combustion simulation inside a pressure cell is proposed in this study. The model used is based on the description of the mechanical behaviour of the solid phase. It allows to retrieve the overall experimental results, and in particular the occurrence of anomalous combustion modes. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  13. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  14. The influence of cavity parameters on the combustion oscillation in a single-side expansion scramjet combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hao; Liu, Weidong; Sun, Mingbo

    2017-08-01

    Cavity has been validated to be efficient flameholders for scramjet combustors, but the influence of its parameters on the combustion oscillation in scramjet combustor has barely been studied. In the present work, a series of experiments focusing on this issue have been carried out. The influence of flameholding cavity position, its length to depth ratio L/D and aft wall angle θ and number on ethylene combustion oscillation characteristics in scramjet combustor has been researched. The obtained experimental results show that, as the premixing distance between ethylene injector and flameholding cavity varies, the ethylene combustion flame will take on two distinct forms, small-amplitude high frequency fluctuation, and large-amplitude low frequency oscillation. The dominant frequency of the large-amplitude combustion oscillation is in inverse proportion to the pre-mixing distance. Moreover, the influence of cavity length to depth ratio and the aft wall angleθexists diversity when the flameholding cavity position is different and can be recognized as unnoticeable compared to the impact of the premixing distance. In addition, we also find that, when the premixing distance is identical and sufficient, increasing the number of tandem flameholding cavities can change the dominant frequency of combustion oscillation hardly, let alone avoid the combustion oscillation. It is believed that the present investigation will provide a useful reference for the design of the scramjet combustor.

  15. Influence of the cooling degree upon performances of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grǎdinariu, Andrei Cristian; Mihai, Ioan

    2016-12-01

    Up to present, air cooling systems still raise several unsolved problems due to conditions imposed by the environment in terms of temperature and pollution levels. The present paper investigates the impact of the engine cooling degree upon its performances, as important specific power is desired for as low as possible fuel consumption. A technical solution advanced by the authors[1], consists of constructing a bi-flux compressor, which can enhance the engine's performances. The bi-flux axial compressor accomplishes two major functions, that is it cools down the engine and it also turbocharges it. The present paper investigates the temperature changes corresponding to the fresh load, during the use of a bi-flux axial compressor. This compressor is economically simple, compact, and offers an optimal response at low rotational speeds of the engine, when two compression steps are used. The influence of the relative coefficient of air temperature drop upon working agent temperature at the intercooler exit is also investigated in the present work. The variation of the thermal load coefficient by report to the working agent temperature is also investigated during engine cooling. The variation of the average combustion temperature is analyzed in correlation to the thermal load coefficient and the temperatures of the working fluid at its exit from the cooling system. An exergetic analysis was conducted upon the influence of the cooling degree on the motor fluid and the gases resulted from the combustion process.

  16. Influence of preparation method on performance of a metal supported perovskite catalyst for combustion of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟彦青; 熊杰明; 李翠清; 徐新; 罗国华

    2010-01-01

    A different method was employed for the preparation of a metal supported perovskite catalyst for the catalytic combustion of methane.The prepared metallic catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffractometer(XRD),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),transmission electron microscopy(TEM),and also by ultrasonic and thermal shock tests and catalytic activity.It was found that the process factors during the preparation,e.g.the preparation of the catalyst precursor and the coating slurry,the calcination te...

  17. Effects of retorting factors on combustion properties of shale char. 3. Distribution of residual organic matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin; Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Junwei

    2010-03-15

    Shale char, formed in retort furnaces of oil shale, is classified as a dangerous waste containing several toxic compounds. In order to retort oil shale to produce shale oil as well as treat shale char efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way, a novel kind of comprehensive utilization system was developed to use oil shale for shale oil production, electricity generation (shale char fired) and the extensive application of oil shale ash. For exploring the combustion properties of shale char further, in this paper organic matters within shale chars obtained under different retorting conditions were extracted and identified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Subsequently, the effects of retorting factors, including retorting temperature, residence time, particle size and heating rate, were analyzed in detail. As a result, a retorting condition with a retorting temperature of 460-490 degrees C, residence time of circulating fluidized bed technology with fractional combustion.

  18. Influence of different palladium precursors on the properties of solution-combustion-synthesized palladium/ceria catalysts for methane combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Colussi, Sara; Gayen, Arup; Boaro, Marta; Llorca Piqué, Jordi; Trovarelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    A series of Pd/CeO2 catalysts was prepared by solution combustion synthesis (SCS) using different Pd precursors. The powders were characterized by complementary techniques such as BET surface area measurements, X-Ray diffraction analysis, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature-programmed reduction, temperature-programmed oxidation, and high-resolution TEM. The results obtained evidenced the formation of a Pd-Ce solid solution on all SCS samples. This solid solution is in the form of an...

  19. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Claudia MOISĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

  20. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  1. Influence of process parameters on coal combustion performance. Review, experiments and engineering modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lans, R.P. van der

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of nitrogen oxide formation and carbon burnout during the combustion of pulverized coal, and to contribute to addressing the potential of chemical engineering models for the prediction of furnace temperatures, NO emissions and the amount of carbon in ash. To this purpose, the effect of coal quality on NO and burnout has been investigated experimentally, a radiation heat balance has been developed based on a simple chemical engineering methodology, and a mixing study has been conducted in order to describe the near burner macro mixing in terms of a reactor configuration. The influence of coal type and process conditions on NO formation and carbon burnout has been investigated experimentally in a 400 MW{sub e} corner fired boiler with over fire air, a 350 MW{sub e} opposed fired boiler, and in a 160 kW{sub t} pilot scale test rig. Three different coals were fired in each of the furnaces as part of the activities in group 3 of the European Union JOULE 2 Extension project `Atmospheric Pressure Combustion of Pulverized Coal and Coal Based Blends for Power Generation`. On the pilot scale test both single stage and air staged tests were performed. A simple, one-dimensional combustion and radiation heat transfer model has been developed for the furnace of full scale boilers. The model has been applied to the two boilers mentioned above, and is validated against measured temperatures and carbon in ash concentrations. A mixing study has been performed in order to initiate an investigation of the potential of chemical engineering models to predict NO from pulverized fuel burners. (EG) 11 refs.

  2. Influence of fuel moisture, charge size, feeding rate and air ventilation conditions on the emissions of PM, OC, EC, parent PAHs, and their derivatives from residential wood combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guofeng Shen; Miao Xue; Siye Wei; Yuanchen Chen; Qiuyue Zhao; Bing Li; Haisuo Wu

    2013-01-01

    Controlled combustion experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of fuel charge size,moisture,air ventilation and feeding rate on the emission factors (EFs) of carbonaceous particulate matter,parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their derivatives from residential wood combustion in a typical brick cooking stove.Measured EFs were found to be independent of fuel charge size,but increased with increasing fuel moisture.Pollution emissions from the normal burning under an adequate air supply condition were the lowest for most pollutants,while more pollutants were emitted when an oxygen deficient atmosphere was formed in the stove chamber during fast burning.The impacts of these factors on the size distribution of emitted particles was also studied.Modified combustion efficiency and the four investigated factors explained 68%,72%,and 64% of total variations in EFs of PM,organic carbon,and oxygenated PAHs,respectively,but only 36%,38% and 42% of the total variations in EFs of elemental carbon,pPAHs and nitro-PAHs,respectively.

  3. Mutagenicity and Pollutant Emission Factors of Solid-Fuel Cookstoves: Comparison with Other Combustion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Esra; Warren, Sarah H.; Ebersviller, Seth M.; Kooter, Ingeborg M.; Schmid, Judith E.; Dye, Janice A.; Linak, William P.; Gilmour, M. Ian; Jetter, James J.; Higuchi, Mark; DeMarini, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Emissions from solid fuels used for cooking cause ~4 million premature deaths per year. Advanced solid-fuel cookstoves are a potential solution, but they should be assessed by appropriate performance indicators, including biological effects. Objective: We evaluated two categories of solid-fuel cookstoves for eight pollutant and four mutagenicity emission factors, correlated the mutagenicity emission factors, and compared them to those of other combustion emissions. Methods: We burned red oak in a 3-stone fire (TSF), a natural-draft stove (NDS), and a forced-draft stove (FDS), and we combusted propane as a liquified petroleum gas control fuel. We determined emission factors based on useful energy (megajoules delivered, MJd) for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), black carbon, methane, total hydrocarbons, 32 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PM2.5, levoglucosan (a wood-smoke marker), and mutagenicity in Salmonella. Results: With the exception of NOx, the emission factors per MJd were highly correlated (r ≥ 0.97); the correlation for NOx with the other emission factors was 0.58–0.76. Excluding NOx, the NDS and FDS reduced the emission factors an average of 68 and 92%, respectively, relative to the TSF. Nevertheless, the mutagenicity emission factor based on fuel energy used (MJthermal) for the most efficient stove (FDS) was between those of a large diesel bus engine and a small diesel generator. Conclusions: Both mutagenicity and pollutant emission factors may be informative for characterizing cookstove performance. However, mutagenicity emission factors may be especially useful for characterizing potential health effects and should be evaluated in relation to health outcomes in future research. An FDS operated as intended by the manufacturer is safer than a TSF, but without adequate ventilation, it will still result in poor indoor air quality. Citation: Mutlu E, Warren SH, Ebersviller SM, Kooter IM, Schmid JE, Dye JA, Linak WP, Gilmour MI, Jetter

  4. Influence of fire barriers on fire performance of facades with combustible insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjegovic Dubravka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's modern society sustainability has become a key driver for innovation. Sustainability in buildings is, or at least it should be, strongly interconnected with energy efficiency and fire safety. Unfortunately, cases of fires in buildings all over the world are a wakeup call to start thinking of fire safety as an inevitable part of energy efficiency in buildings. Thermally enhanced building envelopes, due to materials used, can represent significantly increased fire load on façades. To determine their fire performance, it is necessary to move on from material level to the whole building level, i.e. full scale tests. This paper presents findings from comprehensive research on influence of fire barrier on fire performance of External Thermal Insulation Composite System – ETICS with combustible thermal insulation. To confirm findings, tests on identical ETICS systems were conducted in March 2014 and May 2014.

  5. Influence of lead Inorganic Compounds on Combustion Rate of Double Base Rocket Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Pillai

    1982-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of lead nitrate, red lead, lead chromate, lead floride and lead carbonate on the combustion behaviour of double base propellants in the pressure range-35-140kg/cm /sup 2/ was studied. While all these compounds increased burning rates in lower pressure range (35-60 kg/cm/sup 2/ and higher pressure range (120-140 kg/cm/sup 2/, only lead chromate and lead fluoride were effective in the intermediate pressure range of 60-105 kg/cm/sup 2/. None of these compounds were effective as platonizer, except lead fluoride, which lowered n value to 0.34 in the lower pressure range. Addition of carbon black along with lead compounds raised burning rates further and reduced n values significantly in the higher pressure regins. A probable mechanism on the role of lead compounds studied has been suggested based on burning rate and DTA results.

  6. Influence of deflection hole angle on effusion cooling in a real combustion chamber condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid-solid coupling simulation is conducted to investigate the performance of effusion cooling in the real combustion chamber condition of strong rotation and primary holes. The wall temperature and film cooling effectiveness of different deflection angle is analyzed. From the results, it is concluded that the performance of effusion is better than conventional film cooling. The wall temperature and gradient is lower, the cooling efficiency is higher and the coolant is reduced by 20%, but pressure loss is slightly increased. The cooling effectiveness decreases behind primary holes because of local combustion. Comparison with the effect of deflection angle, the cooling performance of 60 deg deflection angle is best. The coolant is better attached to the wall downstream when the deflection angle is same as the rotating mainstream. In addition, the effect of deflection angle is not so significant on the coolant flow rate, but a large negative impact on the pressure loss. Although the cooling effectiveness of 60 deg deflection angle is highest, the total pressure recovery coefficient is lower. The maximum temperature drops about 70K and the outlet temperature distribution trends more consistent. So various factors should be taken into consideration when designing of deflection angle.

  7. Influence of oxidant and fuel on the powder characteristics of LiNbO$_3$ synthesized by combustion method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D H PIVA; H BIZ; R H PIVA; M R MORELLI

    2017-02-01

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO$_3$) is widely recognized as a promising material for replacing lead-based piezoelectric ceramics. Although the LiNbO3 synthesis by combustion method has been investigated with particular attention recently, the influence of oxidants and different fuels’ sources on the synthesized powders has not yet been thoroughly studied. In this work we investigate the influence of urea and maleic hydrazide as fuels and ammonium nitrate as an oxidant on the powder characteristics of LiNbO$_3$ synthesized by combustion method. In addition, powder characteristics and sinterability of powders prepared by combustion method are compared with those of powders prepared by solid-state reaction. The results show that the second phase LiNb$_3$O$_8$ was detected only when an oxidant agent was used in the synthesis process. Among all combustion reactions, the powders prepared with excess of urea presented better final characteristics. As a result, the sintering temperature for LiNbO$_3$ powders prepared by combustion method was appreciably lowered when compared with those prepared by solid-state reaction.

  8. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  9. Factors Influencing the Ignition and Burnout of a Single Biomass Particle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Yin, Chungen

    2011-01-01

    Ignition and burnout of a single biomass particle were studied numerically. A one-dimensional particle combustion model was developed which is capable to simulate all the intraparticle conversion processes (drying, recondensation, devolatilization, char gasification/oxidation and heat/mass/moment......Ignition and burnout of a single biomass particle were studied numerically. A one-dimensional particle combustion model was developed which is capable to simulate all the intraparticle conversion processes (drying, recondensation, devolatilization, char gasification/oxidation and heat...... concentration were not very significant. The influences of these factors on particle burnout were much more remarkable than ignition behaviour....

  10. The influence of design and fuel parameters on the particle emissions from wood pellets combustion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiinikka, Henrik; Gebart, Rikard [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    temperature yields decreasing emissions of coarse fly ash and soot particles, however, the emissions of submicron fly ash particles increases simultaneously. Increased mixing rate in the combustion chamber will also decrease the emissions of soot particles. In addition to the operating conditions, significant differences in particle emissions were found between different biomass fuels. For the particles that were dominated by ash elements the particle emissions were correlated to the ash concentration in the unburned fuel. However, if the combustion condition allowed for organic particles, the sooting tendency of each fuel becomes important. Furthermore, the results showed that the fuel type affects the particle emissions more than the influence from different operating and construction parameters.

  11. Influence of Coal nature and Structure on Ash Size Formation Characteristic and Related pollutant Emissions During CFB Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MinQIAN; YongjieNA; 等

    2000-01-01

    The size distribution of coal particles in a Circulating Fluidized Bed(CFB) boiler plays a crucial role in the complicated combustion,heat exchange and pollutant emissions in such a plant.Therefore,it is fundamental to study the different factors having influence on the size distribution of coal particles.Above all,the coal itself and in particular,the coal comminution phenomenon is a very influent factor.In the frame of this work,the coal nature (eleentary compostion) and coal internal structure (mineral componeents) are studied in detail.At this intermediary stage,experients on three typical Chinese coals on a 1.5 MWt CFBC pilot plant have been made.Some primary fragmentation test hae also been made in a small lab scale fluidized bed reactor.The resutls from the hot pilot test show i)the variation of coal ash distributions and other CFB performance data due to the cyclone and the coal characteristics and ii) the variation of desulfurization efficiency with limestone.Whereas the bench scale primary fragmentation test,likely linked to the caking propriety of a coal,does not seem to change considerable the char size distribution.

  12. [Experimental study on the size spectra and emission factor of ultrafine particle from coal combustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zai; Yang, Wen-jun; Xie, Xiao-fang; Chen, Qiu-fang; Cai, Zhi-liang

    2014-12-01

    The emission characteristics of ultrafine particles released from pulverized coal combustion were studied, the size spectra of ultrafine particles (5.6-560 nm) were measured with FMPS (fast mobility particle sizer) on a self-built aerosol experiment platform. Meanwhile, a particle dynamic evolution model was established to obtain the particle deposition rate and the emission rate through the optimized algorithm. Finally, the emission factor was calculated. The results showed that at the beginning of particle generation, the size spectra were polydisperse and complex, the initial size spectra was mainly composed of three modes including 10 nm, 30-40 nm and 100-200 nm. Among them, the number concentration of mode around 10 nm was higher than those of other modes, the size spectrum of around 100-200 nm was lognormal distributed, with a CMD (count median diameter) of around 16 nm. Then, as time went on, the total number concentration was decayed by exponential law, the CMD first increased and then tended to be stable gradually. The calculation results showed that the emission factor of particles from coal combustion under laboratory condition was (5.54 x 10(12) ± 2.18 x 10(12)) unit x g(-1).

  13. Release to the Gas Phase of Inorganic Elements during Wood Combustion. Part 2: Influence of Fuel Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Combustion of wood for heat and power production may cause problems such as ash deposition, corrosion, and harmful emissions of gases and particulate matter. These problems are all directly related to the release of inorganic elements (in particular Cl, S, K, Na, Zn, and Pb) from the fuel...... to the gas phase. The aims of this study are to obtain quantitative data on the release of inorganic elements during wood combustion and to investigate the influence of fuel composition. Quantitative release data were obtained by pyrolyzing and subsequently combusting small samples of wood (~30 g) at various...... temperatures in the range of 500–1150 °C in a laboratory-scale tube reactor and by performing mass balance calculations based on the weight measurements and chemical analyses of the wood fuels and the residual ash samples. Four wood fuels with different ash contents and inorganic compositions were investigated...

  14. Production of wood pellets. Influence of additives on production, quality, storage, combustion and life cycle analysis of wood pellets; Herstellung von Holzpellets. Einfluss von Presshilfsmitteln auf Produktion, Qualitaet, Lagerung, Verbrennung sowie Energie- und Oekobilanz von Holzpellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasler, P.; Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Buerli, J. [Buerli Pellets, Willisau (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study concerning the influence of additives on the various factors related to the manufacture of wood pellets and their use. Results of tests concerning the production, storage and combustion of wood pellets with and without additives are presented. Process modifications are discussed. The report shows that for all investigated additives neither energy consumption nor pellet throughput was improved. The influence of additives on the mechanical strength of the pellets is discussed, as are the combustion characteristics of the pellets, which emit significantly lower levels of NO{sub x} and particulate matter than typical wood chips. The authors recommend the application of advanced control technology to ensure optimum combustion conditions. A life-cycle analysis is presented which shows that pellets are ecologically more favourable than wood chips. The ecological potential for improvement in the manufacturing process is discussed, including emission reductions and heat recovery.

  15. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  16. Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from domestic coal combustion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chunmei; Chen, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoyang; Ren, Lihong; Yin, Baohui; Liu, Xiaoyu; Bai, Zhipeng

    2014-01-01

    Domestic coal stove is widely used in China, especially for countryside during heating period of winter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important in flue gas of the stove. By using dilution tunnel system, samples of both gaseous and particulate phases from domestic coal combustion were collected and 18 PAH species were analyzed by GC-MS. The average emission factors of total 18 PAH species was 171.73 mg/kg, ranging from 140.75 to 229.11 mg/kg for bituminous coals, while was 93.98 mg/kg, ranging from 58.48 to 129.47 mg/kg for anthracite coals. PAHs in gaseous phases occupied 95% of the total of PAHs emission of coal combustion. In particulate phase, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs were the main components, accounting for 80% of the total particulate PAHs. The total toxicity potency evaluated by benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent carcinogenic power, sum of 7 carcinogenic PAH components and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin had a similar tendency. And as a result, the toxic potential of bituminous coal was higher than that of anthracite coal. Efficient emission control should be conducted to reduce PAH emissions in order to protect ecosystem and human health.

  17. Mechanism of influence water vapor on combustion characteristics of propane-air mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sachovskii, A. V.; Kozar, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the results of an experimental study of the effect of water vapor at the flame temperature. Propane-butane mixture with air is burning on a modified Bunsen burner. Steam temperature was varied from 180 to 260 degrees. Combustion parameters changed by steam temperature and its proportion in the mixture with the fuel. The fuel-air mixture is burned in the excess air ratio of 0.1. It has been established that the injection of steam changes the characteristics of combustion fuel-air mixture and increase the combustion temperature. The concentration of CO in the combustion products is substantially reduced. Raising the temperature in the combustion zone is associated with increased enthalpy of the fuel by the added steam enthalpy. Reducing the concentration of CO is caused by decrease in the average temperature in the combustion zone by applying steam. Concentration of active hydrogen radicals and oxygen increases in the combustion zone. That has a positive effect on the process of combustion.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON BURNOUT ON SUBMICRON PARTICLE FORMATION FROM EMULSIFIED FUEL OIL COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an examination of particle behavior and particle size distributions from the combustion of different fuel oils and emulsified fuels in three experimental combusators. Results indicate that improved carbon (C) burnout from fule oil combustion, either by...

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON BURNOUT ON SUBMICRON PARTICLE FORMATION FROM EMULSIFIED FUEL OIL COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an examination of particle behavior and particle size distributions from the combustion of different fuel oils and emulsified fuels in three experimental combusators. Results indicate that improved carbon (C) burnout from fule oil combustion, either by...

  20. The influence of particle size, fluidization velocity and fuel type on ash-induced agglomeration in biomass combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard eGatternig

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Agglomeration of the bed material is one of the main obstacles for biomass utilization in fluidized bed combustors. Especially high-potential fuels such as fast growing energy crops or biogeneous residues are affected, due to their high content of alkaline metals. Despite ongoing research efforts, the knowledge base on what fuels are affected is still limited. This paper describes the design and installation of two lab-scale reactors for the experimental determination of agglomeration temperatures. The reactor concept and measurement method were developed under consideration of experiences from existing test rigs published in literature. Preliminary tests confirmed a reproducibility of ±5°C for both new reactors.The results of an extended measurement campaign (156 test runs of 25 fuel species at a wide range of the operational parameters bed particle size, gas velocity, bed ash accumulation, based on design of experiment criteria, showed high agglomeration tendencies for residues (e.g., dried distillery grains, corn cobs while woody energy crops (e.g., willow, alder exhibited very stable combustion behavior. The operating parameters influenced the agglomeration behavior to a lesser degree than different ash compositions of fuel species tested. An interpolation within the design of experiment factor space allowed for a subsequent comparison of our results with experiments reported in literature. Good agreement was reached for fuels of comparable ash composition considering the interpolation errors of ±32°C on average.

  1. The influence of fine char particles burnout on bed agglomeration during the fluidized bed combustion of a biomass fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, Fabrizio; Chirone, Riccardo [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, CNR, P.le V. Tecchio, 80-80125 Naples (Italy); Salatino, Piero [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, P.le V. Tecchio, 80-80125 Naples (Italy)

    2003-11-15

    The combustion of biomass char in a bubbling fluidized bed is hereby addressed, with specific reference to the influence that the combustion of fine char particles may exert on ash deposition and bed agglomeration phenomena. Experiments of steady fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of powdered biomass were carried out with the aim of mimicking the postcombustion of attrited char fines generated in the fluidized bed combustion of coarse char. Experimental results showed that the char elutriation rate is much smaller than expected on the basis of the average size of the biomass powder and of the carbon loading in the combustor. Samples of bed material collected after prolonged operation of the combustor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-EDX analysis and revealed the formation of relatively coarse sand-ash-carbon aggregates. The phenomenology is consistent with the establishment of a char phase attached to the bed material as a consequence of adhesion of char fines onto the sand particles. Combustion under sound-assisted fluidization conditions was also tested. As expected, enhancement of fines adhesion on bed material and further reduction of the elutriation rate were observed. Experimental results are interpreted in the light of a simple model which accounts for elutriation of free fines, adhesion of free fines onto bed material and detachment of attached fines by attrition of char-sand aggregates. Combustion of both free and attached char fines is considered. The parameters of the model are assessed on the basis of the measured carbon loadings and elutriation rates. Model computations are directed to estimate the effective size and the peak temperature of char-sand aggregates. The theoretical estimates of the effective aggregate size match fairly well those observed in the experiments.

  2. Thymic Output: Influence Factors and Molecular Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Jin; Jun Zhang; Weifeng Chen

    2006-01-01

    Thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, able to generate mature T cells that eventually colonize secondary lymphoid organs, and is therefore essential for peripheral T cell renewal. Recent data showed that normal thymocyte export can be altered by several influence factors including several chemokines,sphingosinel-phosphate (S1P),transcription factors such as Foxjl, Kruppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2) and antigen stimulation, etc. In this review, we summarized the recent reports about study strategies, influence factors and possible molecular mechanisms in thymic output.

  3. 31. FACTORS INFLUENCING UTILIZATION OF INTERMITTENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    treatment of malaria during pregnancy(IPTp), effective IPTp service utilization ... effective case management of malaria. Despite the ... Factors influencing IPTp utilization identified in the study included; educational status of a woman,. Medical ...

  4. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Factors Influencing Performance and Progress of Primary School Pupils in ... found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school ... on school progress and performance, however; home language did play a role.

  5. Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers among Tertiary ... role stereotype and common business practices on media self employment in ... Sex, Psycho-social Characteristics, self Employment, Providing Media Services.

  6. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  7. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human beings are ... Key words: Mursik, Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), probiotic, Preschoolers, Focus group

  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING AS A. PROFESSION ... Colleges of Health Technology undergoing external ... questionnaire requested information on age ... individual with good communication skills and ...

  9. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCING SUSTAINED MANAGERIAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Marius RIZESCU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effectiveness is learnable in economic theory and practice with various forms of manifestation of the results obtained by the managers, such as profitability, the productivity of factors of production, capital efficiency, cost savings, etc. Regarded as the organizing principle and driving activity in the market economy, it has a much richer content and also favorable results of generalizing all derived by managers. Choosing effective in meeting needs with limited resources or powerlessness to maximize resource needs under restrains, are expressions through which efficiency is situated at the heart of economic theory and practice.

  11. Variation properties of ionospheric eclipse factor and ionospheric influence factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunmei; YUAN Yunbin; OU Jikun; CHEN Jinping

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and calculation methods of ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) and ionospheric influence factor (IFF) are further illustrated. The temporal and spacial variation properties of IEF and IFF are studied, which shows that the properties are influenced by the geographic position and season. The possibility of improving the precision of using GPS data to determine ionospheric delay based on the above variation properties is also analysed.

  12. The influence of changes of combustion gas temperature during flow around the horizontal cylinder on local Nu number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Górska

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The article the influence of changes of combustion gas temperature during flow around of horizontal cylinder on local Nu number was presented. In order to test an influence of effect waste gas temperature cycle of experimental investigations were conducted. Experimental tests were carried out on a properly designed measuring cylinder furnished with a number of thermocouples embedded along the cylinder perimeter. The cylinder was made from stainless steel of known thermal conductivity, and was cooled on the outer side through a water cooling system. The cylinder was placed horizontally in a heating chamber equipped with an axially positioned gas burner fired with natural gas. Gas and air feeds were regulated with control valves, based on combustion gas analyzer data.

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPOSTING POULTRY WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kopeć

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic recycling of waste, taking into account sanitary safety, should be a fundamental method for recovering the nutrients present in the waste for plants and organic matter. It also refers to by-products of animal origin, which are not intended for consumption by humans. In the present research , composting of hydrated poultry slaughterhouse waste with maize straw was carried out. A combination with fodder yeast and post-cellulose lime was also introduced, which modified chemical and physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. The experiment was carried out by recording the biomass temperature for 110 days in 1.2×1.0×0.8 m reactors with perforated bottoms enabling active aeration. The following parameters were taken into consideration in the composted material: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, respiratory activity, microorganisms, fractions of compost obtained after washing on sieves. Small amounts of fodder yeast favoured the development of microorganisms and caused a sanitary risk in the final product. At the initial stage, the temperature of raw compost in that object was several degrees lower than in the case of the composted mass without yeast addition. The addition of post-cellulose lime at ratios 6.5:1:6.5 (maize straw: poultry slaughterhouse waste: post-cellulose lime caused a change in the time of microbiological activity, and led to its inhibition in the final process. In comparison to objects with poultry waste, the highest degree of hygienization was found in the compost with post-cellulose lime (with pH close to neutral. By adjusting the ratios of substrates we can influence the microbiological activity, but the amounts of individual substrates should be determined taking into account the quality of the obtained compost.

  14. Influence of different types of coals and stoves on the emissions of parent and oxygenated PAHs from residential coal combustion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Yue; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Feng, Yanli; Chen, Tian; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of coal property and stove efficiency on the emissions of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) during the combustion, fifteen coal/stove combinations were tested in this study, including five coals of different geological maturities in briquette and chunk forms burned in two residential stoves. The emission factors (EFs) of pPAHs and oPAHs were in the range of 0.129-16.7 mg/kg and 0.059-0.882 mg/kg, respectively. The geological maturity of coal significantly affected the emissions of pPAHs and oPAHs with the lower maturity coals yielding the higher emissions. The chunk-to-briquette transformation of coal dramatically increased the emissions of pPAHs and oPAHs during the combustion of anthracite, whereas this transformation only elevated the emissions of high molecular weight PAHs for bituminous coals. The influence of stove type on the emissions of pPAHs and oPAHs was also geological-maturity-dependent. High efficiency stove significantly reduced the emissions of PAHs from those relatively high-maturity coals, but its influences on low-maturity coals were inconstant.

  15. Factors Influencing the Quality of Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin ZAMFIROIU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications are becoming increasingly used. Mobile devices are becoming indispensable for the user. In the material are claiming the sales of mobile devices internationally and the use of mobile applications compared to traditional internet use on desktop systems for the United States. Are presented influences the quality of mobile applications and based on these influencing factors built a model of choice for optimal application of mobile applications and traditional desktop application. At the end of the material presented methods to increase quality by tracking the influence factors during the development of mobile applications.

  16. Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Bilodeau, Stéphanie; Langlois, Geneviève; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2011-07-01

    Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity.

  17. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  18. Patient factors that influence warfarin dose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pamela J

    2010-06-01

    Warfarin has long been the mainstay of oral anticoagulation therapy for the treatment and prevention of venous and arterial thrombosis. The narrow therapeutic index of warfarin, and the complex number of factors that influence international normalized ratio (INR) response, makes optimization of warfarin therapy challenging. Determination of the appropriate warfarin dose during initiation and maintenance therapy requires an understanding of patient factors that influence dose response: age, body weight, nutritional status, acute and chronic disease states, and changes in concomitant drug therapy and diet. This review will examine specific clinical factors that can affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin, as well as the role of pharmacogenetics in optimizing warfarin therapy.

  19. Influences of Catalytic Combustion on the Ignition Timing and Emissions of HCCI Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Wen; XIE Mao-zhao

    2008-01-01

    The combustion processes of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines whose piston surfaces have been coated with catalyst (rhodium or platinum) were numerically investigated. A single-zone model and a multi-zone model were developed. The effects of catalytic combustion on the ignition timing of the HCCI engine were analyzed through the single-zone model. The results showed that the ignition timing of the HCCI engine was advanced by the catalysis. The effects of catalytic combustion on HC, CO and NOx emissions of the HCCI engine were analyzed through the multi-zone model. The results showed that the emissions of HC and CO (using platinum (Pt) as catalyst) were decreased, while the emissions of NOx were elevated by catalytic combustion. Compared with catalyst Pt, the HC emissions were lower with catalyst rhodium(Rh) on the piston surface, but the emissions of NOx and CO were higher.

  20. The Simulation of Influence of Different Coals on the Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler's Combustion Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumei Yong; Qinggang Lu

    2003-01-01

    The combustion performance of the boiler largely depends on the coal type. Lots of experimental research shows that different fuels have different combustion characteristics. It is obvious that fuel will change the whole operating performance of Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC). We know even in a pilot-scale running boiler, the measurement of some parameters is difficult and costly. Therefore, we developed the way of simulation to evaluate the combustion performance of Chinese coals in CFB. The simulation results show that,different coals will result in different coal particle diameter and comminution depending on their mineral component and the change will affect the distribution of ash in CFBC system. In a word, the computational results are in accordance with experimental results qualitatively but there are some differences quantitatively.

  1. Insights on organic aerosol aging and the influence of coal combustion at a regional receptor site of central eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Hu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the aging and processing of organic aerosols (OA, an intensive field campaign (Campaign of Air Pollution at Typical Coastal Areas IN Eastern China, CAPTAIN was conducted March–April at a receptor site (a Changdao island in central eastern China. Multiple fast aerosol and gas measurement instruments were used during the campaign, including a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS that was applied to measure mass concentrations and non-refractory chemical components of submicron particles (PM1nr. The average mass concentration of PM1(PM1nr+black carbon was 47 ± 36 μg m−3 during the campaign and showed distinct variation, depending on back trajectories and their overlap with source regions. Organic aerosol (OA is the largest component of PM1 (30%, followed by nitrate (28%, sulfate (19%, ammonium (15%, black carbon (6%, and chloride (3%. Four OA components were resolved by positive matrix factorization (PMF of the high-resolution spectra, including low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA and a coal combustion OA (CCOA. The mass spectrum of CCOA had high abundance of fragments from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (m/z 128, 152, 178, etc.. The average atomic ratio of oxygen to carbon in OA (O / C at Changdao was 0.59, which is comparable to other field studies reported at locations downwind of large pollution sources, indicating the oxidized nature of most OA during the campaign. The evolution of OA elemental composition in the van Krevelen diagram (H / C vs. O / C showed a slope of −0.63; however, the OA influenced by coal combustion exhibits a completely different evolution that appears dominated by physical mixing. The aging of organic aerosols vs. photochemical age was investigated. It was shown that OA / ΔCO, as well as LV-OOA / ΔCO and SV-OOA / ΔCO, positively correlated with photochemical age. LV

  2. Emission factors for PM2.5, CO, CO2, NOx, SO2 and particle size distributions from the combustion of wood species using a new controlled combustion chamber 3CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Toledo, Mario; Vidal, Victor; Guerrero, Fabian; Diaz-Robles, Luis A; Petit-Breuilh, Ximena; Lapuerta, Magin

    2017-04-15

    The objective of this research was to determine emission factors (EF) for particulate matter (PM2.5), combustion gases and particle size distribution generated by the combustion of Eucalyptus globulus (EG), Nothofagus obliqua (NO), both hardwoods, and Pinus radiata (PR), softwood, using a controlled combustion chamber (3CE). Additionally, the contribution of the different emissions stages associated with the combustion of these wood samples was also determined. Combustion experiments were performed using shaving size dried wood (0% humidity). The emission samples were collected with a tedlar bag and sampling cartridges containing quartz fiber filters. High reproducibility was achieved between experiment repetitions (CVcombustion smoldering have also very significant contributions. This demonstrates that particle concentrations measured only in stationary state during flame stage may cause underestimation of emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dioxin emissions from coal combustion in domestic stove: Formation in the chimney and coal chlorine content influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradiz Bostjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion experiments conducted in domestic stove burning hard coal demonstrated a predominant influence of the coal chlorine content on the PCDD/F emissions, together with a pronounced effect of the flue gas temperature. PCDD/F concentrations of over 100 ng TEQ/m3, three orders of magnitude higher than in a modern waste incinerator, were measured in the flue gases of a domestic stove when combusting high chlorine coal (0.31 %. The PCDD/F concentrations in the flue gases dropped below 0,5 ng TEQ/m3, when low chlorine coal (0.07 % was used. When low chlorine coal was impregnated with NaCl to obtain 0.38 % chlorine content, the emission of the PCDD/Fs increased by two orders of magnitude. Pronounced nonlinearity of the PCDD/F concentrations related to chlorine content in the coal was observed. The combustion of the high chlorine coal yielded PCDD/F concentrations in flue gases one order of magnitude lower in a fan cooled chimney when compared to an insulated one, thus indicating formation in the chimney. The influence of flue gas temperature on the PCDD/F emissions was less pronounced when burning low chlorine coal. The predominant pathway of the PCDD/F emissions is via flue gases, 99 % of the TEQ in the case of the high chlorine coal for insulated chimney.

