WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors influencing change

  1. FACTORS INFLUENCING CONTINUOUS ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Rizescu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Change involves the continuous adjustment to the external conditions of organizations in the operating environment, in parallel with the growth of domestic stability. This process constitutes the dilemma of change-stability, which can be tackled only through a vision of the future, meaning the idorganization of organization-environment interaction along with a flexible organizational structure, the use of advanced technology and the existence of a system of rewarding employees that reflects the values and priorities of both, organizational norms and individual needs.

  2. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  3. Social and Linguistic Factors' Influences on Semantic Change in English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂宇明

    2009-01-01

    this paper aims to analyze the social and linguistic factors' influence on semantic change in Eng~a vocabulary. Mainly speaking, the social factors include social development, social context, social class, national feeling, racial feeling, gender different, and social value, and lin-guistic factors consist of generalization, specialization, amelioration. pejoration, metaphor and metonymy.

  4. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  5. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  6. Reasons for Journal Impact Factor Changes: Influence of Changing Source Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Both the concept and the application of the impact factor (IF) have been subject to widespread critique, including concerns over its potential manipulation. This study provides a systematic analysis of significant journal Impact Factor changes, based on the relative contribution of either one or both variables of the IF equation (i.e. citations / articles as the numerator / denominator of the quotient). A cohort of JCR-listed journals which faced the most dramatic absolute IF changes between 2013 and 2014 (ΔIF ≥ 3.0, n = 49) was analyzed for the causes resulting in IF changes that theses journals have experienced in the last five years. Along with the variation by number of articles and citations, this analysis includes the relative change of both variables compared to each other and offers a classification of `valid`and `invalid`scenarios of IF variation in terms of the intended goal of the IF to measure journal quality. The sample cohort features a considerable incidence of IF increases (18%) which are qualified as `invalid`according to this classification because the IF increase is merely based on a favorably changing number of articles (denominator). The results of this analysis point out the potentially delusive effect of IF increases gained through effective shrinkage of publication output. Therefore, careful consideration of the details of the IF equation and possible implementation of control mechanisms versus the volatile factor of number of articles may help to improve the expressiveness of this metric. PMID:27105434

  7. Reasons for Journal Impact Factor Changes: Influence of Changing Source Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesslich, Tobias; Weineck, Silke B; Koelblinger, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    Both the concept and the application of the impact factor (IF) have been subject to widespread critique, including concerns over its potential manipulation. This study provides a systematic analysis of significant journal Impact Factor changes, based on the relative contribution of either one or both variables of the IF equation (i.e. citations / articles as the numerator / denominator of the quotient). A cohort of JCR-listed journals which faced the most dramatic absolute IF changes between 2013 and 2014 (ΔIF ≥ 3.0, n = 49) was analyzed for the causes resulting in IF changes that theses journals have experienced in the last five years. Along with the variation by number of articles and citations, this analysis includes the relative change of both variables compared to each other and offers a classification of `valid`and `invalid`scenarios of IF variation in terms of the intended goal of the IF to measure journal quality. The sample cohort features a considerable incidence of IF increases (18%) which are qualified as `invalid`according to this classification because the IF increase is merely based on a favorably changing number of articles (denominator). The results of this analysis point out the potentially delusive effect of IF increases gained through effective shrinkage of publication output. Therefore, careful consideration of the details of the IF equation and possible implementation of control mechanisms versus the volatile factor of number of articles may help to improve the expressiveness of this metric.

  8. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV{sub R}/LV{sub W}), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV{sub R}/(LV{sub W} + SV{sub 0})], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} (r = 0.759, p < 0.01). The other analyzed factors showed no correlation with changes in liver and spleen volumes. The spleen and remnant liver volumes were increased at CT volumetry performed 2 weeks after partial liver donation. Among the various analyzed factors, LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  9. Farmers' Perceived Risks of Climate Change and Influencing Factors: A Study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  10. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Volume Change of Blended Cement Containing Steel Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the condition of 20 ℃, 5% sulfate liquor curing, standard tap water curing and 50% RH curing-three different curing environments, the volume change of steel slag blended cement influenced by environmental factors was studied. With steel slag addition 10%, 30%, 50%, from 90 days to 356 days, the relationship of shrinkage and three different curing environments is: dry curing environment>tap water curing environment>sulfate curing environment. But, the sample shrinkage in 28 days has much difference with the curing environment, which has no obvious orderliness. The different effects on blended cement containing steel slag in different environmental factors were analyzed using SEM.

  11. THE ANALYSIS OF CHANGES AND INFLUENCING FACTORS OF EARLY POSTTHORACOTOMY PULMONARY FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔玉尚; 张志庸; 徐协群

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the changes and influencing factors of early postoperative pulmonary functionof thoracotomy.Methods. Pre-and early postoperative pulmonary function was studied in 64 consecutive cases withoptimal thoracotomy. Pain assessment was done before pulmonary function test, and the chief complaintsof patients were recorded after the procedure. The changing curves of pulmonary function were done andthe differences associated with groups, surgical styles, pain assessment, epidural analgesia, chief com-plaint and preoperative conditions were analyzed.Results. Pulmonary function was severely lowered to about 40% of the base line on the first day,and it was rehabilitated to about 60% of the base line on the eighth day. There was a greater gradienton the recovery curve on the 3rd and 4th days. Epidural analgesia was able to improve pain relaxationand pulmonary function in some degree. Single-factor analysis showed that postoperative pain, postopera-tive day and surgical style were the significant influencing factors for early postoperative pulmonary func-tion. By multiple-factor analysis, preoperative pulmonary function, age and postoperative pain were themain factors, while surgical style had only weak effect on it.Conclusions. Early postoperative pulmonary function is severely impaired by thoracotomy. It rehabili-tate gradually with time. Improvement of preoperative pulmonary function, reducing surgical procedure in-juries, especially injury to respiratory muscle system, and enough postoperative pain relief are the mostimportant means that would reduce pulmonary function impairment and consequently reduce postoperativepulmonary complications.

  12. Demographic factors and genetic variation influence population persistence under environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Yvonne; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2009-01-01

    Population persistence has been studied in a conservation context to predict the fate of small or declining populations. Persistence models have explored effects on extinction of random demographic and environmental fluctuations, but in the face of directional environmental change they should also integrate factors affecting whether a population can adapt. Here, we examine the population-size dependence of demographic and genetic factors and their likely contributions to extinction time under scenarios of environmental change. Parameter estimates were derived from experimental populations of the rainforest species, Drosophila birchii, held in the lab for 10 generations at census sizes of 20, 100 and 1000, and later exposed to five generations of heat-knockdown selection. Under a model of directional change in the thermal environment, rapid extinction of populations of size 20 was caused by a combination of low growth rate (r) and high stochasticity in r. Populations of 100 had significantly higher reproductive output, lower stochasticity in r and more additive genetic variance (V(A)) than populations of 20, but they were predicted to persist less well than the largest size class. Even populations of 1000 persisted only a few hundred generations under realistic estimates of environmental change because of low V(A) for heat-knockdown resistance. The experimental results document population-size dependence of demographic and adaptability factors. The simulations illustrate a threshold influence of demographic factors on population persistence, while genetic variance has a more elastic impact on persistence under environmental change.

  13. Factors influencing the predictability of soft tissue profile changes following mandibular setback surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, K A; Krogstad, O; Espeland, L; Lyberg, T

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this cephalometric study was to assess long-term changes in the soft tissue profile following mandibular setback surgery and investigate the presence of factors that may influence the soft tissue response to skeletal repositioning. The subjects enrolled were 80 consecutive mandibular prognathism patients operated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and rigid fixation. Lateral cephalograms were taken at 6 occasions: immediate presurgical, immediate postsurgical, 2 and 6 months postsurgical, and 1 and 3 years postsurgical. The subjects were grouped according to gender and magnitude of setback. Ratios of soft tissue to hard tissue movements were calculated for the subgroups. Females generally demonstrated greater ratios than males with a statistically significant difference for the upper lip and chin (P < .05). Postsurgical alterations in the profiles were more predictable in patients with larger setbacks compared to patients with smaller ones. Skeletal relapse had a profound influence on long-term profile changes. Based on these findings, it is proposed that the database used in prediction software be adjusted to account for such factors in an attempt to improve the accuracy of computerized treatment simulations.

  14. Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Changes in Foxtail Millet Planting Area in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng; LIU; Yu; ZHAO; Fei; LIU; Shunguo; LI; Guirong; WANG; Xinshi; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Since reform and open to the outside world,foxtail millet planting area in Hebei Province has constantly reduced,and its planting region has changed from the whole province into some regions,with obvious changes. In this paper,by using qualitative and quantitative approaches like chart analysis,summarizing,Delphi method and osculating value model,the influencing factors of changes in millet growing region in Hebei Province were studied. The results showed that the changes of millet planting area were closely related to many factors,such as little investment in scientific research,weak policy support,a single consumer product demand,the rapid development of other staple crops, labor migration,relatively low comparative effectiveness and physiological characteristics of the millet itself. Then some suggestions were put forward,such as increasing research support,strengthening scientific research strength,researching and developing deeply processed products, expanding consumer groups,improving millet policy support,providing subsidies for planting the improved varieties,researching and developing various types of machinery,and increasing millet production technology training.

  15. Thermal physical properties and key influence factors of phase change emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui; YANG Rui; ZHANG Yinping; HUANG Zhe; LIN Jia; WANG Xin

    2005-01-01

    Latent functionally thermal fluids (LFTF) are a novel kind of heat storage and heat transfer fluids that include phase change microcapsule slurry and phase change emulsion (PCE). They have much greater apparent specific heats and higher heat transfer abilities in the phase change temperature range than conventional single-phase heat transfer fluids such as water. Thus they are advantageous in the field of the convective heat transfer enhancement and energy transport. In this paper, some thermal physical properties such as viscosity, fusion heat and apparent specific heat (cp) are measured, and the influences of some factors (such as selection of surfactants, preparation method, temperature, mixing ratio of surfactants and mass concentration of phase change material) on them are discussed. The study shows that: 1) the viscosity of the PCE prepared in the present work is lower than that reported in the literature; 2) its apparent specific heat value for the phase change temperature region is high and proportionally increases with the concentration of phase change material.

  16. Examining the Factors That Influence Students' Science Learning Processes and Their Learning Outcomes: 30 Years of Conceptual Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Wen; Yen, Miao-Hsuan; Liang, Jia-Chi; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Guo, Chorng-Jee

    2016-01-01

    This study used content analysis to examine the most studied conceptual change factors that influence students' science learning processes and their learning outcomes. The reviewed research included empirical studies published since Posner et al. proposed their conceptual change model 30 years ago (from 1982 to 2011). One hundred sixteen SSCI…

  17. Changes in pulmonary function and influencing factors after high-dose intrathoracic radio(chemo)therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Christina [University Clinic Giessen and Marburg, Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Marburg (Germany); Ruppiner Kliniken GmbH, Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Neuruppin (Germany); Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Vorwerk, Hilke [University Clinic Giessen and Marburg, Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Marburg (Germany); Schmidt, Michael; Huhnt, Winfried; Blank, Eyck; Sidow, Dietrich; Buchali, Andre [Ruppiner Kliniken GmbH, Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Neuruppin (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Using prospectively collected patient-related, dose-related, and pulmonary function test (PFT) data before radiotherapy (RT) and at several follow-up visits after RT, the time course of PFT changes after high-dose radio(chemo)therapy and influencing factors were analyzed. From April 2012 to October 2015, 81 patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), or esophageal carcinoma where treated with high-dose radio(chemo)therapy. PFT data were collected before treatment and 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months after RT. The influence of patient- and treatment-related factors on PFT was analyzed. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) constantly declined during follow-up (p = 0.001). In total, 68% of patients had a reduced FEV1 at 6 months. Mean vital capacity (VC) didn't change during follow-up (p > 0.05). Mean total lung capacity (TLC) showed a constant decline after RT (p = 0.026). At 6 months, 60% of patients showed a decline in VC and 73% in TLC. The mean diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) declined at 6 and 12 weeks, but recovered slightly at 6 months (p < 0.0005). At 6 months, 86% of patients had a reduced DLCO. After treatment, the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} in the blood (pCO{sub 2}) was increased and pO{sub 2} was decreased (p > 0.05). Only the pretreatment PFT classification had a significant influence on the post-RT FEV1. DLCO seems to be the most reliable indicator for lung tissue damage after thoracic RT. Ventilation parameters appear to be less reliable. Concerning patient- or treatment-related factors, no reliable conclusion can be drawn regarding which factors may be relevant. (orig.) [German] Patientenbezogene, therapiebezogene und Lungenfunktionsdaten (''pulmonary function test'', PFT) wurden vor Radiotherapie (RT) und an verschiedenen Nachsorgeterminen nach RT prospektiv gesammelt, um PFT-Veraenderungen sowie Einflussfaktoren nach Hochdosis-Radio(chemo)therapie zu

  18. Changes in dynamics processes of the muscles’ traction under influence of stress-factors

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    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Change of fibers’ dynamic parameters of the frog Rana temporaria skeletal muscle m. tibialis traction under influence of modulated stimulation and aluminium chloride solutions was studied. At 10-4,5·10-4 and 10‑3 M·l-1 concentrations of aluminium chloride the nonlinear decrease of the muscle fibers’ traction parameters was observed.

  19. Changes in Climatic Factors Influencing the Growth Period of Corn in Fengjie County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaozhen; MAO; Xinli; MOU; Chen; MA; Jiang; HUANG; Lin; YUAN

    2014-01-01

    Under the background of global climate change,we analyze the change tendency of average temperature and amount of precipitation influencing the corn’s growth period. The results show that from March to August,the monthly temperatures show an upward trend,but the rise is different in different months,and the maximum temperature rise is in May. Precipitation in different months has different trends. Climate change brings about favorable conditions at high altitudes in Fengjie,reduces production due to the temperature drop after the beginning of autumn,and increases the pressure on the corn supply.

  20. MECHANISM OF PERSONAL DESTRUCTIVE CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ADDICTIVE FACTORES AND PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTENCE TO ADDICVTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ryzhov V.V.; Telepova N.N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to offer the productive ideas about psychological mechanism of personal destructive changes under the influence of addictive factors and about the important aspects of personal development of resistance to addiction. This ideas are the result of the analysis of scientific literature and different researches on the issue of psychological and spiritual personal development and moral value standards influencing the personal development. The results of the research c...

  1. Influence of phosphorus on Microcystis growth and the changes of other environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiang-can; CHU Zhao-sheng; YI Wen-li; HU Xiao-zhen

    2005-01-01

    The growth processes of Microcystis aeruginosa (FACHB-41) in simulated Taihu Lake water with different phosphorus concentrations were investigated using laboratory microcosms. The algal biomass increased with the increase of phosphorus concentration when it was lower than 0.445 mg/L, while the dissolved oxygen(DO) and pH increased, dissolved inorganic nitrogen(DIN) and light intensity underwater(I) decreased. Responding to the changes of the "environmental factors", the cellular carbohydrate and its ratio to cellular protein decreased generally as phosphorus increased. However, when phosphorus concentration was higher than 1.645 mg/L, the biomass, the "environmental factors", the cellular carbohydrate and its ratio to cellular protein did not change likewise.Since the environmental factors and the physiological and biochemical responses are important factors, the change of environmental factors and cell physiology and biochemistry induced by phosphorus may become the key factors that steer the growth and dominance of Microcystis under certain conditions. To sum up, phosphorus not only stimulate the growth of Microcystis directly by supplying nutrient element, but also has complex interactions with other "environmental factors" and play important roles in the growth processes of Microcystis .

  2. Factors influencing farmers’ choices of adaptation to climate change in Ekiti State, Nigeria

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    Oluwakemi Adeola Obayelu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change poses a great threat to human security through erratic rainfall patterns and decreasing crop yields, contributing to increased hunger. The perceptions of the indigenous people about climate change and their responses to climate change have significant roles to play in addressing climate change. Therefore a critical study on farmers’ choices of adaptation to is critical for ensuring food security poverty alleviation. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 156 households in Ekiti state while descriptive statistics and multinomial logit were used to analyze the data obtained from the households. The results showed that the most widely used adaptation method by the farmers were soil and water conservation measures (67 percent. The multinomial logit analysis revealed that the factors explaining farmer’s choices of climate change adaptation include age of the farmers, gender of the household head, years of education, years of farming experience, household size, farmers information on climate change, farmers access to credit, farm income, non-farm income, livestock ownership and extension contact.

  3. Factors influencing smoking behaviour changes during Ramadan among Malay male students

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    Suriani Ismail

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting during Ramadan provides an opportunistic setting for smoking cessation intervention. Smokers find it easy to cease smoking during Ramadan due to the religion, cultural and environmental influences. This study aims to determine the changes in smoking behaviour during Ramadan among Malay Muslim male students who were current smokers. Methods: This is cross sectional study using self-administered questionnaire to evaluate the socio demographic characteristics and two main relevant religious perceptions on smoking (i.e. ‘Is smoking ‘haram’ and ‘Does smoking invalidate your fasting’. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND questionnaire was used to evaluate smoking behaviour before and during Ramadan. The total FTND scores and the percentages according to FTDN items, before Ramadan and during Ramadan were compared to determine good or poor smoking behaviour changes. Results: The overall FTND scores and the percentage according to its items were significantly reduced. There were significant association between smoking behaviour changes during Ramadan and household income, nicotine dependence and perception that smoking is ‘haram’. The percentage of good smoking behaviour changes was higher among those with higher income, high nicotine dependence and those who are not aware that smoking is ‘haram’. Conclusion: There is a great potential in taking advantage of the Ramadan environment to encourage smoking cessation among Muslim smokers.

  4. Assessment of climatic factors influence on interannual changes in the global surface air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakova, Maria; Karlin, Lev

    2014-05-01

    A model to assess a number of factors such as TSI, albedo, cloudiness and greenhouse gases including water vapour affecting global surface air temperature (SAT) changes has been developed. To develop the model solar energy transformation in the atmosphere and the other radiation fluxes transformation were investigated. It's a common knowledge that some part of the incoming solar energy is reflected into space by the Earth's surface, aerosol and cloud particles. A contribution of these components to changes in the reflected solar energy was assessed on the basis of developed linear parameterization. During the period of 2001 - 2010, clouds were found to be the basic contributor to the changes in reflected shortwave radiation. Some part of outgoing terrestrial radiation is retained in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases, water vapour and cloudiness. A contribution of these components to changes in the absorbed longwave radiation was assessed on the basis of developed linear parameterization. It was estimated that the contribution of water vapour was dominant during the analyzed period. The developed parameterization of global albedo made it possible to assess the contribution of TSI to global SAT changes. Making use of the parameterizations listed above the model has been improved. The model calculations showed that the our projections of global SAT to 2030 were lower than IPCC estimates.

  5. EXAMINATION OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VARIABILITY OF YEAST AMOUNT IN THE CONTEXT OF PH CHANGES IN BOTTLED WINES

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Mura; Ľubomír Lopašovský; Dagmar Kozelová; Lucia Zeleňáková; Eva Matejková

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this paper was to examine of factors (manufacturer, temperature and storage time) influencing the variability of yeast amount and pH changes in bottled white wines. It was confirmed that wine coming from the business network was better quality in contract to domestic wine. We have assumed that domestic wine was contaminated during the manufacturing process, while the most probable reason was imperfect filtration of wine, or its contamination during the bottling. The results showed that...

  6. Computers and Organizational Change Factors That Influence Useful Adoption of Computer Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Howard R.; Salasin, Susan E.

    1982-01-01

    The spread of computer applications and their usefulness in improving patient care and organizational change are impressive. However, an unevenness in the impact has occurred - as can be expected in the diffusion of innovation process, in general. Later-adopting persons and organizations need the attention of researchers and innovation experts in this field. Factors that can be addressed in fostering appropriate change through computer applications are: (1) feeling of the need for the application; (2) clarity on how to employ the technology; (3) degree of fit with the style and values of the host facilities; (4) special local circumstances and timing; (5) resistances, both rational and subtle; (6) anticipation, or direct experience of benefits from computer aplication; and (7) abilities and resources that are required for successful system operation.

  7. Moral Responsibility and Confidence as Factors that Influence Teacher Involvement in Educational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Cecilio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Various factors that are not easily observed have a strong impact on educational change. In this paper, I examine some of the issues that emerged from the data collected while exploring my informants’ perceptions and attitudes towards their changing roles when confronted with curriculum innovation. This research demonstrates that the experience teachers acquire during their career may often enable them to participate in the design of a new study plan. However, this experience does not always justify their role as curriculum-designers in either the eyes of their colleagues or in their own eyes, particularly when coerced into playing this or other roles. The results indicate that teachers, depending on their levels of moral responsibility and confidence, become involved in different roles during their teaching career. Key words: Change, confidence, curriculum, innovation, moral responsibility Existen diversos factores que tienen un fuerte impacto en el cambio educativo y que no se observan fácilmente. En este artículo examino algunos de los temas que emergieron de los datos recogidos mientras exploraba las opiniones y las actitudes de mis informantes hacia sus roles siempre cambiantes cuando se enfrentan a la innovación curricular. Esta investigación demuestra que los profesores, con la experiencia que adquieren durante su carrera, pueden permitirse a menudo participar en el diseño de un nuevo plan de estudios. Sin embargo, para sus colegas o para ellos mismos, esta experiencia no justifica siempre su papel como diseñadores de un plan de estudios particularmente cuando están obligados a jugar éste u otros roles. Los resultados indican que los profesores se involucran en diversos roles durante su carrera como profesores, dependiendo de sus niveles de responsabilidad moral y de confianza. Palabras clave: cambio, confianza, currículo, innovación, responsabilidad moral

  8. Changes in the Factors Influencing Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan Since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Tsuchida, Shoji; Shiotani, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    Public support for nuclear power generation has decreased in Japan since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. This study examines how the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power changed after this event. The influence factors examined are perceived benefit, perceived risk, trust in the managing bodies, and pro-environmental orientation (i.e., new ecological paradigm). This study is based on cross-sectional data collected from two online nationwide surveys: one conducted in November 2009, before the nuclear accident, and the other in October 2011, after the accident. This study's target respondents were residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures in the Tohoku region of Japan, as these areas were the epicenters of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the locations of nuclear power stations. After the accident, trust in the managing bodies was found to have a stronger influence on perceived risk, and pro-environmental orientation was found to have a stronger influence on trust in the managing bodies; however, perceived benefit had a weaker positive influence on public acceptance. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  9. Relationship Between Diurnal Changes of Net Photosynthetic Rate and Influencing Factors in Rice under Saline Sodic Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The net photosynthetic rate of flag leaves and influencing factors under saline sodic soil conditions were investigated at the full heading stage of rice.The net photosynthetic rate of rice leaves showed a double-peak curve in a day in both non-saline sodic and saline sodic soil treatments.The first peak of the net photosynthetic rate appeared at 9:00-10:00 and 9:00 in the saline sodic and non-saline sodic soil treatments,respectively,whereas the second peak both at 14:00.The midday depression of the net photosynthetic rate always appeared regardless of non-saline sodic or saline sodic soil conditions.In addition,the net photosynthetic rate significantly decreased in all day under saline sodic conditions compared with that under non-saline sodic conditions.Some differences were observed in correlation characters between the net photosynthetic rate and all influencing factors during 9:00-13:00.Under non-saline sodic conditions,the diurnal changes of the net photosynthetic rate in a day were mainly caused by stomatal conductance,and the limitation value and the stomatal factors served as determinants;whereas under saline soclic stress,the diurnal changes of the net photosynthetic rate in a day were mainly caused by non stomatal factors including light intensity and air temperature.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Image Evaluation of Temporomandibular Joint Osteophytes: Influence of Clinical Factors and Artrogenics Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Eduardo; Remedi, Marcelo Pereira; Ferreira, Luciano Ambrosio; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires

    2016-03-01

    This research aims to examine the presence of osteophyte in patients with arthrogenic temporomandibular disorders through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); to investigate the influence of sex and clinical symptoms in its prevalence; and the position of the osteophytes in the condyle. The study was based on 100 MRI and on reports of patients, which corresponded to the evaluation of 200 joints. Patients of both sexes were aged from 18 to 82 years (average = 49.48) and were subjected to the aforementioned examination from January 2006 to March 2009. The assessment considered the type of disc displacement, the presence of effusion, bone marrow edema, condyle changes, joint noise and pain. The MRI machine used was the GE Signa HDX (General Electric, Milwaukee, WI), with T1 and T2-weighted, 1.5 T magnetic field, sagittal oblique (mouth closed, mouth open) and coronal (mouth closed) imaging, with spherical surface coil and an asymmetric matrix. All images were interpreted by an experienced radiologist. A total of 28% (n = 56) of the temporomandibular joints showed osteophytes on the anterior surface of the mandible. No relationship was found between sex and osteophytes. The authors found a statistically significant difference between osteophytes and disc displacement without reduction (P < 0.001). The presence of osteophytes suggested a possible cause and effect relationship between osteoarthritis and disc displacement without reduction; the osteophyte was always located in the anterior surface of condyle, regardless of the sex variable; no significant difference was found between osteophytes and the main complaints of the patient.

  11. VERSHINA – A POLISH VILLAGE IN SIBERIA. FACTORS INFLUENCING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE UNDER CHANGING SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Głuszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.

  12. Factors influencing soft tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhatcha Maetevorakul

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown soft tissue profile changes after orthodontic treatment in Class II Division 1 patients. However, a few studies have described factors influencing the soft tissue changes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the soft tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment in Class II Division 1 patients. Methods The subjects comprised 104 Thai patients age 8–16 years who presented Class II Division 1 malocclusions and were treated with different orthodontic modalities comprising cervical headgear, Class II traction and extraction of the four first premolars. The profile changes were evaluated from the lateral cephalograms before and after treatment by means of the X-Y coordinate system. Significant soft tissue profile changes were evaluated by paired t test at a 0.05 significance level. The correlations among significant soft tissue changes and independent variables comprising treatment modality, age, sex, pretreatment skeletal, dental and soft tissue morphology were evaluated by stepwise multiple regression analysis at a 0.05 significance level. Results The multiple regression analysis indicated that different treatment modalities, age, sex, pretreatment skeletal, dental and soft tissue morphology were related to the profile changes. The predictive power of these variables on the soft tissue profile changes ranged from 9.9 to 40.3 %. Conclusions Prediction of the soft tissue profile changes following treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion from initial patient morphology, age, sex and types of treatment was complicated and required several variables to explain their variations. Upper lip change in horizontal direction could be found only at the stomion superius and was less predictable than those of the lower lip. Variations in upper lip retraction at the stomion superius were explained by types of treatment (R 2 = 0.099, whereas protrusion of the lower

  13. Ecological risk assessment of pesticides in the EU: what factors and groups influence policy changes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunka, Agnieszka D.; Meli, Mattia; Palmqvist, Annemette; Thorbek, Pernille; Forbes, Valery E.

    2015-01-01

    For the last couple of years, European environmental risk assessment (ERA) regulations have undergone significant changes. The new 1107/2009 directive which came into effect in 2011 has triggered an on-going debate on defining specific protection goals for ERA. During this period, we conducted a stu

  14. [Changes of acquired immune deficiency syndrome related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and their influencing factors among college students in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-18

    To compare acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and their influencing factors among college students in different years in Beijing, and to provide evidence for targeted health education among college students in future. College students were selected by the stratified cluster sampling method, and a questionnaire survey was conducted among college students in year 2006 and 2016 in Beijing. The sample sizes were 1 800 and 3 001 college students, respectively. The contents of the questionnaire included: socio-demographic characteristics, AIDS related knowledge, AIDS related attitude, sex intercourse and its related risk behaviors, condom use intension, and AIDS related health education. Compared with the year 2006, the average AIDS knowledge scores of college students in year 2016 dropped from 12.78±1.95 to 11.90±2.56 (t=12.91, Pinfluencing factors of intention on condom use were male (OR=0.713), self-efficacy of condom purchase (OR=0.876), never received sex education before college (OR=0.752), self-efficacy of condom use (OR=1.135), belief of condom use (OR=1.775), and attitude towards AIDS patients (OR=1.136). AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among college students have been changed, AIDS related health education should be designed and improved based on new characteristics of college students. AIDS health education in colleges should pay more attention to sex attitude and sex responsibility and self-protection awareness among college students as well.

  15. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-01

    Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991–2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  16. Reduction of Influence Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Sydenham, Peter H.; Thorn, Richard

    Any measurement system has imperfections and any act of measurement is liable to errors. Measurement errors either originate from system deficiencies (for instance system noise, quantization, and drift), or are due to environmental influences such as thermal, electromagnetic, and mechanical

  17. Analysis of streamflow variations in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China: Trends, abrupt changes, driving factors and ecological influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijing Zhang

    2015-03-01

    New Hydrological Insights for the Region: The findings of this study indicated that although the streamflow coming from the upper reaches have risen, those flowing to the lower reaches have declined significantly. Analysis of the correlation between climatic factors and streamflow variations and the assessment of the development of socioeconomics revealed that: (1 rising temperature and precipitation are the main cause to explain the increases in streamflow in the upper HRB; and (2 human activities in the middle reaches of the HRB rather than climate changes were primarily responsible for the water shortage and ecological deterioration of the lower HRB.

  18. Policies, Socioeconomic, Institutional and Biophysical Factors Influencing the Change from Rice to Sugarcane in Nong Bua Lamphu Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakapunrat, Narinpat; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2017-06-01

    For the past decade, Thailand pursued a strategy of promoting biofuel crop production, including sugarcane, to meet the ever increasing energy demand and to increase the income of farmers. This study analyzed the influence of policy instruments implemented to promote the sugarcane cultivation, farm household socioeconomic levels, biophysical, and institutional factors driving the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. Primary information was collected from 230 farm households through a structured questionnaire. Relevant policy documents published by the responsible government agencies were the main sources of secondary information collected for policy analysis. The analyses revealed that farmers in the study area converted 25-75% of their rice fields into sugarcane farms as a result of implementation of policy instruments that made sugarcane financially far more attractive than rice. The results of the regression analysis showed that eight variables were found significant and positively influenced the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. These were access to extension services, information, sugarcane loading stations, and ground water for irrigation, and duration of experience in sugarcane farming as well as household head's age and education. Irrespective of landholding size, the majority of farmers were not concerned about food security. In view of the finding, if feasible, in the form of additional price supports and commercial cane sugar index-based pricing strategies to promote sugarcane production should benefit all concerned farmers. Likewise, attention should be paid to deliver essential extension and marketing services in an effective way, particularly to those farmers who are not receiving such services.

  19. Factors influencing healthy lifestyle changes: a qualitative look at low-income families engaged in treatment for overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason-Wilkerson, Rochelle; Goldberg, Shauna; Albright, Karen; Allison, Mandy; Haemer, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity disproportionately affects low-income minority populations, yet there is a paucity of literature about effective interventions in this population. This study sought to understand the experience of low-income majority Hispanic families engaged in obesity treatment. We conducted six focus groups (2=English, 4=Spanish) with families who completed a community-based, family-oriented obesity treatment program, using standard qualitative focus group interview methods. Transcripts were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content. Two coders using the software program ATLAS.ti (v.7.0; Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany) coded each transcript independently; reflexive team analysis with three study team members was used to reach a consensus. Participants (n=37) indicated high program satisfaction. Parents reported buying less junk/fast food, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, preparing and eating more meals as a family, and increasing their families' physical activity (PA). Four barrier and facilitator themes emerged. Barrier themes were time and financial cost, parent's lack of time and energy, influence of family members, and challenges regarding physical environment. Facilitator themes were skill building around healthy eating and parenting, family involvement, and long-term health concerns. Unanticipated findings, parents reported, were that changes resulted in children sleeping better, feeling happier, and less irritability. Despite low-income families experiencing barriers to lifestyle changes to manage obesity, they made positive dietary changes and increased PA by learning specific skills and including the whole family in those changes. Additionally, some unexpected benefits were noted, including improved sleep, less irritability, and children appearing happier. Future studies should consider using these parent-identified outcomes as secondary measures of program effectiveness.

  20. Factors influencing the local scale colonisation and change in density of a widespread invasive plant species, Lantana camara, in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Sundaram

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Identifying factors that underlie invasive species colonisation and change in density could provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of biological invasions and for invasive species management. We examined a suite of factors potentially influencing the landscape-level invasion of Lantana camara L., one of the most ubiquitous invasive species in South Asia. These factors included disturbance factors like forest fires, historical habitat modification, and edge effects, in addition to factors like propagule pressure and habitat suitability. We examined the relative importance of these factors on the colonisation and change in density of L. camara in the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, India. We used extensive (1997–2008 datasets tracking the presence and abundance of L. camara and combined these with corresponding data on disturbances, propagule pressure, and habitat suitability. We used an information-theoretic model selection approach to determine the relative importance of each factor on the colonisation and change in density of L. camara. Colonisation was mainly a function of proximity to already established populations (i.e. propagule pressure, whereas increase in L. camara density appeared to be constrained by high fire frequency. Research and management efforts need to recognize the multi-dimensional nature of mechanisms underlying L. camara’s success during different invasion phases when strategizing interventions to mitigate its effects.

  1. Factors that influence the way communities respond to proposals for major changes to local emergency services: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Barratt

    Full Text Available According to policy commentators, decisions about how best to organise care involve trade-offs between factors relating to care quality, workforce, cost, and patient access. In England, proposed changes such as Emergency Department closures often face public opposition. This study examined the way communities respond to plans aimed at reorganising emergency services, including the trade-offs inherent in such decisions.Cross-sectional study involving in-depth interviews. Participants selected their priorities for emergency care, including aspects they might be prepared to have 'less' of (e.g. rapid access if it meant having 'more' of another (e.g. consultant-delivered care. A thematic analysis was carried out, combining inductive and deductive approaches, drawing on theories about risk perception.Two urban areas of England; one where changes to emergency services were under consideration ('Greenville', and one where they were not ('Hilltown'.28 participants in total. Greenville interviewees included more common emergency service users - parents of young children (n=5 and older people (n=6 - plus patient representatives and individuals campaigning against service closures (n=9. Hilltown interviewees (n=8 received outpatient care for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, an important cause of emergency admission.Most participants, in both areas, were not willing to accommodate the trade-offs involved in consolidating emergency services, principally because of the belief that timely access is associated with better outcomes. Participants did not consider the proposed improvements as gains worth having; interviewees believed care quality would be adversely impact, partly because increased patient numbers would place staff under greater pressure and result in longer waiting times.Visible clinical leadership and detailed explanation of the case for change were insufficient to overcome opposition to the reconfiguration in Greenville, challenging the

  2. Influence of Climate Change and Meteorological Factors on Houston’s Air Pollution: Ozone a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the past 23 years of ground-level O3 data and selected meteorological parameters in Houston, Texas, which historically has been one of the most polluted cities in the United States. Both 1-h and 8-h O3 exceedances have been reduced significantly down to single digit yearly occurrences. We also found that the frequency of southerly flow has increased by a factor of ~2.5 over the period 1990–2013, likely suppressing O3 photochemistry and leading to a “cleaner” Houston environment. The sea breeze was enhanced greatly from 1990 to 2013 due to increasing land surface temperatures, increased pressure gradients, and slightly stronger on-shore winds. These patterns driven by climate change produce a strengthening of the sea breeze, which should be a general result at locations worldwide.

  3. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  4. Impact of Real-world Factors Influencing Investment Decisions on the Costs and Distribution of Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J.; Iyer, G.; McJeon, H. C.; Leon, C.; Hultman, N.

    2015-12-01

    Strategies to mitigate dangerous anthropogenic climate change require a dramatic transformation of the energy system to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, that in turn requires large-scale investments. Investment decisions depend not only on investment capital availability but also on investment risks. A number of factors such as national policy environments, quality of public and private institutions, sector, firm and technology specific characteristics can affect investors' assessments of risks, leading to a wide variation in the business climate for investment. Such heterogeneity in investment risks can have important implications, as investors usually respond to risks by requiring higher returns for riskier projects; delaying or forgoing the investments; or preferring to invest in existing, familiar projects. We study the impact of variation in investment risks on regional patterns of emissions mitigation, the cost of emissions mitigation and patterns of technology deployment. We modify an integrated assessment model, widely used in global climate policy analyses (the Global Change Assessment Model) and incorporate decisions on investments based on risks along two dimensions. Along the first dimension, we vary perceived risks associated with particular technologies. To do so, we assign a higher cost of capital for investment in low-carbon technologies as these involve intrinsically higher levels of regulatory and market risk. The second dimension uses a proxy to vary investment risks across regions, based on an institutional quality metric published by the World Economic Forum. Explicit representation of investment risks has two major effects. First, it raises the cost of emissions mitigation relative to a world with uniform investment risks. Second, it shifts the pattern of emissions mitigation, with industrialized countries mitigating more, and developing countries mitigating less. Our results suggest that institutional reforms aimed at lowering investment

  5. A model study of factors influencing projected changes in regional sea level over the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardaens, Anne K.; Lowe, J.A. [Met Office, Hadley Centre, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom); Gregory, J.M. [Met Office, Hadley Centre, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom); University of Reading, Department of Meteorology, Walker Institute for Climate System Research, Earley Gate, PO Box 243, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    In addition to projected increases in global mean sea level over the 21st century, model simulations suggest there will also be changes in the regional distribution of sea level relative to the global mean. There is a considerable spread in the projected patterns of these changes by current models, as shown by the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment (AR4). This spread has not reduced from that given by the Third Assessment models. Comparison with projections by ensembles of models based on a single structure supports an earlier suggestion that models of similar formulation give more similar patterns of sea level change. Analysing an AR4 ensemble of model projections under a business-as-usual scenario shows that steric changes (associated with subsurface ocean density changes) largely dominate the sea level pattern changes. The relative importance of subsurface temperature or salinity changes in contributing to this differs from region to region and, to an extent, from model-to-model. In general, thermosteric changes give the spatial variations in the Southern Ocean, halosteric changes dominate in the Arctic and strong compensation between thermosteric and halosteric changes characterises the Atlantic. The magnitude of sea level and component changes in the Atlantic appear to be linked to the amount of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) weakening. When the MOC weakening is substantial, the Atlantic thermosteric patterns of change arise from a dominant role of ocean advective heat flux changes. (orig.)