  4. Influences of Mechanical Vibration on Rapidly Solidified Al2O3/YSZ Ceramics Prepared by Combustion Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhong-min; ZHANG Long; WANG Wei-guo; ZHANG Shi-yue

    2006-01-01

    Al2O3/YSZ composite ceramics was fabricated with combustion synthesis technology, and the influences of mechanical vibration on its microstructures and properties were investigated. It is found that under the mechanical vibration of ever-increasing frequency, increasing combustion temperature, accelerating ceramics/metal liquid-liquid separation and quickening ceramic solidification could not only reduce the average diameter and the size distribution of aligned ZrO2 nano-micron fibers in rod-shaped Al2O3 matrix grains, but also make the randomly-oriented rod-shaped grains finer and increase their aspect ratios. As a result, a remarkable increase in flexural strength and fracture toughness of the ceramics can be observed.

  5. Influencing factors in MMR immunisation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Marie C; Cox, Carol L

    Immunisation decision making is not a straightforward process for parents. Many factors influence parental decision making on whether they immunise their child with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The feasibility study described in this article provides insight into influencing factors associated with decisions regarding the immunisation of children by parents. The study findings suggest that the practice nurse is a credible source of information for parents seeking informed decision making. At a time when the incidence of measles and mumps is rising in the UK, the provision of appropriate information by the practice nurse has the potential to increase uptake of the MMR vaccine.

  6. On the influence of singlet oxygen molecules on characteristics of HCCI combustion: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starik, A. M.; Kozlov, V. E.; Titova, N. S.

    2013-08-01

    Mechanisms of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion enhancement are investigated numerically when excited O2(a 1Δg) molecules are produced at different points in the compression stroke. The analysis is conducted with the use of an extended kinetic model involving the submechanism of nitric oxide formation in the presence of singlet oxygen O2(a 1Δg) or O2(b 1Σg +) molecules in the methane-air mixture. It is demonstrated that the abundance of excited O2(a 1Δg) molecules in the mixture even in a small amounts intensifies the ignition and combustion and allows one to control the ignition event in the HCCI engine. Such a method of energy supply in the HCCI engine is much more effective in advancement of combustion timing than mere heating of the mixture, because it leads to acceleration of the chain-branching mechanism. The excitation of O2 molecules to the a 1Δg electronic state makes it possible to organise the successful combustion in the cylinder at diminished initial temperature of the mixture and increase the effective energy released during HCCI combustion. The advance in the value of this energy is much higher than the energy needed for the excitation of oxygen molecules. Moreover, in this case, the output concentration of NO and CO can be reduced significantly.

  7. INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR LEASING MARKET CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors. This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.

  8. Combustion characteristics and influential factors of isooctane active-thermal atmosphere combustion assisted by two-stage reaction of n-heptane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xingcai; Ji, Libin; Ma, Junjun; Zhou, Xiaoxin; Huang, Zhen [Key Lab. for Power Machinery and Engineering of MOE, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents an experimental study on the isooctane active-thermal atmosphere combustion (ATAC) which is assisted by two-stage reaction of n-heptane. The active-thermal atmosphere is created by low- and high-temperature reactions of n-heptane which is injected at intake port, and isooctane is directly injected into combustion chamber near the top dead center. The effects of isooctane injection timing, active-thermal atmosphere intensity, overall equivalence ratio, and premixed ratio on combustion characteristics and emissions are investigated. The experimental results reveal that, the isooctane ignition and combustion can be classified to thermal atmosphere combustion, active atmosphere combustion, and active-thermal atmosphere combustion respectively according to the extent of n-heptane oxidation as well as effects of isooctane quenching and charge cooling. n-Heptane equivalence ratio, isooctane equivalence ratio and isooctane delivery advance angle are major control parameters. In one combustion cycle, the isooctane ignited and burned after those of n-heptane, and then this combustion phenomenon can also be named as dual-fuel sequential combustion (DFSC). The ignition timing of the overall combustion event is mainly determined by n-heptane equivalence ratio and can be controlled in flexibility by simultaneously adjusting isooctane equivalence ratio. The isooctane ignition regime, overall thermal efficiency, and NO{sub x} emissions show strong sensitivity to the fuel delivery advance angle between 20 CA BTDC and 25 CA BTDC. (author)

  9. The Influence of Hydrogen Gas on the Measures of Efficiency of Diesel Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Latakas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper energy and ecological parameters of diesel engine which works under addition of hydrogen (10, 20, 30 l/ min are presented. A survey of research literature has shown that addition of hydrogen gases improve diesel combustion; increase indicated pressure; decrease concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2, hydrocarbons (HC, particles; decrease fuel consumptions. Results of the experiment revealed that hydrogen gas additive decreased pressure in cylinder in kinetic combustion phase. Concentration of CO2 and nitrous oxides (NOx decreased not significantly, HC – increased. Concentration of particles in engine exhaust gases significantly decreased. In case when hydrogen gas as additive was supplied, the fuel consumptions decreased a little. Using AVL BOOST software combustion process analysis was made. It was determined that in order to optimize engine work process under hydrogen additive usage, it is necessary to adjust diesel injection angle.

  10. Influence of increasing combustion temperature on the AMS 14C dating of modern crop phytoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jinhui; Yang, Xue; Zheng, Yonggang

    2014-10-01

    Several attempts have been made to directly date phytoliths, but most 14C results are not consistent with other independent chronologies. Due to the limited dataset, there is not a clear explanation for these discrepancies. Herein, we report the 14C ages of phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) from contemporary rice and millet crops that were combusted at different temperatures to investigate the relationship between the combustion temperature and resulting 14C age. Our results show that the 14C age of PhytOC increases directly with combustion temperature (up to 1100°C) and results in age overestimations of hundreds of years. Considerably older ages are observed at higher temperatures, suggesting that it may be possible to distinguish between two fractions of organic carbon in phytoliths: labile and recalcitrant carbon. These findings challenge the assumption that PhytOC is homogeneous, an assumption made by those who have previously attempted to directly date phytoliths using 14C.

  11. Study on Influence of Functional Composition Distribution on Combustion Performance of a Modified Single Base Propellant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 王琼林; 刘少武; 于慧芳; 李达; 姚月娟; 潘清; 魏伦

    2012-01-01

    The modified single base propellant samples were prepared by impregnating blasting oil into single base grains and deactivating deterrent in water medium. The concentration distribution of functional compositions in this propellant was determined by using FTIR micro-spectroscopy. Its combustion performance was investigated by means of closed-bomb and interior ballistic tests. The results show that the concentration of NG distributes parabolically along the radius and the con- centration of NA decreases from the surface to the centre exponentially. The deeper the NG impregnates, the slower the NA concentration decreases, the stronger the progressive combustion is and the better the interior ballistic performance is. When the depth corresponding to maximum NG concentration is about 1/2 of the web and the NA decreases slowly, the pro- gressive combustion is the strongest and the interior ballistic performance is the best.

  12. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  13. On factors influencing students’ listening abilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡天秀

    2012-01-01

    As we all know,listening,speaking,reading,and writing are four basic skills in language teaching and learning.Listening plays an important role in improving other skills.There are some factors influencing students’ listening abilities.So it’s important for teachers to improve students’ listening abilities.

  14. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  15. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1986-01-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...

  16. Factors influencing the process of farm liquidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dudek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the logit analysis was used in order to define the factors influencing farm liquidation. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its regional differences were analysed. Significant and negative impact of the number of people in a family farm and the number of machinery and technical equipment, as well as the positive impact of the farmer’ age are reported.

  17. The influence of traffic and wood combustion on the stable isotopic composition of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saurer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide in the atmosphere is originating from various combustion and oxidation processes. Recently, the proportion of CO resulting from the combustion of wood for domestic heating may have increased due to political measures promoting this renewable energy source. Here, we used the stable isotope composition of CO (δ13C and δ18O for the characterization of different CO sources in Switzerland, along with other indicators for traffic and wood combustion (NOx-concentration, aerosol light absorption at different wavelengths. We assessed diurnal variations of the isotopic composition of CO at 3 sites during winter: a village site dominated by domestic heating, a site close to a motorway and a rural site. The isotope ratios of wood combustion emissions were studied at a test facility, indicating significantly lower δ18O of CO from wood combustion compared to traffic emissions. At the village and the motorway site, we observed very pronounced diurnal δ18O-variations of CO with an amplitude of up to 8‰. Solving the isotope mass balance equation for three distinct sources (wood combustion, traffic, clean background air resulted in diurnal patterns consistent with other indicators for wood burning and traffic. The average night-time contribution of wood-burning to total CO was 70% at the village site, 49% at the motorway site and 29% at the rural site based on the isotope mass balance. The results, however, depend strongly on the pure source isotope values, which are not very well known. We therefore additionally applied a combined CO/NOx-isotope model for verification. Here, we separated the CO emissions into different sources based on distinct CO/NOx emissions ratios for wood combustion and traffic, and inserted this information in the isotope mass balance equation. Accordingly, a highly significant agreement between measured and calculated δ18

  18. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  19. Particulate emission factors for mobile fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, John G; Chow, Judith C; Chen, L-W Antony; Lowenthal, Douglas H; Fujita, Eric M; Kuhns, Hampden D; Sodeman, David A; Campbell, David E; Moosmüller, Hans; Zhu, Dongzi; Motallebi, Nehzat

    2011-05-15

    PM emission factors (EFs) for gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles and biomass combustion were measured in several recent studies. In the Gas/Diesel Split Study (GD-Split), PM(2.5) EFs for heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) ranged from 0.2 to ~2 g/mile and increased with vehicle age. EFs for HDDV estimated with the U.S. EPA MOBILE 6.2 and California Air Resources Board (ARB) EMFAC2007 models correlated well with measured values. PM(2.5) EFs measured for gasoline vehicles were ~two orders of magnitude lower than those for HDDV and did not correlate with model estimates. In the Kansas City Study, PM(2.5) EFs for gasoline-powered vehicles (e.g., passenger cars and light trucks) were generally fuel, corresponding to 0.3 and 2 g/mile, respectively. These values are comparable to those of on-road HDDV. EFs for biomass burning measured during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment (FLAME) were compared with EFs from the ARB Emission Estimation System (EES) model. The highest PM(2.5) EFs (76.8±37.5 g/kg) were measured for wet (>50% moisture content) Ponderosa Pine needles. EFs were generally fuels with low moisture content but underestimated measured EFs for fuel with moisture content >40%. Average EFs for dry chamise, rice straw, and dry grass were within a factor of three of values adopted by ARB in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Discrepancies between measured and modeled emission factors suggest that there may be important uncertainties in current PM(2.5) emission inventories.

  20. Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.

  1. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  2. Uncovering Factors Influencing Interpersonal Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Lennie; Jansen, Carel; Hoeks, John

    2017-01-01

    Talking to friends, family, or peers about health issues might, among other things, increase knowledge of social norms and feelings of self-efficacy in adopting a healthier lifestyle. We often see interpersonal health communication as an important mediating factor in the effects of health campaigns on health behavior. No research has been done so far, however, on factors that influence whether and how people talk about health issues without being exposed to a health campaign first. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 12 participants about their communication behavior concerning six different health themes, like smoking and exercising. The results suggest that at least four types of interpersonal health communication can be distinguished, each influenced by different factors, like conversational partner and objective of the conversation. Future research should take this diversity of interpersonal health communication into account, and focus on designing health campaigns that aim to trigger dialogue within target populations.

  3. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilda Pečarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  4. The Influence of Slight Protuberances in a Micro-Tube Reactor on Methane/Moist Air Catalytic Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruirui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The combustion characteristics of methane/moist air in micro-tube reactors with different numbers and shapes of inner wall protuberances are investigated in this paper. The micro-reactor with one rectangular protuberance (six different sizes was studied firstly, and it is shown that reactions near the protuberance are mainly controlled by diffusion, which has little effect on the outlet temperature and methane conversion rate. The formation of cavities and recirculation zones in the vicinity of protuberances leads to a significant increase of the Arrhenius reaction rate of CH4 and gas velocity. Next, among the six different simulated conditions (0–5 rectangular protuberances, the micro-tube reactor with five rectangular protuberances shows the highest methane conversion rate. Finally, the effect of protuberance shape on methane/moist air catalytic combustion is confirmed, and it is found that the protuberance shape has a greater influence on methane conversion rate than the number of protuberances. The methane conversion rate in the micro-tube decreases progressively in the following order: five triangular slight protuberances > five rectangular protuberances > five trapezoidal protuberances > smooth tube. In all tests of methane/moist air combustion conditions, the micro-tube with five triangular protuberances has the peak efficiency and is therefore recommended for high efficiency reactors.

  5. Turbulent combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  6. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Enterprise social media platforms provide new ways of sharing knowledge and communicating within organizations to benefit from the social capital and valuable knowledge that employees have. Drawing on social dilemma and self-determination theory, the aim of the study is to understand what...... factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence...... knowledge sharing framework helps to understand what factors impact engagement on social media. Furthermore the article suggests different types of interventions to overcome the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Originality/value: The study contributes to an understanding of factors leading...

  7. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  8. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  10. Emission factors for carbonaceous particles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential coal combustion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjun; Sheng, Guoying; Bi, Xinhui; Feng, Yanli; Mai, Bixian; Fu, Jiamo

    2005-03-15

    Emission factors of carbonaceous particles, including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined for five coals, which ranged in maturity from sub-bituminous to anthracite. They were burned in the form of honeycomb briquettes in a residential coalstove, one of the most common fuel/stove combinations in China. Smoke samples were taken through dilution sampling equipment, with a high volume sampler that could simultaneously collect emissions in both particulate and gaseous phases, and a cascade impactor that could segregate particles into six fractions. Particulate BC and OC were analyzed by a thermal-optical method, and PAHs in emissions of both phases were analyzed by GC-MS. Burning of bituminous coals produced the highest emission factors of particulate matter (12.91 g/kg), BC (0.28 g/kg), OC (7.82 g/kg), and 20 PAHs (210.6 mg/kg) on the basis of burned dry ash-free (daf) coal, while the anthracite honeycomb-briquette was the cleanest household coal fuel. The size-segregated results show that more than 94% of the particles were submicron, and calculated mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) of all particles were under 0.3 microm. Based on the coal consumption in the residential sector of China, 290.24 Gg (gigagrams) of particulate matter, 5.36 Gg of BC, 170.33 Gg of OC, and 4.72 Gg of 20 PAHs mass were emitted annually from household honeycomb-briquette burning during 2000. Anthracite coal should be selected preferentially and more advanced burning conditions should be applied in domestic combustion, from the viewpoint of both climate change and adverse health effects.

  11. Influence of engine speed and the course of the fuel injection characteristics on forming the average combustion temperature in the cylinder of turbo diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr GUSTOF

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Average combustion temperatures inside a turbo diesel engine for the same load and the same total doze of fuel for two rotational speeds: 2004 [rpm] and 4250 [rpm] are presented in this paper. The aim of this work is also the evaluation of the influence of the temporary course of the fuel injection characteristics on forming temperature in theengine cylinder space for these temperatures. The calculations were carried out by means of two zone combustion model.

  12. Factors influencing the feasibility of laparoscopy colectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhiyun; Zhang Zhongtao

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective was to review the factors affecting the feasibility of performing successful laparoscopic colectomy.Data sources The literatures about the risk factors closely related to the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy on different surgical diseases of the colon cited in this review were obtained from PubMed published in English from 2006 to 2012.Study selection Original articles regarding the risk factors that affect the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy were selected.Results Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,advanced age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of developing serious complications such as hemorrhage,anastomotic leak,and skin and soft tissue infections following laparoscopic colectomy.These factors also increase the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.In this study,we reviewed the recent original articles about the relationship of laparoscopic colectomy with these risk factors.We also describe some strategies that limit the likelihood of these complications and the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.Conclusions Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of either serious complications or conversion to open operation with laparoscopic colectomy.Evaluation of these risk factors preoperatively should influence the decision to perform colectomy using laparoscopic techniques.

  13. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  14. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  15. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, N Venkata Naga; Prasanna, P Muthu; Sakarkar, Suhas Narayan; Prabha, K Surya; Ramaiah, P Seetha; Srawan, G Y

    2010-05-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the quality preservation techniques of sensitive substances and a method for production of materials with new valuable properties. Microencapsulation is a process of enclosing micron-sized particles in a polymeric shell. There are different techniques available for the encapsulation of drug entities. The encapsulation efficiency of the microparticle or microsphere or microcapsule depends upon different factors like concentration of the polymer, solubility of polymer in solvent, rate of solvent removal, solubility of organic solvent in water, etc. The present article provides a literature review of different microencapsulation techniques and different factors influencing the encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulation technique.

  16. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarkoti, Bishal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...

  17. FACTORS INFLUENCING BENDING RIGIDITY OF SUBMERGED VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Long-hua; YANG Xiao-li

    2011-01-01

    The bending rigidity of submerged vegetation is closely related with vegetative drag force.This work aims at determining the effects of flow conditions and characteristics of vegetation on the bending rigidity of submerged vegetation.Based on the dimensional analysis method,the factors influencing the bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation were analyzed.The relationship between the relative bending rigidity and its influencing factors was investigated by experimental observation,and a relative bending rigidity expression for submerged vegetation was obtained by means of multiple linear regression method.The results show that the submerged vegetation has three states under different inflow conditions,and the each critical relative bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation was determined for the different states of submerged vegetation.

  18. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  19. Factors Influencing Impulse Buying in Retail Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgadze, Nino

    2014-01-01

    Impulse buying is a widely pervasive phenomenon. Statistics shows that more and more shoppers are experiencing irresistible urge to purchase unplanned and in most cases unnecessary product. Existing researches fall short in identifying most suitable tools that marketers can adopt in order to promote impulsive sales. Therefore, this thesis provides deep analysis of those, controllable factors that influence impulse buying. Particularly four external cues are examined: product display, promotio...

  20. Major Factors influences the 2008 Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2007 was an unusual year for China's stock market, as the index climbed from 2675 points up to 6124 by the end of the year, setting new records again and again throughout 2007. What will happen to the stock market in the coming 2008? Let's havea look at some of the main factors that will influence the stock market this year, perhaps we can find out if 2008 will be another memorable year full of surprises.

  1. Factors influencing the eicosanoids synthesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefel, Jarosław; Kruszewski, Wiesław Janusz; Sobczak, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    External factors activate a sequence of reactions involving the reception, transduction, and transmission of signals to effector cells. There are two main phases of the body's reaction to harmful factors: the first aims to neutralize the harmful factor, while in the second the inflammatory process is reduced in size and resolved. Secondary messengers such as eicosanoids are active in both phases. The discovery of lipoxins and epi-lipoxins demonstrated that not all arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives have proinflammatory activity. It was also revealed that metabolites of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins also take part in the resolution of inflammation. Knowledge of the above properties has stimulated several clinical trials on the influence of EPA and DHA supplementation on various diseases. However, the equivocal results of those trials prevent the formulation of guidelines on EPA and DHA supplementation. Prescription drugs are among the substances with the strongest influence on the profile and quantity of the synthesized eicosanoids. The lack of knowledge about their influence on the conversion of EPA and DHA into eicosanoids may lead to erroneous conclusions from clinical trials.

  2. A Review of Factors Influencing Health Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Almaspoor Khanghah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : Inequity in health is a universal term which is used for showing current differences, variations and inequalities of people in accessing to health services. The current study aimed to assess the factors influencing health inequalities to present the results to the researchers and health care professionals. Material and Methods : In this review, several databases including PubMed, Proquest, Scopus, Google Scholar search engine, SID and IranDoc were searched within 2000-2014 period. We found 746 articles and refined them step by step according to the aim of the study by reviewing the titles, abstracts and full texts. Finally, 16 articles were selected for further study Results: In the present study, identified determinants in health inequalities were as follows: 1- Economic and income factors 2- Political factors, social and public policy 3- Cultural and social values 4- social and demographic factors 5- Behavioral, psychological and biological factors. Although, other factors like governmental, international, social cohesion, incidents and even the health system itself were involved in health inequalities, but the listed determinants were among the most important determinants in health inequalities in the conducted studies. Conclusion : Given the importance of people's health and inequalities in health, the approach should focus on reducing the inequalities in all policies and development programs and the role of these factors should be taken into consideration by managers and policy-makers

  3. Influence of ash composition on the sintering behavior during pressurized combustion and gasification process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni-jie JING; Qin-hui WANG; Yu-kun YANG; Le-ming CHENG; Zhong-yang LUO; Ke-fa CEN

    2012-01-01

    To determine the ash characteristics during fluidized bed combustion and gasification purposes,the investigation of the impacts of chemical composition of Jincheng coal ash on the sintering temperature was conducted.A series of experiments on the sintering behavior at 0.5 MPa was performed using the pressurized pressure-drop technique in the combustion and gasification atmospheres.Meanwhile,the mineral transformations of sintered ash pellets were observed using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analyzer to better understand the experimental results.In addition,quantitative XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FE-SEM/EDS) analyses of ash samples were used for clarifying the detailed ash melting mechanism.These results show that the addition of Fe2O3 can obviously reduce the sintering temperatures under gasification atmospheres,and only affect a little the sintering temperature under combustion atmosphere.This may be due to the presence of iron-bearing minerals,which will react with other ash compositions to produce low-melting-point eutectics.The FE-SEM/EDS analyses of ash samples with Fe2O3 additive show consistent results with the XRD measurements.The CaO and Na2O can reduce the sintering temperatures under both the combustion and gasification atmospheres.This can be also contributed to the formation of low-melting-point eutectics,decreasing the sintering temperature.Moreover,the fluxing minerals,such as magnetite,anhydrite,muscovite,albite and nepheline,contribute mostly to the reduction of the sintering temperature while the feldspar minerals,such as anorthite,gehlenite and sanidine,can react with other minerals to produce low-melting-point eutectics,and thereby reduce the sintering temperatures.

  4. Combustion water purification techniques influence on OBT analysing using liquid scintillation counting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Vagner, I.; Faurescu, I.; Faurescu, D. [National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, Valcea (Romania)

    2015-03-15

    In order to determine organically bound tritium (OBT) from environmental samples, these must be converted into water, measurable by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). For this purpose we conducted some experiments to determine OBT level of a grass sample collected from an uncontaminated area. The studied grass sample was combusted in a Parr bomb. However usual interfering phenomena were identified: color or chemical quench, chemiluminescence, overlap over tritium spectrum because of other radionuclides presence as impurities ({sup 14}C from organically compounds, {sup 36}Cl as chloride and free chlorine, {sup 40}K as potassium cations) and emulsion separation. So the purification of the combustion water before scintillation counting appeared to be essential. 5 purification methods were tested: distillation with chemical treatment (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4}), lyophilization, chemical treatment (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4}) followed by lyophilization, azeotropic distillation with toluene and treatment with a volcanic tuff followed by lyophilization. After the purification step each sample was measured and the OBT measured concentration, together with physico-chemical analysis of the water analyzed, revealed that the most efficient method applied for purification of the combustion water was the method using chemical treatment followed by lyophilization.

  5. CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Jozsef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.

  6. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  7. Environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present an overview of recent findings on the environmental and behavioral factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis. The authors primarily concentrated on deliberations of possibile main causes of the damage of the endothelium. At the same time the following pathogenic mechanisms as cellular dysfunction, inflammation and coagulation disorders have been enumerated. The links between the state of the vascular endothelium and life style have been emphasized. It is also important to note that the primary causes of the endothelial damage should be traced as originally suggested many years ago viewing such factors as anger, hostility, aggression, impulsiveness and depression but with a new approach. The authors supplement the comments, on the environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis, with basic data on family predisposition to the development of this disease. They highlight that current genetic research have not determined genes responsible for atheroscelosis. According to the authors the considerations and conclusions presented in this overview are important for the educational purposes related to the most frequent disease process resulting in many diseases in medical disciplines.

  8. Contextual factors influencing research use in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Contextual factors are perceived to be significant barriers to research-utilisation-related activity, but little is known about how context impacts on specific research-based decisions, or how the individual interacts with the organisation in the requirement for research-based change. This study describes the impact of contextual factors on the practical reasoning of nurse specialists in the construction of policy for practice. Three groups of clinical nurse specialists were observed during a series of meetings convened to construct evidence-based guidelines for nursing practice. Transcripts of the meetings were analysed to identify and categorise the physical, social, political, and economic influences on 31 nursing issues. Multiple contextual factors influenced each decision made, with decisions about nursing practice bounded by setting and system considerations, relationships with others in the care team, and resource constraints. Practitioners were involved in weighing up alternative scenarios, contexts, and contingencies for each decision, requiring strategies to adapt and reconstruct the nature of care, to influence others, and to affect organisational decision-making processes. The practical accomplishment of evidence-based practice required diverse skills: translating between evidence and practice; mediating the values, preferences, and working practices of multiple stakeholders; negotiating organisational complexity and the management of boundaries; and coordinating inter-organisational and inter-agency working. Nurse specialists in this study had a significant role in instigating, fuelling, and coordinating policy review, predominantly by communication across professional and organisational boundaries. Clinical specialists acting as organisational boundary spanners require skills in the informal cultural work of organising, facilitating, and maintaining links across professional, team, and organisational boundaries. If their role in the negotiation of

  9. Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

  10. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  11. 可燃药筒对模块装药燃烧残渣的影响%Influence of Combustible Case on Combustion Residue of Modular Charges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔丽洁; 堵平; 廖昕; 王泽山

    2011-01-01

    针对某外贸型号火炮模块装药射击时存在燃烧残渣,影响后续装药和连续射击的问题,采用密闭爆发器定容燃烧模拟试验,对模块装药中两种可燃药筒燃烧(缓燃、速燃)后的残渣量进行了测试;同时以药包装药系统为参照系,研究了靶场射击中模块装药可燃药筒的燃烧残渣量,并对试验结果进行了比对.结果表明:近2/3的燃烧残渣是由可燃药筒产生的;增加可燃药筒中的硝化纤维素的含量,减少合成树脂粘合剂和纤维增强材料后,进行靶场射击试验,结果表明模块装药的燃烧残渣总量降低了2/3,基本消除了模块装药的射击残渣问题.%For the problem of combustion residue produced from some modular charge during firing, the residue amounts of two kinds of combustible cases ( slow burning and fast burning) after burning were measured through the closed bomb test. The combustion residue amounts of two combustible cases were also tested in the firing range by taking a bag propelling charge as a reference, and the two residue a-mounts were compared. The results show that near two-thirds combustion residue comes from the combustible case, and the total amount of combustion residue of the modular charge during firing is reduced by two-thirds after the synthetic resin binder and fiber reinforced material are reduced and the nitrocellulose is increased in the improved combustible case. Thus, the combustion residue of modular charge during firing is basically eliminated.

  12. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-02-01

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  13. A survey on factors influencing city branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.

  14. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Park

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

  15. Influence of Cellulosic Binders on Sensitivity and Combustion Behaviour of B-KNO3 Ignition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Bhingarkar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Boron-potassium nitrate (B-KNO3-based compositions have been used as an effective ignitersystem for solid rocket propellants. A systematic study was undertaken to generate exhaustivedata on B-KNO3 (25:65-based ignition systems with cellulosic binders, viz., nitrocellulose, ethylcellulose and plasticised ethyl cellulose. In addition, detailed investigations were carried outwith PEC as binder by varying its concentration from 2-10 per cent in the same system. Theexperimental compositions (B-KNO3: binder were evaluated by closed-vessel firing, thermalanalysis, sensitivity, mechanical properties and cal-val determination. The binders significantlyinfluenced the sensitivity and combustion behaviour of B-KNO3 compositions. The compositionwith nitrocellulose as binder produced high flame temperature and cal-val as compared to ethylcellulose and plasticised ethyl cellulose-based compositions. The data indicated that thecalculated flame temperature for all compositions was in the range 2716 K to 2957 K. As theplasticised ethyl cellulose content increased from 2 per cent to 10 per cent, the maximum pressureincreased with decrease in heat of combustion.

  16. 燃烧室形状对甲醇发动机燃烧过程的影响%Influence of combustion chamber shape on combustion process of methanol engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑清平; 黎苏; 李丽

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional mathematical model of combustion process based on a methanol engine was established, and the accuracy of the model was validated. On this basis, the influence of three types of combustion chamber shape (straight port, reduced port and exposure port) on combustion process was studied. The gas flow and turbulent kinetic energy field, combustion pressure, the rate of pressure rise, temperature and NO, emissions in the cylinder were treated in detail. The results show that there is proper combustion duration, proper rate of pressure increase and lower NO, emission in the straight port. In this case, the straight port combustion chamber is the right choice in terms of engine performance and production techniques.%以甲醇发动机为研究对象,建立了三维数值计算模型,并对模型的有效性进行了验证,在此基础上,对直口、敞口和缩口3种不同形状燃烧室的工作过程进行计算,详细分析了燃烧室形状对缸内速度场分布及湍动能分布,火焰传播过程,燃烧压力、压力升高率、缸内温度及NO排放的影响.结果表明,直口燃烧室的燃烧持续期居中,并有适合的压力升高率,NOx放也相对较低,故综合考虑发动机性能和生产工艺性,选择直口燃烧室.

  17. Influence of a combustion-driven oscillation on global mixing in the flame from a refinery flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langman, A.S.; Nathan, G.J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    An assessment of the influence of strong combustion-driven oscillations on mixing rates and visible radiation in the flame from a full-scale refinery flare is reported. Importantly, the oscillations were generated naturally, with no external forcing, and at a high Reynolds number of 4 x 10{sup 6}. These conditions differentiate this study from those of previous investigations, which all involved some external forcing and were at a Re too low to ensure fully turbulent flow within the flame. A frame-by-frame analysis of video footage, providing good resolution of the instantaneous edge of each flame, was used to assess flame dimensions, and so to determine a global residence time. Since the flames are in the fast-chemistry regime, the visual imagers can be used to determine a global mixing rate. The analysis reveals a consistent picture that the combustion-driven oscillations do not result in a significant change to the global mixing rate, but do increase the visible radiation. This is in contrast to previous investigations, using externally forced jets, where forcing at the preferred mode has been found to increase mixing rates and reduce radiation. (author)

  18. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  19. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods.Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance.Study design: Population based cross - sectional study.Setting: Rural area of East DelhiParticipants: Married women in the reproductive age group.Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample.Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group.Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child.Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptivesStatistical Analysis: By proportions.Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception.Recommendations:(i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention.(ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  20. Landslide forecasting and factors influencing predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Gigli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Forecasting a catastrophic collapse is a key element in landslide risk reduction, but it is also a very difficult task owing to the scientific difficulties in predicting a complex natural event and also to the severe social repercussions caused by a false or missed alarm. A prediction is always affected by a certain error; however, when this error can imply evacuations or other severe consequences a high reliability in the forecast is, at least, desirable. In order to increase the confidence of predictions, a new methodology is presented here. In contrast to traditional approaches, this methodology iteratively applies several forecasting methods based on displacement data and, thanks to an innovative data representation, gives a valuation of the reliability of the prediction. This approach has been employed to back-analyse 15 landslide collapses. By introducing a predictability index, this study also contributes to the understanding of how geology and other factors influence the possibility of forecasting a slope failure. The results showed how kinematics, and all the factors influencing it, such as geomechanics, rainfall and other external agents, are key concerning landslide predictability.

  1. Influence of the chemical composition on the combustion properties of kraft black liquor; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Siistonen, H.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (orig.)

  2. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing large African herbivore movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour o

  3. The influence of drive parameters and technical condition on the vibroactivity of devices with single-cylinder internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz FIGLUS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the important issue of the noise emission, generated bysingle-cylinder internal combustion engine constructions. This type of engine is used indrives of different types of machines and devices, including transport machines. In thestudy, the measurements and results analysis were conducted, which aim was to estimatethe influence of the engine capacity, their power and the change of the technicalcondition on the generated noise. The researches of exemplary lawnmowers, equipped inthis type of drive, showed the reduction of the sound level, together with the increase ofthe engines capacity and power decrease, and the increase of the noise (a few decibelscaused by the change of the technical condition during the operation.

  4. The Influence of Unsteadiness on the Analysis of Pressure Gain Combustion Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Kaemming, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Pressure gain combustion (PGC) has been the object of scientific study for over a century due to its promise of improved thermodynamic efficiency. In many recent application concepts PGC is utilized as a component in an otherwise continuous, normally steady flow system, such as a gas turbine or ram jet engine. However, PGC is inherently unsteady. Failure to account for the effects of this periodic unsteadiness can lead to misunderstanding and errors in performance calculations. This paper seeks to provide some clarity by presenting a consistent method of thermodynamic cycle analysis for a device utilizing PGC technology. The incorporation of the unsteady PGC process into the conservation equations for a continuous flow device is presented. Most importantly, the appropriate method for computing the conservation of momentum is presented. It will be shown that proper, consistent analysis of cyclic conservation principles produces representative performance predictions.

  5. Influence of fuel ratios on auto combustion synthesis of barium ferrite nano particles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Bahadur; S Rajakumar; Ankit Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Single-domain barium ferrite nano particles have been synthesized with narrow particle-size distribution using an auto combustion technique. In this process, citric acid was used as a fuel. Ratios of cation to fuel were maintained variously at 1 : 1, 1 : 2 and 1 : 3. The pH was 7 in all cases. Of all three cases, a cation to citric acid ratio of 1 : 2 gives better yield in the formation of crystalline and single domain particles with a narrow range of size distribution. Most particles are in the range of 80 to 100 nm. Maximum magnetization and coercivity values are also greater for 1 : 2 ratios. These values measured at room temperature are found to be 55 emu/gram and 5000 Oe respectively. XPS and ESR studies support the results.

  6. Influence of Biofuel Combustion Fly Ash on the Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagrockienė Džigita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cement as the binding agent in the production of concrete can be replaced with active mineral admixtures. Biofuel combustion fly ash is one of such admixtures. Materials used for the study include Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R, sand of 0/4 fraction, gravel of 4/16 fraction, biofuel fly ash, superplasticizer, and water. Six compositions of concrete were designed by replacing 0 %, 5 %, 10 %, 15 % 20 %, and 25 % of cement with biofuel fly ash. The article analyses the effect of biofuel fly ash content on the properties of concrete. The tests revealed that the increase of biofuel fly ash content up to 20 % increases concrete density and compressive strength after 7 and 28 days of curing and decreases water absorption, with corrected water content by using plasticizing admixture. It has been found that concrete where 20 % of cement is replaced by biofuel ash has higher frost resistance.

  7. Influence of Phase Composition on Sintered Microstructure of Combustion Synthesized Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibram Ganesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of powders synthesis methods (urea-combustion synthesis (CS and conventional solid-state (SS reaction on the sintering ability, microstructural features, and mechanical properties of Al2O3, MgAl2O4 spinel, and 20 wt.% ZrO2–MgAl2O4 upon sintering at 1625C∘ were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, relative density (RD, apparent porosity and water absorption capacity, hardness, fracture toughness, and three-point bend test studies revealed the superior sintering ability of CS ZrO2-MgAl2O4 composite powder as compared with one prepared by SS reaction. In contrast, single-phase powders obtained by SS reaction exhibit superior sintering ability over CS synthesized ones. The reasons for differences observed are discussed along this paper.

  8. Influence of contaminations on combustion kinetics in hydrogen-fueled engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU WeiXiong; HE Wei; LI HongBin; LI XiangYuan; LE JiaLing

    2009-01-01

    In this work,we investigate the combustion of hydrogen fuel through the wind tunnel tests.Two kinds of fuel,the pure hydrogen and the hydrogen-ethene mixture,have been chosen to heat the oxy-gen-enriched air.It is found that the stable pressure in the engine combustor and the thrusts is almost the same in two cases.A valuable feature we revealed is that the heating pattern of hydrogen and ethene mixture leads to a considerable delay of the establishment of the wall pressure in the combustor,compared with the pure hydrogen case.This phenomenon implies a longer ignition delay time for the mixture case.The shorter ignition delay resulting from the hydrogen heater is attributed to the conti-nuity of chain propagation and the exclusion of the less active C-containing radicals.

  9. The influence of metal speciation in combustion waste on the efficiency of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni and Cr bioleaching in a mixed culture of sulfur-oxidizing and biosurfactant-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowska, Ewa; Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Andrzejewska, Dorota

    2015-12-15

    Metal leachability from ash and combustion slag is related to the physico-chemical properties, including their speciation in the waste. Metals speciation is an important factor that influences the efficiency of metal bioleaching from combustion wastes in a mixed culture of acidophilic and biosurfactant-producing bacteria. It was observed that individual metals tended to occur in different fractions, which reflects their susceptibility to bioleaching. Cr and Ni were readily removed from wastes when present with a high fraction bound to carbonates. Cd and Pb where not effectively bioleached when present in high amounts in a fraction bound to organic matter. The best bioleaching results were obtained for power plant slag, which had a high metal content in the exchangeable, bound to carbonates and bound to Fe and Mg oxides fractions- the metal recovery percentage for Zn, Cu and Ni from this waste exceeded 90%.

  10. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole.

  11. Factors affecting the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The concentrations of approximately a dozen elements in the products of coal combustion affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used to construct the combustion system. The elements, including H, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe, affect corrosion rates in three ways: as primary corrodants of the materials, as secondary corrodants that affect the activities of the primary corrodants, and by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodants. A full factorial study of corrosion rates performed by varying the concentrations of these elements would involve X{sup n} tests, where X is the number of variations of each element and n is the number of different elements. For three variations (low, medium, and high concentrations) of each of 12 elements, the number of tests is 531,441 for a single temperature and pressure condition. The numbers can be reduced with the use of a fractional factorial test matrix, but the most effective way to perform corrosion tests is to base them on realistic system conditions. In this paper, the effects of the composition and physical state of the products of coal combustion on ceramic corrosion rates are given along with suggestions of appropriate test conditions for specific system components.

  12. Factors influencing career choice in anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student′s stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky′s 13-point sense of coherence scale. Methods: Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky′s sense of coherence (SOC scale. Results: Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%, while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor−patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55 (25 th percentile was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60 in the survey. Conclusion: Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student′s personality.

  13. Factors influencing nurses' perceptions of occupational safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Menevse; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-01-02

    To determine nurses' perceptions of occupational safety and their work environment and examine the sociodemographic traits and job characteristics that influence their occupational safety, we studied a sample of 278 nurses. According to the nurses, the quality of their work environment is average, and occupational safety is insufficient. In the subdimensions of the work environment scale, it was determined that the nurses think "labor force and other resources" are insufficient. In the occupational safety subdimensions "occupational illnesses and complaints" and "administrative support and approaches," they considered occupational safety to be insufficient. "Doctor-nurse-colleague relationships," "exposure to violence," and "work unit" (eg, internal medicine, surgical, intensive care) are the main factors that affect occupational safety. This study determined that hospital administrations should develop and immediately implement plans to ameliorate communication and clinical precautions and to reduce exposure to violence.

  14. Factors Influencing Sulfinatodehalogenation Reactions of Perhalocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU,Kai(吴恺); CHEN,Qing-Yun(陈庆云)

    2004-01-01

    The study on the factors influencing sulfinatodehalogenation of perfluorohexyl chloride plus octene-1 by using Na2S2O4/NaHCO3 discovered that among the various solvents tested(e.g.Me2SO,NMP,DMAc,CH3CN,CH3CN/H2O)at different temperatures,Me2SO was found to be the most suitable solvent and the conversion of the chloride was very dependent on the reaction temperature.When Me2SO was used in the reaction of perfluoroalkyl iodides,the reaction temperature could be decreased by 20℃ as compared with that carried out in CH3CN/H2O to reach the comparable yields.

  15. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Meyrick C M

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of "being there" in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users' attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

  16. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  17. Factors influencing women's decision making in hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Monika; Armfield, Nigel R; Page, Katie; Kerr, Gayle; Kurz, Suzanne; Jackson, Graeme; Currie, Jason; Weaver, Edward; Yazdani, Anusch; Obermair, Andreas

    2017-09-12

    To explore factors influencing how well-informed women felt about hysterectomy, influences on their decision making, and on them receiving a less-invasive alternative to open surgery. Online questionnaire, conducted in 2015-2016, of women who had received a hysterectomy in Australia, in the preceding two years. Questionnaires were completed by 2319/6000 women (39% response). Most women (n=2225; 96%) felt well-informed about hysterectomy. Women were more aware of the open abdominal approach (n=1798; 77%), than of less-invasive vaginal (n=1552; 67%), laparoscopic (n=1540; 66%), laparoscopic-assisted (n=1303; 56%), and robotic approaches (n=289; 12%). Most women (n=1435; 62%) reported their gynaecologist was the most influential information source. Women who received information about hysterectomy from a GP (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.15-1.90), or from a gynaecologist (OR=1.3; 95% CI 1.06-1.58), were more likely to feel better informed (p<0.01). This study is important because it helps clinicians, researchers and health policy makers to understand why many women still receive an open abdominal approach despite many learned societies recommending to avoid it if possible. Additional information, or education about avoiding open abdominal approach where possible may lead to a greater number of women receiving less-invasive types of hysterectomy in the future. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nitrogen oxides emissions from the MILD combustion with the conditions of recirculation gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min; Shim, Sung Hoon; Jeong, Sang Hyun; Oh, Kwang-Joong; Lee, Sang-Sup

    2017-04-01

    The nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction technology by combustion modification which has economic benefits as a method of controlling NOx emitted in the combustion process, has recently been receiving a lot of attention. Especially, the moderate or intense low oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion which applied high temperature flue gas recirculation has been confirmed for its effectiveness with regard to solid fuel as well. MILD combustion is affected by the flue gas recirculation ratio and the composition of recirculation gas, so its NOx reduction efficiency is determined by them. In order to investigate the influence of factors which determine the reduction efficiency of NOx in MILD coal combustion, this study changed the flow rate and concentration of nitrogen (N2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and steam (H2O) which simulate the recirculation gas during the MILD coal combustion using our lab-scale drop tube furnace and performed the combustion experiment. As a result, its influence by the composition of recirculation gas was insignificant and it was shown that flue gas recirculation ratio influences the change of NOx concentration greatly. We investigated the influence of factors determining the nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction efficiency in MILD coal combustion, which applied high-temperature flue gas recirculation. Using a lab-scale drop tube furnace and simulated recirculation gas, we conducted combustion testing changing the recirculation gas conditions. We found that the flue gas recirculation ratio influences the reduction of NOx emissions the most.

  19. Factors Influencing Students’ Perceptions of Online Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falls

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.

  20. Influence of the Calcination Temperature on the Combustion Synthesized Perovskite LaMnO3 Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Shelke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple combustion method based on principles of propellent chemistry in which Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA as fuel and nitrates as oxidizer were used for synthesizing the perovskite like LaMnO3 powders. The oxidizer to fuel ratio was maintained at 5 : 1. The darkish black powder obtained was calcined at 800 °C and 1000 °C for 5 hour. The combustion and thermal decomposition of the precursor were investigated using the TG-DTA and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern of all three samples i.e., un-heated LaMnO3 powder (LMO-UH, calcined at 800 °C (LMO-800 and at 1000 °C (LMO-1000 were carried out. The single phase orthorhombic crystal structure was revealed to crystallize at LMO-800 and LMO-1000 with elevation in the crystalline size. A small impurity peak at 28.7° was seen of Mn3O4 for LMO-UH, which vanished after calcining it. The strong absorption in FT-IR spectra found at around 615 cm – 1 was due to the formation of metal-oxygen (M-O bond. Moreover a small shift in this M-O bond with increase in calcination temperature suggested the strained LaMnO3 compound. Elemental analysis using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF indicated the presence of La and Mn with increase in the Mn contents after calcinations. The oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen content in the sample were determined from the ONH analysis indicating a decrease in the oxygen content for LMO-800. Well defined porous-foam like morphology of the sample was achieved from scanning electron microscopic (SEM study, which become compact with calcination process. Magnetic properties were found to transform from the ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic phase for LMO-UH sample, while reduction in magnetization values and coercivity at low temperatures was obtained for LMO-800 and LMO-1000 samples.

  1. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Gimeno Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  2. Properties of Chemically Combusted Calcium Carbide Residue and Its Influence on Cement Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbide residue (CCR is a waste by-product from acetylene gas production. The main component of CCR is Ca(OH2, which can react with siliceous materials through pozzolanic reactions, resulting in a product similar to those obtained from the cement hydration process. Thus, it is possible to use CCR as a substitute for Portland cement in concrete. In this research, we synthesized CCR and silica fume through a chemical combustion technique to produce a new reactive cementitious powder (RCP. The properties of paste and mortar in fresh and hardened states (setting time, shrinkage, and compressive strength with 5% cement replacement by RCP were evaluated. The hydration of RCP and OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement pastes was also examined through SEM (scanning electron microscope. Test results showed that in comparison to control OPC mix, the hydration products for the RCP mix took longer to formulate. The initial and final setting times were prolonged, while the drying shrinkage was significantly reduced. The compressive strength at the age of 45 days for RCP mortar mix was found to be higher than that of OPC mortar and OPC mortar with silica fume mix by 10% and 8%, respectively. Therefore, the synthesized RCP was proved to be a sustainable active cementitious powder for the strength enhanced of building materials, which will result in the diversion of significant quantities of this by-product from landfills.

  3. Properties of Chemically Combusted Calcium Carbide Residue and Its Influence on Cement Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongfang; Li, Zishanshan; Bai, Jing; Memon, Shazim Ali; Dong, Biqin; Fang, Yuan; Xu, Weiting; Xing, Feng

    2015-02-13

    Calcium carbide residue (CCR) is a waste by-product from acetylene gas production. The main component of CCR is Ca(OH)₂, which can react with siliceous materials through pozzolanic reactions, resulting in a product similar to those obtained from the cement hydration process. Thus, it is possible to use CCR as a substitute for Portland cement in concrete. In this research, we synthesized CCR and silica fume through a chemical combustion technique to produce a new reactive cementitious powder (RCP). The properties of paste and mortar in fresh and hardened states (setting time, shrinkage, and compressive strength) with 5% cement replacement by RCP were evaluated. The hydration of RCP and OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) pastes was also examined through SEM (scanning electron microscope). Test results showed that in comparison to control OPC mix, the hydration products for the RCP mix took longer to formulate. The initial and final setting times were prolonged, while the drying shrinkage was significantly reduced. The compressive strength at the age of 45 days for RCP mortar mix was found to be higher than that of OPC mortar and OPC mortar with silica fume mix by 10% and 8%, respectively. Therefore, the synthesized RCP was proved to be a sustainable active cementitious powder for the strength enhanced of building materials, which will result in the diversion of significant quantities of this by-product from landfills.

  4. Influence of mineral transformation on emission of particulate matters during coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaowei; XU Minghou; YU Dunxi; GAO Xiangpeng; CAO Qian; HAO Wei

    2007-01-01

    Combustion of pulverized coal was studied in a drop tube furnace to understand coal mineral properties with the emission of particulate matters (PM). Experimental conditions were selected as follows: coal particle size was smaller than 63 μm; reaction temperature was 1 100℃, 1 250℃ and 1 400℃ respectively; oxygen content was 20% and 50% respectively, PM was collected with a 13-stagelow pressure impactor (LPI) having an aerodynamic cut-off diameter ranging from 10.0 μm to 0.03 μm for a size-segregated collection. Such properties as concentration, particle size distribution and elemental composition of PM were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the emitted PM has a bimodal distribution having two peaks around 4.0 μm and 0.1 μm Increasing temperature leads to the formation of more PM; varied oxygen content leads to much change of emitted PM. PM was also subjected to XRF analysis to quantify the elemental composition. The results show that PM of 0.1 μm is rich in sulfates. Meanwhile, SiO2 and Al2O3 are prevalent in PM of 4.0 μm, which means that the last peak around 4.0 μm is mainly aluminosilicate salts.

  5. Influence of Torrefaction on the Property of Agricultural Straw Combustion%烘焙对农业秸秆燃烧特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱波; 陈汉平; 杨海平; 陈应泉; 王贤华; 张世红

    2011-01-01

    In order to catch the influence of torrefaction on biomass combustion and the mechanism, the weight loss behavior and heat releasing property of torrefaction biomass samples was investigated using thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry with rice straw and cotton stalk as typical biomass samples. The results show that the combustion process of straw including dehydration, volatile and fixed carbon combustion, and after the torrefaction treatment, the ignition point is shifted to lower temperature. and the combustion take place much fully and quickly, furthermore, the heat release of combustion improved as the torrefaction temperature increased. Meanwhile, the kinetics and combustion mechanism of torrefied straw were discussed using adopting non-isothermal integral method. It is observed that the volatile combustion process of rice straw was an first order reaction, and rice straw is mainly caused by volatile combustion, the activation energy of cotton stalk is higher, and mainly attributed to the fixed carbon combustion. Torrefaction pretreatment can improve the combustion characteristics of agricultural straw sharply.%为了探究烘焙对生物质燃烧特性以及燃烧机制的影响,研究了不同烘焙条件下典型秸秆的燃烧失重特性和放热行为。选择棉杆和稻杆为主要研究对象,采用热重分析仪与差热扫描量热仪连用分析了秸秆的燃烧特性。实验结果表明:秸秆燃烧过程主要包括脱水、挥发分和固定碳燃烧,经烘焙处理后,秸秆的着火温度明显降低,燃烧更为充分,并且燃烧放热量随着烘焙温度的提高而进一步加大。采用非等温积分法分析了烘焙秸秆的热动力学特性和燃烧机制,发现稻杆的挥发分燃烧过程为1级反应,稻秆主要为挥发分的燃烧,棉杆的活化能较高,并且主要是固定碳的燃烧。农业秸

  6. Remarks on the physical factor influencing the individual language learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨君

    2015-01-01

    individual language learner as a subject of learning can be influenced by many factors such as physical factor,cognitive factor,and affective factor.All of which play an important role in language learning.These three factors are worthy of our research and physical factor will be discussed in this essay.

  7. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the combustion process of a leather residuals gasification fuel gas: influence of fuel moisture content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonietti, Anderson Jose; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin; Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: arthur@uricer.edu.br, mlsperb@unisinos.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza Sperb [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: cristiano@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the combustion process of leather residuals gasification gas, aiming the improvement of the process efficiency, considering different concentrations of water on the gas. The heating produced in this combustion process can be used to generation of thermal and/or electrical energy, for use at the leather industrial plant. However, the direct burning of this leather-residual-gas into the chambers is not straightforward. The alternative in development consists in processing this leather residuals by gasification or pyrolysis, separating the volatiles and products of incomplete combustion, for after use as fuel in a boiler. At these processes, different quantities of water can be used, resulting at different levels of moisture content in this fuel gas. This humidity can affect significantly the burning of this fuel, producing unburnt gases, as the carbon monoxide, or toxic gases as NOx, which must have their production minimized on the process, with the purpose of reducing the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. Other environment-harmful-gases, remaining of the chemical treatment employed at leather manufacture, as cyanide, and hydrocarbons as toluene, must burn too, and the moisture content has influence on it. At this way, to increase understanding of the influence of moisture in the combustion process, it was made a numerical investigation study of reacting flow in the furnace, evaluating the temperature field, the chemical species concentration fields, flow mechanics and heat transfer at the process. The commercial CFD code CFX Ansys Inc. was used. Considering different moisture contents in the fuel used on the combustion process, with this study was possible to achieve the most efficient burning operation parameters, with improvement of combustion efficiency, and reduction of environmental harmful gases emissions. It was verified that the different moisture contents in the fuel gas demand different operation conditions

  8. Hydrolysis kinetics of atrazine and influence factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The hydrolysis kinetics of atrazine in distilled water and leaching water from soil, and their influence factors were studied by incubation at 35℃ and HPLC analysis method in this paper. The kinetic process of atrazine hydrolysis can be described by the first-order reaction law. The results showed that the hydrolysis rate constants k in leaching water and distilled water were 1.606x10-3/d and 1.055x10-3/d, respectively; the half-life of atrazine hydrolysis in distilled water at pH 3, pH 4.5 and pH 8 were 373 days, 522 days and 657 days respectively. The results also showed that the proton in reaction solution can catalyze the atrazine hydrolysis; humic acid and NH4+ etc. substances in aqueous solution can facilitate atrazine hydrolysis; rate constants of atrazine hydrolysis with humic acid and NH4NO3 were 2.431x10-3/d and 1.498x10-3/d respectively which were 2.3 and 1.42 times of control(1.055x10-3/d); anion NO3- can inhibit catalysis of humic acid to atrazine hydrolysis.

  9. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  10. Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoshi,Ko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

  11. Kinetic investigation for slow combustion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The renewed interest in biomass as a renewable, clean, and inexpensive fuel was discussed. Many different mechanisms take place simultaneously during biomass combustion and also during other thermal processes such as gasification, pyrolysis or carbonization. These mechanisms have a pronounced influence on the design and operation of thermal conversion processes. In addition, product yields and product distributions from the thermal processes are sensitive to the kinetic properties of biomass. In order to evaluate the combustion mechanisms and the combustion kinetics of biomass, the behavior of these constituents under combustion conditions were properly evaluated. In this study, combustion of biomass samples was carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer by heating them from ambient to 1173 K with heating rates of 5 K/min and 10 K/min under dynamic dry air atmosphere of 40 mL/min. The biomass samples included olive refuse, sunflower seed shell, rapeseed, grape seed, and hybrid poplar. The purpose of the study was to examine the kinetic properties of biomass during slow combustion for the overall combustion process as well as for some definite temperature intervals at which different combustion mechanisms are present according to the type and complexity of biomass used. Derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) curves were derived, and data obtained from these curves were used to compute the kinetic parameters such as activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and governing mechanisms for the combustion processes. The governing mechanisms for individual temperature intervals were examined along with the overall combustion process. The study showed that at lower temperature intervals, the combustion process was controlled primarily by the chemical reaction. At least 3 sequential mechanisms may occur at different temperature intervals during combustion of biomass. Activation energy and pre-exponential factors were determined for each temperature interval

  12. Modelo estadístico que permite observar el impacto de los factores que inciden en el rendimiento de combustible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Amelia Alcántar Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo propone un modelo estadístico de regresión lineal múltiple para la toma de decisiones sobre el rendimiento de combustible con aplicación a la industria del autotransporte en México considerando los factores con mayor incidencia en el consumo. El modelo aplicado tiene significancia estadística, así como las variables explicativas: tipo de ruta, antigüedad y cantidad de diésel consumido en baja, esto con un nivel de confianza del 95%, lográndose explicar un 94% del efecto de interés modelado. La contribución fundamental de este artículo es proponer un modelo estadístico como una nueva herramienta de gestión para los tomadores de decisiones del sector, en relación al establecimiento de estándares de combustible y la administración en general de este insumo, puesto que fue determinado a partir de las condiciones operativas de la industria del transporte y no bajo condiciones experimentales (difíciles de replicar empleadas por el fabricante del automotor.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn England; Oliver Chang; Stephanie Wien

    2002-02-14

    This report provides results from the second year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operation. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation tests results for a gas turbine, a process heater, and a commercial oil/gas fired boiler are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods. A series of pilot tests were conducted to identify the constraints to reduce the size of current research dilution sampler for future stack emission tests. Based on the test results, a bench prototype compact dilution sampler developed and characterized in GE EER in August 2002.

  14. Influence of double promotion on HDS catalysts prepared by urea-matrix combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Cortes, Sergio L. [Laboratorio de Cinetica y Catalisis, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101 (Venezuela); Xiao, Tian-Cun; Lin, Tsung-Wu; Green, Malcolm L.H. [Wolfson Catalysis Centre, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-11

    The stringent environmental regulations in the US, Japan and Europe are requiring significant improvement in the quality of transportation fuels. A new strategy based on urea-matrix combustion method for the synthesis of alumina-supported molybdate-based mixed oxides (i.e., bimetallic and trimetallic oxides) has been applied. This permits to control the alumina-mixed oxide interaction and therefore the HDS catalytic behaviour. The oxidic and sulfurized states of the HDS catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Catalyst performance was evaluated using a tubular fixed-bed reactor and the hydrodesulfurization of thiophene under normal pressure as model reaction. It has been found that Ni-promoted alumina-supported MoO{sub 3} catalyst precursor presented a non well-ordered structure of Ni-Mo phase supported on alumina surface. However, when cobalt was added to Ni-Mo precursor the {beta}-isomorph stability was significantly improved and the formation of alumina-supported {beta}-Co{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}MoO{sub 4} was observed. The activation treatments markedly affect the catalyst structure and hence the HDS catalytic performance. The catalyst series pretreated in H{sub 2}S-H{sub 2} was 2-3 times more active than those C{sub 4}H{sub 4}S-H{sub 2}-pretreated catalysts and ca. 2-10 times more active than the pre-reduced samples. A significantly greater HDS activity of H{sub 2}S-H{sub 2}-pretreated Co{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 0.5}MoS{sub x}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was observed, which is attributed to the fact that both promoters are into the same network interacting directly with the molybdenum. This feature hinders not only the segregation of cobalt sulfide, but also the formation of long MoS{sub 2} slabs. (author)

  15. Influence of low-temperature combustion and dimethyl ether-diesel blends on performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of common rail diesel engine: a CFD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamani, Venkatesh Tavareppa; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Narayanappa, Kumar Gottekere

    2017-06-01

    Due to presence of more oxygen, absence of carbon-carbon (C-C) bond in chemical structure, and high cetane number of dimethyl ether (DME), pollution from DME operated engine is less compared to diesel engine. Hence, the DME can be a promising alternative fuel for diesel engine. The present study emphasizes the effect of various exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates (0-20%) and DME/Diesel blends (0-20%) on combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Extended coherent flame model-3 zone (ECFM-3Z) is implemented to carry out combustion analysis, and k-ξ-f model is employed for turbulence modeling. Results show that in-cylinder pressure marginally decreases with employing EGR compared to without EGR case. As EGR rate increases, nitrogen oxide (NO) formation decreases, whereas soot increases marginally. Due to better combustion characteristics of DME, indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) increases with the increases in DME/diesel blend ratio. Adverse effect of EGR on efficiency for blends is less compared to neat diesel, because the anoxygenated region created due to EGR is compensated by extra oxygen present in DME. The trade-off among NO, soot, carbon monoxide (CO) formation, and efficiency is studied by normalizing the parameters. Optimum operating condition is found at 10% EGR rate and 20% DME/diesel blend. The maximum indicated thermal efficiency was observed for DME/diesel ratio of 20% in the present range of study. Obtained results are validated with published experimental data and found good agreement.

  16. Urban water consumption and its influencing factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Liangxin; Gai, Lingtong; Tong, Yan; Li, Ruihua

    2017-01-01

    Factors that affect water consumption should be identified to develop effective public policies. However, factors influencing domestic water consumption in cities in China, particularly on a national scale, are unclear. In this study, urban water consumption and its influencing factors in 286

  17. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  18. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela-victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  19. Suspension Combustion of Wood: Influence of Pyrolysis Conditions on Char Yield, Morphology, and Reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    Chars from pine and beech wood were produced by fast pyrolysis in an entrained flow reactor and by slow pyrolysis in a thermogravimetric analyzer. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on char yield and morphology was investigated. The applied pyrolysis temperatur...

  20. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population. ... in influencing food choices and thus food intake of the elderly people in Mauritius. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in different regions around the island ...

  1. Factors of Influence on Receivables and Payables and Their Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin Oleg Ye.; Volovich Yelena B.

    2013-01-01

    The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups - macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.

  2. Theoretic computing model of combustion process of asphalt smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Rui; CHAI Li-yuan; HE De-wen; PENG Bing; WANG Yun-yan

    2005-01-01

    Based on the data and methods provided by research literature, dispersing mathematical model of combustion process of asphalt smoke is set by theoretic analysis. Through computer programming, the dynamic combustion process of asphalt smoke is calculated to simulate an experimental model. The computing result shows that the temperature and the concentration of asphalt smoke influence its burning temperature in approximatively linear manner. The consumed quantity of fuel to ignite the asphalt smoke needs to be measured from the two factors.

  3. The influence of charge stratification on the spectral signature of partially premixed combustion in a light-duty optical engine

    KAUST Repository

    Najafabadi, M. Izadi

    2017-03-25

    The origin of light emission during low-temperature combustion in a light-duty IC engine is investigated by high-speed spectroscopy in both HCCI and PPC regimes. Chemiluminescence and thermal radiation are expected to be the dominant sources of light emission during combustion. A method has been developed to distinguish chemiluminescence from thermal radiation, and different chemiluminescing species could be identified. Different combustion modes and global equivalence ratios are analyzed in this manner. The results indicate that the spectral signature (270–540 nm range) of the combustion is highly dependent on the stratification level. A significant broadband chemiluminescence signal is detected and superimposed on all spectra. This broadband chemiluminescence signal can reach up to 100 percent of the total signal in HCCI combustion, while it drops to around 80 percent for stratified combustion (PPC). We show that this broadband signal can be used as a measure for the heat release rate. The broadband chemiluminescence did also correlate with the equivalence ratio quite well in both HCCI and PPC regimes, suggesting that the total emission in the spectral region of 330–400 nm can serve as a proxy of equivalence ratio and the rate of heat release. Regarding C2* chemiluminescence, we see two different chemical mechanisms for formation of C2* in the PPC regime: first during the early stage of combustion by the breakup of bigger molecules and the second during the late stage of combustion when soot particles are forming.

  4. The influence of charge stratification on the spectral signature of partially premixed combustion in a light-duty optical engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafabadi, M. Izadi; Egelmeers, Luc; Somers, Bart; Deen, Niels; Johansson, Bengt; Dam, Nico

    2017-04-01

    The origin of light emission during low-temperature combustion in a light-duty IC engine is investigated by high-speed spectroscopy in both HCCI and PPC regimes. Chemiluminescence and thermal radiation are expected to be the dominant sources of light emission during combustion. A method has been developed to distinguish chemiluminescence from thermal radiation, and different chemiluminescing species could be identified. Different combustion modes and global equivalence ratios are analyzed in this manner. The results indicate that the spectral signature (270-540 nm range) of the combustion is highly dependent on the stratification level. A significant broadband chemiluminescence signal is detected and superimposed on all spectra. This broadband chemiluminescence signal can reach up to 100 percent of the total signal in HCCI combustion, while it drops to around 80 percent for stratified combustion (PPC). We show that this broadband signal can be used as a measure for the heat release rate. The broadband chemiluminescence did also correlate with the equivalence ratio quite well in both HCCI and PPC regimes, suggesting that the total emission in the spectral region of 330-400 nm can serve as a proxy of equivalence ratio and the rate of heat release. Regarding C2* chemiluminescence, we see two different chemical mechanisms for formation of C2* in the PPC regime: first during the early stage of combustion by the breakup of bigger molecules and the second during the late stage of combustion when soot particles are forming.

  5. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Glarborg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    of the sulphur compounds in fossil fuels and the possibilities to remove them will be given. Then the combustion of sulphur species and their influence on the combustion chemistry and especially on the CO oxidation and the NOx formation will be described. Finally the in-situ removal of sulphur in the combustion...... process by reaction between SO2 and calcium containing sorbents and the influence on the NOx chemistry will be treated....

  6. Study on the influence of electromagnetic field on the property of coal combustion burnout in circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Y. [Ruiping Coal and Electric Power Ltd. Co., Ruzhou (China)

    2008-08-15

    To study the influences of electromagnetism field pretreatment of pulverized Coal (EFPPC) on the properties of its combustion, thermogravimetric analysis, a Muffle furnace experiment and an X-ray diffraction experiment were carried out for three Coal banks. It was shown that EFPPC will induce the molecular structure of Coal to change into amorphous carbon, which causes an increase in the rate of oxygen absorption during the initial stages of Coal burning and reaction activity. It is also shown that the residual carbon of bituminous Coal would be increased by about 0.33% - 0.41%, i.e, the loss of standard Coal is about 3,000 t/a for double 480 t/h boilers, when applying EFPPC for 1 min at a temperature of 800 - 1,000 {sup o}C. When the temperature increases 200 {sup o}C, the residual carbon increases by about 2.07% but the effect of EFPPC is less than 0.21% for bituminous Coal and residual carbon is about 1.47% and the effect of EFPPC is less than 0.05% for lean Coal. Therefore the effect of increasing the temperature of EFPPC on residual carbon is less than that of increasing the time of EFPPC. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Numerical and experimental study of the influence of the operational parameters on the formation mechanisms of oxides of nitrogen during the combustion of mixtures of cellulosic and plastic materials; Etude experimentale et numerique de l'influence des parametres operatoires sur les mecanismes de formation des oxydes d'azote lors de la combustion de melanges de materiaux cellulosiques et plastiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andzi Barhe, T.

    2004-10-15

    The current thesis was performed within a collaboration between the Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique (LCD of the University of Poitiers) and the Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie d'Environnement (LPCE) of the University of Ouagadougou. It was financed by Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME). The principle object of this study is the optimisation of the combustion process during the incineration of waste. This optimisation is aimed at the reduction of the polluting emissions, principally CO and NO, during the incineration of cellulosic and plastic materials. It involves the analysis of the influence of the operational parameters on the polluting emissions and the control of reaction mechanisms of formation and reduction of these pollutants during the combustion process. Consequently, the study was performed in two parts: an experimental part and a numerical part. The experimental part was realised using a fixed bed counterflow reactor. This setup simulates the combustion within an industrial waste incinerator. The reactor allows the combustion of a vertical layer of waste mixture (wood, cardboard, PET, polyamide) to be followed. Three model mixtures representative of the makeup of household waste were studied in order to determine the influence of the composition of the waste on the emission of pollutants (CO and NO). The obtained results show that this parameter has a practically negligible influence within the tested parameter range. Consequently the formation of pollutants depends on the operating parameters - the equivalence ratio and the temperature. A numerical study of the influence of these parameters in order to show their impact on the mechanisms of pollutant formation and to determine the chemical mechanisms involved in the formation of oxides of nitrogen. The numerical study was performed with software developed at the LCD. This programme based on a detailed chemical model coupled to a simple physical model. It uses the

  8. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Minimally Invasive Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of institutional, patient and surgeon-related factors ... Surgical site infections ... Factors influencing choice of open procedures over MIS are summarized in Table 1. The main .... written with pharmaceutical products in mind (25). ... JAMA Intern.

  9. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  10. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The independent variables were maternal education, marital status, both ... maternal employment status, health factors (place of delivery and maternal chronic illness) ... It was evident that family support is a key factor in the success of EBF with ...