  6. Deliberate change without hierarchical influence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana; Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to present that deliberate change is strongly associated with formal structures and top-down influence. Hierarchical configurations have been used to structure processes, overcome resistance and get things done. But is deliberate change also possible without formal...... reveals that deliberate change is indeed achievable in a non-hierarchical collaborative OSS community context. However, it presupposes the presence and active involvement of informal change agents. The paper identifies and specifies four key drivers for change agents’ influence. Originality....../value The findings contribute to organisational analysis by providing a deeper understanding of the importance of leadership in making deliberate change possible in non-hierarchical settings. It points to the importance of “change-by-conviction”, essentially based on voluntary behaviour. This can open the door...

  7. The combined influence of genetic factors and sedentary activity on body mass changes from adolescence to young adulthood: the National Longitudinal Adolescent Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, M; North, K E; Monda, K L; Lange, E M; Lange, L A; Guo, G; Gordon-Larsen, P

    2011-01-01

    an increase in sedentary activities is likely a major contributor to the rise in obesity over the last three decades. Little research has examined interactions between genetic variants and sedentary activity on obesity phenotypes. High levels of sedentary activity during adolescence may interact with genetic factors to influence body mass changes between adolescence and young adulthood, a high risk period for weight gain. in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, siblings and twin pairs (16.5 ± 1.7 years) were followed into young adulthood (22.4 ± 1.8 years). Self-reported screen time (TV, video, and computer use in h/week) and body mass index (kg/m(2) ), calculated from measured height and weight at adolescence and at young adulthood, were available for 3795 participants. We employed a variance component approach to estimate the interaction between genotype and screen time for body mass changes. Additive genotype-by-screen time interactions were assessed using likelihood-ratio tests. Models were adjusted for race, age, sex, and age-by-sex interaction. the genetic variation in body mass changes was significantly larger in individuals with low ( δ(G) = 27.59 ± 1.58) compared with high (δ(G) = 18.76 ± 2.59) levels of screen time (p adolescence. Our findings demonstrate that sedentary activities during adolescence may interact with genetic factors to influence body mass changes between adolescence and young adulthood. Accounting for obesity-related behaviours may improve current understanding of the genetic variation in body mass changes. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Patient factors that influence warfarin dose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pamela J

    2010-06-01

    Warfarin has long been the mainstay of oral anticoagulation therapy for the treatment and prevention of venous and arterial thrombosis. The narrow therapeutic index of warfarin, and the complex number of factors that influence international normalized ratio (INR) response, makes optimization of warfarin therapy challenging. Determination of the appropriate warfarin dose during initiation and maintenance therapy requires an understanding of patient factors that influence dose response: age, body weight, nutritional status, acute and chronic disease states, and changes in concomitant drug therapy and diet. This review will examine specific clinical factors that can affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin, as well as the role of pharmacogenetics in optimizing warfarin therapy.

  9. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...

  10. Solar influences on global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Monitoring of the Sun and the Earth has yielded new knowledge essential to this debate. There is now no doubt that the total radiative energy from the Sun that heats the Earth's surface changes over decadal time scales as a consequence of solar activity. Observations indicate as well that changes in ultraviolet radiation and energetic particles from the Sun, also connected with the solar activity, modulate the layer of ozone that protects the biosphere from the solar ultraviolet radiation. This report reassesses solar influences on global change in the light of this new knowledge of solar and atmospheric variability. Moreover, the report considers climate change to be encompassed within the broader concept of global change; thus the biosphere is recognized to be part of a larger, coupled Earth system. Implementing a program to continuously monitor solar irradiance over the next several decades will provide the opportunity to estimate solar influences on global change, assuming continued maintenance of observations of climate and other potential forcing mechanisms. In the lower atmosphere, an increase in solar radiation is expected to cause global warming. In the stratosphere, however, the two effects produce temperature changes of opposite sign. A monitoring program that would augment long term observations of tropospheric parameters with similar observations of stratospheric parameters could separate these diverse climate perturbations and perhaps isolate a greenhouse footprint of climate change. Monitoring global change in the troposphere is a key element of all facets of the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), not just of the study of solar influences on global change. The need for monitoring the stratosphere is also important for global change research in its own right because of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  11. 中国酒文化变迁的影响因素研究%Study on the Influence Factors on the Change of Chinese Wine Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小川

    2014-01-01

    There existed many factors that influenced the change of wine culture throughout history. In this paper, we analyzed factors like social system change, economic development, technology progress, social development and foreign culture invasion, and put forward that all these fac-tors should not waver the base of Chinese traditional wine culture, and that foreign and local wine culture should develop harmoniously. Although the change of wine culture is an irreversible process, it is possible to lead it onto a healthy track through the joint efforts of the government, the in-dustry, enterprises and consumers.%从古到今影响酒文化变迁的因素较多,通过从社会体制更替、经济发展、技术进步、社会发展和外来文化侵入对酒文化的影响进行分析,提出这些影响因素不应动摇中国传统酒文化发展的根本,更应该是“百花齐放、百家争鸣”“和而不同”的和谐局面,尽管酒文化变迁是一个不可逆转的现象,但是如何将之纠正到健康的轨道还需要政府、行业、企业和消费者共同努力。

  12. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  13. Analysis on the Climatic Change Characteristics of the Snow Cover Days and Its Influence Factors in Suzhou during Recent 50 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study climatic variation characteristics of snow cover days and its influence factors in Suzhou of Anhui Province during recent 50 years. [Method] According to annual snow cover days and correlated data in Suzhou during 1961-2010, by using linear trend method, accumulative anomaly and complete correlation coefficient method, etc., the climatic variation characteristics of snow cover days and its influence factors in Suzhou were analyzed. [Result] In recent 50 years, the sno...

  14. Factors influencing temporal changes in chemical composition of biogenic deposits in the middle Tążyna River Valley (Kuyavian Lakeland, central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okupny, Daniel; Rzepecki, Seweryn; Borówka, Ryszard Krzysztof; Forysiak, Jacek; Twardy, Juliusz; Fortuniak, Anna; Tomkowiak, Julita

    2016-06-01

    The present paper discusses the influence of geochemical properties on biogenic deposits in the Wilkostowo mire near Toruń, central Poland. The analysed core has allowed the documentation of environmental changes between the older part of the Atlantic Period and the present day (probably interrupted at the turn of the Meso- and Neoholocene). In order to reconstruct the main stages in the sedimentation of biogenic deposits, we have used stratigraphic variability of selected litho-geochemical elements (organic matter, calcium carbonate, biogenic and terrigenous silica, macro- and micro-elements: Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni). The main litho-geochemical component is CaCO3; its content ranges from 4.1 per cent to 92 per cent. The variability of CaCO3 content reflects mainly changes in hydrological and geomorphological conditions within the catchment area. The effects of prehistoric anthropogenic activities in the catchment of the River Tążyna, e.g., the use of saline water for economic purposes, are recorded in a change from calcareous gyttja into detritus-calcareous gyttja sedimentation and an increased content of lithophilous elements (Na, K, Mg and Ni) in the sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) has enabled the distinction the most important factors that affected the chemical composition of sediments at the Wilkostowo site, i.e., mechanical and chemical denudation processes in the catchment, changes in redox conditions, bioaccumulation of selected elements and human activity. Sediments of the Wilkostowo mire are located in the direct vicinity of an archaeological site, where traces of intensive settlement dating back to the Neolithic have been documented. The settlement phase is recorded both in lithology and geochemical properties of biogenic deposits which fill the reservoir formed at the bottom of the Parchania Canal Valley.

  15. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  16. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu SSX

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim

  17. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarkoti, Bishal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...

  18. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: multi-nutrient supplements; survey; children; women's decisions. Factors influencing .... associations between level of education and various factors influencing women's ..... Social marketing improved the use of multivitamin and ...

  19. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  20. The change in motivating factors influencing commencement, adherence and retention to a supervised resistance training programme in previously sedentary post-menopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Janet Erica; Christie, Candice Jo-Anne

    2015-03-12

    Understanding motivators for exercise participation in post-menopausal women may impact retention to exercise programmes and inform intervention trial designs. The purpose of this investigation was to assess self-reported motivational factors influencing adherence and retention to a 24-week progressive resistance training programme. Post-menopausal females (n = 34) were passively recruited to undertake a 24-week progressive resistance training protocol, in small-group sessions, on three non-consecutive days of the week. Attendance was recorded by the researcher. Qualitative reports were sourced from the sample for four phases of the study: pre-study (prior to week 1), recruitment (week 1), during study (weeks 2 - 24), and post-intervention (beyond week 24). Responses were categorised according to ten descriptors: specific health index improvement, education, flexibility of time, social contact, conscience (loyalty to the researcher), wellness, weight management, organisation parameters (pertaining to the study programme) and enjoyment of the exercises. Of the initial sample, 76.5% (n = 26) met the specified ≥80% attendance criterion. The primary findings were that motivation to volunteer for the study was driven by a perceived need for a structured exercise programme (50% of respondents). A commitment to the researcher was the primary motivator for continued adherence to the study for 50% of participants. Social contact with other participants was cited by 60% of the sample as the primary reason for adherence for the full duration of 24 weeks. A desire to maintain the "wellness" derived from the programme was cited by 60% as a reason for continuing an exercise routine post-study. This study identified that routine and supervision initially attract women to exercise programmes, while social cohesion of the group setting contributes to retention over time. Understanding the changing nature of motivating factors may contribute to better overall adherence

  1. Sociopolitical Change and Inequality of Educational Opportunities: Influences of Family Background and Institutional Factors on the Acquisition of Education (1940-2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunling, Li

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the influences of family background and institutional factors on the acquisition of education (1940-2001) and demonstrates that the increase or decrease in the inequality of educational opportunity allocations are closely linked to the government's relevant policies. The rapid growth of the inequality in educational…

  2. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Claudia MOISĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

  3. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  4. Daily changes of radon concentration in soil gas under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Evelise G.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: evelise.lara@gmail.com, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Rocha, Zildete; Rios, Francisco Javier, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: javier@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work aims at relating the daily change in the radon concentration in soil gas in a Red Yellow Acrisol (SiBCS) under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity. The {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, U content and permeability were also performed. The measurements of radon soil gas were carried out by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. The {sup 226}Ra activity concentration was made by Gamma Spectrometry (HPGe); the permeability was carried out using the RADON-JOK permeameter and ICP-MS analysis to {sup 232}Th and U content. The soil permeability is 5.0 x 10{sup -12}, which is considered average. The {sup 226}Ra (22.2 ± 0.3 Bq.m{sup -3}); U content (73.4 ± 3.6 Bq.kg{sup -1}) and {sup 232}Th content (55.3 ± 4.0 Bq.kg{sup -1}) were considered above of average concentrations, according to mean values for soils typical (~ 35.0 Bq.kg{sup -1}) by UNSCEAR. The results showed a difference of 26.0% between the highest and the lowest concentration of radon in soil gas: at midnight (15.5 ± 1.0 kBq.m{sup -3}) and 3:00 pm, the highest mean radon concentration (21.0 ± 1.0 kBq.m{sup -3}). The room temperature and surface soil temperature showed equivalent behavior and the surface soil temperature slightly below room temperature during the entire monitoring time. Nevertheless, the relative humidity showed the highest cyclical behavior, showing a higher relationship with the radon concentration in soil gas. (author)

  5. Regional brain shrinkage and change in cognitive performance over two years: The bidirectional influences of the brain and cognitive reserve factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ninni; Ghisletta, Paolo; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Yuan, Peng; Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2016-02-01

    We examined relationships between regional brain shrinkage and changes in cognitive performance, while taking into account the influence of chronological age, vascular risk, Apolipoprotein E variant and socioeconomic status. Regional brain volumes and cognitive performance were assessed in 167 healthy adults (age 19-79 at baseline), 90 of whom returned for the follow-up after two years. Brain volumes were measured in six regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (Hc), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC), and cognitive performance was evaluated in three domains: episodic memory (EM), fluid intelligence (Gf), and vocabulary (V). Average volume loss was observed in Hc, PhG and CbH, but reliable individual differences were noted in all examined ROIs. Average positive change was observed in EM and V performance but not in Gf scores, yet only the last evidenced individual differences in change. We observed reciprocal influences among neuroanatomical and cognitive variables. Larger brain volumes at baseline predicted greater individual gains in Gf, but differences in LPFC volume change were in part explained by baseline level of cognitive performance. In one region (PFw), individual change in volume was coupled with change in Gf. Larger initial brain volumes did not predict slower shrinkage. The results underscore the complex role of brain maintenance and cognitive reserve in adult development.

  6. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    Only the factor of taste influencing food choice was significantly different between the two ..... available through the media, promotions, and advertising may confuse consumers and cause ... Predictors of self-initiated, healthful dietary change.

  7. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPOSTING POULTRY WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kopeć

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic recycling of waste, taking into account sanitary safety, should be a fundamental method for recovering the nutrients present in the waste for plants and organic matter. It also refers to by-products of animal origin, which are not intended for consumption by humans. In the present research , composting of hydrated poultry slaughterhouse waste with maize straw was carried out. A combination with fodder yeast and post-cellulose lime was also introduced, which modified chemical and physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. The experiment was carried out by recording the biomass temperature for 110 days in 1.2×1.0×0.8 m reactors with perforated bottoms enabling active aeration. The following parameters were taken into consideration in the composted material: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, respiratory activity, microorganisms, fractions of compost obtained after washing on sieves. Small amounts of fodder yeast favoured the development of microorganisms and caused a sanitary risk in the final product. At the initial stage, the temperature of raw compost in that object was several degrees lower than in the case of the composted mass without yeast addition. The addition of post-cellulose lime at ratios 6.5:1:6.5 (maize straw: poultry slaughterhouse waste: post-cellulose lime caused a change in the time of microbiological activity, and led to its inhibition in the final process. In comparison to objects with poultry waste, the highest degree of hygienization was found in the compost with post-cellulose lime (with pH close to neutral. By adjusting the ratios of substrates we can influence the microbiological activity, but the amounts of individual substrates should be determined taking into account the quality of the obtained compost.

  8. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  9. Contextual factors influencing research use in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Contextual factors are perceived to be significant barriers to research-utilisation-related activity, but little is known about how context impacts on specific research-based decisions, or how the individual interacts with the organisation in the requirement for research-based change. This study describes the impact of contextual factors on the practical reasoning of nurse specialists in the construction of policy for practice. Three groups of clinical nurse specialists were observed during a series of meetings convened to construct evidence-based guidelines for nursing practice. Transcripts of the meetings were analysed to identify and categorise the physical, social, political, and economic influences on 31 nursing issues. Multiple contextual factors influenced each decision made, with decisions about nursing practice bounded by setting and system considerations, relationships with others in the care team, and resource constraints. Practitioners were involved in weighing up alternative scenarios, contexts, and contingencies for each decision, requiring strategies to adapt and reconstruct the nature of care, to influence others, and to affect organisational decision-making processes. The practical accomplishment of evidence-based practice required diverse skills: translating between evidence and practice; mediating the values, preferences, and working practices of multiple stakeholders; negotiating organisational complexity and the management of boundaries; and coordinating inter-organisational and inter-agency working. Nurse specialists in this study had a significant role in instigating, fuelling, and coordinating policy review, predominantly by communication across professional and organisational boundaries. Clinical specialists acting as organisational boundary spanners require skills in the informal cultural work of organising, facilitating, and maintaining links across professional, team, and organisational boundaries. If their role in the negotiation of

  10. Influence factors of snow change in Lake Bosten Basin%博斯腾湖流域积雪变化及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白淑英; 王莉; 赵巧华; 巴雅尔; 徐永明; 孙德勇

    2012-01-01

    Snow is the major water source of rivers in the arid areas in the northwest. Its temporal and spatial variation is one of the sensitive factors responses to global change in the lake. This paper, using MODIS Snow Cover, Surface Temperature, SSM/I Snow Depth, OEM and other data with the help of spatial and statistics analysis function of CIS, analyzes the temporal and spatial variation regularity of snow cover and snow depth of Lake Bosten Basin, and studies their relationships with the influencing factors. The results show that monthly average of snow cover and snow depth start to rise from August, reach a maximum until January, and then decline to a minimum in July, while the maximum snow depth appears in March. The correlation coefficients of snow cover, snow depth and surface temperature, are -0. 878 and -0.853, respectively, while the coefficients are -0.626 and -0.791 between snow cover, snow depth and elevation. The maximum snow depth is significantly affected by the altitude with a steep step effect. From December to August, the snow depth is reducing with time, and the steep step is moving towards the high altitude, while the situation is totally opposite from September to November. The snow depth amplitude d one segment elevation response to the impact of aspect on snow depth, and the influence is greater while the amplitude is wider. Simultaneously, the amplitude, as a characteristic , moves from low altitude to high and then to low again. This study plays an important role in understanding characteristics of snow in Lake Bosten Basin. It will also provide important references for other studies, such as the simulation of snowmelt runoff.%积雪是西北干旱地区河流的主要补给源,是绿洲的生命线.积雪的时空变化是全球变化的区域响应敏感因子之一,同时也是影响西北干旱地区地表水资源变化的主要因子之一.本研究利用MODIS雪盖产品、地表温度、SSM/I雪深、DEM等数据,通过GIS空间分析

  11. STUDY ON FACTORS INFLUENCING INK ABSORPTION OF COATED PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxin Liu; Chuanshan Zhao; Shuxia Shang; Zhongwei Sun

    2004-01-01

    Ink absorption is one of the most important factors which influence printing properties. This article had discussed the influence of coating properties,technologies of heating and pressure etc. on ink absorption and showed that ink absorption can be adjusted and coating surface structure can be improved when technologies of heating and pressure change, pigment and adhesive altered.

  12. New approach to optimize near-infrared spectra with design of experiments and determination of milk compounds as influence factors for changing milk over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Lorenzo; Huck, Christian

    2016-12-01

    The optimization of near-infrared spectroscopic parameters was realized via design of experiments. With this new approach objectivity can be integrated into conventional, rather subjective approaches. The investigated factors are layer thickness, number of scans and temperature during measurement. Response variables in the full factorial design consisted of absorption intensity, signal-to-noise ratio and reproducibility of the spectra. Optimized factorial combinations have been found to be 0.5mm layer thickness, 64 scans and 25°C ambient temperature for liquid milk measurements. Qualitative analysis of milk indicated a strong correlation of environmental factors, as well as the feeding of cattle with respect to the change in milk composition. This was illustrated with the aid of near-infrared spectroscopy and the previously optimized parameters by detection of altered fatty acids in milk, especially by the fatty acid content (number of carboxylic functions) and the fatty acid length.

  13. Factors Influencing Students’ Perceptions of Online Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falls

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.

  14. Understanding Culture and Influencing Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    sexes. 44 Democratic countries considered feministic tend to elect more women to political offices and government posts unless they have a large...his book Organization Change: Theory and Practice expands Gladwell’s ideas identifying areas a leader can leverage to assist with changing culture...Leading Across Cultures, 3rd Edition (Boston,MA: Nicholas Brealy Publishing, 2006), 28-29. 4 Gareth R. Jones, Organizational Theory , Design, and

  15. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  16. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole.

  17. Moral Responsibility and Confidence as Factors That Influence Teacher Involvement in Educational Change (Responsabilidad moral y confianza como factores que influyen en la participación del profesor en el cambio educativo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Cecilio

    2010-01-01

    Various factors that are not easily observed have a strong impact on educational change. In this paper, I examine some of the issues that emerged from the data collected while exploring my informants' perceptions and attitudes towards their changing roles when confronted with curriculum innovation. This research demonstrates that the experience…

  18. The influence of motivational factors on choice behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Amelsfort, D.H.; Steg, L.; Bliemer, M.C.J.; Schuitema, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate if and how motivational factors influence choice behaviour. We study four motivational factors: attitude towards car use, personal norm to reduce car use, car use habit, and perceived behavioural control to change car use to explain the choice behaviour of respondents in

  19. Thymic Output: Influence Factors and Molecular Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Jin; Jun Zhang; Weifeng Chen

    2006-01-01

    Thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, able to generate mature T cells that eventually colonize secondary lymphoid organs, and is therefore essential for peripheral T cell renewal. Recent data showed that normal thymocyte export can be altered by several influence factors including several chemokines,sphingosinel-phosphate (S1P),transcription factors such as Foxjl, Kruppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2) and antigen stimulation, etc. In this review, we summarized the recent reports about study strategies, influence factors and possible molecular mechanisms in thymic output.

  20. 31. FACTORS INFLUENCING UTILIZATION OF INTERMITTENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    treatment of malaria during pregnancy(IPTp), effective IPTp service utilization ... effective case management of malaria. Despite the ... Factors influencing IPTp utilization identified in the study included; educational status of a woman,. Medical ...

  1. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Factors Influencing Performance and Progress of Primary School Pupils in ... found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school ... on school progress and performance, however; home language did play a role.

  2. Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers among Tertiary ... role stereotype and common business practices on media self employment in ... Sex, Psycho-social Characteristics, self Employment, Providing Media Services.

  3. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  4. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human beings are ... Key words: Mursik, Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), probiotic, Preschoolers, Focus group

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING AS A. PROFESSION ... Colleges of Health Technology undergoing external ... questionnaire requested information on age ... individual with good communication skills and ...

  6. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  7. FACTORS INFLUENCING SUSTAINED MANAGERIAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Marius RIZESCU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effectiveness is learnable in economic theory and practice with various forms of manifestation of the results obtained by the managers, such as profitability, the productivity of factors of production, capital efficiency, cost savings, etc. Regarded as the organizing principle and driving activity in the market economy, it has a much richer content and also favorable results of generalizing all derived by managers. Choosing effective in meeting needs with limited resources or powerlessness to maximize resource needs under restrains, are expressions through which efficiency is situated at the heart of economic theory and practice.

  8. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  9. Organizational Culture Factors that Can Influence Knowledge Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Pastor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to establish the correlation that exists between the types of organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer. We started from the hypothesis that organizations which have high scores for cultural factors of openness to change and innovation as well as for task-oriented organizational growth will have the tendency of being favourable to knowledge transfer. Moreover, we started from the hypothesis that organizations that have high scores for bureaucracy and competition factors will have the tendency of being unfavourable to knowledge transfer. The research reached the conclusion that there seems to be a correlation between organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer.

  10. Variation properties of ionospheric eclipse factor and ionospheric influence factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunmei; YUAN Yunbin; OU Jikun; CHEN Jinping

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and calculation methods of ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) and ionospheric influence factor (IFF) are further illustrated. The temporal and spacial variation properties of IEF and IFF are studied, which shows that the properties are influenced by the geographic position and season. The possibility of improving the precision of using GPS data to determine ionospheric delay based on the above variation properties is also analysed.

  11. Environmental Factors Influencing Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araniyar C. Isukul

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the enthronement of democratic governance in Nigeria, there is the expectation that democracy would strengthen political institutions, regulatory institutions, and governance effectively, and by so doing, create an enabling environment for good corporate governance practices to thrive. This research uses data from World Bank Governance indicators for three countries, Nigeria, South Africa, and Egypt, and examines how institutional quality has changed from 1996 to 2012. The research methodology used in investigating this research is a cross-country research analysis. The findings of this research reveal that the adoption of democratic institutions has not significantly increased the institutional quality of political and regulatory institutions in Nigeria. On the contrary, there has been an increasing trend of political instability and violence; however, there appears to be significant improvement in freedom of the press, democracy has allowed pressed freedom to thrive.

  12. Factors Influencing the Quality of Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin ZAMFIROIU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications are becoming increasingly used. Mobile devices are becoming indispensable for the user. In the material are claiming the sales of mobile devices internationally and the use of mobile applications compared to traditional internet use on desktop systems for the United States. Are presented influences the quality of mobile applications and based on these influencing factors built a model of choice for optimal application of mobile applications and traditional desktop application. At the end of the material presented methods to increase quality by tracking the influence factors during the development of mobile applications.

  13. Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Bilodeau, Stéphanie; Langlois, Geneviève; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2011-07-01

    Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity.

  14. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  15. Investigating the Influence of Motivational Factors on Conceptual Change in a Digital Learning Context Using the Dual-Situated Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chung-Hsien; Tuan, Hsiao-Lin; Chin, Chi-Chin

    2010-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between the learning motivation and conceptual change of 127 eighth graders, after they have learned the acid, base, and salt concept in a digital learning context, designed according to the dual-situated learning model (DSLM). Two instruments-the students' motivation towards science learning (SMTSL) questionnaire and the acid-base-salt concept diagnostic test (CDT)-were used in the study. The questionnaire and the test were given to students in pre-test, post-test, and delayed post-test. Based on their motivation questionnaire scores, 18 students were selected from various scoring ranges for semi-structural interviews. Results showed that, after experiencing DSLM digital learning, students' post-CDT and delay-CDT scores were significantly higher than pre-CDT scores (p Pearson correlation analysis indicated that students' conceptual change (ΔCDT) was significantly correlated with motivational factors such as self-efficacy (SE), active learning strategy (ALS), science learning value (SLV), achievement goal (AG), and learning environment stimulation (LES) (p correlation to ΔCDT, particularly for SE, ALS, and AG.

  16. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  17. THE INFLUENCES OF CHANGES IN TAX LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAR IOAN DAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a fairly important field in the relationship between taxpayers and tax authorities, especially given the frequent changes in specific legislation. Legislative changes affect the patrimonial position of the taxpayers, but also their behavior, therefore this phenomenon is important to advise those interested and also to analyze the changes resulting from changes in tax legislation. This paper aims to meaningfully present the latest legislative changes and to analyze their influences on taxpayers and on budget revenues from taxes subject to change. The research methodology is based on comparison and inference, based on previous analyzes for such studies on the tax system. In the literature there are known ways and methods of increasing the tax burden and, based on these variables, in the present paper we will highlight the particular influences on the taxpayer’s , loaded by weight imposed by the official distribution of the tax burden. The implications of legislative changes in tax matters should be sought in the innermost chord of taxpayers and also in the increasingly large and patched pockets of the modern state. In the first place, we will point out the implications on changing tax procedures, in terms of the workload for the taxpayer and the tax collectors. By accurately and relevantly analyzing the influences generated by such changes, the author aims to demonstrate the harmful influences of some changes in terms of discouraging investments and honest labor.

  18. Influencing factors and current studies of changes in bladder wall morphology%膀胱壁形态改变的影响因素及研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾磊; 段君程; 赵云; 杨小龙; 张烨

    2015-01-01

    膀胱壁形态改变除了受病理性因素的影响外,也受生理性因素的影响。在病理性因素方面,膀胱出口梗阻、神经源性膀胱、腺性膀胱炎、膀胱肿瘤膀胱壁的形态表现各有特点。在生理性因素方面,膀胱充盈量、年龄等因素与膀胱壁形态改变存在相关性。该文对膀胱壁形态改变的影响因素及相关的研究现状作一概述以引起同行们的重视,为早期规范化预防与治疗膀胱壁形态病理性改变提供参考。%The changes in the bladder wall morphology are not only affected by pathological factors, but also influenced by physiological factors.Regarding pathological factors,the morphological features of the bladder walls of bladder outlet obstruction,neurogenic bladder,glandular cystitis and bladder tumors vary con-siderably.In terms of physiological factors,the bladder filling and age are correlated with the changes in the morphology of the bladder wall.Herein,we summarize the influencing factors and correlation of the changes in the morphology of the bladder wall,aiming to arouse the attention from the physicians and provide clinical ref-erence for the early standard prevention and treatment of pathological changes in the bladder wall morphology.

  19. Influencing factors in MMR immunisation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Marie C; Cox, Carol L

    Immunisation decision making is not a straightforward process for parents. Many factors influence parental decision making on whether they immunise their child with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The feasibility study described in this article provides insight into influencing factors associated with decisions regarding the immunisation of children by parents. The study findings suggest that the practice nurse is a credible source of information for parents seeking informed decision making. At a time when the incidence of measles and mumps is rising in the UK, the provision of appropriate information by the practice nurse has the potential to increase uptake of the MMR vaccine.

  20. Empirical Analysis on Factors Influencing Distribution of Vegetal Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjie; WU

    2015-01-01

    Since the reform and opening-up,there has been a great change in spatial pattern of China’s vegetable production. This paper studied vegetable production in provinces of China in 1978- 2013. From the sequential characteristics,China’s vegetable production area is constantly growing and takes on stage characteristic. From the spatial distribution,China’s vegetable production takes on the trend of " going down the south" and " marching the west". In order to grasp rules of changes of vegetable production and the influence factors,this paper made theoretical and empirical analysis on factors possibly influencing distribution of vegetable production. Results show that major factors influencing distribution of China’s vegetable production include irrigation condition,non-agricultural employment,market demand,knowledge spillover,comparative effectiveness,rural road and government policies.

  1. IMPROVING CHANGE MANAGEMENT: HOW COMMUNICATION NATURE INFLUENCES RESISTANCE TO CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Matos Marques Simoes, Paula; Esposito, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Little has been studied yet in terms of how communication nature influences change process. This article explores a case study that takes part in a broader research project, aimed to contribute in this direction. It was applied a mix method approach to characterize resistance to change and communication nature within one organization under a radical change process. One main theoretical contribution is an instrumental grid to characterize dialogic communication nature. Findings of the case stu...

  2. Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoshi,Ko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING YIELD SPREADS OF THE MALAYSIAN BONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian bond market is developing rapidly but not much is understood in terms of macroeconomic factors that could influence the yield spread of the Ringgit Malaysian denominated bonds. Based on a multifactor model, this paper examines the impact of four macroeconomic factors namely: Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI, Industry Production Index (IPI, Consumer Price Index (CPI and interest rates (IR on bond yield spread of the Malaysian Government Securities (MGS and Corporate Bonds (CBs for a period from January 2001 to December 2008. The findings support the expected hypotheses that CPI and IR are the major drivers that influence the changes in MGS yield spreads. However IPI and KLCI have weak and no influence on MGS yield spreads respectively Whilst IR, CPI and IPI have significant influence on the yield spreads of CB1, CB2 and CB3, KLCI has significant influence only on the CB1 yield spread but not on CB2 and CB3 yield spreads.

  4. INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR LEASING MARKET CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors. This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.

  5. Climate change influence on drinking water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

    2013-11-01

    Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl2, O3, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

  6. Attitude change: persuasion and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W

    2000-01-01

    This chapter reviews empirical and theoretical developments in research on social influence and message-based persuasion. The review emphasizes research published during the period from 1996-1998. Across these literatures, three central motives have been identified that generate attitude change and resistance. These involve concerns with the self, with others and the rewards/punishments they can provide, and with a valid understanding of reality. The motives have implications for information processing and for attitude change in public and private contexts. Motives in persuasion also have been investigated in research on attitude functions and cognitive dissonance theory. In addition, the chapter reviews the relatively unique aspects of each literature: In persuasion, it considers the cognitive and affective mechanisms underlying attitude change, especially dual-mode processing models, recipients' affective reactions, and biased processing. In social influence, the chapter considers how attitudes are embedded in social relations, including social identity theory and majority/minority group influence.

  7. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  8. On factors influencing students’ listening abilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡天秀

    2012-01-01

    As we all know,listening,speaking,reading,and writing are four basic skills in language teaching and learning.Listening plays an important role in improving other skills.There are some factors influencing students’ listening abilities.So it’s important for teachers to improve students’ listening abilities.

  9. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  10. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1986-01-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...

  11. Factors influencing the process of farm liquidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dudek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the logit analysis was used in order to define the factors influencing farm liquidation. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its regional differences were analysed. Significant and negative impact of the number of people in a family farm and the number of machinery and technical equipment, as well as the positive impact of the farmer’ age are reported.

  12. Population Distribution and Influencing Factors Based on ESDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Chen; Fan Jie; Sun Wei

    2012-01-01

    Based on the exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) technique and geographic information system (GIS) platform, with statistic data of counties in 2005, this paper confirms that there is a large population density gap between counties in 2005 because the Gini coefficient is 0.55. Population distribution does not change a lot during the past decades, and the southeast China is still much more densely populated than the northwest China. The global spa- tial autoeorrelation of population distribution is obvious because Moran's I scores 0.42 and local spatial autocorrelation is partly significant. Climate and elevation are still the main natural influ- encing factors. Meanwhile industrial structure and transportation significantly influence population distribution. Different combinations of natural factors have different effects on population distribution. For a long term, climate and terrain factor stability affect population distribution. But its influence will be weakened by progress of technology. Economic development is the main factor that changes population distribution for a short term.

  13. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  14. Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.

  15. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  16. Social Factors and Preference Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Frith, Chris D

    2012-01-01

    Humans are intensely social animals. Much of our behavior is enacted in the presence, and during interactions, with others. We should not be surprised at the extent to which others influence our decisions and values. As Adam Smith suggested (1759), obtaining money (i.e. resources) may not be the ......Humans are intensely social animals. Much of our behavior is enacted in the presence, and during interactions, with others. We should not be surprised at the extent to which others influence our decisions and values. As Adam Smith suggested (1759), obtaining money (i.e. resources) may...... not be the prime force that drives human behavior. Rather, our principle motivation is to be noticed by our fellows (i.e. to have a reputation) and acquiring wealth is just one way to enhance our reputation. In this chapter we review evidence for social motivations, considering implicit social processes that alter...

  17. Uncovering Factors Influencing Interpersonal Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Lennie; Jansen, Carel; Hoeks, John

    2017-01-01

    Talking to friends, family, or peers about health issues might, among other things, increase knowledge of social norms and feelings of self-efficacy in adopting a healthier lifestyle. We often see interpersonal health communication as an important mediating factor in the effects of health campaigns on health behavior. No research has been done so far, however, on factors that influence whether and how people talk about health issues without being exposed to a health campaign first. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 12 participants about their communication behavior concerning six different health themes, like smoking and exercising. The results suggest that at least four types of interpersonal health communication can be distinguished, each influenced by different factors, like conversational partner and objective of the conversation. Future research should take this diversity of interpersonal health communication into account, and focus on designing health campaigns that aim to trigger dialogue within target populations.

  18. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilda Pečarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  19. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Enterprise social media platforms provide new ways of sharing knowledge and communicating within organizations to benefit from the social capital and valuable knowledge that employees have. Drawing on social dilemma and self-determination theory, the aim of the study is to understand what...... factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence...... knowledge sharing framework helps to understand what factors impact engagement on social media. Furthermore the article suggests different types of interventions to overcome the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Originality/value: The study contributes to an understanding of factors leading...

  20. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  1. A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Valipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

  2. Modeling of preventive maintenance changes influence upon flight safety indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.В. Гончаренко

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available  It is considered a simplified model of connection between the catastrophic events flow frequency and both preventive maintenance changes periodicity and diagnosis depth of aviation equipment. It is deduced specific formulas for computing the changes and diagnostics parameters influence upon the values of both the catastrophic events flow frequency and technical-economical control factor criterion of flight safety levels.

  3. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  5. Influence of social factors on lead exposure and child development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornschein, R.L.

    1985-10-01

    A brief overview of current views of child development is provided, with particular attention given to the role the child's physical and social environment plays in influencing the developmental process. Examples from the recent literature are used to illustrate how these factors can influence lead exposure and most importantly how they might interact with lead to ameliorate or exacerbate possible lead effects. An example is provided which demonstrates that failure to control adequately and to adjust the data statistically to correct for the influence of these factors can lead one erroneously to attribute cognitive and behavioral changes to lead. Finally, data from the Cincinnati Prospective Lead Study are presented to illustrate the application of structural equation modeling as a means for unraveling the complex web of sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral influences on childhood lead exposure.

  6. Mobilization of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells and Changes in the Concentration of Plasma Factors Influencing their Movement in Patients with Panic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, Marcin; Mazur, Jolanta Kucharska; Tarnowski, Maciej; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Pędziwiatr, Daniel; Kubiś, Ewa; Budkowska, Marta; Sałata, Daria; Wysiecka, Justyna Pełka; Kazimierczak, Arkadiusz; Reginia, Artur; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we examined whether stem cells and factors responsible for their movement may serve as new biological markers of anxiety disorders. The study was carried out on a group of 30 patients diagnosed with panic disorder (examined before and after treatment), compared to 30 healthy individuals forming the control group. We examined the number of circulating HSCs (hematopoetic stem cells) (Lin-/CD45 +/CD34 +) and HSCs (Lin-/CD45 +/AC133 +), the number of circulating VSELs (very small embryonic-like stem cells) (Lin-/CD45-/CD34 +) and VSELs (Lin-/CD45-/AC133 +), as well as the concentration of complement components: C3a, C5a and C5b-9, SDF-1 (stromal derived factor) and S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate). Significantly lower levels of HSCs (Lin-/CD45 +/AC133 +) have been demonstrated in the patient group compared to the control group both before and after treatment. The level of VSELs (Lin-/CD45-/CD133 +) was significantly lower in the patient group before treatment as compared to the patient group after treatment.The levels of factors responsible for stem cell movement were significantly lower in the patient group compared to the control group before and after treatment. It was concluded that the study of stem cells and factors associated with their movement can be useful in the diagnostics of panic disorder, as well as differentiating between psychotic and anxiety disorders.

  7. Factors influencing the feasibility of laparoscopy colectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhiyun; Zhang Zhongtao

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective was to review the factors affecting the feasibility of performing successful laparoscopic colectomy.Data sources The literatures about the risk factors closely related to the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy on different surgical diseases of the colon cited in this review were obtained from PubMed published in English from 2006 to 2012.Study selection Original articles regarding the risk factors that affect the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy were selected.Results Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,advanced age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of developing serious complications such as hemorrhage,anastomotic leak,and skin and soft tissue infections following laparoscopic colectomy.These factors also increase the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.In this study,we reviewed the recent original articles about the relationship of laparoscopic colectomy with these risk factors.We also describe some strategies that limit the likelihood of these complications and the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.Conclusions Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of either serious complications or conversion to open operation with laparoscopic colectomy.Evaluation of these risk factors preoperatively should influence the decision to perform colectomy using laparoscopic techniques.

  8. Factors influencing adherence among older people with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify potential factors that could affect adherence and influence the implementation of an evidence-based structured walking program, among older adults diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 69 participants with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee fulfilled an online survey on potential factors that could affect their adherence to an evidence-based structured walking program. Adherence with regard to the influencing factors was explored using a logistic regression model. Results tend to show higher odds of adhering to the evidence-based walking program if the participants were supervised (more than 2.9 times as high), supported by family/friends (more than 3.7 times as high), and not influenced by emotional involvement (more than 11 times as high). The odds of adhering were 3.6 times lower for participants who indicated a change in their medication intake and 3.1 times lower for individuals who considered themselves as less physically active (95 % confidence interval (CI)). Our exploratory findings identified and defined potential adherence factors that could guide health professionals in their practice to better identify positive influences and obstacles to treatment adherence, which would lead to the adoption of a more patient-centered approach. A large-scale study is required to clearly delineate the key factors that would influence adherence. We addressed a new knowledge gap by identifying the main strategies to promote the long-term adherence of community-based walking program.

  9. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  10. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  11. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, N Venkata Naga; Prasanna, P Muthu; Sakarkar, Suhas Narayan; Prabha, K Surya; Ramaiah, P Seetha; Srawan, G Y

    2010-05-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the quality preservation techniques of sensitive substances and a method for production of materials with new valuable properties. Microencapsulation is a process of enclosing micron-sized particles in a polymeric shell. There are different techniques available for the encapsulation of drug entities. The encapsulation efficiency of the microparticle or microsphere or microcapsule depends upon different factors like concentration of the polymer, solubility of polymer in solvent, rate of solvent removal, solubility of organic solvent in water, etc. The present article provides a literature review of different microencapsulation techniques and different factors influencing the encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulation technique.

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING BENDING RIGIDITY OF SUBMERGED VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Long-hua; YANG Xiao-li

    2011-01-01

    The bending rigidity of submerged vegetation is closely related with vegetative drag force.This work aims at determining the effects of flow conditions and characteristics of vegetation on the bending rigidity of submerged vegetation.Based on the dimensional analysis method,the factors influencing the bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation were analyzed.The relationship between the relative bending rigidity and its influencing factors was investigated by experimental observation,and a relative bending rigidity expression for submerged vegetation was obtained by means of multiple linear regression method.The results show that the submerged vegetation has three states under different inflow conditions,and the each critical relative bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation was determined for the different states of submerged vegetation.

  13. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  14. Factors Influencing Impulse Buying in Retail Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgadze, Nino

    2014-01-01

    Impulse buying is a widely pervasive phenomenon. Statistics shows that more and more shoppers are experiencing irresistible urge to purchase unplanned and in most cases unnecessary product. Existing researches fall short in identifying most suitable tools that marketers can adopt in order to promote impulsive sales. Therefore, this thesis provides deep analysis of those, controllable factors that influence impulse buying. Particularly four external cues are examined: product display, promotio...

  15. Major Factors influences the 2008 Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2007 was an unusual year for China's stock market, as the index climbed from 2675 points up to 6124 by the end of the year, setting new records again and again throughout 2007. What will happen to the stock market in the coming 2008? Let's havea look at some of the main factors that will influence the stock market this year, perhaps we can find out if 2008 will be another memorable year full of surprises.

  16. Factors influencing the eicosanoids synthesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefel, Jarosław; Kruszewski, Wiesław Janusz; Sobczak, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    External factors activate a sequence of reactions involving the reception, transduction, and transmission of signals to effector cells. There are two main phases of the body's reaction to harmful factors: the first aims to neutralize the harmful factor, while in the second the inflammatory process is reduced in size and resolved. Secondary messengers such as eicosanoids are active in both phases. The discovery of lipoxins and epi-lipoxins demonstrated that not all arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives have proinflammatory activity. It was also revealed that metabolites of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins also take part in the resolution of inflammation. Knowledge of the above properties has stimulated several clinical trials on the influence of EPA and DHA supplementation on various diseases. However, the equivocal results of those trials prevent the formulation of guidelines on EPA and DHA supplementation. Prescription drugs are among the substances with the strongest influence on the profile and quantity of the synthesized eicosanoids. The lack of knowledge about their influence on the conversion of EPA and DHA into eicosanoids may lead to erroneous conclusions from clinical trials.

  17. A Review of Factors Influencing Health Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Almaspoor Khanghah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : Inequity in health is a universal term which is used for showing current differences, variations and inequalities of people in accessing to health services. The current study aimed to assess the factors influencing health inequalities to present the results to the researchers and health care professionals. Material and Methods : In this review, several databases including PubMed, Proquest, Scopus, Google Scholar search engine, SID and IranDoc were searched within 2000-2014 period. We found 746 articles and refined them step by step according to the aim of the study by reviewing the titles, abstracts and full texts. Finally, 16 articles were selected for further study Results: In the present study, identified determinants in health inequalities were as follows: 1- Economic and income factors 2- Political factors, social and public policy 3- Cultural and social values 4- social and demographic factors 5- Behavioral, psychological and biological factors. Although, other factors like governmental, international, social cohesion, incidents and even the health system itself were involved in health inequalities, but the listed determinants were among the most important determinants in health inequalities in the conducted studies. Conclusion : Given the importance of people's health and inequalities in health, the approach should focus on reducing the inequalities in all policies and development programs and the role of these factors should be taken into consideration by managers and policy-makers

  18. Factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas T. Khoza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: ‘Knowledge is power’ and software developing organisations are dependent on knowledge to achieve and maintain a competitive advantage. Subsequently, knowledge sharing is a key factor for modern software developing organisations to succeed in today’s competitive environment. For software developing organisations to reach their goals and objectives, knowledge sharing – and in particular the sharing of useful knowledge – needs to be targeted. To promote knowledge sharing, factors influencing knowledge sharing need to be identified and understood.Objective: This study seeks to identify factors that negatively influence knowledge sharing in software development in the developing country context.Method: Expert sampling as a subcategory of purposive sampling was employed to extract information, views and opinions from experts in the field of information and communication technology, more specifically from those who are involved in software development projects. Four Johannesburg-based software developing organisations listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, South Africa, participated in this research study. Quantitative data were collected using an online questionnaire with closed-ended questions.Results: Findings of this research reveal that job security, motivation, time constraints, physiological factors, communication, resistance to change and rewards are core factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software developing organisations.Conclusions: Improved understanding of factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing is expected to assist software developing organisations in closing the gap for software development projects failing to meet the triple constraint of time, cost and scope.

  19. CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Jozsef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.

  20. Enterotypes influence temporal changes in gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Kellebjerg Poulsen, Sanne

    The human gut microbiota plays an important role for the health of the host. The question is whether we can modulate the gut microbiota by changing diet. During a 6-month, randomised, controlled dietary intervention, the effect of a moderate diet shift from Average Danish Diet to New Nordic Diet...... on the gut microbiota in humans (n=62) was investigated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the microbiota did not change significantly by the intervention. Nevertheless, by stratifying subjects into two enterotypes, distinguished by the Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio (P/B), we were able to detect...... significant changes in the gut microbiota composition resulting from the interventions. Subjects with a high-P/B experienced more pronounced changes in the gut microbiota composition than subjects with a low-P/B. The study is the first to indicate that enterotypes influence microbiota response to a dietary...

  1. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  2. Behavioral change with influenza vaccination: factors influencing increased uptake of the pandemic H1N1 versus seasonal influenza vaccine in health care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Allen; Graff, Lesley; McLean, Daria

    2011-10-26

    Many health care personnel (HCP) choose not to get vaccinated against influenza despite recommendations to do so. The pH1N1 epidemic gave a unique opportunity to evaluate the attitudes to influenza vaccination of a group of HCP who routinely choose not to get vaccinated, but accepted the pH1N1 vaccine. HCP employed at a tertiary care hospital in Winnipeg, Canada who received the pH1N1 vaccine were invited to participate in an online survey asking about attitudes and experiences regarding seasonal and pH1N1 influenza and vaccination. Those eligible included primarily nurses, other clinical staff, and support staff, as few physicians work as employees. Of the 684 respondents (29% return rate), 504 reported routinely getting vaccinated (RV) for seasonal influenza and 180 reported routinely not getting vaccinated (NRV). These two groups had different attitude towards the two strains of influenza, with markedly lower level of concern about seasonal influenza than pH1N1 for the NRV group. The contrast was especially notable regarding the NRV's view of the seriousness of the illness, their sense of exposure risk, and their confidence in the vaccine effectiveness (for all, seasonalinfluence in going ahead with the pH1N1 vaccine. Educational campaigns that focus on personal benefit, engage peer champions, and address concerns about the vaccine may improve influenza vaccine uptake among health care personnel. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  4. Environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present an overview of recent findings on the environmental and behavioral factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis. The authors primarily concentrated on deliberations of possibile main causes of the damage of the endothelium. At the same time the following pathogenic mechanisms as cellular dysfunction, inflammation and coagulation disorders have been enumerated. The links between the state of the vascular endothelium and life style have been emphasized. It is also important to note that the primary causes of the endothelial damage should be traced as originally suggested many years ago viewing such factors as anger, hostility, aggression, impulsiveness and depression but with a new approach. The authors supplement the comments, on the environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis, with basic data on family predisposition to the development of this disease. They highlight that current genetic research have not determined genes responsible for atheroscelosis. According to the authors the considerations and conclusions presented in this overview are important for the educational purposes related to the most frequent disease process resulting in many diseases in medical disciplines.

  5. The Influence of Social factors on the Development of English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨顺尧

    2008-01-01

    The development of English vocab ulary involves many factors.The social factors such as science and technology; economic and political changes have great influence on the development of English vocabulary.

  6. Change in the terpenoid profile and secondary growth in declining stands of Pinus sylvestris L. under mediterranean influence as a response to local factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The terpenoid profile could give information about the water status in Scots pine, especially for trees growing in the same geographical area but under contrasting local environmental conditions. Terpenes were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in needles, twigs and wood of ten affected and ten unaffected Scots pines in the southern “Sistema Ibérico” range (Teruel, Spain, where forest decline has been recently reported. Soil depth and secondary growth was also studied in both types of trees. Needles and twigs total resin acids were significantly higher in affected trees. The pimarane type resin acids were also higher in the twigs of affected trees. Secondary growth was lower in affected trees and it showed higher climate sensitivity. The use of the terpenoid profile may be used as an additional tool for the estimation of the water status, especially for situations inducing moderate but relatively prolonged stress conditions.El perfil terpénico podría dar información sobre el estado hídrico en el pino albar, especialmente cuando se comparen especímenes de una zona geográfica concreta afectados por factores ambientales locales. Los terpenos de acículas, brotes del año y madera fueron analizados en diez ejemplares afectados y otros tantos no afectados por el decaimiento mediante cromatografía de masas acoplada a espectrometría de masas. La serie de crecimiento secundario en ambos tipos de ejemplares fue también estudiada. La concentración total de ácidos resínicos aumentó de modo significativo en los árboles afectados tanto en brotes del año como en acículas. La cantidad de ácidos de tipo pimarano también aumentó en los brotes de los árboles afectados. La profundidad del suelo y el crecimiento secundario era menor en este tipo de ejemplares, que muestran una mayor sensibilidad en términos dendrocronológicos. El perfíl terpénico podría utilizarse como una herramienta adicional a la estimación del estado

  7. Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

  8. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES ON THE HUMAN FACTOR WITHIN AN ORGNANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkiunaite, Ingrida

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses a number of important changes of influence of information technologies on human factor within the organization. The focus of the article is on human factor and IT using problem. According to the theoretical and empirical material of IT influence on human factor, aspects of information technology are analyzed.

  10. Mechanisms and factors that influence high frequency retroviral recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga;

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse t......, and vaccine development....... transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity...

  11. Mechanisms and factors that influence high frequency retroviral recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga;

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse...... transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity......, and vaccine development....

  12. How does climate change influence Arctic mercury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Gary A; Macdonald, Robie W; Outridge, Peter M; Wilson, Simon; Chételat, John; Cole, Amanda; Hintelmann, Holger; Loseto, Lisa L; Steffen, Alexandra; Wang, Feiyue; Zdanowicz, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that climate change is already having significant impacts on many aspects of transport pathways, speciation and cycling of mercury within Arctic ecosystems. For example, the extensive loss of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean and the concurrent shift from greater proportions of perennial to annual types have been shown to promote changes in primary productivity, shift foodweb structures, alter mercury methylation and demethylation rates, and influence mercury distribution and transport across the ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere interface (bottom-up processes). In addition, changes in animal social behavior associated with changing sea-ice regimes can affect dietary exposure to mercury (top-down processes). In this review, we address these and other possible ramifications of climate variability on mercury cycling, processes and exposure by applying recent literature to the following nine questions; 1) What impact has climate change had on Arctic physical characteristics and processes? 2) How do rising temperatures affect atmospheric mercury chemistry? 3) Will a decrease in sea-ice coverage have an impact on the amount of atmospheric mercury deposited to or emitted from the Arctic Ocean, and if so, how? 4) Does climate affect air-surface mercury flux, and riverine mercury fluxes, in Arctic freshwater and terrestrial systems, and if so, how? 5) How does climate change affect mercury methylation/demethylation in different compartments in the Arctic Ocean and freshwater systems? 6) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of freshwater food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of mercury? 7) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of marine food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of marine mercury? 8) What are the likely mercury emissions from melting glaciers and thawing permafrost under climate change scenarios? and 9) What can be learned from current mass balance inventories of mercury in the Arctic? The

  13. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-02-01

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  14. A survey on factors influencing city branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.

  15. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Park

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

  16. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  17. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods.Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance.Study design: Population based cross - sectional study.Setting: Rural area of East DelhiParticipants: Married women in the reproductive age group.Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample.Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group.Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child.Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptivesStatistical Analysis: By proportions.Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception.Recommendations:(i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention.(ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  18. Landslide forecasting and factors influencing predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Gigli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Forecasting a catastrophic collapse is a key element in landslide risk reduction, but it is also a very difficult task owing to the scientific difficulties in predicting a complex natural event and also to the severe social repercussions caused by a false or missed alarm. A prediction is always affected by a certain error; however, when this error can imply evacuations or other severe consequences a high reliability in the forecast is, at least, desirable. In order to increase the confidence of predictions, a new methodology is presented here. In contrast to traditional approaches, this methodology iteratively applies several forecasting methods based on displacement data and, thanks to an innovative data representation, gives a valuation of the reliability of the prediction. This approach has been employed to back-analyse 15 landslide collapses. By introducing a predictability index, this study also contributes to the understanding of how geology and other factors influence the possibility of forecasting a slope failure. The results showed how kinematics, and all the factors influencing it, such as geomechanics, rainfall and other external agents, are key concerning landslide predictability.

  19. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J

    2011-02-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the effects of endogenous and exogenous local dermal changes by body creams, hyperemia, vasoconstriction, and hydration. SAF was measured before and after local administration of body lotion, day cream, sunscreen, or self-browning cream and after attempts to remove these effects with alcohol swabs and washing. SAF was measured before and during three hyperemia maneuvers: vasoconstriction and on a dry and wet skin. The body lotion increased SAF by 18%. Day cream, sunscreen, and self-browning cream gave an increase of >100%. Except for body lotion, subsequent cleaning with alcohol swabs and washing with soap did not return SAF to baseline values. The effect of self-browning cream persisted for 2 weeks and that of sunscreen for 4 days. Hyperemia caused by a hot bath, capsicum cream, or postocclusive reactive hyperemia gave a decrease in SAF of, respectively, 18%, 22%, and 2.3%. Vasoconstriction caused by immersing the arm in cold water gave a 10% increase. Hydration state did not influence SAF. Measurement of SAF is strongly affected by several skin creams. This effect was often not fully corrected by alcohol swabs and washing with soap and may persist for many days. Marked hyperemia and vasoconstriction also influence SAF. We advise avoiding these potential error sources.

  20. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing large African herbivore movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour o

  1. Prognostic factors influencing clinical outcomes of glioblastoma multiforme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shou-wei; QIU Xiao-guang; CHEN Bao-shi; ZHANG Wei; REN Huan; WANG Zhong-cheng; JIANG Tao

    2009-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant kind of astrocytic tumors and is associated with a poor prognosis. In this retrospective study, we assessed the clinical, radiological, genetic molecular and treatment factors that influence clinical outcomes of patients with GBM.Methods A total of 116 patients with GBM who received surgery and radiation between January 2006 and December 2007 were included in this study. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to find the factors independently influencing patients' progression free survival (PFS) time and overall survival (OS) time.Results Age, preoperative Kamofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, KPS score change at 2 weeks after operation, neurological deficit symptoms, tumor resection extent, maximal tumor diameter, involvement of eloquent cortex or deep structure, involvement of brain lobe, Ki-67 expression level and adjuvant chemotherapy were statistically significant factors (P <0.05) for both PFS and OS in the univariate analysis. Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that age ≤50 years, preoperative KPS score ≥80, KPS score change after operation ≥0, involvement of single frontal lobe,non-eloquent area or deep structure involvement, low Ki-67 expression and adjuvant chemotherapy were independent favorable factors (P <0.05) for patients' clinical outcomes.Conclusions Age at diagnosis, preoperative KPS score, KPS score change at 2 weeks postoperation, involvement of brain lobe, involvement of eloquent cortex or deep structure, Ki-67 expression level and adjuvant chemotherapy correlate significantly with the prognosis of patients with GBM.

  2. Spatial-temporal characteristics and influencing factors of grain yield change in China%中国粮食产量变化的时空格局与影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秧分; 李先德

    2013-01-01

    Despite high attention to the stability and increase of grain production and market supply by Chinese government, grain yield in China has been undergoing a great fluctuation during the past decades, which could be a big challenge to national food security. This paper thus analyzes the spatial-temporal characteristics and influence factors of grain yield change in China since 1990 from the aspect of evolution stages and main types. Statistical indicators and spatial econometric models for panel data are introduced, which are supported by Geodata, ArcGIS, and Matlab software. It shows that the growing process of Chinese grain yield has three stages, namely stage 1990-1998, 1998-2003, and 2003-2011 respectively. Meanwhile, provinces in China can be categorized into three sets according to different supply-demand relationships, which are provinces with surplus grain (PGSG), provinces with balanced grain supply and demand (PBGSD), and provinces with insufficient grain supply (PIGS). The three separate types vary every year, with different provinces included each other. Roughly speaking, the grain production status of eastern provinces, central provinces, western provinces, and northeastern provinces is decreased, weakened, enhanced and strengthened respectively. In 2011, the PGSG, the PBGSD, and the PIGS distribute mainly at North, Middle, and South China respectively. Among all the factors that influence grain yield, the land factor has a significant positive impact, changing from strong to weak. It indicates grain production in China is increasingly dependent upon factors that contribute to per unit yield, such as technical progress, capital investment, etc. The labor factor brings an effect from positive significant to insignificant then negative significant, reflecting the change of agricultural surplus labor, rural labor structure, etc. The impact of different types of capital input varies as follows. Definitely, agricultural infrastructure investment, represented

  3. Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Jason R.

    This investigation explored scientific, religious, and otherwise nonscientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution and related concepts, how students perceived these factors to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution and changes therein, and what patterns arose among students' articulations of how their levels of acceptance of evolution may have changed. This exploration also measured the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following a treatment designed to address factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution. Acceptance of evolution was measured using the MATE instrument (Rutledge and Warden, 1999; Rutledge and Sadler, 2007) among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic program during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than pre-treatment levels both immediately following and slightly over one year after treatment. Qualitative data from informal questionnaires, from formal course evaluations, and from semi-structured interviews of students engaged in secondary level education and former students at various stages of post-secondary education confirmed that the suspected factors were perceived by participants to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution. Furthermore, participant reports provided insight regarding the relative effects they perceived these factors to have had on their evolution acceptance levels. Additionally, many participants reported that their science teachers in public schools had avoided, omitted, or denigrated evolution during instruction, and several of these students expressed frustration regarding what they perceived to have been a lack of education of an important scientific principle. Finally, no students expressed feelings of being offended by having been taught about

  4. Factors influencing career choice in anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student′s stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky′s 13-point sense of coherence scale. Methods: Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky′s sense of coherence (SOC scale. Results: Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%, while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor−patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55 (25 th percentile was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60 in the survey. Conclusion: Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student′s personality.

  5. Factors influencing nurses' perceptions of occupational safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Menevse; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-01-02

    To determine nurses' perceptions of occupational safety and their work environment and examine the sociodemographic traits and job characteristics that influence their occupational safety, we studied a sample of 278 nurses. According to the nurses, the quality of their work environment is average, and occupational safety is insufficient. In the subdimensions of the work environment scale, it was determined that the nurses think "labor force and other resources" are insufficient. In the occupational safety subdimensions "occupational illnesses and complaints" and "administrative support and approaches," they considered occupational safety to be insufficient. "Doctor-nurse-colleague relationships," "exposure to violence," and "work unit" (eg, internal medicine, surgical, intensive care) are the main factors that affect occupational safety. This study determined that hospital administrations should develop and immediately implement plans to ameliorate communication and clinical precautions and to reduce exposure to violence.

  6. Factors Influencing Sulfinatodehalogenation Reactions of Perhalocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU,Kai(吴恺); CHEN,Qing-Yun(陈庆云)

    2004-01-01

    The study on the factors influencing sulfinatodehalogenation of perfluorohexyl chloride plus octene-1 by using Na2S2O4/NaHCO3 discovered that among the various solvents tested(e.g.Me2SO,NMP,DMAc,CH3CN,CH3CN/H2O)at different temperatures,Me2SO was found to be the most suitable solvent and the conversion of the chloride was very dependent on the reaction temperature.When Me2SO was used in the reaction of perfluoroalkyl iodides,the reaction temperature could be decreased by 20℃ as compared with that carried out in CH3CN/H2O to reach the comparable yields.

  7. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Meyrick C M

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of "being there" in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users' attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

  8. Factors influencing citizen participation in community management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to assess the factors affecting citizen participation in community management in district 13 of Tehran Municipality. Measured variables are: social cohesion, profitable partnerships, social-economic agencies, trust among civilians, trust in municipality management, feelings of powerlessness and social anomie. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation test show that all of these variables had significant relationships with community participation in neighborhood management. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that three variables of social cohesion, profitable partnerships and socio-economic status had explained 37% of changes in citizen participation in community management while the changing social cohesion maintained the highest impact.

  9. Factors influencing women's decision making in hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Monika; Armfield, Nigel R; Page, Katie; Kerr, Gayle; Kurz, Suzanne; Jackson, Graeme; Currie, Jason; Weaver, Edward; Yazdani, Anusch; Obermair, Andreas

    2017-09-12

    To explore factors influencing how well-informed women felt about hysterectomy, influences on their decision making, and on them receiving a less-invasive alternative to open surgery. Online questionnaire, conducted in 2015-2016, of women who had received a hysterectomy in Australia, in the preceding two years. Questionnaires were completed by 2319/6000 women (39% response). Most women (n=2225; 96%) felt well-informed about hysterectomy. Women were more aware of the open abdominal approach (n=1798; 77%), than of less-invasive vaginal (n=1552; 67%), laparoscopic (n=1540; 66%), laparoscopic-assisted (n=1303; 56%), and robotic approaches (n=289; 12%). Most women (n=1435; 62%) reported their gynaecologist was the most influential information source. Women who received information about hysterectomy from a GP (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.15-1.90), or from a gynaecologist (OR=1.3; 95% CI 1.06-1.58), were more likely to feel better informed (p<0.01). This study is important because it helps clinicians, researchers and health policy makers to understand why many women still receive an open abdominal approach despite many learned societies recommending to avoid it if possible. Additional information, or education about avoiding open abdominal approach where possible may lead to a greater number of women receiving less-invasive types of hysterectomy in the future. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 4个椰子品种光合、蒸腾作用日变化特征及影响因素%Daily Changes of Photosynthesis and Transpiration Rate of Four Cultivars of Coconut and the Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫璇; 张如莲; 曹红星; 孙程旭; 李正民

    2011-01-01

    Yellow Dwarf Coconut, Aromatic Dwarf Coconut, Hainan Tall Coconut and Wenye 78F1 at the stage of active fruiting were used as the research materials. The daily changes of transpiration rate, net photosynthesis rate and the interaction of influencing factors as temperature, humidity, intensity of illumination, CO2 concentration were studied. The result revealed that the net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of different varieties were with similar two-peak changing tendency, Hainan Tall Coconut with higher transpiration rate and net photosynthesis rate than Aromatic Dwarf Coconut and Wenye 78F1, Yellow Dwarf Coconut with the lowest values compared to the others. The eonelation analysis revealed that the net photosynthesis rate was mainly influenced by the intensity of illumination and leaf temperature. Air humidity and leaf temperature were the main factors that affected the transpiration rate.%以结果盛期的黄矮椰子、香水椰子、本地高种椰子、文椰78F14个椰子品种为研究对象,对椰子叶片的光合作用、蒸腾作用的日变化规律及温度、湿度、光合有效辐射和CO2浓度等环境因子之间的互作进行研究.结果表明,不同椰子品种的光合速率和蒸腾速率日进程表现为明显的双峰型日变化,本地高种椰子的光合速率和蒸腾速率都比较高,香水椰子和文椰78F1居中,黄矮椰子最低.光合有效辐射、叶片温度对椰子光合速率有重要影响,空气湿度和叶片温度是影响蒸腾速率的重要环境因子.

  11. Factors that influence on the confrontation the spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Melchor Arteaga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of spinal cord injury agree in the consequences of that injury is the loss in varying degrees of autonomic function; this will cause a change in the lifestyle of patients and their families.In the spinal injury, the priority is the recovery or maintenance of vital organ functions, the physical stabilization for people. Later, the priority here is the rehabilitation and adaptation. This should be integrated at all levels, physical, psychological and social. Confrontation is, by Callista Roy, a important variable for understanding the effect of stress on health and disease, health maintenance or recovery. The way, that the patients have to confront the disease, are the confrontation strategies. They are defined as thoughts and actions that persons put in place to deal with adverse changes. They are grouped into 3 categories: problems, emotions and avoidance.There are others factors that influence in the use of strategies, between them the personality. According to Eysenck this is determined by the functional interaction of four factors: cognitive (intelligence, conative (character, affective (temperament and somatic (construction. With this study we want to know the factors that influence in the confrontation of the spinal cord injury and to analyze the possible relation between them, and to be able to elaborate particular tools, on the most determinant factors, to obtain an effective confrontation about this type of disease.

  12. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial...... factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. METHODS: A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses...... predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. CONCLUSION: This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models....

  13. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Gimeno Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  14. Influence of degenerative changes of intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the material properties of normal and degenerated intervertebral discs (IVDs and examine the effect of degenerative changes on IVD pathology. Methods: A computer-based online search was under-taken to identify English articles about material properties of IVDs published from January 1950 to 2011 in PubMed database. The retrieved keywords included material properties, intervertebral disc and degeneration. Based on the principles of reliability, advancement and efficiency, the obtained data were primarily examined, and the original source was retrieved to read the full-text. Repetitive articles were excluded. The data of material properties of normal and degenerated IVDs were summarized and analyzed by meta-analysis. Results: The data of Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, shear modulus, hydraulic permeability and intradiscal pres-sure of normal and degenerated IVDs were obtained. Com-pared with normal IVDs, the Young's modulus and shear modulus of annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus were higher in degenerated IVDs, the Poisson's ratio was lower while the hydraulic permeability and intradiscal pressure were higher. Besides, the degeneration-related alterations in IVDs had an influence both on itself and other spinal structures, leading to diseases such as bulging disc, discogenic pain and spinal stenosis. Meanwhile, the heavy mechanical loading and injury indicated important pathways to IVD degeneration. Conclusions: To a certain extent, the degenerative changes of IVD influence its material properties. And the degeneration-related alterations of composition can cause structural failure of IVDs, leading to injuries and diseases. Key words: Intervertebral disc; Mechanical phenomena; Degeneration; Elastic modulus; Permeability; Pathology

  15. The Change of the Pattern of China Economic Growth and Its Influencing Factors%中国经济增长方式的转变及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾成军; 龚新蜀

    2012-01-01

    经济增长及其增长方式的转变受多个因素影响.环境保护投资和最终消费率对经济增长及其增长方式的转变是拉动效应还是抑制效应取决两个变量各自样本观测值与对应临界值的大小关系.市场化程度和外贸依存度起着积极的拉动作用,税收水平和行政管理费支出起着消极的抑制作用.转变经济增长方式不仅要转变以牺牲环境为代价的经济增长模式,也要逐步实现以消费和政府投资共同推动经济增长及其增长方式的转变,还要推动我国税负水平的合理化,进一步推进市场化改革,严格控制行政管理费开支,合理发展我国的对外贸易.最后,在研究结论的基础上提出了相应的对策建议.%Economic growth and the change of its pattern can be influenced by various factors. Is it pulling effect or inhibitory effect of environmental protection investment and final rate of consumption to economic growth and change of its pattern? It depends on whether it is big or small of two variables between the respective sample observation value and the corresponding critical value. Commercializing degree and trade dependence degree play the active roles in driving; tax level and expenditure on administration management play the negative roles in driving. Changing the pattern of economic growth will need change the economic growth pattern at the expense of the environment, achieve gradually economic growth and change of its pattern by both consumption and government investment, need the rationalization of China's tax burden level, the advance commercial reform, the control of administrative expenses, developing China's foreign trade rationally. At last, this paper puts forwards the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions based on the conclusion of the study.

  16. Remarks on the physical factor influencing the individual language learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨君

    2015-01-01

    individual language learner as a subject of learning can be influenced by many factors such as physical factor,cognitive factor,and affective factor.All of which play an important role in language learning.These three factors are worthy of our research and physical factor will be discussed in this essay.

  17. Factors Influencing Learning Environments in an Integrated Experiential Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koci, Peter

    The research conducted for this dissertation examined the learning environment of a specific high school program that delivered the explicit curriculum through an integrated experiential manner, which utilized field and outdoor experiences. The program ran over one semester (five months) and it integrated the grade 10 British Columbian curriculum in five subjects. A mixed methods approach was employed to identify the students' perceptions and provide richer descriptions of their experiences related to their unique learning environment. Quantitative instruments were used to assess changes in students' perspectives of their learning environment, as well as other supporting factors including students' mindfulness, and behaviours towards the environment. Qualitative data collection included observations, open-ended questions, and impromptu interviews with the teacher. The qualitative data describe the factors and processes that influenced the learning environment and give a richer, deeper interpretation which complements the quantitative findings. The research results showed positive scores on all the quantitative measures conducted, and the qualitative data provided further insight into descriptions of learning environment constructs that the students perceived as most important. A major finding was that the group cohesion measure was perceived by students as the most important attribute of their preferred learning environment. A flow chart was developed to help the researcher conceptualize how the learning environment, learning process, and outcomes relate to one another in the studied program. This research attempts to explain through the consideration of this case study: how learning environments can influence behavioural change and how an interconnectedness among several factors in the learning process is influenced by the type of learning environment facilitated. Considerably more research is needed in this area to understand fully the complexity learning

  18. Research on Factors Influencing Individual's Behavior of Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanfeng

    With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers have also launched similar products. This paper focuses on the factors influencing Energy Management Behaviour (EMB) at the individual level. By reviewing academic literature, conducting surveys in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the author builds an integrated behavioural energy management model of the Chinese energy consumers. This paper takes the vague term of EMB and redefines it as a function of two separate behavioural concepts: Energy Management Intention (EMI), and the traditional Energy Saving Intention (ESI). Secondly, the author conducts statistical analyses on these two behavioural concepts. EMI is the main driver behind an individual's EMB. EMI is affected by Behavioural Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC). Among these three key factors, PBC exerts the strongest influence. This implies that the promotion of the energy management concept is mainly driven by good application user experience (UX). The traditional ESI also demonstrates positive influence on EMB, but its impact is weaker than the impacts arising under EMI's three factors. In other words, the government and manufacturers may not be able to change an individual's energy management behaviour if they rely solely on their traditional promotion strategies. In addition, the study finds that the government may achieve better promotional results by launching subsidies to the manufacturers of these kinds of applications and smart appliances.

  19. Factors influencing consumer satisfaction with health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Satish P; Deshpande, Samir S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that impact consumer satisfaction with health care. This is a secondary analysis of the Center for Studying Health System Change's 2010 Health Tracking Household Survey. Regression analysis was used to examine the impact of treatment issues, financial issues, family-related issues, sources of health care information, location, and demographics-related factors on satisfaction with health care. The study involved 12280 subjects, 56% of whom were very satisfied with their health care, whereas 66% were very satisfied with their primary care physician. Fourteen percent of the subjects had no health insurance; 34% of the subjects got their health care information from the Web. Satisfaction with primary care physician, general health status, promptness of visit to doctor, insurance type, medical cost per family, annual income, persons in family, health care information from friends, and age significantly impacted satisfaction with health care. The regression models accounted for 23% of the variance in health care satisfaction. Satisfaction with primary care physicians, health insurance, and general health status are the 3 most significant indicators of an individual's satisfaction with health care.

  20. Hydrolysis kinetics of atrazine and influence factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The hydrolysis kinetics of atrazine in distilled water and leaching water from soil, and their influence factors were studied by incubation at 35℃ and HPLC analysis method in this paper. The kinetic process of atrazine hydrolysis can be described by the first-order reaction law. The results showed that the hydrolysis rate constants k in leaching water and distilled water were 1.606x10-3/d and 1.055x10-3/d, respectively; the half-life of atrazine hydrolysis in distilled water at pH 3, pH 4.5 and pH 8 were 373 days, 522 days and 657 days respectively. The results also showed that the proton in reaction solution can catalyze the atrazine hydrolysis; humic acid and NH4+ etc. substances in aqueous solution can facilitate atrazine hydrolysis; rate constants of atrazine hydrolysis with humic acid and NH4NO3 were 2.431x10-3/d and 1.498x10-3/d respectively which were 2.3 and 1.42 times of control(1.055x10-3/d); anion NO3- can inhibit catalysis of humic acid to atrazine hydrolysis.

  1. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  2. Generational Approach to Factors Influencing Career Choice in Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Hsiao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research aims to grasp which factors influence the generation Y to choose accounting as its career. A significant decline in the number of candidates willing to pursue a career as accountant has been observed abroad - USA, Australia, and Japan. However, in other countries - Brazil, Singapore, and Hong Kong - the opposite has been observed. Another issue is the decline in educational qualification of those pursuing an accounting career, contributing in a way that many talented students change their career choice. This may be explained by the fact that people tend to believe accounting is an exact science, full of calculations, boring, and not very creative, bringing an unbalance between the traits an individual should have according to the job market and those perceived by society. In order to give a contribution to literature concerning the factors that influence the generation Y in its career choice, a goal of this research was conducting an exploratory study where some hypotheses were formulated to support the discussion. We used Mannheim's Generational Theory and the literature on career choice. Data collection was carried out using a questionnaire, based on Schwartz's Portrait Value Questionnaire and Germeijs and Verschueren's Student Choice Task Inventory, adapted through focus group interview. Data were fully collected online and the sample consisted of 665 subjects. The results showed that people who chose accounting as their career were influenced by factors such as creativity, independence, challenging and dynamic environment, job security, money-making, job availability, and other significant people - friends and teachers. The subjects were not influenced by social factors, such as working with people and making contributions to society and family. They wish for more autonomy, creativity, and flexibility at work, and people still care about job security and money-making.

  3. Urban water consumption and its influencing factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Liangxin; Gai, Lingtong; Tong, Yan; Li, Ruihua

    2017-01-01

    Factors that affect water consumption should be identified to develop effective public policies. However, factors influencing domestic water consumption in cities in China, particularly on a national scale, are unclear. In this study, urban water consumption and its influencing factors in 286

  4. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  5. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela-victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  6. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population. ... in influencing food choices and thus food intake of the elderly people in Mauritius. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in different regions around the island ...