  11. Development of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for the Biomass Fired Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Sang Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study makes use of this distinction to analyze the exhaust gas concentration and fuel of the circulating fluidized bed (CFB boiler that mainly uses wood biomass, and to develop the emission factors of Methane (CH4, Nitrous oxide (N2O. The fuels used as energy sources in the subject working sites are Wood Chip Fuel (WCF, RDF and Refused Plastic Fuel (RPF of which heating values are 11.9 TJ/Gg, 17.1 TJ/Gg, and 31.2 TJ/Gg, respectively. The average concentrations of CH4 and N2O were measured to be 2.78 ppm and 7.68 ppm, respectively. The analyzed values and data collected from the field survey were used to calculate the emission factor of CH4 and N2O exhausted from the CFB boiler. As a result, the emission factors of CH4 and N2O are 1.4 kg/TJ (0.9–1.9 kg/TJ and 4.0 kg/TJ (2.9–5.3 kg/TJ within a 95% confidence interval. Biomass combined with the combustion technology for the CFB boiler proved to be more effective in reducing the N2O emission, compared to the emission factor of the CFB boiler using fossil fuel.

  12. Development of methane and nitrous oxide emission factors for the biomass fired circulating fluidized bed combustion power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chang-Sang; Sa, Jae-Hwan; Lim, Ki-Kyo; Youk, Tae-Mi; Kim, Seung-Jin; Lee, Seul-Ki; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2012-01-01

    This study makes use of this distinction to analyze the exhaust gas concentration and fuel of the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler that mainly uses wood biomass, and to develop the emission factors of Methane (CH(4)), Nitrous oxide (N(2)O). The fuels used as energy sources in the subject working sites are Wood Chip Fuel (WCF), RDF and Refused Plastic Fuel (RPF) of which heating values are 11.9 TJ/Gg, 17.1 TJ/Gg, and 31.2 TJ/Gg, respectively. The average concentrations of CH(4) and N(2)O were measured to be 2.78 ppm and 7.68 ppm, respectively. The analyzed values and data collected from the field survey were used to calculate the emission factor of CH(4) and N(2)O exhausted from the CFB boiler. As a result, the emission factors of CH(4) and N(2)O are 1.4 kg/TJ (0.9-1.9 kg/TJ) and 4.0 kg/TJ (2.9-5.3 kg/TJ) within a 95% confidence interval. Biomass combined with the combustion technology for the CFB boiler proved to be more effective in reducing the N(2)O emission, compared to the emission factor of the CFB boiler using fossil fuel.

  13. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  14. Influence of forest biomass grown in fertilised soils on combustion and gasification processes as well as on the environment with integrated bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K.; Orjala, M. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    This presentation describes research carried out by VTT Energy and METLA during 1996, as part of the collaborative EU project involving Finland, Portugal and Spain. The main objectives of this project are to carry out experimental studies of both combustion and gasification under atmospheric (Portugal and Spain) and pressurised conditions (Finland) using biomass from different countries, namely Finland, Portugal and Spain. This was to determine the influence of biomass fertilising conditions on the process itself and the impact on the integrated energy production facilities, such as gas turbines. The aim of the research was carried out during 1996: (1) To complete the biomass collection, analyses and selection of the samples for combustion and gasification tests. This task has been carried out in co-operation with VTT and METLA, (2) To start the combustion and gasification tests under pressurised and atmospheric conditions. The combustion research in Finland is being performed in pressurised entrained flow reactor at VTT in Jyvaeskylae and the gasification research is being conducted at VTT in Espoo. The collection of biomass samples has been completed. The analyses of the samples show that for instance potassium and phosphorus content will be increased by about 30-50 % due to fertilisation. In the ash fusion tests, the ash from fertilised bark and branches and needles may start to soften already at 900 deg C under reducing conditions depending on the composition of the ash. In oxidising atmospheres the ash softening seems to occur at higher temperatures. Preliminary results indicate that the fertilisation may have an influence on the combustion process

  15. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda ...... childhood stunting in nigeria: A multilevel analysis. ... Equity monitoring for social marketing: Use of wealth.

  16. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the

  17. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  18. Combustion efficiency and emission factors for wildfire-season fires in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains, US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Urbanski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the US, wildfires and prescribed burning present significant challenges to air regulatory agencies attempting to achieve and maintain compliance with air quality regulations. Fire emission factors (EF are essential input for the emission models used to develop wildland fire emission inventories. Most previous studies quantifying wildland fire EF of temperate ecosystems have focused on emissions from prescribed burning conducted outside of the wildfire season. Little information is available on EF for wildfires in temperate forests of the conterminous US. The goal of this work is to provide information on emissions from wildfire-season forest fires in the northern Rocky Mountains, US. In August 2011, we deployed airborne chemistry instruments and sampled emissions over eight days from three wildfires and a prescribed fire that occurred in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains. We measured the combustion efficiency, quantified as the modified combustion efficiency (MCE, and EF for CO2, CO, and CH4. Our study average values for MCE, EFCO2, EFCO, and EFCH4 were 0.883, 1596 g kg−1, 135 g kg−1, 7.30 g kg−1, respectively. Compared with previous field studies of prescribed fires in temperate forests, the fires sampled in our study had significantly lower MCE and EFCO2 and significantly higher EFCO and EFCH4. The fires sampled in this study burned in areas reported to have moderate to heavy components of standing dead trees and down dead wood due to insect activity and previous fire, but fuel consumption data was not available. However, an analysis of MCE and fuel consumption data from 18 prescribed fires reported in the literature indicates that the availability of coarse fuels and conditions favorable for the combustion of these fuels favors low MCE fires. This analysis suggests that fuel composition was an important factor contributing to the low MCE of the fires measured in this study. This study only measured EF for CO2, CO

  19. Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local people ... The social and economic circumstances prevailing in Tanzania today have made ... sociocultural and livelihood factors that influence community participation in ... Increased capacity for conservation skills was the most important driver of community ...

  20. Analysis of Factors Influencing Farmers’ Identification of Entrepreneurial Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; GAO; Fang; YANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey data of entrepreneurship concerning farmers in China,this article uses the multivariate adjustment regression analysis method,to analyze the factors influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity and the mechanism. The results show that demographic characteristics are still an important factor influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity,but the extent of its influence is weaker than entrepreneurs’ trait. The new trait theory is verified in farmers’ entrepreneurship opportunity behavior; entrepreneurship environment is becoming an important factor influencing entrepreneurial opportunity identification,whose regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ social network and previous experience is stronger than the regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ psychological trait.

  1. The influence of temperature on limestone sulfation and attrition under fluidized bed combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagnaro, Fabio [Dipartimento di Chimica - Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario del Monte di Sant' Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Salatino, Piero [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica - Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Scala, Fabrizio [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The influence of temperature on attrition of two limestones during desulfurization in a fluidized bed reactor was investigated. Differences in the microstructure of the two limestones were reflected by a different thickness of the sulfate shell formed upon sulfation and by a different value of the ultimate calcium conversion degree. Particle attrition and fragmentation were fairly small under moderately bubbling fluidization conditions for both limestones. An increase of temperature from 850 C to 900 C led to an increase of the attrition rate, most likely because of a particle weakening effect caused by a faster CO{sub 2} evolution during calcination. This weakening effect, however, was not sufficiently strong to enhance particle fragmentation in the bed. The progress of sulfation, associated to the build-up of a hard sulfate shell around the particles, led in any case to a decrease of the extent of attrition. Sulfation at 900 C was less effective than at 850 C, and this was shown to be related to the porosimetric features of the different samples. (author)

  2. Influence of thermal treatment and combustible additives on properties of Latvian clay ceramics pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liga Dabare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous ceramic pellets for possible environmental application were produced from different Latvian clays by sintering at different temperatures. Their characteristics and influence of additives were analysed using X-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry and BET tests. The obtained ceramic pellets from calcareous clays after immersion in distilled water change its pH value, which affects their capability to adsorb ions or molecules on the surface. The sorption capabilities are dependent on the pH level of water solution, composition of clays, and used adsorbate. Porosity of the produced pellets is mostly within range from 15 to 25 % throughout all sintering temperatures with a slight decrease at 1050 °C. The specific surface area has a wide range up to 30 m2/g. The highest surface area has pellets sintered at lower temperatures. The adsorption capability of pellets was evaluated using water solutions with different ions. The most promising results were obtained with iodine sorption. For most pellets the sorption capacity was 12.7 mg/g, although for the pellets sintered at 1050 °C it was lower.

  3. Influence of Environmentally Friendly and High-Efficiency Composite Additives on Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    4 kinds of chemical reagents and 3 kinds of industrial wastes were selected as burning additives for 2 kinds of coals in cement industry. The work focused on the replacement of partial chemical reagents by industrial wastes, which not only reduced the cost and took full advantage of industrial wastes, but also guaranteed the high combustion efficiency and removed the NOX and SO2 simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in DTF. The combustion residues were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The ...

  4. Influence of carbonation under oxy-fuel combustion flue gas on the leachability of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Xiong, Zhuo; Tian, Chong; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2017-09-01

    Due to the high cost of pure CO2, carbonation of MSWI fly ash has not been fully developed. It is essential to select a kind of reaction gas with rich CO2 instead of pure CO2. The CO2 uptake and leaching toxicity of heavy metals in three typical types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were investigated with simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas under different reaction temperatures, which was compared with both pure CO2 and simulated air combustion flue gas. The CO2 uptake under simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas were similar to that of pure CO2. The leaching concentration of heavy metals in all MSWI fly ash samples, especially in ash from Changzhou, China (CZ), decreased after carbonation. Specifically, the leached Pb concentration of the CZ MSWI fly ash decreased 92% under oxy-fuel combustion flue gas, 95% under pure CO2 atmosphere and 84% under the air combustion flue gas. After carbonation, the leaching concentration of Pb was below the Chinese legal limit. The leaching concentration of Zn from CZ sample decreased 69% under oxy-fuel combustion flue gas, which of Cu, As, Cr and Hg decreased 25%, 33%, 11% and 21%, respectively. In the other two samples of Xuzhou, China (XZ) and Wuhan, China (WH), the leaching characteristics of heavy metals were similar to the CZ sample. The speciation of heavy metals was largely changed from the exchangeable to carbonated fraction because of the carbonation reaction under simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas. After carbonation reaction, most of heavy metals bound in carbonates became more stable and leached less. Therefore, oxy-fuel combustion flue gas could be a low-cost source for carbonation of MSWI fly ash. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING FRICTION OF PHOSPHATE COATINGS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    surface roughness, crystalline structure , and velocity. The coefficients of friction for manganese phosphate coatings did not differ to any practical...The coefficient of friction was independent of the applied load. Velocity during dynamic testing, surface finish, and crystalline structure influenced

  6. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the e

  7. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  8. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction among Army Chaplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-20

    supported by Maslow’s need hierarchy, it is not substantiated by Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory. Still another approach is that of Leon Festinger’s...Herzberg, Vroom, McGregor, Lawler and Festinger provide a basic JWM » -, —_—^ . foundation and starting point for examining the factors of chaplain...identity, and autonomy, which are examined in this section. Further, Leon Festinger’s work on "cognitive dissonance" points toward the

  9. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovici, Dan A.; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decis...

  10. EVALUATION OF BROWN COAL SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION AND SOURCES GENESIS PROGNOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents summarizing information about the solution of partial part of research problem of prognoses of deposited brown coal spontaneous combustion sources genesis as a part of project TA01020351 – program ALFA. We will gradually describe the results of long term measurements carried out on selected brown coal heaps realized from 2011 to 2013. The attention is devoted to characterization of key parameters. These parameters influence the genesis of combustion. The second problem is the comparison of results of thermal imaging with laboratory results of gas and coal samples sampled in situ, with the influence of atmospheric conditions (insolation, aeration, rainfall, atmospheric pressure changes etc., with influence of coal mass degradation, physical and chemical factors and another failure factors to brown coal spontaneous combustion processes.

  11. Protection of firefighters against combustion aerosol particles: simulated workplace protection factor of a half-mask respirator (pilot study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, James; Yermakov, Michael; Reponen, Tiina; Kulkarni, Pramod; Qi, Chaolong; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2015-01-01

    The present pilot study investigated the penetration of ultrafine particles originated by combustion of different materials into elastomeric half-mask respirators equipped with two P100 filters. We determined the Simulated Workplace Protection Factor (SWPF) for 11 firefighters wearing elastomeric half-mask respirators and performing activities simulating those conducted during fire overhaul operations. The tests were performed in a controlled laboratory setting. A newly-developed battery-operated Portable Aerosol Mobility Spectrometer (PAMS) was used to measure size-resolved aerosol particle concentrations outside (C(out)) and inside (Cin) of an air-purifying respirator donned on a firefighter, and the SWPF was calculated as C(out)/C(in). Based on the total aerosol concentration, the "total" SWPF ranged from 4,222 (minimum) to 35,534 (maximum) with values falling primarily in a range from 11,171 (25 percentile) to 26,604 (75 percentile) and a median value being ≈15,000. This is consistent with the recently reported fit factor (FF) data base.((1)) The size-resolved SWPF data revealed a dependency on the particle size. It was concluded that a portable device such as PAMS can be used on firefighters during overhaul operations (as well as on other workers wearing elastomeric half-mask respirators) to monitor the aerosol concentrations in real time and ultimately help prevent overexposure.

  12. Influence of Nutritional Factors on Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    conditions of chronic high level fat oxidation such as exercise, Askew et al. (121) fed exercising rats diets supplemented with 0.5Z L- carnitine . Although...exercise increased adipose tissue fatty acid turnover, supplemental dietary carnitine neither increased skeletal muscle in vitro fatty acid oxidation...some investigators believe the relative activities of the sn-glycerolphosphate acyltransferase and carnitine palmttyltrans- ferase may influence the

  13. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J

    2011-02-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the effects of endogenous and exogenous local dermal changes by body creams, hyperemia, vasoconstriction, and hydration. SAF was measured before and after local administration of body lotion, day cream, sunscreen, or self-browning cream and after attempts to remove these effects with alcohol swabs and washing. SAF was measured before and during three hyperemia maneuvers: vasoconstriction and on a dry and wet skin. The body lotion increased SAF by 18%. Day cream, sunscreen, and self-browning cream gave an increase of >100%. Except for body lotion, subsequent cleaning with alcohol swabs and washing with soap did not return SAF to baseline values. The effect of self-browning cream persisted for 2 weeks and that of sunscreen for 4 days. Hyperemia caused by a hot bath, capsicum cream, or postocclusive reactive hyperemia gave a decrease in SAF of, respectively, 18%, 22%, and 2.3%. Vasoconstriction caused by immersing the arm in cold water gave a 10% increase. Hydration state did not influence SAF. Measurement of SAF is strongly affected by several skin creams. This effect was often not fully corrected by alcohol swabs and washing with soap and may persist for many days. Marked hyperemia and vasoconstriction also influence SAF. We advise avoiding these potential error sources.

  14. Choice of treatment with antidepressants: influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Wranik, Dominika W

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders place a large burden on patients and on society. Although efficacious treatment options for unipolar depressive disorders exist, substantial gaps in care remain. In part, the challenge lies in the matching of individual patients with appropriate care. This is complicated by the steady increases in the variety of antidepressants available in the market. The goal of this study is to highlight the decision processes in the selection of antidepressants by clinicians, given that most treatments have similar clinical effectiveness profiles. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that referred to the decisions surrounding treatment with antidepressants for the treatment of non-psychotic unipolar depression. Our analysis of the literature reveals that the choice of treatment is based on a variety of factors, of which clinical evidence is only one. These factors can be categorized into clinical factors such as illness and treatment characteristics, individual factors such as patient and physician characteristics, and contextual factors such as setting characteristics, decision supports and pharmacoeconomic aspects. Illness characteristics are defined by the type and severity of depression. Treatment characteristics include drug properties, efficacy, effectiveness and favorable as well as unintended adverse effects of the drug. Examples for patient characteristics are co-morbidities and individual preferences, and physician characteristics include knowledge, experience, values and beliefs, and the relationship with the patient. Treatment guidelines, algorithms, and most recently, computational supports and biological markers serve as decision supports.

  15. Factors influencing quality of life in asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-kalemji, Abir; Petersen, Karin Dam; Sørensen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The quality of life (QOL) in persons with asthma is reduced and different factors such as demography, asthma severity and psychiatric comorbidity play an influential role. However, little is known about the interplay of these factors. OBJECTIVE: To describe QOL in relation to asthma...... and analyse for the relative impact of asthma severity, psychiatric comorbidity, lifestyle (smoking and obesity) and demographic determinants on QOL in persons with asthma. METHODS: One thousand one hundred sixty-one subjects from an earlier cohort with and without asthma were sent an asthma screening...... gender and smoking were associated with reduced QOL, suggesting that these factors play an independent role on lowering QOL. Depression did not inflate the relationship between asthma severity and worse QOL, suggesting that asthma severity plays an independent role on everyday life regardless...

  16. Factors influencing nurses' participation in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Ann F; Warner, Andrea M; Fleming, Eileen; Schmidt, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Clinical research is necessary for developing nursing's body of knowledge and improving the quality of gastroenterology nursing care. The support and participation of nursing staff are crucial to conducting interventional research. Identification of characteristics of nurses and their work settings that facilitate or impede participation in research is needed. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine the effect of personal and professional characteristics and attitudes about nursing research on staff nurses' participation in a clinical nursing research project. A questionnaire measuring nurses' attitudes, perceptions of availability of support, and research use was distributed to staff nurses working on an endoscopy lab and two same-day surgery units where a nursing research study had recently been conducted. Investigator-developed items measured nurses' attitudes about the utility and feasibility of the interventions tested in the original study. A total of 36 usable questionnaires comprised the sample. Factor analysis of the two questionnaires resulted in three-factor (Importance of Research, Interest in Research, and Environment Support of Research) and two-factor (Value of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions [CBIs] and Participation in Study) solutions, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean scores for the five factors between nurses who did (n = 19) and those who did not (n = 17) participate in the original study. The Participation in Research Factor was significantly negatively correlated with years in nursing (r = -.336, p body of knowledge about factors that facilitate or impede staff nurses' involvement in research. This knowledge will be useful for nurse researchers planning intervention studies to forecast and foster staff nurse involvement in their projects. Findings may also be useful to nurse managers, nurse educators, and staff development personnel in assessing and promoting staff nurses

  17. Influencing factors of infrared surveying in roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Kang-xu; GUO Da

    2006-01-01

    The main factors that affect infrared surveying in roadway include that property of rock, electromechanical equipments running, environmental temperature, hydrogeology and support material etc. This paper sums up the expression features of these disturbing factor through theoretical analysis and actual measurement contrasts and considers that some tunnel section does not suit to go on infrared survey, for instance, soft rock meets water to expanse, and surround rock has obviously pouring water. The basic methods had made evading disturbing of electromechanical equipments, environmental temperature and protect material etc to become possible. It is helpful that offers infrared surveying technical service for production safety better in roadway.

  18. Influence of fuel on phase formation of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared by self-propagated combustion route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, K.; Babu, D. Rajan, E-mail: drajanbabu@vit.ac.in [Advanced Materials Research Centre, Crystal Growth and Crystallography Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore – 632014 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Zinc iron oxide (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles were prepared by self-propagated combustion route.The fuel plays a major role on the formation of structure and particle size. Here three different fuels like alanine, glycine and proline were used to synthesis the zinc iron oxide nanoparticle. Influence of combustion nature through the fuel, the phase formation, particle size, band gap and surface morphology has been modified. The prepared powder was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction method (PXRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the composition of the material was analysed by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX).The elemental mapping was confirmed the uniform distribution of Zn, Fe and O elements in the prepared material of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  19. Experimental investigation of the fluid dynamic efficiency of a high performance multi-valve internal combustion engine during the intake phase: Influence of valve-valve interference phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algieri Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is the analysis of the fluid dynamic behavior of a high performance internal combustion engine during the intake phase. In particular, a four-valve spark-ignition engine has been characterized at the steady flow rig. Dimensionless discharge coefficients have been used to define the global fluid dynamic efficiency of the intake system, while the Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA technique has been employed to evaluate the mean flow in the valve curtain area and to characterise the interference phenomena between the two intake valves. The investigation has shown the significant influence of the valve lift on the volumetric efficiency of the intake apparatus. Moreover, the experimental analysis has highlighted that the valve-valve interference phenomena have a relevant impact on the head breathability, on the flow development within the combustion chamber and on the velocity standard deviations.

  20. Analysis of the fuel influence in obtaining HAp by combustion reaction; Analise da influencia do combustivel na obtencao de HAp via reacao de combustao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.L.; Leite, A.M.D.; Viana, K.M.S., E-mail: kalineviana@ect.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia

    2016-07-01

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications has led to investigation of the calcium phosphate bioceramics, and in particular hydroxyapatite (HAp), being a material similar to bone tissue, with excellent biocompatibility and high osteoconduction, enabling bone regeneration which allows the use at implants and prostheses. The synthesis of the nanometric HAp by combustion reaction enables obtaining the nanometric HAp with a more similar structure biological apatite as possible. This work aims to synthesize HAp by combustion reaction using two different routes of synthesis, first, using urea as fuel and the second using glycine, after this, evaluate the influence of fuels used in the microstructure of the hydroxyapatite obtained. The HAp obtained was characterized by: XRD, FTIR and SEM. Through analysis of the results, there is the synthesis conditions used that glycine has performed more favorable to obtaining HAp. (author)

  1. Emergency department crowding: Factors influencing flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on emergency department (ED) crowding. In the first part (ED crowding in the Netherlands) the current state of EDs regarding patients’ length of stay and ED managers’ experiences of crowding are described. Part two (input factors) contains three studies which describe the case lo

  2. [Factors that influence student ratings of instruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Su Jin; Choung, Yun Hoon; Chung, Yoon Sok

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of student ratings of instruction by analyzing their relationships with several variables, including gender, academic rank, specialty, teaching time, and teaching method, at a medical school. This study analyzed the student ratings of 297 courses at Ajou University School of Medicine in 2013. SPSS version 12.0 was used to analyze the data and statistics by t-test, analysis of variance, and Scheffe test. There were no statistically significant differences in student ratings between gender, rank, and specialty. However, student ratings were significantly influenced by teaching times and methods (pStudent ratings were high for teaching times of 10 hours or more and small-group learning, compared with lectures. There was relatively mean differences in students ratings by teaching times, specialty and rank, although the difference in ratings was not statistically significant. Student ratings can be classified by teaching time and method for summative purposes. To apply student ratings to the evaluation of the performance of faculty, further studies are needed to analyze the variables that influence student ratings.

  3. Computational Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  4. Fuels for homogenous, self-igniting combustion processes; Brennstoffe fuer homogene selbstgezuendete Verbrennungsprozesse - Jahresbericht 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, A.; Boulouchos, K.

    2007-07-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), reports on work done in 2007 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, on fuels for homogenous, self-igniting combustion processes. A single-stroke engine was used to test the combustion of n-heptane, n-butane and their combinations. The flexibility of the test-bed is discussed and the combustion characteristics observed are described. Also, the results obtained are presented and discussed. Multi-zone simulation and factors influencing the combustion are examined. Ignition and combustion of synthetic, diesel-like fuels are discussed. Co-operation with the project started in 2007 by the Society for Research on Combustion Engines which involves other universities and several industrial companies is noted.

  5. Theoretical investigaion of the performance of alternative aviation fuels in an aero-enginve combustion chamber

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    When considering alternative fuels for aviation, factors such as the overall efficiency of the combustion process and the levels of emissions emitted to the atmosphere, need to be critically evaluated. The physical and chemical properties of a fuel influence the combustion efficiency and emissions and therefore need to be considered. The energy content of a biofuel, which is influenced negatively by the presence of oxygen in the molecular structure (i.e. oxygenated chemical compounds), is rel...

  6. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards midwifery: Tool validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rajabi, Omaymah; Al-Hadid, Lourance; Subih, Maha

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a tool that explores the factors influencing women's opinion of and attitudes towards midwifery. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of 526 Jordanian women. Cluster sampling was used to ensure a representative sample; then, convenience sampling was performed. The instrument asked non-identifying demographic questions and covered factors reported in literature to influence women's attitudes towards and views of the profession. The resulting instrument consisted of five factors explained by 29 items. These factors were women's general view of midwives, midwife duties, professional ethics, media influence and demotivating factors associated with working as a midwife. Although the instrument is valid and reliable, it needs further testing in other studies. Taking the factors reported on by the present study into account in public policy-making could promote better understanding of midwifery and improve its status in the community. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Factors influencing medication label viewing in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Chong, Yen Wan

    2016-07-12

    The misuse of medicine is a serious public health issue worldwide. An important factor that contributes to the misuse of medicine is the lack of medication label viewing by consumers. The objective of the present study is to examine the socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with medication label viewing among Malaysian adults. The empirical analysis is based on a nationally representative data set of 30,992 respondents. An ordered probit model is used to examine different types of medication label viewers. The results of this study suggest that socio-economic (i.e. age, income level, education level, location of residence), demographic (i.e. gender, ethnicity, marital status) and lifestyle factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) have significant effects on medication label viewing. It is found that age, low-income and low-education level reduce the likelihood of viewing medication label. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. The present study provides policy makers with baseline information regarding which cohorts of individuals to focus on in efforts to increase the frequency of medication label viewing.

  8. Factors influencing early survival after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, P G; Estrin, J A; Fryd, D S; Payne, W D; Belani, K G; Elick, B A; Najarian, J S; Ascher, N L

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from all adult and pediatric liver transplants performed between January 1, 1983 and January 15, 1986 at the University of Minnesota Hospital and identify perioperative variables that predict patient survival and could aid in patient selection. Charts, intraoperative anesthesia records, blood bank records, flow sheets, outpatient records, and autopsy reports were examined in 45 pediatric and 15 adult patients who underwent primary orthotopic liver transplantation. Analysis of the data can be summarized as follows: (1) Pediatric patients whose coagulation parameters could not be corrected prior to operation and who consequently required preoperative exchange transfusion had poorer outcomes than those not requiring an exchange to correct coagulation parameters. (2) The rapid infusion technique for massive blood transfusion resulted in significantly decreased blood loss and intraoperative blood product replacement. (3) Twenty-four hour postoperative factor V levels were good predictors of survival. Patients with poor factor V levels required rigorous replacement of coagulation factors. (4) Pediatric patients with uncorrectable coagulopathies requiring immediate postoperative exchange transfusion had extremely high mortality.

  9. Factors influencing recognition of interrupted speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Humes, Larry E

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the effect of interruption parameters (e.g., interruption rate, on-duration and proportion), linguistic factors, and other general factors, on the recognition of interrupted consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in quiet. Sixty-two young adults with normal-hearing were randomly assigned to one of three test groups, "male65," "female65" and "male85," that differed in talker (male/female) and presentation level (65/85 dB SPL), with about 20 subjects per group. A total of 13 stimulus conditions, representing different interruption patterns within the words (i.e., various combinations of three interruption parameters), in combination with two values (easy and hard) of lexical difficulty were examined (i.e., 13×2=26 test conditions) within each group. Results showed that, overall, the proportion of speech and lexical difficulty had major effects on the integration and recognition of interrupted CVC words, while the other variables had small effects. Interactions between interruption parameters and linguistic factors were observed: to reach the same degree of word-recognition performance, less acoustic information was required for lexically easy words than hard words. Implications of the findings of the current study for models of the temporal integration of speech are discussed.

  10. Clinically important factors influencing endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapaatalo, H; Mervaala, E

    2001-01-01

    The endothelium, a continuous cellular monolayer lining the blood vessels, has an enormous range of important homeostatic roles. It serves and participates in highly active metabolic and regulatory functions including control of primary hemostasis, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, platelet and leukocyte interactions with the vessel wall, interaction with lipoprotein metabolism, presentation of histocompatibility antigens, regulation of vascular tone and growth and further of blood pressure. Many crucial vasoactive endogenous compounds like prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide, endothelin, angiotensin, endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor, free radicals and bradykinin are formed in the endothelial cells to control the functions of vascular smooth muscle cells and of circulating blood cells. These versatile and complex systems and cellular interactions are extremely vulnerable. The balances may be disturbed by numerous endogenous and exogenous factors including psychological and physical stress, disease states characterized by vasospasm, inflammation, leukocyte and platelet adhesion and aggregation, thrombosis, abnormal vascular proliferation, atherosclerosis and hypertension. The endothelial cells are also the site of action of many drugs and exogenous toxic substances (e.g. smoking, alcohol). As markers and assays for endothelial dysfunction, direct measurement of nitric oxide, its metabolites from plasma and urine, functional measurement of vascular nitric oxide dependent responses and assay of different circulating markers have been used. In numerous pathological conditions (e.g. atherosclerosis, hypertension, congestive heart failure, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, renal failure, transplantation, liver cirrhosis) endothelial dysfunction has been described to exist. Some of them, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors and drug treatment will be discussed in this short review.

  11. Factors Influencing the Performance of Coal Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unsia HABIB

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.

  12. Organizational Culture Factors that Can Influence Knowledge Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Pastor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to establish the correlation that exists between the types of organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer. We started from the hypothesis that organizations which have high scores for cultural factors of openness to change and innovation as well as for task-oriented organizational growth will have the tendency of being favourable to knowledge transfer. Moreover, we started from the hypothesis that organizations that have high scores for bureaucracy and competition factors will have the tendency of being unfavourable to knowledge transfer. The research reached the conclusion that there seems to be a correlation between organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer.

  13. Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A mixed method study. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... group discussions) and quantitative (cross-sectional survey) methods were utilised for this study.

  14. Social and economic factors influencing the patronage and use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social and economic factors influencing the patronage and use of complementary and alternative medicine in Enugu. ... Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources ... approaches to medical treatment that are outside of mainstream medical training.

  15. Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of Courses in ... Female students in six (Arts, Education, Pharmacy, Science, Social Sciences and ... services to secondary school students in the choice of courses and career.

  16. Factors Influencing the Development of Practical Skills of Interns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing the Development of Practical Skills of Interns Working in ... It starts with a good theoretical preparation and some practical experience at university. ... The relationship between intern and senior doctor was important when it ...

  17. Factors influencing the job satisfaction of academics in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the job satisfaction of academics in higher education. ... 94 respondents from similar departments at a residential and a distance education institution. A questionnaire focused on teaching, research, community service, ...

  18. Assessment of risk factors that influence pregnancy outcomes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Pregnancy outcome, low birth weight, Apgar score, maternal age, Tanzania ... (2006) reported that, several risk factors influence neonatal mortality. ..... which is the lowest cut off point for the classification of normal blood pressure.

  19. 'Mum never loved me.' How structural factors influence adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How structural factors influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health ... Research in high income countries shows parent–child connectedness to be ... to young people's low self-esteem and risky sexual behaviour while unplanned ...

  20. Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption of Rice ... Farming experience, household size, farm size and extension contact ... gender, market availability, education, extension contact, labour availability and farm size.

  1. Factors Influencing Farmer Output in the International Fund for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    Department of Rural Sociology and Extension. Michael Okpara ... This study analysed factors influencing International Fund for Agricultural. Development ..... farmers (50.9%) acquired secondary education as against Cross River IFAD farmers.

  2. Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban Areas of Tanzania. ... Model results revealed that household sizes and education levels of the ... To increase the market share of pulses, traders should devise effective ...

  3. Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young adult consumers in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... their reasons for and frequency of fast food consumption, their specific fast food choices, and their attitudes towards health.

  4. LITERATURE REVIEW ON FACTORS INFLUENCING MILK PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klaudia Kurajdova; Janka Taborecka-Petrovicova

    2015-01-01

    In today’s highly informed, competitive and saturated market, a key to success of any business depends on knowing consumer and his consumption patterns and recognizing and understanding factors influencing...

  5. Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ... The findings showed that students from lower socio-economic status homes and those ... The need to involve the students\\' parents in career education programmes and ...

  6. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    Only the factor of taste influencing food choice was significantly different between the two ..... available through the media, promotions, and advertising may confuse consumers and cause ... Predictors of self-initiated, healthful dietary change.

  7. Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    factors that influenced the extent of consumption in urban areas. In summary, the model .... model to control for self-selection bias because some potential consumers may ... accommodate consumer's zero value of purchase as an outcome of a ...

  8. Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in South Africa - a preliminary stud. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ... South African Medical Journal. Journal Home ...

  9. Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among Child Bearing Women in Chilonga ... Medical Journal of Zambia ... The literature review was mainly obtained from studies conducted globally, regionally and Zambia inclusively.

  10. Factors influencing choice of paediatrics as a career among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    female students (30%) considered gender distribution to be a factor influencing their career choice (p=0.046). ... role models in the specialty, job opportunities and financial .... of non-responder bias, although the relatively high response.

  11. Prevalence Of Early Childhood Malnutrition And Influencing Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    therefore, to asses the prevalence of malnutrition and the factors influencing the ... childhood malnutrition in Kabarole District and other areas in Uganda, and ..... Jitta JJ, Migadde M and J Mudusu Determinants of Malnutrition in under-fives.

  12. INFLUENCING FACTORS OF PRICE AND ASSOCIATED STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu NEAMTU; NEAMTU Adina Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The price is an important element in product position; it is a means of sending signals to consumers about the nature and quality of the product. When, for a certain business environment, the demand curve is known in relation to market (competition) costs and prices, the firm can choose a pricing policy simultaneously with business strategy. This study synthesizes the key-factors occurring in choosing a business strategy and the game of price and cost on the market As an approach to pricing p...

  13. Emotional Factors Influencing Students’ English Writing Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂勇伟

    2015-01-01

    As an international common language,English becomes more and more important.Students try their best to improve their English writing competence,especially as the social’s requirements for their English writing become higher and higher.However,students’English writing is very poor,fewer and fewer of them can write fluent English.Through the study of this topic,the author hopes it can remove students’emotional obstacles of English writing learning,master the direction of emotional factor,arouse students’interesting in learning oral English,make them practice English writing positively and obtain a better teaching effect

  14. Treatment Factors That Influence Mortality in Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, John; Ayuk, John; Sherlock, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare condition characterized by excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), which is almost always due to a pituitary adenoma. Acromegaly is associated with significant morbidity such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiomyopathy, obstructive sleep apnoea, malignancy and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Acromegaly has also been associated with increased mortality in several retrospective studies. This review will focus on the epidemiological data relating to mortality rates in acromegaly, the relationship between acromegaly and malignancy, the role of GH and insulin-like growth factor-I in assessing the risk of future mortality, and the impact of radiotherapy and hypopituitarism on mortality.