  7. Genetic and pharmacological factors that influence reproductive aging in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie E Hughes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related degenerative changes in the reproductive system are an important aspect of aging, because reproductive success is the major determinant of evolutionary fitness. Caenorhabditis elegans is a prominent organism for studies of somatic aging, since many factors that extend adult lifespan have been identified. However, mechanisms that control reproductive aging in nematodes or other animals are not well characterized. To use C. elegans to measure reproductive aging, we analyzed mated hermaphrodites that do not become sperm depleted and monitored the duration and level of progeny production. Mated hermaphrodites display a decline of progeny production that culminates in reproductive cessation before the end of the lifespan, demonstrating that hermaphrodites undergo reproductive aging. To identify factors that influence reproductive aging, we analyzed genetic, environmental, and pharmacological factors that extend lifespan. Dietary restriction and reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling delayed reproductive aging, indicating that nutritional status and a signaling pathway that responds to environmental stress influence reproductive aging. Cold temperature delayed reproductive aging. The anticonvulsant medicine ethosuximide, which affects neural activity, delayed reproductive aging, indicating that neural activity can influence reproductive aging. Some of these factors decrease early progeny production, but there is no consistent relationship between early progeny production and reproductive aging in strains with an extended lifespan. To directly examine the effects of early progeny production on reproductive aging, we used sperm availability to modulate the level of early reproduction. Early progeny production neither accelerated nor delayed reproductive aging, indicating that reproductive aging is not controlled by use-dependent mechanisms. The implications of these findings for evolutionary theories of aging are discussed.

  8. Factors of Influence on Receivables and Payables and Their Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin Oleg Ye.; Volovich Yelena B.

    2013-01-01

    The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups - macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.

  9. Mechanisms and Factors that Influence High Frequency Retroviral Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Delviks-Frankenberry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity of the recombination process, and evaluates the subsequent viral diversity and fitness of the progeny recombinant. Specifically, the high mutation rates and high recombination frequencies of HIV-1 will be analyzed for their roles in influencing HIV-1 global diversity, as well as HIV-1 diagnosis, drug treatment, and vaccine development.

  10. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  11. EMOTIONS: FACTOR OF CHANGE IN LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Zepeda-Hernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Daily, the teachers find negative attitudes in the classroom that hinder the interaction between students and teachers; therefore, the teaching learning process is negatively affected. We look for evidence with a quality research and ethnographic method, about how the inclusion of emotions in the didactics can generate a positive motivational factor of change in learning process. We show that the inclusion of a small feature of emotion can improve the motivation on students.

  12. Demographic changes and international factor mobility

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the extent and policy implications of linkages between demographic changes and international factor mobility. Evidence is found of significant demographic effects on both migration and the current account, but for different reasons neither increased migration nor international transfers of savings is expected to offer much assistance in digesting the variety of demographic transitions expected over the next fifty years. The paper also examines more briefly the effects of de...

  13. Changes and influencing factors in biogenic opal export productivity in the Bering Sea over the last 4.3 Ma: Evidence from the records at IODP Site U1340

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Muhong; Zhang, Lanlan; Su, Xiang; Xiang, Rong

    2016-08-01

    We reconstructed changes in biogenic opal export productivity (BOEP) in the southern Bering Sea (BS) over the last ˜4.3 Ma, based on mass accumulation rate (MAR) of biogenic opal from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1340. The results show that the BOEP in the BS was high and variable between ˜4.3 and ˜1.9 Ma, extremely low and relatively stable from ˜1.9 to ˜1.1 Ma, and then fluctuated frequently (generally high during interglacials and low during glacials) during the last ˜1.1 Ma. One interval of enhanced BOEP from ˜4.3 to ˜3.2 Ma is a response to the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene "Biogenic Bloom Event." Another interval from ˜2.8 to ˜1.9 Ma correlates with global opal burial shifting from high-latitude oceans to upwelling-influenced regions following the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). Whereas, the increase in BS opal export productivity during the last ˜1.1 Ma tends to be a "local" phenomenon. Overall, the BOEP shows a similar trend and good correspondence to the input of the Alaskan Stream (AS), which can be traced using the Na2O/K2O ratio. We thus conclude that the AS may be the direct, and primary factor on BOEP variability in the BS during the last ˜4.3 Ma. In addition, although the poor correlation between opal MAR and volcanic glass suggests that BOEP variability was not controlled by long-term variations in the volcanism or ash abundance, increased ash abundance indicated by high contents of volcanic glasses was also a possible reason for enhanced BOEP during the period from ˜4.3 to ˜3.2 Ma and the last ˜0.5 Ma.

  14. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Minimally Invasive Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of institutional, patient and surgeon-related factors ... Surgical site infections ... Factors influencing choice of open procedures over MIS are summarized in Table 1. The main .... written with pharmaceutical products in mind (25). ... JAMA Intern.

  15. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  16. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The independent variables were maternal education, marital status, both ... maternal employment status, health factors (place of delivery and maternal chronic illness) ... It was evident that family support is a key factor in the success of EBF with ...

  17. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  18. 我国养老方式选择的变化及其影响因素分析%Analysis on Change of China’s Pension Mode Choice and Its Influence Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱火云; 魏丹

    2015-01-01

    With the CSS data in 2011 ,the Logistic regression method was used to analyze the change of the endow ment mode and the influencing factors .Research show s that home care is the most popular way for the elderly ,institute‐supported‐the aged is less attractive ,and there are significant differences in the choices of pension modes among different groups . Individual characteristics , family values , government welfare supply and the degree of care by old people themselves are very important factors affecting endowment way selection .Government must play an important role in the supply of the aged services ,and we should adhere to the principle of home care for the elderly , supplemented by the institution ,so as to reasonably allocate endowment resources .Meanwhile ,government should provide the differential aged care ways according to the development trend of the times and the characteristics of different groups in order to meet the different needs of the aged .%借助2011年CSS数据,采用无序多分类的Logistic回归方法分析老年人养老方式选择的变化及其影响因素。研究表明,居家养老是当前最主要的养老方式,机构养老的吸引力相对较弱,但不同特征群体在养老方式选择上具有显著差异;个体特征、家庭观念、政府福利供给以及自理程度等是影响养老方式选择的重要因素。政府在养老服务供给中应承担重要角色,坚持以居家养老为主、机构养老为辅的原则,合理分配养老资源;同时应根据时代发展趋势以及不同群体特征提供差异化养老方式,以满足老年人多样化养老需求。

  19. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda ...... childhood stunting in nigeria: A multilevel analysis. ... Equity monitoring for social marketing: Use of wealth.

  20. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the

  1. Analysis of changes of serum potassium after massive blood transfusion in trauma patients and its influence factors%外伤患者大量输血后血钾的变化与影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡莉莉

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨外伤患者在大量输血后期血钾的变化及相关影响因素。方法随机选取2012年11月至2015年3月商丘市第一人民医院收治的外伤大量失血患者112例作为观察组,另选取同期外伤无输血患者112例作为对照组,观察对比输血前后两组患者的血钾水平变化情况,并分析其相关影响因素。结果术后12 h内观察组患者高钾血症的发生率明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);术后pH值、术前血钾水平是影响外伤患者大量输血后高钾血症发生的相关因素(P<0.05)。结论术前高血钾水平和术后低pH值水平是影响外伤患者大量输血后高钾血症发生率上升的主要因素,临床输血治疗期间应严密监测患者的血钾水平和血pH值水平,并积极预防和治疗高钾血症。%Objective To investigate the changes of serum potassium after massive blood transfusion in trauma pa-tients and its influence factors. Methods From November 2012 to March 2015, 112 trauma patients with massive bleeding were selected as the observation group, and 112 trauma patients without massive bleeding were selected as the control group, the serum potassium levels of the two groups before and after blood transfusion were observed and compared, and the related factors were analyzed. Results Twelve hours postoperative, the incidence of hyperkalemia in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group, the difference was significant ( P<0. 05 ); The pH postoperative, serum potassium level preoperative was the related factors that affect the occurrence of high potassium after blood transfusion in trauma patients (P<0. 05). Conclusions The pH postoperative, serum potassium level preoperative is a major factor affecting the incidence of high potassium in patients with trauma after a large number of blood transfusion, blood potassium level and pH level should be closely monitored in clinical

  2. Macrolevel factors of influence on industry competitiveness of Ukrainian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Tkach

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to identify processes and phenomena of macro level, which form current conditions of the industry competitiveness of Ukraine for working out practical recommendations of its innovation increasing. The results of the analysis. The influence of macro-environment on the industry competitiveness is shown. The main factors of industry competitiveness influence which issue on the national level (political, legal, economic, institutional, commercial, etc. are outlined. These factors are synergistically intertwined and form conditions of the industry competitiveness of regions. Considering the analysis of the results of international competitiveness rankings the author found out the following factors of lowering the competitive position of Ukraine: corruption, problematic access to business finance, inflation, political instability, tax burden, inefficient government bureaucracy and unstable exchange rate. On the basis of this, the trends of factors are explored over the past five years (2011-2015 and reasons of them are identified. The particular attention is paid to institutional factors as public-private partnership, state support of industrial development, features of the development of industrial parks in Ukraine and others. Moreover, the features of foreign policy of Ukraine and structure of exports of industrial goods are explored. The study demonstrated key macro threats in Ukraine. Practical recommendations of industry competitiveness increasing are given. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The development of Ukraine for the past five years (2011-2015 characterized by dynamic changes in all spheres of life. This affected the competitiveness of the country in general and its industry in particular. Macro-level influencing factors, which created unfavorable conditions for the formation of industrial competitiveness, are: macroeconomic instability and high levels of bureaucracy, corruption, lack of

  3. Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local people ... The social and economic circumstances prevailing in Tanzania today have made ... sociocultural and livelihood factors that influence community participation in ... Increased capacity for conservation skills was the most important driver of community ...

  4. Analysis of Factors Influencing Farmers’ Identification of Entrepreneurial Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; GAO; Fang; YANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey data of entrepreneurship concerning farmers in China,this article uses the multivariate adjustment regression analysis method,to analyze the factors influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity and the mechanism. The results show that demographic characteristics are still an important factor influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity,but the extent of its influence is weaker than entrepreneurs’ trait. The new trait theory is verified in farmers’ entrepreneurship opportunity behavior; entrepreneurship environment is becoming an important factor influencing entrepreneurial opportunity identification,whose regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ social network and previous experience is stronger than the regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ psychological trait.

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING ADOPTION DECISIONS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Ayodeji Fadare

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The needs to develop improved varieties of maize have been in the heart of various researchers and institutions in Nigeria because of its strategic role in tackling food insecurity and poverty. Despite substantial efforts to improve maize varieties, the level of adoption of improved maize varieties (IMV in Nigeria in still very low. Although previous adoption studies have indicated a number of socioeconomic and institutional/organizational variables as important factors influencing adoption of improved maize (crop varieties in the country, whether these factors are the main issues of concern, and whether the inclusion of regional/agro-ecological variables in adoption model are also important in explaining what could drive farmers’ adoption behaviour requires investigation. This study therefore examined factors influencing adoption of IMV among farmers in Nigeria using a selected portion of the Nigeria Living Standard Measurement Survey data collected by the National Bureau of Statistics and the World Bank for 2010/2011 cropping season with descriptive statistics and probit model as tools for data analysis. The results suggest, in line with some previous studies, that farm size, education level of farmers and access to extension services would significantly influence adoption of IMV. The results also indicate that farmers across the entire agro-ecological regions of country share some negative sentiments regarding adoption of IMV. Renewed emphasis on interventions that would enable farmers gain more access to farmland, and promote formal education and extension service are advocated. An attempt to incorporate variables that capture farmers’ perception/experience on agroclimatic/ ecologically related concerns in adoption study could aid better understand of what drives farmers’ adoption decisions across the country especially in the light of the emerging climate change issues and its implication on food production.

  6. FACTORS INFLUENCING FRICTION OF PHOSPHATE COATINGS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    surface roughness, crystalline structure , and velocity. The coefficients of friction for manganese phosphate coatings did not differ to any practical...The coefficient of friction was independent of the applied load. Velocity during dynamic testing, surface finish, and crystalline structure influenced

  7. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the e

  8. E-COMMERCE FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMERS‘ ONLINE SHOPPING DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Baubonienė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to look at the factors driving online shopping and to develop an understanding of the factors influencing the online shopping by the consumers. This is done by exploring the factors that encourage consumers to shop online through analysis of such advantages as security, fast delivery, comparable price, convenience, cheaper prices and a wider choice. At the same time, the research project reveals the factors that are discouraging for consumers and the benefits received by buyers making purchases online. Specifically, the research explores how online shopping can be affected by such factors as age, gender or occupation. Design/methodology/approach – The factors that affect the consumer online shopping have been disclosed through quantitative research by analysing data collected via a web‐based questionnaire survey. The sample consisted of 183 Lithuanian consumers who were purchasing online. Findings –The empirical findings of this study indicate that the main factors influencing consumers to shop online are convenience, simplicity and better price. Analysis of socio-demographical characteristics such as gender has shown that men shop more often online because of the lower price. Respondents of the 25–35 year age group more often choose shopping online for such reasons as lack of time and a wide range of products. The most beneficial factor of shopping online was identified as a possibility to compare prices and buy at a lower price. Research limitations/implications – This study was done regarding only general conditions and the findings may not necessarily be applicable to a particular e-business. Therefore, in the future it would be highly encouraged to examine consumers’ attitudes towards specialized online shopping websites to look for differences by kind of products or services.Practical implications – Attributes identified by this study could help e-business developers to forme their

  9. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  10. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction among Army Chaplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-20

    supported by Maslow’s need hierarchy, it is not substantiated by Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory. Still another approach is that of Leon Festinger’s...Herzberg, Vroom, McGregor, Lawler and Festinger provide a basic JWM » -, —_—^ . foundation and starting point for examining the factors of chaplain...identity, and autonomy, which are examined in this section. Further, Leon Festinger’s work on "cognitive dissonance" points toward the

  11. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovici, Dan A.; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decis...

  12. Designing, Modeling and Evaluating Influence Strategiesfor Behavior Change Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öörni, Anssi; Kelders, Saskia Marion; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2014-01-01

    Behavior change support systems (BCSS) research is an evolving area. While the systems have been demonstrated to work to the effect, there is still a lot of work to be done to better understand the influence mechanisms of behavior change, and work out their influence on the systems architecture. The

  13. Influence of Nutritional Factors on Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    conditions of chronic high level fat oxidation such as exercise, Askew et al. (121) fed exercising rats diets supplemented with 0.5Z L- carnitine . Although...exercise increased adipose tissue fatty acid turnover, supplemental dietary carnitine neither increased skeletal muscle in vitro fatty acid oxidation...some investigators believe the relative activities of the sn-glycerolphosphate acyltransferase and carnitine palmttyltrans- ferase may influence the

  14. Choice of treatment with antidepressants: influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Wranik, Dominika W

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders place a large burden on patients and on society. Although efficacious treatment options for unipolar depressive disorders exist, substantial gaps in care remain. In part, the challenge lies in the matching of individual patients with appropriate care. This is complicated by the steady increases in the variety of antidepressants available in the market. The goal of this study is to highlight the decision processes in the selection of antidepressants by clinicians, given that most treatments have similar clinical effectiveness profiles. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that referred to the decisions surrounding treatment with antidepressants for the treatment of non-psychotic unipolar depression. Our analysis of the literature reveals that the choice of treatment is based on a variety of factors, of which clinical evidence is only one. These factors can be categorized into clinical factors such as illness and treatment characteristics, individual factors such as patient and physician characteristics, and contextual factors such as setting characteristics, decision supports and pharmacoeconomic aspects. Illness characteristics are defined by the type and severity of depression. Treatment characteristics include drug properties, efficacy, effectiveness and favorable as well as unintended adverse effects of the drug. Examples for patient characteristics are co-morbidities and individual preferences, and physician characteristics include knowledge, experience, values and beliefs, and the relationship with the patient. Treatment guidelines, algorithms, and most recently, computational supports and biological markers serve as decision supports.

  15. Personality influences on change in smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, David; Poulton, Richie

    2009-05-01

    To investigate associations between personality traits in early adulthood (and changes in them) and change in smoking status. Prospective, longitudinal study of a general-population birth cohort. We measured smoking at ages 18, 26, and 32, and personality at ages 18 and 26 using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (Tellegen & Waller, in press). We assessed personality's ability to predict future smoking, and assessed how changes in personality traits relate to change in smoking status. Higher aggression and alienation at age 18 predicted smoking at 26; higher self-control and traditionalism at age 18 predicted nonsmoking at 26; and higher alienation at age 26 predicted persistence of smoking to age 32. Personality change between 18 and 26 was associated with change in smoking behavior; those who stopped smoking decreased more than others in negative emotionality and increased more in constraint. These findings suggest that interventions fostering personality change may be effective in reducing smoking and indicate appropriate targets for such antismoking interventions in young people. In particular, high alienation predicted smoking persistence, perhaps due to resistance to existing antismoking messages; we discuss approaches that may overcome this.

  16. Factors influencing quality of life in asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-kalemji, Abir; Petersen, Karin Dam; Sørensen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The quality of life (QOL) in persons with asthma is reduced and different factors such as demography, asthma severity and psychiatric comorbidity play an influential role. However, little is known about the interplay of these factors. OBJECTIVE: To describe QOL in relation to asthma...... and analyse for the relative impact of asthma severity, psychiatric comorbidity, lifestyle (smoking and obesity) and demographic determinants on QOL in persons with asthma. METHODS: One thousand one hundred sixty-one subjects from an earlier cohort with and without asthma were sent an asthma screening...... gender and smoking were associated with reduced QOL, suggesting that these factors play an independent role on lowering QOL. Depression did not inflate the relationship between asthma severity and worse QOL, suggesting that asthma severity plays an independent role on everyday life regardless...

  17. Factors influencing nurses' participation in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Ann F; Warner, Andrea M; Fleming, Eileen; Schmidt, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Clinical research is necessary for developing nursing's body of knowledge and improving the quality of gastroenterology nursing care. The support and participation of nursing staff are crucial to conducting interventional research. Identification of characteristics of nurses and their work settings that facilitate or impede participation in research is needed. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine the effect of personal and professional characteristics and attitudes about nursing research on staff nurses' participation in a clinical nursing research project. A questionnaire measuring nurses' attitudes, perceptions of availability of support, and research use was distributed to staff nurses working on an endoscopy lab and two same-day surgery units where a nursing research study had recently been conducted. Investigator-developed items measured nurses' attitudes about the utility and feasibility of the interventions tested in the original study. A total of 36 usable questionnaires comprised the sample. Factor analysis of the two questionnaires resulted in three-factor (Importance of Research, Interest in Research, and Environment Support of Research) and two-factor (Value of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions [CBIs] and Participation in Study) solutions, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean scores for the five factors between nurses who did (n = 19) and those who did not (n = 17) participate in the original study. The Participation in Research Factor was significantly negatively correlated with years in nursing (r = -.336, p body of knowledge about factors that facilitate or impede staff nurses' involvement in research. This knowledge will be useful for nurse researchers planning intervention studies to forecast and foster staff nurse involvement in their projects. Findings may also be useful to nurse managers, nurse educators, and staff development personnel in assessing and promoting staff nurses

  18. Influencing factors of infrared surveying in roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Kang-xu; GUO Da

    2006-01-01

    The main factors that affect infrared surveying in roadway include that property of rock, electromechanical equipments running, environmental temperature, hydrogeology and support material etc. This paper sums up the expression features of these disturbing factor through theoretical analysis and actual measurement contrasts and considers that some tunnel section does not suit to go on infrared survey, for instance, soft rock meets water to expanse, and surround rock has obviously pouring water. The basic methods had made evading disturbing of electromechanical equipments, environmental temperature and protect material etc to become possible. It is helpful that offers infrared surveying technical service for production safety better in roadway.

  19. Institutional factors and opportunities for adapting European forest management to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouriaud, L.; Marzano, M.; Lexer, M.; Clerkx, A.P.P.M.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Schelhaas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that the institutional environment is acknowledged to influence the implementation of regional adaptations of forest management to climate change, there are few empirical studies addressing the institutional factors and opportunities of adaptation. Using Ostrom’s institutional

  20. Postpartum pelvic floor muscle strength change and its influencing factors as well as rehabilitation efficacy%产后盆底肌力改变与妊娠影响因素及康复治疗效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖颖; 徐志强

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the change of pelvic floor muscles strength and pregnant influencing factors and to observe the curative effect of electrical stimulation combined with biofeedback rehabilitation therapy on puerperal pelvic floor muscles.Methods Totally 510 primiparas, delivering during the period of November 2011 to November 2012 in Tongren Hospital and treated by pelvic floor muscle screening within 6 weeks after delivery, were grouped according to delivery mode and neonatal birth weight.The change of pelvic floor muscles strength and pregnant influencing factors were analyzed from these two aspects.In the early postpartum time, puerperas were treated by Kegel training combined with electrical stimulation and biofeedback rehabilitation therapy, and the clinical curative effect was observed.Results Abnormal rates of both typeⅠand II muscle fiber strength in low birth weight group were significantly higher than in normal birth weight group (χ2 value was 9.332 and 9.917, respectively, both P 0.05).After rehabilitation treatment including Kegel Training, biological feedback and electrical stimulation for 400 cases with abnormal muscle fiber strength, voltage of pelvic floor typeⅠand typeⅡmuscle fiber were improved significantly ( t value was 27.456 and 25.067, respectively, both P<0.001).Conclusion Delivery mode has no effect on postpartum pelvic floor muscle strength, but neonatal birth weight affects it.Postpartum early rehabilitation treatment has good curative effect on pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation.%目的:对产妇产后盆底肌力改变及其妊娠影响因素进行分析,并在产后早期对产妇进行盆底肌电刺激联合生物反馈的康复治疗,观察其疗效。方法将2011年11月至2012年11月于上海交通大学医学院附属同仁医院生产并于产后6周内进行盆底肌力筛查的510例初产妇以分娩方式分组(新生儿体重正常者)以及以新生儿体重对产妇分组,分别从这两方面

  1. Enterotypes influence temporal changes in gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Kellebjerg Poulsen, Sanne

    The human gut microbiota plays an important role for human health. The question is whether we can modulate the gut microbiota by changing diet. During a 6-month, randomised, controlled dietary intervention, the effect of consuming a diet following the New Nordic Diet recommendations (NND......) as opposed to Average Danish Diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota in humans (n=62) was investigated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the microbiota did not change significantly by the intervention. Nevertheless, by stratifying subjects into two enterotypes, distinguished by the Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio...... (P/B), we were able to detect significant changes in the gut microbiota composition resulting from the interventions. Subjects with a high-P/B experienced more pronounced changes in the gut microbiota composition than subjects with a low-P/B. The study is the first to indicate that enterotypes...

  2. Factors influencing a building-material company brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allin R. Dangers

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A brand represents the essence of the value proposition an organisation extends to the market. It is crucial that brands are nurtured with the goal of trying to establish the brand in a top-of-mind awareness position among consumers. By means of a qualitative case study employing 25 interviews which were analysed by using Grounded Theory coding techniques, the most pertinent factors influencing the Corobrik brand were identified. The greatest challenge facing Corobrik is the growing residential sector. The study highlights how Corobrik has grappled and come to terms with the changing nature of its market, and how it has combined all functional areas, from production to distribution, marketing and finance, in promoting its brand.

  3. Factors influencing groundwater quality: towards an integrated management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giglio, O; Quaranta, A; Barbuti, G; Napoli, C; Caggiano, G; Montagna, M T

    2015-01-01

    The safety of groundwater resources is a serious issue, particularly when these resources are the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial use in coastal areas. In Italy, 85% of the water used by the public is of underground origin. The aim of this report is to analyze the main factors that make groundwater vulnerable. Soil characteristics and filtration capacity can promote or hinder the diffusion of environmental contaminants. Global climate change influences the prevalence and degree of groundwater contamination. Anthropic pressure causes considerable exploitation of water resources, leading to reduced water availability and the progressive deterioration of water quality. Management of water quality will require a multidisciplinary, dynamic and practical approach focused on identifying the measures necessary to reduce contamination and mitigate the risks associated with the use of contaminated water resources.

  4. Emergency department crowding: Factors influencing flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on emergency department (ED) crowding. In the first part (ED crowding in the Netherlands) the current state of EDs regarding patients’ length of stay and ED managers’ experiences of crowding are described. Part two (input factors) contains three studies which describe the case lo

  5. Examining perspectives on telecare: factors influencing adoption, implementation, and usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available David Barrett,1 Jonathan Thorpe,2 Nick Goodwin3 1Faculty of Health and Social Care, 2Knowledge Exchange, University of Hull, Hull, 3International Foundation for Integrated Care, Oxford, UK Abstract: Telecare, or the use of remote care technologies to support safe and independent living, offers great potential to mitigate the challenges faced in a time of changing demographics. By supporting people to live for longer in their own home, telecare can enhance quality of life, reduce reliance on institutional care settings, and reduce costs. Despite these potential opportunities, the adoption of telecare has not been as fast or widespread as it might have been. This article discusses some of the factors acting as drivers or barriers, which have influenced adoption and impacted on implementation. The implications of the availability of such a wide range of telecare applications is explored; this diversity of choice allows for services to be tailored to the specific needs of users, but also causes a tangled web of terminology that can lead to confusion and lack of clarity. In terms of the evidence base, although evaluations of telecare services often demonstrate a high level of cost benefit and user satisfaction, primary research findings are not as positive. This paper focuses particularly on the Whole System Demonstrator, a large-scale, randomized controlled trial that raised questions about the value and cost-effectiveness of telecare. The paper also discusses the ethical, governance, and resource issues associated with telecare implementation and the organizational complexities inherent in such exciting but challenging changes to services. The policy perspective is also summarized, highlighting how much of the adoption of telecare to date has been influenced by top-down initiatives. Telecare will continue to evolve as our understanding and the technology continue to develop. This paper provides information and advice for commissioners, providers

  6. [Factors that influence student ratings of instruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Su Jin; Choung, Yun Hoon; Chung, Yoon Sok

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of student ratings of instruction by analyzing their relationships with several variables, including gender, academic rank, specialty, teaching time, and teaching method, at a medical school. This study analyzed the student ratings of 297 courses at Ajou University School of Medicine in 2013. SPSS version 12.0 was used to analyze the data and statistics by t-test, analysis of variance, and Scheffe test. There were no statistically significant differences in student ratings between gender, rank, and specialty. However, student ratings were significantly influenced by teaching times and methods (pStudent ratings were high for teaching times of 10 hours or more and small-group learning, compared with lectures. There was relatively mean differences in students ratings by teaching times, specialty and rank, although the difference in ratings was not statistically significant. Student ratings can be classified by teaching time and method for summative purposes. To apply student ratings to the evaluation of the performance of faculty, further studies are needed to analyze the variables that influence student ratings.

  7. Environmental factors influence for pho-voltaic solar energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour Adeh, E.; Higgins, C. W.

    2016-12-01

    Solar energy is the fastest growing renewable energy, thus it is critical that we understand design solar production efficiencies and how they are modified by local environmental factors. A small change in efficiency can have dramatic economic consequences. While the current optimized designs for efficiency of the solar arrays largely ignore environmental factors and focus on the PV panel temperature. In this research, the influence of these microclimatological variables on solar energy productivity was investigated with an in-field study at the Rabbit Hills solar arrays near Oregon State University. The acquired data included temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, solar radiation, and energy output. A nondimensionalized approach was used to synthesize the data. The preliminary results confirm that the efficiency of the solar array is directly affected by the environmental temperature (expected). However, the efficiency is more impacted by the wind speed which suggests that there is an optimal panel elevation, economically. Other factors such as relative humidity play smaller roles on the solar panel efficiency.

  8. Do early life factors influence body mass index in adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Goldani

    Full Text Available The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of the country. Biological, economic and social variables and newborn anthropometric measurements were obtained shortly after delivery. In 1996, 1189 males from this cohort, 34.3% of the original male population, were submitted to anthropometric measurements and were asked about their current schooling on the occasion of army recruitment. A multiple linear regression model was applied to determine variables associated with BMI. Mean BMI was 22.7 (95%CI = 22.5-23.0. After adjustment, BMI was 1.22 kg/m² higher among infants born with high birth weight (³4000 g, 1.21 kg/m² higher among individuals of low social class at birth and 0.69 kg/m² higher among individuals whose mothers smoked during pregnancy (P < 0.05. The association between social class at birth and BMI remained statistically significant (P < 0.05 even after adjustment for adult schooling. These findings suggest that early life social influences on BMI were more important and were not reversed by late socioeconomic position. Therefore, prevention of overweight and obesity should focus not only on changes in adult life styles but also on factors such as high birth weight.

  9. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards midwifery: Tool validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rajabi, Omaymah; Al-Hadid, Lourance; Subih, Maha

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a tool that explores the factors influencing women's opinion of and attitudes towards midwifery. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of 526 Jordanian women. Cluster sampling was used to ensure a representative sample; then, convenience sampling was performed. The instrument asked non-identifying demographic questions and covered factors reported in literature to influence women's attitudes towards and views of the profession. The resulting instrument consisted of five factors explained by 29 items. These factors were women's general view of midwives, midwife duties, professional ethics, media influence and demotivating factors associated with working as a midwife. Although the instrument is valid and reliable, it needs further testing in other studies. Taking the factors reported on by the present study into account in public policy-making could promote better understanding of midwifery and improve its status in the community. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Factors influencing medication label viewing in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Chong, Yen Wan

    2016-07-12

    The misuse of medicine is a serious public health issue worldwide. An important factor that contributes to the misuse of medicine is the lack of medication label viewing by consumers. The objective of the present study is to examine the socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with medication label viewing among Malaysian adults. The empirical analysis is based on a nationally representative data set of 30,992 respondents. An ordered probit model is used to examine different types of medication label viewers. The results of this study suggest that socio-economic (i.e. age, income level, education level, location of residence), demographic (i.e. gender, ethnicity, marital status) and lifestyle factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) have significant effects on medication label viewing. It is found that age, low-income and low-education level reduce the likelihood of viewing medication label. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. The present study provides policy makers with baseline information regarding which cohorts of individuals to focus on in efforts to increase the frequency of medication label viewing.

  11. Factors influencing early survival after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, P G; Estrin, J A; Fryd, D S; Payne, W D; Belani, K G; Elick, B A; Najarian, J S; Ascher, N L

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from all adult and pediatric liver transplants performed between January 1, 1983 and January 15, 1986 at the University of Minnesota Hospital and identify perioperative variables that predict patient survival and could aid in patient selection. Charts, intraoperative anesthesia records, blood bank records, flow sheets, outpatient records, and autopsy reports were examined in 45 pediatric and 15 adult patients who underwent primary orthotopic liver transplantation. Analysis of the data can be summarized as follows: (1) Pediatric patients whose coagulation parameters could not be corrected prior to operation and who consequently required preoperative exchange transfusion had poorer outcomes than those not requiring an exchange to correct coagulation parameters. (2) The rapid infusion technique for massive blood transfusion resulted in significantly decreased blood loss and intraoperative blood product replacement. (3) Twenty-four hour postoperative factor V levels were good predictors of survival. Patients with poor factor V levels required rigorous replacement of coagulation factors. (4) Pediatric patients with uncorrectable coagulopathies requiring immediate postoperative exchange transfusion had extremely high mortality.

  12. Factors influencing recognition of interrupted speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Humes, Larry E

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the effect of interruption parameters (e.g., interruption rate, on-duration and proportion), linguistic factors, and other general factors, on the recognition of interrupted consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in quiet. Sixty-two young adults with normal-hearing were randomly assigned to one of three test groups, "male65," "female65" and "male85," that differed in talker (male/female) and presentation level (65/85 dB SPL), with about 20 subjects per group. A total of 13 stimulus conditions, representing different interruption patterns within the words (i.e., various combinations of three interruption parameters), in combination with two values (easy and hard) of lexical difficulty were examined (i.e., 13×2=26 test conditions) within each group. Results showed that, overall, the proportion of speech and lexical difficulty had major effects on the integration and recognition of interrupted CVC words, while the other variables had small effects. Interactions between interruption parameters and linguistic factors were observed: to reach the same degree of word-recognition performance, less acoustic information was required for lexically easy words than hard words. Implications of the findings of the current study for models of the temporal integration of speech are discussed.

  13. Clinically important factors influencing endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapaatalo, H; Mervaala, E

    2001-01-01

    The endothelium, a continuous cellular monolayer lining the blood vessels, has an enormous range of important homeostatic roles. It serves and participates in highly active metabolic and regulatory functions including control of primary hemostasis, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, platelet and leukocyte interactions with the vessel wall, interaction with lipoprotein metabolism, presentation of histocompatibility antigens, regulation of vascular tone and growth and further of blood pressure. Many crucial vasoactive endogenous compounds like prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide, endothelin, angiotensin, endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor, free radicals and bradykinin are formed in the endothelial cells to control the functions of vascular smooth muscle cells and of circulating blood cells. These versatile and complex systems and cellular interactions are extremely vulnerable. The balances may be disturbed by numerous endogenous and exogenous factors including psychological and physical stress, disease states characterized by vasospasm, inflammation, leukocyte and platelet adhesion and aggregation, thrombosis, abnormal vascular proliferation, atherosclerosis and hypertension. The endothelial cells are also the site of action of many drugs and exogenous toxic substances (e.g. smoking, alcohol). As markers and assays for endothelial dysfunction, direct measurement of nitric oxide, its metabolites from plasma and urine, functional measurement of vascular nitric oxide dependent responses and assay of different circulating markers have been used. In numerous pathological conditions (e.g. atherosclerosis, hypertension, congestive heart failure, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, renal failure, transplantation, liver cirrhosis) endothelial dysfunction has been described to exist. Some of them, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors and drug treatment will be discussed in this short review.

  14. Women's Leadership Development in Sport Settings: Factors Influencing the Transformational Learning Experience of Female Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megheirkouni, Majd; Roomi, Muhammad Azam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the positive and negative factors influencing transformational learning experiences of female leaders in women's leadership development programmes in sports and examines the differences in learning/change factors cited by those who successfully addressed them and those who failed. Design/methodology/approach: The study…

  15. Quantifying influences of physiographic factors on temperate dryland vegetation, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhitao; Pang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Variability in satellite measurements of terrestrial greenness in drylands is widely observed in land surface processes and global change studies. Yet the underlying causes differ and are not fully understood. Here, we used the GeogDetector model, a new spatial statistical approach, to examine the individual and combined influences of physiographic factors on dryland vegetation greenness changes, and to identify the most suitable characteristics of each principal factor for stimulating vegetation growth. Our results indicated that dryland greenness was predominantly affected by precipitation, soil type, vegetation type, and temperature, either separately or in concert. The interaction between pairs of physiographic factors enhanced the influence of any single factor and displayed significantly non-linear influences on vegetation greenness. Our results also implied that vegetation greenness could be promoted by adopting favorable ranges or types of major physiographical factors, thus beneficial for ecological conservation and restoration that aimed at mitigating environmental degradation. PMID:28067259

  16. Factors Influencing the Earth's Magnetic Field Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kurazhkovskii, A Yu; Klain, B I

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the behavior of an ancient geomagnetic field characteristics (paleointensity and frequency of inversions) and cyclic recurrence of endogenic and cosmogeneous processes which are conceivably connected with radial mantle heat transmission and the Earth rotation speed has been studied. It is shown that endogenic processes affect the behavior of the paleointensity and frequency of inversions. Large basalt effusions identified with plumes are accompanied by the changes in paleointensity (by 30-40)% and the frequency of inversions. Characteristic time intervals of paleointensity variations caused by the formation of plumes makes up 10-20 Ma. The paleointensity varies (by 15-30)% according to phases of the riftogenesis activization and tension - compression cycles. The dependence of geomagnetic field behavior on changes of the Earth rotation speed which occurred as a result of the Earth - Moon - Sun system evolution has been analyzed. Thus, in accordance with phases of the Earth - Moon dista...

  17. Irrigation water productivity is more influenced by agronomic practice factors than by climatic factors in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xiaotao; Niu, Jun; Tong, Ling; Kang, Shaozhong; Du, Taisheng; Li, Sien; Ding, Risheng

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the influence of driving factors on irrigation water productivity (IWP) is vital for efficient agricultural water use. This study analyzed contributions of agronomic practice and climatic factors to the changes of IWP, based on the data from 1981 to 2012 in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. Cobb-Douglas production functions were developed by the partial least squares method and contribution rates of the driving factors were calculated. Results showed that IWP and its driving factors increased during the study period, with different changing patterns. IWP was significantly correlated with the agronomic practice factors, daily mean temperature and solar radiation of the crop growing period. The agronomic practice factors including irrigation, fertilization, agricultural film, and agricultural pesticide contributed 20.6%, 32.8%, 42.3% and 11.1% respectively to the increase of IWP; and the contribution rates of the climatic factors, i.e. daily mean temperature and solar radiation, are ‑0.9% and 0.9%. And the contributions of these factors changed in different sub-periods. It is concluded that agronomic practice factors influenced IWP much more than climatic factors. The improvement of IWP should rely on advanced water-saving technology and application of optimum (need-based) fertilizer, agricultural film and pesticide, ensuring efficient use of agronomic inputs in the study area.

  18. Factors Influencing the Earth's Magnetic Field Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kurazhkovskii, A. Yu.; Kurazhkovskaya, N. A.; Klain, B. I.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the behavior of an ancient geomagnetic field characteristics (paleointensity and frequency of inversions) and cyclic recurrence of endogenic and cosmogeneous processes which are conceivably connected with radial mantle heat transmission and the Earth rotation speed has been studied. It is shown that endogenic processes affect the behavior of the paleointensity and frequency of inversions. Large basalt effusions identified with plumes are accompanied by the changes in ...

  19. Factors Influencing Students’ Perceptions of Online Teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Falls; Victor Bahhouth; Chiuchu Melody Chuang; Jocelyne Bahhouth

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to ident...

  20. The fashion buying process and influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Tracewski, Kristiina

    2013-01-01

    Today, human behavior, lifestyle and fashion has changed from more considerate and careful buying to high consumption in every part of life due to inexpensive brands in the industry that allow frequent buying and self expression. This has affected the clothing industry in a number of ways. Fashion buying process is a large part of business in the clothing industry and has major effects on company’s success. Therefore, an increasing number of retail businesses need to focus on their purch...

  1. The Phonological Influence on Phonetic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruehwald, Josef

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the broad question about how phonology and phonetics are interrelated, specifically how phonetic language changes, which gradually alter the phonetics of speech sounds, affect the phonological system of the language, and vice versa. Some questions I address are: (i) What aspects of speakers' knowledge of their language…

  2. The Phonological Influence on Phonetic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruehwald, Josef

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the broad question about how phonology and phonetics are interrelated, specifically how phonetic language changes, which gradually alter the phonetics of speech sounds, affect the phonological system of the language, and vice versa. Some questions I address are: (i) What aspects of speakers' knowledge of their language…

  3. Are Rorschach Responses Influenced by Society's Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Louise Bates

    1975-01-01

    Based on the general belief that people "normally" see male figures on Rorschach Card III and females on Card VII; to see the opposite, according to some, would indicate a confusing of sex roles. This study makes two comparisons: age and time changes of individual responses to these cards in different decades. (DEP)

  4. Changing Practices: Influences on Classroom Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Robin D.

    2006-01-01

    The pedagogical potential of classroom assessment to support student learning has increasingly been evidenced in research over the past decade. Constructive classroom assessment has been championed by assessment specialists, and endorsed by professional organizations. In practice, however, the process of changing classroom assessment from its…

  5. Factors Influencing the Performance of Coal Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unsia HABIB

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.

  6. Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A mixed method study. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... group discussions) and quantitative (cross-sectional survey) methods were utilised for this study.

  7. Social and economic factors influencing the patronage and use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social and economic factors influencing the patronage and use of complementary and alternative medicine in Enugu. ... Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources ... approaches to medical treatment that are outside of mainstream medical training.

  8. Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of Courses in ... Female students in six (Arts, Education, Pharmacy, Science, Social Sciences and ... services to secondary school students in the choice of courses and career.

  9. Factors Influencing the Development of Practical Skills of Interns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing the Development of Practical Skills of Interns Working in ... It starts with a good theoretical preparation and some practical experience at university. ... The relationship between intern and senior doctor was important when it ...

  10. Factors influencing the job satisfaction of academics in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the job satisfaction of academics in higher education. ... 94 respondents from similar departments at a residential and a distance education institution. A questionnaire focused on teaching, research, community service, ...

  11. Assessment of risk factors that influence pregnancy outcomes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Pregnancy outcome, low birth weight, Apgar score, maternal age, Tanzania ... (2006) reported that, several risk factors influence neonatal mortality. ..... which is the lowest cut off point for the classification of normal blood pressure.

  12. 'Mum never loved me.' How structural factors influence adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How structural factors influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health ... Research in high income countries shows parent–child connectedness to be ... to young people's low self-esteem and risky sexual behaviour while unplanned ...

  13. Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption of Rice ... Farming experience, household size, farm size and extension contact ... gender, market availability, education, extension contact, labour availability and farm size.

  14. Factors Influencing Farmer Output in the International Fund for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    Department of Rural Sociology and Extension. Michael Okpara ... This study analysed factors influencing International Fund for Agricultural. Development ..... farmers (50.9%) acquired secondary education as against Cross River IFAD farmers.

  15. Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban Areas of Tanzania. ... Model results revealed that household sizes and education levels of the ... To increase the market share of pulses, traders should devise effective ...

  16. Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young adult consumers in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... their reasons for and frequency of fast food consumption, their specific fast food choices, and their attitudes towards health.

  17. LITERATURE REVIEW ON FACTORS INFLUENCING MILK PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klaudia Kurajdova; Janka Taborecka-Petrovicova

    2015-01-01

    In today’s highly informed, competitive and saturated market, a key to success of any business depends on knowing consumer and his consumption patterns and recognizing and understanding factors influencing...

  18. Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ... The findings showed that students from lower socio-economic status homes and those ... The need to involve the students\\' parents in career education programmes and ...

  19. Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    factors that influenced the extent of consumption in urban areas. In summary, the model .... model to control for self-selection bias because some potential consumers may ... accommodate consumer's zero value of purchase as an outcome of a ...

  20. Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in South Africa - a preliminary stud. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ... South African Medical Journal. Journal Home ...

  1. Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among Child Bearing Women in Chilonga ... Medical Journal of Zambia ... The literature review was mainly obtained from studies conducted globally, regionally and Zambia inclusively.

  2. Factors influencing choice of paediatrics as a career among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    female students (30%) considered gender distribution to be a factor influencing their career choice (p=0.046). ... role models in the specialty, job opportunities and financial .... of non-responder bias, although the relatively high response.

  3. Prevalence Of Early Childhood Malnutrition And Influencing Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    therefore, to asses the prevalence of malnutrition and the factors influencing the ... childhood malnutrition in Kabarole District and other areas in Uganda, and ..... Jitta JJ, Migadde M and J Mudusu Determinants of Malnutrition in under-fives.

  4. INFLUENCING FACTORS OF PRICE AND ASSOCIATED STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu NEAMTU; NEAMTU Adina Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The price is an important element in product position; it is a means of sending signals to consumers about the nature and quality of the product. When, for a certain business environment, the demand curve is known in relation to market (competition) costs and prices, the firm can choose a pricing policy simultaneously with business strategy. This study synthesizes the key-factors occurring in choosing a business strategy and the game of price and cost on the market As an approach to pricing p...

  5. Emotional Factors Influencing Students’ English Writing Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂勇伟

    2015-01-01

    As an international common language,English becomes more and more important.Students try their best to improve their English writing competence,especially as the social’s requirements for their English writing become higher and higher.However,students’English writing is very poor,fewer and fewer of them can write fluent English.Through the study of this topic,the author hopes it can remove students’emotional obstacles of English writing learning,master the direction of emotional factor,arouse students’interesting in learning oral English,make them practice English writing positively and obtain a better teaching effect

  6. Treatment Factors That Influence Mortality in Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, John; Ayuk, John; Sherlock, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare condition characterized by excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), which is almost always due to a pituitary adenoma. Acromegaly is associated with significant morbidity such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiomyopathy, obstructive sleep apnoea, malignancy and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Acromegaly has also been associated with increased mortality in several retrospective studies. This review will focus on the epidemiological data relating to mortality rates in acromegaly, the relationship between acromegaly and malignancy, the role of GH and insulin-like growth factor-I in assessing the risk of future mortality, and the impact of radiotherapy and hypopituitarism on mortality.

  7. Research on China's Aquaculture Efficiency Evaluation and Influencing Factors with Undesirable Outputs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Jianyue; WANG Pingping

    2015-01-01

    Taking the aquaculture area, the number of farming boats and that of aquaculturist as input variables, the aquaculture production as desirable output variable and polluted economic loss as undesirable output variable, this paper conducts SBM model to evaluate the aquaculture efficiency based on the data of 16 aquaculture-developed provinces in China from 2004 to 2011. The results show the efficiency in China has not changed much in recent years with the efficiency values mainly between 0.39 and 0.53, and the efficiency of marine-aquaculture-dominated provinces is generally higher than that of freshwater-aquaculture-dominated ones. To analyze the difference under the efficiency, the panel Tobit model is used with education level factor, training factor, technology ex-tension factor, technical level factor, scale factor and species factor as the efficiency influencing factors. The results show that tech-nology extension factor and technical level factor have significant positive influence.

  8. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads.

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    I Ketut Surya Diarta; I Gde Pitana; Nyoman Darma Putra; Agung Suryawan Wiranatha

    2016-01-01

    Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was c...

  10. Factors Influencing the Disabled's Employment in the Competitive Labour Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Simo

    1995-01-01

    Factors influencing the job search outcomes of 1,353 Finnish individuals with disabilities were studied, focusing on age, gender, domicile, basic education, vocational training, and type of disability. Results showed that age, education, and domicile influenced outcomes, and labor market status was to some extent gender specific. (JDD)

  11. Spouse Influence in Army Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Chutima Hanpachern, George A. Morgan, and Orlando V. Griego , "An Extension of the Theory of Margin: A Framework for Assessing Readiness for...study, Hanpachern, Morgan and Griego make the next significant stride in understanding MIL by constructing a simpler scale than Stevenson. Their study... Griego , "An Extension of the Theory of Margin: A Framework for Assessing Readiness for Organizational Change," 349. 71 Mady Wechsler Segal, "The Nature

  12. The Influence of British Social Changes on the Origin and Development of English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2009-01-01

    Social changes are one of the main factors of the orion and development of a language.This author mainly analyzes the influence of British social changes on the origin and development of English from three periods in the history of English language.

  13. Linguistic Factors Influencing Speech Audiometric Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coene, Martine; Krijger, Stefanie; Meeuws, Matthias; De Ceulaer, Geert; Govaerts, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    In speech audiometric testing, hearing performance is typically measured by calculating the number of correct repetitions of a speech stimulus. We investigate to what extent the repetition accuracy of Dutch speech stimuli presented against a background noise is influenced by nonauditory processes. We show that variation in verbal repetition accuracy is partially explained by morpholexical and syntactic features of the target language. Verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and pronouns yield significantly lower correct repetitions than nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. The reduced repetition performance for verbs and function words is probably best explained by the similarities in the perceptual nature of verbal morphology and function words in Dutch. For sentences, an overall negative effect of syntactic complexity on speech repetition accuracy was found. The lowest number of correct repetitions was obtained with passive sentences, reflecting the cognitive cost of processing a noncanonical sentence structure. Taken together, these findings may have important implications for the audiological practice. In combination with hearing loss, linguistic complexity may increase the cognitive demands to process sentences in noise, leading to suboptimal functional hearing in day-to-day listening situations. Using test sentences with varying degrees of syntactic complexity may therefore provide useful information to measure functional hearing benefits.

  14. Physical factors influence for biologic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruzyan, L. A.

    2005-08-01

    Physical methods are widely spread in diagnostics and therapy of different pathologies, especially in oncology. The application of lasers occurred to be the perspective approach for combined methods application in medicine. Our work is devoted to investigation of thermal effect of focused laser beam in the model of Garding-Passi melanoma and also to the study of free radicals activity after the radiation with non-focused laser beam. The histologic alterations correlated with theoretical calculations of temperature distribution in irradiated tissue for energies 30-60 J attracted our interest. The values of maximal temperatures in depths of tissue for energies 30-60 J were carried out. In the model of permanent magnetic field (PMF) effect for mice ascites sarcoma 37 we have showed the linear dependence of tumor growth inhibition from the period of PMF treatment. Simultaneously we investigated PMF influence for free radical"s (FR) concentrations in mice organs and tissues and potentially appearing questions of PMF effect for biopotential in connection with FR formation. We have also studied the alterations of K, Na and Ca ions concentrations in ascetic fluids after animal"s PMF treatment. We revealed some reasons of biopotential generation and concluded that biopotential is not the result of specific ions gradient only but its generation can be followed by free radicals states appearance and occurrence of semi-conductivity in biostructures.

  15. Blood coagulation function change and influence factors in Cushing's syndrome and obesity%库欣综合征和肥胖症患者凝血功能的改变及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘之慧; 卢琳; 陈适; 潘慧; 朱惠娟; 龚凤英; 阳洪波; 王林杰; 邓侃

    2016-01-01

    目的 比较与分析库欣综合征(CS)和肥胖症(OB)凝血指标改变及影响因素,为改善其预后提供理论基础.方法 对北京协和医院在2012年10月至2015年8月就诊的250例CS和164例OB患者,进行外周血细胞、肝肾功能、血脂、皮质醇和凝血功能的检测.结果 CS和OB患者存在凝血指标异常的比例分别为80%(200/250)和52%(85/164),与OB者相比,CS患者各项凝血及纤溶指标数值明显降低,且活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)的缩短更为明显,而24 h尿游离皮质醇(24 hUFC)、总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)数值高于OB.此外,OB患者的BMI、空腹血糖(FBG)、TC、LDL-C与凝血指标异常有关;CS患者的丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)、24 h UFC、白细胞、血小板与凝血指标异常有关.结论 可能由于体内更高的TC、LDL-C及皮质醇水平对凝血系统的影响,导致CS患者的高凝状态较OB显著,从而增加血栓形成的风险.%Objective To compare and analysis blood coagulation index change and influence factors in Cushing's syndrome (CS) and obesity (OB) patients to provide theoretical evidence for improving the prognosis of them.Methods A total of 250 patients with CS and 164 patients with obesity were collected from October 2012 to August 2015 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital.Peripheral blood cells,liver and kidney function,blood lipid,24 h urine free cortisol (24 hUFC) and blood coagulation were tested.Results The proportion of patients with abnormal blood coagulation indexes were 80% (200/250) and 52% (85/164) respectively in CS and OB patients.Compared with OB patients,coagulation and fibrinolysis values decreased significantly in CS patients.In addition,the shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was more obvious in CS patients,while 24 hUFC,total cholesterol (TC),low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL

  16. Exploring factors influencing smoking behaviour in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study is to investigate the determinants of smoking behaviour among adults in Malaysia. Findings of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-3) by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, were used. The sample consisted of 34,539 observations. A logistic regression model was thus applied to estimate the probability to participate in smoking. Age, income, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status, residential area, education, lifestyle and health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of smoking. Specifically, youngsters, low income earners, males, unmarried individuals, Malays, employed individuals, rural residents and primary educated individuals were more likely to smoke. In conclusion, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors have significant impacts on smoking participation in Malaysia. Based on these empirical findings, several policy implications are suggested.

  17. Factors influencing dependence on mobile phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of current study was to investigate the relationship between the problematic use of mobile phone and Big Five personality traits among students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A total number of 120 students (80 females and 40 males were selected by applying proportional randomized classification sampling method from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS and demographic questionnaire were used to gather data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Analysis of gathered data showed that gender, neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience had positive correlation with the problematic use of mobile phone, whereas conscientiousness and agreeableness were not correlated with the problematic use of mobile phone. Conclusion: The evaluation of Big Five personality traits would be a reliable factor for predicting the problematic use of mobile phone among students.

  18. INFLUENCING FACTORS FOR THE ENERGY DISSIPATION RATIO OF STEPPED SPILLWAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qun; DAI Guang-qing; ZHU Fen-qing

    2005-01-01

    In order to search for the measure to increase the energy dissipation ratio of stepped spillways, some main influencing factors for the energy dissipation ratio of stepped spillways, such as unit discharge, dam slope, height of step and so on, were studied. The results show that the energy dissipation ratio decreases with the increase in the unit discharge and increases as the slope becomes gentle. The effects of step height on the energy dissipation ratio are closely related to unit discharge. If the unit discharge is smaller, the change of energy dissipation ratio with step height becomes greater. While, if the unit discharge is greater, the influence of step height on energy dissipation ratio is very little. According to the distributions of the turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence dissipation rate obtained by numerical simulation, the basic reason of the decrease of energy dissipation ratio with the increase in the unit discharge was discussed and some specific measures to increase the energy dissipation ratio were suggested.

  19. Factors influencing excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Souza Vilela

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Sleep deprivation in adolescents has lately become a health issue that tends to increase with higher stress prevalence, extenuating routines, and new technological devices that impair adolescents' bedtime. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the excessive sleepiness frequency and the factors that might be associated to it in this population. Methods: The cross-sectional study analyzed 531 adolescents aged 10–18 years old from two private schools and one public school. Five questionnaires were applied: the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire; the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children; the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria; the General Health and Sexual Maturation Questionnaire; and the Physical Activity Questionnaire. The statistical analyses were based on comparisons between schools and sleepiness and non-sleepiness groups, using linear correlation and logistic regression. Results: Sleep deprivation was present in 39% of the adolescents; sleep deficit was higher in private school adolescents (p < 0.001, and there was a positive correlation between age and sleep deficit (p < 0.001; r = 0.337. Logistic regression showed that older age (p = 0.002; PR: 1.21 [CI: 1.07–1.36] and higher score level for sleep hyperhidrosis in the sleep disturbance scale (p = 0.02; PR: 1.16 [CI: 1.02–1.32] were risk factors for worse degree of sleepiness. Conclusions: Sleep deficit appears to be a reality among adolescents; the results suggest a higher prevalence in students from private schools. Sleep deprivation is associated with older age in adolescents and possible presence of sleep disorders, such as sleep hyperhidrosis.

  20. Factors influencing professional life satisfaction among neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M; Halpern, Michael T; Kane, Heather L; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2017-06-19

    Predicted shortages in the supply of neurologists may limit patients' access to and quality of care for neurological disorders. Retaining neurologists already in practice provides one opportunity to support the overall supply of practicing neurologists. Understanding factors associated with professional life satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) and implementing policies to enhance satisfaction may encourage neurologists to remain in clinical practice. In this paper, we present results from the first study examining factors associated with professional life satisfaction among a large sample of U.S, neurologists. We collaborated with the AAN to survey a sample of U.S. neurologists about their professional life satisfaction. Analyses examined the association of physician and practice characteristics with aspects of professional life satisfaction, including satisfaction with their career in medicine, medical specialty, current position, relationship with colleagues, relationship with patients, work/life balance, and pay. The study population consisted of 625 neurologists. In multivariate regression analyses, no single group or population stratum indicated high (or low) responses to all aspects of satisfaction. Older neurologists reported higher satisfaction with career, specialty, and relationship with patients than younger neurologists. Female neurologists had significantly lower satisfaction with pay than male neurologists. Neurologists who spent more time in research and teaching had greater satisfaction with specialty, relationship with colleagues, and relationship with patients than those spending no time in research. Neurologists who practiced in small cities/rural areas reported lower satisfaction across multiple dimensions than those practicing in large urban areas. Neurologists in solo practice had greater satisfaction with the relationship with their patients, but lower satisfaction with pay. Satisfaction is a multidimensional construct that is associated with

  1. Global Change in Earth's Atmosphere: Natural and Anthropogenic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, J.

    2013-12-01

    To what extent is human activity, such as the emission of carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse' gases, influencing Earth's atmosphere, compared with natural variations driven by, for example, the Sun or volcanoes? Why has Earth's surface warmed barely, if at all, in the last decade? Why is the atmosphere at just 20 km above the surface cooling instead of warming? When - and will - the ozone layer recover from its two-decade decline due to chlorofluorocarbon depletion? Natural and anthropogenic factors are changing Earth's atmosphere, each with distinct temporal, geographical and altitudinal signatures. Increasing greenhouse gases, for example, warm the surface but cool the stratosphere and upper atmosphere. Aerosols injected into the stratosphere during a volcanic eruption warm the stratosphere but cool the surface. Increases in the Sun's brightness warm Earth's atmosphere, throughout. This talk will quantify and compare a variety of natural and human influences on the Earth's atmosphere, extracted statistically from multiple datasets with the goal of understanding how and why Earth's atmosphere is changing. The extent to which responses to natural influences are presently masking or exacerbating ongoing responses to human activity is examined. Scenarios for future levels of anthropogenic gases and solar activity are then used to speculate how Earth's atmosphere might evolve in future decades, according to both statistical models of the databases and physical general circulation models.

  2. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  3. NOx Change over China and Its Influences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu(刘煜); I. S. A. ISAKSEN; J. K. SUNDET; HE Jinhai(何金海); YAN Peng(颜鹏)

    2004-01-01

    A 3-D chemical transport model (OSLO CTM2) is used to investigate the impact of the increase of NOx emission over China.The model is capable to reproduce basically the seasonal variation of surface NOx and ozone over eastern China.NOx emission data and observations reveal that NOx over easternChina increases quite quickly with the economic development of China.Model results indicate that NOxconcentration over eastern China increasingly rises with the increase of NOx emission over China,and accelerates to increase in winter.When the NOx emission increases from 1995 to its double,the ratio of NO2/NOx abruptly drops in winter over northern China.Ozone at the surface decreases in winter with the continual enhancement of the NOx level over eastern China,but increases over southern China in summertime.It is noticeable that peak ozone over northern China increases in summer although mean ozone changes little.In summer,ozone increases in the free troposphere dominantly below 500 hPa.Moreover,the increases of total ozone over eastern China are proportional to the increases of NOx emission.In a word,the model results suggest that the relationship between NOx and ozone at the surface would change with NOx increase.

  4. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  5. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  6. Study of Influencing Factors of Dynamic Measurements Based on SnO2 Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhuai Liu

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The gas-sensing behaviour based on a dynamic measurement method of a single SnO2 gas sensor was investigated by comparison with the static measurement. The influencing factors of nonlinear response such as modulation temperature, duty ratio, heating waveform (rectangular, sinusoidal, saw-tooth, pulse, etc. were also studied. Experimental data showed that temperature was the most essential factor because the changes of frequency and heating waveform could result in the changes of temperature essentially.

  7. Social Factors Influencing Household Solid Waste Minimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Ali Nor Eeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the world’s population, coupled with increasing urbanization, and rising standards of living, have all contributed to the increase in solid waste generation. Solid waste disposal is becoming a difficult problem for many countries. Thus, efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable solid waste management. Solid waste minimization is one of the ways of reducing the quantity of wastes for disposal. This study examines the perception of households towards solid waste minimization. 100 respondents were randomly selected from Section 7 housing area in Shah Alam city, Malaysia. Descriptive statistical technique was used in analysing the data. Findings from the study showed that respondent’s knowledge on waste minimization was above average. However, their level of knowledge as revealed further by the results is not in tandem with their attitude on waste minimization, which suggests that their attitude towards waste minimization is low. People who showed higher knowledge do not necessarily show concern or perform in solid waste minimisation. Therefore, local authorities must develop appropriate policy strategies to change the attitude and behaviour towards waste minimisation if they are to reach their statutory targets.

  8. Factors influencing ring closure through olefin metathesis - A perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subrata Ghosh; Sarita Ghosh; Niladri Sarkar

    2006-05-01

    Success of ring closure reactions of substrates having two terminal alkenes through olefin metathesis depends on a number of factors such as catalysts, nature and size of the rings to be formed and the substituents/functional groups present on the alkenes as well as at the allylic position. This article presents an overview of these influencing factors with illustrative examples.

  9. Professional Identity Development in Higher Education: Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarà-i-Molinero, Alba; Cascón-Pereira, Rosalía; Hernández-Lara, Ana beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In the last few years, the interest on professional identity development (PID) and the factors that influence PID has become central in higher education (HE) literature. However, the knowledge developed in this domain has focussed on a factor at a time and on a degree or discipline, thus being difficult to have a general picture of all…

  10. Influence of Psychological Factors on the Improvement of Spoken English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宁

    2013-01-01

      From learner's innermost feelings,the author attempts to elaborate the influences of psychological factors on improving the spoken language. The study of spoken English is a very complex process, which is affected easily by learner's linguistic environment and character. We can draw a conclusion that psychological factors are an important problem and cannot be neglected.

  11. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an import

  12. Using mixed methods to identify factors influencing patient flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Cindy

    2009-11-01

    An effective method of identifying operational factors that influence patient flow can potentially lead to improvements and thus have huge benefits on the efficiency of hospital departments. This paper presents a new inductive mixed-method approach to identify operational factors that influence patient flow through an accident and emergency (A&E) department. Preliminary explorative observations were conducted, followed by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. A questionnaire survey of all medical, nursing, porter and clerical staff was then conducted. The observations provided factors for further exploration: skill-mix, long working hours, equipment availability, lack of orientation programmes, inefficient IT use and issues regarding communication structures. Interviewees highlighted several factors, including availability of medical supervision and senior nursing staff, nursing documentation issues, lack of morale due to overcrowding, personality differences and factors relating to the department layout. The questionnaire respondents strongly supported the importance of the previously identified factors. This paper demonstrates an effective mixed-method approach that can be replicated by other health-care managers to identify factors influencing patient flow. Further benefits include increased volume and quality of data, increased staff awareness for the influence of internal factors on patient flow and enhancing the evidence base for future decision making when prioritizing A&E projects.

  13. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  14. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  15. Factors that Influence Students' Decision to Dropout of Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Pedro A.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many reasons why students dropout of college courses, those reasons may be unique for students who are enrolled in an online program. Issues of isolation, disconnectedness, and technological problems may be factors that influence a student to leave a course. To understand these factors, an online survey was developed to collect…

  16. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  17. Dynamic changes and influencing factors of leukocyte and platelet count in preterm infants%早产儿白细胞和血小板计数的动态变化及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清红; 赵小林; 白瑞苗; 曾军安; 李占魁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dynamic changes and influencing factors of peripheral blood white blood cells (WBC), differential counts (DCs) and platelet (PLT) count in preterm infants to understand the changing characteristics of these blood parameters in preterm infants of different postnatal age, gestational age, and birth weight.Methods Totally 2 849 preterm infants admitted to the Department of Neonatology of Northwest Women's and Children's Hospital from November 30, 2011 to November 30, 2014 were retrospectively analyzed except for those diagnosed with infectious diseases, hematological system diseases, or immunologic diseases.All of the subjects were divided into seven groups based on their postnatal age, three groups based on gestational age and three groups based on birth weight, or male and female groups, respectively.Peripheral blood samples were obtained for determination of WBC, DCs and PLT.Statistical analysis was performed with oneway analysis of variance, t-test and Spearman linear correlation analysis.Results WBC, neutrophil (Ne), lymphocyte (Ly), monocyte (Mo), eosinophil (Eo), basophil (Ba) and PLT counts were significantly different among the seven groups of preterm babies of different postnatal age (F=172.00, 364.90, 34.88, 14.22, 80.82, 168.10 and 86.64, respectively, all P < 0.01).WBC was found to be at the peak value within one day after birth [(18.40±6.87)× 109/L], followed by remarkable decrease in day > 2-≤ 5 [(10.62±4.68)× 109/L], further gradual decrease thereafter, and then being stable in day > 14-≤ 21 and > 21 ≤≤ 30 [(10.54±3.09)× 109/L and (10.27 ± 3.70) × 109/L, respectively].PLT counts showed no significant change within one day after birth and in day > 1-≤ 2 [(240.56± 63.54)× 109/L and (240.85 ± 71.47) × 109/L, respectively], then began to increase in day > 2-≤ 5 [(249.21 ±80.55)× 109/L], peaked in day > 7-≤ 14 [(339.11 ± 121.84)× 109/L], and decreased gently and became stable finally

  18. Factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu eFernandez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles and the use of social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always impact the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation.This paper presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services.The paper first describes the context and strategies of the program which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The paper analyses social, educational, economic, demographic and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  19. Factors influencing self-awareness following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cally; McKay, Adam; Ponsford, Jennie L

    2015-01-01

    To examine self-awareness and injury-related, emotional and demographic factors across acute/subacute (3-12 months), medium-term (24-60 months), and long-term (120-240 months) time periods after traumatic brain injury (TBI), because unawareness of injury-related changes can affect engagement in rehabilitation and functional outcomes. A total of 168 individuals with mild to severe TBI and 105 of their close others. Awareness Questionnaire (AQ) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Cross-sectional study. There were no significant differences in awareness as a function of time postinjury, except for the AQ motor/sensory domain wherein individuals with TBI at longer time periods displayed increased awareness of deficits than those at earlier time periods. Greater patient-other AQ discrepancy scores (interpreted as lower patient awareness) were associated with longer posttraumatic amnesia duration in the individual with TBI and also with increased self-reported depressive symptoms in the close others. Conversely, smaller AQ discrepancy scores (interpreted as better awareness) were associated with increased self-reported depressive symptoms by the individuals with TBI. This study highlights the limitations of using discrepancy scores to measure awareness, as ratings of injury-related changes are influenced by the mood of the individual with TBI and the close other, as well as by injury severity.

  20. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  1. Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs.

  2. A Discussion on Motivation Factor Influencing Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛芊芊

    2016-01-01

    Various characteristics can influence students'second language acquisition and language development, which in-cludes age, gender, personality, cognitive ability, motivation, learning strategies and so on. Among all these factors mentioned, motivation factor that is categorized into learner factors affects learner's learning effect to a great extent. In this paper, motiva-tion characteristic that influences second language learning are discussed. At last, some strategies on the real classroom teaching application are provided after the discussion, which aims at making contribution to the second language teaching process as well as students'language development.

  3. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  4. NURTURING SPORT EXPERTISE: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELITE ATHLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wall

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required

  5. The orthostatic blood pressure change and its influence factors in young students%青年学生的体位血压变化与影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆意; 汪志强; 黄达; 周安; 涂翔; 涂传龙; 杨小英; 苏海

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨青年学生直立3 min后血压和心率的变化及相关影响因素.方法于2010-09-11为南昌大学第二临床医学院2007级青年学生317人[男165例,女152例,年龄(21.5±1.0)岁]用自动示波设备测量卧位10 min和立位3 min的血压和心率.计算立位和卧位血压、心率的差值为立卧位血压差(△血压)和立卧位心率差(△心率);体位性高血压(OHT)的标准为△血压≥10 mm Hg,体位性低血压(OH)为△血压≤-10 mm Hg,两者之间判为体位性正常血压(ONT).计算各自的检出率,并分析立位血压变化与年龄、性别、运动习惯、高血压家族史、身高、体质量、体质量指数的关联.结果 立位时,收缩压[(116.8±12.9)比(113.8±11.9)mm Hg]和舒张压[(71.4±8.2)比(66.3±8.3)mm Hg]均明显高于卧位(均P<0.05).体位性高收缩压(sOHT)和体位性低收缩压(sOH)的检出率分别为16.4%和3.8%;体位性高舒张压(dOHT)和体位性低舒张压(dOH)的检出率分别为20.5%和3.5%.无论收缩压还是舒张压,女性OH检出率高,而男性OHT检出率高;就卧位血压而言,OH组最高,ONT其次,而OHT组最低.直线回归分析表明,△收缩压和△舒张压均分别与卧位收缩压和卧位舒张压呈负相关(r=-0.165,-0.465,均P<0.05).多因素相关分析表明:△收缩压与卧位收缩压和女性呈负相关;△舒张压与女性和卧位舒张压呈负相关.结论在青年人群中,性别和卧位血压影响OHT和OH的检出率.%Objective To investigate the changes of orthostatic blood pressure and heart rate after standing for 3 min and the influence factors in young students. Methods Three hundred seventeen young students [165 males and 152 females, aged (21. 5±1. 0) years old] from grade 2007 in Medical College of Nanchang University were enrolled into this study. The blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by automatic oscillometric devices when supine for 10 min and when standing for 3 min

  6. Contextual factors influencing the implementation of the obstetrics hemorrhage initiative in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, C A; Thompson, E L; Cantor, A; Detman, L; Bronson, E; Phelps, A; Louis, J M; Gregg, A R; Curran, J S; Sappenfield, W

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the multilevel contextual factors that influenced the implementation of the Obstetric Hemorrhage Initiative (OHI) among hospitals in Florida. A qualitative evaluation was conducted via in-depth interviews with multidisciplinary hospital staff (n=50) across 12 hospitals. Interviews were guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and analyzed in Atlas.ti using rigorous qualitative analysis procedures. Factors influencing OHI implementation were present across process (leadership engagement; engaging people; planning; reflecting), inner setting (for example, knowledge/beliefs; resources; communication; culture) and outer setting (for example, cosmopolitanism) levels. Moreover, factors interacted across levels and were not mutually exclusive. Leadership and staff buy-in emerged as important components influencing OHI implementation across disciplines. Key contextual factors found to influence OHI implementation experiences can be useful in informing future quality improvement interventions given the institutional and provider-level behavioral changes needed to account for evolving the best practices in perinatology.

  7. Which factors influence women in the decision to breastfeed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Canicali Primo

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the factors that influence women in the decision to breastfeed. Methods. Integrative review. Information was gathered from original articles, case studies, theoretical studies, consensus and systematic reviews published between 2007-2013 in Spanish, Portuguese and English and recovered in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS. The descriptors used in this study were: breastfeeding, maternal behavior, risk factors, lactation and newborn. Results. Were included 30 articles, grouped into five categories. Factors influencing the decision of the breastfeeding woman are a convergence of breastfeeding's advantages, benefits and justifications, family, social and professional support, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women, personal experience and family tradition and personal choice. Conclusion. The decision to breastfeed by women is influenced by a convergence of factors. It is essential the role of nursing to encourage women in the decision to initiate and maintain breastfeeding her child.

  8. RISK FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSTRUCTION PROCUREMENT PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dahiru, A; Aminu, Muhammad Bashir

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges facing construction procurement performance is the failure to determine the risk related factors limiting its success. These risk factors can cause a significant increase in the procurement cost leading to an increase in the overall project cost. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the risk factors influencing construction procurement performance with a view to achieve the overall project performance. The objectives are to establish a relative significa...

  9. Environmental factors influencing asexual reproductive processes in echinoderms

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenov, Pv

    1996-01-01

    This review provides a brief update of the occurrence and adaptive significance of asexual reproduction in echinoderms. It then focuses on the state of knowledge of biotic and abiotic factors that influence asexual processes in this group, particularly factors that may play a role in regulating the expression and relative proportion of asexual versus sexual phenotypes within populations of species, as well as factors modulating and triggering asexual processes. The information presented in th...

  10. The Influence of Leadership Behavior and Organizational Commitment on Organizational Readiness for Change in a Higher Learning Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Norshidah

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the effectiveness in implementing organizational change. However, many change effort fail due to several factors such as lack of commitment, style of leadership, and emotional distress of the employees who have to implement the change. This study was intended to determine the influence of leadership behavior and…

  11. The Influence of Leadership Behavior and Organizational Commitment on Organizational Readiness for Change in a Higher Learning Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Norshidah

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the effectiveness in implementing organizational change. However, many change effort fail due to several factors such as lack of commitment, style of leadership, and emotional distress of the employees who have to implement the change. This study was intended to determine the influence of leadership behavior and…

  12. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    . However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have...... strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability....

  13. Surveying the factors that influence maintainability: research design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, W.T.B.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2005-01-01

    We want to explore and analyse design decisions that influence maintainability of software. Software maintainability is important because the effort expended on changes and fixes in software is a major cost driver. We take an empirical, qualitative approach, by investigating cases where a change has

  14. The study of temperature changes around metal in ultrashort wave electric-field and it's influence factors%超短波电场对金属周围升温变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁维娣; 张志强; 孙师; 田丽君

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨超短波电场对金属周围升温变化的影响因素.方法 采用医用超短波治疗仪1档,调谐,输出80 mA,取0.2 ml水作为载体,金属物一端深入水中,改变金属物长度、金属物与电极板间垂直距离、金属物在电磁场中的摆放位置以及超短波的作用时间,采用数字电偶温度表测量不同治疗条件前、后水温的变化.结果 相同条件下,金属线长轴平行于电极板,金属物场外实际长度为10 cm、20 cm、30 cm、50 cm、70 cm、90 cm时,其周围升温分别为4.37℃、8.30℃、18.00℃、20.64℃、32.92℃、38.96℃;金属物长轴平行于电极板,金属线与一侧电极板间垂直间距分别为1.5 cm、3.0 cm、4.5 cm、6.0 cm时,金属周围升温分别为66.03℃、49.37℃、14.80℃、0.87℃;如果金属物长轴垂直于电极板,金属一端与极板间距离为5 cm、9 cm、15 cm时,金属周围升温分别为56.10℃、26.64℃、11.07℃;金属与电场边缘的垂直间距为0 cm、5 cm、10 cm、15 cm时,金属周围升温分别为25.32℃、10.26℃、2.88℃、1.53℃;固定长度的金属物,涵盖入电场内的实际长度分别为20 cm、10 cm、0 cm时,金属周围升温分别为2.84℃、4.04℃、7.30℃;同等条件下,改变超短波作用时间为5 min、10 min时,金属周围升温分别为24.90℃、39.07℃.结论 当金属物长轴平行置于电极板正中间位置,且金属完全置于电场内并远离极板边缘时,通过减短金属物的长度、两极板间的距离以及超短波的作用时间,可降低金属物周围的升温幅度.%Objective To study the temperature changes around metal in ultrashort wave electric-field and it's influence factors.Methods Medical ultrashort wave therapeutic instrument was used and output switen was set at the 1 st grade.After tuning, one end of metal object was placed into 0.2ml water contained in a plastic tube ( with a length of 2cm and diameter of 2mm).Temperature changes of water around

  15. The wills of older people: risk factors for undue influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisah, C; Finkel, S; Shulman, K; Melding, P; Luxenberg, J; Heinik, J; Jacoby, R; Reisberg, B; Stoppe, G; Barker, A; Firmino, H; Bennett, H

    2009-02-01

    As people live longer, there is increasing potential for mental disorders to interfere with testamentary distribution and render older people more vulnerable to "undue influence" when they are making a will. Accordingly, clinicians dealing with the mental disorders of older people will be called upon increasingly to advise the courts about a person's vulnerability to undue influence. A Subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to establish consensus on the definition of undue influence and the provision of guidelines for expert assessment of risk factors for undue influence. International jurisdictions differ in their approach to the notion of undue influence. Despite differences in legal systems, from a clinical perspective, the subcommittee identified some common "red flags" which might alert the expert to risk of undue influence. These include: (i) social or environmental risk factors such as dependency, isolation, family conflict and recent bereavement; (ii) psychological and physical risk factors such as physical disability, deathbed wills, sexual bargaining, personality disorders, substance abuse and mental disorders including dementia, delirium, mood and paranoid disorders; and (iii) legal risk factors such as unnatural provisions in a will, or provisions not in keeping with previous wishes of the person making the will, and the instigation or procurement of a will by a beneficiary. This review provides some guidance for experts who are requested by the courts to provide an opinion on the risk of undue influence. Whilst international jurisdictions require different thresholds of proof for a finding of undue influence, there is good international consensus on the clinical indicators for the concept.