  15. Factors influencing consumer satisfaction with health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Satish P; Deshpande, Samir S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that impact consumer satisfaction with health care. This is a secondary analysis of the Center for Studying Health System Change's 2010 Health Tracking Household Survey. Regression analysis was used to examine the impact of treatment issues, financial issues, family-related issues, sources of health care information, location, and demographics-related factors on satisfaction with health care. The study involved 12280 subjects, 56% of whom were very satisfied with their health care, whereas 66% were very satisfied with their primary care physician. Fourteen percent of the subjects had no health insurance; 34% of the subjects got their health care information from the Web. Satisfaction with primary care physician, general health status, promptness of visit to doctor, insurance type, medical cost per family, annual income, persons in family, health care information from friends, and age significantly impacted satisfaction with health care. The regression models accounted for 23% of the variance in health care satisfaction. Satisfaction with primary care physicians, health insurance, and general health status are the 3 most significant indicators of an individual's satisfaction with health care.

  16. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads.

  17. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    I Ketut Surya Diarta; I Gde Pitana; Nyoman Darma Putra; Agung Suryawan Wiranatha

    2016-01-01

    Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was c...

  18. Factors Influencing the Disabled's Employment in the Competitive Labour Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Simo

    1995-01-01

    Factors influencing the job search outcomes of 1,353 Finnish individuals with disabilities were studied, focusing on age, gender, domicile, basic education, vocational training, and type of disability. Results showed that age, education, and domicile influenced outcomes, and labor market status was to some extent gender specific. (JDD)

  19. STUDY ON FACTORS INFLUENCING INK ABSORPTION OF COATED PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxin Liu; Chuanshan Zhao; Shuxia Shang; Zhongwei Sun

    2004-01-01

    Ink absorption is one of the most important factors which influence printing properties. This article had discussed the influence of coating properties,technologies of heating and pressure etc. on ink absorption and showed that ink absorption can be adjusted and coating surface structure can be improved when technologies of heating and pressure change, pigment and adhesive altered.

  20. Linguistic Factors Influencing Speech Audiometric Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coene, Martine; Krijger, Stefanie; Meeuws, Matthias; De Ceulaer, Geert; Govaerts, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    In speech audiometric testing, hearing performance is typically measured by calculating the number of correct repetitions of a speech stimulus. We investigate to what extent the repetition accuracy of Dutch speech stimuli presented against a background noise is influenced by nonauditory processes. We show that variation in verbal repetition accuracy is partially explained by morpholexical and syntactic features of the target language. Verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and pronouns yield significantly lower correct repetitions than nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. The reduced repetition performance for verbs and function words is probably best explained by the similarities in the perceptual nature of verbal morphology and function words in Dutch. For sentences, an overall negative effect of syntactic complexity on speech repetition accuracy was found. The lowest number of correct repetitions was obtained with passive sentences, reflecting the cognitive cost of processing a noncanonical sentence structure. Taken together, these findings may have important implications for the audiological practice. In combination with hearing loss, linguistic complexity may increase the cognitive demands to process sentences in noise, leading to suboptimal functional hearing in day-to-day listening situations. Using test sentences with varying degrees of syntactic complexity may therefore provide useful information to measure functional hearing benefits.

  1. Physical factors influence for biologic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruzyan, L. A.

    2005-08-01

    Physical methods are widely spread in diagnostics and therapy of different pathologies, especially in oncology. The application of lasers occurred to be the perspective approach for combined methods application in medicine. Our work is devoted to investigation of thermal effect of focused laser beam in the model of Garding-Passi melanoma and also to the study of free radicals activity after the radiation with non-focused laser beam. The histologic alterations correlated with theoretical calculations of temperature distribution in irradiated tissue for energies 30-60 J attracted our interest. The values of maximal temperatures in depths of tissue for energies 30-60 J were carried out. In the model of permanent magnetic field (PMF) effect for mice ascites sarcoma 37 we have showed the linear dependence of tumor growth inhibition from the period of PMF treatment. Simultaneously we investigated PMF influence for free radical"s (FR) concentrations in mice organs and tissues and potentially appearing questions of PMF effect for biopotential in connection with FR formation. We have also studied the alterations of K, Na and Ca ions concentrations in ascetic fluids after animal"s PMF treatment. We revealed some reasons of biopotential generation and concluded that biopotential is not the result of specific ions gradient only but its generation can be followed by free radicals states appearance and occurrence of semi-conductivity in biostructures.

  2. Exploring factors influencing smoking behaviour in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study is to investigate the determinants of smoking behaviour among adults in Malaysia. Findings of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-3) by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, were used. The sample consisted of 34,539 observations. A logistic regression model was thus applied to estimate the probability to participate in smoking. Age, income, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status, residential area, education, lifestyle and health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of smoking. Specifically, youngsters, low income earners, males, unmarried individuals, Malays, employed individuals, rural residents and primary educated individuals were more likely to smoke. In conclusion, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors have significant impacts on smoking participation in Malaysia. Based on these empirical findings, several policy implications are suggested.

  3. Factors influencing dependence on mobile phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of current study was to investigate the relationship between the problematic use of mobile phone and Big Five personality traits among students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A total number of 120 students (80 females and 40 males were selected by applying proportional randomized classification sampling method from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS and demographic questionnaire were used to gather data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Analysis of gathered data showed that gender, neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience had positive correlation with the problematic use of mobile phone, whereas conscientiousness and agreeableness were not correlated with the problematic use of mobile phone. Conclusion: The evaluation of Big Five personality traits would be a reliable factor for predicting the problematic use of mobile phone among students.

  4. Factors influencing citizen participation in community management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to assess the factors affecting citizen participation in community management in district 13 of Tehran Municipality. Measured variables are: social cohesion, profitable partnerships, social-economic agencies, trust among civilians, trust in municipality management, feelings of powerlessness and social anomie. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation test show that all of these variables had significant relationships with community participation in neighborhood management. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that three variables of social cohesion, profitable partnerships and socio-economic status had explained 37% of changes in citizen participation in community management while the changing social cohesion maintained the highest impact.

  5. Factors influencing excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Souza Vilela

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Sleep deprivation in adolescents has lately become a health issue that tends to increase with higher stress prevalence, extenuating routines, and new technological devices that impair adolescents' bedtime. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the excessive sleepiness frequency and the factors that might be associated to it in this population. Methods: The cross-sectional study analyzed 531 adolescents aged 10–18 years old from two private schools and one public school. Five questionnaires were applied: the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire; the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children; the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria; the General Health and Sexual Maturation Questionnaire; and the Physical Activity Questionnaire. The statistical analyses were based on comparisons between schools and sleepiness and non-sleepiness groups, using linear correlation and logistic regression. Results: Sleep deprivation was present in 39% of the adolescents; sleep deficit was higher in private school adolescents (p < 0.001, and there was a positive correlation between age and sleep deficit (p < 0.001; r = 0.337. Logistic regression showed that older age (p = 0.002; PR: 1.21 [CI: 1.07–1.36] and higher score level for sleep hyperhidrosis in the sleep disturbance scale (p = 0.02; PR: 1.16 [CI: 1.02–1.32] were risk factors for worse degree of sleepiness. Conclusions: Sleep deficit appears to be a reality among adolescents; the results suggest a higher prevalence in students from private schools. Sleep deprivation is associated with older age in adolescents and possible presence of sleep disorders, such as sleep hyperhidrosis.

  6. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  7. Factors influencing professional life satisfaction among neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M; Halpern, Michael T; Kane, Heather L; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2017-06-19

    Predicted shortages in the supply of neurologists may limit patients' access to and quality of care for neurological disorders. Retaining neurologists already in practice provides one opportunity to support the overall supply of practicing neurologists. Understanding factors associated with professional life satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) and implementing policies to enhance satisfaction may encourage neurologists to remain in clinical practice. In this paper, we present results from the first study examining factors associated with professional life satisfaction among a large sample of U.S, neurologists. We collaborated with the AAN to survey a sample of U.S. neurologists about their professional life satisfaction. Analyses examined the association of physician and practice characteristics with aspects of professional life satisfaction, including satisfaction with their career in medicine, medical specialty, current position, relationship with colleagues, relationship with patients, work/life balance, and pay. The study population consisted of 625 neurologists. In multivariate regression analyses, no single group or population stratum indicated high (or low) responses to all aspects of satisfaction. Older neurologists reported higher satisfaction with career, specialty, and relationship with patients than younger neurologists. Female neurologists had significantly lower satisfaction with pay than male neurologists. Neurologists who spent more time in research and teaching had greater satisfaction with specialty, relationship with colleagues, and relationship with patients than those spending no time in research. Neurologists who practiced in small cities/rural areas reported lower satisfaction across multiple dimensions than those practicing in large urban areas. Neurologists in solo practice had greater satisfaction with the relationship with their patients, but lower satisfaction with pay. Satisfaction is a multidimensional construct that is associated with

  8. Influence of Ce-precursor and fuel on structure and catalytic activity of combustion synthesized Ni/CeO{sub 2} catalysts for biogas oxidative steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vita, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.vita@itae.cnr.it; Italiano, Cristina; Fabiano, Concetto; Laganà, Massimo; Pino, Lidia

    2015-08-01

    A series of nanosized Ni/CeO{sub 2} catalysts were prepared by Solution Combustion Synthesis (SCS) varying the fuel (oxalyldihydrazide, urea, carbohydrazide and glycerol), the cerium precursor (cerium nitrate and cerium ammonium nitrate) and the nickel loading (ranging between 3.1 and 15.6 wt%). The obtained powders were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2}-physisorption, CO-chemisorption, Temperature Programmed Reduction (H{sub 2}-TPR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The catalytic activity towards the Oxy Steam Reforming (OSR) of biogas was assessed. The selected operating variables have a strong influence on the nature of combustion and, in turn, on the morphological and structural properties of the synthesized catalysts. Particularly, the use of urea allows to improve nickel dispersion, surface area, particle size and reducibility of the catalysts, affecting positively the biogas OSR performances. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Ni/CeO{sub 2} nanopowders by quick and easy solution combustion synthesis. • The fuel and precursor drive the structural and morphological properties of the catalysts. • The use of urea as fuel allows to improve nickel dispersion, surface area and particle size. • Ni/CeO{sub 2} (7.8 wt% of Ni loading) powders synthesized by urea route exhibits high performances for the biogas OSR process.

  9. The estimated additional costs for combustion of agro fuel and the potential of farmers to influence fuel quality; Identifiering av energiverkens merkostnader vid foerbraenning av aakerbraenslen samt lantbrukarens moejlighet att paaverka braenslekvaliteten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myringer, Aase; Petersen, Martin; Olsson, Johanna; Roennbaeck, Marie; Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya

    2009-05-15

    The main objectives of this study were to identify and calculate the additional costs to energy plants of combustion of agro fuels instead of wood chips, and to determine the potential farmers have to influence fuel quality and thus identify parameters that could be used for pricing in the future. The overall aim is to increase the volume of agro fuels produced. Four agro fuels were considered in this study: willow, straw, husks and reed canary grass. These four were selected because data were available on their combustion at energy plants and because they are representative of different categories of agro fuels: short rotation coppice, crop by-products, seeds and grass. Data were obtained through literature surveys, telephone interviews with farmers, researchers, advisors and contractors, and visits to six energy plants. Combustion properties for each crop and data on combustion were compared. Measures that could be taken by farmers to improve fuel quality today and perhaps in the future were estimated. Although information and experience proved to be lacking in this area, it was possible to identify some potential measures, which are listed below for each fuel. To promote expansion of the agro fuel market, issues concerning business contacts and forms of organisation were examined. The choices and preferences of farmers as regards sale and delivery are influenced by a number of different factors, which were investigated here by studies of the literature and interviews with farmers. There was little documentary evidence available on combustion of agro fuels. Short-term trials have been carried out on small amounts of a number of crop species without specific documentation of emissions, maintenance costs, ash handling, etc. The additional costs to energy plants for combustion of agro fuels compared with wood chips were investigated on visits to energy plants by collecting data directly and by interviewing plant personnel. The additional costs were then calculated

  10. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  11. Field determination of multipollutant, open area combustion source emission factors with a hexacopter unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, J.; Mitchell, W.; Chirayath, V.; Jonsson, J.; Tabor, D.; Gullett, B.

    2017-10-01

    An emission sensor/sampler system was coupled to a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) hexacopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to characterize gases and particles in the plumes emitted from open burning of military ordnance. The UAV/sampler was tested at two field sites with test and sampling flights spanning over 16 h of flight time. The battery-operated UAV was remotely maneuvered into the plumes at distances from the pilot of over 600 m and at altitudes of up to 122 m above ground level. While the flight duration could be affected by sampler payload (3.2-4.6 kg) and meteorological conditions, the 57 sampling flights, ranging from 4 to 12 min, were typically terminated when the plume concentrations of CO2 were diluted to near ambient levels. Two sensor/sampler systems, termed ;Kolibri,; were variously configured to measure particulate matter, metals, chloride, perchlorate, volatile organic compounds, chlorinated dioxins/furans, and nitrogen-based organics for determination of emission factors. Gas sensors were selected based on their applicable concentration range, light weight, freedom from interferents, and response/recovery times. Samplers were designed, constructed, and operated based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods and quality control criteria. Results show agreement with published emission factors and good reproducibility (e.g., 26% relative standard deviation for PM2.5). The UAV/Kolibri represents a significant advance in multipollutant emission characterization capabilities for open area sources, safely and effectively making measurements heretofore deemed too hazardous for personnel or beyond the reach of land-based samplers.

  12. The influence of beam energy, mode and focal length on the control of laser ignition in an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullett, J. D.; Dodd, R.; Williams, C. J.; Triantos, G.; Dearden, G.; Shenton, A. T.; Watkins, K. G.; Carroll, S. D.; Scarisbrick, A. D.; Keen, S.

    2007-08-01

    This work involves a study on laser ignition (LI) in an internal combustion (IC) engine and investigates the effects on control of engine combustion performance and stability of varying specific laser parameters (beam energy, beam quality, minimum beam waist size, focal point volume and focal length). A Q-switched Nd : YAG laser operating at the fundamental wavelength 1064 nm was successfully used to ignite homogeneous stoichiometric gasoline and air mixtures in one cylinder of a 1.6 litre IC test engine, where the remaining three cylinders used conventional electrical spark ignition (SI). A direct comparison between LI and conventional SI is presented in terms of changes in coefficient of variability in indicated mean effective pressure (COVIMEP) and the variance in the peak cylinder pressure position (VarPPP). The laser was individually operated in three different modes by changing the diameter of the cavity aperture, where the results show that for specific parameters, LI performed better than SI in terms of combustion performance and stability. Minimum ignition energies for misfire free combustion ranging from 4 to 28 mJ were obtained for various optical and laser configurations and were compared with the equivalent minimum optical breakdown energies in air.

  13. Interactions Between Surface Reactions and Gas-phase Reactions in Catalytic Combustion and Their Influence on Ignition of HCCI Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of methane in a microchannel whose surface was coated with platinum(Pt)catalyst was studied by numerical-simulation. The effects of gas-phase reactions on the whole catalytic combustion process were analyzed at a high inlet pressure. A sensitivity analysis of the detailed mechanisms of the surface reaction of methane on Pt revealed that the most sensitive reactions affecting the heterogeneous ignition are oxygen adsorption/desorption and methane adsorption, and the most sensitive reactions affecting the homogeneous ignition are OH and H2O adsorption/desorption. The combustion process of the homogeneous charge compression ignition(HCCI) engine whose piston face was coated with Pt catalyst was simulated. The effects of catalysis and the most sensitive reactions on the ignition timing and the concentration of the main intermediate species during the HCCI engine combustion are discussed. The results show that the ignition timing of the HCCI engine can be increased by catalysis, and the most sensitive reactions affecting the ignition timing of the HCCI engine are OH and H2O adsorption/desorption.

  14. Oxygen isotopic signature of CO2 from combustion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Brand

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available For a comprehensive understanding of the global carbon cycle precise knowledge of all processes is necessary. Stable isotope (13C and 18O abundances provide information for the qualification and the quantification of the diverse source and sink processes. This study focuses on the δ18O signature of CO2 from combustion processes, which are widely present both naturally (wild fires, and human induced (fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning in the carbon cycle. All these combustion processes use atmospheric oxygen, of which the isotopic signature is assumed to be constant with time throughout the whole atmosphere. The combustion is generally presumed to take place at high temperatures, thus minimizing isotopic fractionation. Therefore it is generally supposed that the 18O signature of the produced CO2 is equal to that of the atmospheric oxygen. This study, however, reveals that the situation is much more complicated and that important fractionation effects do occur. From laboratory studies fractionation effects on the order of up to 26%permil; became obvious in the derived CO2 from combustion of different kinds of material, a clear differentiation of about 7‰ was also found in car exhausts which were sampled directly under ambient atmospheric conditions. We investigated a wide range of materials (both different raw materials and similar materials with different inherent 18O signature, sample geometries (e.g. texture and surface-volume ratios and combustion circumstances. We found that the main factor influencing the specific isotopic signatures of the combustion-derived CO2 and of the concomitantly released oxygen-containing side products, is the case-specific rate of combustion. This points firmly into the direction of (diffusive transport of oxygen to the reaction zone as the cause of the isotope fractionation. The original total 18O signature of the material appeared to have little influence, however, a contribution of specific bio

  15. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  16. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  17. Basic Aerodynamics of Combustion Chambers,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-20

    8217, tie imnrulse foree eyuilibr-um c’ the bomd’~ leye - is 173 pv-:irJ p~76vJbK 2sO) IL !-. = Zn pT -- a , bV T. z -,,r y.re C era 3oia * ~~I" onc art-=e...heat by combustion all have very large influences on the capabilities of a combustion chamber. A yellow- colored flame represents diffusion combustion in...the wakes of fuel droplets. Blue- colored flames represent gaseous combustion of evaporated vapors which have already left the fuel droplets. The

  18. Emission factors and light absorption properties of brown carbon from household coal combustion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianzhong; Zhi, Guorui; Hitzenberger, Regina; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Zhang, Yayun; Feng, Yanli; Cheng, Miaomiao; Zhang, Yuzhe; Cai, Jing; Chen, Feng; Qiu, Yiqin; Jiang, Zhiming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Mo, Yangzhi

    2017-04-01

    Brown carbon (BrC) draws increasing attention due to its effects on climate and other environmental factors. In China, household coal burned for heating and cooking purposes releases huge amounts of carbonaceous particles every year; however, BrC emissions have rarely been estimated in a persuasive manner due to the unavailable emission characteristics. Here, seven coals jointly covering geological maturity from low to high were burned in four typical stoves as both chunk and briquette styles. The optical integrating sphere (IS) method was applied to measure the emission factors (EFs) of BrC and black carbon (BC) via an iterative process using the different spectral dependence of light absorption for BrC and BC and using humic acid sodium salt (HASS) and carbon black (CarB) as reference materials. The following results have been found: (i) the average EFs of BrC for anthracite coal chunks and briquettes are 1.08 ± 0.80 and 1.52 ± 0.16 g kg-1, respectively, and those for bituminous coal chunks and briquettes are 8.59 ± 2.70 and 4.01 ± 2.19 g kg-1, respectively, reflecting a more significant decline in BrC EFs for bituminous coals than for anthracites due to briquetting. (ii) The BrC EF peaks at the middle of coal's geological maturity, displaying a bell-shaped curve between EF and volatile matter (Vdaf). (iii) The calculated BrC emissions from China's residential coal burning amounted to 592 Gg (1 Gg = 109 g) in 2013, which is nearly half of China's total BC emissions. (iv) The absorption Ångström exponents (AAEs) of all coal briquettes are higher than those of coal chunks, indicating that the measure of coal briquetting increases the BrC / BC emission ratio and thus offsets some of the climate cooling effect of briquetting. (v) In the scenario of current household coal burning in China, solar light absorption by BrC (350-850 nm in this study) accounts for more than a quarter (0.265) of the total absorption. This implies the significance of BrC to climate

  19. Factors influencing ring closure through olefin metathesis - A perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subrata Ghosh; Sarita Ghosh; Niladri Sarkar

    2006-05-01

    Success of ring closure reactions of substrates having two terminal alkenes through olefin metathesis depends on a number of factors such as catalysts, nature and size of the rings to be formed and the substituents/functional groups present on the alkenes as well as at the allylic position. This article presents an overview of these influencing factors with illustrative examples.

  20. Professional Identity Development in Higher Education: Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarà-i-Molinero, Alba; Cascón-Pereira, Rosalía; Hernández-Lara, Ana beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In the last few years, the interest on professional identity development (PID) and the factors that influence PID has become central in higher education (HE) literature. However, the knowledge developed in this domain has focussed on a factor at a time and on a degree or discipline, thus being difficult to have a general picture of all…

  1. Influence of Psychological Factors on the Improvement of Spoken English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宁

    2013-01-01

      From learner's innermost feelings,the author attempts to elaborate the influences of psychological factors on improving the spoken language. The study of spoken English is a very complex process, which is affected easily by learner's linguistic environment and character. We can draw a conclusion that psychological factors are an important problem and cannot be neglected.

  2. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an import

  3. The influence of motivational factors on choice behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Amelsfort, D.H.; Steg, L.; Bliemer, M.C.J.; Schuitema, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate if and how motivational factors influence choice behaviour. We study four motivational factors: attitude towards car use, personal norm to reduce car use, car use habit, and perceived behavioural control to change car use to explain the choice behaviour of respondents in

  4. Using mixed methods to identify factors influencing patient flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Cindy

    2009-11-01

    An effective method of identifying operational factors that influence patient flow can potentially lead to improvements and thus have huge benefits on the efficiency of hospital departments. This paper presents a new inductive mixed-method approach to identify operational factors that influence patient flow through an accident and emergency (A&E) department. Preliminary explorative observations were conducted, followed by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. A questionnaire survey of all medical, nursing, porter and clerical staff was then conducted. The observations provided factors for further exploration: skill-mix, long working hours, equipment availability, lack of orientation programmes, inefficient IT use and issues regarding communication structures. Interviewees highlighted several factors, including availability of medical supervision and senior nursing staff, nursing documentation issues, lack of morale due to overcrowding, personality differences and factors relating to the department layout. The questionnaire respondents strongly supported the importance of the previously identified factors. This paper demonstrates an effective mixed-method approach that can be replicated by other health-care managers to identify factors influencing patient flow. Further benefits include increased volume and quality of data, increased staff awareness for the influence of internal factors on patient flow and enhancing the evidence base for future decision making when prioritizing A&E projects.

  5. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  6. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  7. Factors that Influence Students' Decision to Dropout of Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Pedro A.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many reasons why students dropout of college courses, those reasons may be unique for students who are enrolled in an online program. Issues of isolation, disconnectedness, and technological problems may be factors that influence a student to leave a course. To understand these factors, an online survey was developed to collect…

  8. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING YIELD SPREADS OF THE MALAYSIAN BONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian bond market is developing rapidly but not much is understood in terms of macroeconomic factors that could influence the yield spread of the Ringgit Malaysian denominated bonds. Based on a multifactor model, this paper examines the impact of four macroeconomic factors namely: Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI, Industry Production Index (IPI, Consumer Price Index (CPI and interest rates (IR on bond yield spread of the Malaysian Government Securities (MGS and Corporate Bonds (CBs for a period from January 2001 to December 2008. The findings support the expected hypotheses that CPI and IR are the major drivers that influence the changes in MGS yield spreads. However IPI and KLCI have weak and no influence on MGS yield spreads respectively Whilst IR, CPI and IPI have significant influence on the yield spreads of CB1, CB2 and CB3, KLCI has significant influence only on the CB1 yield spread but not on CB2 and CB3 yield spreads.

  10. Post combustion in converter steelmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghbasilasie, H.; Holappa, L.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this work is to study the fundamentals of post combustion and the effect of different process parameters on the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) in converter steelmaking process. The PCR and HTE have been determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE. Based on enthalpy considerations, post combustion of CO gas is regarded as one of the most effective means of increasing the heat supply to the BOP. The thermodynamic study of gas-metal-slag reactions gives the limiting conditions for post combustion inside the converter reactor. Different process parameters influencing both thermodynamic equilibria and kinetic conditions can greatly affect the post combustion ratio. Different features of converter processes as well smelting reduction processes utilizing post combustion have been reviewed. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 26 refs.

  11. Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs.

  12. A Discussion on Motivation Factor Influencing Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛芊芊

    2016-01-01

    Various characteristics can influence students'second language acquisition and language development, which in-cludes age, gender, personality, cognitive ability, motivation, learning strategies and so on. Among all these factors mentioned, motivation factor that is categorized into learner factors affects learner's learning effect to a great extent. In this paper, motiva-tion characteristic that influences second language learning are discussed. At last, some strategies on the real classroom teaching application are provided after the discussion, which aims at making contribution to the second language teaching process as well as students'language development.

  13. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  14. NURTURING SPORT EXPERTISE: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELITE ATHLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wall

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required

  15. Which factors influence women in the decision to breastfeed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Canicali Primo

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the factors that influence women in the decision to breastfeed. Methods. Integrative review. Information was gathered from original articles, case studies, theoretical studies, consensus and systematic reviews published between 2007-2013 in Spanish, Portuguese and English and recovered in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS. The descriptors used in this study were: breastfeeding, maternal behavior, risk factors, lactation and newborn. Results. Were included 30 articles, grouped into five categories. Factors influencing the decision of the breastfeeding woman are a convergence of breastfeeding's advantages, benefits and justifications, family, social and professional support, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women, personal experience and family tradition and personal choice. Conclusion. The decision to breastfeed by women is influenced by a convergence of factors. It is essential the role of nursing to encourage women in the decision to initiate and maintain breastfeeding her child.

  16. RISK FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSTRUCTION PROCUREMENT PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dahiru, A; Aminu, Muhammad Bashir

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges facing construction procurement performance is the failure to determine the risk related factors limiting its success. These risk factors can cause a significant increase in the procurement cost leading to an increase in the overall project cost. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the risk factors influencing construction procurement performance with a view to achieve the overall project performance. The objectives are to establish a relative significa...

  17. Environmental factors influencing asexual reproductive processes in echinoderms

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenov, Pv

    1996-01-01

    This review provides a brief update of the occurrence and adaptive significance of asexual reproduction in echinoderms. It then focuses on the state of knowledge of biotic and abiotic factors that influence asexual processes in this group, particularly factors that may play a role in regulating the expression and relative proportion of asexual versus sexual phenotypes within populations of species, as well as factors modulating and triggering asexual processes. The information presented in th...

  18. Influences of environmental and operational factors on dark fermentative hydrogen production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Parviz [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ibrahim, Shaliza; Ghafari, Shahin [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam [Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Water and Wastewater Research Center (WWRC), Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is one of renewable energy sources known for its non-polluting and environmentally friendly nature, as its end combustion product is water (H{sub 2}O). The biological production of H{sub 2} is a less energy intensive alternative where processes can be operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Dark fermentation by bacterial biomass is one of multitude of approaches to produce hydrogen which is known as the cleanest renewable energy and is thus receiving increasing attention worldwide. The present study briefly reviews the biohydrogen production process with special attention on the effects of several environmental and operational factors towards the process. Factors such as organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, temperature, and pH studied in published reports were compared and their influences are discussed in this work. This review highlights the variations in examined operating ranges for the factors as well as their reported optimum values. Divergent values observed for the environmental/operational factors merit further exploration in this field. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    . However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have...... strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability....

  20. The wills of older people: risk factors for undue influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisah, C; Finkel, S; Shulman, K; Melding, P; Luxenberg, J; Heinik, J; Jacoby, R; Reisberg, B; Stoppe, G; Barker, A; Firmino, H; Bennett, H

    2009-02-01

    As people live longer, there is increasing potential for mental disorders to interfere with testamentary distribution and render older people more vulnerable to "undue influence" when they are making a will. Accordingly, clinicians dealing with the mental disorders of older people will be called upon increasingly to advise the courts about a person's vulnerability to undue influence. A Subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to establish consensus on the definition of undue influence and the provision of guidelines for expert assessment of risk factors for undue influence. International jurisdictions differ in their approach to the notion of undue influence. Despite differences in legal systems, from a clinical perspective, the subcommittee identified some common "red flags" which might alert the expert to risk of undue influence. These include: (i) social or environmental risk factors such as dependency, isolation, family conflict and recent bereavement; (ii) psychological and physical risk factors such as physical disability, deathbed wills, sexual bargaining, personality disorders, substance abuse and mental disorders including dementia, delirium, mood and paranoid disorders; and (iii) legal risk factors such as unnatural provisions in a will, or provisions not in keeping with previous wishes of the person making the will, and the instigation or procurement of a will by a beneficiary. This review provides some guidance for experts who are requested by the courts to provide an opinion on the risk of undue influence. Whilst international jurisdictions require different thresholds of proof for a finding of undue influence, there is good international consensus on the clinical indicators for the concept.

  1. [Factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and improvement strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, Sergio R; Gálvez González, María; Amezcua, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and to find improvement strategies. Qualitative research using SWOT analysis (weaknesses, threats, strengths, opportunities). Nurses were selected deliberately in eight groups according to predetermined criteria. Analysis included categorization and relationship of factors and strategies. 81 participants were included in groups of 7-12 range. 45 categories were identified with 212 factors: 12 weaknesses (50 factors), 10 strengths (44 factors), 12 threats (68 factors) and 11 opportunities (50 factors). In addition, 32 categories were identified with 53 strategies: 14 categories of W-T strategies (42 strategies), 3 categories of S-T strategies (11 strategies), 5 categories of W-O strategies (13 strategies) and 10 categories of S-O strategies (41 strategies). Nurses identified numerous factors, mainly threats. The strategies are focused on W-T but they also suggest many but weak 5-0 strategies due to the low potential of the opportunities and strengths perceived.

  2. Factors influencing adherence among older people with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify potential factors that could affect adherence and influence the implementation of an evidence-based structured walking program, among older adults diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 69 participants with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee fulfilled an online survey on potential factors that could affect their adherence to an evidence-based structured walking program. Adherence with regard to the influencing factors was explored using a logistic regression model. Results tend to show higher odds of adhering to the evidence-based walking program if the participants were supervised (more than 2.9 times as high), supported by family/friends (more than 3.7 times as high), and not influenced by emotional involvement (more than 11 times as high). The odds of adhering were 3.6 times lower for participants who indicated a change in their medication intake and 3.1 times lower for individuals who considered themselves as less physically active (95 % confidence interval (CI)). Our exploratory findings identified and defined potential adherence factors that could guide health professionals in their practice to better identify positive influences and obstacles to treatment adherence, which would lead to the adoption of a more patient-centered approach. A large-scale study is required to clearly delineate the key factors that would influence adherence. We addressed a new knowledge gap by identifying the main strategies to promote the long-term adherence of community-based walking program.

  3. Numerical Analysis on Combustion Characteristic of Leaf Spring Rotary Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate combustion characteristics for rotary engine via numerical studies. A 3D numerical model was developed to study the influence of several operative parameters on combustion characteristics. A novel rotary engine called, “Leaf Spring Rotary Engine”, was used to illustrate the structure and principle of the engine. The aims are to (1 improve the understanding of combustion process, and (2 quantify the influence of rotational speed, excess air ratio, initial pressure and temperature on combustion characteristics. The chamber space changed with crankshaft rotation. Due to the complexity of chamber volume, an equivalent modeling method was presented to simulate the chamber space variation. The numerical simulations were performed by solving the incompressible, multiphase Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes Equations via the commercial code FLUENT using a transport equation-based combustion model; a realizable  turbulence model and finite-rate/eddy-dissipation model were used to account for the effect of local factors on the combustion characteristics.

  4. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.

  5. A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Valipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

  6. Influence of Environmentally Friendly and High-Efficiency Composite Additives on Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 4 kinds of chemical reagents and 3 kinds of industrial wastes were selected as burning additives for 2 kinds of coals in cement industry. The work focused on the replacement of partial chemical reagents by industrial wastes, which not only reduced the cost and took full advantage of industrial wastes, but also guaranteed the high combustion efficiency and removed the NOX and SO2 simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in DTF. The combustion residues were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The results showed that the burnout rate was increased after adding the additives; meanwhile, the NOX and SO2 release concentration were reduced, but the degree of action varied for different additives and coals. The substitute of chemical reagents by industrial wastes was very effective; overall, the cold-rolled iron oxide worked better than others; the particles surface was tougher and the peaks of crystalline phase were lower than raw coal, which indicated that the additives played good roles in combustion process.

  7. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE ON THE COMBUSTIBILITY PERFORMANCE OF POLYMER COMPOSITIONS BASED ON ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Chuleyeva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To obtain the flame retardants polymer compositions for cables tested the effect of use EVA compositions with magnesium hydroxide, on indicators combustibility polymer. Methodology. We used the method of differential scanning calorimetry and defined heat flux dependence on the test time for each composition at temperatures from 20 °C to 600 °C rate of temperature rise: 50 °C/min, 75 °C/min, 100 °C/min. Using the model of free kinetics we determined dependence of the activation energy from the conversion, a dependence of the conversion on the time of the test, the dependence of the time of the conversion from the temperature for each concentration. To comparison of these parameters for each composition we plotted the dependence of the time of the conversion from the temperature and the dependence the degree of conversion from the time of temperature exposure during the combustion of each of the compositions. Results. We obtained the kinetic characteristics, allowing to determine the composition, which provided the best results to reducing the kinetic parameters of flammability of polymeric compositions. Originality. For the first time we used the DSC and model-free kinetics to determine the effect properties of ingredients of the polymer compositions on the combustibility performance. Practical use. The research results can be used to develop polymer compositions for cable products.

  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Surya Diarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was conducted in Bali’s five major tourism objects. The 240 foreign tourists were chosen as respondents through convenience sampling technique. Data were analyzed using factor analysis. The results showed that factors that significantly influenced Bali brand equity were: symbolic and experiential benefit factor, direct and indirect destinations attributes, destination reliability and tangibility, assurance and empathy, brand destinations recognition and recall, destinations common psychological attributes, destination common functional attributes, unique functional attributes, behavioral loyalty, destination awareness, and attitudinal loyalty. Given the fluctuative nature of brand equity, Bali needs a consistent effort to maintain or to enhance brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. Maintaining the dominant factors that influence the strength of brand equity can be used as a basis to develop destination branding strategy to expand market segment,  choose the right target market, and anchoring destination position in world market competition.