  16. Undetected changes in visible stimuli influence subsequent decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloyaux, Cédric; Devue, Christel; Doyen, Stéphane; David, Elodie; Cleeremans, Axel

    2008-09-01

    Change blindness-our inability to detect changes in a stimulus-occurs even when the change takes place gradually, without any disruption [Simons, D. J., Franconeri, S. L., & Reimer, R. L. (2000). Change blindness in the absence of a visual disruption. Perception, 29(10), 1143-1154]. Such gradual changes are more difficult to detect than changes that involve a disruption. Using this method, David et al. [David, E., Laloyaux, C., Devue, C., & Cleeremans, A. (in press). Change blindness to gradual changes in facial expressions. Psychologica Belgica] recently showed substantial blindness to changes that involve facial expressions of emotion. In this experiment, we show that people who failed to detect any change in the displays were (1) nevertheless influenced by the changing information in subsequent recognition decisions about which facial expression they had seen, and (2) that their confidence in their decisions was lower after exposure to changing vs. static displays. The findings therefore support the notion that undetected changes that occur in highly salient stimuli may be causally efficacious and influence subsequent behavior. Implications concerning the nature of the representations associated with undetected changes are discussed.

  17. [Factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and improvement strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, Sergio R; Gálvez González, María; Amezcua, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and to find improvement strategies. Qualitative research using SWOT analysis (weaknesses, threats, strengths, opportunities). Nurses were selected deliberately in eight groups according to predetermined criteria. Analysis included categorization and relationship of factors and strategies. 81 participants were included in groups of 7-12 range. 45 categories were identified with 212 factors: 12 weaknesses (50 factors), 10 strengths (44 factors), 12 threats (68 factors) and 11 opportunities (50 factors). In addition, 32 categories were identified with 53 strategies: 14 categories of W-T strategies (42 strategies), 3 categories of S-T strategies (11 strategies), 5 categories of W-O strategies (13 strategies) and 10 categories of S-O strategies (41 strategies). Nurses identified numerous factors, mainly threats. The strategies are focused on W-T but they also suggest many but weak 5-0 strategies due to the low potential of the opportunities and strengths perceived.

  18. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.

  19. Climate change impact on a groundwater-influenced hillslope ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brolsma, R.J.; Vliet, van M.T.H.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of climate change on a groundwater-influenced ecosystem on a hill slope consisting of two vegetation types, one adapted to wet and one adapted to dry soil conditions. The individual effects of changes in precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric CO2 concentration

  20. Climate change impact on a groundwater-influenced hillslope ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brolsma, R.J.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of climate change on a groundwater‐influenced ecosystem on a hill slope consisting of two vegetation types, one adapted to wet and one adapted to dry soil conditions. The individual effects of changes in precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric CO2 concentration

  1. Climate change impact on a groundwater-influenced hillslope ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brolsma, R.J.; Vliet, van M.T.H.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of climate change on a groundwater-influenced ecosystem on a hill slope consisting of two vegetation types, one adapted to wet and one adapted to dry soil conditions. The individual effects of changes in precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric CO2 concentration

  2. Climate change impact on a groundwater-influenced hillslope ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brolsma, R.J.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of climate change on a groundwater‐influenced ecosystem on a hill slope consisting of two vegetation types, one adapted to wet and one adapted to dry soil conditions. The individual effects of changes in precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric CO2

  3. Age and gender might influence big five factors of personality: a preliminary report in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M

    2014-01-01

    Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.

  4. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Surya Diarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was conducted in Bali’s five major tourism objects. The 240 foreign tourists were chosen as respondents through convenience sampling technique. Data were analyzed using factor analysis. The results showed that factors that significantly influenced Bali brand equity were: symbolic and experiential benefit factor, direct and indirect destinations attributes, destination reliability and tangibility, assurance and empathy, brand destinations recognition and recall, destinations common psychological attributes, destination common functional attributes, unique functional attributes, behavioral loyalty, destination awareness, and attitudinal loyalty. Given the fluctuative nature of brand equity, Bali needs a consistent effort to maintain or to enhance brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. Maintaining the dominant factors that influence the strength of brand equity can be used as a basis to develop destination branding strategy to expand market segment,  choose the right target market, and anchoring destination position in world market competition.

  5. Influence factors of quantitative changes of dendritic cells in neonate born to HBsAg positive mother%HBsAg阳性母亲新生儿树突状细胞数量变化的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭健; 高怡; 郭珍; 付振东; 郝海燕; 汪波; 王素萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence factors of quantitative changes of dendritic cells (DC) in neonate born to HBsAg positive mother.Methods Sixty HBsAg positive mothers and their newborns were enrolled from the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan from July 2011 to March 2012.The serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers and HBV DNA in mothers and newborns before vaccination were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The circulating frequencies of DC subsets were determined in the newborns by flow cytometry (FCM).The comparison of data was done by Mann-Whitney test and t test.The correlation analysis was done by Spearman rank correlation analysis and chi square test.Results Among 60 newborns,5 were HBsAg positive and HBV DNA negative.Among 60 HBsAg positive mothers,21 were HBeAg positive and 29 were HBV DNA positive.There was no significant quantitative difference of neonatal myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) between intrauterine infection group and intrauterine non-infection group (Z=-0.535,P=0.59 and Z=-0.027,P=0.98,respectively).However,mother's HBeAg positive status was closely related with neonatal HBeAg positive status (Pearson contingency coefficient was 0.928,P<0.01).The frequencies of mDC in newborns born to HBeAg positive mothers were significantly lower than those born to HBeAg negative mothers (0.60±0.57 vs 0.87±0.58; Z=-2.085,P<0.05).However,there was no significant quantitative differences of mDC and pDC between newborns born to HBV DNA positive mothers and born to negative mothers (Z=-1.272,P=0.20 and Z=-0.806,P=0.42,respectively).The frequencies of pDC were significantly lower in newborns born to mothers with HBV DNA> 1 × 107 copy/mL compared to newborns born to HBV DNA negative mothers (0.30±0.18 vs 0.64±0.55; t=-2.996,P=0.005).Conclusions HBeAg positive status of mothers may reduce neonatal frequencies of mDC.Neonatal frequencies

  6. Postprandial changes of blood lipid after ordinary Chinese diet and the influencing factors thereof%日常饮食摄入后血脂变化特点及相关影响因素评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付志方; 刘梅林

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察日常饮食摄入前后血脂变化特点,探讨血脂负荷与脂代谢相关指标的关系.方法 检测88例患者空腹、餐后4 h总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、甘油三酯(TG)、氧化型-LDL(ox-LDL)及卒腹脂蛋白酯酶(LPL)水平;榆测患者胰岛素水平,评价患者胰岛素抵抗情况;测量腰围、臀围,计算体重指数(BMI)、腰臀比评价肥胖情况.结果 空腹与餐后血脂水平呈正相关(r=0.69~0.93,P<0.01).与空腹血脂水平相比,患者早、午餐后TG水平分别高49.5%、58.8%[(1.94±0.13)mmol/L比(2.79±0.19)mmol/L、(1.94±0.13)mmol/L比(3.08±0.26)mmol/L,P<0.05),早、午餐后ox-LDL水平分别高32.6%、38.1%[(324±14)μg/L比(430±21)μg/L、(324±14)μg/L比(448±17)μg/L,P<0.05];空腹胰岛素水平、胰岛素抵抗指数与空腹及餐后TG呈正相关(均P<0.01),与空腹HDL-C呈负相关(均P<0.05).LPL与空腹及餐后HDL-C呈正相关(r=0.31~0.37,均P<0.05).BMI、腰臀比与空腹及餐后HDL-C呈负相关(均P<0.01).结论 饮食对TG、ox-LDL有直接影响,餐后血脂水平与空腹血脂状况密切相关.%Objective To investigate the postprandial changes of blood lipid after ordinary Chinese diet and the influencing factors thereof. Methods Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 88 patients, 72 males and 16 females, aged (65 ± 12), 53 with hypertension, 35 with coronary heart diseases, and 27 with diabetes, while fasting and 4 h after breakfast and lunch to measure the levels of lipoproteins, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL-C ), apolipoprotein A ( APOA ), ApoB, lipoprotein (Lp) ( a ), oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were examined, and body mass index (BMI) and waist

  7. The Influence of Approach and Avoidance Goals on Conceptual Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, conceptual change research has been experiencing a warming trend (G. M. Sinatra, 2005) whereby motivational and affective factors are being explored in the conceptual change process. The purpose of this study is to explore the 2 × 2 framework of achievement goal theory in relation to students' conceptual change learning for a specific…

  8. ICT Interventions for Girls: Factors Influencing ICT Career Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gorbacheva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

  9. Factors Influencing the Intended Likelihood of Exposing Sexual Infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne L; Fitzgerald, Carey J

    2015-08-01

    There is a considerable body of literature on infidelity within romantic relationships. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature on factors influencing the likelihood of uninvolved individuals exposing sexual infidelity. Therefore, we devised an exploratory study examining a wide range of potentially relevant factors. Based in part on evolutionary theory, we anticipated nine potential domains or types of influences on the likelihoods of exposing or protecting cheaters, including kinship, strong social alliances, financial support, previous relationship behaviors (including infidelity and abuse), potential relationship transitions, stronger sexual and emotional aspects of the extra-pair relationship, and disease risk. The pattern of results supported these predictions (N = 159 men, 328 women). In addition, there appeared to be a small positive bias for participants to report infidelity when provided with any additional information about the situation. Overall, this study contributes a broad initial description of factors influencing the predicted likelihood of exposing sexual infidelity and encourages further studies in this area.

  10. MOTIVATIONS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DECISION OF ONLINE TRADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ancuta IANCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using survey data, we explore motivations and factors that influence the Romanian investors to trade online even if they initially traded through a broker. To identify the factors we used secondary sources and for exploring the factors that influence the decision of trading online we used primary data. We find that investors decide to trade online especially because they spend less time, they have an easier access to information (due to the fact that most of the online trading platforms have notifications and alarms for news that can affect the stock market and they know how to use the internet. We discover that only a few investors are influenced by advertising and the fact that it is fashionable to trade online.

  11. What influences climate and glacier change in southwestern China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.

    2011-12-01

    The subject of climate change in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Himalayas has taken on increasing importance because of the availability of water resources from their mountain glaciers (Immerzeel et al 2010). Many of the glaciers over these regions have been retreating, while some are advancing and stable (Yao et al 2004, Scherler et al 2011). Other studies report that some glaciers in the Himalayas show acceleration of their shrinkage (e.g., Fujita and Nuimura 2011). However, the causes of glacier melting are still difficult to grasp because of the complexity of climatic change and its influence on glacier issues. Despite this, it is vital that we pursue further study to enable future predictions of glacier changes. The paper entitled 'Climate and glacier change in southwestern China during the past several decades' by Li et al (2011) provided carefully analyzed, quality controlled, long-term data on atmospheric temperature and precipitation during the period 1961-2008. The data were obtained from 111 Chinese stations. The researchers performed systematic analyses of temperature and precipitation over the whole southwestern Chinese domain. They discussed those changes in terms of other meteorological components such as atmospheric circulation patterns, radiation and altitude difference, and then showed how these factors could contribute to climate and glacier changes in the region. Air temperature and precipitation are strongly associated with glacier mass balance because of heat balance and the addition of mass when it snows. Temperature warming trends over many places in southwestern China were unequivocally dominant in all seasons and at higher altitudes. This indicates that the heat contribution to the glaciers has been increasing. On the other hand, precipitation has a wider variability in time and space. It is more difficult to clearly understand the effect of precipitation on the climate and glacier melting characteristics in the whole of southwestern China

  12. Factors influencing the tolerance of flufenacet applications in winter rye

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In winter rye which is grown mostly on locations with a lighter soil texture loose silky-bent grass (Apera spica-venti) is a dominate weed grass. Because of increasing herbicide resistance the control of A. spica-venti becomes more difficult. To manage resistant weed grass populations in winter rye flufenacet is a very important active substance. However, the application of flufenacet can lead to substantially culture damage. The influence of different factors influencing the tolerance of ...

  13. Examination of patient factors and contrast medium factors that exert influence on contrast enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Isao; Morimoto, Akira; Shouga, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Noriyuki [Kure Kyosai Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between patient factors and contrast medium factors, both of which influence contrast enhancement. Our goal was to achieve improved standardization and reproducibility of enhancement based on the findings of this study. Enhancement units (EU) and the contrast enhancement index (CE index) were calculated in the areas of the hepatic parenchyma and abdominal aorta in 370 subjects who underwent our hepatic dynamic study. We analyzed the obtained values in terms of differences in age, sex, body weight, iodine volume per body weight, and volume and concentration of contrast medium. Changes in EU values were dependent on total iodine volume and body weight, showing a positive correlation with iodine volume per body weight. When assessed in terms of fixed total volume, the values were found to show a negative correlation with body weight. The obtained CE index values were closely distributed on a fixed iodine volume per weight, with slight variations that were related to sex, body weight, and age. Particularly, in the analysis of changes in enhancement levels according to age, a notable increase in contrast enhancement in inverse relationship with decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with aging was observed. (author)

  14. Climate Change and the Social Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Jensen, Anne; Nielsen, Signe Svalgaard

    risks and concerns of everyday life? The project found that the distinction between climate change mitigation and adaptation is of little significance for lay people. The prospect of climate change does provoke reflections on social values and the need for saving energy, but when it comes to protecting......This poster reports from a explorative study about social aspects of climate change adaptation in Denmark. The aim of the project was to explore how people perceive and relate to climate change adaptation, what risks are associated with climate change and how are those risks balanced with other...... ones own life and property against future damaging effects of climate change the threat seems distant and other forms of home improvement seem more relevant. People have a high level of trust in socio-technical systems and feel that adaptation measures primarily should be taken by the authorities....

  15. Factors influencing consumer behaviour in market vegetables in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarish H. Al-Gahaifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to understand factors influencing consumer behaviour when buying vegetables in Republic of Yemen. Data collection was done by structured questionnaire administered through schools, universities, government offices, and markets from 13 provinces in 5 governorates. Random convenience sampling technique was used. Total sample comprised of 463 completed questionnaires which were used for analysis. The respondents were classified into five categories on the base of their monthly income, age, education, gender, and type of settlement. Authors present the factors that can influence significantly this behaviour, e.g. price, quality, the location of seller, habit, personal relationship between consumer and seller, occasions, discount, sorting, word-mouth, time of purchase, the way of products display, and recommendation of friends and families. From the obtained results, it is obvious that there was high influence on the behaviour of Yemeni consumer when buying vegetables for factors price, occasions, discontent, and time of purchase, while factors habit, display, sorting, and the location of seller suggests medium influence, and the influence was low for word-mouth.

  16. Groundwater Temperature Change and Its Influence Factors in Deyang City Proper%德阳城区地下水温度动态特征及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽丽; 吴勇; 孙先锋; 尹恒; 王春红; 高东东

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of systematical monitoring data on groundwater temperature change during 2001-2008, groundwater temperature change in Deyang City proper is under the influence of atmospheric temperature, meteoric water and ground water level as well as groundwater exploitation.%根据德阳2001~2008年23口地下水温度监测井资料分析,年动态类型可分为平稳、上升、下降、起伏等4类;影响地下水温度动态类型的有气温、大气降水、地下水埋深等,此外,地下水开采、观测操作不当也对动态类型产生重要影响,其中水温与气温、降雨量和地下水位成正相关,与埋深为负相关。单井上,地下水位或埋深对水温的影响程度最高,降雨量最低;总体上,地下水温度与气温、降雨量、埋深和地下水位的相关性处于低至中等水平,降雨量的影响程度较高,而埋深和地下水位相对较低。

  17. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  18. 国际油轮运价影响因素动态变化研究%Study on Dynamic Change of Influence Factors of International Oil Tanker Freight Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王思远; 潘静静; 余思勤

    2015-01-01

    通过向量自回归模型,运用脉冲响应函数、方差分解以及格兰杰因果检验等方法,对比分析了不同时期波罗的海油轮运价指数波动与原油价格和世界经济状况的关联性。研究发现金融危机前后波罗的海油轮运价指数的日收益率变动最初主要受到自身影响,原油价格和世界经济变化分别在危机前后对油轮运价产生相对明显的冲击。%In this paper, using the vector auto-regression model and such methods as the impulse response function, variance decomposition and Granger causality test, etc., we analyzed comparatively the correlation of the fluctuation of the BDTI with the crude oil price and world economic situation at different periods and found that the variation of the daily return rate of the BDTI was under its own influence at the earliest stage during the financial crisis and the crude oil price and the world economic change had significant impact on the freight rate of the oil tankers before and after the financial crisis respectively.

  19. On influence of some ecological factors on intensity of the oyster filtration (Ostrea edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sitnik

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative regularities of the filtration feeding of the Black Sea oyster depending on some ecological factors were studied. Influence of food concentration on filtration activity of shellfish is described. Dependences of filtration speed are certain on the body mass of oysters under different temperature conditions were found. The seasonal changes of its intensity in the Kerch Strait and the Donuzlav Estuary are illustrated. Influence of water salinity on filtration activity of the oyster is established.

  20. What factors influence UK medical students' choice of foundation school?

    OpenAIRE

    Miah, S.; Pang, K.H.; Rebello, W.; Rubakumar, Z.; Fung, V; Venugopal, S.; Begum, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation sc...

  1. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. Methods 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 y...

  2. Preharvest Food Safety Under the Influence of a Changing Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniel, Kalmia E; Spanninger, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Ensuring food safety and addressing the impact of climate change are both immense concepts. Food production systems must continue to evolve in order to develop food safety management programs and identify emerging risks linked to climate change. There are an infinite number of crosscutting issues regarding climate change and health. The changing climate of the globe manifests itself in fluctuating temperatures, intense storms, droughts, and fluctuating sea levels. These environmental variables in turn may increase the risk of foodborne disease transmission through our foods and increase the need for vigilance and risk mitigation at the preharvest level. While the influence of climate change is untold, four cases are discussed here, including waterborne disease, seafood, production of fruits and vegetables, and mycotoxins. Changes relative to climate have been documented at the preharvest level for these issues. Change must be addressed alongside education and research to safeguard the human health effects of climate change.

  3. 慢性丙型肝炎患者肝组织学改变及其影响因素分析%Liver histological changes and influencing factors in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志霞; 谢青; 周惠娟; 项晓刚; 庄焱; 王晖; 郭斯敏; 桂红莲; 汤伟亮; 赵钢德

    2011-01-01

    目的探讨慢性丙型肝炎患者肝组织学改变及其影响因素。方法选择经皮肝组织活检的慢性丙型肝炎患者102例,记录患者年龄、性别、体质指数(BMI)、感染途径等,检测ALT水平、AST水平、HCV基因分型、病毒载量和肝脏组织学改变。统计学处理采用t检验和Logistic回归分析。结果肝脏炎症活动指数( HAI)≥4的慢性丙型肝炎患者的ALT、AST水平较高,PLT较低,与HAI<4的患者相比差异有统计学意义(t=2.209、2.298、2.565,均P<0.05)。纤维化分期评分(F)≥3的患者平均年龄、ALT水平、AST水平以及感染时间均高于F<3的患者(t=2.340、3.497、2.758、2.570,均P<0.05),而PLT则较低(t=2.761,P=0.007)。女性、ALT>1×正常值上限(ULN)、AST水平、F≥3、HCV RNA≥6 lgIU/mL和PLT计数是HAI≥4的单因素预测因子;经多因素分析后,Ishak纤维化分期评分是HAI≥4的唯一独立预测因子(OR 3.098,95% Cl1.884~5.092,P<0.01)。单因素分析F≥3的预测因子为年龄、BMI≥24 kg/m2、ALT>1×ULN、AST水平、HAI≥4、PLT计数以及感染年限≥15年;多因素回归分析显示,年龄(OR 1.074,95%CI1.006~1.146,P=0.033)、ALT水平(OR 1.035,95%CI 1.015~1.055,P<0.01)、AST水平(OR0.969,95%CI 0.948~0.990,P=0.005)、感染年限≥15年(OR 37.215,95%CI 5.816~238.127,P<0.01)和HAI≥4(OR 1.939,95%CI 1.426~2.636,P<0.01)是F≥3的独立危险因素。结论年龄、ALT水平、AST水平、感染年限≥15年和HAI≥4是肝组织学显著纤维化的独立预测因子。%Objective To investigate the histological features as well as the factors influencing liver disease progression in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Methods A total of 102 CHC patients who underwent percutaneous liver biopsy between August 2007 and May 2010 were recruited. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and transmission route of recruited patients

  4. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  5. Narrative Style Influences Citation Frequency in Climate Change Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Ann; Kelly, Ryan P; Klinger, Terrie

    2016-01-01

    Peer-reviewed publications focusing on climate change are growing exponentially with the consequence that the uptake and influence of individual papers varies greatly. Here, we derive metrics of narrativity from psychology and literary theory, and use these metrics to test the hypothesis that more narrative climate change writing is more likely to be influential, using citation frequency as a proxy for influence. From a sample of 732 scientific abstracts drawn from the climate change literature, we find that articles with more narrative abstracts are cited more often. This effect is closely associated with journal identity: higher-impact journals tend to feature more narrative articles, and these articles tend to be cited more often. These results suggest that writing in a more narrative style increases the uptake and influence of articles in climate literature, and perhaps in scientific literature more broadly.

  6. Investigation of the factors influencing the potential indicator of a construction site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapidus Azariy Abramovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Today the quality of a construction object represents a sum of a number of indicators, which depends on the construction complex as a whole during the implementation steps of a construction project. The lack of an instrument for evaluating the influence on the final quality indicator is vivid. In the article the method of expert estimation is presented as an instrument for choosing the factors influencing the potential indicator of a construction site. The means to analyze the results is chosen. The authors calculated the matrix of the factors intercorrelation, which influence the final figure. These factors are grouped with the purpose to reduce the general number of experiments. The weight characteristics of the formed groups are calculated. The authors also analyzed the information loss extend as a result of factors quantity change in a model.

  7. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  8. Implementing Research in Professional Higher Education: Factors That Influence Lecturers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Didi M. E.; de Jong, Uulkje

    2015-01-01

    Higher professional education in Europe has changed from teaching-only institutes to hybrids of teaching and research. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence the judgements of lecturers about new organisational goals and perceptions of their new research-related competencies. Lecturers' judgements of new organisational…

  9. Perceptions of Factors Influencing Healthful Food Consumption Behavior in the Lower Mississippi Delta: Focus Group Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Bernestine B.; Richardson, Valerie; Johnson, Glenda S.; Thornton, Alma; Johnson, Crystal; Yadrick, Kathleen; Ndirangu, Murugi; Goolsby, Susan; Watkins, Debra; Simpson, Pippa M.; Hyman, Edith; Stigger, Flavelia; Bogle, Margaret L.; Kramer, Tim R.; Strickland, Earline; McCabe-Sellers, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify perceptions of Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) residents regarding factors that influence a change in healthful food consumption behavior to assist in planning sustainable nutrition interventions in the LMD. Design: Nine focus groups were conducted with LMD residents in 9 counties in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. One…

  10. Perceptions of Factors Influencing Healthful Food Consumption Behavior in the Lower Mississippi Delta: Focus Group Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Bernestine B.; Richardson, Valerie; Johnson, Glenda S.; Thornton, Alma; Johnson, Crystal; Yadrick, Kathleen; Ndirangu, Murugi; Goolsby, Susan; Watkins, Debra; Simpson, Pippa M.; Hyman, Edith; Stigger, Flavelia; Bogle, Margaret L.; Kramer, Tim R.; Strickland, Earline; McCabe-Sellers, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify perceptions of Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) residents regarding factors that influence a change in healthful food consumption behavior to assist in planning sustainable nutrition interventions in the LMD. Design: Nine focus groups were conducted with LMD residents in 9 counties in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. One…

  11. Communicating change: the influence of information, communication, uncertainty and cynicism on readiness for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elving, W.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In previous studies we have shown the influence of information and communication on the success of organizational change. We extended that research with the inclusion of cynical responses to top management about the change, change fatigue and turnover intentions. Methodology: This study was

  12. Communicating change: the influence of information, communication, uncertainty and cynicism on readiness for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elving, W.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In previous studies we have shown the influence of information and communication on the success of organizational change. We extended that research with the inclusion of cynical responses to top management about the change, change fatigue and turnover intentions. Methodology: This study was

  13. Factors that influence the speed of bacterial wood degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.K.W.M.; Overeem, van B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial wood decay is a serious threat to the many wooden foundation piles in the Netherlands. In order to learn more about the factors that influence the process of decay, approx. 2000 wood samples taken from Amsterdam piles heads were analysed on type and degree of decay and for 59 extracted pil

  14. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Nagels, G.; Bissay, V.; De Keyser, J.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and tetan

  15. Factors Influencing the Academic Persistence of College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melara, Claudia Alexia

    2012-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for failing to complete their postsecondary educational degrees than their typical peers. The present qualitative sought to identify factors influencing the academic persistence of students with ADHD in postsecondary settings. Utilizing direct interviews with…

  16. Information Booklets about Cancer: Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction and Utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, Phyllis; Brindle, Elizabeth; McConnell, David; Boakes, Robert; Tattersall, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Explored factors influencing patient satisfaction with and utilization of information booklets. Patients (N=36) rated five booklets, and strongly preferred one with a grade-eight reading level. The relationship of preference and recall was investigated. No difference between those who seek or avoid information was found. Additional findings are…

  17. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  18. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok-Koch, E.G.H.J.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out

  19. The genetic factors influencing the development of trichotillomania

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koushik Chatterjee

    2012-08-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM), an obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD), is a psychiatric condition characterized by repetitive hair pulling. Evidence from family and twin studies suggest a heritable link of TTM. Functional polymorphisms in genes involved in neuronal pathways might influence the susceptibility to TTM. This review is an attempt to compile the genetic factors reported to modify the development of TTM.

  20. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  1. Social Factors Influencing Participation in Sport for the Deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The article looks at social factors influencing participation in sport by the deaf including communication mode and value orientations of community, family, school, and peers of both the hearing and deaf world. A model for integration of the deaf into sports is offered. (DB)

  2. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  3. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  4. Factors that Influence Informal Learning in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Shelley A.; Chyung, Seung Youn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate factors that influence informal learning in the workplace and the types of informal learning activities people engage in at work. More specifically, the research examined: the relationship between informal learning engagement and the presence of learning organization characteristics; and…

  5. Factors Influencing the Academic Persistence of College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melara, Claudia Alexia

    2012-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for failing to complete their postsecondary educational degrees than their typical peers. The present qualitative sought to identify factors influencing the academic persistence of students with ADHD in postsecondary settings. Utilizing direct interviews with…

  6. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2011-03-01

    Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

  7. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  8. Hepatitus B virus infection : factors influencing the outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Hattum (Jan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to find correlations between the various courses of disease after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and factors that could conceivably have influenced the course of disease. The aim of the study was to find correlations between parameters of viral replication and

  9. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Nagels, G.; Bissay, V.; De Keyser, J.

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and

  10. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  11. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in producti

  12. Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Adult Agricultural Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, Oren L.; Warmbrod, J. Robert

    A study examined the institutional factors the influence whether or not adult agricultural education programs are offered in high schools. All Ohio secondary schools that offered vocational agriculture programs in agricultural production or farm business management during 1985-1986 (a total of 260 schools) were included in the study. Data were…

  13. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  14. Leadership Factors Influencing the Performance of Educational Institutions. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Fred E.

    This document is the summary report of a study having as its main objectives: (1) an intensive study of organizational and group-structural factors influencing the research and teaching effectiveness of individual faculty members and their relations to the students; (2) research investigating the effect of academic area and technology on…

  15. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  16. Hepatitus B virus infection : factors influencing the outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Hattum (Jan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to find correlations between the various courses of disease after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and factors that could conceivably have influenced the course of disease. The aim of the study was to find correlations between parameters of viral replication and

  17. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  18. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  19. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical educaton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Stok-Koch; R. Koopmans; Dr. S. Bolhuis

    2007-01-01

    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing

  20. Factors influencing adherence to an emergency department national protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, R.H.A.; Vloet, L.C.M.; Groot, J.M. de; Achterberg, T. van

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence emergency nurses' adherence to an emergency department national protocol (EDNP). A survey of emergency nurses (n=200) and physicians with medical end responsibility on an emergency department (n=103) was carried out. Emergency nurses

  1. STUDY ON MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION OF COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Jun; Xu Jingcai; Zhang Xinghai

    2000-01-01

    This paper theoretically analyzes major factors influencing spontaneous combustion of coal, such as molecule structure of coal, porosity, temperature, concentration of oxygen, coal thickness, velocity of face advance, and so on; and probes into how they affect the process of spontaneous combustion of coal, which is of momentous significance to predict or control self-ignition of coal.

  2. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  3. Product development alliances: factors influencing formation and success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Johanne Rønnow; Harmsen, Hanne; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The objective of this paper is to develop a framework, based on existing literature, for factors influencing the formation and success of product development alliances, and relate this specifically to the food industry. Design/methodology/approach - Case study of a product development a...

  4. Factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt confirmed that ungerminated sorghum grain exhibited essentially no beta-amylase activity. Malted sorghum had beta-amylase activity less than 25% of the level in barley...

  5. INFLUENCE FACTOR ANALYSIS OF CHINESE STUDENTS' LERANING STYLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平

    2009-01-01

    Learning style, aiming at language learner, is a hot issue of second language acquisition. The article first reviews the various definitions of learning style. From the perspective of cognition, three influence factors of Chinese students' learning styles are analyzed. Suggestions are proposed for teachers to help students develop learning styles.

  6. International preferences for pork appearance: II. Factors influencing consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngapo, T.M.; Martin, J.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2007-01-01

    The preference for pork varying in its fat cover, lean colour, marbling and drip differs among countries, but the influence of socio-demographic factors is unknown. In this study of 11,717 consumers from 22 countries, more than 80% of consumers liked pork, thought that pork quality was at least

  7. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok-Koch, E.G.H.J.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out

  8. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical educaton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok-Koch, L.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.

    2007-01-01

    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing h

  9. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  10. Factors affecting perceived change in physical activity in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; Budé, Luc; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J

    2017-08-01

    reduction of physical activity (PA) during pregnancy is common but undesirable, as it is associated with negative outcomes, including excessive gestational weight gain. Our objective was to explore changes in five types of activity that occurred during pregnancy and the behavioural determinants of the reported changes in PA. we performed a secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey that was constructed using the ASE-Model - an approach to identifying the factors that drive behaviour change that focuses on Attitude, Social influence, and self-Efficacy. 455 healthy pregnant women of all gestational ages, receiving prenatal care from midwifery practices in the Netherlands. more than half of our respondents reported a reduction in their PA during pregnancy. The largest reduction occurred in sports and brief rigorous activities, but other types of PA were reduced as well. Reduction of PA was more likely in women who considered themselves as active before pregnancy, women who experienced pregnancy-related barriers, women who were advised to reduce their PA, and multiparous women. Fewer than 5% increased their PA. Motivation to engage in PA was positively associated with enjoying PA. all pregnant women should be informed about the positive effects of staying active and should be encouraged to engage in, or to continue, moderately intensive activities like walking, biking or swimming. Our findings concerning the predictors of PA reduction can be used to develop an evidence-based intervention aimed at encouraging healthy PA during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PURCHASE DECISION OF ORGANIC TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantry Nugroho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence consumers in making the decision to buy organic tofu. The theory of factors that influence the purchasing behavior developed by Kotler was used as the analytical tool, and these factors include cultural factors, social factors, personal factors, psychological factors and purchasing process. These data were collected through interview techniques and analyzed descriptively using multinomial logistic regression. The characteristics of respondents indicated the consumers who never bought organic tofu are mostly at the age of 26-35 years old and university graduates, do not work, have an expenditure from Rp 1 million to Rp 2.5 million, are highly knowledge, and have the highest scores on the perceptions on sustainable and environmentally friendly organic farming, health benefits, and a more expensive price. There are a number of factors that influence consumers in making purchase decisions of organic tofu including age, education, knowledge and product external factors. The consumers who are potentially interested in purchasing the organic tofu are at the age of 36–50 years old, university graduates, highly knowledgeable in food and organic tofu products, because the higher the education and knowledge, the greater the interest in buying the products, and they approved of the external products such as price, advertising, personal selling and places of selling which are also potentially equal. The managerial implications for the business agents of tofu organic product is that they must be more active in assuring the consumers that these products are good for them by creating a blog, an ad in the local paper, or a pamphlet containing information of the product.Keywords: purchase decision, logistic regression, organic tofu product, purchasing interest

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of factors influencing on marketing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Yaghoubi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011 [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011. Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3, 368-375.] to determine the factors influencing on marketing SMEs. Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing, positively.

  13. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  14. Factors influencing the flavour of game meat: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, J; Hoffman, L C; Muller, M

    2016-03-01

    Flavour is a very important attribute contributing to the sensory quality of meat and meat products. Although the sensory quality of meat includes orthonasal and retronasal aroma, taste, as well as appearance, juiciness and other textural attributes, the focus of this review is primarily on flavour. The influence of species, age, gender, muscle anatomical location, diet, harvesting conditions, ageing of meat, packaging and storage, as well as cooking method on the flavour of game meat are discussed. Very little research is available on the factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from wild and free-living game species. The aim of this literature review is thus to discuss the key ante- and post-mortem factors that influence the flavour of game meat, with specific focus on wild and free-living South African game species.

  15. Metabolite Signatures of Metabolic Risk Factors and their Longitudinal Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Subramanian, S.; Willinger, C.M.; Chen, G.; Juhasz, P.; Courchesne, P.; Chen, B.H.; Li, X.; Hwang, S.J.; Fox, C.S.; O'Donnell, C.J.; Muntendam, P.; Fuster, V.; Bobeldijk-Pastorova, I.; Sookoian, S.C.; Pirola, C.J.; Gordon, N.; Adourian, A.; Larson, M.G.; Levy, D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Metabolic dysregulation underlies key metabolic risk factors—obesity, dyslipidemia, and dysglycemia. Objective: To uncover mechanistic links between metabolomic dysregulation and metabolic risk by testing metabolite associations with risk factors cross-sectionally and with risk factor chang

  16. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE OF CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA-CODRUŢA DUDĂ-DĂIANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.

  17. Understanding the Influence of Organizational Culture and Group Dynamics on Organizational Change and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Colleen; Kline, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture, group dynamics, and organizational learning in the context of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was used to examine cultural and group level factors that potentially influence groups' learning in the context of…

  18. Understanding the Influence of Organizational Culture and Group Dynamics on Organizational Change and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Colleen; Kline, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture, group dynamics, and organizational learning in the context of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was used to examine cultural and group level factors that potentially influence groups' learning in the context of…

  19. Limitations on Change: Current Conditions Influencing Academic Intransigence in Educational Administration Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Connie Stokes; Pounder, Diana G.

    An analysis of academic intransigence (resistance to change) in educational administrative preparation programs is presented in this paper. Drawing upon two conceptual frameworks, the stakeholder perspective and Porter's (1980) five-force model of industry structure and competitive influence, two factors contributing to academic intransigence are…

  20. Factors influencing the adoption of information technology in a construction business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley Sargent

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction firms are increasingly utilizing information technologies to better manage geographically dispersed projects. Often these technologies involve changes to existing working practices and processes and are viewed as disruptive by members of the organization. Understanding the factors that can influence individuals’ intention to utilize technology can assist managers to implement strategies to increase and improve the uptake of technologies and improve the innovation adoption process.  Using a case study organization, factors identified in the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT are examined and the UTAUT is extended and by including resistance to change and top management support. The findings indicate effort expectancy, internal facilitating conditions and top management support all influence individuals’ intention to use information technology. The results also show that resistance to change or fear of change does not always play a role in innovation adoption. The findings reinforce the need to support new technologies from both a managerial and technical perspective.

  1. Factors influencing the adoption of information technology in a construction business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley Sargent

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction firms are increasingly utilizing information technologies to better manage geographically dispersed projects. Often these technologies involve changes to existing working practices and processes and are viewed as disruptive by members of the organization. Understanding the factors that can influence individuals’ intention to utilize technology can assist managers to implement strategies to increase and improve the uptake of technologies and improve the innovation adoption process.  Using a case study organization, factors identified in the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT are examined and the UTAUT is extended and by including resistance to change and top management support. The findings indicate effort expectancy, internal facilitating conditions and top management support all influence individuals’ intention to use information technology. The results also show that resistance to change or fear of change does not always play a role in innovation adoption. The findings reinforce the need to support new technologies from both a managerial and technical perspective.  

  2. Why neurology? Factors which influence career choice in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dara V; Hoyle, Chad; Yin, Han; McCoyd, Matthew; Lukas, Rimas V

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the factors which influence the decision to pursue a career in neurology. An anonymous survey was developed using a Likert scale to rate responses. The survey was sent to adult and child neurology faculty, residents and fellows, as well as medical students applying for neurology. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the factors of influence. Respondents were subsequently categorized into pre-neurology trainees, neurology trainees, child neurologists and adult neurologists, and differences between the groups were analysed using Pearson's chi-square test. One hundred and thirty-three anonymous responses were received. The respondents were neurologists across all levels of training and practice. Across all respondents, the most common factor of high importance was intellectual content of specialty, challenging diagnostic problems, type of patient encountered and interest in helping people. Responses were similar across the groups; however, the earliest trainees cited interest in helping people as most important, while those in neurology training and beyond cite intellectual content of the specialty as most important. As trainees transition from their earliest levels of clinical experience into working as residents and faculty, there is a shift in the cited important factors. Lifestyle and financial factors seem to be the least motivating across all groups. Encouragement from peers, mentors, faculty and practicing physicians is considered high influences in a smaller number of neurologists. This may present an opportunity for practicing neurologists to make connections with medical students early in their education in an effort to encourage and mentor candidates.

  3. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  4. Factors influencing first childbearing timing decisions among men: Path analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariman, Nourossadat; Amerian, Maliheh; Jannati, Padideh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors that influence men’s childbearing intentions have been relatively unexplored in the literature. Objective: This study aimed to determine the influencing factors about the first childbearing timing decisions of men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 men who were referred to private and governmental healthcare centers in Shahrood, Iran were randomly recruited from April to September 2014. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Quality of Life Questionnaire; ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, Synder’s Hope Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: After removing the statistically insignificant paths, men’s age at marriage had the highest direct effect (β=0.86) on their first childbearing decision. Marital satisfaction (β=-0.09), social support (β=0.06), economic status (β=0.06), and quality of life (β=-0.08) were other effective factors on men’s first childbearing decisions. Moreover, marital satisfaction and social support had significant indirect effects on men’s childbearing decisions (β=-0.04 and -0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Many factors, including personal factors (age at marriage and quality of life), family factors (marital satisfaction), and social factors (social support), can affect men’s decision to have a child. Policymakers are hence required to develop strategies to promote the socioeconomic and family conditions of the couples and to encourage them to have as many children as they desire at an appropriate time. PMID:27738661

  5. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  6. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed.

  7. Climate change - clouds remain the misty factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Clouds are the great unknown quantity in predictions about climate change. For aeons they have been drifting quietly across the sky, but scientists still dont know exactly how they are formed and why they eventually come down again as rain. High time to take a closer look at clouds, say researchers

  8. 471 socio-economic factors influencing agricultural radio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such ... Also, correlation analysis results revealed a .... fisher promotion project and updated in 2004 .... create awareness and bring change in behavior. ... help the fisherfolks to obtain bulk purchase of .... influence on the perception of radio agricultural.

  9. Factors influencing Neurodevelopment after Cardiac Surgery during Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Hubertine Hövels-Gürich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD. This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks. Examples for such risks are embolization, deep hypothermia, flow rate, hemodilution, blood gas management, postoperative hyperthermia, systemic-inflammatory response and capillary leak syndrome. However, influences of these procedure-specific risk factors on ND outcome have not been found as strong as expected. Furthermore, modifications have not been found to support the effectiveness of the currently used neuroprotective strategies.Postoperative factors, such as need for extracorporal membrane oxygenation or assist device support and duration of hospital stay, significantly influence ND parameters. On the other hand, the so-called innate, less modifiable patient-specific risk factors have been found to exert significant influences on ND outcomes. Examples are type and severity of CHD, genetic or syndromic abnormalities as well as prematurity and low birth weight.Structural and hemodynamic characteristics of different CHDs are assumed to result in impaired brain growth and delayed maturation with special respect to the white matter. Beginning in the fetal period, this so-called encephalopathy of CHD is suggested a major innate risk factor for pre-, peri- and postoperative additional hypoxic or ischemic brain injury and subsequent ND impairment. Furthermore, MRI studies on brain volume, structure and

  10. Factors Influencing Neurodevelopment after Cardiac Surgery during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hövels-Gürich, Hedwig Hubertine

    2016-01-01

    Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life, and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks. Examples of such risks are embolization, deep hypothermia, flow rate, hemodilution, blood gas management, postoperative hyperthermia, systemic inflammatory response, and capillary leak syndrome. However, influences of these procedure-specific risk factors on ND outcome have not been found as strong as expected. Furthermore, modifications have not been found to support the effectiveness of the currently used neuroprotective strategies. Postoperative factors, such as need for extracorporal membrane oxygenation or assist device support and duration of hospital stay, significantly influence ND parameters. On the other hand, the so-called “innate,” less modifiable patient-specific risk factors have been found to exert significant influences on ND outcomes. Examples are type and severity of CHD, genetic or syndromic abnormalities, as well as prematurity and low birth weight. Structural and hemodynamic characteristics of different CHDs are assumed to result in impaired brain growth and delayed maturation with respect to the white matter. Beginning in the fetal period, this so-called “encephalopathy of CHD” is suggested a major innate risk factor for pre-, peri-, and postoperative additional hypoxic or ischemic brain injury and subsequent ND impairment. Furthermore, MRI studies on brain volume, structure, and

  11. 那曲地区草地植被时空格局与变化及其人文因素影响研究%Spatio-temporal pattern and change of Nagqu grassland and the influence of human factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋春桥; 游松财; 刘高焕; 柯灵红; 钟新科

    2012-01-01

    Nagqu serves as an important and demonstration center of Tibetan stockbreeding development located in an extremely harsh natural environment with vulnerable ecosystems. In recent years, large areas of alpine grassland ecosystems of Northern Tibet have severely degraded and have been threatened by soil erosion, desertification, and human activities. The annual variation of vegetation is influenced by both natural conditions and human disturbances. To efficiently solve the complex resource-related and environmental issues, it is necessary to clarify how human factors affect the normal growth of rangeland vegetation. Various statistical analyses and time-series NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) datasets from MODIS sensors between 2000 and 2009, were used to monitor the spatio-temporal variation of grassland. The relationships between grassland degradation and various human factors are discussed based on qualitative and quantitative systematic analysis. 1) Due to snow melting related to global warming, the vegetation in some desertified and snow-covered regions of high altitude mountains showed an actively recovering trend, while the grasslands in purely livestock-breeding counties (such as Nagqu, Amdo and Nyainrong) of central Nagqu had some degenerative phenomenon; 2) The spatial patterns of density maps of residential distribution and road network, vegetation NDVI image, and yearly variation map of vegetation NDVI showed similar spatial clustering characters, indicating that human activities directly influenced growth and reproduction of plants in flourishing vegetation cover; 3) Taking Nagqu town and state highway No. 109 as typical instances of human factors, the vegetation in regions closer to town centers or the road axis with more intense human disturbances showed more severe degradation. Further statistical analyses showed a linear upward trend for population, numbers of livestock and traffic-construction projects in Nagqu, which will bring serious

  12. An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hosseinzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.

  13. Psychosocial Aspects of Bruxism: The Most Paramount Factor Influencing Teeth Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckiewicz, Mieszko; Paradowska-Stolarz, Anna; Wieckiewicz, Wlodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    In clinical practice, patients suffering from an occlusal parafunctional activity have increased. It can be observed that a negative influence of environment aggravates patient's health. The aim of this paper is to present the impact of environment and development of human civilization on the prevalence of bruxism and the correlation between them. The authors grasp the most relevant aspects of psychological and anthropological factors changing over time as well as their interactions and describe a relationship between chronic stress and bruxism. Current literature shows how contemporary lifestyle, working environment, diet, and habits influence the patient's psychoemotional situation and the way these factors affect the occluso-muscle condition. PMID:25101282

  14. Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Inventory Management in Manufacturing SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shiau Wei; Tasmin, R.; Nor Aziati, A. H.; Zuraidah Rasi, Raja; Ismail, Fadillah Binti; Yaw, Li Ping

    2017-08-01

    Effectiveness of inventory management is a vital part in the manufacturing organization to be more competitive. The previous studies have indicated that there are several factors influencing the effectiveness of inventory management in the organization but there is lack of researchers who carried out the research in the manufacturing small medium enterprise in Johor. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify the problem of inventory management faced by the manufacturing small medium enterprise and also to determine the factors that will influence the effectiveness of inventory management. In completing this research, 80 employees were selected randomly from the manufacturing small medium enterprise in Batu Pahat, Johor and they were requested to complete questionnaires. The result have shown that the problems of inventory management faced by manufacturing organization were underproduction, overproduction, stock out situation, delays in the delivery of raw materials and discrepancy of records. The factors, documentation/store records, planning, knowledge of employees/staff skill have shown to significantly influence the effectiveness of inventory management while the funds have shown slightly significant influence on the inventory management in manufacturing small medium enterprises. This quantitative study is important to the manufacturing organization in Malaysia because it provides the guidelines to the employers of manufacturing small medium enterprises in Batu Pahat, Johor.

  15. Firms dealing with regulatory change: innovation and political influence strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, Joeri|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357536320; Farla, Jacco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106857576; Hekkert, Marko|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143777629

    2014-01-01

    Firm-level strategies, particularly political strategies, are overlooked in transition studies. Therefore, we study how car manufacturers combine and change their innovation and political influence strategies in response to a technology-forcing regulation that attempts to drive transition. We use Ol

  16. Spatially varying relationships between land-cover change and driving factors at multiple sampling scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shihong; Wang, Qiao; Guo, Luo

    2014-05-01

    Modeling the relationships between environment, human activity, and natural conditions is very important for understanding human-environment interactions. This study aims at examining how these relationships vary over spatial sampling scales and investigating the spatially varying relationships between land-cover changes and driving factors, as well as the variations in the relationships at different sampling scales in the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province, P.R. China. Regular sampling methods are used first to generate eight sets of data points at different scales, and then the values for land-cover changes and the factors are extracted for these data points. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) model is applied to analyze the relationships between land-cover changes and the factors at different sampling scales. The results indicate that the influences of the factors (e.g. the signs, significances, and values of coefficients) change greatly over different sampling scales; similarly, for different types of land-cover changes, the contributions of the factors also vary. Generally, roads, rivers, and lakes contribute greatly to land-cover changes, while villages, temples, and elevations contribute less. A possible reason is that the densities of roads, rivers, and lakes is much greater than those of villages and temples, and the populations in temples and villages are too small to have much effect on land-cover changes. The results demonstrate that the sampling scales have an important influence on the relationships between land-cover change and the factors.

  17. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  18. Monitoring Athletes Through Self-Report: Factors Influencing Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Saw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete’s response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30. Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion, and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement. Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed.

  19. Factors that influence on the decisions of battered women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Robledo Martín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence towards and against women consists in any kind of violation of woman’s personality, her physical integrity or her freedom of movement. Nowadays, gender-based violence is considered a state and public health problem as well as a social concerning subject.Objective: To identify the factors that influence on the decisions that battered women make.Methodology: The study population are battered women who live in Madrid province and who are being attended in the Municipal Points of the Regional Observatory against the Gender Violence.The information was collected by performing focus groups and deep interviews.Results: There are several factors which influence on the decisions that battered women make, like the existence or not of children they have to take care of, the economic dependence and the ignorance of the woman, in some cases, of the existence of this ill-treatment, but over all, we could even say beyond all these, there is one that is the most important, common and we could say it is the main axis that determine their behaviour. This factor is fear.Discussion: When attending these women we may be aware of the psychological situation they are, and we should be able to identify if the woman is asking us for help when she comes to us and try to identify and treat this factor that influences the decisions the woman we attend makes.

  20. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R H; van der Lans, Ivo A; Frewer, Lynn J

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0857-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  1. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SPECIFIC FACTORS UPON FINANCING DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatus Viorel-Dorin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/total assets of some Romanian corporations, focusing on its explanatory variables by including them within simple and multiple econometric models. The panel data indicators computed for the companies in the Cluj area listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange were evaluated with the OLS and FEM techniques.The results have been interpreted, pointing out that company size and asset turnover seem to have a positive influence upon the debt ratio of selected companies, while profitability and liquidity seem to influence the debt ratio of selected companies negatively.

  3. What Influences Climate and Glacier Change in the Southwestern China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.

    2012-01-01

    The subject of climate change in the areas of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the Himalayas has taken on increasing importance because of available water resources from their mountain glaciers. Many of these glaciers over the region have been retreating, while some are advancing and stable. Other studies report that some glaciers in the Himalayas show acceleration on their shrinkage. However, the causes of the glacier meltings are still difficult to grasp because of the complexity of climatic change and its influence on glacier issues. However, it is vital that we pursue further study to enable the future prediction on glacier changes.

  4. Influencing Factors on Farming System Development in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The developmental situation of the farming system in Shandong Province is introduced.At present,Shandong Province is at the semi-intensive,semi-commercial and semi-sufficiency level of farming system.Eastern coast and central Shandong agricultural zones are moving in the direction of modern farming system,having formed a preliminary new pattern of the coordinated development of grain,feedstuff,economic and other crops.Influencing factors on the development of farming system in Shandong Province is analyzed,which are agricultural production condition and input level,population and food,policy measures,development of natural resources and regions,agricultural industrialization and urbanization level,and scientific and technological level.Total population will be within 100 million at the year 2020;per capita annual share of grain will be 475 kilograms;and there is great pressure on grain production.Therefore,we must change the pattern of agricultural development and accelerate the establishment of modern farming system.Agricultural machinery,water conservancy projects,and chemical fertilizer application have greatly affected the development of farming system.Improvement of production conditions has promoted the adjustment of agricultural structure,increased the planting ratio of winter wheat-summer maize,and improved multiple-cropping index.Development of agricultural industrialization has promoted the transfer of rural labor force and the establishment of modern farming system;while the unbalanced development of cities has restricted the establishment of modern farming system.Therefore,the appropriate policy,scientific and rational regional distribution,and advanced science and technology can help to set up the modern farming system in Shandong Province.

  5. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sonal SinghMarketing and Management Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.Keywords: social marketing, customer engagement, behavioral influence, change, youth

  6. Influence of global climate change on chemical fate and bioaccumulation: the role of multimedia models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Todd; Armitage, James M; Cousins, Ian T; Muir, Derek C G; Ng, Carla A; Reid, Liisa; Tao, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Multimedia environmental fate models are valuable tools for investigating potential changes associated with global climate change, particularly because thermodynamic forcing on partitioning behavior as well as diffusive and nondiffusive exchange processes are implicitly considered. Similarly, food-web bioaccumulation models are capable of integrating the net effect of changes associated with factors such as temperature, growth rates, feeding preferences, and partitioning behavior on bioaccumulation potential. For the climate change scenarios considered in the present study, such tools indicate that alterations to exposure concentrations are typically within a factor of 2 of the baseline output. Based on an appreciation for the uncertainty in model parameters and baseline output, the authors recommend caution when interpreting or speculating on the relative importance of global climate change with respect to how changes caused by it will influence chemical fate and bioavailability. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  7. Factors Influencing Body Image in Women with Breast Cancer: A Comprehensive Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Maedeh; Elyasi, Forouzan; Janbabai, Ghasem; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2016-10-01

    Many psycho-socioeconomic and other types factors associated with cancer, the treatment process, and changes in patients' physical appearance and sexual function influence the body image of women with breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors influence the body image of women with breast cancer. A narrative literature review was conducted. Electronic databases, including Google Scholar, SID, Magiran, IranDoc, Barekat, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Scopus, and PubMed, including Medline, were searched to retrieve articles published from 1993 to 2016 using the keywords breast cancer, treatment, body image, and related factors. The quality of selected studies was appraised using a checklist adapted from Samadaee-Gelehkolaee (2016). Of 690 articles retrieved in the search, 190 articles were selected for full text appraisal. Finally, 44 articles were selected for data analysis. The results were classified under three headings: bio-psycho-socioeconomic factors, factors associated with the disease and treatment processes, and physical appearance and sexual function. The findings of this review showed that many factors can influence the body image of women suffering from breast cancer. These factors were predictors of patients' inter-personal and intra-personal relationships with their partners and others who influenced various other aspects of their lives, possibly leading to many life's issues. These factors must be identified and considered to make the most appropriate decisions for patients. The strength of this study lies in the exploration of factors influencing the body image of women with breast cancer which earlier studies did not consider. Moreover, the authors believe that this research has addressed nearly all the factors that are real concerns in the body image of women with breast cancer.

  8. Factors Influencing Body Image in Women with Breast Cancer: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Maedeh; Elyasi, Forouzan; Janbabai, Ghasem; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Context Many psycho-socioeconomic and other types factors associated with cancer, the treatment process, and changes in patients’ physical appearance and sexual function influence the body image of women with breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors influence the body image of women with breast cancer. Data Collection A narrative literature review was conducted. Electronic databases, including Google Scholar, SID, Magiran, IranDoc, Barekat, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Scopus, and PubMed, including Medline, were searched to retrieve articles published from 1993 to 2016 using the keywords breast cancer, treatment, body image, and related factors. The quality of selected studies was appraised using a checklist adapted from Samadaee-Gelehkolaee (2016). Results Of 690 articles retrieved in the search, 190 articles were selected for full text appraisal. Finally, 44 articles were selected for data analysis. The results were classified under three headings: bio-psycho-socioeconomic factors, factors associated with the disease and treatment processes, and physical appearance and sexual function. Conclusions The findings of this review showed that many factors can influence the body image of women suffering from breast cancer. These factors were predictors of patients’ inter-personal and intra-personal relationships with their partners and others who influenced various other aspects of their lives, possibly leading to many life’s issues. These factors must be identified and considered to make the most appropriate decisions for patients. The strength of this study lies in the exploration of factors influencing the body image of women with breast cancer which earlier studies did not consider. Moreover, the authors believe that this research has addressed nearly all the factors that are real concerns in the body image of women with breast cancer. PMID:28184329

  9. A Review of Factors Influencing the Cost Development of Electricity Generation Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Samadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on the past cost dynamics of various renewable, fossil fuel and nuclear electricity generation technologies. It identifies 10 different factors which have played key roles in influencing past cost developments according to the literature. These 10 factors are: deployment-induced learning, research, development and demonstration (RD&D-induced learning, knowledge spillovers from other technologies, upsizing, economies of manufacturing scale, economies of project scale, changes in material and labour costs, changes in fuel costs, regulatory changes, and limits to the availability of suitable sites. The article summarises the relevant literature findings for each of these 10 factors and provides an overview indicating which factors have impacted on which generation technologies. The article also discusses the insights gained from the review for a better understanding of possible future cost developments of electricity generation technologies. Finally, future research needs, which may support a better understanding of past and future cost developments, are identified.

  10. An exploration study on factors influencing green marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Esmaeeli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distributed among 200 people who were visiting organic product exhibition. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.845, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of factor analysis reveal four major factors including green labeling, compatibility, product value and marketing component and size.

  11. Journal impact factor: this editorial, academic and scientific influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Milton Artur; Greco, Oswaldo Tadeu; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2009-01-01

    In this report the authors present information on the bibliometric instruments and their importance in measuring the quality of scientific journals and researchers. They in particular the history and deployment of the impact factor of the existing Institute for Scientific Information since 1955. Are presented and discussed the criticism regarding the inadequacy of the impact factor for evaluation of scientific production, misuse and strategies editorial handling of the bibliometric index. It is presented to the new classification CAPES for the journals, based on various criteria and the impact factor and its influence on national scientific and academic life. The authors conclude that, despite all obstacles and discussions, the impact factor of the Institute for Scientific Information is still an useful tool and the only isolation available to assess the scientific and intellectual productivity.

  12. Factor Influencing Creative Industries Development in Kenjeran Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, V. K.; Santoso, E. B.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia needs to improve the competitiveness of local products to optimize its contribution to the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) for the welfare of the population. This can be done by improving the development of creative industries. Kenjeran Sub District is one of the coastal villages in the city of Surabaya, which has a large number of poor people. The potential of the creative industries is still not visible in efforts to increase public welfare. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the factors that influence the development of creative industries in Kenjeran. This study using in-depth interview were analysed using content analysis and Cartesian diagram to determine the important factors that affect the development of creative industries in Sub district of Kenjeran. By using five respondents from the government shows that the factors that have a high level of importance and advantages are low among other regulatory factors of raw materials, import and export, extortion, and administrative procedures.

  13. Succesful Lean Manufacturing Implementation: Internal Key Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.

  14. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. The influence of various factors on milk clotting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of pH (6.5 and 5.8, amount of added CaCl2 (0, 200 and 400 mg/l, coagulation temperature (30ºC and 35ºC and heat treatment of milk (65ºC/30 min and 87ºC/10 min on the rate of rennet induced milk coagulation (s were investigated. The time (s from rennet addition to onset of gelation (as indicated by the first visible floccules was measured. The milk samples heat-treated at 87ºC/10 min, with 400 mg/l added CaCl2, which were coagulated at 35ºC and pH 5.8, coagulated 23.28-fold faster than the same samples without added CaCl2, which were coagulated at 30ºC and pH 6.5. The results of investigations related to the influence of particular coagulation factors on the coagulation rate of heat-treated milk showed that at pH 6.5 the most pronounced influence was demonstrated by the amount of Ca2+ and temperature of coagulation. At pH 5.8, different amounts of Ca2 and used temperatures of coagulation did not influence coagulation rate regardless of the used heat treatment of milk. The influence of used heat treatment of milk was particularly pronounced during coagulation of samples without added CaCl2 that coagulated at 30ºC and pH 6.5. The used heat treatment of milk practically did not influence the milk coagulation rate at pH 5.8. The greatest influence on milk coagulation rate was showed by pH. This influence was the most marked in coagulation of samples in which the coaggregates were formed, regardless of the amount of added Ca2+ and used coagulation temperatures.

  16. Factors influencing community health centers' efficiency: a latent growth curve modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Shriram; Wan, Thomas T H; Zhang, Jackie; Sherin, Kevin

    2007-10-01

    The objective of study is to examine factors affecting the variation in technical and cost efficiency of community health centers (CHCs). A panel study design was formulated to examine the relationships among the contextual, organizational structural, and performance variables. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) of technical efficiency and latent growth curve modeling of multi-wave technical and cost efficiency were performed. Regardless of the efficiency measures, CHC efficiency was influenced more by contextual factors than organizational structural factors. The study confirms the independent and additive influences of contextual and organizational predictors on efficiency. The change in CHC technical efficiency positively affects the change in CHC cost efficiency. The practical implication of this finding is that healthcare managers can simultaneously optimize both technical and cost efficiency through appropriate use of inputs to generate optimal outputs. An innovative solution is to employ decision support software to prepare an expert system to assist poorly performing CHCs to achieve better cost efficiency through optimizing technical efficiency.

  17. Influence of a tone's tonal function on temporal change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun-Guillaud, Géraldine; Tillmann, Barbara

    2007-11-01

    Music cognition research has provided evidence that the tonal function of a musical event influences perception and memory. Our study investigated whether tonal function influences a basic temporal judgment, notably the detection of a temporal change disrupting a sequence's regularity. The sequences consisted of six musical events presented in isochrony (or with the fifth event occurring earlier or later): Three chords (instilling a tonal context) were followed by a tone (repeated three times). The tones fulfilled one of two tonal functions in the tonal context. Participants had to detect whether the sequence contained a temporal change and were not informed about tonal manipulations. Discrimination performance (as measured by d') showed an influence of tonal function on temporal change detection: Performance was better for the tonic tone (having the most important tonal function in the key) than for the unstable leading tone, the less stable mediant tone, and even than the stable dominant tone. The outcome shows the influence of listeners' tonal knowledge on a perceptual time judgment and suggests that processing of tonal and temporal structures interact at some stage of processing.

  18. Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

  19. Study of Influencing Factors on ConsumerOnline Impulse Buying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The convenience and anonymity of online shopping have stimulated people's impulse buying tendency. Impulse buying is notonly a competitive method for businesses, but also a crucial factor influencing sales of e-commerce. Based on a systematic reviewof literatures, this paper explores factors affecting the online impulse buying. Moreover, by using the S-O-R model, this paperdescribes the formation mechanism of the online impulse buying behavior. At Last, it points out issues worthy of future studies.For example, this paper suggests to take into consideration of sociocultural impact and to put more emphasis on empirical studies.

  20. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration.

  1. INVESTIGATING FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ LEARNING IN A TEAM TEACHING SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Team teaching factors, including mission clarity, affiliation, innovativeness, and fairness, are examined to determine how they influence student learning in a team-taught course. The study involved 184 college students enrolled in an Introduction to Computers course delivered in a team-taught format in a large university located in the United States. The collaborative teaching design followed a traditional team teaching approach with an instructor team teaching the same course collaboratively. Students enrolled in the team-taught course filled out an online survey targeted at identifying key factors that influence student-based outcomes (satisfaction and competency in the course. Results showed that instructor team mission clarity, affiliation, and fairness are significantly related to students’ satisfaction while instructor team mission clarity and fairness are significantly related to students’ competency.

  2. Factors Influencing Rural Teacher Flow in Yunnan Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; SUN; Zhaochang; REN; Yang; HE; Haijiao; ZHU

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic minority areas area old revolutionary base areas,areas inhabited by ethnic minorities,remote areas,impoverished areas, and also difficult areas for construction of socialist harmonious society.Studying on factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas is of great significance to improving local teacher team structure and promoting balanced development of urban and rural education.However,it lacks empirical analysis based on field survey for the nonce.In this study,based on interview and questionnaire data of education departments and school leaders in 4 ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,it established binary Logistic model,analyzed factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,and finally present policy recommendations.

  3. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed. (author)

  4. Factors influencing prehospital delay for patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujuan CHENG; Lufen GUO; Juyuan LIU; Xiaoling ZHU; Hongbing YAN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors for prehospital delay in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods A total of 807 consecutive patients with AMI who presented to the emergency department of Beijing Anzhen Hospital were analyzed. The influence of several potential risk factors on the prehospital delay time (PDT) was evaluated by comparing patients admitted more than 2 hours after onset of chese pain with those admitted within 2 hours after onset. Results Among 807 patients, 402 came to the hospital within 2 hours while the others arrived at the hospital after 2 hours. The median PDT was 130 min. Among the potential variables, advanced age, history of diabetes mellitus, occurrence of symptom at night and use of emergency medical service significantly affected PDT by multivariate analysis. Conclusion Interventions aimed at reducing the prehospital delay in AMI should primarily focus on the awareness of the risk and help-seeking behavior of patients.

  5. WHICH ARE THE FACTORS INFLUENCING FINANCING DECISIONS IN SMEs?

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia-Diana NISTOR

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I review the literature in search of the factors that influence financing decisions in SMEs. Financial theories suggest that the only goal of a company is value maximization, but empirical studies have shown that small companies’ owners can have other goals than profit maximization, this being reflected in their financing decisions. Also the personal characteristics of SMEs’ founders are relevant in establishing the companies financing strategy

  6. Influence of environmental factors on corrosion damage of aircraft structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the important structural integrity concerns of aging aircraft, and it is estimated that a significant portion of airframe maintenance budgets is directed towards corrosion-related problems for both military and commercial aircraft. In order to better understand how environmental factors influence the corrosion damage initiation and propagation on aircraft structure and to predict pre-corrosion test pieces of fatigue life and structural integrity of an effective approach, this paper uses ...

  7. Analysis of Factors Influencing English Listening Teaching and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Tian

    2013-01-01

    English teaching focuses on cultivating and improving students’listening, speaking, reading, writing and translating skills, which are complementary to each other. Among these five skills, listening, as an important basic skill, should be put into top priority in English teaching. Mainly based on the analysis of factors influencing English listening teaching, the paper puts for-ward some effective countermeasures in improving teaching effectiveness.

  8. Factors Influencing Beta-Thalassemia Awareness in Western India

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin P Patel; Prakash H Parmar; Rupesh B Patel; Nikhil M Trivedi; Nileshkumar A Bhartiya

    2016-01-01

    "Context: Beta-thalassemia is highly prevalent in western India. Our organization runs a screening and prevention program to create awareness and reduce the incidence of homozygous beta-thalassemia cases. Aims: The study was designed to evaluate factors influencing awareness about Beta-thalassemia. Methodology: This cross sectional survey was conducted at six colleges, two medical clinics, and a thalassemia transfusion centre. It involved 398 adults ( and #8805;18 years).The survey form...

  9. Factors Influencing the HRD Climate of an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out which factor (s) influence the HRD climate of the company. The descriptive research design was under taken with the help of the structured questionnaire to study the OCTAPACE culture of Spanco Ltd. which was based on the responses of the various levels of employees working in it. Thesample consistsof 59 employees.Employees believe that the top management gives importance to the human resource and all the employees are treated humanely in the organization. ...

  10. Factors Influencing Beta-Thalassemia Awareness in Western India

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin P Patel; Prakash H Parmar; Rupesh B Patel; Nikhil M Trivedi; Nileshkumar A Bhartiya

    2016-01-01

    "Context: Beta-thalassemia is highly prevalent in western India. Our organization runs a screening and prevention program to create awareness and reduce the incidence of homozygous beta-thalassemia cases. Aims: The study was designed to evaluate factors influencing awareness about Beta-thalassemia. Methodology: This cross sectional survey was conducted at six colleges, two medical clinics, and a thalassemia transfusion centre. It involved 398 adults ( and #8805;18 years).The survey form...

  11. Factors Influencing Bonding Strength of Laminated Bamboo Strips Lumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Factors influencing bonding strength of laminated bamboo strips lumber (LBSL) were investigated in this paper. In order to find an optimized technology, this paper investigated how the thickness of bamboo strips, the assembly orientation of bamboo curtain, the type of adhesives, as well as coupling agent treatment of bamboo curtain affected the bonding strength. The following conclusions were drawn: 1)The thinner the thickness of the bamboo strips, the bigger the bonding strength of LBSL; 2) The assembly or...

  12. Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra *

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qing; Li, Ying-Hua; Lü, Xiu-yang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra, confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course, and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method, the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisandra under different heating temperature, decocting time, soaking time, processing methods and treatment with different solvents before decocting the Schisandra were measured by RP-HPLC method. The ...

  13. The growth of foot arches and influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ferial Hadipoetro Idris

    2016-01-01

    Background Foot arches are important components for body sup- port. Foot arch deformity caused by growth abnormalities cause serious limitations in daily activities. Objectives To determine the patterns of foot arch growth, factors influencing foot arch growth, and the timing for intervention in er- rant growth patterns. Methods A cross-sectional study evaluated the foot arches of chil- dren aged 0-18 years according to age and sex. Subjects included had no evidence of...

  14. Strength Mechanism and Influence Factors for Cold Recycled Asphalt Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Ma; Hao Wang; Yongli Zhao; Xiaoming Huang; Yuhui Pi

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the key factors affecting the tensile strength of cold recycled asphalt mixture with cement and emulsified asphalt. The specific surface areas and strength of RAP were analyzed. The interaction between the emulsified asphalt and cement was observed. Comprehensive laboratory testing was conducted to evaluate the influences of RAP, emulsified asphalt, and cement on the tensile strength of cold recycled asphalt mixture. It is found that although RAP is used as aggregates, i...

  15. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical educaton

    OpenAIRE

    Stok-Koch, L.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.

    2007-01-01

    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing home physicians in training (NHPT) and 62 supervisors. They participated in semi-structured group interviews, in which they discussed four questions regarding workplace learning. Qualitative analysi...

  16. Influencing Factors of Rural Human Consumption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun LI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper combines the social capital theory, the ordered choice model, and the case study in order to analyze the influence factors of the rural human consumption. The results show the presence of inverted U shape curve relation between human consumption amount and age. Human communication range, income, the highest single human consumption amount and the minimum amount, occupation, family population, the existing of human consumption capacity and the scope of the existing relationships between interpersonal relationship satisfaction and other factors on human consumption level has positive influence on human consumption level. Domestic researches on human behaviour are wide, but most of the studies are focused on the social, human, and psychological disciplines. For the origin of human consumption, scholars focus on four aspects like novelty, human or mutual needs. This research is based on field investigation conducted in Niuxintai village, Liaoning Province, in order to understand the current situation of the rural human consumption in China, and to explain the function and influencing factors of human consumption.

  17. Factors Influencing the Success Rate of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah Amanda Hanif

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is a series of actions performed on cardiac arrest patients. Not all patients receiving CPR can survive. The outcome of CPR is influenced by several factors. This study was conducted to determine the success rate of CPR and the factors influencing it in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in 2013. Methods: This study was conducted by using 168 patient medical records who underwent CPR and met the inclusion criteria in the Resuscitation Room of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital from January to December 2013. The collected data consisted of age, gender, pre-arrest diagnosis, initial rhythm, response time and clinical outcome of CPR. The results were expressed in frequencies and percentage. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results: The Success rate of CPR was 15.5%. The success rate was higher in patients with cardiac prearrest diagnoses (8.33%, p=0.024. The most common initial rhythm was unshockable rhythms (83.92%, yet patients with shockable heart rhythms had higher success rates (40.74%, p<0.001. All of the surviving patients had response time within the first minute from cardiac arrest. Conclusions: Success rate of CPR in the resuscitation room of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital during 2013 is still low. The factors influencing the survival rate are the pre-arrest diagnosis and initial heart rhythm.

  18. Influencing Factors in OER Usage of Adult Learners in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Wook Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Open Educational Resources (OER is terminology that refers to educational resources (content and software distributed through the Internet, free of charge and freely accessible, expanding learning opportunities for adult learners. This terminology first appeared around 2002, although its roots can be traced to the open architecture of the Internet. Until recently, OER development has focused more on quantity of contents rather than quality. In this study, we have examined the factors influencing the learning intention of adult learners in the OER context. Based on the relevant literature, we have identified a number of factors influencing a learner’s intention to use e-learning content. We have also developed a questionnaire for conducting a survey on such influencing factors. The survey results show that ease of use and relation to immediate workplace needs affect the intention of adult learners in using OER. The findings of this study can inform those developing and designing a learning environment that employs OER while also providing general guidance for developers and educators on how to design OER content.

  19. A real-time assessment of factors influencing medication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollarhide, Adrian W; Rutledge, Thomas; Weinger, Matthew B; Fisher, Erin Stucky; Jain, Sonia; Wolfson, Tanya; Dresselhaus, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Reducing medical error is critical to improving the safety and quality of healthcare. Physician stress, fatigue, and excessive workload are performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that may influence medical events (actual administration errors and near misses), but direct relationships between these factors and patient safety have not been clearly defined. This study assessed the real-time influence of emotional stress, workload, and sleep deprivation on self-reported medication events by physicians in academic hospitals. During an 18-month study period, 185 physician participants working at four university-affiliated teaching hospitals reported medication events using a confidential reporting application on handheld computers. Emotional stress scores, perceived workload, patient case volume, clinical experience, total sleep, and demographic variables were also captured via the handheld computers. Medication event reports (n = 11) were then correlated with these demographic and PSFs. Medication events were associated with 36.1% higher perceived workload (p sleep (p = .10). These results confirm the effect of factors influencing medication events, and support attention to both provider and hospital environmental characteristics for improving patient safety.

  20. LITERATURE REVIEW ON FACTORS INFLUENCING MILK PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Kurajdova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s highly informed, competitive and saturated market, a key to success of any business depends on knowing consumer and his consumption patterns and recognizing and understanding factors influencing his decision-making for the purpose of developing an attractive offer of products, supporting services, communication means and other marketing tools that would fit like a glue to customer’s needs. Study of consumer behaviour belongs to a group of very wide and strong subjects of marketing attention and its examination requires ongoing approach. Milk, as one category of dairy products, belongs to the group of basic daily-consumed products characterized by relatively high purchase frequency. On the other hand, its production and consumption is experiencing certain negative trend in Slovakia what inevitably calls for a scientific attention and examination in order to reverse this unfavourable development having a negative impact on the milk companies in Slovakia. Therefore, we focus our attention on studying various factors influencing consumers when purchasing this specific product. Our research in this stage resulted in the compilation of literature review on factors influencing consumers when purchasing milk and determination of boundaries and guidelines for our future research activity

  1. Storm track processes and the opposing influences of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, T. A.; Baldwin, M.; Barnes, E. A.; Caballero, R.; Garfinkel, C. I.; Hwang, Y.-T.; Li, C.; O'Gorman, P. A.; Rivière, G.; Simpson, I. R.; Voigt, A.

    2016-09-01

    Extratropical cyclones are storm systems that are observed to travel preferentially within confined regions known as storm tracks. They contribute to precipitation, wind and temperature extremes in mid-latitudes. Cyclones tend to form where surface temperature gradients are large, and the jet stream influences their speed and direction of travel. Storm tracks shape the global climate through transport of energy and momentum. The intensity and location of storm tracks varies seasonally, and in response to other natural variations, such as changes in tropical sea surface temperature. A hierarchy of numerical models of the atmosphere-ocean system -- from highly idealized to comprehensive -- has been used to study and predict responses of storm tracks to anthropogenic climate change. The future position and intensity of storm tracks depend on processes that alter temperature gradients. However, different processes can have opposing influences on temperature gradients, which leads to a tug of war on storm track responses and makes future projections more difficult. For example, as climate warms, surface shortwave cloud radiative changes increase the Equator-to-pole temperature gradient, but at the same time, longwave cloud radiative changes reduce this gradient. Future progress depends on understanding and accurately quantifying the relative influence of such processes on the storm tracks.