  9. Factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas T. Khoza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: ‘Knowledge is power’ and software developing organisations are dependent on knowledge to achieve and maintain a competitive advantage. Subsequently, knowledge sharing is a key factor for modern software developing organisations to succeed in today’s competitive environment. For software developing organisations to reach their goals and objectives, knowledge sharing – and in particular the sharing of useful knowledge – needs to be targeted. To promote knowledge sharing, factors influencing knowledge sharing need to be identified and understood.Objective: This study seeks to identify factors that negatively influence knowledge sharing in software development in the developing country context.Method: Expert sampling as a subcategory of purposive sampling was employed to extract information, views and opinions from experts in the field of information and communication technology, more specifically from those who are involved in software development projects. Four Johannesburg-based software developing organisations listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, South Africa, participated in this research study. Quantitative data were collected using an online questionnaire with closed-ended questions.Results: Findings of this research reveal that job security, motivation, time constraints, physiological factors, communication, resistance to change and rewards are core factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software developing organisations.Conclusions: Improved understanding of factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing is expected to assist software developing organisations in closing the gap for software development projects failing to meet the triple constraint of time, cost and scope.

  10. Influence of social factors on lead exposure and child development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornschein, R.L.

    1985-10-01

    A brief overview of current views of child development is provided, with particular attention given to the role the child's physical and social environment plays in influencing the developmental process. Examples from the recent literature are used to illustrate how these factors can influence lead exposure and most importantly how they might interact with lead to ameliorate or exacerbate possible lead effects. An example is provided which demonstrates that failure to control adequately and to adjust the data statistically to correct for the influence of these factors can lead one erroneously to attribute cognitive and behavioral changes to lead. Finally, data from the Cincinnati Prospective Lead Study are presented to illustrate the application of structural equation modeling as a means for unraveling the complex web of sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral influences on childhood lead exposure.

  11. ICT Interventions for Girls: Factors Influencing ICT Career Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gorbacheva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

  12. Combustion characteristics in a municipal solid waste incinerator. 1st Report. ; Field test and computer simulation for combustion characterization. Toshi gomi shokyakuro ni okeru nensho tokusei. 1. ; Nensho jotai haaku no tame no jikken to simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimi, T.; Higashimura, K. (Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)); Koyama, M.; Hirayama, N. (Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan))

    1994-05-25

    For suppressing and controlling the emission of dioxins in the flue gas from the city garbage incinerator, it is necessary to perform the complete combustion. The combustion state in the incinerator was investigated to understand the influence of combustion factors on the combustion. A computer simulation analysis on the gas flow in the incinerator was also carried out. The concentration of CO and O2 in the combustion gas leaving the incinerator and the temperature distribution in the incinerator were measured. The results showed that the atmosphere in the incinerator was distinctly separated into two zones, i.e., the high temperature zone where the O2 concentration was extremely low while the CO concentration exhibited its peak value and the low temperature zone where the CO concentration was relatively low and O2 concentration was excessively high. The effect of combustion gas temperature on the combustion reaction of unburnt gas was found to be high. When the combustion gas temperature was elevated, the CO concentration in the exhaust gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator was exponentially decreased. The relationship between the CO concentration and the O2 concentration could be expressed in a quadratic equation. There was a certain optimum O2 optimal concentration range for reducing the CO concentration. The O2 concentration was an important factor for controlling the combustion. The result of computer simulation proved to be shown well the combustion gas flow in the incinerator. 8 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Factors Influencing the Intended Likelihood of Exposing Sexual Infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne L; Fitzgerald, Carey J

    2015-08-01

    There is a considerable body of literature on infidelity within romantic relationships. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature on factors influencing the likelihood of uninvolved individuals exposing sexual infidelity. Therefore, we devised an exploratory study examining a wide range of potentially relevant factors. Based in part on evolutionary theory, we anticipated nine potential domains or types of influences on the likelihoods of exposing or protecting cheaters, including kinship, strong social alliances, financial support, previous relationship behaviors (including infidelity and abuse), potential relationship transitions, stronger sexual and emotional aspects of the extra-pair relationship, and disease risk. The pattern of results supported these predictions (N = 159 men, 328 women). In addition, there appeared to be a small positive bias for participants to report infidelity when provided with any additional information about the situation. Overall, this study contributes a broad initial description of factors influencing the predicted likelihood of exposing sexual infidelity and encourages further studies in this area.

  14. Empirical Analysis on Factors Influencing Distribution of Vegetal Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjie; WU

    2015-01-01

    Since the reform and opening-up,there has been a great change in spatial pattern of China’s vegetable production. This paper studied vegetable production in provinces of China in 1978- 2013. From the sequential characteristics,China’s vegetable production area is constantly growing and takes on stage characteristic. From the spatial distribution,China’s vegetable production takes on the trend of " going down the south" and " marching the west". In order to grasp rules of changes of vegetable production and the influence factors,this paper made theoretical and empirical analysis on factors possibly influencing distribution of vegetable production. Results show that major factors influencing distribution of China’s vegetable production include irrigation condition,non-agricultural employment,market demand,knowledge spillover,comparative effectiveness,rural road and government policies.

  15. MOTIVATIONS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DECISION OF ONLINE TRADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ancuta IANCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using survey data, we explore motivations and factors that influence the Romanian investors to trade online even if they initially traded through a broker. To identify the factors we used secondary sources and for exploring the factors that influence the decision of trading online we used primary data. We find that investors decide to trade online especially because they spend less time, they have an easier access to information (due to the fact that most of the online trading platforms have notifications and alarms for news that can affect the stock market and they know how to use the internet. We discover that only a few investors are influenced by advertising and the fact that it is fashionable to trade online.

  16. Factors influencing the tolerance of flufenacet applications in winter rye

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In winter rye which is grown mostly on locations with a lighter soil texture loose silky-bent grass (Apera spica-venti) is a dominate weed grass. Because of increasing herbicide resistance the control of A. spica-venti becomes more difficult. To manage resistant weed grass populations in winter rye flufenacet is a very important active substance. However, the application of flufenacet can lead to substantially culture damage. The influence of different factors influencing the tolerance of ...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered

  18. Factors influencing consumer behaviour in market vegetables in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarish H. Al-Gahaifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to understand factors influencing consumer behaviour when buying vegetables in Republic of Yemen. Data collection was done by structured questionnaire administered through schools, universities, government offices, and markets from 13 provinces in 5 governorates. Random convenience sampling technique was used. Total sample comprised of 463 completed questionnaires which were used for analysis. The respondents were classified into five categories on the base of their monthly income, age, education, gender, and type of settlement. Authors present the factors that can influence significantly this behaviour, e.g. price, quality, the location of seller, habit, personal relationship between consumer and seller, occasions, discount, sorting, word-mouth, time of purchase, the way of products display, and recommendation of friends and families. From the obtained results, it is obvious that there was high influence on the behaviour of Yemeni consumer when buying vegetables for factors price, occasions, discontent, and time of purchase, while factors habit, display, sorting, and the location of seller suggests medium influence, and the influence was low for word-mouth.

  19. Analysis for Diminishing Combustible Components in Waste Incineration Slag%有效降低垃圾焚烧炉渣可燃分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炜岚

    2012-01-01

    分析了影响炉渣中可燃分因素,简述了降低炉渣中可燃分的有效措施以及提高垃圾燃烧效率的途径.%The influence factors of combustible component in slag were analyzed. The measures for reducing combustible components in slag were expounded, as well as the ways for improving waste combustion efficiency.

  20. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  1. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  2. Influence of temperature conditions in outer space on the macrokinetic characteristics of ignition and combustion of the solid-fuel charge of the microthruster of a microelectromechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futko, S. I.; Bondarenko, V. P.; Dolgii, L. N.

    2012-03-01

    On the basis of macrokinetic calculations, the influence of the initial temperature on the impulse responses of the processes of ignition and combustion of the solid-fuel charge of the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) microthruster burning the solid fuel glycidyl azide polymer (GAP)/RDX has been investigated. It has been established that fuel heating/cooling in a wide range of temperature values from 150 to 450 K characteristic of the conditions of a satellite in orbital flight markedly affects both the thrust and the total impulse of the MEMS microthruster. In so doing, an increase in the initial temperature leads to a marked decrease in the induction period and an increase in the critical flux of fuel ignition. The influence of the change in the initial temperature on the self-ignition temperature of GAP can be neglected. To obtain stable characteristics of the microthruster, it seems expedient to use a thermostating system.

  3. Combustion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  4. Applied combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  5. Population Distribution and Influencing Factors Based on ESDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Chen; Fan Jie; Sun Wei

    2012-01-01

    Based on the exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) technique and geographic information system (GIS) platform, with statistic data of counties in 2005, this paper confirms that there is a large population density gap between counties in 2005 because the Gini coefficient is 0.55. Population distribution does not change a lot during the past decades, and the southeast China is still much more densely populated than the northwest China. The global spa- tial autoeorrelation of population distribution is obvious because Moran's I scores 0.42 and local spatial autocorrelation is partly significant. Climate and elevation are still the main natural influ- encing factors. Meanwhile industrial structure and transportation significantly influence population distribution. Different combinations of natural factors have different effects on population distribution. For a long term, climate and terrain factor stability affect population distribution. But its influence will be weakened by progress of technology. Economic development is the main factor that changes population distribution for a short term.

  6. What factors influence UK medical students' choice of foundation school?

    OpenAIRE

    Miah, S.; Pang, K.H.; Rebello, W.; Rubakumar, Z.; Fung, V; Venugopal, S.; Begum, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation sc...

  7. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. Methods 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 y...

  8. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  9. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  10. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendyk Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II and totally impervious surface (III. Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS. Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.

  11. Factors that influence the speed of bacterial wood degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.K.W.M.; Overeem, van B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial wood decay is a serious threat to the many wooden foundation piles in the Netherlands. In order to learn more about the factors that influence the process of decay, approx. 2000 wood samples taken from Amsterdam piles heads were analysed on type and degree of decay and for 59 extracted pil

  12. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Nagels, G.; Bissay, V.; De Keyser, J.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and tetan

  13. Factors Influencing the Academic Persistence of College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melara, Claudia Alexia

    2012-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for failing to complete their postsecondary educational degrees than their typical peers. The present qualitative sought to identify factors influencing the academic persistence of students with ADHD in postsecondary settings. Utilizing direct interviews with…

  14. Information Booklets about Cancer: Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction and Utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, Phyllis; Brindle, Elizabeth; McConnell, David; Boakes, Robert; Tattersall, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Explored factors influencing patient satisfaction with and utilization of information booklets. Patients (N=36) rated five booklets, and strongly preferred one with a grade-eight reading level. The relationship of preference and recall was investigated. No difference between those who seek or avoid information was found. Additional findings are…

  15. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  16. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok-Koch, E.G.H.J.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out

  17. The genetic factors influencing the development of trichotillomania

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koushik Chatterjee

    2012-08-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM), an obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD), is a psychiatric condition characterized by repetitive hair pulling. Evidence from family and twin studies suggest a heritable link of TTM. Functional polymorphisms in genes involved in neuronal pathways might influence the susceptibility to TTM. This review is an attempt to compile the genetic factors reported to modify the development of TTM.

  18. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  19. Social Factors Influencing Participation in Sport for the Deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The article looks at social factors influencing participation in sport by the deaf including communication mode and value orientations of community, family, school, and peers of both the hearing and deaf world. A model for integration of the deaf into sports is offered. (DB)

  20. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  1. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  2. Factors that Influence Informal Learning in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Shelley A.; Chyung, Seung Youn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate factors that influence informal learning in the workplace and the types of informal learning activities people engage in at work. More specifically, the research examined: the relationship between informal learning engagement and the presence of learning organization characteristics; and…

  3. Factors Influencing the Academic Persistence of College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melara, Claudia Alexia

    2012-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for failing to complete their postsecondary educational degrees than their typical peers. The present qualitative sought to identify factors influencing the academic persistence of students with ADHD in postsecondary settings. Utilizing direct interviews with…

  4. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2011-03-01

    Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

  5. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  6. Hepatitus B virus infection : factors influencing the outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Hattum (Jan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to find correlations between the various courses of disease after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and factors that could conceivably have influenced the course of disease. The aim of the study was to find correlations between parameters of viral replication and

  7. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Nagels, G.; Bissay, V.; De Keyser, J.

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and

  8. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  9. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in producti

  10. Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Adult Agricultural Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, Oren L.; Warmbrod, J. Robert

    A study examined the institutional factors the influence whether or not adult agricultural education programs are offered in high schools. All Ohio secondary schools that offered vocational agriculture programs in agricultural production or farm business management during 1985-1986 (a total of 260 schools) were included in the study. Data were…

  11. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  12. Leadership Factors Influencing the Performance of Educational Institutions. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Fred E.

    This document is the summary report of a study having as its main objectives: (1) an intensive study of organizational and group-structural factors influencing the research and teaching effectiveness of individual faculty members and their relations to the students; (2) research investigating the effect of academic area and technology on…

  13. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  14. Hepatitus B virus infection : factors influencing the outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Hattum (Jan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to find correlations between the various courses of disease after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and factors that could conceivably have influenced the course of disease. The aim of the study was to find correlations between parameters of viral replication and

  15. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  16. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  17. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical educaton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Stok-Koch; R. Koopmans; Dr. S. Bolhuis

    2007-01-01

    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing

  18. Factors influencing adherence to an emergency department national protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, R.H.A.; Vloet, L.C.M.; Groot, J.M. de; Achterberg, T. van

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence emergency nurses' adherence to an emergency department national protocol (EDNP). A survey of emergency nurses (n=200) and physicians with medical end responsibility on an emergency department (n=103) was carried out. Emergency nurses

  19. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  20. Product development alliances: factors influencing formation and success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Johanne Rønnow; Harmsen, Hanne; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The objective of this paper is to develop a framework, based on existing literature, for factors influencing the formation and success of product development alliances, and relate this specifically to the food industry. Design/methodology/approach - Case study of a product development a...

  1. Factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt confirmed that ungerminated sorghum grain exhibited essentially no beta-amylase activity. Malted sorghum had beta-amylase activity less than 25% of the level in barley...

  2. INFLUENCE FACTOR ANALYSIS OF CHINESE STUDENTS' LERANING STYLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平

    2009-01-01

    Learning style, aiming at language learner, is a hot issue of second language acquisition. The article first reviews the various definitions of learning style. From the perspective of cognition, three influence factors of Chinese students' learning styles are analyzed. Suggestions are proposed for teachers to help students develop learning styles.

  3. International preferences for pork appearance: II. Factors influencing consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngapo, T.M.; Martin, J.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2007-01-01

    The preference for pork varying in its fat cover, lean colour, marbling and drip differs among countries, but the influence of socio-demographic factors is unknown. In this study of 11,717 consumers from 22 countries, more than 80% of consumers liked pork, thought that pork quality was at least

  4. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok-Koch, E.G.H.J.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out

  5. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical educaton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok-Koch, L.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.

    2007-01-01

    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing h

  6. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  7. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PURCHASE DECISION OF ORGANIC TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantry Nugroho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence consumers in making the decision to buy organic tofu. The theory of factors that influence the purchasing behavior developed by Kotler was used as the analytical tool, and these factors include cultural factors, social factors, personal factors, psychological factors and purchasing process. These data were collected through interview techniques and analyzed descriptively using multinomial logistic regression. The characteristics of respondents indicated the consumers who never bought organic tofu are mostly at the age of 26-35 years old and university graduates, do not work, have an expenditure from Rp 1 million to Rp 2.5 million, are highly knowledge, and have the highest scores on the perceptions on sustainable and environmentally friendly organic farming, health benefits, and a more expensive price. There are a number of factors that influence consumers in making purchase decisions of organic tofu including age, education, knowledge and product external factors. The consumers who are potentially interested in purchasing the organic tofu are at the age of 36–50 years old, university graduates, highly knowledgeable in food and organic tofu products, because the higher the education and knowledge, the greater the interest in buying the products, and they approved of the external products such as price, advertising, personal selling and places of selling which are also potentially equal. The managerial implications for the business agents of tofu organic product is that they must be more active in assuring the consumers that these products are good for them by creating a blog, an ad in the local paper, or a pamphlet containing information of the product.Keywords: purchase decision, logistic regression, organic tofu product, purchasing interest

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy of factors influencing on marketing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Yaghoubi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011 [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011. Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3, 368-375.] to determine the factors influencing on marketing SMEs. Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing, positively.

  9. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  10. Factors influencing the flavour of game meat: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, J; Hoffman, L C; Muller, M

    2016-03-01

    Flavour is a very important attribute contributing to the sensory quality of meat and meat products. Although the sensory quality of meat includes orthonasal and retronasal aroma, taste, as well as appearance, juiciness and other textural attributes, the focus of this review is primarily on flavour. The influence of species, age, gender, muscle anatomical location, diet, harvesting conditions, ageing of meat, packaging and storage, as well as cooking method on the flavour of game meat are discussed. Very little research is available on the factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from wild and free-living game species. The aim of this literature review is thus to discuss the key ante- and post-mortem factors that influence the flavour of game meat, with specific focus on wild and free-living South African game species.

  11. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  12. Measurements of VOC/SVOC emission factors from burning incenses in an environmental test chamber: influence of temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, A; Buiron, D; Temime-Roussel, B; Wortham, H; Quivet, E

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of three environmental indoor parameters (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate) on the emission of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) during incense burning. Experiments have been carried out using an environmental test chamber. Statistical results from a classical two-level full factorial design highlight the predominant effect of ventilation on emission factors. The higher the ventilation, the higher the emission factor. Moreover, thanks to these results, an estimation of the concentration range for the compounds under study can be calculated and allows a quick look of indoor pollution induced by incense combustion. Carcinogenic substances (i.e., benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and formaldehyde) produced from the incense combustion would be predicted in typical living indoors conditions to reach instantaneous concentration levels close to or higher than air quality exposure threshold values.

  13. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE OF CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA-CODRUŢA DUDĂ-DĂIANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.

  14. Why neurology? Factors which influence career choice in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dara V; Hoyle, Chad; Yin, Han; McCoyd, Matthew; Lukas, Rimas V

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the factors which influence the decision to pursue a career in neurology. An anonymous survey was developed using a Likert scale to rate responses. The survey was sent to adult and child neurology faculty, residents and fellows, as well as medical students applying for neurology. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the factors of influence. Respondents were subsequently categorized into pre-neurology trainees, neurology trainees, child neurologists and adult neurologists, and differences between the groups were analysed using Pearson's chi-square test. One hundred and thirty-three anonymous responses were received. The respondents were neurologists across all levels of training and practice. Across all respondents, the most common factor of high importance was intellectual content of specialty, challenging diagnostic problems, type of patient encountered and interest in helping people. Responses were similar across the groups; however, the earliest trainees cited interest in helping people as most important, while those in neurology training and beyond cite intellectual content of the specialty as most important. As trainees transition from their earliest levels of clinical experience into working as residents and faculty, there is a shift in the cited important factors. Lifestyle and financial factors seem to be the least motivating across all groups. Encouragement from peers, mentors, faculty and practicing physicians is considered high influences in a smaller number of neurologists. This may present an opportunity for practicing neurologists to make connections with medical students early in their education in an effort to encourage and mentor candidates.

  15. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  16. SO{sub 2} influence on the K/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} soot combustion catalyst deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, M.A.; Ulla, M.A.; Querini, C.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica-INCAPE-(FIQ, UNL-CONICET) Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2008-04-15

    In the present work, K/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} was prepared and tested as a potential catalyst to be used in a diesel engine exhaust. The soot combustion activity was evaluated by temperature-programmed-oxidation (TPO), and the NO{sub x}-catalyst interaction was studied using a microbalance experiment. The SO{sub 2} poisoning process and the regeneration of a poisoned K/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst were analyzed. The fresh catalyst presented a good soot combustion activity. After being treated with a 1000 ppm SO{sub 2} stream, the catalyst was poisoned due to lanthanum sulfate and potassium sulfate formation. The NO{sub x} treatment contributed to the K{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}) decomposition at the expense of extra La{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} formation and the H{sub 2} treatment contributed to the La{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} decomposition. (author)

  17. Impact of the composition of combustion generated fine particles on epithelial cell toxicity: influences of metals on metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeson, C.D.; Riley, M.R.; Fernandez, A.; Wendt, J.O.L. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Agriculture & Biosystems Engineering

    2003-06-01

    Inhaled airborne particulate matter (PM) represents a potentially significant health hazard to humans. PM generated from the combustion of fuel oils and coals contain a number of water-soluble transition metals including Fe, V, and Zn. The authors evaluated the impact of PM types with varying composition collected from the combustion of oils and coals on the health and metabolism of lung cell cultures. Three colorimetric assays (sulforhodamine B (SRB), Janus green, and MTT) were adapted to quantify the impact of PM on rat lung alveolar type 11 epithelial cells (RLE-6TN cells). The PM toxicity metrics evaluated were inhibition of cell proliferation (SRB and Janus green) and inhibition of cellular metabolism (MTT). Cell proliferation is inhibited in a consistent dose-dependent manner by PM concentrations from 25 to 250 {mu}g/ml. At a level of 100 {mu}g/ml, oil-derived PM diminishes cell metabolism by as much as 40% relative to controls; the degree of inhibition is strongly dependent on PM particle size and metal content. Conversely, coal-derived PM at the same dosage diminishes cell metabolism by no more than 20% relative to controls. All three assays provide highly repeatable results and consistent toxicity rankings of the PMs evaluated. Overall, metabolic inhibition as measured by the MTT assay was deemed the most appropriate metric for PM toxicity, primarily due to its applicability with in vivo-like confluent cell monolayers.

  18. Influence of Antioxidant Addition in Jatropha Biodiesel on the Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiasamy, Prabu; Ramachandran Bhagavathiammal, Anand

    2017-04-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted on a single-cylinder DI diesel engine, to evaluate the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel with the addition of antioxidants namely, Succinimide (C4H5NO2), N,N-Dimethyl p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (C8H14Cl2N2) and N-Phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (C6H5NHC6H4NH2) at 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm. The performance, combustion and emission characteristic tests are conducted at a constant speed of 1500 rpm, injection pressure of 215 bar, injection timing of 26° before top dead centre for the nine test fuels and the experimental results are compared with neat diesel and neat biodiesel as base fuels. The experimental results show that the addition of antioxidant in biodiesel suppresses the NO emission by quenching the OH radicals that are produced by the reaction of hydrocarbon radicals with molecular nitrogen. The maximum percentage reduction of NO emission by 5, 6 and 7% are observed for N-Phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, N,N-Dimethyl p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride and Succinimide blended test fuels at 2000 ppm antioxidant addition with biodiesel.

  19. Factors influencing first childbearing timing decisions among men: Path analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariman, Nourossadat; Amerian, Maliheh; Jannati, Padideh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors that influence men’s childbearing intentions have been relatively unexplored in the literature. Objective: This study aimed to determine the influencing factors about the first childbearing timing decisions of men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 men who were referred to private and governmental healthcare centers in Shahrood, Iran were randomly recruited from April to September 2014. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Quality of Life Questionnaire; ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, Synder’s Hope Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: After removing the statistically insignificant paths, men’s age at marriage had the highest direct effect (β=0.86) on their first childbearing decision. Marital satisfaction (β=-0.09), social support (β=0.06), economic status (β=0.06), and quality of life (β=-0.08) were other effective factors on men’s first childbearing decisions. Moreover, marital satisfaction and social support had significant indirect effects on men’s childbearing decisions (β=-0.04 and -0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Many factors, including personal factors (age at marriage and quality of life), family factors (marital satisfaction), and social factors (social support), can affect men’s decision to have a child. Policymakers are hence required to develop strategies to promote the socioeconomic and family conditions of the couples and to encourage them to have as many children as they desire at an appropriate time. PMID:27738661

  20. Relative recoilless F-factors in REFeO{sub 3} (RE = rare-earth La, Pr, Nd and Sm) orthoferrites synthesized by self-combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.A; Sierra-Gallego, G. [Departamento de Materiales y Minerales, Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Calle 75 # 79A-51, Bloque M17, Medellín (Colombia); Barrero, C.A. [Grupo de Estado Sólido, Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Arnache, O., E-mail: oscar.arnache@udea.edu.co [Grupo de Estado Sólido, Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Rare-earth orthoferrites were successfully synthesized by the self-combustion method. • The relative recoilless F-factors for REFeO{sub 3} with respect to α-Fe were calculated. • Magnetic hyperfine fields, cell volumes and Fe−O−Fe bond angles are correlated. - Abstract: In this work, rare-earth orthoferrites polycrystalline compounds REFeO{sub 3} (REFO) with RE = rare-earth La, Pr, Nd and Sm were synthesized by the self-combustion method. A direct correlation between the magnitude of the magnetic hyperfine field and the Fe−O{sub 1}−Fe bond angles was observed. From transmission Mössbauer spectra recorded at room-temperature, relative recoilless F-factors for these REFO compounds were estimated. The method applied to perform this calculation was based on the determination of two subspectral areas present in a mixture of known amounts of the compound under study and a standard sample (α-Fe). For that purpose spectra were thickness-corrected and fitted using lorentzian lines. The so obtained factors were F-{sub REFeO3} (RE = rare-earth La, Pr, Nd and Sm): 1.30 ± 0.02, 1.08 ± 0.04, 1.15 ± 0.05, 1.18 ± 0.08 respectively. The absolute recoilless factors obtained by this method had an average relative error around 11% in comparison with the values predicted by the Debye model.

  1. Influence of the overfire air ratio on the NO(x) emission and combustion characteristics of a down-fired 300-MW(e) utility boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feng; Li, Zhengqi; Chen, Zhichao; Fan, Subo; Liu, Guangkui

    2010-08-15

    Down-fired boilers used to burn low-volatile coals have high NO(x) emissions. To find a way of solving this problem, an overfire air (OFA) system was introduced on a 300 MW(e) down-fired boiler. Full-scale experiments were performed on this retrofitted boiler to explore the influence of the OFA ratio (the mass flux ratio of OFA to the total combustion air) on the combustion and NO(x) emission characteristics in the furnace. Measurements were taken of gas temperature distributions along the primary air and coal mixture flows, average gas temperatures along the furnace height, concentrations of gases such as O(2), CO, and NO(x) in the near-wall region and carbon content in the fly ash. Data were compared for five different OFA ratios. The results show that as the OFA ratio increases from 12% to 35%, the NO(x) emission decreases from 1308 to 966 mg/Nm(3) (at 6% O(2) dry) and the carbon content in the fly ash increases from 6.53% to 15.86%. Considering both the environmental and economic effect, 25% was chosen as the optimized OFA ratio.

  2. Comparative analysis of the influence of turbulence models on the description of the nitrogen oxides formation during the combustion of swirling pulverized coal flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V.; Chernetskaya, N.; Chernetskiy, M.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the results of numerical research on the influence of the two- parametric k-ε, and k-ω SST turbulence models as well as Reynolds stress model (RSM) on the description of the nitrogen oxides formation during the combustion of pulverized coal in swirling flow. For the numerical simulation of turbulent flow of an incompressible liquid, we used the Reynolds equation taking into account the interfacial interactions. To solve the equation of thermal radiation transfer, the P1 approximation of spherical harmonics method was employed. The optical properties of gases were described based on the sum of gray gases model. To describe the motion of coal particles we used the method of Lagrange multipliers. Burning of coke residue was considered based on diffusion - kinetic approximation. Comparative analysis has shown that the choice of turbulence model has a significant impact on the root mean square (RMS) values of the velocity and temperature pulsation components. This leads to significant differences in the calculation of the nitrogen oxides formation process during the combustion of pulverized coal.

  3. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  4. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed.

  5. Factors influencing Neurodevelopment after Cardiac Surgery during Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Hubertine Hövels-Gürich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD. This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks. Examples for such risks are embolization, deep hypothermia, flow rate, hemodilution, blood gas management, postoperative hyperthermia, systemic-inflammatory response and capillary leak syndrome. However, influences of these procedure-specific risk factors on ND outcome have not been found as strong as expected. Furthermore, modifications have not been found to support the effectiveness of the currently used neuroprotective strategies.Postoperative factors, such as need for extracorporal membrane oxygenation or assist device support and duration of hospital stay, significantly influence ND parameters. On the other hand, the so-called innate, less modifiable patient-specific risk factors have been found to exert significant influences on ND outcomes. Examples are type and severity of CHD, genetic or syndromic abnormalities as well as prematurity and low birth weight.Structural and hemodynamic characteristics of different CHDs are assumed to result in impaired brain growth and delayed maturation with special respect to the white matter. Beginning in the fetal period, this so-called encephalopathy of CHD is suggested a major innate risk factor for pre-, peri- and postoperative additional hypoxic or ischemic brain injury and subsequent ND impairment. Furthermore, MRI studies on brain volume, structure and

  6. Factors Influencing Neurodevelopment after Cardiac Surgery during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hövels-Gürich, Hedwig Hubertine

    2016-01-01

    Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life, and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks. Examples of such risks are embolization, deep hypothermia, flow rate, hemodilution, blood gas management, postoperative hyperthermia, systemic inflammatory response, and capillary leak syndrome. However, influences of these procedure-specific risk factors on ND outcome have not been found as strong as expected. Furthermore, modifications have not been found to support the effectiveness of the currently used neuroprotective strategies. Postoperative factors, such as need for extracorporal membrane oxygenation or assist device support and duration of hospital stay, significantly influence ND parameters. On the other hand, the so-called “innate,” less modifiable patient-specific risk factors have been found to exert significant influences on ND outcomes. Examples are type and severity of CHD, genetic or syndromic abnormalities, as well as prematurity and low birth weight. Structural and hemodynamic characteristics of different CHDs are assumed to result in impaired brain growth and delayed maturation with respect to the white matter. Beginning in the fetal period, this so-called “encephalopathy of CHD” is suggested a major innate risk factor for pre-, peri-, and postoperative additional hypoxic or ischemic brain injury and subsequent ND impairment. Furthermore, MRI studies on brain volume, structure, and

  7. An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hosseinzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.

  8. Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Inventory Management in Manufacturing SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shiau Wei; Tasmin, R.; Nor Aziati, A. H.; Zuraidah Rasi, Raja; Ismail, Fadillah Binti; Yaw, Li Ping

    2017-08-01

    Effectiveness of inventory management is a vital part in the manufacturing organization to be more competitive. The previous studies have indicated that there are several factors influencing the effectiveness of inventory management in the organization but there is lack of researchers who carried out the research in the manufacturing small medium enterprise in Johor. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify the problem of inventory management faced by the manufacturing small medium enterprise and also to determine the factors that will influence the effectiveness of inventory management. In completing this research, 80 employees were selected randomly from the manufacturing small medium enterprise in Batu Pahat, Johor and they were requested to complete questionnaires. The result have shown that the problems of inventory management faced by manufacturing organization were underproduction, overproduction, stock out situation, delays in the delivery of raw materials and discrepancy of records. The factors, documentation/store records, planning, knowledge of employees/staff skill have shown to significantly influence the effectiveness of inventory management while the funds have shown slightly significant influence on the inventory management in manufacturing small medium enterprises. This quantitative study is important to the manufacturing organization in Malaysia because it provides the guidelines to the employers of manufacturing small medium enterprises in Batu Pahat, Johor.

  9. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  10. Modification of combustion aerosols in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    Combustion aerosols particles are released on large scale into the atmosphere in the industrialized regions as well as in the tropics (by wood fires). The particles are subjected to various aging processes which depend on the size, morphology, and chemical composition of the particles. The interaction of combustion particles with sunlight and humidity as well as adsorption and desorption of volatile material to or from the particles considerably changes their physical and chemical properties and thus their residence time in the atmosphere. This is of importance because combustion particles are known to have a variety of health effects on people. Moreover, atmospheric aerosol particles have an influence on climate, directly through the reflection and absorption of solar radiation and indirectly through modifying the optical properties and lifetime of clouds. In a first step, a field experiment was carried out to study the sources and characteristics of combustion aerosols that are emitted from vehicles in a road tunnel. It was found that most of the fine particles were tail pipe emissions of diesel powered vehicles. The calculation shows that on an average these vehicles emit about 300 mg fine particulate matter per driven kilometer. This emission factor is at least 100 times higher than the mean emission factor estimated for gasoline powered vehicles. Furthermore, it is found that during their residence time in the tunnel, the particles undergo significant changes: The particles change towards a more compact structure. The conclusion is reached that this is mainly due to adsorption of volatile material from the gas phase to the particle surface. In the atmosphere, the life cycle as well as the radiative and chemical properties of an aerosol particle is strongly dependent on its response to humidity. Therefore the hygroscopic behavior of combustion particles emitted from single sources (i.e. from a gasoline and a diesel engine) were studied in laboratory experiments.

  11. Feasibility of Combustion of Petroleum Coke in 230t/h Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong-tai; SONG Zheng-chang; XU Tao

    2003-01-01

    In order to reuse the high sulfur petroleum coke, the waste in chemical industry, as fuel of power plant for energy recovery, the combustion property of petroleum coke was researched experimentally in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The performance of the boiler in burning mixed fuel with different ratios of coal to petroleum coke is obtained. Based on the experimental data, Factors influencing the stability of combustion,thermal efficiency of boiler, and emissions and desulphurisation are discussed. This study demonstrates that the combustion of petroleum coke in CFB boiler is applicable, and has great significance on the design and operation of CFB boiler to burn petroleum coke.

  12. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  13. Monitoring Athletes Through Self-Report: Factors Influencing Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Saw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete’s response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30. Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion, and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement. Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed.

  14. Factors that influence on the decisions of battered women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Robledo Martín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence towards and against women consists in any kind of violation of woman’s personality, her physical integrity or her freedom of movement. Nowadays, gender-based violence is considered a state and public health problem as well as a social concerning subject.Objective: To identify the factors that influence on the decisions that battered women make.Methodology: The study population are battered women who live in Madrid province and who are being attended in the Municipal Points of the Regional Observatory against the Gender Violence.The information was collected by performing focus groups and deep interviews.Results: There are several factors which influence on the decisions that battered women make, like the existence or not of children they have to take care of, the economic dependence and the ignorance of the woman, in some cases, of the existence of this ill-treatment, but over all, we could even say beyond all these, there is one that is the most important, common and we could say it is the main axis that determine their behaviour. This factor is fear.Discussion: When attending these women we may be aware of the psychological situation they are, and we should be able to identify if the woman is asking us for help when she comes to us and try to identify and treat this factor that influences the decisions the woman we attend makes.

  15. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R H; van der Lans, Ivo A; Frewer, Lynn J

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0857-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  16. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SPECIFIC FACTORS UPON FINANCING DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatus Viorel-Dorin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/total assets of some Romanian corporations, focusing on its explanatory variables by including them within simple and multiple econometric models. The panel data indicators computed for the companies in the Cluj area listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange were evaluated with the OLS and FEM techniques.The results have been interpreted, pointing out that company size and asset turnover seem to have a positive influence upon the debt ratio of selected companies, while profitability and liquidity seem to influence the debt ratio of selected companies negatively.

  18. 硝酸异丙酯对三基发射药的燃烧性能影响%Influence of Isopropyl Nitrate on Combustion Performance of Triple-base Propellant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永康; 陈明华; 张力; 葛强; 王韶光

    2015-01-01

    为研究硝酸异丙酯对三基发射药燃烧性能的影响,利用密闭爆发器测试了三基药在混合了硝酸异丙酯环境中的燃烧性能。测得了发射药的压力曲线和微分曲线,确定了最大压力和燃烧时间,计算得到了气体生成猛度、压力全冲量、火药已燃百分数、火药力和余容等参数以及燃烧速度定律。通过研究发现:硝酸异丙酯会使三基药的燃烧时间延长、燃烧速度减慢、燃烧速度系数减小、压力指数增大。%In order to study the influence of isopropyl nitrate on combustion performance of triple-base propellant,the closed bomb is used to test the combustion performance of triple-base propellant in the en-vironment of isopropyl nitrate.Pressure-time curves and their differential curves are obtained,and maxi-mum pressure and combustion time are determined by analyzing curves.Combustion performance parame-ters including gas generated brisance,pressure impulse,percentage of gunpowder burned out,impetus, covolume and combustion velocity law are calculated.It is shown that isopropyl nitrate can make the com-bustion velocity slowed,combustion time prelonged,combustion rate coefficient reduced and pressure in-dex increased.

  19. 硝酸异丙酯对单基发射药燃烧性能的影响%Influence of Isopropyl Nitrate on Combustion Performances of Single-base Gun Propellant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永康; 陈明华; 张力; 张涛; 王宇

    2014-01-01

    To study the influence of isopropyl nitrate on combustion performances of single-base gun propellant,the combustion performances of single-base gun propellant under the condition of adding isopropyl nitrate were tested with a closed bomb.Combustion characteristic parameters including maximum pressure,combustion time,gas gen-erated brisance,pressure impulse,the percentage of gunpowder burned out,impetus,covolume,and the relation between combustion rate and pressure were obtained by analyzing pressure-time curves.Results show that isopro-pyl nitrate makes the combustion rate of propellant accelerate,combustion time shorten,combustion rate coefficient increase and pressure exponent decrease.%为研究硝酸异丙酯对单基发射药燃烧性能的影响,用密闭爆发器测试了加入硝酸异丙酯后单基发射药的燃烧性能。通过分析 p -t 曲线,得到最大压力、燃烧时间、气体生成猛度、压力全冲量、火药已燃百分数、火药力和余容等燃烧特性参数以及燃烧速度与压力之间的关系。结果表明,硝酸异丙酯使发射药的燃烧速度加快,燃烧时间缩短,燃速系数增大,压力指数减小。

  20. Mechanism and optimization of fuel injection parameters on combustion noise of DI diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆辉; 郝志勇; 郑旭; 杨文英; 毛杰

    2016-01-01

    Combustion noise takes large proportion in diesel engine noise and the studies of its influence factors play an important role in noise reduction. Engine noise and cylinder pressure measurement experiments were carried out. And the improved attenuation curves were obtained, by which the engine noise was predicted. The effect of fuel injection parameters in combustion noise was investigated during the combustion process. At last, the method combining single variable optimization and multivariate combination was introduced to online optimize the combustion noise. The results show that injection parameters can affect the cylinder pressure rise rate and heat release rate, and consequently affect the cylinder pressure load and pressure oscillation to influence the combustion noise. Among these parameters, main injection advance angle has the greatest influence on the combustion noise, while the pilot injection interval time takes the second place, and the pilot injection quantity is of minimal impact. After the optimal design of the combustion noise, the average sound pressure level of the engine is distinctly reduced by 1.0 dB(A) generally. Meanwhile, the power, emission and economy performances are ensured.

  1. Sourcing methane and carbon dioxide emissions from a small city: Influence of natural gas leakage and combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel D; Ingraffea, Anthony R; Sparks, Jed P

    2016-11-01

    Natural gas leakage and combustion are major sources of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), respectively; however, our understanding of emissions from cities is limited. We mapped distribution pipeline leakage using a mobile CH4 detection system, and continuously monitored atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations and carbon isotopes (δ(13)C-CO2 and δ(13)C-CH4) for one-year above Ithaca, New York. Pipeline leakage rates were low (source in that wind sector. Our results demonstrate pipeline leakage rates are low in cities with a low extent of leak prone pipe, and natural gas power facilities may be an important source of urban and suburban emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of the composition of combustion generated fin particles on epithelial cell toxicity: influences of metals on metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeson, Carl D.; Riley, Mark R. [Arizona Univ., Dept. of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Tucson, AZ (United States); Fernandez, Art; Wendt, Jost O.L. [Arizona Univ., Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Inhaled airborne particulate matter (PM) represents a potentially significant health hazard to humans. Exposure to PM strongly correlates with pulmonary inflammation and incidences of severe respiratory distress, including increased hospital admissions for breathing disorders, asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis. PM generated from the combustion of fuel oils and coals contain a number of water-soluble transition metals including Fe, V, and Zn. We have evaluated the impact of PM types with varying composition collected from the combustion of oils and coals on the health and metabolism of lung cell cultures. Three colorimetric assays (sulforhodamine B (SRB), Janus green, and MTT) have been adapted to quantify the impact of PM on rat lung alveolar type II epithelial cells (RLE-6TN cells). The PM toxicity metrics evaluated were inhibition of cell proliferation (SRB and Janus green) and inhibition of cellular metabolism (MTT). Cell proliferation is inhibited in a consistent dose-dependent manner by PM concentrations from 25 to 250 {mu}g/ml. At a level of 100 {mu}g/ml, oil-derived PM diminishes cell metabolism by as much as 40% relative to controls; the degree of inhibition is strongly dependent on PM particle size and metal content. Conversely, coal-derived PM at the same dosage diminishes cell metabolism by no more than 20% relative to controls. All three assays provide highly repeatable results and consistent toxicity rankings of the PMs evaluated. Overall, metabolic inhibition as measured by the MTT assay was deemed the most appropriate metric for PM toxicity, primarily due to its applicability with in vivo-like confluent cell monolayers. (Author)

  3. Impact of the composition of combustion generated fine particles on epithelial cell toxicity: influences of metals on metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Carl D; Riley, Mark R; Fernandez, Art; Wendt, Jost O L

    2003-06-01

    Inhaled airborne particulate matter (PM) represents a potentially significant health hazard to humans. Exposure to PM strongly correlates with pulmonary inflammation and incidences of severe respiratory distress, including increased hospital admissions for breathing disorders, asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis. PM generated from the combustion of fuel oils and coals contain a number of water-soluble transition metals including Fe, V, and Zn. We have evaluated the impact of PM types with varying composition collected from the combustion of oils and coals on the health and metabolism of lung cell cultures. Three colorimetric assays (sulforhodamine B (SRB), Janus green, and MTT) have been adapted to quantify the impact of PM on rat lung alveolar type II epithelial cells (RLE-6TN cells). The PM toxicity metrics evaluated were inhibition of cell proliferation (SRB and Janus green) and inhibition of cellular metabolism (MTT). Cell proliferation is inhibited in a consistent dose-dependent manner by PM concentrations from 25 to 250 microg/ml. At a level of 100 microg/ml, oil-derived PM diminishes cell metabolism by as much as 40% relative to controls; the degree of inhibition is strongly dependent on PM particle size and metal content. Conversely, coal-derived PM at the same dosage diminishes cell metabolism by no more than 20% relative to controls. All three assays provide highly repeatable results and consistent toxicity rankings of the PMs evaluated. Overall, metabolic inhibition as measured by the MTT assay was deemed the most appropriate metric for PM toxicity, primarily due to its applicability with in vivo-like confluent cell monolayers.

  4. A comprehensive fractal char combustion model☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuting Liu; Rong He

    2016-01-01

    The char combustion mechanisms were analyzed and a comprehensive fractal char combustion model was developed to give a better understanding and better predictions of the char combustion characteristics. Most of the complex factors affecting the char combustion were included, such as the coupling effects between the pore diffusion and the chemical reactions, the evolution of the char pore structures and the variation of the apparent reaction order during combustion, the CO/CO2 ratio in the combustion products and the correction for oxy-char combustion. Eleven different chars were then combusted in two drop tube furnaces with the conversions of the partly burned char samples measured by thermogravimetric analysis. The combustion processes of these chars were simulated with the predicted char conversions matching very well with the measured data which shows that this char combustion model has good accuracy. The apparent reaction order of the char combustion decreases, stabilizes and then increases during the combustion process. The combustion rates in the oxy-mode are general y slower than in the air-mode and the effect of the char-CO2 gasification reac-tion becomes obvious only when the temperature is relatively high and the O2 concentration is relatively low.

  5. Particle Emissions from Biomass Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpila, Aneta; Bohgard, Mats [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology; Strand, Michael; Lillieblad, Lena; Sanati, Mehri [Vaexjoe Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Bioenergy Technology; Pagels, Joakim; Rissler, Jenny; Swietlicki, Erik; Gharibi, Arash [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Physics

    2003-05-01

    We have shown that high concentrations of fine particles of the order of 2-7x10{sup -7} particles per cm{sup 3} are being formed in all the combustion units studied. There was a higher difference between the units in terms of particle mass concentrations. While the largest differences was found for gas-phase constituents (CO and THC) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In 5 out of 7 studied units, multi-cyclones were the only measure for flue-gas separation. The multicyclones had negligible effect on the particle number concentration and a small effect on the mass of particles smaller than 5 {mu}m. The separation efficiency was much higher for the electrostatic precipitators. The boiler load had a dramatic influence on the coarse mode concentration during combustion of forest residue. PM0.8-6 increased from below 5 mg/m{sup 3} to above 50 mg/m{sup 3} even at a moderate change in boiler load from medium to high. A similar but less pronounced trend was found during combustion of dry wood. PM0.8-PM6 increased from 12 to 23 mg/m{sup 3} when the load was changed from low to high. When increasing the load, the primary airflow taken through the grate is increased; this itself may lead to a higher potential of the air stream to carry coarse particles away from the combustion zone. Measurements with APS-instrument with higher time-resolution showed a corresponding increase in coarse mode number concentration with load. Additional factor influencing observed higher concentration of coarse mode during combustion of forest residues, could be relatively high ash content in this type of fuel (2.2 %) in comparison to dry wood (0.3 %) and pellets (0.5 %). With increasing load we also found a decrease in PM1 during combustion of forest residue. Whether this is caused by scavenging of volatilized material by the high coarse mode concentration or a result of a different amount of volatilized material available for formation of fine particles needs to be shown in future studies. The

  6. An exploration study on factors influencing green marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Esmaeeli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distributed among 200 people who were visiting organic product exhibition. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.845, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of factor analysis reveal four major factors including green labeling, compatibility, product value and marketing component and size.

  7. Journal impact factor: this editorial, academic and scientific influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Milton Artur; Greco, Oswaldo Tadeu; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2009-01-01

    In this report the authors present information on the bibliometric instruments and their importance in measuring the quality of scientific journals and researchers. They in particular the history and deployment of the impact factor of the existing Institute for Scientific Information since 1955. Are presented and discussed the criticism regarding the inadequacy of the impact factor for evaluation of scientific production, misuse and strategies editorial handling of the bibliometric index. It is presented to the new classification CAPES for the journals, based on various criteria and the impact factor and its influence on national scientific and academic life. The authors conclude that, despite all obstacles and discussions, the impact factor of the Institute for Scientific Information is still an useful tool and the only isolation available to assess the scientific and intellectual productivity.

  8. Factor Influencing Creative Industries Development in Kenjeran Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, V. K.; Santoso, E. B.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia needs to improve the competitiveness of local products to optimize its contribution to the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) for the welfare of the population. This can be done by improving the development of creative industries. Kenjeran Sub District is one of the coastal villages in the city of Surabaya, which has a large number of poor people. The potential of the creative industries is still not visible in efforts to increase public welfare. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the factors that influence the development of creative industries in Kenjeran. This study using in-depth interview were analysed using content analysis and Cartesian diagram to determine the important factors that affect the development of creative industries in Sub district of Kenjeran. By using five respondents from the government shows that the factors that have a high level of importance and advantages are low among other regulatory factors of raw materials, import and export, extortion, and administrative procedures.

  9. Succesful Lean Manufacturing Implementation: Internal Key Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.

  10. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. The influence of various factors on milk clotting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of pH (6.5 and 5.8, amount of added CaCl2 (0, 200 and 400 mg/l, coagulation temperature (30ºC and 35ºC and heat treatment of milk (65ºC/30 min and 87ºC/10 min on the rate of rennet induced milk coagulation (s were investigated. The time (s from rennet addition to onset of gelation (as indicated by the first visible floccules was measured. The milk samples heat-treated at 87ºC/10 min, with 400 mg/l added CaCl2, which were coagulated at 35ºC and pH 5.8, coagulated 23.28-fold faster than the same samples without added CaCl2, which were coagulated at 30ºC and pH 6.5. The results of investigations related to the influence of particular coagulation factors on the coagulation rate of heat-treated milk showed that at pH 6.5 the most pronounced influence was demonstrated by the amount of Ca2+ and temperature of coagulation. At pH 5.8, different amounts of Ca2 and used temperatures of coagulation did not influence coagulation rate regardless of the used heat treatment of milk. The influence of used heat treatment of milk was particularly pronounced during coagulation of samples without added CaCl2 that coagulated at 30ºC and pH 6.5. The used heat treatment of milk practically did not influence the milk coagulation rate at pH 5.8. The greatest influence on milk coagulation rate was showed by pH. This influence was the most marked in coagulation of samples in which the coaggregates were formed, regardless of the amount of added Ca2+ and used coagulation temperatures.

  12. Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

  13. Study of Influencing Factors on ConsumerOnline Impulse Buying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The convenience and anonymity of online shopping have stimulated people's impulse buying tendency. Impulse buying is notonly a competitive method for businesses, but also a crucial factor influencing sales of e-commerce. Based on a systematic reviewof literatures, this paper explores factors affecting the online impulse buying. Moreover, by using the S-O-R model, this paperdescribes the formation mechanism of the online impulse buying behavior. At Last, it points out issues worthy of future studies.For example, this paper suggests to take into consideration of sociocultural impact and to put more emphasis on empirical studies.

  14. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration.

  15. INVESTIGATING FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ LEARNING IN A TEAM TEACHING SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Team teaching factors, including mission clarity, affiliation, innovativeness, and fairness, are examined to determine how they influence student learning in a team-taught course. The study involved 184 college students enrolled in an Introduction to Computers course delivered in a team-taught format in a large university located in the United States. The collaborative teaching design followed a traditional team teaching approach with an instructor team teaching the same course collaboratively. Students enrolled in the team-taught course filled out an online survey targeted at identifying key factors that influence student-based outcomes (satisfaction and competency in the course. Results showed that instructor team mission clarity, affiliation, and fairness are significantly related to students’ satisfaction while instructor team mission clarity and fairness are significantly related to students’ competency.

  16. Factors Influencing Rural Teacher Flow in Yunnan Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; SUN; Zhaochang; REN; Yang; HE; Haijiao; ZHU

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic minority areas area old revolutionary base areas,areas inhabited by ethnic minorities,remote areas,impoverished areas, and also difficult areas for construction of socialist harmonious society.Studying on factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas is of great significance to improving local teacher team structure and promoting balanced development of urban and rural education.However,it lacks empirical analysis based on field survey for the nonce.In this study,based on interview and questionnaire data of education departments and school leaders in 4 ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,it established binary Logistic model,analyzed factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,and finally present policy recommendations.

  17. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed. (author)

  18. Factors influencing prehospital delay for patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujuan CHENG; Lufen GUO; Juyuan LIU; Xiaoling ZHU; Hongbing YAN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors for prehospital delay in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods A total of 807 consecutive patients with AMI who presented to the emergency department of Beijing Anzhen Hospital were analyzed. The influence of several potential risk factors on the prehospital delay time (PDT) was evaluated by comparing patients admitted more than 2 hours after onset of chese pain with those admitted within 2 hours after onset. Results Among 807 patients, 402 came to the hospital within 2 hours while the others arrived at the hospital after 2 hours. The median PDT was 130 min. Among the potential variables, advanced age, history of diabetes mellitus, occurrence of symptom at night and use of emergency medical service significantly affected PDT by multivariate analysis. Conclusion Interventions aimed at reducing the prehospital delay in AMI should primarily focus on the awareness of the risk and help-seeking behavior of patients.

  19. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  20. WHICH ARE THE FACTORS INFLUENCING FINANCING DECISIONS IN SMEs?

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia-Diana NISTOR

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I review the literature in search of the factors that influence financing decisions in SMEs. Financial theories suggest that the only goal of a company is value maximization, but empirical studies have shown that small companies’ owners can have other goals than profit maximization, this being reflected in their financing decisions. Also the personal characteristics of SMEs’ founders are relevant in establishing the companies financing strategy

  1. Influence of environmental factors on corrosion damage of aircraft structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the important structural integrity concerns of aging aircraft, and it is estimated that a significant portion of airframe maintenance budgets is directed towards corrosion-related problems for both military and commercial aircraft. In order to better understand how environmental factors influence the corrosion damage initiation and propagation on aircraft structure and to predict pre-corrosion test pieces of fatigue life and structural integrity of an effective approach, this paper uses ...

  2. Generational Approach to Factors Influencing Career Choice in Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Hsiao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research aims to grasp which factors influence the generation Y to choose accounting as its career. A significant decline in the number of candidates willing to pursue a career as accountant has been observed abroad - USA, Australia, and Japan. However, in other countries - Brazil, Singapore, and Hong Kong - the opposite has been observed. Another issue is the decline in educational qualification of those pursuing an accounting career, contributing in a way that many talented students change their career choice. This may be explained by the fact that people tend to believe accounting is an exact science, full of calculations, boring, and not very creative, bringing an unbalance between the traits an individual should have according to the job market and those perceived by society. In order to give a contribution to literature concerning the factors that influence the generation Y in its career choice, a goal of this research was conducting an exploratory study where some hypotheses were formulated to support the discussion. We used Mannheim's Generational Theory and the literature on career choice. Data collection was carried out using a questionnaire, based on Schwartz's Portrait Value Questionnaire and Germeijs and Verschueren's Student Choice Task Inventory, adapted through focus group interview. Data were fully collected online and the sample consisted of 665 subjects. The results showed that people who chose accounting as their career were influenced by factors such as creativity, independence, challenging and dynamic environment, job security, money-making, job availability, and other significant people - friends and teachers. The subjects were not influenced by social factors, such as working with people and making contributions to society and family. They wish for more autonomy, creativity, and flexibility at work, and people still care about job security and money-making.

  3. Analysis of Factors Influencing English Listening Teaching and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Tian

    2013-01-01

    English teaching focuses on cultivating and improving students’listening, speaking, reading, writing and translating skills, which are complementary to each other. Among these five skills, listening, as an important basic skill, should be put into top priority in English teaching. Mainly based on the analysis of factors influencing English listening teaching, the paper puts for-ward some effective countermeasures in improving teaching effectiveness.

  4. Factors Influencing Beta-Thalassemia Awareness in Western India

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin P Patel; Prakash H Parmar; Rupesh B Patel; Nikhil M Trivedi; Nileshkumar A Bhartiya

    2016-01-01

    "Context: Beta-thalassemia is highly prevalent in western India. Our organization runs a screening and prevention program to create awareness and reduce the incidence of homozygous beta-thalassemia cases. Aims: The study was designed to evaluate factors influencing awareness about Beta-thalassemia. Methodology: This cross sectional survey was conducted at six colleges, two medical clinics, and a thalassemia transfusion centre. It involved 398 adults ( and #8805;18 years).The survey form...

  5. Factors Influencing the HRD Climate of an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out which factor (s) influence the HRD climate of the company. The descriptive research design was under taken with the help of the structured questionnaire to study the OCTAPACE culture of Spanco Ltd. which was based on the responses of the various levels of employees working in it. Thesample consistsof 59 employees.Employees believe that the top management gives importance to the human resource and all the employees are treated humanely in the organization. ...

  6. Mechanisms and factors that influence high frequency retroviral recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga;

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse t......, and vaccine development....... transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity...

  7. Factors Influencing Beta-Thalassemia Awareness in Western India

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin P Patel; Prakash H Parmar; Rupesh B Patel; Nikhil M Trivedi; Nileshkumar A Bhartiya

    2016-01-01

    "Context: Beta-thalassemia is highly prevalent in western India. Our organization runs a screening and prevention program to create awareness and reduce the incidence of homozygous beta-thalassemia cases. Aims: The study was designed to evaluate factors influencing awareness about Beta-thalassemia. Methodology: This cross sectional survey was conducted at six colleges, two medical clinics, and a thalassemia transfusion centre. It involved 398 adults ( and #8805;18 years).The survey form...

  8. Factors Influencing Bonding Strength of Laminated Bamboo Strips Lumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Factors influencing bonding strength of laminated bamboo strips lumber (LBSL) were investigated in this paper. In order to find an optimized technology, this paper investigated how the thickness of bamboo strips, the assembly orientation of bamboo curtain, the type of adhesives, as well as coupling agent treatment of bamboo curtain affected the bonding strength. The following conclusions were drawn: 1)The thinner the thickness of the bamboo strips, the bigger the bonding strength of LBSL; 2) The assembly or...

  9. Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra *

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qing; Li, Ying-Hua; Lü, Xiu-yang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra, confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course, and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method, the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisandra under different heating temperature, decocting time, soaking time, processing methods and treatment with different solvents before decocting the Schisandra were measured by RP-HPLC method. The ...

  10. The growth of foot arches and influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ferial Hadipoetro Idris

    2016-01-01

    Background Foot arches are important components for body sup- port. Foot arch deformity caused by growth abnormalities cause serious limitations in daily activities. Objectives To determine the patterns of foot arch growth, factors influencing foot arch growth, and the timing for intervention in er- rant growth patterns. Methods A cross-sectional study evaluated the foot arches of chil- dren aged 0-18 years according to age and sex. Subjects included had no evidence of...

  11. Mechanisms and factors that influence high frequency retroviral recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga;

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse...... transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity......, and vaccine development....

  12. Strength Mechanism and Influence Factors for Cold Recycled Asphalt Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Ma; Hao Wang; Yongli Zhao; Xiaoming Huang; Yuhui Pi

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the key factors affecting the tensile strength of cold recycled asphalt mixture with cement and emulsified asphalt. The specific surface areas and strength of RAP were analyzed. The interaction between the emulsified asphalt and cement was observed. Comprehensive laboratory testing was conducted to evaluate the influences of RAP, emulsified asphalt, and cement on the tensile strength of cold recycled asphalt mixture. It is found that although RAP is used as aggregates, i...

  13. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical educaton

    OpenAIRE

    Stok-Koch, L.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.

    2007-01-01

    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing home physicians in training (NHPT) and 62 supervisors. They participated in semi-structured group interviews, in which they discussed four questions regarding workplace learning. Qualitative analysi...

  14. Influencing Factors of Rural Human Consumption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun LI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper combines the social capital theory, the ordered choice model, and the case study in order to analyze the influence factors of the rural human consumption. The results show the presence of inverted U shape curve relation between human consumption amount and age. Human communication range, income, the highest single human consumption amount and the minimum amount, occupation, family population, the existing of human consumption capacity and the scope of the existing relationships between interpersonal relationship satisfaction and other factors on human consumption level has positive influence on human consumption level. Domestic researches on human behaviour are wide, but most of the studies are focused on the social, human, and psychological disciplines. For the origin of human consumption, scholars focus on four aspects like novelty, human or mutual needs. This research is based on field investigation conducted in Niuxintai village, Liaoning Province, in order to understand the current situation of the rural human consumption in China, and to explain the function and influencing factors of human consumption.

  15. Factors Influencing the Success Rate of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah Amanda Hanif

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is a series of actions performed on cardiac arrest patients. Not all patients receiving CPR can survive. The outcome of CPR is influenced by several factors. This study was conducted to determine the success rate of CPR and the factors influencing it in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in 2013. Methods: This study was conducted by using 168 patient medical records who underwent CPR and met the inclusion criteria in the Resuscitation Room of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital from January to December 2013. The collected data consisted of age, gender, pre-arrest diagnosis, initial rhythm, response time and clinical outcome of CPR. The results were expressed in frequencies and percentage. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results: The Success rate of CPR was 15.5%. The success rate was higher in patients with cardiac prearrest diagnoses (8.33%, p=0.024. The most common initial rhythm was unshockable rhythms (83.92%, yet patients with shockable heart rhythms had higher success rates (40.74%, p<0.001. All of the surviving patients had response time within the first minute from cardiac arrest. Conclusions: Success rate of CPR in the resuscitation room of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital during 2013 is still low. The factors influencing the survival rate are the pre-arrest diagnosis and initial heart rhythm.

  16. Research on Factors Influencing Individual's Behavior of Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanfeng

    With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers have also launched similar products. This paper focuses on the factors influencing Energy Management Behaviour (EMB) at the individual level. By reviewing academic literature, conducting surveys in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the author builds an integrated behavioural energy management model of the Chinese energy consumers. This paper takes the vague term of EMB and redefines it as a function of two separate behavioural concepts: Energy Management Intention (EMI), and the traditional Energy Saving Intention (ESI). Secondly, the author conducts statistical analyses on these two behavioural concepts. EMI is the main driver behind an individual's EMB. EMI is affected by Behavioural Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC). Among these three key factors, PBC exerts the strongest influence. This implies that the promotion of the energy management concept is mainly driven by good application user experience (UX). The traditional ESI also demonstrates positive influence on EMB, but its impact is weaker than the impacts arising under EMI's three factors. In other words, the government and manufacturers may not be able to change an individual's energy management behaviour if they rely solely on their traditional promotion strategies. In addition, the study finds that the government may achieve better promotional results by launching subsidies to the manufacturers of these kinds of applications and smart appliances.

  17. Influencing Factors in OER Usage of Adult Learners in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Wook Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Open Educational Resources (OER is terminology that refers to educational resources (content and software distributed through the Internet, free of charge and freely accessible, expanding learning opportunities for adult learners. This terminology first appeared around 2002, although its roots can be traced to the open architecture of the Internet. Until recently, OER development has focused more on quantity of contents rather than quality. In this study, we have examined the factors influencing the learning intention of adult learners in the OER context. Based on the relevant literature, we have identified a number of factors influencing a learner’s intention to use e-learning content. We have also developed a questionnaire for conducting a survey on such influencing factors. The survey results show that ease of use and relation to immediate workplace needs affect the intention of adult learners in using OER. The findings of this study can inform those developing and designing a learning environment that employs OER while also providing general guidance for developers and educators on how to design OER content.

  18. A real-time assessment of factors influencing medication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollarhide, Adrian W; Rutledge, Thomas; Weinger, Matthew B; Fisher, Erin Stucky; Jain, Sonia; Wolfson, Tanya; Dresselhaus, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Reducing medical error is critical to improving the safety and quality of healthcare. Physician stress, fatigue, and excessive workload are performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that may influence medical events (actual administration errors and near misses), but direct relationships between these factors and patient safety have not been clearly defined. This study assessed the real-time influence of emotional stress, workload, and sleep deprivation on self-reported medication events by physicians in academic hospitals. During an 18-month study period, 185 physician participants working at four university-affiliated teaching hospitals reported medication events using a confidential reporting application on handheld computers. Emotional stress scores, perceived workload, patient case volume, clinical experience, total sleep, and demographic variables were also captured via the handheld computers. Medication event reports (n = 11) were then correlated with these demographic and PSFs. Medication events were associated with 36.1% higher perceived workload (p sleep (p = .10). These results confirm the effect of factors influencing medication events, and support attention to both provider and hospital environmental characteristics for improving patient safety.

  19. LITERATURE REVIEW ON FACTORS INFLUENCING MILK PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR

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    Klaudia Kurajdova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s highly informed, competitive and saturated market, a key to success of any business depends on knowing consumer and his consumption patterns and recognizing and understanding factors influencing his decision-making for the purpose of developing an attractive offer of products, supporting services, communication means and other marketing tools that would fit like a glue to customer’s needs. Study of consumer behaviour belongs to a group of very wide and strong subjects of marketing attention and its examination requires ongoing approach. Milk, as one category of dairy products, belongs to the group of basic daily-consumed products characterized by relatively high purchase frequency. On the other hand, its production and consumption is experiencing certain negative trend in Slovakia what inevitably calls for a scientific attention and examination in order to reverse this unfavourable development having a negative impact on the milk companies in Slovakia. Therefore, we focus our attention on studying various factors influencing consumers when purchasing this specific product. Our research in this stage resulted in the compilation of literature review on factors influencing consumers when purchasing milk and determination of boundaries and guidelines for our future research activity

  20. Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Jason R.

    This investigation explored scientific, religious, and otherwise nonscientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution and related concepts, how students perceived these factors to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution and changes therein, and what patterns arose among students' articulations of how their levels of acceptance of evolution may have changed. This exploration also measured the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following a treatment designed to address factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution. Acceptance of evolution was measured using the MATE instrument (Rutledge and Warden, 1999; Rutledge and Sadler, 2007) among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic program during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than pre-treatment levels both immediately following and slightly over one year after treatment. Qualitative data from informal questionnaires, from formal course evaluations, and from semi-structured interviews of students engaged in secondary level education and former students at various stages of post-secondary education confirmed that the suspected factors were perceived by participants to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution. Furthermore, participant reports provided insight regarding the relative effects they perceived these factors to have had on their evolution acceptance levels. Additionally, many participants reported that their science teachers in public schools had avoided, omitted, or denigrated evolution during instruction, and several of these students expressed frustration regarding what they perceived to have been a lack of education of an important scientific principle. Finally, no students expressed feelings of being offended by having been taught about

  1. Genetic and pharmacological factors that influence reproductive aging in nematodes.

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    Stacie E Hughes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related degenerative changes in the reproductive system are an important aspect of aging, because reproductive success is the major determinant of evolutionary fitness. Caenorhabditis elegans is a prominent organism for studies of somatic aging, since many factors that extend adult lifespan have been identified. However, mechanisms that control reproductive aging in nematodes or other animals are not well characterized. To use C. elegans to measure reproductive aging, we analyzed mated hermaphrodites that do not become sperm depleted and monitored the duration and level of progeny production. Mated hermaphrodites display a decline of progeny production that culminates in reproductive cessation before the end of the lifespan, demonstrating that hermaphrodites undergo reproductive aging. To identify factors that influence reproductive aging, we analyzed genetic, environmental, and pharmacological factors that extend lifespan. Dietary restriction and reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling delayed reproductive aging, indicating that nutritional status and a signaling pathway that responds to environmental stress influence reproductive aging. Cold temperature delayed reproductive aging. The anticonvulsant medicine ethosuximide, which affects neural activity, delayed reproductive aging, indicating that neural activity can influence reproductive aging. Some of these factors decrease early progeny production, but there is no consistent relationship between early progeny production and reproductive aging in strains with an extended lifespan. To directly examine the effects of early progeny production on reproductive aging, we used sperm availability to modulate the level of early reproduction. Early progeny production neither accelerated nor delayed reproductive aging, indicating that reproductive aging is not controlled by use-dependent mechanisms. The implications of these findings for evolutionary theories of aging are discussed.

  2. Experimental investigation on combustion of hydrogen-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures in the medium of low-superheated steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribaturin, N. A.; Fedorov, V. A.; Alekseev, M. V.; Bogomolov, A. R.; Sorokin, A. L.; Azikhanov, S. S.; Shevyrev, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    Experimental data are represented on the investigation of combustion of hydrogen-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures in the medium of low-superheated (initial temperature of approximately 150°C) steam at atmospheric pressure. The influence of the ratio of mass flows of the combustible mixture and steam on the qualitative composition of combustion products and the temperature of produced steam is revealed. Main laws for combustion of the hydrogen-oxygen mixture within the steam flow, which affect the completeness of mixture combustion, are determined. Experimental data on the influence of concentrations of the hydrogen-oxygen mixture within the flow of the steam and the combustible mixture upon the completeness of combustion are given. It is found that, when burning the hydrogen-oxygen mixture within the steam flow with a temperature of 1000-1200°C, it is possible using a variation of the combustible mixture flow. At the same time, the volume fraction of noncondensable gases in the produced steam is no more than 2%. It is revealed that there are several combustion modes of the hydrogen-oxygen mixture within the steam flow, in which, in one case, the steam always suppresses combustion and, in another one, detonation of the combustible mixture combustible mixture occurs. It is found that with the excess air factor close to unit, the combustion of the methane-oxygen mixture within steam and the vapor conversion of methane, which result in the appearance of free hydrogen in the produced high-temperature steam, are possible. The description and the principle of the operation of the experimental bench for investigation of combustion of methane-oxygen and hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in the medium of steam are given. Results of experimental investigations of burning fuel and oxygen in the medium of steam are used in the development of a steam superheater for a hightemperature steam turbine.