  2. Influence of climate change on the water resources in an alpine region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toffol, S; Engelhard, C; Rauch, W

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the global warming will impact on water resources. This study investigates the possible influence of climate change on the water resources in an alpine region. A description of the actual situation with emphasis on the water resources from the one side and on the water consuming factors, here called stressors, is given. The probable effects of climate change in the region and their influence on its water resources are then described. The main outcome is that in the analysed region the climate change will rather have positive influence on the water balance by inducing higher precipitations during the rivers' natural low flow period (winter). This outcome contradicts many common predictions, however, this due to the specifics induced by the alpine nature of the catchment.

  3. Factors Influencing Pediatrician Retirement: A Survey of American Academy of Pediatrics Chapter Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimsza, Mary E; Ruch-Ross, Holly; Simon, Harold K; Pendergass, Thomas W; Mulvey, Holly J

    2017-09-01

    To assess the factors that may influence physicians' desire to retire through an analysis of data collected through the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) State Pediatrician Workforce Survey. An electronic survey was sent to retired and nonretired US pediatricians who held AAP membership. The respondents were asked about the importance of 12 factors that would influence or had influenced their decision to retire. The physicians who were not yet retired also were asked: "If you could afford to today, would you retire from medicine?" The survey was completed by 8867 pediatricians. Among the nonretired respondents, 27% reported that they would retire today if it were affordable. Increasing regulation of medicine, decreasing clinical autonomy, and insufficient reimbursement were rated as very important factors by >50% of these pediatricians. Among retired pediatricians, 26.9% identified the effort to keep up with clinical advances and changes in practice as a very important factor in their decision to retire. Younger physicians were significantly more likely to rate maintenance of certification requirements, insufficient reimbursement, lack of professional satisfaction, and family responsibilities as very important factors. Rural pediatricians were more interested in retiring than those working in academic settings. There were no sex differences. Twenty-seven percent of pediatricians in practice today would retire today if it were affordable. Identifying and addressing the important factors that influence a pediatrician's desire to retire can potentially reduce the retirement rate of pediatricians and thus increase access to care for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Geophysical features influence the climate change sensitivity of northern Wisconsin pine and oak forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweiten, Michael A; Calcote, Randy R; Lynch, Elizabeth A; Hotchkiss, Sara C; Schuurman, Gregor W

    2015-10-01

    Landscape-scale vulnerability assessment from multiple sources, including paleoecological site histories, can inform climate change adaptation. We used an array of lake sediment pollen and charcoal records to determine how soils and landscape factors influenced the variability of forest composition change over the past 2000 years. The forests in this study are located in northwestern Wisconsin on a sandy glacial outwash plain. Soils and local climate vary across the study area. We used the Natural Resource Conservation Service's Soil Survey Geographic soil database and published fire histories to characterize differences in soils and fire history around each lake site. Individual site histories differed in two metrics of past vegetation dynamics: the extent to which white pine (Pinus strobus) increased during the Little Ice Age (LIA) climate period and the volatility in the rate of change between samples at 50-120 yr intervals. Greater increases of white pine during the LIA occurred on sites with less sandy soils (R² = 0.45, P climate (R² = 0.55, P change between samples was positively associated with LIA fire frequency (R² = 0.41, P change and rate-of-change volatility were associated with higher fire frequency. Over longer (multi-centennial) time frames, forest composition change, especially increased white pine, shifted most in sites with more soil moisture. Our results show that responsiveness of forest composition to climate change was influenced by soils, local climate, and fire. The anticipated climatic changes in the next century will not produce the same community dynamics on the same soil types as in the past, but understanding past dynamics and relationships can help us assess how novel factors and combinations of factors in the future may influence various site types. Our results support climate change adaptation efforts to monitor and conserve the landscape's full range of geophysical features.

  5. Influence of SST biases on future climate change projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashfaq, Moetasim [Stanford University, Department of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford, CA (United States); Purdue University, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Climate Change Science Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skinner, Christopher B. [Stanford University, Department of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford, CA (United States); Purdue University, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Diffenbaugh, Noah S. [Stanford University, Department of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford, CA (United States); Purdue University, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Stanford University, Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    We use a quantile-based bias correction technique and a multi-member ensemble of the atmospheric component of NCAR CCSM3 (CAM3) simulations to investigate the influence of sea surface temperature (SST) biases on future climate change projections. The simulations, which cover 1977-1999 in the historical period and 2077-2099 in the future (A1B) period, use the CCSM3-generated SSTs as prescribed boundary conditions. Bias correction is applied to the monthly time-series of SSTs so that the simulated changes in SST mean and variability are preserved. Our comparison of CAM3 simulations with and without SST correction shows that the SST biases affect the precipitation distribution in CAM3 over many regions by introducing errors in atmospheric moisture content and upper-level (lower-level) divergence (convergence). Also, bias correction leads to significantly different precipitation and surface temperature changes over many oceanic and terrestrial regions (predominantly in the tropics) in response to the future anthropogenic increases in greenhouse forcing. The differences in the precipitation response from SST bias correction occur both in the mean and the percent change, and are independent of the ocean-atmosphere coupling. Many of these differences are comparable to or larger than the spread of future precipitation changes across the CMIP3 ensemble. Such biases can affect the simulated terrestrial feedbacks and thermohaline circulations in coupled climate model integrations through changes in the hydrological cycle and ocean salinity. Moreover, biases in CCSM3-generated SSTs are generally similar to the biases in CMIP3 ensemble mean SSTs, suggesting that other GCMs may display a similar sensitivity of projected climate change to SST errors. These results help to quantify the influence of climate model biases on the simulated climate change, and therefore should inform the effort to further develop approaches for reliable climate change projection. (orig.)

  6. The neural basis of social influence and attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuma, Keise

    2013-06-01

    Human attitudes and preferences are susceptible to social influence. Recent social neuroscience studies, using theories and experimental paradigms from social psychology, have begun to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying how others influence our attitudes through processes such as social conformity, cognitive inconsistency and persuasion. The currently available evidence highlights the role of the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) in social conformity and cognitive inconsistency, which represents the discrepancy between one's own and another person's opinion, or, more broadly, between currently inconsistent and ideally consistent states. Research on persuasion has revealed that people's susceptibility to persuasive messages is related to activation in a nearby but more anterior part of the medial frontal cortex. Future progress in this field will depend upon the ability of researchers to dissociate underlying motivations for attitude change in different paradigms, and to utilize neuroimaging methods to advance social psychological theories of social influence.

  7. Factors influencing the stigmatization of patients with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Grigoryeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the factors influencing the stigmatization in patients with epilepsy. Patients and methods. The investigation enrolled 71 epileptic patients aged 14 to 50 years. They were divided into two age groups: 30 adolescents aged 14–17 years and 41 adults aged 18–50 years. Results and discussion. Examinations of 71 patients with epilepsy could identify 4 factors influencing their stigmatization: individual traits; activity and relations in the group; the effect of a drug and its adherence in patients; relationships in the family and its response to the disease. The authors’ new screening procedure was employed to determine the leading causes of stigmatization for each age group and to show differences in the specific features of stigmatization (the leading factor of stigmatization in patients of different age. The major factor of stigmatization in the epileptic adolescents was found to be relationships in the family and its response to the disease. Its chief cause in the adults was their principal activity (studies at a higher education establishment or work and group relations. The epileptic patients were shown to need psychological care. The developed screening procedure will be useful in planning psycho-correction measures and rehabilitation programs. 

  8. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, A J M; Van Assema, P; Hesdahl, B; Harting, J; De Vries, N K

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health programs in deprived neighborhoods in the southern part of the Netherlands. The interview guide was based on a conceptual framework that includes factors related to the context, the leading organization, leadership, the coalition, collaborating partners, interventions and outcomes. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed using NVivo 8.0. Participants in each of the programs varied in their perceptions of the sustainability of the program, but those people collaborating in pre-existing neighborhood structures expressed relatively high faith in their continuation. The participating citizens in particular believed that these structures would continue to address the health of the community in the future. We found factors from all categories of the conceptual framework that were perceived to influence sustainability. The program leaders appeared to be crucial to the programs, as they were frequently mentioned in close interaction with other factors. Program leaders should use a motivating and supportive leadership style and should act as 'program champions'. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Factors influencing the biochemical markers for predicting mammalian oocyte quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Safiriyu Idowu; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The need for accurate selection of the best oocytes for in vitro fertilization protocols and thus, production of embryos has driven the search for oocyte quality markers from morphological criteria to biochemical parameters. Current studies are focused on the biochemical constituents of the follicular fluid and gene expression profiling of the cumulus cells. These parameters are, however, affected by factors that must be considered before making a judgment of the oocyte's quality. These includes factors such as the type of hormonal stimulation protocol, age of oocyte donor and heat stress on the donor, all of which have been reported to influence the concentrations of many hormones, apolipoproteins, metabolites, fatty acids and growth factors in the follicular fluid and the expression of several genes in the cumulus cells. Another important point to note is species variation in the response to these extraneous influences, which thus calls for species targeted investigations. As reports are still scanty and investigations assumed to be very keen, we employed this review paper to bring attention of researchers and clinicians to those factors that may come to bear on the outcome of their investigations on oocyte and embryo quality.

  10. Factors Influencing Organization Adoption Decision On Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailar Rahimli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on adoption decision from view point of management decision making. The variable that evaluate in this study include: Cost effectiveness, Need for cloud computing, Security effectiveness, and reliability on cloud computing as independent variable and Adoption decision as dependent variable. The scope of this research is IT companies in Malaysia, and target population is member of organization that want to make decision to adopt the cloud computing. The Correlation and Multi Regression analysis show that all factor s have a positive and significant effect on organization adoption decision to cloud computing. 

  11. Study of orexin/leptin system change and influencing factors in insulin-resistant rats%胰岛素抵抗大鼠 Orexin/leptin系统变化及其影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉岩; 郭磊; 都健; 刘国良

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of orexin and leptin system in hypothalamus and adipose tissue of insulin-resistant (IR) rats and analyze the regulatory factors. Methods: IR rat model was induced by fat-rich diet and approved by glucose clamp technique. RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of orexin/leptin and the receptor (OX1R, OX2R, LR) nRNAs while biochemical colorimetry was used for serum FFA detection and radioimmune assay for serum TNF-α. Resnlts: In the hypothalamus of the IR rat model, zthe expression of prepro-orexin decreased by 80%. OX1R, OX2R increased by 3.4 folds and 3.2 folds respectively. Leptin mRNA increased by approximately 8 folds and LR reduced by 78%. Both serum FFA and TNF-α evidently increased and glucose infusion rate (GIR60-120) during glucose clamp was markedly lower than.that in control group. Conclusions: Fat-rich diet can induce insulin resistance in rats and disturb the balance of orexin/leptin systen. The interaction between orexin and leptin maintains the stability of energy metabolism in the body. FFA and TNF-α may also play a part in the regulation of orexin/leptin system.%目的研究IR大鼠下丘脑及脂肪组织中orexin和leptin系统的变化,分析其可能的调控因素.方法IR大鼠模型采用高脂肪膳食诱导并经钳夹技术证实;RT-PCR技术检测orexin/leptin及其受体(OX1R、OX2R、LR)mRNA的表达;生化比色法测定血清FFA、放免法测定血清TNF-α.结果该模型大鼠下丘脑中Prepro-orexin表达减少约80%,OX1R、OX2R分别增加3.4及3.2倍,leptin mRNA增加约8倍;LR减少78%;血清FFA和TNF-α均升高;钳夹技术中葡萄糖输注率(GIR60-120)明显低于对照组.结论高脂肪膳食可诱导大鼠体内IR;并导致orexin/leptin系统平衡状态的破坏;orexin与leptin相互作用共同维持机体能量代谢的稳定:FFA和TNF-α可能参与该系统的调控.

  12. Space-based Observation for sensitive Factors of Global Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huadong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Global change refers to anthropogenic changes in the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere, pedosphere and lithosphere over the past century. It is a long process with large dimensions. Factors sensitive to these changes mainly include performance factors (such as temperature and precipitation), response factors (such as eco-system, natural disasters, water resources, variations in snow and ice), and driving factors (greenhouse gases and reflection rates). Global change has caught the attention of the world. China is one of the countries exerting a profound impact on this process. In addition, it has typical and unique zones vulnerable to global change: high-altitude regions (such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau), arid and semi-arid areas (such as farming-grazing transitional zones), long coastal zones and regions for intensive human activities.

  13. INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGES ON WATER RESOURCES IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Ivanov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the current state of affairs with water resources in Moldova, the challenges it faces for its national human and economic development, having in mind that the water resources are quite limited in Moldova, which encounters pollution, degradation influenced by climate change and unwise human activity to their biodiversity and ecosystems, availability and accessibility. It also attempts to highlight the relationship between climate change and water resources in Moldova, which has adverse effects on both environment and people’s health, and raise significant hurdles to the international, regional and sectoral development.

  14. An empirical investigation on factors influencing export of herbal supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts who are professional in the area of production and distribution of herbal supplements and using factor analysis, the study detects eight factors including supportive laws and regulations, organizational atmosphere, marketing structure, knowledge oriented, feasibility study, research and development, competitive strategy and partnership strategies.

  15. Factors influencing response to treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiyama J

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 150 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis from 1990 to 1996 (i to evaluate the frequency of drug resistance, (ii to elucidate factors influencing the response to chemotherapy, and (iii to attempt to improve the therapeutic approach. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains were not found. By univariate analysis, there were 8 factors associated with an increased sputum conversion time: male gender, prior treatment, complications, progressive chest radiographic findings, a high Ziehl-Neelsen stain score, lymphocytopenia, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and hypoproteinemia. Complications, prior treatment, a high Ziehl-Neelsen stain score, and a high ESR were independent predictive factors in a Cox proportional hazard model. Recursive partitioning and amalgamation (RPA defined 3 subgroups that responded to treatment. In order to reduce the time to sputum conversion, poor responders according to the RPA should be treated with a 4-drug regimen containing pyrazinamide.

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN DAIRY SECTOR IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek ZDENĚK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important for the stability of Europe and Czech milk market is to remain competitive in world markets, as the main way for balance on the internal market is based on successful export of dairy products to third countries. Price volatility and environmental sustainability are seen as the most serious current problems in the dairy industry and dairy farming. The aim of this paper is to assess the development of the production and milk prices in the EU and assess the main factors that affect labour productivity. The number of cows per worker is one of the most important factors affecting labour productivity. Effect of prices on labour productivity in monetary expression is not as significant as is usually assumed. The technical equipment of labour should be an important factor influencing the number of cows per worker. The hypothesis that higher technical equipment of labour should create better conditions for higher productivity could be assumed.

  17. A review on factors influencing bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshani, A M B

    2017-05-24

    Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent deficiency disorders in the world. As shown by many studies plant food based approaches have a real potential on prevention of vitamin A deficiency in a sustainable way. Carotenoids are important as precursors of vitamin A as well as for prevention of cancers, coronary heart diseases, age-related macular degeneration, cataract etc. Bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids are known to be influenced by numerous factors including dietary factors such as fat, fiber, dosage of carotenoid, location of carotenoid in the plant tissue, heat treatment, particle size of food, carotenoid species, interactions among carotenoids, isomeric form and molecular linkage and subject characteristics. Therefore even when carotenoids are found in high quantities in plant foods their utilization may be unsatisfactory because some factors are known to interfere as negative effectors.

  18. An empirical investigation on factors influencing sales force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In today's competitive business environment, consumers are exposed to make their choice from different alternatives. Customer loyalty has never been an easy task and many business owners may lose their customer as soon as new products appear on the market. This paper presents a study to find important factors influencing on sales force using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire and distributed among 180 customers of a well-known food chain named Shahrvand in different regions in city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 156 filled ones. The questionnaire consists of 68 questions Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.847, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of our survey indicate that five major factors including.

  19. The Influencing Factors of Enterprise Sustainable Innovation: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Hua Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable innovation is the inexhaustible source of development of enterprises. Within fierce market competition, only by depending on continuous innovation can an enterprise exist and develop. By conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis, this paper proposes a theoretical model, dividing enterprise sustainable innovation ability into three aspects: knowledge innovation capability, production innovation capability, and market innovation capability, and analyzes the influencing factors respectively. Finally, applying this theoretical model to a practical case, with system dynamics method, the simulation results show that they are consistent with real enterprise facts. Therefore, the framework of determinants of sustainable innovation built in this paper has already been verified theoretically and practically. It not only lays a theoretical foundation for further research, but also provides a clear ground for firms to improve their sustainable innovation.

  20. Investigating the influence of social desirability on personality factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, J E; Smith, D B; Sackett, P R

    2001-02-01

    This study provides a comprehensive investigation into whether social desirability alters the factor structure of personality measures. The study brought together 4 large data sets wherein different organizational samples responded to different personality measures. This facilitated conducting 4 separate yet parallel investigations. Within each data set, individuals identified through a social desirability scale as responding in an honest manner were grouped together, and individuals identified as responding in a highly socially desirable manner were grouped together. Using various analyses, the fit of higher order factor structure models was compared across the 2 groups. Results were the same for each data set. Social desirability had little influence on the higher order factor structures that characterized the relationships among the scales of the personality measures.

  1. Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacogenetic, and Other Factors Influencing CNS Penetration of Antiretrovirals

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    Jacinta Nwamaka Nwogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological complications associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are a matter of great concern. While antiretroviral (ARV drugs are the cornerstone of HIV treatment and typically produce neurological benefit, some ARV drugs have limited CNS penetration while others have been associated with neurotoxicity. CNS penetration is a function of several factors including sieving role of blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and activity of innate drug transporters. Other factors are related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the specific ARV agent or mediated by drug interactions, local inflammation, and blood flow. In this review, we provide an overview of the various factors influencing CNS penetration of ARV drugs with an emphasis on those commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa. We also summarize some key associations between ARV drug penetration, CNS efficacy, and neurotoxicity.

  2. Innovation types at smes and external influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Walicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulating innovation is one of the pressing policy challenges facing many countries in the world today. The paper analyses the external factors that Polish entrepreneurs find most detrimental to their innovative activity. A sample of 199 small and medium size enterprises (SMEs in Poland were subjected to a survey. The data collected revealed the innovation types of SMEs in Poland and external financial factors influencing innovation the most. The results show external factors such as legal regulations, access to external financing, bureaucracy of institutions, financial government support, the tax system, time necessary to comply with regulations, and crisis and instability are very important for SMEs. According to the results, process and marketing innovations are applied more frequently than product and organisational innovations. Finally, the results indicate that entrepreneurs indicate that lack of government support and weakness of tax incentives is an important barrier to the innovation process.

  3. The sensitivity of water availability to aridity changes and other factors - a probabilistic analysis in the Budyko-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Lukas; Greve, Peter

    2016-04-01

    One of the pending questions in the context of global change is (i) whether climatic drivers or (ii) other factors have a stronger influence on water availability. Here we present an idealised approach that allows to estimate the probability that changes in climatological aridity have a larger effect on water availability than other factors. The analysis builds upon a probabilistic extension of the Budyko framework, which is subject to an analytical sensitivity assessment. The results show that changes in water availability are dominated by changes in the aridity index in humid climates. In arid climates other factors are dominating. A global application predicts only little influence of aridity changes on water availability in drylands. This implies that the projected intensification of aridity in dry regions may have less influence on water availability than commonly assumed. Instead other factors, including e.g. land use change, are likely dominating.

  4. E-commerce influence on changes in logistics processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Żurek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   Background: The aim of this publication is to address the changes in retail trade, which have a direct influence on the development of e-commerce which in turn causes modifications to logistics chain management strategies and methods of flow control. Materials: The article has been written on the basis of an analysis of subject literature together with determining the influence of e-commerce to changes in logistics processes. The publications included in this study have been selected in order to present the subject of e-commerce development as well as evaluate changes in methods of flow control. The analysis has been prepared based on the author's experience and available reports and publications. Results: As a result of the conducted analysis, an assessment of the proficiency level of the changes in logistics processes on the local and international market as well as of the trends for these changes has been made. Conclusions: With the development of e-commerce, a new logistics chain management strategy began to appear, which covered both the process of handling the online and offline sales channel. Therefore, it can be concluded that properly adapted flow control methods will be the means for achieving the goal. Tasks will include: streamlining flow processes, improving the efficiency of logistic processes as well as adjusting them to market requirements.    

  5. Factors Influencing the Use of Prenatal Care: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Prenatal care is a key strategy for achieving public health goals, primary healthcare objectives, and the Millennium Development Goals. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the use of prenatal care services in order to design suitable interventions and promote the use of these services. Methods:In this systematic quantitative literature review, studies published in years 2010-2014 were evaluated. For this purpose, two international electronic databases, i.e., Scopus and PubMed, were explored to find English-language articles by using relevant keywords; moreover, the reference lists of the articles were hand-searched. We reviewed all cross-sectional and prospective studies, which focused on factors associated with the use of prenatal care services within the specified period of time. Results: In total, 17 relevant articles were included in our review. The results showed that late initiation and inadequate use of prenatal care services are independently associated with multiple variables, including demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, predisposing cultural and religious factors, social support, factors related to healthcare providers, women’s awareness and attitude, unintended pregnancy, high-risk medical or obstetric history, and health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the literature review, proper use of prenatal care cannot be achieved merely by establishing healthcare centers. Utilization of maternal health services may be achieved and improved via developing socioeconomic factors and addressing patients' basic needs including education and financial independence.

  6. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation.

  7. Monitoring athletes through self-report: factors influencing implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-03-01

    Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete's response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM) in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30). Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion), and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement). Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed. Key pointsEffective implementation of a self-report measure for monitoring athletes requires a multi-factorial and multi-level approach which addresses the particular measure used and the surrounding social environment.A well-designed self-report measure should obtain quality data with minimal burden on athletes and staff.A supportive social environment involves buy-in and coordination of all parties, at both an individual and organization level.

  8. Factors influencing the choice of specialty of Australian medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary G; Gavel, Paul H; Young, Jeannette R

    2005-09-19

    To identify the relative importance of extrinsic determinants of doctors' choice of specialty. A self-administered postal questionnaire. Australian vocational training programs. 4259 Australian medical graduates registered in September 2002 with one of 16 Australian clinical colleges providing vocational training programs. Choice of specialist vocational training program; extrinsic factors influencing choice of program, and variation by sex, age, marital status and country of birth. In total, 79% of respondents rated "appraisal of own skills and aptitudes" as influential in their choice of specialty followed by "intellectual content of the specialty" (75%). Extrinsic factors rated as most influential were "work culture" (72%), "flexibility of working arrangements" (56%) and "hours of work" (54%). We observed variation across training programs in the importance ascribed to factors influencing choice of specialty, and by sex, age and marital status. Factors of particular importance to women, compared with men, were "appraisal of domestic circumstances" (odds ratio [OR], 1.9), "hours of work" (OR, 1.8) and "opportunity to work flexible hours" (OR, 2.6). Partnered doctors, compared with single doctors, rated "hours of work" and "opportunity to work flexible hours" as more important (OR, 1.3), while "domestic circumstances" was more important to doctors with children than those without children (OR, 1.7). In total, 80% of doctors had chosen their specialty by the end of the third year after graduation. Experience with discipline-based work cultures and working conditions occurs throughout medical school and the early postgraduate years, and most doctors choose their specialty during these years. It follows that interventions to influence doctors' choice of specialty need to target these critical years.

  9. Factors influencing behavior in the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, Olena V; Kanekar, Shami; D'Anci, Kristen E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-06-13

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral test in rodents which was developed in 1978 by Porsolt and colleagues as a model for predicting the clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A modified version of the FST added the classification of active behaviors into swimming and climbing, in order to facilitate the differentiation between serotonergic and noradrenergic classes of antidepressant drugs. The FST is now widely used in basic research and the pharmaceutical screening of potential antidepressant treatments. It is also one of the most commonly used tests to assess depressive-like behavior in animal models. Despite the simplicity and sensitivity of the FST procedure, important differences even in baseline immobility rates have been reported between different groups, which complicate the comparison of results across studies. In spite of several methodological papers and reviews published on the FST, the need still exists for clarification of factors which can influence the procedure. While most recent reviews have focused on antidepressant effects observed with the FST, this one considers the methodological aspects of the procedure, aiming to summarize issues beyond antidepressant action in the FST. The previously published literature is analyzed for factors which are known to influence animal behavior in the FST. These include biological factors, such as strain, age, body weight, gender and individual differences between animals; influence of preconditioning before the FST: handling, social isolation or enriched environment, food manipulations, various kinds of stress, endocrine manipulations and surgery; schedule and routes of treatment, dosage and type of the drugs as well as experimental design and laboratory environmental effects. Consideration of these factors in planning experiments may result in more consistent FST results.

  10. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism.

  11. [Factors influencing oral insurance among children in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chen; Yanyan, Zhang; Jinghu, Jiang; Jing-xian, Zhang; Xuepeng, Shan; Xing, Qu; Chengge, Hua

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the value of child oral health for Chengdu parents, their intentions, and factors influencing their decision to acquire oral insurance coverage for their childrens. A total of 562 Chengdu parents were interviewed using questionnaires by convenient sampling, and the results were analyzed using SPSS 20.0. The age of children (B = -1.741, P = 0.004), age of parents (B = 2.031, P = 0.003), level of oral discomfort (B = 0.569, P = 0.000), incurring/not incurring oral care expenses in the previous year (B = 1.897, P = 0.014), the last time parents' had teeth cleaned (B = 0.777, P = 0.006), and acquiring/not acquiring commercial insurance coverage (B = 1.632, P = 0.031) significantly influenced the intention of acquiring child oral insurance. Child oral health, health and insurance awareness of parents, and other factors influenced the intention of parents to purchase oral insurance coverage for their children, which were significant to establish pediatric dental insurance.

  12. Influence of environmental factors on fish assemblages in streams of the Elbe and Oder basins

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    Luboš Kůra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of environmental parameters on changes in the structure of fish assemblages were studied in the Elbe and the Odra basin. Research was done at 819 sites surveyed in the field during the period 1993-2007. The impact of 46 factors derived from the maps through a GIS was tested as well as the impact of 10 factors recognized in the field. To evaluate the influence of these factors the indirect (DCA and direct (CCA multivariate cluster analysis were used. Analyses were performed with data on presence-absence and relative abundance of each species. DCA well reflects changes in assemblages in the longitudinal profile of streams. CCA refers to a significant influence of regional and temporal variability and influence of individual factors. The fish assemblages are best characterized by distance from the source location, stream slope, altitude of locality, representation of arable land in the basin, number of ponds in the sub-basin above the locality, type of waters (salmonid or cyprinid, and water temperature (the only of the parameters of the field. The analyzed factors better reflect the variability in fish assemblages of the Odra than of Elbe river basin. The analysis showed good practical efficiency of processing information from a large sample of data from ichthyological surveys. The tools of GIS and the use of statistical methods make possible to characterize basic ecological requirements of most species and specify conditions determining specific composition of fish assemblages.

  13. 不同糖代谢状态血管内皮功能变化及相关影响因素分析%Changes and influencing factors of vascular endothelial function in different abnormal glucose metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾蕾; 张丽娜; 郭立新

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the vascular endothelial function and explore the related influencing factors in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism by use of ultrasound technology. Methods A total of 109 participants selected from endocrinology outpatients of Beijing Hospital from October 2011 to June 2013 were enrolled in this study. Oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) was carried out, including fasting plasma glucose(FPG) and postprandial glucose(PPG), fasting and 2 hours after glucose load testing insulin, C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c), glycated albumin(GA), lipids, liver and kidney function, blood uric acid,flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation (FMEDD), serum nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1(ET-1), serum malondialdehyde(MDA) and superoxide dismutase(SOD).With the receiver operating characteristic (ROC)curve, the best critical points of fasting and glucose loading vascular endothelial function were obtained. Results (1)The critical points of FMEDD in the state of abnormal glucose metabolism: fasting FMEDD was 13.37%, Youden index was 0.467, and the area under the curve was 0.786 (95%CI:0.697⁃0.876);FMEDD of OGTT 2 h was 10.67%,Youden index was 0.458, and the area under the curve was 0.774(95% CI:0.687⁃0.861). (2)Body mass index(BMI), FPG, HbA1c, GA, triglyceride (TG), MDA in the patients withabnormal fasting FMEDD were significantly higher than those in the normalgroup(t=-3.013,-4.567,-3.487,-4.611,-2.309,-2.909, all P<0.05); and the homeostasis model assessment⁃β(HOMA⁃β), NO, SOD were significantly lower than those in the normal group(t=2.765,2.472, 5.937, all P<0.05). PPG, HbA1c, GA in the patients with abnormal FMEDD after glucose load were significantly higher than those in the normal group(t=-4.907,-4.236,-3.896, all P<0.05);and the HOMA⁃β, NO, SOD were all significantly lower than those in the normal group(t=2.704,4.675,4.633, all P<0.05).(3) FPG,HbA1c,GA were negatively correlated with fasting FMEDD(r=-0

  14. Climate Changes and their Influence on the Design of Hydraulic Structures from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Trofin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the human being influenced environmentally the Earth, causing global environmental changes of such a size that have become global phenomena. These changes include the climate, ozone layer depletion, biogeochemical cycles, hydrological cycle, and water resources, raising the ocean levels or thermohaline circulation. The hydrological cycle and water resources changes have significant effects on the design of hydraulic structures, provided they are exploited in the presence or absence of major climatic factors, such as water, air, or soil.

  15. General Adjustment Influence Factor of Malaysian Construction Expatriates Executives Abroad

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    Zainol Halmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of Malaysian construction companies creates an opportunity to explore abroad. Past studies have shown that the difficulty of expatriates in adjusting to a new environment is the main aspect that leads to failure of assignments. The success in implementing an overseas assignment does not solely depend on an expatriate’s technical expertise. The adjustment issues such as the interaction with the host nationals, and adaptability to the host country’s culture also exert influence on the assignment. The research was conducted to identify the influence of executive expatriate general adjustment on assignment in host countries. The objective of the study was to identify adjustment influence factors relating to general adjustment abroad. Questionnaires were sent to Malaysian expatriate executives. Sixty four Malaysian expatriate executives from Malaysian construction companies overseas were involved in this study. The findings show interaction, social and living environment influences their adjustment during expatriation. Pre-departure training preparation aspects for expatriates is a good step before their departure to host countries.

  16. Magnitude and influencing factors of parasomnia in schoolchildren

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    Choudhury Habibur Rasul

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasomnias are undesirable events occurring in the sleep-wake transition period. Several predisposing factors are reported to induce parasomnia in preschool children. Objective To estimate the magnitude of parasomnia in school children and to evaluate its relationship with possible predisposing factors. Methods Five hundred children aged 5-16 years from a boys’ school and a girls’ school in Khulna City, Bangladesh, were randomly selected for the study conducted from July to December 2011. The survey was done in two steps: self-administered questionnaire and clinical interviews of affected students and their parents. Apart from demographic features, questionnaires included details of perinatal and personal factors as well as familial and socioeconomic factors. The diagnoses of variants of parasomnias was based on the criteria for category-based classification by the American Academy of Sleep Mmedicine. Results Seven hundred thirteen filled questionnaires revealed parasomnia in 187 (26.2% children. Most parasomnias were accompanied by other sleep disorders, in which 23 (12.3% having primary dyssomnias including 18 (9.3% obstructive sleep apnea, and 10 (5.3% parasomnias with hypersomnias. Nightmares (7.4% were highest among the parasomnias followed by nocturnal enuresis (4.1% and sleep terrors (3.4%. More girls experienced parasomnias than boys (107/360 vs. 80/353, respectively; P=0.039. Perinatal factors such as problems during pregnancy (17.1% or eventful delivery (25.7%, and socioeconomic factors such as familial disharmony (11.8% and low socioeconomic level (31.6% had positive associations with parasomnia. Conclusion One-quarter of school children experience parasomnia. We found perinatal factors particularly problem during pregnancy, and socioeconomic factors particularly familial disharmony have significant influences on this condition. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:339-45.].

  17. Carbon Footprint Change of Energy Consumption in Gansu Province and Its Influencing Factors%甘肃省能源消费碳足迹变化及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦文献; 陈兴鹏; 贾卓

    2012-01-01

    能源消费是人类活动影响全球气候变化的主要行为之一,对能源消费导致的碳足迹进行研究具有重要意义。本文首先应用能源消费碳足迹的相关概念和方法,计算得到了甘肃省1990年-2009年的总碳足迹、各能源消费类型的碳足迹、碳足迹产值和碳足迹生态压力;然后利用STIRPAT模型进行岭回归函数拟合,探讨了经济增长与碳足迹之间的定量关系,并验证了环境库兹涅茨曲线的存在性;最后通过脱钩指数分析进一步研究了经济增长与碳足迹之间的动态变化关系。结果表明:碳足迹从1990年的0.091hm2/人上升为2009年的0.191hm2/人,呈现波动上升的趋势。各能源消费类型的碳足迹构成中,煤和石油占据了绝对地位,其中又以煤所占比重最大,石油次之,天然气所起的作用甚微。碳足迹产值由1990年的1.18万元/hm2增加为2009年的2.51万元/hm2,碳足迹生态压力也从1990年的0.10上升至2009年的0.24。人口和人均GDP是驱动碳足迹增长的主要因素,且回归分析和脱钩指数分析都表明经济增长与碳足迹之间存在环境库兹涅茨曲线。%Energy consumption is one of the main human activities that affect global climate change, and therefore research on carbon footprint of energy consumption has great significance. In this paper, firstly, concepts and methods relating to carbon footprint of energy consumption were used to calculate the total carbon footprint, carbon footprint of each type of energy, output value of the carbon footprint and its ecological pressure from 1990 to 2009 in Gansu Province. Then, ridge regression function for STIRPAT model was applied to study the quantitative relationship between carbon footprint and economic growth and at the same time verify the existence of Environmental Kuznets Curve. Finally, the decoupling index was introduced to further explore the dynamic relationship between economic growth and carbon footprint

  18. Influencing factors of mental health of medical students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xin-hao; Liu, Zhuo; Luo, Ai; Feng, Zhan-chun

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the mental health status of medical students in China, and analyzed the influencing factors in order to provide evidence for mental health education for medical students. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit medical students from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. The questionnaire survey on general information and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used for investigation and analysis. The results showed among the 1137 valid questionnaires, 278 (24.45%) participants had SCL-90 score ≥ 160. The top three mental problems of medical students were obsessive-compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity and depression in terms of the factor score ≥ 2.5 and the number of participants who reflected on the diseases. The third-year medical students had the worst mental health status, and fifth-year medical students had the best mental health status. Students from rural area had more psychological problems than those from urban area; furthermore, students with high professional satisfaction, those who were the single child of the family, non-poor students, and those whose parents had high education level had better mental health status. It was concluded that the mental health of medical students is not optimistic in China. Medical students have some mental health problems of different degrees. Factors that influence the mental health of medical students include academic pressure, professional satisfaction level and family environment.

  19. Expecting success: Factors influencing ninth graders' science self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Elizabeth

    What factors influence ninth grade students' expectations for success in science? Using social cognitive theory and bioecological systems theory as theoretical frameworks, this dissertation employs data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) to examine the relative impact of teacher practices and their perceived attitudes on students' science self-efficacy. Further, as they relate to this broader issue, the relative impact of student subjective task value and teacher characteristics is also investigated. It has been well documented that U.S. students are not achieving at satisfactory levels in science. Education policy has focused on improving science teacher quality as one way to address this problem. Teacher effectiveness has been primarily measured by student achievement on standardized tests. However, not enough attention has been given to the social cognitive factors that can lead to increased achievement and persistence in science as well as how teachers may influence these factors. This study interrogates the relationship between student and teacher variables and the social cognitive construct of self-efficacy, which has proven to have a significant impact on student achievement and persistence in science. Findings add to the current literature surrounding ways that educators may increase student performance in science by employing policies and practices that benefit the development of student science self-efficacy.

  20. Factors influencing the outcome of embryo freezing and Ihawing program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 金帆; 徐晨明; 邢兰凤

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors that might influence the sucess of an ernbryo freezing and thawing program.Method: The relationship between the pregnancy rate in 73 cycles of embryo freezing and thewing program and the following factors was analyzed;matermal age,E2 level at the time of HCG trigger,embryo storage time,number of thawed embryos transferred,presence of sponsoring embryos and intact embryos.And the suvival rate of thawed embryos with different morphology,cell stage and storage time was evaluated.Result:Transfer with three of more than three thawed embryos resulted in pragnancy rates of 38.5% and 35.7%,respectively.compared with 5.3% for transfer of fewer than three embryos.The presence of sponsoring embryos and intact embryos significantly incresses pregnancy rate in embryo freezing and thawing program .No other factor examined had any effect on pregnancy outcome.The survival rate of good morphology embryos was higher than poor ones,but was not influenced by cell stage and storage time.Conclusion:Embryo morphology before freezing , number of thawed embryos transferred and the presence of intact embryos are important to the outcome of embryo freezing and thawing program.