  3. Factors that influence on the confrontation the spinal cord injury

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    Montserrat Melchor Arteaga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of spinal cord injury agree in the consequences of that injury is the loss in varying degrees of autonomic function; this will cause a change in the lifestyle of patients and their families.In the spinal injury, the priority is the recovery or maintenance of vital organ functions, the physical stabilization for people. Later, the priority here is the rehabilitation and adaptation. This should be integrated at all levels, physical, psychological and social. Confrontation is, by Callista Roy, a important variable for understanding the effect of stress on health and disease, health maintenance or recovery. The way, that the patients have to confront the disease, are the confrontation strategies. They are defined as thoughts and actions that persons put in place to deal with adverse changes. They are grouped into 3 categories: problems, emotions and avoidance.There are others factors that influence in the use of strategies, between them the personality. According to Eysenck this is determined by the functional interaction of four factors: cognitive (intelligence, conative (character, affective (temperament and somatic (construction. With this study we want to know the factors that influence in the confrontation of the spinal cord injury and to analyze the possible relation between them, and to be able to elaborate particular tools, on the most determinant factors, to obtain an effective confrontation about this type of disease.

  4. Factors influencing the stigmatization of patients with epilepsy

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    I. A. Grigoryeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the factors influencing the stigmatization in patients with epilepsy. Patients and methods. The investigation enrolled 71 epileptic patients aged 14 to 50 years. They were divided into two age groups: 30 adolescents aged 14–17 years and 41 adults aged 18–50 years. Results and discussion. Examinations of 71 patients with epilepsy could identify 4 factors influencing their stigmatization: individual traits; activity and relations in the group; the effect of a drug and its adherence in patients; relationships in the family and its response to the disease. The authors’ new screening procedure was employed to determine the leading causes of stigmatization for each age group and to show differences in the specific features of stigmatization (the leading factor of stigmatization in patients of different age. The major factor of stigmatization in the epileptic adolescents was found to be relationships in the family and its response to the disease. Its chief cause in the adults was their principal activity (studies at a higher education establishment or work and group relations. The epileptic patients were shown to need psychological care. The developed screening procedure will be useful in planning psycho-correction measures and rehabilitation programs. 

  5. Prognostic factors influencing clinical outcomes of glioblastoma multiforme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shou-wei; QIU Xiao-guang; CHEN Bao-shi; ZHANG Wei; REN Huan; WANG Zhong-cheng; JIANG Tao

    2009-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant kind of astrocytic tumors and is associated with a poor prognosis. In this retrospective study, we assessed the clinical, radiological, genetic molecular and treatment factors that influence clinical outcomes of patients with GBM.Methods A total of 116 patients with GBM who received surgery and radiation between January 2006 and December 2007 were included in this study. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to find the factors independently influencing patients' progression free survival (PFS) time and overall survival (OS) time.Results Age, preoperative Kamofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, KPS score change at 2 weeks after operation, neurological deficit symptoms, tumor resection extent, maximal tumor diameter, involvement of eloquent cortex or deep structure, involvement of brain lobe, Ki-67 expression level and adjuvant chemotherapy were statistically significant factors (P <0.05) for both PFS and OS in the univariate analysis. Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that age ≤50 years, preoperative KPS score ≥80, KPS score change after operation ≥0, involvement of single frontal lobe,non-eloquent area or deep structure involvement, low Ki-67 expression and adjuvant chemotherapy were independent favorable factors (P <0.05) for patients' clinical outcomes.Conclusions Age at diagnosis, preoperative KPS score, KPS score change at 2 weeks postoperation, involvement of brain lobe, involvement of eloquent cortex or deep structure, Ki-67 expression level and adjuvant chemotherapy correlate significantly with the prognosis of patients with GBM.

  6. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Factors influencing the biochemical markers for predicting mammalian oocyte quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Safiriyu Idowu; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The need for accurate selection of the best oocytes for in vitro fertilization protocols and thus, production of embryos has driven the search for oocyte quality markers from morphological criteria to biochemical parameters. Current studies are focused on the biochemical constituents of the follicular fluid and gene expression profiling of the cumulus cells. These parameters are, however, affected by factors that must be considered before making a judgment of the oocyte's quality. These includes factors such as the type of hormonal stimulation protocol, age of oocyte donor and heat stress on the donor, all of which have been reported to influence the concentrations of many hormones, apolipoproteins, metabolites, fatty acids and growth factors in the follicular fluid and the expression of several genes in the cumulus cells. Another important point to note is species variation in the response to these extraneous influences, which thus calls for species targeted investigations. As reports are still scanty and investigations assumed to be very keen, we employed this review paper to bring attention of researchers and clinicians to those factors that may come to bear on the outcome of their investigations on oocyte and embryo quality.

  8. Factors Influencing Organization Adoption Decision On Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailar Rahimli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on adoption decision from view point of management decision making. The variable that evaluate in this study include: Cost effectiveness, Need for cloud computing, Security effectiveness, and reliability on cloud computing as independent variable and Adoption decision as dependent variable. The scope of this research is IT companies in Malaysia, and target population is member of organization that want to make decision to adopt the cloud computing. The Correlation and Multi Regression analysis show that all factor s have a positive and significant effect on organization adoption decision to cloud computing. 

  9. Factors Influencing Learning Environments in an Integrated Experiential Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koci, Peter

    The research conducted for this dissertation examined the learning environment of a specific high school program that delivered the explicit curriculum through an integrated experiential manner, which utilized field and outdoor experiences. The program ran over one semester (five months) and it integrated the grade 10 British Columbian curriculum in five subjects. A mixed methods approach was employed to identify the students' perceptions and provide richer descriptions of their experiences related to their unique learning environment. Quantitative instruments were used to assess changes in students' perspectives of their learning environment, as well as other supporting factors including students' mindfulness, and behaviours towards the environment. Qualitative data collection included observations, open-ended questions, and impromptu interviews with the teacher. The qualitative data describe the factors and processes that influenced the learning environment and give a richer, deeper interpretation which complements the quantitative findings. The research results showed positive scores on all the quantitative measures conducted, and the qualitative data provided further insight into descriptions of learning environment constructs that the students perceived as most important. A major finding was that the group cohesion measure was perceived by students as the most important attribute of their preferred learning environment. A flow chart was developed to help the researcher conceptualize how the learning environment, learning process, and outcomes relate to one another in the studied program. This research attempts to explain through the consideration of this case study: how learning environments can influence behavioural change and how an interconnectedness among several factors in the learning process is influenced by the type of learning environment facilitated. Considerably more research is needed in this area to understand fully the complexity learning

  10. An empirical investigation on factors influencing export of herbal supplements

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    Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts who are professional in the area of production and distribution of herbal supplements and using factor analysis, the study detects eight factors including supportive laws and regulations, organizational atmosphere, marketing structure, knowledge oriented, feasibility study, research and development, competitive strategy and partnership strategies.

  11. Factors influencing response to treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

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    Hiyama J

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 150 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis from 1990 to 1996 (i to evaluate the frequency of drug resistance, (ii to elucidate factors influencing the response to chemotherapy, and (iii to attempt to improve the therapeutic approach. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains were not found. By univariate analysis, there were 8 factors associated with an increased sputum conversion time: male gender, prior treatment, complications, progressive chest radiographic findings, a high Ziehl-Neelsen stain score, lymphocytopenia, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and hypoproteinemia. Complications, prior treatment, a high Ziehl-Neelsen stain score, and a high ESR were independent predictive factors in a Cox proportional hazard model. Recursive partitioning and amalgamation (RPA defined 3 subgroups that responded to treatment. In order to reduce the time to sputum conversion, poor responders according to the RPA should be treated with a 4-drug regimen containing pyrazinamide.

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN DAIRY SECTOR IN EU

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    Radek ZDENĚK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important for the stability of Europe and Czech milk market is to remain competitive in world markets, as the main way for balance on the internal market is based on successful export of dairy products to third countries. Price volatility and environmental sustainability are seen as the most serious current problems in the dairy industry and dairy farming. The aim of this paper is to assess the development of the production and milk prices in the EU and assess the main factors that affect labour productivity. The number of cows per worker is one of the most important factors affecting labour productivity. Effect of prices on labour productivity in monetary expression is not as significant as is usually assumed. The technical equipment of labour should be an important factor influencing the number of cows per worker. The hypothesis that higher technical equipment of labour should create better conditions for higher productivity could be assumed.

  13. A review on factors influencing bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshani, A M B

    2017-05-24

    Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent deficiency disorders in the world. As shown by many studies plant food based approaches have a real potential on prevention of vitamin A deficiency in a sustainable way. Carotenoids are important as precursors of vitamin A as well as for prevention of cancers, coronary heart diseases, age-related macular degeneration, cataract etc. Bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids are known to be influenced by numerous factors including dietary factors such as fat, fiber, dosage of carotenoid, location of carotenoid in the plant tissue, heat treatment, particle size of food, carotenoid species, interactions among carotenoids, isomeric form and molecular linkage and subject characteristics. Therefore even when carotenoids are found in high quantities in plant foods their utilization may be unsatisfactory because some factors are known to interfere as negative effectors.

  14. An empirical investigation on factors influencing sales force

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    Naser Azad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In today's competitive business environment, consumers are exposed to make their choice from different alternatives. Customer loyalty has never been an easy task and many business owners may lose their customer as soon as new products appear on the market. This paper presents a study to find important factors influencing on sales force using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire and distributed among 180 customers of a well-known food chain named Shahrvand in different regions in city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 156 filled ones. The questionnaire consists of 68 questions Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.847, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of our survey indicate that five major factors including.

  15. The Influencing Factors of Enterprise Sustainable Innovation: An Empirical Study

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    Si-Hua Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable innovation is the inexhaustible source of development of enterprises. Within fierce market competition, only by depending on continuous innovation can an enterprise exist and develop. By conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis, this paper proposes a theoretical model, dividing enterprise sustainable innovation ability into three aspects: knowledge innovation capability, production innovation capability, and market innovation capability, and analyzes the influencing factors respectively. Finally, applying this theoretical model to a practical case, with system dynamics method, the simulation results show that they are consistent with real enterprise facts. Therefore, the framework of determinants of sustainable innovation built in this paper has already been verified theoretically and practically. It not only lays a theoretical foundation for further research, but also provides a clear ground for firms to improve their sustainable innovation.

  16. Investigating the influence of social desirability on personality factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, J E; Smith, D B; Sackett, P R

    2001-02-01

    This study provides a comprehensive investigation into whether social desirability alters the factor structure of personality measures. The study brought together 4 large data sets wherein different organizational samples responded to different personality measures. This facilitated conducting 4 separate yet parallel investigations. Within each data set, individuals identified through a social desirability scale as responding in an honest manner were grouped together, and individuals identified as responding in a highly socially desirable manner were grouped together. Using various analyses, the fit of higher order factor structure models was compared across the 2 groups. Results were the same for each data set. Social desirability had little influence on the higher order factor structures that characterized the relationships among the scales of the personality measures.

  17. Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacogenetic, and Other Factors Influencing CNS Penetration of Antiretrovirals

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    Jacinta Nwamaka Nwogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological complications associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are a matter of great concern. While antiretroviral (ARV drugs are the cornerstone of HIV treatment and typically produce neurological benefit, some ARV drugs have limited CNS penetration while others have been associated with neurotoxicity. CNS penetration is a function of several factors including sieving role of blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and activity of innate drug transporters. Other factors are related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the specific ARV agent or mediated by drug interactions, local inflammation, and blood flow. In this review, we provide an overview of the various factors influencing CNS penetration of ARV drugs with an emphasis on those commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa. We also summarize some key associations between ARV drug penetration, CNS efficacy, and neurotoxicity.

  18. Innovation types at smes and external influencing factors

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    Monika Walicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulating innovation is one of the pressing policy challenges facing many countries in the world today. The paper analyses the external factors that Polish entrepreneurs find most detrimental to their innovative activity. A sample of 199 small and medium size enterprises (SMEs in Poland were subjected to a survey. The data collected revealed the innovation types of SMEs in Poland and external financial factors influencing innovation the most. The results show external factors such as legal regulations, access to external financing, bureaucracy of institutions, financial government support, the tax system, time necessary to comply with regulations, and crisis and instability are very important for SMEs. According to the results, process and marketing innovations are applied more frequently than product and organisational innovations. Finally, the results indicate that entrepreneurs indicate that lack of government support and weakness of tax incentives is an important barrier to the innovation process.

  19. Experimental research on combustion fluorine retention using calcium-based sorbets during coal combustion (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Qing-jie; LIN Zhi-yan; LIU Jian-zhong; WU Xian; ZHOU Jun-hu; CEN Ke-fa

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide experimental guide to commercial use of fluorine pollution control during coal combustion, with fluorine pollution control during coal combustion in mind, this paper proposed the theory of combustion fluorine retention technology. Feasibility of fluorine retention reaction with calcium-based fluorine retention agent was analyzed through thermo-dynamic calculation during coal combustion. By simulating the restraining and retention effects and influential factors of calcium-based sorbets on vaporized fluoride during experimental combustion using fixed bed tube furnace, the paper systematically explored the influential law of such factors as combustion temperature, retention time, and added quantities of calcium-based sorbets on effects of fluorine retention. The research result shows that adding calcium-based fluorine retention agent in coal combustion has double effects of fluorine retention and sulfur retention, it lays an experimental foundation for commercial test of combustion fluorine retention.

  20. Influence of MnC2O4 microadditives on combustion characteristics of CuO/Al nanoenergetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painuly, Madhusudan; Patel, Vinay Kumar; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we have investigated the catalytic effect of MnC2O4 microrods on combustion characteristics of CuO/nAl nanoenergetic composites. CuO nanorods were prepared by solid state synthesis method using the nonionic surfactant of poly(ethylene)glycol of molecular weight 400 (PEG400). The crystal information and microstructure of CuO/nAl nanoenergetics were studied by X-ray diffractometry and Transmission Electron microscopy. Microrods shaped manganese oxalate (MnC2O4) were fabricated by using mild thermal precipitation and aging process and confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The microstructures of MnC2O4 microrods and the nanoenergetic composites of CuO/nAl/MnC2O4 were characterized by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) imaging. The addition of MnC2O4 microrods has demonstrated a significant enhancement in dynamic pressure-time characteristics of CuO/nAl nanoenergetics.

  1. The influence of composition and final pyrolysis temperature variations on global kinetics of combustion of segregated municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranoto; Himawanto, D. A.; Arifin, N. A.

    2017-04-01

    The combustion of segregated municipal solid waste (MSW) and the resulted char from the pyrolysis process were investigated in this research. The segregated MSW that was collected and used can be divided into organic and inorganic waste materials. The organic materials were bamboo and banana leaves and the inorganic materials were Styrofoam and snack wrappings. The composition ratio of the waste was based on the percentage of weight of each sample. The thermal behaviour of the segregated MSW was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis. For the pyrolysis process the prepared samples of 200gram were heated from ambient temperature until a variance of final pyrolysis temperature of 550°C, 650°C and 750°C at a constant heating rate of 25°C/min. It was found that the highest activation energy of the raw materials is achieved from sample CC1 (Char with 100% inorganic materials). The activation energy of the raw materials is relatively lower than that of the char. The higher the final pyrolysis temperature, the lower the calorific value of char. The calorific value gradually increases with the amount of inorganic materials.

  2. Factors Influencing the Use of Prenatal Care: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Prenatal care is a key strategy for achieving public health goals, primary healthcare objectives, and the Millennium Development Goals. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the use of prenatal care services in order to design suitable interventions and promote the use of these services. Methods:In this systematic quantitative literature review, studies published in years 2010-2014 were evaluated. For this purpose, two international electronic databases, i.e., Scopus and PubMed, were explored to find English-language articles by using relevant keywords; moreover, the reference lists of the articles were hand-searched. We reviewed all cross-sectional and prospective studies, which focused on factors associated with the use of prenatal care services within the specified period of time. Results: In total, 17 relevant articles were included in our review. The results showed that late initiation and inadequate use of prenatal care services are independently associated with multiple variables, including demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, predisposing cultural and religious factors, social support, factors related to healthcare providers, women’s awareness and attitude, unintended pregnancy, high-risk medical or obstetric history, and health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the literature review, proper use of prenatal care cannot be achieved merely by establishing healthcare centers. Utilization of maternal health services may be achieved and improved via developing socioeconomic factors and addressing patients' basic needs including education and financial independence.

  3. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation.

  4. Measures to influence nitric oxide formation and alkali release in coal dust combustion under pressure; Massnahmen zur Beeinflussung der Stickoxidbildung und Alkalienfreisetzung bei der Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielen, W.; Niepel, H. [Steinmueller (L.u.C.) GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    Messrs. Steinmueller are making the following contributions to the Dorsten experimental plant: Development of pressure burner and combustion chamber, fuel supply and flue gas analysis, especially the development of a high-temperature flue gas tapping unit at the end of the hot reaction zone. Burner development should always aim at complete converstion of the fuel and minimal pollutant emissions, as well as stable combustion over a wide range of operating conditons and maximum reliability in case of disturbances. Tools for development and experiment analysis are flow measurements in isothermal models, numerical flow and radiation excchange calculation programs, and reference data from the hot operation under pressure of the small-scale Dorsten pilot plant. The contribution presents the results of the burner experiments with a view to nitric oxide and alkali emissions; finally, the effects of different influencing parameters on combustion control and on the still unresolved fields of investigation are indicated. [Deutsch] Die Druckkohlenstaubfeuerung erschliesst fuer den Brennstoff Kohle durch Nutzung des Gas- und Dampfturbinenprozesses Kraftwerkswirkungsgrade im Bereich von 50 % und mehr. Dabei soll das unter Druck verbrannte Rauchgas nach Abscheidung aller schaedlichen Bestandteile, insbesondere der Asche, die in diesem Temperaturbereich durchweg schmelzfluessig vorliegt, direkt auf die Gasturbine geleitet werden. Mit Foerderung des Bundes (seinerzeit BMFT) wurde unter Beteiligung der GHS Essen, mehrerer Industriepartner und Energieversorger am Zechenstandort Dorsten eine Kleinpilotanlage mit einer thermischen Leistung von ca 1 MW errichtet und seither betrieben. Der Forschungsschwerpunkt der L. und C. Steinmueller GmbH richtete sich darin auf die Thematik Kohleumwandlung. Die Aktivitaeten umfssten die Bereiche Druckbrenner- und Brennkammerentwicklung, die Brennstoffversorgung und die Rauchgasanalytik, hier insbesondere die Entwicklung einer Hochtemperatur

  5. Monitoring athletes through self-report: factors influencing implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-03-01

    Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete's response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key pointsEffective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment.A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff.A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level.

  6. Factors influencing the choice of specialty of Australian medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary G; Gavel, Paul H; Young, Jeannette R

    2005-09-19

    To identify the relative importance of extrinsic determinants of doctors' choice of specialty. A self-administered postal questionnaire. Australian vocational training programs. 4259 Australian medical graduates registered in September 2002 with one of 16 Australian clinical colleges providing vocational training programs. Choice of specialist vocational training program; extrinsic factors influencing choice of program, and variation by sex, age, marital status and country of birth. In total, 79% of respondents rated "appraisal of own skills and aptitudes" as influential in their choice of specialty followed by "intellectual content of the specialty" (75%). Extrinsic factors rated as most influential were "work culture" (72%), "flexibility of working arrangements" (56%) and "hours of work" (54%). We observed variation across training programs in the importance ascribed to factors influencing choice of specialty, and by sex, age and marital status. Factors of particular importance to women, compared with men, were "appraisal of domestic circumstances" (odds ratio [OR], 1.9), "hours of work" (OR, 1.8) and "opportunity to work flexible hours" (OR, 2.6). Partnered doctors, compared with single doctors, rated "hours of work" and "opportunity to work flexible hours" as more important (OR, 1.3), while "domestic circumstances" was more important to doctors with children than those without children (OR, 1.7). In total, 80% of doctors had chosen their specialty by the end of the third year after graduation. Experience with discipline-based work cultures and working conditions occurs throughout medical school and the early postgraduate years, and most doctors choose their specialty during these years. It follows that interventions to influence doctors' choice of specialty need to target these critical years.

  7. Factors influencing behavior in the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, Olena V; Kanekar, Shami; D'Anci, Kristen E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-06-13

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral test in rodents which was developed in 1978 by Porsolt and colleagues as a model for predicting the clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A modified version of the FST added the classification of active behaviors into swimming and climbing, in order to facilitate the differentiation between serotonergic and noradrenergic classes of antidepressant drugs. The FST is now widely used in basic research and the pharmaceutical screening of potential antidepressant treatments. It is also one of the most commonly used tests to assess depressive-like behavior in animal models. Despite the simplicity and sensitivity of the FST procedure, important differences even in baseline immobility rates have been reported between different groups, which complicate the comparison of results across studies. In spite of several methodological papers and reviews published on the FST, the need still exists for clarification of factors which can influence the procedure. While most recent reviews have focused on antidepressant effects observed with the FST, this one considers the methodological aspects of the procedure, aiming to summarize issues beyond antidepressant action in the FST. The previously published literature is analyzed for factors which are known to influence animal behavior in the FST. These include biological factors, such as strain, age, body weight, gender and individual differences between animals; influence of preconditioning before the FST: handling, social isolation or enriched environment, food manipulations, various kinds of stress, endocrine manipulations and surgery; schedule and routes of treatment, dosage and type of the drugs as well as experimental design and laboratory environmental effects. Consideration of these factors in planning experiments may result in more consistent FST results.

  8. Numerical studies of combustion mode influence on the performance of UCC combustor%超紧凑燃烧室燃烧组织方式影响燃烧性能的数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳; 王力军

    2015-01-01

    Taking the design testing model of UCC combustor as the research object,numerical simulation of high speed rotating turbulent flow is conducted with Realizable k-ε turbulence model,so is simulation of combustion reaction with non-premixed PDF combustion model. Through the comparison and analysis of the combustion performance such as temperature distribution,quality of outlet temperature field,combustion effi-ciency and pollutant emission under three different combustion modes like the lean-fuel combustion,the stoi-chiometric ratio combustion and rich-fuel combustion,the influence of combustion mode on the performance of ultra-compact combustor is examined. Lean combustion mode has a greater impact on the combustion in the cavity. In the rich-fuel combustion,flame connected in the bottom of the cavity and mixed with the pri-mary air stream through the radial chute,and complete combustion was achieved. Combustion efficiency, quality of outlet temperature field and pollutant emission are better in lean-fuel combustion mode. The results are consistent well with other similar studies in the combustor center area,and have referential value to the UCC combustor design.%以试验室的超紧凑燃烧室设计模型为研究对象,用Realizable k-ε湍流模型模拟高速旋转湍流,用非预混燃烧的混合分数/PDF模型模拟燃烧反应。通过超紧凑型燃烧室在贫油燃烧、化学当量比燃烧和富油燃烧等不同燃烧组织方式下的燃烧温场、出口温度场品质、燃烧效率以及污染物排放等燃烧性能的对比分析,研究了不同的燃烧组织方式对超紧凑燃烧室的燃烧性能影响。贫油燃烧组织方式对环形凹腔内燃烧影响较大,对于当量比增大的富油燃烧组织方式,火焰在凹腔底部连通,并通过叶片径向斜槽与一次空气流混合并实现完全燃烧;贫油燃烧方式的燃烧效率、出口温度品质和污染物排放等燃烧性能较好。计算结

  9. Macrolevel factors of influence on industry competitiveness of Ukrainian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Tkach

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to identify processes and phenomena of macro level, which form current conditions of the industry competitiveness of Ukraine for working out practical recommendations of its innovation increasing. The results of the analysis. The influence of macro-environment on the industry competitiveness is shown. The main factors of industry competitiveness influence which issue on the national level (political, legal, economic, institutional, commercial, etc. are outlined. These factors are synergistically intertwined and form conditions of the industry competitiveness of regions. Considering the analysis of the results of international competitiveness rankings the author found out the following factors of lowering the competitive position of Ukraine: corruption, problematic access to business finance, inflation, political instability, tax burden, inefficient government bureaucracy and unstable exchange rate. On the basis of this, the trends of factors are explored over the past five years (2011-2015 and reasons of them are identified. The particular attention is paid to institutional factors as public-private partnership, state support of industrial development, features of the development of industrial parks in Ukraine and others. Moreover, the features of foreign policy of Ukraine and structure of exports of industrial goods are explored. The study demonstrated key macro threats in Ukraine. Practical recommendations of industry competitiveness increasing are given. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The development of Ukraine for the past five years (2011-2015 characterized by dynamic changes in all spheres of life. This affected the competitiveness of the country in general and its industry in particular. Macro-level influencing factors, which created unfavorable conditions for the formation of industrial competitiveness, are: macroeconomic instability and high levels of bureaucracy, corruption, lack of

  10. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism.

  11. [Factors influencing oral insurance among children in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chen; Yanyan, Zhang; Jinghu, Jiang; Jing-xian, Zhang; Xuepeng, Shan; Xing, Qu; Chengge, Hua

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the value of child oral health for Chengdu parents, their intentions, and factors influencing their decision to acquire oral insurance coverage for their childrens. A total of 562 Chengdu parents were interviewed using questionnaires by convenient sampling, and the results were analyzed using SPSS 20.0. The age of children (B = -1.741, P = 0.004), age of parents (B = 2.031, P = 0.003), level of oral discomfort (B = 0.569, P = 0.000), incurring/not incurring oral care expenses in the previous year (B = 1.897, P = 0.014), the last time parents' had teeth cleaned (B = 0.777, P = 0.006), and acquiring/not acquiring commercial insurance coverage (B = 1.632, P = 0.031) significantly influenced the intention of acquiring child oral insurance. Child oral health, health and insurance awareness of parents, and other factors influenced the intention of parents to purchase oral insurance coverage for their children, which were significant to establish pediatric dental insurance.

  12. General Adjustment Influence Factor of Malaysian Construction Expatriates Executives Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainol Halmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of Malaysian construction companies creates an opportunity to explore abroad. Past studies have shown that the difficulty of expatriates in adjusting to a new environment is the main aspect that leads to failure of assignments. The success in implementing an overseas assignment does not solely depend on an expatriate’s technical expertise. The adjustment issues such as the interaction with the host nationals, and adaptability to the host country’s culture also exert influence on the assignment. The research was conducted to identify the influence of executive expatriate general adjustment on assignment in host countries. The objective of the study was to identify adjustment influence factors relating to general adjustment abroad. Questionnaires were sent to Malaysian expatriate executives. Sixty four Malaysian expatriate executives from Malaysian construction companies overseas were involved in this study. The findings show interaction, social and living environment influences their adjustment during expatriation. Pre-departure training preparation aspects for expatriates is a good step before their departure to host countries.

  13. Magnitude and influencing factors of parasomnia in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Habibur Rasul

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasomnias are undesirable events occurring in the sleep-wake transition period. Several predisposing factors are reported to induce parasomnia in preschool children. Objective To estimate the magnitude of parasomnia in school children and to evaluate its relationship with possible predisposing factors. Methods Five hundred children aged 5-16 years from a boys’ school and a girls’ school in Khulna City, Bangladesh, were randomly selected for the study conducted from July to December 2011. The survey was done in two steps: self-administered questionnaire and clinical interviews of affected students and their parents. Apart from demographic features, questionnaires included details of perinatal and personal factors as well as familial and socioeconomic factors. The diagnoses of variants of parasomnias was based on the criteria for category-based classification by the American Academy of Sleep Mmedicine. Results Seven hundred thirteen filled questionnaires revealed parasomnia in 187 (26.2% children. Most parasomnias were accompanied by other sleep disorders, in which 23 (12.3% having primary dyssomnias including 18 (9.3% obstructive sleep apnea, and 10 (5.3% parasomnias with hypersomnias. Nightmares (7.4% were highest among the parasomnias followed by nocturnal enuresis (4.1% and sleep terrors (3.4%. More girls experienced parasomnias than boys (107/360 vs. 80/353, respectively; P=0.039. Perinatal factors such as problems during pregnancy (17.1% or eventful delivery (25.7%, and socioeconomic factors such as familial disharmony (11.8% and low socioeconomic level (31.6% had positive associations with parasomnia. Conclusion One-quarter of school children experience parasomnia. We found perinatal factors particularly problem during pregnancy, and socioeconomic factors particularly familial disharmony have significant influences on this condition. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:339-45.].

  14. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  15. Influencing factors of mental health of medical students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xin-hao; Liu, Zhuo; Luo, Ai; Feng, Zhan-chun

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the mental health status of medical students in China, and analyzed the influencing factors in order to provide evidence for mental health education for medical students. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit medical students from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. The questionnaire survey on general information and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used for investigation and analysis. The results showed among the 1137 valid questionnaires, 278 (24.45%) participants had SCL-90 score ≥ 160. The top three mental problems of medical students were obsessive-compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity and depression in terms of the factor score ≥ 2.5 and the number of participants who reflected on the diseases. The third-year medical students had the worst mental health status, and fifth-year medical students had the best mental health status. Students from rural area had more psychological problems than those from urban area; furthermore, students with high professional satisfaction, those who were the single child of the family, non-poor students, and those whose parents had high education level had better mental health status. It was concluded that the mental health of medical students is not optimistic in China. Medical students have some mental health problems of different degrees. Factors that influence the mental health of medical students include academic pressure, professional satisfaction level and family environment.

  16. Expecting success: Factors influencing ninth graders' science self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Elizabeth

    What factors influence ninth grade students' expectations for success in science? Using social cognitive theory and bioecological systems theory as theoretical frameworks, this dissertation employs data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) to examine the relative impact of teacher practices and their perceived attitudes on students' science self-efficacy. Further, as they relate to this broader issue, the relative impact of student subjective task value and teacher characteristics is also investigated. It has been well documented that U.S. students are not achieving at satisfactory levels in science. Education policy has focused on improving science teacher quality as one way to address this problem. Teacher effectiveness has been primarily measured by student achievement on standardized tests. However, not enough attention has been given to the social cognitive factors that can lead to increased achievement and persistence in science as well as how teachers may influence these factors. This study interrogates the relationship between student and teacher variables and the social cognitive construct of self-efficacy, which has proven to have a significant impact on student achievement and persistence in science. Findings add to the current literature surrounding ways that educators may increase student performance in science by employing policies and practices that benefit the development of student science self-efficacy.

  17. Factors influencing the outcome of embryo freezing and Ihawing program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 金帆; 徐晨明; 邢兰凤

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors that might influence the sucess of an ernbryo freezing and thawing program.Method: The relationship between the pregnancy rate in 73 cycles of embryo freezing and thewing program and the following factors was analyzed;matermal age,E2 level at the time of HCG trigger,embryo storage time,number of thawed embryos transferred,presence of sponsoring embryos and intact embryos.And the suvival rate of thawed embryos with different morphology,cell stage and storage time was evaluated.Result:Transfer with three of more than three thawed embryos resulted in pragnancy rates of 38.5% and 35.7%,respectively.compared with 5.3% for transfer of fewer than three embryos.The presence of sponsoring embryos and intact embryos significantly incresses pregnancy rate in embryo freezing and thawing program .No other factor examined had any effect on pregnancy outcome.The survival rate of good morphology embryos was higher than poor ones,but was not influenced by cell stage and storage time.Conclusion:Embryo morphology before freezing , number of thawed embryos transferred and the presence of intact embryos are important to the outcome of embryo freezing and thawing program.

  18. A Broad Set of Chromatin Factors Influences Splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Eric; Myers, Michael P.; Garcia-Bernardo, Jose; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Krainer, Adrian R.; Muchardt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Several studies propose an influence of chromatin on pre-mRNA splicing, but it is still unclear how widespread and how direct this phenomenon is. We find here that when assembled in vivo, the U2 snRNP co-purifies with a subset of chromatin-proteins, including histones and remodeling complexes like SWI/SNF. Yet, an unbiased RNAi screen revealed that the outcome of splicing is influenced by a much larger variety of chromatin factors not all associating with the spliceosome. The availability of this broad range of chromatin factors impacting splicing further unveiled their very context specific effect, resulting in either inclusion or skipping, depending on the exon under scrutiny. Finally, a direct assessment of the impact of chromatin on splicing using an in vitro co-transcriptional splicing assay with pre-mRNAs transcribed from a nucleosomal template, demonstrated that chromatin impacts nascent pre-mRNP in their competence for splicing. Altogether, our data show that numerous chromatin factors associated or not with the spliceosome can affect the outcome of splicing, possibly as a function of the local chromatin environment that by default interferes with the efficiency of splicing. PMID:27662573

  19. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study will be useful to both managers in the auto industry as well as policy makers. It will help managers in the auto industry to gain a better understanding of consumer intentions and identify the factors which influence them. Policy makers in Pakistan’s auto sector would benefit from the insights of this study when developing the long overdue Auto Policy. Analysis of the data collected has revealed that the three key factors identified from studies in other Asian countries are also relevant for Pakistani auto consumers.

  20. Factors influencing quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ronald V; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2013-02-16

    Recent technological advances in colonoscopy have led to improvements in both image enhancement and procedural performance. However, the utility of these technological advancements remain dependent on the quality of bowel preparation during colonoscopy. Poor bowel preparation has been shown to be associated with lower quality indicators of colonoscopy performance, such as reduced cecal intubation rates, increased patient discomfort and lower adenoma detection. The most popular bowel preparation regimes currently used are based on either Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte, a non-absorbable solution, or aqueous sodium phosphate, a low-volume hyperosmotic solution. Statements from various international societies and several reviews have suggested that the efficacy of bowel preparation regimes based on both purgatives are similar, although patients' compliance with these regimes may differ somewhat. Many studies have now shown that factors other than the type of bowel preparation regime used, can influence the quality of bowel preparation among adult patients undergoing colonoscopy. These factors can be broadly categorized as either patient-related or procedure-related. Studies from both Asia and the West have identified patient-related factors such as an increased age, male gender, presence of co-morbidity and socio-economic status of patients to be associated with poor bowel preparation among adults undergoing routine out-patient colonoscopy. Additionally, procedure-related factors such as adherence to bowel preparation instructions, timing of bowel purgative administration and appointment waiting times for colonoscopy are recognized to influence the quality of colon cleansing. Knowledge of these factors should aid clinicians in modifying bowel preparation regimes accordingly, such that the quality of colonoscopy performance and delivery of service to patients can be optimised.